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Sample records for controls fruit colour

  1. The role of fruit colour in avian fruit selection: an objective approach

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Veronika

    2002-01-01

    To explain the prevalence of red and black fruits in fruit colour patterns, the following hypotheses were addressed, using reflectance spectra of fruits as colour assessment: 1. Birds prefer red and black fruits, or these hues are cues for food recognition in migrants or fledglings. 2. Fruit colours correlate with chemical compounds. 3. Fruit colours serve as advertisement for ripe fruits. Reflectance spectra are the most objective colour assessment currently possible. Birds show no colour pr...

  2. High consumption of vegetable and fruit colour groups is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei-Ping; Fang, Yu-Jing; Lu, Min-Shan; Zhong, Xiao; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-04-14

    The colour of the edible portion of vegetables and fruit reflects the presence of specific micronutrients and phytochemicals. No existing studies have examined the relationship between the intake of vegetable and fruit colour groups and the risk of colorectal cancer. The present study, therefore, aimed to investigate these associations in a Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted between July 2010 and July 2014 in Guangzhou, China, in which 1057 consecutively recruited cases of colorectal cancer were frequency-matched to 1057 controls by age (5-year interval), sex and residence (rural/urban). A validated FFQ was used to collect dietary information during face-to-face interviews. Vegetables and fruit were classified into four groups according to the colour of their primarily edible parts: green; orange/yellow; red/purple; white. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the OR and 95 % CI. A higher consumption of orange/yellow, red/purple and white vegetables and fruit was inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer, with adjusted OR of 0·16 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·22) for orange/yellow, 0·23 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·31) for red/purple and 0·53 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·70) for white vegetables and fruit when the highest and lowest quartiles were compared. Total vegetable intake and total fruit intake have also been found to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, the intake of green vegetable and fruit was not associated with colorectal cancer risk. The results of the present study, therefore, suggest that a greater intake of orange/yellow, red/purple and white vegetables and fruit is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer.

  3. Adaptation of flower and fruit colours to multiple, distinct mutualists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoult, Julien P; Valido, Alfredo; Jordano, Pedro; Schaefer, H Martin

    2014-01-01

    Communication in plant-animal mutualisms frequently involves multiple perceivers. A fundamental uncertainty is whether and how species adapt to communicate with groups of mutualists having distinct sensory abilities. We quantified the colour conspicuousness of flowers and fruits originating from one European and two South American plant communities, using visual models of pollinators (bee and fly) and seed dispersers (bird, primate and marten). We show that flowers are more conspicuous than fruits to pollinators, and the reverse to seed dispersers. In addition, flowers are more conspicuous to pollinators than to seed dispersers and the reverse for fruits. Thus, despite marked differences in the visual systems of mutualists, flower and fruit colours have evolved to attract multiple, distinct mutualists but not unintended perceivers. We show that this adaptation is facilitated by a limited correlation between flower and fruit colours, and by the fact that colour signals as coded at the photoreceptor level are more similar within than between functional groups (pollinators and seed dispersers). Overall, these results provide the first quantitative demonstration that flower and fruit colours are adaptations allowing plants to communicate simultaneously with distinct groups of mutualists. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Application of red pitaya powder as a natural food colourant in fruit pastille

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Pinn Yee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Confectionary products meet the important consumers’ need states of fun and enjoyment, especially among children. Synthetic colourant had been applied as a colouring agent in confectionery products for decades, however various adverse health effects have been reported after consumption. Hence, usage of natural colourant has increased enormously as it confers functional and nutraceutical benefits. Red pitaya, a common and popular fruit cultivated in South-east Asian countries. It is rich betacyanin content that gives the fruit a red-violet colour. Hence, red pitaya is a potential source of natural colorant as an alternative to the synthetic colorant. Objective: This research was aimed to produce fruit pastille with red pitaya powder applied as a natural colourant. Method: Production of red pitaya powder was achieved through spray drying process. Fruit pastille was prepared and subjected to antioxidant, stability and sensory analysis. Results: The Physicochemical study showed that pastille incorporated with red pitaya powder exhibited significantly (p<0.05 higher antioxidant properties than the blank pastille (control. An eight weeks storage stability study revealed that betacyanin content of pastille incorporated with pitaya powder remained stable for the first four weeks of storage. Besides, no significant change was observed in redness (a* of pastille throughout the storage study. Sensory study was carried out to assess the consumer preference on pastille incorporated with pitaya powder and synthetic colourant. Colour attribute of pastille incorporated with red pitaya powder has gained significantly (p<0.05 higher liking that the one added with synthetic colour. Conclusion: Red pitaya powder could be a potential natural colourant for gummy confectionery.

  5. Markisa fruit (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa) as a fixation material of natural colour of mangrove waste on batik

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzah, S. N.; Marwoto, P.; Iswari, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    The process of natural colouring of batik using mangrove waste with the markisa fruit as a fixation material has been reported. In this experiment, the fixation material of markisa fruit has been compared with the commonly used fixation materials, such as CaCO3, AlK(SO4)2, and FeSO4 as material controls. Both grey scale and staining scale have been used as standard evaluations. Based on the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) it can be shown that batik with markisa fruit as a fixation material has a colour fastness value against average washing at good-excellent level (4-5) and colour fastness value to sunshine is moderate-excellent level (3-5). Thus, we conclude that Markisa fruit can be used as a fixation material in the colouring process of natural colour batik from mangrove waste.

  6. Colours of fruit and vegetables and 10-year incidence of CHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Griep, L.M.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Kromhout, D.; Ocke, M.C.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The colours of the edible part of fruit and vegetables indicate the presence of specific micronutrients and phytochemicals. The extent to which fruit and vegetable colour groups contribute to CHD protection is unknown. We therefore examined the associations between fruit and vegetables of different

  7. Spotting Fruit versus Picking Fruit as the Selective Advantage of Human Colour Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bompas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The spatiochromatic properties of the red–green dimension of human colour vision appear to be optimized for picking fruit in leaves at about arms' reach. However, other evidence suggests that the task of spotting fruit from a distance might be more important. This discrepancy may arise because the task a system (e.g. human trichromacy is best at is not necessarily the same task where the largest advantage occurs over the evolutionary alternatives (dichromacy or anomalous trichromacy. We tested human dichromats, anomalous trichromats and “normal” trichromats in a naturalistic visual search task in which they had to find fruit pieces in a bush at 1, 4, 8 or 12 m viewing distance. We found that the largest advantage (in terms of either performance ratio or performance difference of normal trichromacy over both types of colour deficiency was for the largest viewing distance. We infer that in the evolution of human colour vision, spotting fruit from a distance was a more important selective advantage than picking fruit at arms' reach.

  8. Seeing Coloured Fruits: Utilisation of the Theory of Adaptive Memory in Teaching Botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Fancovicová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Plants are characterised by a great diversity of easily observed features such as colours or shape, but children show low interest in learning about them. Here, we integrated modern theory of adaptive memory and evolutionary views of the function of fruit colouration on children's retention of information. Survival-relevant (fruit toxicity) and…

  9. Inheritance of fruit colour in normal and irradiated progenies of brinjal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopimony, R.; George, M.K.; Gopinathan Nair, V.

    1980-01-01

    The inheritance of fruit colour in brinjal (Solanum melongena) was studied by analysing the progeny belonging to the F 1 M 2 , F 1 M 1 and F 2 M 2 generations resulting from a cross between varieties insanum and purple giant followed by gamma irradiation. The F 2 phenotypic frequencies fitted very well with the dihybrid ratio indicating that the fruit colour is governed by two independently inherited genes. Three colour mutants, namely, purple, mottled green and white were induced in the F 1 M 1 generation by the irradiation. The appearance of these mutants is explained as due to independent mutations at either or both of the two goenetic loci. The colour pattern in the F 2 M 2 progenies derived from the F 1 M 1 mutants substantiates the two gene mechanism for the inheritance of fruit colour. The genotypes for the different colour types in the F 1 , F 2 and F 1 M 1 mutants have been indicated and discussed. (author)

  10. Effects of solar radiation on grape (Vitis vinifera L.) composition and dried fruit colour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlig, B.A.

    1998-01-01

    Most sun-exposed fruit (Vitis vinifera L.) produced dark brown berries with low L-values, whereas most dried berries from shade fruit were acceptable in lightness although some had a green tinge. Fruit shaded by the natural vine canopy or exposed to direct solar radiation had similar drying ratios. However, berry weights were significantly higher in the shade than in the sun for both cultivars. The difference in berry weight between the two positions was less pronounced in the heat affected year. Solar radiation changed the composition of fresh berries and the colour of the dried fruit. The soluble-solid concentration was higher in fresh fruit exposed to direct solar radiation than in fruit grown in shaded conditions within the canopy. In the heat affected year the berries from both positions had the same soluble-solid concentrations, possibly due to dehydration of the fruit. No significant difference was found between the pH of sun fruit and shade fruit, but the titratable acidity was higher in shade fruit. Malate and tartrate concentrations in berry skin and the polyphenol oxidase activities had carotenoid concentrations in whole fresh berries were not significantly different for sun and shade fruit. Total phenol concentrations in berry skin were higher in sun fruit and chlorophyll concentrations in whole, fresh berries were higher in shade fruit. (author)

  11. Voltage-controlled colour-tunable microcavity OLEDs with enhanced colour purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, Wallace C H; Niu, J H; Li, W L; Chui, P C

    2008-01-01

    The emission spectrum of single-unit voltage-controlled colour-tunable organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) has been theoretically and experimentally studied. Our results show that by introducing the microcavity structure, the colour purity of not only the destination colour but also the colour-tunable route can be enhanced, while colour purity is still an issue in typical single-unit voltage-controlled colour-tunable OLEDs. With the consideration of the periodical cycling of resonant wavelength and absorption loss of the metal electrodes, the appropriate change in the thickness of the microcavity structure has been utilized to achieve voltage-controlled red-to-green and red-to-blue colour-tunable OLEDs without adding dyes or other organic materials to the OLEDs

  12. Colour, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of some fruits dehydrated by a combination of different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Chien Hwa; Law, Chung Lim; Figiel, Adam; Wojdyło, Aneta; Oziembłowski, Maciej

    2013-12-15

    The objective of this study was to improve product quality of dehydrated fruits (apple, pear, papaya, mango) using combined drying techniques. This involved investigation of bioactivity, colour, and sensory assessment on colour of the dried products as well as the retention of the bio-active ingredients. The attributes of quality were compared in regard to the quality of dehydrated samples obtained from continuous heat pump (HP) drying technique. It was found that for apple, pear and mango the total colour change (ΔE) of samples dried using continuous heat pump (HP) or heat pump vacuum-microwave (HP/VM) methods was lower than of samples dried by other combined methods. However, for papaya, the lowest colour change exhibited by samples dried using hot air-cold air (HHC) method and the highest colour change was found for heat pump (HP) dehydrated samples. Sensory evaluation revealed that dehydrated pear with higher total colour change (ΔE) is more desirable because of its golden yellow appearance. In most cases the highest phenol content was found from fruits dried by HP/VM method. Judging from the quality findings on two important areas namely colour and bioactivity, it was found that combined drying method consisted of HP pre-drying followed by VM finish drying gave the best results for most dehydrated fruits studied in this work as the fruits contain first group of polyphenol compounds, which preferably requires low temperature followed by rapid drying strategy. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Scalable, full-colour and controllable chromotropic plasmonic printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiancai; Zhou, Zhang-Kai; Wei, Zhiqiang; Su, Rongbin; Lai, Juan; Li, Juntao; Li, Chao; Zhang, Tengwei; Wang, Xue-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic colour printing has drawn wide attention as a promising candidate for the next-generation colour-printing technology. However, an efficient approach to realize full colour and scalable fabrication is still lacking, which prevents plasmonic colour printing from practical applications. Here we present a scalable and full-colour plasmonic printing approach by combining conjugate twin-phase modulation with a plasmonic broadband absorber. More importantly, our approach also demonstrates controllable chromotropic capability, that is, the ability of reversible colour transformations. This chromotropic capability affords enormous potentials in building functionalized prints for anticounterfeiting, special label, and high-density data encryption storage. With such excellent performances in functional colour applications, this colour-printing approach could pave the way for plasmonic colour printing in real-world commercial utilization. PMID:26567803

  14. Segregation of genes controlling seed colour in sesame ( Sesamum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the sixth cross, involving white and black parents, an array of white, black, brownish white and brown colours were observed in the F2. The variation in gene systems controlling seed colour expression observed in this study revealed the complex nature of the expression of this trait. Results also indicated that plants with ...

  15. The control of attentional target selection in a colour/colour conjunction task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Nick; Eimer, Martin

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the time course of attentional object selection processes in visual search tasks where targets are defined by a combination of features from the same dimension, we measured the N2pc component as an electrophysiological marker of attentional object selection during colour/colour conjunction search. In Experiment 1, participants searched for targets defined by a combination of two colours, while ignoring distractor objects that matched only one of these colours. Reliable N2pc components were triggered by targets and also by partially matching distractors, even when these distractors were accompanied by a target in the same display. The target N2pc was initially equal in size to the sum of the two N2pc components to the two different types of partially matching distractors and became superadditive from approximately 250 ms after search display onset. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the superadditivity of the target N2pc was not due to a selective disengagement of attention from task-irrelevant partially matching distractors. These results indicate that attention was initially deployed separately and in parallel to all target-matching colours, before attentional allocation processes became sensitive to the presence of both matching colours within the same object. They suggest that attention can be controlled simultaneously and independently by multiple features from the same dimension and that feature-guided attentional selection processes operate in parallel for different target-matching objects in the visual field.

  16. Genetic control of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, J.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The sterile-insect technique for control of fruit-flies is studied. A brief historic of the technique is presented, as well as a short description of the methodology. Other aspects are discussed: causes of sterility in insects and the principles of insect population suppression by sterile-insect technique. (M.A.C.)

  17. Total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, colour and drying characteristics of date fruit dried with different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçen İZLİ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Date slices were dried with the three drying methods convective (60, 70 and 80 °C, microwave (120 W and freeze drying to determine drying characteristics and to compare the dried fruit quality. All colour parameters changed depending on the drying method and colours closest to the fresh sample were obtained with freeze drying. It is interesting to note that the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in each sample rose when looked at in relation to the fresh sample. In particular, microwave-dried samples were recorded as having the highest total phenolic content and the highest antioxidant capacity. To explain the drying kinetics of the date slices, nine thin-layer drying models were also attempted. Based on statistical tests, the model developed by Midilli et al. model was found to be the best model for convective and microwave drying, but the Two Term model was the best for freeze drying. This study shows that microwave drying can produce high quality date slices with the additional advantage of reduced drying times compared to convective and freeze drying.

  18. Multiple Primary LED Lamp Colour Controller with Inherent Brightness Limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barcena, R.; Ackermann, B.

    2007-01-01

    There is a strong interest in using LEDs for general illumination due to the potential they offer for energy saving, environmental friendliness, new opportunities in lighting design, and control of the intensity, colour, and spatial distribution of light. General illumination requires primarily

  19. Long-distance seed dispersal by straw-coloured fruit bats varies by season and landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Abedi-Lartey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available On-going fragmentation of tropical forest ecosystems and associated depletion of seed dispersers threatens the long-term survival of animal-dispersed plants. These threats do not only affect biodiversity and species abundance, but ultimately ecosystem functions and services. Thus, seed dispersers such as the straw-coloured fruit bat, E. helvum, which traverse long distances across fragmented landscapes, are particularly important for maintaining genetic connectivity and colonizing new sites for plant species. Using high-resolution GPS-tracking of movements, field observations and gut retention experiments, we quantify dispersal distances for small- and large-seeded fruits foraged by E. helvum during periods of colony population low (wet season and high (dry season in an urban and a rural landscape in the forest zone of Ghana. Gut passage time averaged 116 min (range 4–1143 min, comparable to other fruit bats. Movements were generally longer in the urban than in the rural landscape and also longer in the dry than in the wet season. As the majority of seeds are dispersed only to feeding roosts, median dispersal distances were similar for both large (42–67 m and small (42–65 m seeds. However, small seeds were potentially dispersed up to 75.4 km, four times further than the previous maximum distance estimated for a similar-sized frugivore. Maximum seed dispersal distances for small seeds were almost twice as long in the rural (49.7 km compare to the urban (31.2 km landscape. Within the urban landscape, estimated maximum dispersal distances for small seeds were three times longer during the dry season (75.4 km compared to the wet season (22.8 km; in contrast, distances in the rural landscape were three times longer in the wet season (67 km compared to the dry season (24.4. Dispersal distances for large seeds during the dry season (551 m in the rural landscape were almost twice that in the wet season (319 m. We found no influence of food

  20. The control of attentional target selection in a colour/colour conjunction task

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Nick; Eimer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the time course of attentional object selection processes in visual search tasks where targets are defined by a combination of features from the same dimension, we measured the N2pc component as an electrophysiological marker of attentional object selection during colour/colour conjunction search. In Experiment 1, participants searched for targets defined by a combination of two colours, while ignoring distractor objects that matched only one of these colours. Reliable N2pc com...

  1. Application of Computer Vision for quality control in frozen mixed berries production: colour calibration issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ricauda Aimonino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision is becoming increasingly important in quality control of many food processes. The appearance properties of food products (colour, texture, shape and size are, in fact, correlated with organoleptic characteristics and/or the presence of defects. Quality control based on image processing eliminates the subjectivity of human visual inspection, allowing rapid and non-destructive analysis. However, most food matrices show a wide variability in appearance features, therefore robust and customized image elaboration algorithms have to be implemented for each specific product. For this reason, quality control by visual inspection is still rather diffused in several food processes. The case study inspiring this paper concerns the production of frozen mixed berries. Once frozen, different kinds of berries are mixed together, in different amounts, according to a recipe. The correct quantity of each kind of fruit, within a certain tolerance, has to be ensured by producers. Quality control relies on bringing few samples for each production lot (samples of the same weight and, manually, counting the amount of each species. This operation is tedious, subject to errors, and time consuming, while a computer vision system (CVS could determine the amount of each kind of berries in a few seconds. This paper discusses the problem of colour calibration of the CVS used for frozen berries mixture evaluation. Images are acquired by a digital camera coupled with a dome lighting system, which gives a homogeneous illumination on the entire visible surface of the berries, and a flat bed scanner. RBG device dependent data are then mapped onto CIELab colorimetric colour space using different transformation operators. The obtained results show that the proposed calibration procedure leads to colour discrepancies comparable or even below the human eyes sensibility.

  2. Scalable, full-colour and controllable chromotropic plasmonic printing

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Jiancai; Zhou, Zhang-Kai; Wei, Zhiqiang; Su, Rongbin; Lai, Juan; Li, Juntao; Li, Chao; Zhang, Tengwei; Wang, Xue-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic colour printing has drawn wide attention as a promising candidate for the next-generation colour-printing technology. However, an efficient approach to realize full colour and scalable fabrication is still lacking, which prevents plasmonic colour printing from practical applications. Here we present a scalable and full-colour plasmonic printing approach by combining conjugate twin-phase modulation with a plasmonic broadband absorber. More importantly, our approach also demonstrates ...

  3. Effects of memory colour on colour constancy for unknown coloured objects

    OpenAIRE

    Granzier, Jeroen J M; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2012-01-01

    The perception of an object's colour remains constant despite large variations in the chromaticity of the illumination—colour constancy. Hering suggested that memory colours, the typical colours of objects, could help in estimating the illuminant's colour and therefore be an important factor in establishing colour constancy. Here we test whether the presence of objects with diagnostical colours (fruits, vegetables, etc) within a scene influence colour constancy for unknown coloured objects in...

  4. Environmental and hormonal factors controlling reversible colour change in crab spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llandres, Ana L; Figon, Florent; Christidès, Jean-Philippe; Mandon, Nicole; Casas, Jérôme

    2013-10-15

    Habitat heterogeneity that occurs within an individual's lifetime may favour the evolution of reversible plasticity. Colour reversibility has many different functions in animals, such as thermoregulation, crypsis through background matching and social interactions. However, the mechanisms underlying reversible colour changes are yet to be thoroughly investigated. This study aims to determine the environmental and hormonal factors underlying morphological colour changes in Thomisus onustus crab spiders and the biochemical metabolites produced during these changes. We quantified the dynamics of colour changes over time: spiders were kept in yellow and white containers under natural light conditions and their colour was measured over 15 days using a spectrophotometer. We also characterised the chemical metabolites of spiders changing to a yellow colour using HPLC. Hormonal control of colour change was investigated by injecting 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) into spiders. We found that background colouration was a major environmental factor responsible for colour change in crab spiders: individuals presented with white and yellow backgrounds changed to white and yellow colours, respectively. An ommochrome precursor, 3-OH-kynurenine, was the main pigment responsible for yellow colour. Spiders injected with 20E displayed a similar rate of change towards yellow colouration as spiders kept in yellow containers and exposed to natural sunlight. This study demonstrates novel hormonal manipulations that are capable of inducing reversible colour change.

  5. Microwave-assisted drying of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits: Drying kinetics, polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity, colour and texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Magdalena; Michalska, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of hot air convective drying (HACD), microwave vacuum drying (MWVD) and their combination (HACD+MWVD) on the drying kinetics, colour, total polyphenols, anthocyanins antioxidant capacity and texture of frozen/thawed blueberries. Drying resulted in reduction of total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity (69 and 77%, respectively). The highest content of total polyphenols was noted after HACD at 90°C. Lower air temperature and prolonged exposure to oxygen resulted in greater degradation of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Drying processes caused a significant decrease (from 70 to 95%) in the content of anthocyanins. The highest content of anthocyanins and the strongest antioxidant capacity was found in blueberries dried using HACD at 90°C+MWVD. Among drying methods, HACD at 90°C+MWVD satisfied significant requirements for dried fruits i.e. short drying time and improved product quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Temperature sensitive lethal factors and puparial colour sex separation mechanisms in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch-Petersen, E.

    1990-01-01

    A programme to develop genetic sexing mechanisms in the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), was initiated at the IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf, in 1983. Because of the potential benefits arising from the elimination of females early in the developmental cycle, combined with the anticipated relative ease of inducing temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) factors, it was decided to attempt to induce and isolate tsl factors active in the egg or early larval stages. Initially, five recombination suppressor (RS) strains were isolated. The degree of recombination suppression ranged from 77.6% to 99.1%. The viability of each of the five RS strains was assessed and RS 30/55 was selected as the most suitable strain. Ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) was used to induce the tsl factors, by feeding two-day old adult males with a suspension of EMS in a 10% solution of sugar in the drinking water supply. Temperature tolerance tests indicated a discriminating temperature of 32 deg. C when isolating tsl factors active in the egg stage and 35 deg. C when isolating such factors in the early larval stage. A total of 39 and 22 tsl factors have been isolated in the two stages, respectively. However, none has yet proved stable. Induction of tsl factors with a reduced dose of EMS is now being attempted. An alternative genetic sexing programme was initiated in 1985, based on the use of pupal colour dimorphisms. Previously, a genetic sexing strain, T:Y(wp + )101, based on a white female/brown male puparial colour dimorphism, had twice been assessed for stability under mass rearing conditions. In both cases the sexual colour dimorphism disintegrated immediately. Another similarly dimorphic strain, T:Y(wp + )30C, was developed. This strain remained stable for seven generations of mass rearing, after which it started to disintegrate. Disintegration of this strain was probably caused by accidental contamination by wild type medflies. 34 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. The control of single-colour and multiple-colour visual search by attentional templates in working memory and in long-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Grubert, Anna; Carlisle, N.; Eimer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The question whether target selection in visual search can be effectively controlled by simultaneous attentional templates for multiple features is still under dispute. We investigated whether multiple-colour attentional guidance is possible when target colours remain constant and can thus be represented in long-term memory but not when they change frequently and have to be held in working memory. Participants searched for one, two, or three possible target colours that were specified by cue ...

  8. Effects of hot air and freeze drying methods on antioxidant activity, colour and some nutritional characteristics of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orak, H H; Aktas, T; Yagar, H; İsbilir, S Selen; Ekinci, N; Sahin, F Hasturk

    2012-08-01

    Antioxidant activity, colour and some nutritional properties of hot air and freeze-dried strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) fruits were investigated. Additionally, the effects of two pre-treatments, namely ethyl oleate and water blanching, were compared in terms of drying characteristics. For determination of antioxidant activities in ethanol extracts, two different analytical methods were used: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity and β-carotene bleaching activity. As a result, the ethyl oleate pre-treatment shortened the drying time by hot air method and gave a higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity (82.16 ± 0.34%), total phenolic content (7.62 ± 1.09 µg GAE/g extract), ascorbic acid content (236.93 ± 20.14 mg/100 g), besides hydromethylfurfural was not observed. Freeze-dried fruits exhibited higher ascorbic acid content (368.63 ± 17.16 mg/100 g) than those fresh fruits (231.33 ± 19.51 mg/100 g) and nearly 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl activity (93.52 ± 0.41 %) to fresh fruits (94.03 ± 1.18%). Colour characteristics, sugar content and mineral contents of fruits were significantly affected by pre-treatments and drying methods (p drying of strawberry tree fruits should bring a valuable and attractive foodstuff to food industry due to the rich nutritional components, antioxidant activity and colour. Another conclusion from this study is that the freeze-drying is the best drying method to keep the nutritional value, antioxidant activity and sensory properties of fruits.

  9. Machine Vision-Based Measurement Systems for Fruit and Vegetable Quality Control in Postharvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, José; Munera, Sandra; Aleixos, Nuria; Cubero, Sergio; Molto, Enrique

    Individual items of any agricultural commodity are different from each other in terms of colour, shape or size. Furthermore, as they are living thing, they change their quality attributes over time, thereby making the development of accurate automatic inspection machines a challenging task. Machine vision-based systems and new optical technologies make it feasible to create non-destructive control and monitoring tools for quality assessment to ensure adequate accomplishment of food standards. Such systems are much faster than any manual non-destructive examination of fruit and vegetable quality, thus allowing the whole production to be inspected with objective and repeatable criteria. Moreover, current technology makes it possible to inspect the fruit in spectral ranges beyond the sensibility of the human eye, for instance in the ultraviolet and near-infrared regions. Machine vision-based applications require the use of multiple technologies and knowledge, ranging from those related to image acquisition (illumination, cameras, etc.) to the development of algorithms for spectral image analysis. Machine vision-based systems for inspecting fruit and vegetables are targeted towards different purposes, from in-line sorting into commercial categories to the detection of contaminants or the distribution of specific chemical compounds on the product's surface. This chapter summarises the current state of the art in these techniques, starting with systems based on colour images for the inspection of conventional colour, shape or external defects and then goes on to consider recent developments in spectral image analysis for internal quality assessment or contaminant detection.

  10. Control of Reproduced Colour Using Laser Based Tristimulus Colorimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Oulton, David

    1999-01-01

    Tristimulus colorimetry based laser line reflectance measurement is proposed and exemplified by the construction and testing of a prototype abridged spectrometer.The intent is to enable rugged on-line colour measurement and improve on the instrument to instrument variability that is characteristic of filter based spectrometry

  11. Pronounced Seasonal Changes in the Movement Ecology of a Highly Gregarious Central-Place Forager, the African Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Fahr

    Full Text Available Straw-coloured fruit bats (Eidolon helvum migrate over vast distances across the African continent, probably following seasonal bursts of resource availability. This causes enormous fluctuations in population size, which in turn may influence the bats' impact on local ecosystems. We studied the movement ecology of this central-place forager with state-of-the-art GPS/acceleration loggers and concurrently monitored the seasonal fluctuation of the colony in Accra, Ghana. Habitat use on the landscape scale was assessed with remote sensing data as well as ground-truthing of foraging areas.During the wet season population low (~ 4000 individuals, bats foraged locally (3.5-36.7 km in urban areas with low tree cover. Major food sources during this period were fruits of introduced trees. Foraging distances almost tripled (24.1-87.9 km during the dry season population peak (~ 150,000 individuals, but this was not compensated for by reduced resting periods. Dry season foraging areas were random with regard to urban footprint and tree cover, and food consisted almost exclusively of nectar and pollen of native trees.Our study suggests that straw-coloured fruit bats disperse seeds in the range of hundreds of meters up to dozens of kilometres, and pollinate trees for up to 88 km. Straw-coloured fruit bats forage over much larger distances compared to most other Old World fruit bats, thus providing vital ecosystem services across extensive landscapes. We recommend increased efforts aimed at maintaining E. helvum populations throughout Africa since their keystone role in various ecosystems is likely to increase due to the escalating loss of other seed dispersers as well as continued urbanization and habitat fragmentation.

  12. Pronounced Seasonal Changes in the Movement Ecology of a Highly Gregarious Central-Place Forager, the African Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, Jakob; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Esch, Thomas; Machwitz, Miriam; Suu-Ire, Richard; Wikelski, Martin; Dechmann, Dina K N

    2015-01-01

    Straw-coloured fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) migrate over vast distances across the African continent, probably following seasonal bursts of resource availability. This causes enormous fluctuations in population size, which in turn may influence the bats' impact on local ecosystems. We studied the movement ecology of this central-place forager with state-of-the-art GPS/acceleration loggers and concurrently monitored the seasonal fluctuation of the colony in Accra, Ghana. Habitat use on the landscape scale was assessed with remote sensing data as well as ground-truthing of foraging areas. During the wet season population low (~ 4000 individuals), bats foraged locally (3.5-36.7 km) in urban areas with low tree cover. Major food sources during this period were fruits of introduced trees. Foraging distances almost tripled (24.1-87.9 km) during the dry season population peak (~ 150,000 individuals), but this was not compensated for by reduced resting periods. Dry season foraging areas were random with regard to urban footprint and tree cover, and food consisted almost exclusively of nectar and pollen of native trees. Our study suggests that straw-coloured fruit bats disperse seeds in the range of hundreds of meters up to dozens of kilometres, and pollinate trees for up to 88 km. Straw-coloured fruit bats forage over much larger distances compared to most other Old World fruit bats, thus providing vital ecosystem services across extensive landscapes. We recommend increased efforts aimed at maintaining E. helvum populations throughout Africa since their keystone role in various ecosystems is likely to increase due to the escalating loss of other seed dispersers as well as continued urbanization and habitat fragmentation.

  13. Synaesthetic colour in the brain: beyond colour areas. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of synaesthetes and matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2010-08-10

    In synaesthesia, sensations in a particular modality cause additional experiences in a second, unstimulated modality (e.g., letters elicit colour). Understanding how synaesthesia is mediated in the brain can help to understand normal processes of perceptual awareness and multisensory integration. In several neuroimaging studies, enhanced brain activity for grapheme-colour synaesthesia has been found in ventral-occipital areas that are also involved in real colour processing. Our question was whether the neural correlates of synaesthetically induced colour and real colour experience are truly shared. First, in a free viewing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we located main effects of synaesthesia in left superior parietal lobule and in colour related areas. In the left superior parietal lobe, individual differences between synaesthetes (projector-associator distinction) also influenced brain activity, confirming the importance of the left superior parietal lobe for synaesthesia. Next, we applied a repetition suppression paradigm in fMRI, in which a decrease in the BOLD (blood-oxygenated-level-dependent) response is generally observed for repeated stimuli. We hypothesized that synaesthetically induced colours would lead to a reduction in BOLD response for subsequently presented real colours, if the neural correlates were overlapping. We did find BOLD suppression effects induced by synaesthesia, but not within the colour areas. Because synaesthetically induced colours were not able to suppress BOLD effects for real colour, we conclude that the neural correlates of synaesthetic colour experience and real colour experience are not fully shared. We propose that synaesthetic colour experiences are mediated by higher-order visual pathways that lie beyond the scope of classical, ventral-occipital visual areas. Feedback from these areas, in which the left parietal cortex is likely to play an important role, may induce V4 activation and the percept of

  14. Synaesthetic colour in the brain: beyond colour areas. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of synaesthetes and matched controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa M van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In synaesthesia, sensations in a particular modality cause additional experiences in a second, unstimulated modality (e.g., letters elicit colour. Understanding how synaesthesia is mediated in the brain can help to understand normal processes of perceptual awareness and multisensory integration. In several neuroimaging studies, enhanced brain activity for grapheme-colour synaesthesia has been found in ventral-occipital areas that are also involved in real colour processing. Our question was whether the neural correlates of synaesthetically induced colour and real colour experience are truly shared. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: First, in a free viewing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment, we located main effects of synaesthesia in left superior parietal lobule and in colour related areas. In the left superior parietal lobe, individual differences between synaesthetes (projector-associator distinction also influenced brain activity, confirming the importance of the left superior parietal lobe for synaesthesia. Next, we applied a repetition suppression paradigm in fMRI, in which a decrease in the BOLD (blood-oxygenated-level-dependent response is generally observed for repeated stimuli. We hypothesized that synaesthetically induced colours would lead to a reduction in BOLD response for subsequently presented real colours, if the neural correlates were overlapping. We did find BOLD suppression effects induced by synaesthesia, but not within the colour areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because synaesthetically induced colours were not able to suppress BOLD effects for real colour, we conclude that the neural correlates of synaesthetic colour experience and real colour experience are not fully shared. We propose that synaesthetic colour experiences are mediated by higher-order visual pathways that lie beyond the scope of classical, ventral-occipital visual areas. Feedback from these areas, in which the left parietal

  15. The bHLH transcription factor MdbHLH3 promotes anthocyanin accumulation and fruit colouration in response to low temperature in apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing-Bin; Li, Shen; Zhang, Rui-Fen; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Ying-Chun; Zhao, Qiang; Yao, Yu-Xin; You, Chun-Xiang; Zhang, Xian-Sheng; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2012-11-01

    Low environmental temperatures promote anthocyanin accumulation and fruit colouration by up-regulating the expression of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation in many fruit trees. However, the molecular mechanism by which fruit trees regulate this process in response to low temperature (LT) remains largely unknown. In this study, the cold-induced bHLH transcription factor gene MdbHLH3 was isolated from an apple tree and was found to interact physically and specifically through two regions (amino acids 1-23 and 186-228) at the N terminus with the MYB partner MdMYB1 (allelic to MdMYB10). Subsequently, MdbHLH3 bound to the promoters of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes MdDFR and MdUFGT and the regulatory gene MdMYB1 to activate their expression. Furthermore, the MdbHLH3 protein was post-translationally modified, possibly involving phosphorylation following exposure to LTs, which enhanced its promoter-binding capacity and transcription activity. Our results demonstrate the molecular mechanism by which MdbHLH3 regulates LT-induced anthocyanin accumulation and fruit colouration in apple. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. An area wide control of fruit flies in Mauritius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Gungah, B.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I.; Soonnoo, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    An area-wide National Fruit Fly Control Programme (NFFCP) was initiated in 1994, funded by the European Union until 1999 and now fully financed by the Government of Mauritius. The NFFCP targets some 75,000 backyard fruit trees owners mainly. The bait application and male annihilation techniques (BAT e MAT) are currently being applied against the fruit flies attacking fleshy fruits and are targeting selected major fruit growing areas in the north, north-east, central and western parts of the island. Successful control has been achieved using these two techniques as demonstrated by trap catches and fruit samplings. The level of fruit fly damage to fruits has been reduced. Presently, the bait-insecticide mixture is being supplied free of charge to the public. The current status of the area-wide suppression programme is such that continuous use of BAT/MAT is a never ending process and as such is not viable. In this context, a TC project on Feasibility studies for integrated use of sterile insect technique for area wide tephritid fruit fly control.Studies are also being carried out on mass rearing of the peach fruit fly for small scale trials on SIT so as to eventually integrate this control method in our area-wide control programme. (author)

  17. An area wide control of fruit flies in Mauritius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Gungah, B.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I.; Soonnoo, A.R., E-mail: ento@intnet.m, E-mail: moa-entomology@mail.gov.m [Ministry of Agro Industry and Fisheries Reduit, Republic of Mauritius (Mauritius)

    2006-07-01

    An area-wide National Fruit Fly Control Programme (NFFCP) was initiated in 1994, funded by the European Union until 1999 and now fully financed by the Government of Mauritius. The NFFCP targets some 75,000 backyard fruit trees owners mainly. The bait application and male annihilation techniques (BAT e MAT) are currently being applied against the fruit flies attacking fleshy fruits and are targeting selected major fruit growing areas in the north, north-east, central and western parts of the island. Successful control has been achieved using these two techniques as demonstrated by trap catches and fruit samplings. The level of fruit fly damage to fruits has been reduced. Presently, the bait-insecticide mixture is being supplied free of charge to the public. The current status of the area-wide suppression programme is such that continuous use of BAT/MAT is a never ending process and as such is not viable. In this context, a TC project on Feasibility studies for integrated use of sterile insect technique for area wide tephritid fruit fly control.Studies are also being carried out on mass rearing of the peach fruit fly for small scale trials on SIT so as to eventually integrate this control method in our area-wide control programme. (author)

  18. Synaesthetic Colour in the Brain: Beyond Colour Areas. A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Synaesthetes and Matched Controls

    OpenAIRE

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M.; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background In synaesthesia, sensations in a particular modality cause additional experiences in a second, unstimulated modality (e.g., letters elicit colour). Understanding how synaesthesia is mediated in the brain can help to understand normal processes of perceptual awareness and multisensory integration. In several neuroimaging studies, enhanced brain activity for grapheme-colour synaesthesia has been found in ventral-occipital areas that are also involved in real colour processing. Our q...

  19. Fruit sphere microenvironments and berry phenolic content of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated under rain-shelter systems with coloured plastic film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Fei MENG

    Full Text Available Abstract Rain-shelter cultivation has been proven an important cultivation method for grape-plantings in continental monsoon climate zones, of which white plastic films are the most common shelter material. However, while this method and material reduces the occurrence of the disease, it can also decrease the grape berry quality. Five colours (including red, yellow, blue, purple, and white of plastic films were covered above Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. grapevine rows before veraison. Rain-shelter cultivation reduced air temperature, wind speed, and total solar radiation and enhanced relative humidity in the fruit sphere of grapevines. For each particular colour plastic film, the irradiance of its corresponding spectrum band in the canopy of vines was higher than with other colour plastic films. Meanwhile, the blue plastic film treatment significantly promoted the accumulation of total phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic acids more than the other colours of plastic films. Blue plastic films are more beneficial for berry quality promotion of wine grapes, especially Cabernet Sauvignon, under rain-shelter cultivation in continental monsoon climate zones.

  20. Coherent control of third-harmonic-generation by a waveform-controlled two-colour laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W-J; Chen, W-F; Pan, C-L; Lin, R-Y; Lee, C-K

    2013-01-01

    We investigate generation of the third harmonic (TH; λ = 355 nm) signal by two-colour excitation (λ = 1064 nm and its second harmonic, λ = 532 nm) in argon gas, with emphasis on the influence of relative phases and intensities of the two-colour pump on the third-order nonlinear frequency conversion process. Perturbative nonlinear optics predicts that the TH signal will oscillate periodically with the relative phases of the two-colour driving laser fields due to the interference of TH signals from a direct third-harmonic-generation (THG) channel and a four-wave mixing (FWM) channel. For the first time, we show unequivocal experimental evidence of this effect. A modulation level as high as 0.35 is achieved by waveform control of the two-colour laser field. The modulation also offers a promising way to retrieve the relative phase value of the two-colour laser field. (letter)

  1. Rethinking Colour Constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvinenko, Alexander D; Funt, Brian; Mirzaei, Hamidreza; Tokunaga, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    Colour constancy needs to be reconsidered in light of the limits imposed by metamer mismatching. Metamer mismatching refers to the fact that two objects reflecting metameric light under one illumination may reflect non-metameric light under a second; so two objects appearing as having the same colour under one illuminant can appear as having different colours under a second. Yet since Helmholtz, object colour has generally been believed to remain relatively constant. The deviations from colour constancy registered in experiments are usually thought to be small enough that they do not contradict the notion of colour constancy. However, it is important to determine how the deviations from colour constancy relate to the limits metamer mismatching imposes on constancy. Hence, we calculated metamer mismatching's effect for the 20 Munsell papers and 8 pairs of illuminants employed in the colour constancy study by Logvinenko and Tokunaga and found it to be so extensive that the two notions-metamer mismatching and colour constancy-must be mutually exclusive. In particular, the notion of colour constancy leads to some paradoxical phenomena such as the possibility of 20 objects having the same colour under chromatic light dispersing into a hue circle of colours under neutral light. Thus, colour constancy refers to a phenomenon, which because of metamer mismatching, simply cannot exist. Moreover, it obscures the really important visual phenomenon; namely, the alteration of object colours induced by illumination change. We show that colour is not an independent, intrinsic attribute of an object, but rather an attribute of an object/light pair, and then define a concept of material colour in terms of equivalence classes of such object/light pairs. We suggest that studying the shift in material colour under a change in illuminant will be more fruitful than pursuing colour constancy's false premise that colour is an intrinsic attribute of an object.

  2. Rethinking Colour Constancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D Logvinenko

    Full Text Available Colour constancy needs to be reconsidered in light of the limits imposed by metamer mismatching. Metamer mismatching refers to the fact that two objects reflecting metameric light under one illumination may reflect non-metameric light under a second; so two objects appearing as having the same colour under one illuminant can appear as having different colours under a second. Yet since Helmholtz, object colour has generally been believed to remain relatively constant. The deviations from colour constancy registered in experiments are usually thought to be small enough that they do not contradict the notion of colour constancy. However, it is important to determine how the deviations from colour constancy relate to the limits metamer mismatching imposes on constancy. Hence, we calculated metamer mismatching's effect for the 20 Munsell papers and 8 pairs of illuminants employed in the colour constancy study by Logvinenko and Tokunaga and found it to be so extensive that the two notions-metamer mismatching and colour constancy-must be mutually exclusive. In particular, the notion of colour constancy leads to some paradoxical phenomena such as the possibility of 20 objects having the same colour under chromatic light dispersing into a hue circle of colours under neutral light. Thus, colour constancy refers to a phenomenon, which because of metamer mismatching, simply cannot exist. Moreover, it obscures the really important visual phenomenon; namely, the alteration of object colours induced by illumination change. We show that colour is not an independent, intrinsic attribute of an object, but rather an attribute of an object/light pair, and then define a concept of material colour in terms of equivalence classes of such object/light pairs. We suggest that studying the shift in material colour under a change in illuminant will be more fruitful than pursuing colour constancy's false premise that colour is an intrinsic attribute of an object.

  3. COLOURFUL DIET FOR GOOD HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Vandana Gupta

    2017-01-01

    We are surrounded by colour and they can affect us profoundly and in ways that we may not have thought of. It is a known fact, that colours can influence your moods, feelings and emotions. Colours influence your actions and how you respond to people, situations and ideas. Apart from the colour of interiors, exteriors, our clothing and other things, the colour of food and beverage products are also extremely important. Green fruits and vegetables support eye health and may help protect against...

  4. Synaesthetic Colour in the Brain: Beyond Colour Areas. A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Synaesthetes and Matched Controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, T.M. van; Petersson, K.M.; Hagoort, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In synaesthesia, sensations in a particular modality cause additional experiences in a second, unstimulated modality (e. g., letters elicit colour). Understanding how synaesthesia is mediated in the brain can help to understand normal processes of perceptual awareness and multisensory

  5. Effects of Memory Colour on Colour Constancy for Unknown Coloured Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen J M Granzier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The perception of an object's colour remains constant despite large variations in the chromaticity of the illumination—colour constancy. Hering suggested that memory colours, the typical colours of objects, could help in estimating the illuminant's colour and therefore be an important factor in establishing colour constancy. Here we test whether the presence of objects with diagnostical colours (fruits, vegetables, etc within a scene influence colour constancy for unknown coloured objects in the scene. Subjects matched one of four Munsell papers placed in a scene illuminated under either a reddish or a greenish lamp with the Munsell book of colour illuminated by a neutral lamp. The Munsell papers were embedded in four different scenes—one scene containing diagnostically coloured objects, one scene containing incongruent coloured objects, a third scene with geometrical objects of the same colour as the diagnostically coloured objects, and one scene containing non-diagnostically coloured objects (eg, a yellow coffee mug. All objects were placed against a black background. Colour constancy was on average significantly higher for the scene containing the diagnostically coloured objects compared with the other scenes tested. We conclude that the colours of familiar objects help in obtaining colour constancy for unknown objects.

  6. Effects of memory colour on colour constancy for unknown coloured objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granzier, Jeroen J M; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2012-01-01

    The perception of an object's colour remains constant despite large variations in the chromaticity of the illumination-colour constancy. Hering suggested that memory colours, the typical colours of objects, could help in estimating the illuminant's colour and therefore be an important factor in establishing colour constancy. Here we test whether the presence of objects with diagnostical colours (fruits, vegetables, etc) within a scene influence colour constancy for unknown coloured objects in the scene. Subjects matched one of four Munsell papers placed in a scene illuminated under either a reddish or a greenish lamp with the Munsell book of colour illuminated by a neutral lamp. The Munsell papers were embedded in four different scenes-one scene containing diagnostically coloured objects, one scene containing incongruent coloured objects, a third scene with geometrical objects of the same colour as the diagnostically coloured objects, and one scene containing non-diagnostically coloured objects (eg, a yellow coffee mug). All objects were placed against a black background. Colour constancy was on average significantly higher for the scene containing the diagnostically coloured objects compared with the other scenes tested. We conclude that the colours of familiar objects help in obtaining colour constancy for unknown objects.

  7. Efficacy of insecticides in fruit borer control and residues on sugar apple fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro da Silva Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bahia is the Brazilian state with the largest production of sugar apple fruits (Annona squamosa L., and fruit borer (Cerconota anonella, Sepp. 1830 is a key crop pest. Insecticides are the main strategy for pest control even though there are no pesticides registered for this crop. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of insecticides to control fruit borer and determine the levels of insecticide residues in sugar apple fruits aiming at requesting the extension of authorization to use insecticide products in this crop. The experiment was conducted in an eight-year-old irrigated orchard (2 × 4 m located in Anagé, Bahia, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 10 treatments (three insecticides with three doses and a control with water and 5 replications. Each plot was composed of four plants but only the two central ones were assessed. Insecticides and doses (g a.i. 100 L−1 water were Bacillus thuringiensis: 0.8, 1.7, and 2.5; triflumuron: 2.4, 3.6, and 4.8; and imidacloprid: 4.0, 10.0, and 16.0. Nine sprayings were carried out at fortnightly intervals with a costal sprayer with constant pressure, JA-2 nozzle, and with jet directed to the fruits. Ten assessments were performed in order to observe fruit borer presence in 30 previously marked fruits per plot. Imidacloprid, at the highest studied dose, was the only effective treatment. Analyses of imidacloprid residues, at 21 and 30 days after the highest dose application, indicated levels higher than the maximum limit allowed. Insecticides under the conditions tested do not meet the norms for requesting the extension of authorization to use insecticides for citrus in sugar apple fruits.

  8. Interference control in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: differential Stroop effects for colour-naming versus counting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, B.; Rothenberger, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Tannock, R.; Uebel, H.; Banaschewski, T.

    2008-01-01

    Deficits in interference control are ascribed to patients suffering from ADHD by a number of cognitive theories. However, previous research using the Stroop Colour Word Interference Task has demonstrated mixed results that may be explained by methodological issues (e.g., possible impact of colour

  9. Synaesthetic colour in the brain: Beyond colour areas. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of synaesthetes and matched controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, T.M.; Petersson, K.M.; Hagoort, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background

    In synaesthesia, sensations in a particular modality cause additional experiences in a second, unstimulated modality (e.g., letters elicit colour). Understanding how synaesthesia is mediated in the brain can help to understand normal processes of perceptual

  10. Colour development in the apple orchard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Unuk, T.; Stanislav Tojnko, S.; Hribar, J.; Simcic, M.

    2011-01-01

    Colour is traditionally one of the important appearance features of all fruit for consumers in deciding to buy them. Colour is therefore important in the postharvest supply chain. But where does that colour of fruit come from? Clearly the period of growing and the circumstances during growth are

  11. Avaliação da coloração de basidiocarpos desidratados de Agaricus blazei segundo escala de Munsell Evaluation of the dehydrated fruiting bodies of the mushroom Agaricus blazei according to Munsell colour scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Aparecida da Fonseca Delú

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a coloração final de basidiocarpos desidratados de Agaricus blazei, após serem submetidos a tratamento com ácidos ascórbico e cítrico. Para tanto, utilizaram-se cogumelos A. blazei, cultivados em substrato apropriado e mantidos em estufa. Os cogumelos foram colhidos com o píleo totalmente fechado e após a limpeza em água corrente, os basidiocarpos foram seccionados ao meio no sentido longitudinal, sendo uma metade submetida ao tratamento experimental e a outra metade representando o tratamento controle. Os tratamentos experimentais consistiram da imersão das metades dos basidiocarpos em solução de ácido ascórbico comercial nas concentrações de 0, 10, 20 e 30 mg/L durante 0, 2, 5, 10, 15 ou 20 minutos. Para o ácido cítrico foram testadas as mesmas concentrações anteriores, porém nos tempos de imersão de 0, 10 e 15 minutos. Todos os tratamentos consistiram de 3 repetições cada. Não se observou relação entre os tratamentos utilizados com a coloração final dos basidiocarpos, embora a utilização de substâncias ácidas tenha possibilitado a obtenção de basidiocarpos desidratados mais próximos daquela coloração considerada ideal para comercialização.The main aim of this work was to evaluate the final colour of the fructification bodies of the mushroom Agaricus blazei submitted to ascorbic and citric acid treatment. The mushroom Agaricus blazei was cultivated in an appropriated substrate and storage in incubators. The mushroom was harvested containing closed pileus and after cleaning with running tap water, the fruiting bodies were sliced and half of each were submitted to acid treatment and half was the control (water immersion. The experimental treatment consisted of immersing half of each basiodiocarp in different concentrations of the commercial solution of ascorbic acid (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg/ml during 0, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes. The other parts of fruiting bodies were

  12. Microbial control of arthropod pests of tropical tree fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinski, Claudia; Lacey, Lawrence A

    2007-01-01

    A multitude of insects and mites attack fruit crops throughout the tropics. The traditional method for controlling most of these pests is the application of chemical pesticides. Growing concern on the negative environmental effects has encouraged the development of alternatives. Inundatively and inoculatively applied microbial control agents (virus, bacteria, fungi, and entomopathogenic nematodes) have been developed as alternative control methods of a wide variety of arthropods including tropical fruit pests. The majority of the research and applications in tropical fruit agroecosystems has been conducted in citrus, banana, coconut, and mango. Successful microbial control initiatives of citrus pests and mites have been reported. Microbial control of arthropod pests of banana includes banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (with EPNs and fungi) among others Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) is one of the most important pests of coconut and one of the most successful uses of non-occluded virus for classical biological control. Key pests of mango that have been controlled with microbial control agents include fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) (with EPNs and fungi), and other pests. Also successful is the microbial control of arthropod pests of guava, papaya and pineapple. The challenge towards a broader application of entomopathogens is the development of successful combinations of entomopathogens, predators, and parasitoids along with other interventions to produce effective and sustainable pest management.

  13. The Attentional Capture of Colour in Visual Interface Design:A Controlled Environment Study

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Emil; Maier, Anja

    2017-01-01

    The use of colour is an integral component in visual interface design for creating separation between objects and for conveying meaning. It has previously been established that colours can be separated in a hierarchy of primary colours and secondary colours, and that colours are consistently associated with specific mood tones. However, it has thus far not been investigated whether these two factors, which we refer to as the perception-primacy and emotion-conveyance, are associated with atten...

  14. New sanitation techniques for controlling tephritid fruit flies (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New approaches to sanitation in a cropping system susceptible to tephritid fruit flies (Diptera tephritidae) in Hawaii have been investigated. Six trials were conducted in tent-like structures to demonstrate that melon fly larvae (Bacrocera cucurbitae, Coquillett) are not reliably controlled by malathion sprayed on the surface of ...

  15. Effective chemical control of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) pests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective chemical control of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) pests in mango orchards in northern Côte-d'Ivoire. OR N'depo, N Hala, A N'da Adopo, F Coulibaly, PK Kouassi, JF Vayssieres, M de Meyer ...

  16. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from faecal samples of the Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum) in Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akobi, Babatunji; Aboderin, Oladipo; Sasaki, Takashi; Shittu, Adebayo

    2012-11-26

    Bats (Chiroptera) are one of the most diverse groups of mammals which carry out important ecological and agricultural functions that are beneficial to humans. However, they are increasingly recognized as natural vectors for a number of zoonotic pathogens and favourable hosts for zoonotic infections. Large populations of the Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum) colonize the main campus of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife, Nigeria, but the public health implications of faecal contamination and pollution by these flying mammals is unknown. This study characterized S. aureus obtained from faecal samples of these migratory mammals with a view to determining the clonal types of the isolates, and to investigate the possibility of these flying animals as potential reservoir for zoonotic S. aureus infections. One hundred and seven (107) S. aureus isolates were recovered from 560 faecal samples in eleven roosting sites from January 2008 to February 2010. A large proportion of the isolates were susceptible to antibiotics, and molecular characterization of 70 isolates showed that 65 (92.9%) were assigned in coagulase type VI, while accessory gene typing classified 69 isolates into the following: type I (12; 17.1%), type II (3; 4.3%), type III (1; 1.4%) and type IV (53; 75.7%). On the whole, the isolates were grouped in five (A-E) main genotypes. Of the ten representative isolates selected for multilocus sequence typing (MLST), nine isolates were assigned with new sequence types: ST1725, ST1726, ST1727, ST2463-ST2467 and ST2470. Phylogenetic analysis provided evidence that S. aureus isolates in group C were closely related with ST1822 and associated clones identified in African monkeys, and group D isolates with ST75, ST883 and ST1223. The two groups exhibited remarkable genetic diversity compared to the major S. aureus clade. Antibiotic resistance in faecal S. aureus isolates of E. helvum is low and multiple unique S. aureus lineages co-existed with E. helvum

  17. Greater intake of fruit and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of osteoporotic hip fractures in elderly Chinese: a 1:1 matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H-L; Wu, B-H; Xue, W-Q; He, M-G; Fan, F; Ouyang, W-F; Tu, S-L; Zhu, H-L; Chen, Y-M

    2013-11-01

    In this case-control study, we examined the relationship between the consumption of fruit and vegetables and risk of hip fractures in 646 pairs of incident cases and controls in elderly Chinese. We found that greater consumption of both fruit and vegetables in men and vegetables in women was associated with a lower risk of osteoporotic hip fractures in elderly Chinese. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of osteoporotic fractures remains controversial due to limited published evidence. The purpose of this study was to determine whether consuming fruits and vegetables has a protective effect against hip fractures. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 646 (162 males, 484 females) incident cases (70.9 ± 6.8 years) of hip fractures were enrolled from five hospitals, with 646 sex- and age-matched (±3 years) controls (70.7 ± 6.8 years) from hospitals or the community. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to assess habitual dietary intakes using a 79-item food frequency questionnaire and various covariates by structured questionnaires. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses showed dose-dependent inverse correlations between the intake of total fruit (p-trend = 0.014), total vegetables (p-trend fruits and vegetables combined (p-trend fruits, vegetables and the combination of fruits and vegetables were 0.53 (0.32-0.87), 0.37 (0.23-0.60) and 0.25 (0.15-0.41), respectively. Stratified analyses showed that the benefits remained significant in males (p = 0.001) but not in females (p = 0.210) (p-interaction 0.045). Among the subcategories of fruits and vegetables, similar associations were observed for all subgroups except light-coloured fruits. Our findings suggest that greater consumption of both fruits and vegetables in men and vegetables in women may decrease the risk of osteoporotic hip fractures in elderly Chinese.

  18. Colour quantitation for chemical spot tests for a controlled substances presumptive test database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Kelly M; Weghorst, Alex C; Quinn, Alicia A; Acharya, Subrata

    2017-02-01

    Crime scene investigators (CSIs) often encounter unknown powders, capsules, tablets, and liquids at crime scenes, many of which are controlled substances. Because most drugs are white powders, however, visual determination of the chemical identity is difficult. Colourimetric tests are a well-established method of presumptive drug identification. Positive tests are often reported differently, however, because two analysts may perceive colour or record colourimetric results in different ways. In addition to perceiving colour differently, it is very common for there to be poor visibility conditions (e.g. rain, darkness) while performing these tests, further obscuring the results. In order to address these concerns and to create uniformity in the reporting of on-site colourimetric test results, this study has evaluated two of the state-of-the-art apps (ColorAssist® and Colorimeter®) for reporting the colour test results quantitatively in red-green-blue (RGB) format. The compiled library database of presumptive test results contains over 3300 data points including over 800 unique drug/test combinations. Variations observed between test replicates, from performing a test on different days, recording with a different device type (e.g. iPod Touch, iPhone models 4, 5c, 5s, or 6), and using different quantities of drug are discussed. Overall, the least variation in Euclidian norm was observed using ColorAssist® with the camera light (25.1±22.1) while the variation between replicates and data recorded using different devices was similar. The resulting library is uploaded to a smartphone application aimed to aid in identifying and interpreting suspected controlled substance evidence. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Augmentative biological control in the Mexican national fruit fly campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, P [Campana Nacional Moscas de la Fruta, DGSV-SAGARPA (Mexico); Cancino, J; Gutierrez, J M; Santiago, G [Campana Nacional Moscas de la Fruta, DGSV-SAGARPA (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    the trapping system (i.e. Fly/Trap/Day indices) and percent parasitism from fruit sampling. Release densities fluctuated between 1,500-2,500 parasitoids/ha, depending on the ecological complexity of the zone. Apparently, the effect of released parasitoids has been similar in all zones under control. For example, in the State of Michoacan, releases were made over 1,600 ha, and FTD reduction was nearly 39%. In Sinaloa the release density was around 2,000 wasp/ha over 10,800 ha, and the FTD reduction observed was 41%. During 2003, in the State of Nayarit the percent parasitism oscillated between 33.5 and 64.7 %, and the FTD reduction obtained was around 46%. In the State of Chiapas, under an integrated pest management scheme, the release of parasitoids contributed to reduce 68.6% the FTD index. In 2002, we observed a parasitism of more than 30% of the four economically important Anastrepha species, with the maximum rates of parasitism of 72.1%; 77.5%; 38.1% and 54.5% over A. serpentina, A. ludens, A. obliqua and A. striata, respectively. These data show the impact that augmentative releases of parasitoids can have on backyard fruit fly populations. By carrying out these actions, the presence of fruit flies inside commercial orchards could be greatly reduced, and consequently, their control will become easier. (author)

  20. Requirements Engineering for Reactive Systems: Coloured Petri Nets for an Elevator Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens Bæk; Fernandes, Joao Miguel; Tjell, Simon

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based approach to requirements engineering for reactive systems; we use an elevator controller as case study. We identify and justify two key properties that a model which we construct must have, namely: (1) controller-and-environment-partitioned, which means...... constituting a description of both the controller and the environment, and distinguishing between these two domains and between desired and assumed behaviour; (2) use case-based, which means constructed on the basis of a given use case diagram and reproducing the behaviour described in accompanying scenario...... descriptions. For the case study, we build an executable model in the formal modelling language Coloured Petri Nets. We demonstrate how this model is useful for requirements engineering, since it provides a solid basis for addressing behavioural issues early in the development process, for example regarding...

  1. Memory colours affect colour appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Olkkonen, Maria; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2016-01-01

    Memory colour effects show that colour perception is affected by memory and prior knowledge and hence by cognition. None of Firestone & Scholl's (F&S's) potential pitfalls apply to our work on memory colours. We present a Bayesian model of colour appearance to illustrate that an interaction between perception and memory is plausible from the perspective of vision science.

  2. Controlled atmosphere storage of wild strawberry fruit (Fragaria vesca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenar, Eva; Hernández-Muñoz, Pilar; Lagarón, José M; Catalá, Ramón; Gavara, Rafael

    2006-01-11

    Controlled atmosphere storage technology to extend the shelf life of "Reina de los Valles" wild strawberry fruit (Fragaria vesca L.) was studied. Fruits were stored at 3 degrees C for three weeks in different atmosphere compositions: 0.05% CO2/21% O2 (air), 3% CO2/18% O2, 6% CO2/15% O2, 10% CO2/11% O2, and 15% CO2/6% O2. The effect of gas composition on soluble solids content, titrable acidity, pH, off-flavor, aroma volatiles, and consumer preference was monitored. The result showed that the 10% CO2/11% O2 combination can efficiently prolong the shelf life of wild strawberries by maintaining the quality parameters within acceptable values, through inhibiting the development of Botrytis cinerea, without significantly modifying consumer acceptance.

  3. Colour simplicity

    OpenAIRE

    du Preez, Warren

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the metaphysics of conscious experience. I defend a thesis labelled Colour Simplicity, according to which the properties constitutive of what it is like to have visual sensory experiences of colourcolour qualia – are simple, in that they lack more basic constituent properties. I develop a valid argument for Colour Simplicity, drawing on the premises that (P1) ‘colour qualia appear to be simple under introspection’, and (P2) ‘if colour qualia appear to be simp...

  4. Measuring colour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunt, R. W. G; Pointer, Michael, Ph. D

    2011-01-01

    ... industries.Building upon the success of earlier editions, the 4th edition of [start italics]Measuring Colour[end italics] has been updated throughout with new chapters on colour rendering by light sources...

  5. Effects of personal experiences on the interpretation of the meaning of colours used in the displays and controls in electric control panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inseok; Hwang, Won-Gue

    2015-01-01

    A survey was conducted to examine how personal experiences affect the interpretation of the meaning of display and control colours on electric control panels (ECPs). In Korea, the red light on ECPs represents a normal state of operation, while the green light represents a stopped state of operation; this appears to contradict the general stereotypes surrounding these colours. The survey results indicated that the participants who had experience in using ECPs interpreted the colour meaning differently from the other participant group. More than half of the experienced participants regarded the coloured displays and controls as they were designed, while most participants in the other group appeared to interpret the colours in accordance with the stereotypes. It is presumed that accidents related to human errors can occur when non-experienced people use the ECPs, which are easily accessible in many buildings. Practitioner Summary: A survey was conducted to investigate how personal experiences affect the interpretation of the function meanings of coloured lights on electrical control panels. It was found that the interpretation varies according to personal experiences, which can induce accidents related to human errors while operating electrical equipment.

  6. Evaluation of the efficacy of beauveria bassiana for the control of the invasive fruit fly bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marri, D.

    2013-07-01

    Mango production plays an important role in Africa’s economy. However, the African invader fly, Bactrocera invadens is causing high yield losses as an important quarantine pest. Suppression of fruit flies for increased mango production will increasingly rely on management methods which exert low negative environmental impact. Beauveria bassiana is an insect pathogenic fungus used as microbial insecticide because it leaves produce to their fresh state, flavor, colour and texture with no change in the chemical composition of the product and is environmentally friendly. Evaluation of the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the invasive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephriitidae) was carried out. The fungus B. bassiana (Botanigard® ES) containing 11.3% Beauveria bassiana GHA strain was applied at concentrations of 106, 53.0, 26.5, 13.3 and 6.65(x 10 6 spores/ml). When three developmental stages of the fruit fly (larvae, puparia and adults) were treated with Beauveria bassiana, the severity of the damage caused by the fungus increased with increasing fungal concentration. The results show lethal time (LT 50 ) that ranged from 2.8 to 3.6 days for a dose of 106 x 10 6 spores/ml. Comparing methods of fungal application in the field, the result indicated that applying the fungus in fruit fly traps in mango canopies is the better method for fruit flies control in the field as compared to the soil surface spray method. However, both methods could be employed for better results The study of gamma radiation on the virulence of the fungus showed that the combined effect of the fungus and gamma irradiation gave better result by increasing adult mortality to 100 % within three days at 106 x10 6 spores/ml irradiated at 150 Gy than applying fungal treatment only. (author)

  7. Colour Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    2015-04-14

    Apr 14, 2015 ... failure of the student to differentiate what is of particular concern to him or her, and .... perception of the physical appearance of colour and our ..... Colour is perceived in different modes and dimension and has derivative ..... which pigment colours can effectively depict existing realities, express emotions and.

  8. Tobacco TTG2 and ARF8 function concomitantly to control flower colouring by regulating anthocyanin synthesis genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Chen, X; Sun, F; Dong, H

    2017-07-01

    Recently we elucidated that tobacco TTG2 cooperates with ARF8 to regulate the vegetative growth and seed production. Here we show that TTG2 and ARF8 control flower colouring by regulating expression of ANS and DFR genes, which function in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Genetic modifications that substantially altered expression levels of the TTG2 gene and production quantities of TTG2 protein were correlated with flower development and colouring. Degrees of flower colour were increased by TTG2 overexpression but decreased through TTG2 silencing, in coincidence with high and low concentrations of anthocyanins in flowers. Of five genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway, only ANS and DFR were TTG2-regulated and displayed enhancement and diminution of expression with TTG2 overexpression and silencing, respectively. The floral expression of ANS and DFR also needed a functional ARF8 gene, as ANS and DFR expression were attenuated by ARF8 silencing, which concomitantly diminished the role of TTG2 in anthocyanin production. While ARF8 required TTG2 to be expressed by itself and to regulate ANS and DFR expression, the concurrent presence of normally functional TTG2 and ARF8 was critical for floral production of anthocyanins and also for flower colouration. Our data suggest that TTG2 functions concomitantly with ARF8 to control degrees of flower colour by regulating expression of ANS and DFR, which are involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. ARF8 depends on TTG2 to regulate floral expression of ANS and DFR with positive effects on anthocyanin production and flower colour. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. Application of process computers and colour CRT displays in the plant control room of a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, M.; Hayakawa, H.; Kawahara, H.; Neda, T.; Wakabayashi, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The recent application of a CRT display system in an 1100-MW(e) BWR plant control room and the design features of a new control room whose installation is planned for the next generation are discussed. As reactor unit capacity and the need for plant safety and reliability continue to increase, instrumentation and control equipment is growing in number and complexity. In consequence, control and supervision of plant operations require improvement. Thus, because of recent progress in the field of process computers and display equipment (colour CRTs), efficient improvements of the control room are under way in the Japanese BWR plant. In the recently constructed BWR plant (1100 MW(e)), five CRTs on the bench board and two process computers were additionally installed in the control room during the construction stage to improve plant control and supervisory functions by implementing the lessons learned from the Three Mile Island incident. The major functions of the new computers and display systems are to show integrated graphic displays of the plant status, to monitor the standby condition of the safety system, to show the condition of the integrated alarm system, etc. In practice, in the actual plant, this newly installed system performs well. On the basis of the experience gained in these activities, a new computerized control and monitoring system is now being designed for subsequent domestic BWR plants. This advanced system will incorporate not only the functions already mentioned, but also a surveillance guide system and plant automation. For future plants, a diagnostic system and an instructional system that can analyse a disturbance and give operational guidance to the plant operator are being developed in a government-sponsored programme. (author)

  10. Effects of aversive odour presentation on inhibitory control in the Stroop colour-word interference task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelmeyer, Andreas; Kellermann, Thilo; Bude, Daniela; Niessen, Thomas; Schwenzer, Michael; Mathiak, Klaus; Reske, Martina

    2010-10-18

    Due to the unique neural projections of the olfactory system, odours have the ability to directly influence affective processes. Furthermore, it has been shown that emotional states can influence various non-emotional cognitive tasks, such as memory and planning. However, the link between emotional and cognitive processes is still not fully understood. The present study used the olfactory pathway to induce a negative emotional state in humans to investigate its effect on inhibitory control performance in a standard, single-trial manual Stroop colour-word interference task. An unpleasant (H2S) and an emotionally neutral (Eugenol) odorant were presented in two separate experimental runs, both in blocks alternating with ambient air, to 25 healthy volunteers, while they performed the cognitive task. Presentation of the unpleasant odorant reduced Stroop interference by reducing the reaction times for incongruent stimuli, while the presentation of the neutral odorant had no effect on task performance. The odour-induced negative emotional state appears to facilitate cognitive processing in the task used in the present study, possibly by increasing the amount of cognitive control that is being exerted. This stands in contrast to other findings that showed impaired cognitive performance under odour-induced negative emotional states, but is consistent with models of mood-congruent processing.

  11. Effects of aversive odour presentation on inhibitory control in the Stroop colour-word interference task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nießen Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the unique neural projections of the olfactory system, odours have the ability to directly influence affective processes. Furthermore, it has been shown that emotional states can influence various non-emotional cognitive tasks, such as memory and planning. However, the link between emotional and cognitive processes is still not fully understood. The present study used the olfactory pathway to induce a negative emotional state in humans to investigate its effect on inhibitory control performance in a standard, single-trial manual Stroop colour-word interference task. An unpleasant (H2S and an emotionally neutral (Eugenol odorant were presented in two separate experimental runs, both in blocks alternating with ambient air, to 25 healthy volunteers, while they performed the cognitive task. Results Presentation of the unpleasant odorant reduced Stroop interference by reducing the reaction times for incongruent stimuli, while the presentation of the neutral odorant had no effect on task performance. Conclusions The odour-induced negative emotional state appears to facilitate cognitive processing in the task used in the present study, possibly by increasing the amount of cognitive control that is being exerted. This stands in contrast to other findings that showed impaired cognitive performance under odour-induced negative emotional states, but is consistent with models of mood-congruent processing.

  12. Indigenous weaver ants and fruit fly control in Tanzanian smallholder mango production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Nina; Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Msogoya, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of weaver ant colonies can reduce fruit fly oviposition in mango production and can be effective as a fruit fly control strategy. Patrolling ants may disturb landing flies and may also deposit repellent compounds on to the fruits. This control strategy is being applied to export...... temperatures to lethal levels for fruit fly eggs and larvae. Direct observations showed a small, but significant reduction in fly landings on fruits previously patrolled by ants, supporting the proposed role for persistent repellents. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy did not identify any compounds uniquely...

  13. The Phytoene synthase gene family of apple (Malus x domestica) and its role in controlling fruit carotenoid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; Driedonks, Nicky; Lewis, David; Shumskaya, Maria; Chen, Xiuyin; Wurtzel, Eleanore T; Espley, Richard V; Allan, Andrew C

    2015-07-28

    Carotenoid compounds play essential roles in plants such as protecting the photosynthetic apparatus and in hormone signalling. Coloured carotenoids provide yellow, orange and red colour to plant tissues, as well as offering nutritional benefit to humans and animals. The enzyme phytoene synthase (PSY) catalyses the first committed step of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway and has been associated with control of pathway flux. We characterised four PSY genes found in the apple genome to further understand their involvement in fruit carotenoid accumulation. The apple PSY gene family, containing six members, was predicted to have three functional members, PSY1, PSY2, and PSY4, based on translation of the predicted gene sequences and/or corresponding cDNAs. However, only PSY1 and PSY2 showed activity in a complementation assay. Protein localisation experiments revealed differential localization of the PSY proteins in chloroplasts; PSY1 and PSY2 localized to the thylakoid membranes, while PSY4 localized to plastoglobuli. Transcript levels in 'Granny Smith' and 'Royal Gala' apple cultivars showed PSY2 was most highly expressed in fruit and other vegetative tissues. We tested the transient activation of the apple PSY1 and PSY2 promoters and identified potential and differential regulation by AP2/ERF transcription factors, which suggested that the PSY genes are controlled by different transcriptional mechanisms. The first committed carotenoid pathway step in apple is controlled by MdPSY1 and MdPSY2, while MdPSY4 play little or no role in this respect. This has implications for apple breeding programmes where carotenoid enhancement is a target and would allow co-segregation with phenotypes to be tested during the development of new cultivars.

  14. Tropical Fruit Pulps: Processing, Product Standardization and Main Control Parameters for Quality Assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Farias Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fruit pulp is the most basic food product obtained from fresh fruit processing. Fruit pulps can be cold stored for long periods of time, but they also can be used to fabricate juices, ice creams, sweets, jellies and yogurts. The exploitation of tropical fruits has leveraged the entire Brazilian fruit pulp sector due mainly to the high acceptance of their organoleptic properties and remarkable nutritional facts. However, several works published in the last decades have pointed out unfavorable conditions regarding the consumption of tropical fruit pulps. This negative scenario has been associated with unsatisfactory physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of fruits pulps as outcomes of little knowledge and improper management within the fruit pulp industry. There are protocols for delineating specific identity and quality standards (IQSs and standardized good manufacturing practices (GMP for fruit pulps, which also embrace standard operating procedures (SOPs and hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP, although this latter is not considered mandatory by the Brazilian legislation. Unfortunately, the lack of skilled labor, along with failures in complying established protocols have impaired quality of fruit pulps. It has been necessary to collect all information available with the aim to identify the most important hazards within fruit pulp processing lines. Standardizing methods and practices within the Brazilian fruit pulp industry would assurance high quality status to tropical fruit pulps and the commercial growth of this vegetal product towards international markets.

  15. Eye and hair colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. A Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    To assess the importance of hair and eye colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma in fair-skinned Caucasians, we conducted two identical case-control studies in Denmark. We studied 145 cases with basal cell...... the present hair colour and eye colour, and the constitutive skin pigmentation was measured objectively by skin reflectance of UV unexposed buttock skin. There were no differences between basal cell carcinoma cases and controls in hair colour or eye colour or constitutive skin pigmentation, but more cases...... were of skin type II than skin type IV; skin type 11 was a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.3. For cutaneous malignant melanoma, more cases than controls were red-haired or blond and of skin type II, but there was no difference in constitutive skin pigmentation. Hair...

  16. Colour discrimination of dental professionals and colour deficient laypersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak-Guberina, Renata; Celebic, Asja; Powers, John M; Paravina, Rade D

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare results of non-dental (conventional) and dental colour discrimination tests (customized, shade guide test), to evaluate influence of profession, gender and age of colour normal dentists and laboratory technicians on colour discrimination results and to evaluate results of colour deficient laypersons. A total of 36 colour normal dental professionals, all volunteers were divided into two groups consisting of 18 participants each: dentists (DDS) and laboratory technicians (CDT). In addition, a group 15 colour deficient males also volunteered (CDP). Colour discrimination was examined using Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test and total error scores (TES) were calculated. Participants performed a dentistry related colour discrimination test by matching 26 pairs of shade tabs. Shade guide scores (3DS) were calculated. These tests were performed under the controlled conditions of a viewing booth. Mean values and standard deviations were determined. ANOVA, Mann-Whitney test, t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) were used for result analysis. TES and 3DS were correlated for colour normal observers, r = 0.47 (p gender and age were recorded. TES of 159 (83) and 3DS of 6.7 (2.7) were recorded for colour deficient laypersons. Based on TES, 33% of colour deficient laypersons had average discrimination, whilst 67% had low discrimination. Within the limitation of this study, it was concluded that results of non-dental and dental colour discrimination tests were correlated, and that profession (DDS/CDT), gender and age gender did not influence colour discrimination of colour normal participants. Although colour and appearance of dental restorations are of paramount importance for the aesthetic outcome, colour vision of dental professionals is not routinely tested. This paper validates and recommends the usage of dental shade guides for a simple, affordable and understandable testing of colour vision, either as a sole test or

  17. Measuring Colour

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, R W G

    2011-01-01

    The classic authority on colour measurement now fully revised and updated with the latest CIE recommendations The measurement of colour is of major importance in many commercial applications, such as the textile, paint, and foodstuff industries; as well as having a significant role in the lighting, paper, printing, cosmetic, plastics, glass, chemical, photographic, television, transport, and communication industries. Building upon the success of earlier editions, the 4th edition of Measuring Colour has been updated throughout with new chapters on colour rendering by light sources; colorimetry

  18. Control of degreening in postharvest green sour citrus fruit by electrostatic atomized water particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Naoki; Takamura, Kohtaro; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Migita, Catharina Taiko; Masuda, Yukihiro; Maekawa, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    The effect of electrostatic atomized water particles (EAWP) on degreening of green sour citrus fruit during storage was determined. Superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals included in EAWP were present on the surface of the fruit peel after the treatment. Hydrogen peroxide was formed from EAWP in an aqueous solution, which could indicate that a hydroxyl radical of EAWP turns to hydrogen peroxide in the fruit flavedo as well as in the aqueous solution. EAWP treatment effectively suppressed the degreening of green yuzu and Nagato-yuzukichi fruits during storage at 20°C. The enhancement in K+ ion leakage of both EAWP-treated fruits reduced in comparison with the control. In spite of EAWP treatment, total peroxide level in both fruits showed almost no changes during storage, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide formed by EAWP treatment could stimulate the activation of hydrogen peroxide scavenging system and control degreening of these fruits during storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Physiological control of behaviour in tephritid fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Eric B.

    2000-01-01

    Studies on the behaviour of tephritid fruit flies have historically focused on the interaction of external stimuli such as temperature, semiochemicals, seasonality, etc., or the interactions of flies between and among species for a number of observed behaviours such as mating, pheromone calling and oviposition. While descriptive behaviour represent much of what we know about these pest species, less is known about the underlying physiological mechanisms which function in priming or modulation of the observed behaviour. Central to our understanding of tephritid behaviour are the multiple and often complex internal factors which are involved, and the path/mechanisms by which external stimuli result in observed behaviour. Tephritid fruit fly physiology is a vastly understudied research area which may provide important information on how peripheral receptors receive information, the transduction and coding of information centrally and how behaviour is regulated biochemically. The integration of physiology disciplines to help explain behaviour is central to the goal of developing new technology which may be useful in fruit fly control. In our laboratory, we have been studying the mechanisms of chemoreception and its link to behaviour in tephritids in such areas as olfaction, feeding, mating and oviposition. Our approach has been that tephritid behaviour can be largely influenced by their peripheral receptors which are responsible for receiving olfactory, gustatory, visual and tactile information inputs and their physiological state which controls internal modulation of behaviour. Thus, differences in behaviour between species might be explained on the basis of differences in their peripheral receptors, and the plasticity in which observed behaviour vary between the same species could very well be attributed to changes in their physiological state that are not readily apparent merely from visual observation. The importance of the physiological state in behavioural

  20. Weaver Ants to Control Fruit Fly Damage to Tanzanian Mangoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Nina

    in Australia and West Africa. In this study, small scale farmers did not think weaver ants protected their mangoes from fruit flies. Observational studies confirmed the farmers’ views. No volatile compounds, likely to be responsible for the weaver ants’ deterrent effect, were identified. This study focused...... mangoes varied a lot with zero infestation in some fruits and more than 100 pupae emerging from other fruits, indicating that other factors than the presence of weaver ants affect the fruit flies’ decision on where to oviposit. It was not uncommon for farmers to place newly harvested mangoes below mango...... not shown to be effectively deterring fruit flies, there is no great motivation for farmers to adopt weaver ants. Assuming the weaver ants could be managed in a way that made weaver ants deter fruit flies effectively there are still some economic aspects which should be studied further. It is necessary...

  1. Colour for Behavioural Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Colour information not only helps sustain the survival of animal species by guiding sexual selection and foraging behaviour but also is an important factor in the cultural and technological development of our own species. This is illustrated by examples from the visual arts and from state-of-the-art imaging technology, where the strategic use of colour has become a powerful tool for guiding the planning and execution of interventional procedures. The functional role of colour information in terms of its potential benefits to behavioural success across the species is addressed in the introduction here to clarify why colour perception may have evolved to generate behavioural success. It is argued that evolutionary and environmental pressures influence not only colour trait production in the different species but also their ability to process and exploit colour information for goal-specific purposes. We then leap straight to the human primate with insight from current research on the facilitating role of colour cues on performance training with precision technology for image-guided surgical planning and intervention. It is shown that local colour cues in two-dimensional images generated by a surgical fisheye camera help individuals become more precise rapidly across a limited number of trial sets in simulator training for specific manual gestures with a tool. This facilitating effect of a local colour cue on performance evolution in a video-controlled simulator (pick-and-place) task can be explained in terms of colour-based figure-ground segregation facilitating attention to local image parts when more than two layers of subjective surface depth are present, as in all natural and surgical images. PMID:29770183

  2. Assessing the colour quality of LED sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jost-Boissard, S.; Avouac, P.; Fontoynont, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The CIE General Colour Rendering Index is currently the criterion used to describe and measure the colour-rendering properties of light sources. But over the past years, there has been increasing evidence of its limitations particularly its ability to predict the perceived colour quality of light...... sources and especially some LEDs. In this paper, several aspects of perceived colour quality are investigated using a side-by-side paired comparison method, and the following criteria: naturalness of fruits and vegetables, colourfulness of the Macbeth Color Checker chart, visual appreciation...... (attractiveness/ preference) and colour difference estimations for both visual scenes. Forty-five observers with normal colour vision evaluated nine light sources at 3000 K, and 36 observers evaluated eight light sources at 4000 K. Our results indicate that perceived colour differences are better dealt...

  3. Fruit and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Allan Stubbe; Viggers, Lone; Gregersen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Health professionals often advise subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) to restrict fruit intake. We show here that there is no supportive scientific evidence for this. At least 19 studies have tested intake of fruit on postprandial glucose in T2D. Only two long-term intervention studies have inves...

  4. Transcriptional control of fleshy fruit development and ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlova, R.B.; Chapman, N.; David, K.; Angenent, G.C.; Seymour, G.B.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fleshy fruits have evolved to be attractive to frugivores in order to enhance seed dispersal, and have become an indispensable part of the human diet. Here we review the recent advances in the understanding of transcriptional regulation of fleshy fruit development and ripening with a focus on

  5. Biochemical and molecular analysis of pink tomatoes: deregulated expression of the gene encoding transcription factor SlMYB12 leads to pink tomato fruit colour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballester, A.R.; Molthoff, J.W.; Vos, de C.H.; Lintel Hekkert, B.; Orzaez, D.; Fernandez-Moreno, J.P.; Tripodi, S.; Grandillo, S.; Martin, C.; Heldens, J.; Ykema, M.; Granell, A.; Bovy, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The color of tomato fruit is mainly determined by carotenoids and flavonoids. Phenotypic analysis of an introgression line (IL) population derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum 'Moneyberg' and the wild species Solanum chmielewskii revealed three ILs with a pink fruit color. These lines

  6. Monogenic control of sex-limited colouration in the honey gourami ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Of the numerous subtropical and tropical freshwater species of fish, labyrinth fish are among the most varied in body markings and colouration patterns. Four taxonomic families. (Belontiidae, Anabantidae, Helostomatidae, and Osphrone- midae) of the suborder Anabantoidei comprise the 'tradi- tional' labyrinth ...

  7. Neural correlates of imagined and synaesthetic colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Anina N; Williams, Mark A; Puce, Aina; Syngeniotis, Ari; Howard, Matthew A; McGlone, Francis; Mattingley, Jason B

    2006-01-01

    The experience of colour is a core element of human vision. Colours provide important symbolic and contextual information not conveyed by form alone. Moreover, the experience of colour can arise without external stimulation. For many people, visual memories are rich with colour imagery. In the unusual phenomenon of grapheme-colour synaesthesia, achromatic forms such as letters, words and numbers elicit vivid experiences of colour. Few studies, however, have examined the neural correlates of such internally generated colour experiences. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare patterns of cortical activity for the perception of external coloured stimuli and internally generated colours in a group of grapheme-colour synaesthetes and matched non-synaesthetic controls. In a voluntary colour imagery task, both synaesthetes and non-synaesthetes made colour judgements on objects presented as grey scale photographs. In a synaesthetic colour task, we presented letters that elicited synaesthetic colours, and asked participants to perform a localisation task. We assessed the neural activity underpinning these two different forms of colour experience that occur in the absence of chromatic sensory input. In both synaesthetes and non-synaesthetes, voluntary colour imagery activated the colour-selective area, V4, in the right hemisphere. In contrast, the synaesthetic colour task resulted in unique activity for synaesthetes in the left medial lingual gyrus, an area previously implicated in tasks involving colour knowledge. Our data suggest that internally generated colour experiences recruit brain regions specialised for colour perception, with striking differences between voluntary colour imagery and synaesthetically induced colours.

  8. The handicap of abnormal colour vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Barry L

    2004-07-01

    All people with abnormal colour vision, except for a few mildly affected deuteranomals, report that they experience problems with colour in everyday life and at work. Contemporary society presents them with increasing problems because colour is now so widely used in printed materials and in computer displays. Equal opportunity law gives them protection against unfair discrimination in employment, so a decision to exclude a person from employment on the grounds of abnormal colour vision must now be well supported by good evidence and sound argument. This paper reviews the investigations that have contributed to understanding the nature and consequences of the problems they have. All those with abnormal colour vision are at a disadvantage with comparative colour tasks that involve precise matching of colours or discrimination of fine colour differences either because of their loss of colour discrimination or anomalous perception of metamers. The majority have problems when colour is used to code information, in man-made colour codes and in naturally occurring colour codes that signal ripeness of fruit, freshness of meat or illness. They can be denied the benefit of colour to mark out objects and organise complex visual displays. They may be unreliable when a colour name is used as an identifier. They are slower and less successful in search when colour is an attribute of the target object or is used to organise the visual display. Because those with the more severe forms of abnormal colour vision perceive a very limited gamut of colours, they are at a disadvantage in the pursuit and appreciation of those forms of art that use colour.

  9. Essential oil composition of fruit colour varieties of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. Composição dos óleos essenciais de variedades de coloração de frutos de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto H. Moreno

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. is a variable species concerning fruit colour, with three recognized varieties. However, the definition of varieties is not easy for Myrtaceae species and not widely accepted. Two fruit colour varieties (purple and yellow of E. brasiliensis had their essential oil composition analysed in order to give support to the existence of varieties for this species. Although, the major components in the leaf oil are the same monoterpenes for both varieties, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and 1,8-cineol, the purple fruit variety accumulates more oxygenated sesquiterpenes (33.9% than the one with yellow fruits (3.8%. The major differences occurred in purple fruits that present as major components caryophyllene oxide (22.2% and alpha-cadinol (10.4%, not found in the leaf oil, and the yellow fruit oil presented a similar composition as observed for the leaves. These fruit colour varieties of E. brasilensis can be considered as two distinct chemotypes, since the sesquiterpene pathway is more operant in the purple variety than in the yellow one, in which monoterpenes are mainly accumulated.A espécie Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. apresenta a coloração dos frutos variável, sendo reconhecidas três variedades. Entretanto, a definição de variedades não é fácil para espécies de Myrtaceae e também não é amplamente aceita. Duas variedades de Eugenia brasiliensis, baseado na cor dos frutos (roxos e amarelos, tiveram a composição de seus óleos essenciais analisadas com a finalidade de obter indícios de variedade botânica para esta espécie. Embora, os componentes principais nos óleos das folhas fossem os mesmos monoterpenos para ambas as variedades, alfa-pineno, beta-pineno e 1,8-cineol, a variedade com frutos roxos acumulou maior quantidade de sesquiterpenos oxigenados (33,9% do que aquela com frutos amarelos (3,8%. As diferenças principais ocorreram nos frutos roxos que apresentaram como componente principal o óxido de cariofileno

  10. Thematic Plan for Fruit Fly Control Using the Sterile Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This thematic plan for fruit flies is the summation of ideas and recommendations put forth by a group of experts composed of fruit fly program managers and workers, stakeholders from the affected industry, a commodity specialist from the FAO, and technical, planning and policy specialists from the IAEA and the FAO. This document provides strategic guidance and direction on how and where the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can most effectively be applied to control or eradicate fruit flies in the future.

  11. A controlled trial of envelope colour for increasing response rates in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Natasha; Hewitt, Catherine E; Torgerson, David J

    2011-06-01

    Postal questionnaires are widely used in health research to provide measurable outcomes in areas such as quality of life. Participants who fail to return postal questionnaires can introduce non-response bias. Previous studies within populations over the age of 65 years have shown that response rates amongst older people can be 60% or less. The current study sought to investigate whether envelope colour affected response rates in a study about the effectiveness of screening older women for osteoporosis. A total of 2803 eligible female participants aged between 70 and 85 were sent an invitation pack from their GP practice. The invitation was either in a brown or white envelope and contained a matching pre-paid reply envelope. A study questionnaire was also sent out in brown or white envelopes 1 week after consenting to participate in the trial. The overall response rate was 78%. There was little evidence of an effect of envelope colour on response to the invitation to participate in the trial (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.87-1.24). Similarly, there was no influence of envelope colour on the number of participants returning their questionnaires (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.60-1.63). There was weak evidence of an effect of envelope colour on the response rates of the consent process (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-1.00). When we updated a recent meta-analysis with the results of this study, there was a non-statistically- significant trend for greater response rates with brown envelopes compared with white envelopes (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.86-1.64, I2=92%). However, the results where influenced by one study and when this study was excluded the pooled estimate was 0.98 (95% CI 0.89-1.08, I2=0%). This study found no evidence to suggest envelope colour has an effect on response to participate in a trial or questionnaire returns. There is weak evidence to suggest envelope colour may affect consent into a trial.

  12. Expression Profiling of Strawberry Allergen Fra a during Fruit Ripening Controlled by Exogenous Auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Misaki; Yoshikawa, Hiroki; Uno, Yuichi

    2017-06-02

    Strawberry fruit contain the allergenic Fra a proteins, members of the pathogenesis-related 10 protein family that causes oral allergic syndrome symptoms. Fra a proteins are involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, which might be important for color development in fruits. Auxin is an important plant hormone in strawberry fruit that controls fruit fleshiness and ripening. In this study, we treated strawberry fruits with exogenous auxin or auxin inhibitors at pre- and post-harvest stages, and analyzed Fra a transcriptional and translational expression levels during fruit development by real-time PCR and immunoblotting. Pre-harvest treatment with 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) alone did not affect Fra a expression, but applied in conjunction with achene removal NAA promoted fruit pigmentation and Fra a protein accumulation. The response was developmental stage-specific: Fra a 1 was highly expressed in immature fruit, whereas Fra a 2 was expressed in young to ripe fruit. In post-harvest treatments, auxin did not contribute to Fra a induction. Auxin inhibitors delayed fruit ripening; as a result, they seemed to influence Fra a 1 expression. Thus, Fra a expression was not directly regulated by auxin, but might be associated with the ripening process and/or external factors in a paralog-specific manner.

  13. The Attentional Capture of Colour in Visual Interface Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Emil; Maier, Anja

    2017-01-01

    The use of colour is an integral component in visual interface design for creating separation between objects and for conveying meaning. It has previously been established that colours can be separated in a hierarchy of primary colours and secondary colours, and that colours are consistently...... in a controlled environment, in which 11 participants scanned a 20 item display for a coloured target amongst coloured distractors. We found evidence to support that primary colours capture attention significantly more than secondary colours, and inconclusive evidence that colours convey their meaning...... at a sufficiently early level of processing to influence attention. We end by discussing implications of our results for design practice and research in psychology....

  14. Colour schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation.......This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation....

  15. Influence of colour in working environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrovšek, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Anton Trstenjak wrote: »Our life is practically sinking in the sea of light and colours.« Different colours create different psycho-physiological responses. That is why colours have various impacts on human experiences and arrangements of our attention. When we know how control the colours in our environment, we can influence human psychological and physiological well-being and attention in the space. In my thesis, I explore how colours affect our feelings, our body and attention. Knowing all...

  16. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed. PMID:25332721

  17. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed.

  18. Emerging preservation techniques for controlling spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed.

  19. USE OF METHYL EUGENOL SOLUTION AND RED GUAVA EXTRACT FOR FRUIT FLY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the constraints increase fruit production in Indonesia is the fruit fly pests. The introduction of fruit fly pest attack prevention using attractant methyl eugenol is considered expensive and troublesome. Therefore, researchers are interested in doing this experiment. Objective: (1 determine the volume of a solution of methyl eugenol most appropriate in the fruit fly trap to get optimum results. (2 determine the most appropriate time of application. Conducted experiments using attractant methyl eugenol is mixed into the guava fruit extract. Research conducted in the guava orchard belonging to farmers in the village Sumberagung, Jetis, Bantul begins July through September 2015. The research used randomized block design factorial design with two treatment factors. The first factor is the concentration of the solution Petrogenol which consists of three levels, repeated five times. Data were analyzed by F test, if they depict real effect, continued treatment mean comparison test using HSD test at five percent level. Conclusions (1 The solution Methyl eugenol is a fruit fly attractant potential in the control of fruit flies in the crop guava. (2 The concentration of Methyl eugenol 0.60 ml per 100 ml guava fruit extract with the application time of 10 days is more effective to trap fruit flies in guava crop

  20. Colour chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Mo, C.

    1978-10-01

    Colour is now popularly believed to be the basis of strong interactions and as evidence for such a fundamental new degree of freedom one should expect an entirely new class of phenomena qualitatively different from those in a colourless world. One place to seek such manifestations is in spectroscopy, where a new degree of freedom should lead to a richer spectrum. this approach is here discussed with especial reference to the case of diquoniums. The very existence of M-diquoniums, whose spectrum has been calculated and is shown, would be a verification of colour. (U.K.)

  1. Is colour modulation an independent factor in human visual photosensitivity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parra, J.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Stroink, H.; Kalitzin, S.

    2007-01-01

    Considering that the role of colour in photosensitive epilepsy (PSE) remains unclear, we designed a study to determine the potential of different colours, colour combinations and white light to trigger photoparoxysmal responses (PPRs) under stringent controlled conditions. After assessing their

  2. Comparative analysis of cells and proteins of pumpkin plants for the control of fruit size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yumiko; Taniguchi, Go; Takazaki, Shinya; Oda-Ueda, Naoko; Miyahara, Kohji; Ohshima, Yasumi

    2012-09-01

    Common pumpkin plants (Cucurbita maxima) produce fruits of 1-2 kg size on the average, while special varieties of the same species called Atlantic Giant are known to produce a huge fruit up to several hundred kilograms. As an approach to determine the factors controlling the fruit size in C. maxima, we cultivated both AG and control common plants, and found that both the cell number and cell sizes were increased in a large fruit while DNA content of the cell did not change significantly. We also compared protein patterns in the leaves, stems, ripe and young fruits by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis, and identified those differentially expressed between them with mass spectroscopy. Based on these results, we suggest that factors in photosynthesis such as ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase, glycolysis pathway enzymes, heat-shock proteins and ATP synthase play positive or negative roles in the growth of a pumpkin fruit. These results provide a step toward the development of plant biotechnology to control fruit size in the future. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Revisiting the co-existence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Chronic Tic Disorder in childhood-The case of colour discrimination, sustained attention and interference control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebel-von Sandersleben, Henrik; Albrecht, Björn; Rothenberger, Aribert; Fillmer-Heise, Anke; Roessner, Veit; Sergeant, Joseph; Tannock, Rosemary; Banaschewski, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Chronic Tic Disorder (CTD) are two common and frequently co-existing disorders, probably following an additive model. But this is not yet clear for the basic sensory function of colour processing sensitive to dopaminergic functioning in the retina and higher cognitive functions like attention and interference control. The latter two reflect important aspects for psychoeducation and behavioural treatment approaches. Colour discrimination using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue Test, sustained attention during the Frankfurt Attention Inventory (FAIR), and interference liability during Colour- and Counting-Stroop-Tests were assessed to further clarify the cognitive profile of the co-existence of ADHD and CTD. Altogether 69 children were classified into four groups: ADHD (N = 14), CTD (N = 20), ADHD+CTD (N = 20) and healthy Controls (N = 15) and compared in cognitive functioning in a 2×2-factorial statistical model. Difficulties with colour discrimination were associated with both ADHD and CTD factors following an additive model, but in ADHD these difficulties tended to be more pronounced on the blue-yellow axis. Attention problems were characteristic for ADHD but not CTD. Interference load was significant in both Colour- and Counting-Stroop-Tests and unrelated to colour discrimination. Compared to Controls, interference load in the Colour-Stroop was higher in pure ADHD and in pure CTD, but not in ADHD+CTD, following a sub-additive model. In contrast, interference load in the Counting-Stroop did not reveal ADHD or CTD effects. The co-existence of ADHD and CTD is characterized by additive as well as sub-additive performance impairments, suggesting that their co-existence may show simple additive characteristics of both disorders or a more complex interaction, depending on demand. The equivocal findings on interference control may indicate limited validity of the Stroop-Paradigm for clinical assessments.

  4. Revisiting the co-existence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Chronic Tic Disorder in childhood—The case of colour discrimination, sustained attention and interference control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberger, Aribert; Fillmer-Heise, Anke; Roessner, Veit; Sergeant, Joseph; Tannock, Rosemary; Banaschewski, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Objective Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Chronic Tic Disorder (CTD) are two common and frequently co-existing disorders, probably following an additive model. But this is not yet clear for the basic sensory function of colour processing sensitive to dopaminergic functioning in the retina and higher cognitive functions like attention and interference control. The latter two reflect important aspects for psychoeducation and behavioural treatment approaches. Methods Colour discrimination using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue Test, sustained attention during the Frankfurt Attention Inventory (FAIR), and interference liability during Colour- and Counting-Stroop-Tests were assessed to further clarify the cognitive profile of the co-existence of ADHD and CTD. Altogether 69 children were classified into four groups: ADHD (N = 14), CTD (N = 20), ADHD+CTD (N = 20) and healthy Controls (N = 15) and compared in cognitive functioning in a 2×2-factorial statistical model. Results Difficulties with colour discrimination were associated with both ADHD and CTD factors following an additive model, but in ADHD these difficulties tended to be more pronounced on the blue-yellow axis. Attention problems were characteristic for ADHD but not CTD. Interference load was significant in both Colour- and Counting-Stroop-Tests and unrelated to colour discrimination. Compared to Controls, interference load in the Colour-Stroop was higher in pure ADHD and in pure CTD, but not in ADHD+CTD, following a sub-additive model. In contrast, interference load in the Counting-Stroop did not reveal ADHD or CTD effects. Conclusion The co-existence of ADHD and CTD is characterized by additive as well as sub-additive performance impairments, suggesting that their co-existence may show simple additive characteristics of both disorders or a more complex interaction, depending on demand. The equivocal findings on interference control may indicate limited validity of the Stroop-Paradigm for

  5. Colour perception in ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banaschewski, T.; Ruppert, S; Tannock, R.; Albrecht, B.; Becker, A.; Uebel, H.; Sergeant, J.A.; Rothenberger, A.

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour

  6. Synchronization analysis of coloured delayed networks under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper investigates synchronization of coloured delayed networks under decentralized pinning intermittent control. To begin with, the time delays are taken into account in the coloured networks. In addition, we propose a decentralized pinning intermittent control for coloured delayed networks, which is different from that ...

  7. Does a colour-coded blood pressure diary improve blood pressure control for patients in general practice: the CoCo trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurer-Stey, Claudia; Zoller, Marco; Chmiel Moshinsky, Corinne; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-04-14

    Insufficient blood pressure control is a frequent problem despite the existence of effective treatment. Insufficient adherence to self-monitoring as well as to therapy is a common reason. Blood pressure self-measurement at home (Home Blood Pressure Measurement, HBPM) has positive effects on treatment adherence and is helpful in achieving the target blood pressure. Only a few studies have investigated whether adherence to HBPM can be improved through simple measures resulting also in better blood pressure control. Improvement of self-monitoring and improved blood pressure control by using a new colour-coded blood pressure diary. Change in systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure 6 months after using the new colour-coded blood pressure diary.Secondary outcome: Adherence to blood pressure self-measurement (number of measurements/entries). Randomised controlled study. 138 adult patients in primary care with uncontrolled hypertension despite therapy. The control group uses a conventional blood pressure diary; the intervention group uses the new colour-coded blood pressure diary (green, yellow, red according a traffic light system). EXPECTED RESULTS/CONCLUSION: The visual separation and entries in three colour-coded areas reflecting risk (green: blood pressure in the target range 140/>90 mmHg, red: blood pressure in danger zone > 180 mmHg/>110 mmHg) lead to better self-monitoring compared with the conventional (non-colour-coded) blood pressure booklet. The colour-coded, visualised information supports improved perception (awareness and interpretation) of blood pressure and triggers correct behaviour, in the means of improved adherence to the recommended treatment as well as better communication between patients and doctors resulting in improved blood pressure control. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01013467.

  8. Does a colour-coded blood pressure diary improve blood pressure control for patients in general practice: The CoCo trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senn Oliver

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insufficient blood pressure control is a frequent problem despite the existence of effective treatment. Insufficient adherence to self-monitoring as well as to therapy is a common reason. Blood pressure self-measurement at home (Home Blood Pressure Measurement, HBPM has positive effects on treatment adherence and is helpful in achieving the target blood pressure. Only a few studies have investigated whether adherence to HBPM can be improved through simple measures resulting also in better blood pressure control. Objective Improvement of self-monitoring and improved blood pressure control by using a new colour-coded blood pressure diary. Outcome Primary outcome: Change in systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure 6 months after using the new colour-coded blood pressure diary. Secondary outcome: Adherence to blood pressure self-measurement (number of measurements/entries. Methods/Design Randomised controlled study. Population: 138 adult patients in primary care with uncontrolled hypertension despite therapy. The control group uses a conventional blood pressure diary; the intervention group uses the new colour-coded blood pressure diary (green, yellow, red according a traffic light system. Expected results/conclusion The visual separation and entries in three colour-coded areas reflecting risk (green: blood pressure in the target range ≤ 140/≤ 90 mmHg, yellow: blood pressure >140/>90 mmHg, red: blood pressure in danger zone > 180 mmHg/>110 mmHg lead to better self-monitoring compared with the conventional (non-colour-coded blood pressure booklet. The colour-coded, visualised information supports improved perception (awareness and interpretation of blood pressure and triggers correct behaviour, in the means of improved adherence to the recommended treatment as well as better communication between patients and doctors resulting in improved blood pressure control. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01013467

  9. Effect of saline conditions on the maturation process of Clementine clemenules fruits on two different rootstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, J. M.; Gomez-Gomez, A.; Perez-Perez, J. G.; Botia, P.

    2010-07-01

    The production of mandarins is important in the Mediterranean area, where the continued use of saline water reduces fruit yield and modifies fruit quality. Grafted trees of Clemenules mandarin scion on Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin rootstocks, two of the most common citrus rootstocks employed in this area, were irrigated with two saline treatments (control and 30 mM NaCl). The fruit quality was studied through the last two months before the fruit harvest. Salinity reduced both the fruit number and the mean fruit weight on Carrizo trees whereas no fruit weight reduction was observed on Cleopatra. The decrease of fruit weight on Carrizo trees is probably due to the lower water content and consequently the lower juice percentage. Although the saline treatment produced significant differences in some fruit quality variables (shape and thickness indices) throughout the maturation process, they were minimal at the harvest time. Total soluble solids (TSS) were significantly higher in fruits from the saline treatments, probably due to a passive dehydration. It is also possible that de novo synthesis of sugars occurred, since fruits from Cleopatra trees receiving the saline treatment had similar water contents but higher TSS than control fruits. The external fruit colour indicated that the saline treatment accelerated the maturation process; however, the maturity index showed that the high acidity of these fruits delayed the internal maturation with respect to the control fruits. (Author) 41 refs.

  10. Use of gamma radiations as a quarternary process to control the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on orange fruits (Citrus sinensis), variety 'pera' and observations on its effects on fruits quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Jose Tadeu de

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to determine if gamma radiations could be used as a quarentenary process against the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927), infesting oranges of the variety 'Pera', beyond observations on some fruit quality parameters. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranges from the control to 500 Gy. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranged from the control to 500 Gy. It was observed that over 200 Gy avoid emergency of viable adults of the orange fruit borer. Only one single female, and even these with wing malformations, emerged at the dose of 300 Gy. Dose up to 500 Gy did not interfere on fruits weight loss nor on the period of conservation of the oranges. Acidity, Brix value and skin resistance against perforation also did not showed any changes due to radiations. The irradiation of green fruit induced into a smaller loss of weight than when the fruits were irradiated in the mature stage. (author)

  11. The effect of colour on the perception of taste, quality and preference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study utilized twenty four (24) psychology students of Covenant University as participants. The colour of the fruit drink served as the independent variable while ... significant difference in the association of colour with taste based on gender ...

  12. Ethylene Control Technologies in Extending Postharvest Shelf Life of Climacteric Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhua; Cheng, Dong; Wang, Baobin; Khan, Iqbal; Ni, Yonghao

    2017-08-30

    Fresh fruit is important for a healthy diet. However, because of their seasonal production, regional specific cultivation, and perishable nature, it is essential to develop preservation technologies to extend the postharvest shelf life of fresh fruits. Climacteric fruit adopt spoilage because of ethylene, a key hormone associated with the ripening process. Therefore, controlling ethylene activity by following safe and effective approaches is a key to extend the postharvest shelf life of fruit. In this review, ethylene control technologies will be discussed aiming for the need of developing more innovative and effective approaches. The biosynthesis pathway will be given first. Then, the technologies determining the postharvest shelf life of climacteric fruit will be described with special attention to the latest and significant published works in this field. Special attention is given to 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), which is effective in fruit preservation technologies. Finally, the encapsulation technology to improve the stability of 1-MCP will be proposed, using a potential encapsulation agent of 1-MCP, calixarene.

  13. Controllable liquid colour-changing lenses with microfluidic channels for vision protection, camouflage and optical filtering based on soft lithography fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Li, Songjing

    2016-01-01

    In this work, liquid colour-changing lenses for vision protection, camouflage and optical filtering are developed by circulating colour liquids through microfluidic channels on the lenses manually. Soft lithography technology is applied to fabricate the silicone liquid colour-changing layers with microfluidic channels on the lenses instead of mechanical machining. To increase the hardness and abrasion resistance of the silicone colour-changing layers on the lenses, proper fabrication parameters such as 6:1 (mass ration) mixing proportion and 100 °C curing temperature for 2 h are approved for better soft lithography process of the lenses. Meanwhile, a new surface treatment for the irreversible bonding of silicone colour-changing layer with optical resin (CR39) substrate lens by using 5 % (volume ratio) 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane solution is proposed. Vision protection, camouflage and optical filtering functions of the lenses are investigated with different designs of the channels and multi-layer structures. Each application can not only well achieve their functional demands, but also shows the advantages of functional flexibility, rapid prototyping and good controllability compared with traditional ways. Besides optometry, some other designs and applications of the lenses are proposed for potential utility in the future.

  14. Comparative evaluation of two different coloured-pupal strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wied.) and some biological effects of gamma radiation on both of them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoman, A.A.; Abulyazid, I.

    2002-01-01

    Dark spontaneous mutant pupae were isolated from brown laboratory reared pupae of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wied). This mutant was used construct a genetic sexing strain (G.S.S.) based on pupal sorting. Obtained data showed that there were no clear biological differences between the brown pupa wild-type) and dark pupae (mutant). Fecundity, %pupation, pupal size, pupal weight, % adults emergence, sex ratio, male mating competitiveness and male insemination females mated with studied. However, the present hatch ability of eggs laid by normal females mated with normal males emerging from the dark pupae was significantly reduced, compared to that of the brown pupae. No significant differences regarding the effects of gamma radiation (90 Gy) on all biological aspects were observed in both strains

  15. Novel insecticide strategies such as phototoxic dyes in adult fruit fly control and suppression programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Daniel S.; Mangan, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    The problems of public acceptance, ecological impact, and integration with pest management programmes associated with use of broad spectrum insecticides in bait sprays for fruit flies are being addressed in our laboratory by our development of more precisely targeted bait systems which use insecticides which are less toxic to non-target organisms. Historically, bait and insecticide sprays to control fruit flies have been used since the beginning of the 20th century. Initially, inorganic insecticides were recommended. After the Second World War, chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides replaced inorganic ones only to be replaced by the organic ones that are used at present. Back and Pemberton (1918) stated that baits used for fruit fly control were first recommended by Mally in South Africa for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in 1908-1909 and by Berlese in Italy for the control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin). The methods were improved by Lounsboury in South Africa in 1912 for the control of C. capitata and by Newman during 1913-1914 in Australia for the control of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt). In 1910, Marsh used low-volume insecticide applications against the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), in Hawaii. Thereafter, other investigators adopted the low-volume approach to kill fruit flies. Whenever baits were used, they added carbohydrates and fermenting substances such as sugars, molasses, syrups, or fruit juices. In the 1930s, McPhail (1937), while working with attractants, found that sugar-yeast solutions attracted flies, and, in 1939 found that protein lures were attractive to Anastrepha species, especially to the guava fruit fly, A. striata Schiner (Baker et al. 1944). It was not until 1952, however, when Steiner demonstrated the use of hydrolysed proteins and partially hydrolysed yeast in combination with organophosphate insecticides to control fruit flies, that

  16. Biomimetic superwettable materials with structural colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zelinlan; Guo, Zhiguang

    2017-12-05

    Structural colours and superwettability are of great interest due to their unique characteristics. However, the application of materials with either structural colours or superwettability is limited. Moreover, materials possessing both structural colours and superwettability are crucial for many practical applications. The combination of structural colours and superwettability can result in materials for use various applications, such as in sensors, detectors, bioassays, anti-counterfeiting, and liquid actuators, by controlling surfaces to repel or absorb liquids. Regarding superwettability and structural colours, surface texture and chemical composition are two factors for the construction of materials with superwettable structural colours. This review aims at offering a comprehensive elaboration of the mechanism, recent biomimetic research, and applications of biomimetic superwettable materials with structural colours. Furthermore, this review provides significant insight into the design, fabrication, and application of biomimetic superwettable materials with structural colours.

  17. Eye and hair colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. A Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    To assess the importance of hair and eye colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma in fair-skinned Caucasians, we conducted two identical case-control studies in Denmark. We studied 145 cases with basal cell...

  18. Essential oils to control Botrytis cinerea in vitro and in vivo on plum fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminifard, Mohammad Hossein; Mohammadi, Samane

    2013-01-01

    The consequence of misusing chemical biocides in controlling pests and diseases has drawn the attention of policy makers to the development of methods potentially available in nature for this purpose. In the present study the inhibitory effects of black caraway, fennel and peppermint essential oils against Botrytis cinerea were tested at various concentrations in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro results showed that the growth of B. cinerea was completely inhibited by the application of black caraway and fennel oils at concentrations of 400 and 600 µL L⁻¹ respectively. The in vivo results indicated that black caraway, fennel and peppermint oils at all applied concentrations inhibited B. cinerea growth on plum fruits compared with the control. In addition, all three oils at higher concentrations showed positive effects on fruit quality characteristics such as titrable acidity, total soluble solids, carbohydrate content, pH and weight loss percentage. Thus the oils inhibited the infection of plum fruits by B. cinerea and increased their storage life. This research confirms the antifungal effects of black caraway, fennel and peppermint essential oils both in vitro and in vivo on plum fruits postharvest. Therefore these essential oils could be an alternative to chemicals to control postharvest phytopathogenic fungi on plum fruits. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Irradiation to control insects in fruits and vegetables for export from Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follett, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    Phytosanitary or quarantine treatments are often required to disinfest host commodities of economically important arthropod pests before they are moved through market channels to areas where the pest does not occur. Irradiation is an accepted treatment to control quarantine pests in 10 fruits and five vegetables for export from Hawaii to the US mainland. Irradiation is the ideal technology for developing generic quarantine treatments because it is effective against most insect and mite pests at dose levels that do not affect the quality of most commodities. A generic dose of 150 Gy has been proposed for tephritid fruit flies. Contrary to the 150 Gy dose, approved irradiation quarantine treatment doses for Mediterranean fruit fly, melon fly, and oriental fruit fly in Hawaii are 210-250 Gy. Irradiation studies were conducted to determine if the approved doses were unnecessarily high and could be reduced. Irradiation is also a viable alternative to methyl bromide fumigation to disinfest Hawaii sweetpotatoes, and studies are in progress to identify an effective dose for two key sweetpotato insect pests. Results indicate that irradiation doses <150 Gy will control Hawaii's fruit flies, which supports the proposed generic dose. The idea of generic doses is appealing because it would greatly accelerate the process of approving irradiation quarantine treatments for specific crops, and thereby rapidly expand exports. Preliminary results show that 250-300 Gy will control Hawaii's sweetpotato pests

  20. Colours sometimes count: awareness and bidirectionality in grapheme-colour synaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Addie; Jepma, Marieke; de Jong, Ritske

    2007-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted with 10 grapheme-colour synaesthetes and 10 matched controls to investigate (a) whether awareness of the inducer grapheme is necessary for synaesthetic colour induction and (b) whether grapheme-colour synaesthesia may be bidirectional in the sense that not only do graphemes induce colours, but that colours influence the processing of graphemes. Using attentional blink and Stroop paradigms with digit targets, we found that some synaesthetes did report "seeing" synaesthetic colours even when they were not able to report the inducing digit. Moreover, congruency effects (effects of matching the colour of digit presentation with the synaesthetic colour associated with that digit) suggested that grapheme-colour synaesthesia can be bidirectional, at least for some synaesthetes.

  1. Investigations on colour dependent photo induced microactuation effect of FSMA and proposing suitable mechanisms to control the effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, A.; Sarkar, S.; Mukhopadhyay, P. K.

    2018-02-01

    Three different coloured focused laser beams were used to study the photo induced microactuation effect found in some ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. Besides trying to uncover the basic causes of this unique and as yet unexplained effect, these studies are to help find other conditions to further characterize the effect for practical use. In this study some mechanisms have been proposed to control the amplitude of actuation of the sample. Control of the actuation of the FSMA sample both linearly with the help of a continuously variable neutral density filter as well periodically with the help of a linear polarizer was achieved. Statistical analysis of the experimental data was also done by applying ANOVA studies on the data to conclusively provide evidence in support of the relationship between the actuation of the sample and the various controlling factors. This study is expected to pave the way to implement this property of the sample in fabricating and operating useful micro-mechanical systems in the near future.

  2. Biological control of fruit-tree red spider mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabbinge, R.

    1976-01-01

    During the last decade, integrated pest control systems have been developed for several crops. One of the main fields of research in integrated control has been the control of orchard pests. Experience with modified spraying programmes in apple orchards, the increasing resistance of spider

  3. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeum Kyu Hong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production.

  4. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Yang, Hye Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yoon, Dong June; Sang, Mee Kyung; Jeun, Yong-Chull

    2015-09-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production.

  5. The sterile insect technique: Cost-effective control of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Riera, Pablo

    2001-01-01

    occur and must be dealt with in Florida and California, Mexico and Chile. Fruit flies, like any other pest, have been attacked with biocides at the farm level. Citrus is an instructive example. Citrus flowers and fruits twice a year, and various species and varieties provide year-round harvests. Biocides are typically applied to citrus every 10-15 days. Even so, the effectiveness is usually only 70-80%, due to uncontrolled neighboring farms, untreated hosts, problems with the spraying equipment, dose miscalculations, etc. Aerial applications of bait sprays to wider areas are more expensive, require a regional plan, and can represent a major impact to the environment. All means of application can leave pesticide residues in the fruit. Trade in fresh fruits and vegetables is being liberalized on a world-wide basis as part of globalization. At the same time, local consumption of fresh products is increasing in the search for a healthier life. Pesticides are increasingly less acceptable in both the export trade and local markets. Newly adopted food safety and phytosanitary standards require the establishment of either low prevalence or entirely fruit fly-free areas. Environmental considerations reinforce the already favorable cost-benefit picture for the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as an alternative to controls that use chemicals alone. The SIT has been in use since the 1950s. The aim of the technique is to disrupt the life cycle of the fly, mating the wild population with sterile flies reared at a 'fly factory'. Sterilization is accomplished by exposing insects to a specific dose of gamma radiation emitted by radioisotopes (cobalt-60 or cesium-137). Irradiation is a central and indispensable part of the total SIT process: every insect among millions produced each week must to be sterilized. No other method is available to achieve sterilization; chemosterilants, linear accelerators and the like have proven less cost-effective

  6. The sterile insect technique: Cost-effective control of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Riera, Pablo [INTA La Consulta, Mendoza (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    occur and must be dealt with in Florida and California, Mexico and Chile. Fruit flies, like any other pest, have been attacked with biocides at the farm level. Citrus is an instructive example. Citrus flowers and fruits twice a year, and various species and varieties provide year-round harvests. Biocides are typically applied to citrus every 10-15 days. Even so, the effectiveness is usually only 70-80%, due to uncontrolled neighboring farms, untreated hosts, problems with the spraying equipment, dose miscalculations, etc. Aerial applications of bait sprays to wider areas are more expensive, require a regional plan, and can represent a major impact to the environment. All means of application can leave pesticide residues in the fruit. Trade in fresh fruits and vegetables is being liberalized on a world-wide basis as part of globalization. At the same time, local consumption of fresh products is increasing in the search for a healthier life. Pesticides are increasingly less acceptable in both the export trade and local markets. Newly adopted food safety and phytosanitary standards require the establishment of either low prevalence or entirely fruit fly-free areas. Environmental considerations reinforce the already favorable cost-benefit picture for the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as an alternative to controls that use chemicals alone. The SIT has been in use since the 1950s. The aim of the technique is to disrupt the life cycle of the fly, mating the wild population with sterile flies reared at a 'fly factory'. Sterilization is accomplished by exposing insects to a specific dose of gamma radiation emitted by radioisotopes (cobalt-60 or cesium-137). Irradiation is a central and indispensable part of the total SIT process: every insect among millions produced each week must to be sterilized. No other method is available to achieve sterilization; chemosterilants, linear accelerators and the like have proven less cost-effective.

  7. Synaesthetic Colours Can Behave More like Recalled Colours, as Opposed to Physical Colours that Can Be Seen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek H. Arnold

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Grapheme-color synaesthesia is an atypical condition characterized by coloured sensations when reading achromatic text. Different forms have been characterized, but this is somewhat controversial. In associative grapheme-colour synaesthesia, written graphemes can automatically trigger a sensation of colour in the ‘mind's eye’, but hearing the name of a grapheme does not. This allowed us explore the precision with which synaesthetes match triggered synaesthetic colours across separate presentations, versus the precision for recalled experiences cued by spoken graphemes. We recorded CIE coordinates, and found that matches for triggered sensations were equally variable relative to recalled experiences. To ensure this was not due to insensitivity of our apparatus, we next had synaesthetes and age-matched controls either match the colour of a circular patch while they could see it, or from memory after it had disappeared. Both synaesthetes and controls were more variable when matching from memory, and synaesthetes were more precise when matching colour hue, but not brightness. Interestingly, the variance of synaesthetes' recalled matches in this experiment matched that associated with synaesthetic colours in the first experiment. Overall, our data suggests that, for associative grapheme-colour synaesthetes, synaesthetic colours behave more like recalled colours, as opposed to physical colours that can be seen.

  8. Strategies to control tree vigour and optimise fruit production in 'Conference' pears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.

    2008-01-01

    The ban on the use of chlormequat (CCC) in pear orchards in 2001 forced Dutch pear growers to look for alternative methods to control tree vigour and stimulate flower bud development and fruit production. Root pruning and trunk notching have become the major growth retarding methods. In addition to

  9. Genetic improvement of tomato by targeted control of fruit softening

    KAUST Repository

    Uluisik, Selman

    2016-07-25

    Controlling the rate of softening to extend shelf life was a key target for researchers engineering genetically modified (GM) tomatoes in the 1990s, but only modest improvements were achieved. Hybrids grown nowadays contain \\'non-ripening mutations\\' that slow ripening and improve shelf life, but adversely affect flavor and color. We report substantial, targeted control of tomato softening, without affecting other aspects of ripening, by silencing a gene encoding a pectate lyase. © 2016 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic improvement of tomato by targeted control of fruit softening

    KAUST Repository

    Uluisik, Selman; Chapman, Natalie H; Smith, Rebecca; Poole, Mervin; Adams, Gary; Gillis, Richard B; Besong, Tabot M.D.; Sheldon, Judith; Stiegelmeyer, Suzy; Perez, Laura; Samsulrizal, Nurul; Wang, Duoduo; Fisk, Ian D; Yang, Ni; Baxter, Charles; Rickett, Daniel; Fray, Rupert; Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Powell, Ann L T; Harding, Stephen E; Craigon, Jim; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Fich, Eric A; Sun, Li; Domozych, David S; Fraser, Paul D; Tucker, Gregory A; Grierson, Don; Seymour, Graham B

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the rate of softening to extend shelf life was a key target for researchers engineering genetically modified (GM) tomatoes in the 1990s, but only modest improvements were achieved. Hybrids grown nowadays contain 'non-ripening mutations' that slow ripening and improve shelf life, but adversely affect flavor and color. We report substantial, targeted control of tomato softening, without affecting other aspects of ripening, by silencing a gene encoding a pectate lyase. © 2016 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Developmental colour agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Nijboer, Tanja C W; de Haan, Edward

    2007-08-01

    Colour agnosia concerns the inability to recognise colours despite intact colour perception, semantic memory for colour information, and colour naming. Patients with selective colour agnosia have been described and the deficit is associated with left hemisphere damage. Here we report a case study of a 43-year-old man who was referred to us with a stroke in his right cerebellar hemisphere. During the standard assessment it transpired that he was unable to name coloured patches. Detailed assessment of his colour processing showed that he suffers from a selective colour agnosia. As he claimed to have had this problem all his life, and the fact that the infratentorial infarct that he had incurred was in an area far away from the brain structures that are known to be involved in colour processing, we suggest that he is the first reported case of developmental colour agnosia.

  12. Colours sometimes count : Awareness and bidirectionality in grapheme-colour synaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Addie; Jepma, Marieke; de Jong, Ritske

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted with 10 grapheme-colour synaesthetes and 10 matched controls to investigate (a) whether awareness of the inducer grapheme is necessary for synaesthetic colour induction and (b) whether grapheme-colour synaesthesia may be bidirectional in the sense that not only do

  13. Choice of the control variables of an isolated intersection by graph colouring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batanović Vladan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of grouping the traffic streams into some groups - signal groups on a signalized intersection. The fact that more traffic streams, which are not in a conflict, can be controlled by one sequence of traffic lights means that one control variable can be assigned to one signal group. Determination of the complete sets of signal groups, i.e. the groups of traffic streams on one intersection, controlled by one control variable is defined in this paper as a graphcoloring problem. The complete sets of signal groups are obtained by coloring the complement of the graph of identical indications. It is shown that the minimal number of signal groups in the complete set of signal groups is equal to the chromatic number of the complement of the graph with identical indications. The problem of finding all complete sets of signal groups with minimal cardinality, which is equal to the chromatic number, is formulated as a linear programming problem where the values of variables belong to set {0,1}.

  14. An investigation into the relevance of action planning, theory of planned behaviour concepts, and automaticity for fruit intake action control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Wiedemann, Amelie; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-09-01

    In the action control framework, intention-behaviour discordance is studied around public health guidelines. Although this framework has been applied to physical activity behaviours, it has only seen very limited attention regarding fruit intake. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate distributions and predictors of fruit intake intention-behaviour discordance. Prospective correlational design. Data were obtained from undergraduate students (n = 413) using validated questionnaires. Variables from the theory of planned behaviour, automaticity, and action planning were assessed at baseline, and fruit intake was assessed 2 weeks later. Data were analysed using discriminant function analyses and analyses of variance. The proportion of unsuccessful intenders ranged from 39.2% to 80.8%. There was a larger proportion of fruit intake intenders amongst those who reported strong automatic fruit intake. Action control was predicted by fruit intake automaticity and affective attitudes, but the strongest predictor was perceived behavioural control. No action planning items were related to fruit intake action control. There is considerable asymmetry in the intention-fruit intake relationship. An application of the action control framework may stimulate debate on the applicability of intention-based models at the public health level. What is already known on this subject? Intention is theorized to be a key construct in fruit intake. Studies in the physical activity domain indicate that nearly half of the people with positive intentions fail to subsequently act. What does this study add? The proportion of unsuccessful intenders ranged from 39.2% to 80.8%. Holding positive intentions is not sufficient to consume fruit at suggested public health guidelines. Perceived behavioural control is the most important predictor of fruit intake action control. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  15. The bagging of Annona crassiflora fruits to control fruit borers=Ensacamento de frutos de Annona crassiflora contra broqueadores de frutos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Michelle Fonseca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of plastic bags to protect the fruits of Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae against Cerconota sp. (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae. As protection against this fruit-boring insect, 100 fruits were enclosed in plastic bags. Another 100 fruits were not bagged. The fruits were selected from the following five ranges of diameters: 1 = 0.5 – 1.99; 2 = 2.00 – 3.99; 3 = 4.00 – 7.90; 4 = 8.00 – 11.90; and 5 = 12.00 – 16.00 cm. The bagged fruits of various diameters were attacked less frequently by the pest. The bagged fruits with a diameter of less than two cm were not attacked. The percentage of fruits attacked and the number of larvae/fruit increased as the diameter of fruits increased in both treatments. The bagged fruits initially less than two cm in diameter showed the greatest final diameter and height.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do ensacamento dos frutos de Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae no controle de Cerconota sp. (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae. 100 frutos foram ensacados com saco plástico e 100 não ensacados em cada uma das cinco categorias de diâmetro: 1 = 0,5 – 1,99; 2 = 2,00 – 3,99; 3 = 4,00 – 7,90; 4 = 8,00 – 11,90 e 5 = 12,00 – 16,00 cm. Os frutos ensacados com sacos plásticos, nos diferentes diâmetros, apresentaram-se menos broqueados. Os frutos ensacados com menos de dois cm de diâmetro não foram broqueados. Observou-se aumento na percentagem de frutos broqueados bem como no número de brocas/fruto broqueado com o aumento na categoria do diâmetro de frutos nos diferentes tratamentos. Os frutos ensacados com menos de dois cm de diâmetro apresentaram maiores diâmetros e alturas de frutos.

  16. Pollinator responses to floral colour change, nectar, and scent promote reproductive fitness in Quisqualis indica (Combretaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Juan; Wang, Gang; Sui, Yi; Wang, Menglin; Zhang, Ling

    2016-04-13

    Floral colour change is visual signals for pollinators to avoid old flowers and increase pollination efficiency. Quisqualis indica flowers change colour from white to pink to red may be associated with a shift from moth to butterfly pollination. To test this hypothesis, we investigated Q. indica populations in Southwest China. Flowers secreted nectar continuously from the evening of anthesis until the following morning, then decreased gradually with floral colour change. The scent compounds in the three floral colour stages were similar; however, the scent composition was different, and the scent emission rate decreased from the white to red stage. Dichogamy in Q. indica prevents self-pollination and interference of male and female functions. Controlled pollinations demonstrated that this species is self-incompatible and needs pollinators for seed production. Different pollinators were attracted in each floral colour stage; mainly moths at night and bees and butterflies during the day. Observations of open-pollinated inflorescences showed that white flowers had a higher fruit set than pink or red flowers, indicating the high contribution of moths to reproductive success. We concluded that the nectar and scent secretion are related to floral colour change in Q. indica, in order to attract different pollinators and promote reproductive fitness.

  17. Colour Perception in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Ruppert, Sinje; Tannock, Rosemary; Albrecht, Bjorn; Becker, Andreas; Uebel, Henrik; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children…

  18. Staining diatoms with rhodamine dyes: control of emission colour in photonic biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucki, Melanie; Fuhrmann-Lieker, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The incorporation of rhodamine dyes in the cell wall of diatoms Coscinodiscus granii and Coscinodiscus wailesii for the production of luminescent hybrid nanostructures is investigated. By systematic variation of the substitution pattern of the rhodamine core, we found that carbonic acids are considerably better suited than esters because of their physiological compatibility. The amino substitution pattern that controls the optical properties of the chromophore has no critical influence on dye uptake and incorporation, thus a variety of biocomposites with different emission maxima can be prepared. Applications in biomineralization studies as well as in materials science are envisioned. PMID:21865248

  19. Effect of fruit restriction on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes--a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Allan S; Viggers, Lone; Hasselström, Kjeld; Gregersen, Søren

    2013-03-05

    Medical nutrition therapy is recognized as an important treatment option in type 2 diabetes. Most guidelines recommend eating a diet with a high intake of fiber-rich food including fruit. This is based on the many positive effects of fruit on human health. However some health professionals have concerns that fruit intake has a negative impact on glycemic control and therefore recommend restricting the fruit intake. We found no studies addressing this important clinical question. The objective was to investigate whether an advice to reduce the intake of fruit to patients with type 2 diabetes affects HbA1c, bodyweight, waist circumference and fruit intake. This was an open randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups. The primary outcome was a change in HbA1c during 12 weeks of intervention. Participants were randomized to one of two interventions; medical nutrition therapy + advice to consume at least two pieces of fruit a day (high-fruit) or medical nutrition therapy + advice to consume no more than two pieces of fruit a day (low-fruit). All participants had two consultations with a registered dietitian. Fruit intake was self-reported using 3-day fruit records and dietary recalls. All assessments were made by the "intention to treat" principle. The study population consisted of 63 men and women with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. All patients completed the trial. The high-fruit group increased fruit intake with 125 grams (CI 95%; 78 to 172) and the low-fruit group reduced intake with 51 grams (CI 95%; -18 to -83). HbA1c decreased in both groups with no difference between the groups (diff.: 0.19%, CI 95%; -0.23 to 0.62). Both groups reduced body weight and waist circumference, however there was no difference between the groups. A recommendation to reduce fruit intake as part of standard medical nutrition therapy in overweight patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes resulted in eating less fruit. It had however no effect on HbA1c, weight loss or waist

  20. Phytoalexins as Possible Controlling Agents of Microbial Spoilage of Irradiated Fresh Fruit and Vegetables During Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, S. A. [Radiobiology Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Commission, Cairo (Egypt)

    1978-04-15

    The decline in bio generating capacity to form natural antibiotic compounds (phytoalexins), rishitin and lubimin in potato tubers and rishitin in tomatoes, after gamma irradiation seems to be the essence of the suppression of natural immunity exhibited by an increase in per cent of rotted tubers and fruits during storage. In vitro studies postulated that the rot-causing fungi Phytophthora infestons (Mond) De Bary, Alternaria solani (Ellis and Martin) James and Grout, Botrytis cinerea Persson., Fusarium oxysporum Syder and Hansen and Rhizopus stolonifer Ehrenberg were significantly controlled by the application of phytoalexins that had been initially formed by potato tubers (rishitin), tomato fruits (rishitin) and pepper fruits (capsidiol). In vivo studies revealed that post-irradiation treatment of potato tubers and tomato fruits with phytoalexins that had been produced by the same plant organ or by another of the same family seems to be experimentally feasible to reduce the radiation dose or increase the efficiency of irradiation in controlling microbial spoilage during storage of irradiated potatoes and tomatoes. (author)

  1. Phytoalexins as possible controlling agents of microbial spoilage of irradiated fresh fruit and vegetables during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    The decline in biogenerating capacity to form natural antibiotic compounds (phytoalexins), rishitin and lubimin in potato tubers and rishitin in tomatoes, after gamma irradiation seems to be the essence of the suppression of natural immunity exhibited by an increase in per cent of rotted tubers and fruits during storage. In vitro studies postulated that the rot-causing fungi Phytophthora infestans (Mond) De Bary, Alternaria solani (Ellis and Martin) James and Grout, Botrytis cinerea Persson., Fusarium oxysporum Syder and Hansen and Rhizopus stolonifer Ehrenberg were significantly controlled by the application of phytoalexins that had been initially formed by potato tubers (rishitin), tomato fruits (rishitin) and pepper fruits (capsidiol). In vivo studies revealed that post-irradiation treatment of potato tubers and tomato fruits with phytoalexins that had been produced by the same plant organ or by another of the same family seems to be experimentally feasible to reduce the radiation dose or increase the efficiency of irradiation in controlling microbial spoilage during storage of irradiated potatoes and tomatoes. (author)

  2. Control of postharvest Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry by volatile organic compounds of Candida intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R; Li, G Q; Zhang, J; Yang, L; Che, H J; Jiang, D H; Huang, H C

    2011-07-01

    A study was conducted to identify volatile organic compounds or volatiles produced by Candida intermedia strain C410 using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and to determine efficacy of the volatiles of C. intermedia in suppression of conidial germination and mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea and control of Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry. Results showed that, among 49 volatiles (esters, alcohols, alkenes, alkanes, alkynes, organic acids, ketones, and aldehydes) identified from C. intermedia cultures on yeast extract peptone dextrose agar, two compounds, 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene and 3-methyl-1-butanol, were the most abundant. Synthetic chemicals of 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene; 3-methyl-1-butanol; 2-nonanone; pentanoic acid, 4-methyl-, ethyl ester; 3-methyl-1-butanol, acetate; acetic acid, pentyl ester; and hexanoic acid, ethyl ester were highly inhibitory to conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Inhibition of conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea by volatiles of C. intermedia was also observed. Meanwhile, results showed that incidence and severity of Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry was significantly (P intermedia cultures or C. intermedia-infested strawberry fruit. These results suggest that the volatiles of C. intermedia C410 are promising biofumigants for control of Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry.

  3. Fruit and vegetable intake and pre-diabetes: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safabakhsh, Maryam; Koohdani, Fariba; Bagheri, Fariba; Siassi, Fereydoun; Khajehnasiri, Farahnaz; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2017-12-04

    Few studies have evaluated the association of fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and pre-diabetes. However, these studies are very limited and incomplete. Therefore, the aim of our study was to compare FV consumption and their subgroups between pre-diabetic and control subjects. This case-control study included 300 individuals, 150 subjects with normal fasting blood glucose (FBG), and 150 pre-diabetic subjects who were matched for sex and age. We collected the participants' anthropometric and physical activity data and measured their blood glucose level. A 168 items semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used for estimating the FV intake. After adjustment for confounding variables, participants in the lower quartiles of FV and total fruit intake were more likely to experience pre-diabetes compared with those in the higher quartiles (p trend < 0.007). In addition, cruciferous vegetables, other vegetables, and berries were inversely associated with pre-diabetes (p < 0.05), although a distinct dose-response relationship was not found. Unexpectedly, higher intake of dark yellow vegetables was significantly associated with a higher chance of pre-diabetes (p trend = 0.006). Other vegetable and fruit subgroups did not show any significant relationship with this disorder. Our findings suggest that higher intake of total FV and total fruits might be associated with lower odds ratio of pre-diabetes.

  4. Noninvasive control of the transport function of fluorescent coloured liposomal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmashchuk, O.; Zherebtsov, E.; Zherebtsova, A.; Kuznetsova, E.; Vinokurov, A.; Dunaev, A.; Mamoshin, A.; Snimshchikova, I.; Borsukov, A.; Bykov, A.; Meglinski, I.

    2017-06-01

    The use of liposomal nanoparticles with an incorporated active substance is an innovative and promising approach to diagnostics and therapy. The application of liposomal nanoparticle-based drugs allows for targeted localized delivery, overcomes the natural barriers within the body effectively, and minimizes possible side effects. Liposomes are able to contain a variety of ingredients with practically no limitations to their chemical composition, chemical properties, or size of constituent molecules. This study evaluated the ability to control the passage of fluorescent dye-filled liposomes through the intestinal mucosal barrier after oral administration. For this purpose, the increase in transcutaneous registered fluorescence from tetrabromofluorescein dye was recorded and analysed. Fluorescence intensity was measured at the proximal end of the tail of an animal model after oral administration of the liposomes. Measurements were taken at the excitation wavelengths of 365 and 450 nm. The fluorescence intensity in the group treated with the fluorescent contrast agent encapsulated in liposomal particles increased 140% of the initial level, but in the group treated with pure contrast agent, the increase in detected fluorescence intensity did not exceed 110%. Mice that received empty liposomes as well as the control group did not demonstrate statistically significant changes in fluorescence intensity. A potential application of our results is an express laser optical method of monitoring the transport of orally administered liposomal particles. The results can be used to help create new optical tools for use in the development of new drugs and in high-throughput screening used during their testing.

  5. Impact of a school-based intervention to promote fruit intake: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, R; Araújo, A; Padrão, P; Lopes, O; Moreira, A; Abreu, S; Vale, S; Pereira, B; Moreira, P

    2016-07-01

    There is evidence that fruit consumption among school children is below the recommended levels. This study aims to examine the effects of a dietary education intervention program me, held by teachers previously trained in nutrition, on the consumption of fruit as a dessert at lunch and dinner, among children 6-12 years old. This is a randomized trial with the schools as the unit of randomisation. A total of 464 children (239 female, 6-12years) from seven elementary schools participated in this cluster randomized controlled trial. Three schools were allocated to the intervention and four to the control group. For the intervention schools, we delivered professional development training to school teachers (12 sessions of 3 h each). The training provided information about nutrition, healthy eating, the importance of drinking water and healthy cooking activities. After each session, teachers were encouraged to develop classroom activities focused on the learned topics. Sociodemographic was assessed at baseline and anthropometric, dietary intake and physical activity assessments were performed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Dietary intake was evaluated by a 24-h dietary recall and fruit consumption as a dessert was gathered at lunch and dinner. Intervened children reported a significant higher intake in the consumption of fruit compared to the controlled children at lunch (P = 0.001) and at dinner (P = 0.012), after adjusting for confounders. Our study provides further support for the success of intervention programmes aimed at improving the consumption of fruit as a dessert in children. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heat-radiation combination for control of mold infection in harvested fruits and processed cereal foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawdal-Desai, S.R.; Ghanekar, A.S.; Thomas, P.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1973-01-01

    A combination of mild heat and low dose irradiation was found to extend the shelf-life of fresh fruits and processed cereal foods by controlling mold infection. Chapaties (Indian unleavened bread) and bread slices packed in polycell pouches, subjected to 50 krad followed by dry heat (65 0 C) were free from mold and shelf-stable for 10 weeks at ambient temperature (28-32 0 C). Inoculated pack studies confirmed the efficiency of the treatment. No immediate changes in organoleptic attributes were discernible even after exposure to 100 krad. The quality deterioration in sliced bread stored for 2 1/2 months has been attributed to natural staling rather than radiation. Hot water dip (50 0 C for 5 min) followed by 150 krad irradiation extended the shelf-life of fresh figs by 3-4 days at 28-32 0 C and 8-10 days at 15 0 C. Regardless of the sequence of treatments, combination of heat and 100 krad extended the shelf-life of grapes both at ambinet and refrigerated storage. In mangoes, heat followed by 50 krad was effective in controlling anthracnose and stem-end rot whereas in bananas irradiated for delayed ripening, hot water treatment can be used as a supplementary process to control stem-end rot. Quality of combination treated fruits was comparable to normally ripened fruits. In vitro studies with fungal pathogens isolated from the above fruits and cereal foods revealed that the synergistic effect of heat-radiation combination depends on the sequence of treatments which varied with respect to different pathogens studied. Some biochemical aspects of combination treated fruits is discussed. (F.J.)

  7. fruit juice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olorunniji

    2013-08-31

    Aug 31, 2013 ... The soursop juice without treatment (T1) was used as the control while others in .... The fruits were washed carefully under flowing tap water, peeled, cut .... hygiene, pre and post harvest wounds on processed fruits, and the ...

  8. A randomised controlled trial of a theory of planned behaviour to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Fresh Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothe, Emily J; Mullan, Barbara A

    2014-07-01

    Young adults are less likely than other adults to consume fruit and vegetables. Fresh Facts is a theory of planned behaviour based intervention designed to promote fruit and vegetable consumption. The present study sought to evaluate Fresh Facts using a randomised controlled trial. Australian young adults (n = 162) were allocated to the Fresh Facts intervention or to the control group in 2011. Intervention participants received automated email messages promoting fruit and vegetable consumption every 3 days over the course of the 1 month intervention. Messages targeted attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control. Theory of planned behaviour variables and fruit and vegetable intake were measured at baseline and post-intervention (Day 30). Significant increases in attitude and subjective norm relative to control were found among Fresh Facts participants. However, intention, perceived behavioural control and fruit and vegetable consumption did not change as a result of the intervention. Changes in intention reported by each participant between baseline and follow-up were not correlated with corresponding changes in fruit and vegetable consumption. Fresh Facts was not successful in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. Current evidence does not support the use of the theory of planned behaviour in the design of interventions to increase fruit and vegetable intake in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Colour perception in ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Banaschewski, T.; Ruppert, S; Tannock, R.; Albrecht, B.; Becker, A.; Uebel, H.; Sergeant, J.A.; Rothenberger, A.

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children with ADHD and 13 healthy peers matched for age, gender, and IQ, using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test (FMT) and the Stroop-Colour-Word test. Childr...

  10. Bacillus subtilis based-formulation for the control of postbloom fruit drop of citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Mariana Nadjara; da Silva, Aline Caroline; Kupper, Katia Cristina

    2016-12-01

    Postbloom fruit drop (PFD) caused by Colletotrichum acutatum affects flowers and causes early fruit drop in all commercial varieties of citrus. Biological control with the isolate ACB-69 of Bacillus subtilis has been considered as a potential method for controlling this disease. This study aimed to develop and optimize a B. subtilis based-formulation with a potential for large-scale applications and evaluate its effect on C. acutatum in vitro and in vivo. Bacillus subtilis based-formulations were developed using different carrier materials, and their ability to control PFD was evaluated. The results of the assays led to the selection of the B. subtilis based-formulation with talc + urea (0.02 %) and talc + ammonium molybdate (1 mM), which inhibited mycelial growth and germination of C. acutatum. Studies with detached citrus flowers showed that the formulations were effective in controlling the pathogen. In field conditions, talc + urea (0.02 %) provided 73 % asymptomatic citrus flowers and 56 % of the average number of effective fruit (ANEF), equating with fungicide treatment. On the contrary, non-treated trees had 8.8 % of asymptomatic citrus flowers and 0.83 % ANEF. The results suggest that B. subtilis based-formulations with talc as the carrier supplemented with a nitrogen source had a high potential for PFD control.

  11. Prediction of fruit and vegetable intake from biomarkers using individual participant data of diet-controlled intervention studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souverein, Olga W; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Freese, Riitta

    2015-01-01

    concentrations. Furthermore, a prediction model of fruit and vegetable intake based on these biomarkers and subject characteristics (i.e. age, sex, BMI and smoking status) was established. Data from twelve diet-controlled intervention studies were obtained to develop a prediction model for fruit and vegetable...

  12. Biological and Cultural Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California---Utilization of Parasitoids from USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitoid Psytallia cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly larvae at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Petapa Quarantine Laboratory in Guatemala and shipped to the USDA-ARS, Parlier, for wide-spread release and biological control of olive fruit fly in California. As many as 3...

  13. Consumer exposures to anthocyanins from colour additives, colouring foodstuffs and from natural occurrence in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, David R; Klingenberg, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Anthocyanins are responsible for the red/blue colour of grapes, currants, and other fruits and vegetables. They may also be extracted for use as colour additives (E163) or concentrated for use as colouring foods. Consumer exposures have been assessed using data on natural occurrence, use levels and frequencies from food manufacturers and European food consumption data. Intakes from natural occurrence can be up to 4 mg kg bw(-1) day(-1) at the mean and up to 17 mg kg bw(-1) day(-1) for children who are high level consumers of red/black berries and small fruits. High-level intakes for children from food colour and colouring food applications lie in the range 0.3-6.3 mg kg bw(-1) day(-1) and for adults at 0.6-2.8 mg kg bw(-1) day(-1). Exposures from food colour use and colouring foods separately or combined are therefore lower than those from natural occurrence in foods.

  14. Carotenoid accumulation in orange-pigmented Capsicum annuum fruit, regulated at multiple levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Uribe, Laura; Guzman, Ivette; Rajapakse, Wathsala; Richins, Richard D.; O’Connell, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    The pericarp of Capsicum fruit is a rich dietary source of carotenoids. Accumulation of these compounds may be controlled, in part, by gene transcription of biosynthetic enzymes. The carotenoid composition in a number of orange-coloured C. annuum cultivars was determined using HPLC and compared with transcript abundances for four carotenogenic enzymes, Psy, LcyB, CrtZ-2, and Ccs determined by qRT-PCR. There were unique carotenoid profiles as well as distinct patterns of transcription of carotenogenic enzymes within the seven orange-coloured cultivars. In one cultivar, ‘Fogo’, carrying the mutant ccs-3 allele, transcripts were detected for this gene, but no CCS protein accumulated. The premature stop termination in ccs-3 prevented expression of the biosynthetic activity to synthesize the capsanthin and capsorubin forms of carotenoids. In two other orange-coloured cultivars, ‘Orange Grande’ and ‘Oriole’, both with wild-type versions of all four carotenogenic enzymes, no transcripts for Ccs were detected and no red pigments accumulated. Finally, in a third case, the orange-coloured cultivar, Canary, transcripts for all four of the wild-type carotenogenic enzymes were readily detected yet no CCS protein appeared to accumulate and no red carotenoids were synthesized. In the past, mutations in Psy and Ccs have been identified as the loci controlling colour in the fruit. Now there is evidence that a non-structural gene may control colour development in Capsicum. PMID:21948863

  15. A genomics approach to understanding the role of auxin in apple (Malus x domestica) fruit size control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoghalaere, Fanny; Doucen, Thomas; Guitton, Baptiste; Keeling, Jeannette; Payne, Wendy; Ling, Toby John; Ross, John James; Hallett, Ian Charles; Gunaseelan, Kularajathevan; Dayatilake, G A; Diak, Robert; Breen, Ken C; Tustin, D Stuart; Costes, Evelyne; Chagné, David; Schaffer, Robert James; David, Karine Myriam

    2012-01-13

    Auxin is an important phytohormone for fleshy fruit development, having been shown to be involved in the initial signal for fertilisation, fruit size through the control of cell division and cell expansion, and ripening related events. There is considerable knowledge of auxin-related genes, mostly from work in model species. With the apple genome now available, it is possible to carry out genomics studies on auxin-related genes to identify genes that may play roles in specific stages of apple fruit development. High amounts of auxin in the seed compared with the fruit cortex were observed in 'Royal Gala' apples, with amounts increasing through fruit development. Injection of exogenous auxin into developing apples at the start of cell expansion caused an increase in cell size. An expression analysis screen of auxin-related genes involved in auxin reception, homeostasis, and transcriptional regulation showed complex patterns of expression in each class of gene. Two mapping populations were phenotyped for fruit size over multiple seasons, and multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were observed. One QTL mapped to a region containing an Auxin Response Factor (ARF106). This gene is expressed during cell division and cell expansion stages, consistent with a potential role in the control of fruit size. The application of exogenous auxin to apples increased cell expansion, suggesting that endogenous auxin concentrations are at least one of the limiting factors controlling fruit size. The expression analysis of ARF106 linked to a strong QTL for fruit weight suggests that the auxin signal regulating fruit size could partially be modulated through the function of this gene. One class of gene (GH3) removes free auxin by conjugation to amino acids. The lower expression of these GH3 genes during rapid fruit expansion is consistent with the apple maximising auxin concentrations at this point.

  16. Recolouring-resistant colourings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Rautenbach, D.

    2011-01-01

    We study colourings of graphs with the property that the number of used colours cannot be reduced by applying some recolouring operation. A well-studied example of such colourings are b-colourings, which were introduced by Irving and Manlove [R.W. Irving, D.F. Manlove, The la-chromatic number...... of a graph, Discrete Appl. Math. 91 (1999) 127-141]. Given a graph and a colouring, a recolouring operation specifies a set of vertices of the graph on which the colouring can be changed. We consider two such operations: One which allows the recolouring of all vertices within some given distance of some...... colour class, and another which allows the recolouring of all vertices that belong to one of a given number of colour classes. Our results extend known results concerning b-colourings and the associated b-chromatic number. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  17. Possibility of biological control of primocane fruiting raspberry disease caused by Fusarium sambucinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shternshis, Margarita V; Belyaev, Anatoly A; Matchenko, Nina S; Shpatova, Tatyana V; Lelyak, Anastasya A

    2015-10-01

    Biological control agents are a promising alternative to chemical pesticides for plant disease suppression. The main advantage of the natural biocontrol agents, such as antagonistic bacteria compared with chemicals, includes environmental pollution prevention and a decrease of chemical residues in fruits. This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of three Bacillus strains on disease of primocane fruiting raspberry canes caused by Fusarium sambucinum under controlled infection load and uncontrolled environmental factors. Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were used for biocontrol of plant disease in 2013 and 2014 which differed by environmental conditions. The test suspensions were 10(5) CFU/ml for each bacterial strain. To estimate the effect of biological agents on Fusarium disease, canes were cut at the end of vegetation, and the area of outer and internal lesions was measured. In addition to antagonistic effect, the strains revealed the ability to induce plant resistance comparable with chitosan-based formulation. Under variable ways of cane treatment by bacterial strains, the more effective were B. subtilis and B. licheniformis demonstrating dual biocontrol effect. However, environmental factors were shown to impact the strain biocontrol ability; changes in air temperature and humidity led to the enhanced activity of B. amyloliquefaciens. For the first time, the possibility of replacing chemicals with environmentally benign biological agents for ecologically safe control of the raspberry primocane fruiting disease was shown.

  18. Induction of antimicrobial 3-deoxyflavonoids in pome fruit trees controls fire blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbwirth, Heidrun; Fischer, Thilo C; Roemmelt, Susanne; Spinelli, Francesco; Schlangen, Karin; Peterek, Silke; Sabatini, Emidio; Messina, Christian; Speakman, John-Bryan; Andreotti, Carlo; Rademacher, Wilhelm; Bazzi, Carlo; Costa, Guglielmo; Treutter, Dieter; Forkmann, Gert; Stich, Karl

    2003-01-01

    Fire blight, a devastating bacterial disease in pome fruits, causes severe economic losses worldwide. Hitherto, an effective control could only be achieved by using antibiotics, but this implies potential risks for human health, livestock and environment. A new approach allows transient inhibition of a step in the flavonoid pathway, thereby inducing the formation of a novel antimicrobial 3-deoxyflavonoid controlling fire blight in apple and pear leaves. This compound is closely related to natural phytoalexins in sorghum. The approach does not only provide a safe method to control fire blight: Resistance against different pathogens is also induced in other crop plants.

  19. Colour Vision Impairment in Young Alcohol Consumers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alódia Brasil

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test to test subject's ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test to measure subject's colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to

  20. Using an on-line UV-C apparatus to treat harvested fruit for controlling postharvest decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.L.; Upchurch, B.; El Ghaouth, A.; Stevens, C.; Khan, V.; Droby, S.; Chalutz, E.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus was designed to deliver low-dose UV-C light to the surface of fruit on a processing line and tested for its control of postharvest decay. It consisted of a row of UV-C emitting lamps mounted on a frame above a conveyer belt that transported the fruit. The dosage of the UV-C light delivered to the fruit surface was regulated by varying the speed of the conveyor belt. Postharvest decay after 28 days storage of 'Empire' apples was reduced 52% relative to the untreated checks when the fruit were conveyed at 6.2 m · min -1 (1.38 kJ · m -2 dose) under the UV-C apparatus. Factors affecting the practical application of UV-C irradiation of fruit for controlling postharvest decay are discussed

  1. Biological control of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through parasitoid augmentative releases: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Pablo; Liedo, Pablo

    2000-01-01

    Fruit flies are among the main pests affecting the world fruit industry (Aluja 1993). Bait sprays have traditionally been used successfully to control them; however, the side effects on the environment and health hazards commonly associated with pesticides, have resulted in strong public opposition to the use of bait sprays. This is particularly so when sprays are applied in urban areas or in coffee plantations where, although Medflies are present, they do not pose a danger to crops. Alternative methods that are effective and environmental friendly to suppress fruit fly populations are highly desirable. Biological control, the use of natural enemies to suppress pest populations, represents such an alternative. Some of the most successful cases of biological control are the control of Iceria purchasi Maskell (Homoptera: Margarodidae) by Rodolia cardinalis Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in California (De Bach 1968, van den Bosch et al. 1982), and the control of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) mainly by Encarsia (=Prospaltella) opulenta Silv. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in Mexico (Jimenez 1961, 1971), both using the classical approach. However, this approach has been limited to certain conditions of environmental stability and biodiversity which are only found in a few ecosystems. Other factors, such as types of pests, the economic threshold and product quality requirements represent additional limitations. The best option in many cases could be augmentative biological control, which could overcome some of the deficiencies of the classical approach (Sivinski 1996). According to Knipling (1992) and Barclay (1987), augmentative biological control can be considered as a formal alternative for suppressing pest populations and even for use in eradication programmes, after integration with the sterile insect technique (SIT). In this approach, mass production of natural enemies is required and this production has to be cost effective

  2. Promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among students: a randomized controlled trial based on social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najimi, Arash; Ghaffari, Mohtasham

    2013-10-01

    To assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention based on social cognitive theory on increasing consumption of fruit and vegetable among Grade 4 students. The randomised study was conducted in Isfahan, Iran, during 2011 and comprised 138 students, who were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. Data was collected at the beginning and three months after the intervention. A self-administered questionnaire based on constructs of social cognitive theory and food consumption was used. Theory-based nutrition education was imparted on the intervention group. Data was analysed using SPSS 15 and appropriate statistical tests. The intervention group had 68 (49.27%) subjects, while there were 70 (50.72%) controls. After the intervention, mean scores of behavioural capability (p social support (p = 0.03), and observational learning (p = 0.002) had significantly improved in the intervention group. Nutritional behaviour also showed significant improvement on mean daily intake of fruits and vegetables in the intervention group (p social cognitive theory led to increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetables among students, which confirmed the efficiency of social cognitive theory for such interventions.

  3. Colour Blocking: Disregarding Traditional Artistic Colour Harmonies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A development in the world of design – costume, fashion, graphics, architecture and general decor whereby traditional colour harmonies are reengineered to suite the taste of the time engages the attention of the paper. The trending phenomenon popularly referred to as 'colour blocking' involves the use of bright ...

  4. High oxygen levels promote peel spotting in banana fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maneenuam, T.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the effect of high oxygen on early peel spotting in `Sucrier¿ bananas held at 25 °C and 90% RH. Fruit first ripened to colour index 3¿4 (about as yellow as green) and were then held in containers with a continuous gas flow of 18 ± 2 kPa (control) or 90 ± 2 kPa oxygen. High oxygen promoted

  5. Colour and magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrigan, E.; Olive, D.

    1976-01-01

    If the exact gauge symmetry of nature consists of the U(1)sub(EM) generated by the electric charge operator Q and the colour group K, with Q a colour singlet, then, if g is a possible magnetic charge, exp(4πigQ) must equal an element of the colour group. For colour singlet particles this reduces to Dirac's condition eg = n/2. In general, possible monopoles correspond to points of intersection of the colour and electromagnetic groups. If the colour group is semi-simple and compact, there can at most be a finite number p of such points (p = N if K = SU(N)). The existence of non-trivial (not equal to unity) solutions to our condition means that there must be fractionally charged (with p the fraction) coloured particles and magnetic monopoles emanating colour magnetic flux as well as electromagnetic flux. (Auth.)

  6. Topographical coloured plasmonic coins

    OpenAIRE

    Guay, Jean-Michel; Lesina, Antonino Calà; Côté, Guillaume; Charron, Martin; Ramunno, Lora; Berini, Pierre; Weck, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic resonances in metallic nanoparticles have been used since antiquity to colour glasses. The use of metal nanostructures for surface colourization has attracted considerable interest following recent developments in plasmonics. However, current top-down colourization methods are not ideally suited to large-scale industrial applications. Here we use a bottom-up approach where picosecond laser pulses can produce a full palette of non-iridescent colours on silver, gold, copper and alumin...

  7. Does Colour Preference Have a Role in Colour Term Acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Davis, Emma E.; Scerif, Gaia

    2009-01-01

    A developmental association exists between colour preference and emerging colour term acquisition in young children. Colour preference might influence colour term acquisition by directing attention towards or away from a particular colour, making it more or less memorable. To investigate the role that colour preference may have in the acquisition…

  8. The twelve colourful stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    A dynamics with twelve colourful stones is created based on the concepts of gauge and colour. It is associated different gauge fields to the same group. A group of gauge invariant Lagrangians is established. A gauge invariant mass term is introduced. The colourful stones physical insight is to be building blocks for quarks and leptons. (Author) [pt

  9. An attempt of postharvest orange fruit rot control using essential oils from Mediterranean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camele, Ippolito; De Feo, Vincenzo; Altieri, Luciana; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Luigi Rana, Gian

    2010-12-01

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested at different doses against four fungi known as causal agents of post-harvest orange fruit rot: Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, Phytophthora citrophthora, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris (Family Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Family Verbenaceae), and Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Carum carvi (Family Apiaceae). Because preliminary in vitro experiments showed that only the oils from V. officinalis, T. vulgaris, and O. vulgare exhibited some fungistatic activity against the above-named fungi, these three essential oils were used in successive in vivo tests carried out to protect healthy "Washington navel" orange fruits from artificial infection by the same micromycetes. The essential oil of T. vulgaris, at a 2,000 ppm dose, controlled fruit rot by B. cinerea, P. citrophthora, and R. stolonifer but was ineffective against P. italicum. Essential oils of V. officinalis and O. vulgare inhibited infection by the first two fungi and only by P. citrophthora, respectively. This finding represents an important result, with the goal of using the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life.

  10. Colour printing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Parraman, C.

    2017-01-01

    Invited chapter in the book Colour Design: Theories and Applications. In PART 3 COLOUR, DESIGN AND COLORATION this chapter covers:\\ud - Hardcopy colour: analogue versus digital\\ud - Colour theory in relation to printing\\ud - Overview of halftoning and digital print technologies\\ud - Overview and development of inks\\ud - Inkjet papers and inks\\ud - Recent and future trends in colour, printing inks and hardware.\\ud \\ud This book differs from other existing books in the field, with the aim of an...

  11. Fruit irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Food spoilage is a common problem when marketing agricultural products. Promising results have already been obtained on a number of food irradiating applications. A process is described in this paper where irradiation of sub-tropical fruits, especially mangoes and papayas, combined with conventional heat treatment results in effective insect and fungal control, delays ripening and greatly improves the quality of fruit at both export and internal markets

  12. The effect of gamma irradiation on the degree of ripening of mango by comparing the parameter of colour index, texture firmness and pH value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Hafiz Hanafi

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of low dose gamma irradiation on the ripening degree of cv Chokanan mangoes through the comparison of colour index changes, texture firmness and pH value. Harvested mature mango was studied through the storage period for 14 days. Dose level used were 0.00 kGy (control), 0.25 kGy, 0.50 kGy, 0.75 kGy and 1.00 kGy of gamma cell 220. All fruits were wrapped using plastic after irradiated. There was no change in 0 day. However, there are changes in colour index, firmness and pH value of fruits in after 3 days. Dose of 0.75 kGy and 1.00 kGy gave positive effect to storage extension period and rate deceleration compared to 0.00 kGy (control), 0.25 kGy and 0.50 kGy. After 10 days storage, 0.00, 0.25 and 0.50 kGy of fruits became rot which affects quality of organoleptic. Whereas 0.75 and 1.00 kGy still retained organoleptic quality . When the ripening rate of fruit was fast, this would lead to faster of the colour change. The firmness value of fruit became decrease and the value of pH was increase. (author)

  13. Mandarin fruit quality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Livnat; Yaniv, Yossi; Porat, Ron; Carmi, Nir

    2018-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been a continuous rise in consumption and global marketing of fresh, easy-to-peel mandarins, with current annual production of nearly 29 million tons. Nevertheless, most of the existing knowledge on quality traits of citrus fruit comes from research conducted on oranges and grapefruit, which are the main products for the citrus juice manufacturing industry; relatively little is yet known regarding the unique fruit quality traits of mandarins, nor about the great diversity in these traits among the various natural sub-groups and varieties of mandarins. In the present review we discuss the physiological, biochemical, and molecular factors governing key fruit quality attributes of mandarins, including fruit colour, size and shape, ease of peeling, seedlessness, flavour, and nutritional quality. Fruit colour, size, and shape contribute to external appearance; peelability and seedlessness to ease of consumption; and flavour and nutritional quality to internal quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz.) Sacc. In yellow passion fruit using Cymbopogon citratus essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaruma, Nina Duarte; Schmidt, Flávio Luís; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Delarmelina, Camila; Benato, liane Aparecida; Sartoratto, Adilson

    2010-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in agriculture is limited when compared to their applications in human and veterinary medicine. On the other hand, the use of antimicrobials in agriculture contributes to the drug resistance of human pathogens and has stimulated the search for new antibiotics from natural products. Essential oils have been shown to exert several biological activities including antibacterial and antifungal actions. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of 28 essential oils from medicinal plants cultivated at CPMA (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Collection), CPQBA/UNICAMP, against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc., the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg), as well as evaluating their effect in the control of post-harvest decay. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system and their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) determined by the micro-dilution method. According to the results, 15 of the 28 essential oils presented activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and the following four oils presented MIC values between 0.25 and 0.3 mg/mL: Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Lippia alba. The evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of post-harvest decay in yellow passion fruit showed that the disease index of the samples treated with the essential oil did not differ (P ≤ 0.05) from that of the samples treated with fungicide. The present study shows the potential of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit. PMID:24031465

  15. Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz. Sacc. In yellow passion fruit using Cymbopogon citratus essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Duarte Anaruma

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics in agriculture is limited when compared to their applications in human and veterinary medicine. On the other hand, the use of antimicrobials in agriculture contributes to the drug resistance of human pathogens and has stimulated the search for new antibiotics from natural products. Essential oils have been shown to exert several biological activities including antibacterial and antifungal actions. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of 28 essential oils from medicinal plants cultivated at CPMA (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Collection, CPQBA/UNICAMP, against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc., the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg, as well as evaluating their effect in the control of post-harvest decay. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system and their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC determined by the micro-dilution method. According to the results, 15 of the 28 essential oils presented activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and the following four oils presented MIC values between 0.25 and 0.3 mg/mL: Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Lippia alba. The evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of post-harvest decay in yellow passion fruit showed that the disease index of the samples treated with the essential oil did not differ (P < 0.05 from that of the samples treated with fungicide. The present study shows the potential of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit.

  16. Plasmonic colour generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders; Yang, Joel K. W.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic colours are structural colours that emerge from resonant interactions between light and metallic nanostructures. The engineering of plasmonic colours is a promising, rapidly emerging research field that could have a large technological impact. We highlight basic properties of plasmonic...... colours and recent nanofabrication developments, comparing technology-performance indicators for traditional and nanophotonic colour technologies. The structures of interest include diffraction gratings, nanoaperture arrays, thin films, and multilayers and structures that support Mie resonances...... and whispering-gallery modes. We discuss plasmonic colour nanotechnology based on localized surface plasmon resonances, such as gap plasmons and hybridized disk–hole plasmons, which allow for colour printing with sub-diffraction resolution. We also address a range of fabrication approaches that enable large...

  17. Is colour cognitive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupski, Peter; Chittka, Lars

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, colour-vision abilities have been rather generously ascribed to various invertebrates and even bacteria. This uncertainty of when to diagnose colour vision stems in part from confusing what colour vision can do with what it is. What colour vision can do is discriminate wavelength independent of intensity. However, if we take this as a definition of what colour vision is, then we might be obliged to conclude that some plants and bacteria have colour vision. Moreover, there is a similar confusion of what are necessary and what are sufficient mechanisms and behavioural abilities for colour vision. To humans, seeing in colour means seeing an image in which objects/lights have chromatic attributes—in contrast to the sensation that we have when viewing monochrome movies, or our experience in dim light when only rod vision is possible. The necessary basic equipment for this is to have at least two types of photoreceptors that differ in spectral sensitivity, and at least one type of spectrally opponent cell to compare the signals from the photoreceptors. Clearly, however, a necessary additional prerequisite for colour vision is to have vision, which entails the identification of shapes, sizes and locations of objects in the world. Thus, if an animal has colour vision, it should see an image in which distinct objects/lights have colour attributes. This distinguishes colour vision from wavelength discrimination, but also from what has historically been called wavelength-specific behaviour: a type of behaviour triggered by fixed configurations of spectral receptor signals; however, we discuss difficulties in diagnosing wavelength-specific behaviour as an indicator of the absence of colour vision. Finally, we discuss whether colour vision, by definition, contains a cognitive dimension for ordering and classifying perceptual experience.

  18. Colour scheme an exploration of the indeterminate space of colour

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Tania Elke

    2017-01-01

    Colour Scheme examines the potential for colour to be understood as a relational and therefore, indeterminate space. The CMYK process colour model is reworked to investigate the idea of colour as an indeterminate space. In proposing that process colour can be understood as a fluid and relational system I draw attention to the unquantifiable and qualitative nature of colour. Colour can be understood as a verb, and as such may be thought of as an active substance. This understanding of col...

  19. Validation of a colour rendering index based on memory colours

    OpenAIRE

    Smet, Kevin; Jost-Boissard, Sophie; Ryckaert, Wouter; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the performance of a colour rendering index based on memory colours is investigated in comparison with the current CIE Colour Rendering Index, the NIST Colour Quality Scale and visual appreciation results obtained at CNRS at Lyon University for a set of 3000K and 4000K LED light sources. The Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients between each colour rendering metric and the two sets of visual results were calculated. It was found that the memory colour based colour render...

  20. Lambda-cyhalothrin efficiency on fruit borer control and quali-quantitative spraying aspects in a pinecone crop

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline Lavinscky Costa Morais; Maria Aparecida Castellani; Carlos Gilberto Raetano; Juliana Alves de Macêdo; Moisés Silva Nery; Gabriela Luz Pereira Moreira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Brazil, the state of Bahia is one of the largest pinecone (Annona squamosa L.) growers; nevertheless, fruit borer (Cerconota anonella L.) presence limits production. This research aimed to test the efficiency of lambda-cyhalothrin in controlling fruit borer using different spray volumes; additionally, this research tested qualitative and quantitative operational aspects. Trials were carried out in pinecone orchards in Caraíbas-BA, Brazil. Pesticide efficiency was tested by a rando...

  1. Pithy brown core in ‘d’Anjou’ pear (Pyrus communis L.) fruit developing during controlled atmosphere storage at pO2 determined by monitoring chlorophyll fluorescense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiological responses and fruit quality of ‘d’Anjou’ pear fruit from five orchard lots were evaluated after cold storage in air or controlled atmospheres (CA) with the oxygen (O2) concentration based on assessment of fruit chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) or standard conditions (1.5 kPa O2). The pCO2...

  2. ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Honeycrisp’ apple response to controlled atmosphere storage with oxygen set point determined in response to fruit chlorophyll fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postharvest management of apple fruit ripening using controlled atmosphere (CA) cold storage can be enhanced as CA oxygen concentration is decreased to close to the anaerobic compensation point (ACP). Monitoring fruit chlorophyll fluorescence is one technology available to assess fruit response to ...

  3. Effects on egg yolk colour of paprika or paprika combined with marigold flower extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Saito

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available COLOR-UP® and COLOR-UP YELLOW-S® were fed to a total of 144 twenty-five-week-old Charoen Pokphand brown laying hens to investigate whether yellow xanthophylls present in marigold flowers in combination with red xanthophylls from paprika fruit can further enhance egg yolk colour. The birds were randomly assigned to three groups: yellow corn basal diet control group (17.50 CP, 2750 kcal/kg ME; the 0.1% dietary paprika group; and the 0.1% dietary paprika plus 0.1% marigold group. Each group contained four replicates with 12 birds. Egg quality was recorded weekly from 25 to 28 weeks of age. Parameters did not show any difference except for egg yolk colour. Egg yolk colour scores were greater in the paprika group than in the control group (11.47 vs. 8.64; P<0.05. Egg yolk colour scores of the paprika plus marigold group (12.17 were higher than those of the paprika group (P<0.05. Compared with the control, mean lightness value decreased in the paprika plus marigold group (P<0.05, suggesting a deep egg yolk colour in this group. Redness, yellowness, and chroma were improved in both experimental groups (P<0.05. The spectral reflectance wavelength of egg yolk from the experimental groups increased between 600 and 700 nm, suggesting improved chroma. These results indicate that yellow xanthophylls from marigold flower extract (COLOR-UP YELLOW-S® in combination with red xanthophylls present in paprika (COLOR-UP® can further enhance egg yolk colour and chroma.

  4. Effects on egg yolk colour of paprika or paprika combined with marigold flower extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Komori

    Full Text Available COLOR-UP® and COLOR-UP YELLOW-S® were fed to a total of 144 twenty-five-week-old Charoen Pokphand brown laying hens to investigate whether yellow xanthophylls present in marigold flowers in combination with red xanthophylls from paprika fruit can further enhance egg yolk colour. The birds were randomly assigned to three groups: yellow corn basal diet control group (17.50 CP, 2750 kcal/kg ME; the 0.1% dietary paprika group; and the 0.1% dietary paprika plus 0.1% marigold group. Each group contained four replicates with 12 birds. Egg quality was recorded weekly from 25 to 28 weeks of age. Parameters did not show any difference except for egg yolk colour. Egg yolk colour scores were greater in the paprika group than in the control group (11.47 vs 8.64; P<0.05. Egg yolk colour scores of the paprika plus marigold group (12.17 were higher than those of the paprika group (P<0.05. Compared with the control, mean lightness value decreased in the paprika plus marigold group (P<0.05, suggesting a deep egg yolk colour in this group. Redness, yellowness and chroma were improved in both experimental groups (P<0.05. The spectral reflectance wavelength of egg yolk from the experimental groups increased between 600 and 700 nm, suggesting improved chroma. These results indicate that yellow xanthophylls from marigold flower extract (COLOR-UP YELLOW-S® in combination with red xanthophylls present in paprika (COLOR-UP® can further enhance egg yolk colour and chroma.

  5. Study protocol: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school based fruit and vegetable intervention - Project Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Meaghan S; Ransley, Joan K; Greenwood, Darren C; Clarke, Graham P; Conner, Mark T; Jupp, Jennifer; Cade, Janet E

    2009-06-16

    The School Fruit and Vegetable Scheme (SFVS) is an important public health intervention. The aim of this scheme is to provide a free piece of fruit and/or vegetable every day for children in Reception to Year 2. When children are no longer eligible for the scheme (from Year 3) their overall fruit and vegetable consumption decreases back to baseline levels. This proposed study aims to design a flexible multi-component intervention for schools to support the maintenance of fruit and vegetable consumption for Year 3 children who are no longer eligible for the scheme. This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial of Year 2 classes from 54 primary schools across England. The schools will be randomly allocated into two groups to receive either an active intervention called Project Tomato, to support maintenance of fruit intake in Year 3 children, or a less active intervention (control group), consisting of a 5 A DAY booklet. Children's diets will be analysed using the Child And Diet Evaluation Tool (CADET), and height and weight measurements collected, at baseline (Year 2) and 18 month follow-up (Year 4). The primary outcome will be the ability of the intervention (Project Tomato) to maintain consumption of fruit and vegetable portions compared to the control group. A positive result will identify how fruit and vegetable consumption can be maintained in young children, and will be useful for policies supporting the SFVS. A negative result would be used to inform the research agenda and contribute to redefining future strategies for increasing children's fruit and vegetable consumption. Medical Research Council Registry code G0501297.

  6. Study protocol: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school based fruit and vegetable intervention – Project Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Meaghan S; Ransley, Joan K; Greenwood, Darren C; Clarke, Graham P; Conner, Mark T; Jupp, Jennifer; Cade, Janet E

    2009-01-01

    Background The School Fruit and Vegetable Scheme (SFVS) is an important public health intervention. The aim of this scheme is to provide a free piece of fruit and/or vegetable every day for children in Reception to Year 2. When children are no longer eligible for the scheme (from Year 3) their overall fruit and vegetable consumption decreases back to baseline levels. This proposed study aims to design a flexible multi-component intervention for schools to support the maintenance of fruit and vegetable consumption for Year 3 children who are no longer eligible for the scheme. Method This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial of Year 2 classes from 54 primary schools across England. The schools will be randomly allocated into two groups to receive either an active intervention called Project Tomato, to support maintenance of fruit intake in Year 3 children, or a less active intervention (control group), consisting of a 5 A DAY booklet. Children's diets will be analysed using the Child And Diet Evaluation Tool (CADET), and height and weight measurements collected, at baseline (Year 2) and 18 month follow-up (Year 4). The primary outcome will be the ability of the intervention (Project Tomato) to maintain consumption of fruit and vegetable portions compared to the control group. Discussion A positive result will identify how fruit and vegetable consumption can be maintained in young children, and will be useful for policies supporting the SFVS. A negative result would be used to inform the research agenda and contribute to redefining future strategies for increasing children's fruit and vegetable consumption. Trial registration Medical Research Council Registry code G0501297 PMID:19531246

  7. Study protocol: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school based fruit and vegetable intervention – Project Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conner Mark T

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The School Fruit and Vegetable Scheme (SFVS is an important public health intervention. The aim of this scheme is to provide a free piece of fruit and/or vegetable every day for children in Reception to Year 2. When children are no longer eligible for the scheme (from Year 3 their overall fruit and vegetable consumption decreases back to baseline levels. This proposed study aims to design a flexible multi-component intervention for schools to support the maintenance of fruit and vegetable consumption for Year 3 children who are no longer eligible for the scheme. Method This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial of Year 2 classes from 54 primary schools across England. The schools will be randomly allocated into two groups to receive either an active intervention called Project Tomato, to support maintenance of fruit intake in Year 3 children, or a less active intervention (control group, consisting of a 5 A DAY booklet. Children's diets will be analysed using the Child And Diet Evaluation Tool (CADET, and height and weight measurements collected, at baseline (Year 2 and 18 month follow-up (Year 4. The primary outcome will be the ability of the intervention (Project Tomato to maintain consumption of fruit and vegetable portions compared to the control group. Discussion A positive result will identify how fruit and vegetable consumption can be maintained in young children, and will be useful for policies supporting the SFVS. A negative result would be used to inform the research agenda and contribute to redefining future strategies for increasing children's fruit and vegetable consumption. Trial registration Medical Research Council Registry code G0501297

  8. Influence of gamma irradiation and benzyl adenine on keeping quality of custard apple fruits during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouksey, Swati; Singh, Alpana; Thakur, Rajendra Singh; Deshmukh, Reena

    2013-01-01

    The custard apple (Annona squamosa) fruits were procured from local market, irradiated with radiation doses 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75 kGy and then treated with benzyl adenine (50 and 100 part per million) and stored at ambient temperature (25±5 °C, Relative Humidity 90±2%) for 12 days. The treated fruits were evaluated for sensory (viz; flavour, texture, internal and external colour) and chemical constituents (viz; Total Soluble Solids, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, free soluble sugar, reducing sugar, non reducing sugar, carbohydrate) during storage. The study concluded that radiation dose of 1.5 kilo Gray along with 50 ppm benzyl adenine enhanced in shelf-life of custard apple fruits by 6 days at ambient temperature with good pulp texture, flavour, colour and nutritional quality as compared to control. (author)

  9. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    OpenAIRE

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Therma...

  10. The effect of storage on the colour of paprika powders with added oleoresin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Zs. H.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural food colours is preferred to that of arti­ficial dyestuffs for modern alimentary purposes. Paprika is a spice plant grown and consumed in considerable quantities worldwide and also used as a natural food colour, so the colouring power of powders is very important. The colour of paprika powder is highly relevant too because the consumer concludes its colouring power based on its colour. The colouring power of paprika powders is directly determined by the quality and quantity of the colouring agent of paprika. The paprika oleoresin, that is an oil soluble extract from the fruits of Capsicum Annum Linn or Capsicum Frutescens, is suitable to raise the colour agent content of paprika powders. We investigated how the colour and the characteristics of paprika powder samples with added oleoresin change in the course of storage. The colour agent content of 7 different quality powders was increased with 7-75% using oleoresin. The initial colour agent content of samples changed between 41 and 169 ASTA units. The powders were made from Chinese, Peruvian, and Hungarian paprika. Colour measurements were performed with a HunterLab MiniScan colour-measuring instrument. The CIELab colour system was used for colour characterization. The colour agent content and the colour coordinates of samples were measured throughout 9 months. The decrease of colour agent con­tent varied between 22 and 51 percent, while the average reduction was 33 percent. The quantity of added oleoresin did not influence the colour agent content decrease significantly.

  11. Segmenting memory colours

    OpenAIRE

    Fredembach, Clément; Estrada, Francisco; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Memory colours refer to the colour of specific image classes that have the essential attribute of being perceived in a consistent manner by human observers. In colour correction or rendering tasks, this consistency implies that they have to be faithfully reproduced; their importance, in that respect, is greater than other regions in an image. Before these regions can be properly addressed, one must in general detect them. There are various schemes and attributes to do so, but the preferred me...

  12. The twelve colourful stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The gauge symmetry is extended. It is associated differents matter and gauge fields to the same group. A group of gauge invariant Lagrangians is established. A gauge invariant mass term is introduced. A massive Yang Mills is obtained. A dynamics with twelve colourful stones is created based on the concepts of gauge and colour. Structures identified as quarks and leptons are generated. A discussion about colour meaning is presented. (Author) [pt

  13. Effects of social approval bias on self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Al C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reports of dietary intake in the context of nutrition intervention research can be biased by the tendency of respondents to answer consistent with expected norms (social approval bias. The objective of this study was to assess the potential influence of social approval bias on self-reports of fruit and vegetable intake obtained using both food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and 24-hour recall methods. Methods A randomized blinded trial compared reported fruit and vegetable intake among subjects exposed to a potentially biasing prompt to that from control subjects. Subjects included 163 women residing in Colorado between 35 and 65 years of age who were randomly selected and recruited by telephone to complete what they were told would be a future telephone survey about health. Randomly half of the subjects then received a letter prior to the interview describing this as a study of fruit and vegetable intake. The letter included a brief statement of the benefits of fruits and vegetables, a 5-A-Day sticker, and a 5-a-Day refrigerator magnet. The remainder received the same letter, but describing the study purpose only as a more general nutrition survey, with neither the fruit and vegetable message nor the 5-A-Day materials. Subjects were then interviewed on the telephone within 10 days following the letters using an eight-item FFQ and a limited 24-hour recall to estimate fruit and vegetable intake. All interviewers were blinded to the treatment condition. Results By the FFQ method, subjects who viewed the potentially biasing prompts reported consuming more fruits and vegetables than did control subjects (5.2 vs. 3.7 servings per day, p Conclusion Self-reports of fruit and vegetable intake using either a food frequency questionnaire or a limited 24-hour recall are both susceptible to substantial social approval bias. Valid assessments of intervention effects in nutritional intervention trials may require objective measures of

  14. Colour and Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyes, Timon

    2017-01-01

    Colour is inescapable. It fills and forms the world, shaping what can be felt and known, desired and expressed. It thus becomes social technology and organizational tool. At the same time, however, colour betrays, undermines and subverts the attempts to manage it. Based on an understanding...... of colour as aesthetic force and medium of transformation, the essay presents a montage of scenes that set up encounters with what colour does: how it affects organization, and how it is affected by organization; how it organizes what is given to perception, knowledge and organization itself, and how...

  15. Colourful FKS subtraction

    CERN Document Server

    Frixione, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    I formulate in a colour-friendly way the FKS method for the computation of QCD cross sections at the next-to-leading order accuracy. This is achieved through the definition of subtraction terms for squared matrix elements, constructed with single colour-dressed or pairs of colour-ordered amplitudes. The latter approach relies on the use of colour flows, is exact to all orders in $N$, and is thus particularly suited to being organized as a systematic expansion in 1/N.

  16. Application of Modern Colour Measurement Dervices in Coloration Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUNG Y.S.; XIN John H.; SIN K.M.

    2002-01-01

    In colour measurement ralated industry, reflectance spectrophotometer is the one of the popular measuring machine for measutring colour and quality control. Colour communications is frequently confusing. This is because the colour appearance is subject to the influence of at least three different phenomena: the light source, the object and the visual system. The variation in either the radiant quantity or the spectral distribution of the source can alter the observed colour. Because of this reason,the objective quantitative tool, colour measurement equipment and communication method; become more important in evaluating of the colour. In fact, based on the advanced in computer system and electronic device,the colour measurement becomes more and more accuracy, especiany in spectrophotometer measurement.In this paper, we will focus on the review of modern spectrophotometers in coloration industries.

  17. Effect of Selenium on Control of Postharvest Gray Mold of Tomato Fruit and the Possible Mechanisms Involved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhilin; Yin, Xuebin; Bañuelos, Gary S.; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Zhu, Zhu; Liu, Ying; Yuan, Linxi; Li, Miao

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has important benefits for crop growth and stress tolerance at low concentrations. However, there is very little information on antimicrobial effect of Se against the economically important fungus Botrytis cinerea. In the present study, using sodium selenite as Se source, we investigated the effect of Se salts on spore germination and mycelial growth of the fungal pathogen in vitro and gray mold control in harvested tomato fruit. Se treatment at 24 mg/L significantly inhibited spore germination of the fungal pathogen and effectively controlled gray mold in harvested tomato fruit. Se treatment at 24 mg/L seems to induce the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species in the fungal spores. The membrane integrity damage was observed with fluorescence microscopy following staining with propidium iodide after treatment of the spores with Se. These results suggest that Se has the potential for controlling gray mold rot of tomato fruits and might be useful in integrated control against gray mold disease of postharvest fruits and vegetables caused by B. cinerea. The mechanisms by which Se decreased gray mold decay of tomato fruit may be directly related to the severe damage to the conidia plasma membrane and loss of cytoplasmic materials from the hyphae. PMID:26779128

  18. Effect of selenium on control of postharvest gray mould of tomato fruit and the possible mechanisms involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin eWu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se has important benefits for crop growth and stress tolerance at low concentrations. However, there is very little information on antimicrobial effect of selenium against the economically important fungus Botrytis cinerea. In the present study, using sodium selenite as Se source, we investigated the effect of Se salts on spore germination and mycelial growth of the fungal pathogen in vitro and gray mould control in harvested tomato fruit. Se treatment at 24 mg/L significantly inhibited spore germination of the fungal pathogen and effectively controlled gray mould in harvested tomato fruit. Se treatment at 24 mg/L seems to induce the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species in the fungal spores. The membrane integrity damage was observed with fluorescence microscopy following staining with propidium iodide after treatment of the spores with Se. These results suggest that Se has the potential for controlling gray mould rot of tomato fruits and might be useful in integrated control against gray mould disease of postharvest fruits and vegetables caused by B. cinerea. The mechanisms by which Se decreased gray mould decay of tomato fruit may be directly related to the severe damage to the conidia plasma membrane and loss of cytoplasmic materials from the hyphae.

  19. Colour correct: the interactive effects of food label nutrition colouring schemes and food category healthiness on health perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyilasy, Gergely; Lei, Jing; Nagpal, Anish; Tan, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of food label nutrition colouring schemes in interaction with food category healthiness on consumers' perceptions of food healthiness. Three streams of colour theory (colour attention, colour association and colour approach-avoidance) in interaction with heuristic processing theory provide consonant predictions and explanations for the underlying psychological processes. A 2 (food category healthiness: healthy v. unhealthy)×3 (food label nutrient colouring schemes: healthy=green, unhealthy=red (HGUR) v. healthy=red, unhealthy=green (HRUG) v. no colour (control)) between-subjects design was used. The research setting was a randomised-controlled experiment using varying formats of food packages and nutritional information colouring. Respondents (n 196) sourced from a national consumer panel, USA. The findings suggest that, for healthy foods, the nutritional colouring schemes reduced perceived healthiness, irrespective of which nutrients were coloured red or green (healthinesscontrol=4·86; healthinessHGUR=4·10; healthinessHRUG=3·70). In contrast, for unhealthy foods, there was no significant difference in perceptions of food healthiness when comparing different colouring schemes against the control. The results make an important qualification to the common belief that colour coding can enhance the correct interpretation of nutrition information and suggest that this incentive may not necessarily support healthier food choices in all situations.

  20. Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, R

    2001-01-20

    To compare the efficacy and tolerability of agnus castus fruit (Vitex agnus castus L extract Ze 440) with placebo for women with the premenstrual syndrome. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group comparison over three menstrual cycles. General medicine community clinics. 178 women were screened and 170 were evaluated (active 86; placebo 84). Mean age was 36 years, mean cycle length was 28 days, mean duration of menses was 4.5 days. Agnus castus (dry extract tablets) one tablet daily or matching placebo, given for three consecutive cycles. Main efficacy variable: change from baseline to end point (end of third cycle) in women's self assessment of irritability, mood alteration, anger, headache, breast fullness, and other menstrual symptoms including bloating. Secondary efficacy variables: changes in clinical global impression (severity of condition, global improvement, and risk or benefit) and responder rate (50% reduction in symptoms). Improvement in the main variable was greater in the active group compared with placebo group (Pagnus castus fruit is an effective and well tolerated treatment for the relief of symptoms of the premenstrual syndrome.

  1. The Effect of Methyl Jasmonate Vapour on Some Characteristics of Fruit Ripening, Carotenoids and Tomatine Changes in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato ripening in normal red-fruited cultivar (Fiorin was delayed by treatment with methyl jasmonate (JA-Me vapour. A visual scoring system for describing tomato ripening was used. Surface of fruits exposed to JA-Me vapour, increased in yellow and decreased in red as determined by HunterLab colour meter. JA-Me significantly altered the firmness of fruits after 21 days storage. Vapour of JA-Me enhanced the level of β-carotene in outer part (peel with 3 mm pericarp tissue of fruit, while it had no effect in peeled fruit pericarp. JA-Me treatment decreased the level of lycopene in outer part and pericarp tissue, however, in outer part lycopene content decreased at a higher rate than in pericarp. Amount of tomatine in fruits treated with JA-Me had enhanced four-fold in outer part and by 62% in peeled fruit pericarp as compared with the control.

  2. Utilisation of the egg-larval parasitoid, Fopius (Biosteres) arisanus, for augmentative biological control of tephritid fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Ernest J.; Bautista, Renato C.; Spencer, John P.

    2000-01-01

    In Hawaii, entomologists concerned about tephritid fruit fly control recognise and accept the fact that the introduction of tephritid fruit flies consisting of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet), Mediterranean fruit fly, C. capitata (Wiedemann), Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) and the Solanaceous fruit fly, B. latifrons (Hendel) required the introduction of many species of parasitoids into Hawaii (Clausen 1956) to reduce crop damage caused by tephritid fruit flies. The parasitoids established in the order of their succession were Diachasimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), Biosteres vandenboschi (Fullaway), and Fopius (Biosteres) arisanus (Sonan). F. arisanus was first discovered in Hawaii in 1949 in a guava fruit collection (van den Bosch and Haramoto 1951). In 1950, the rate of parasitism caused F. arisanus to increase and this insect spread and became the dominant and most widely distributed parasitoid in Hawaii (Haramoto and Bess 1970). Entomologists investigating fruit fly ecology in Hawaii recognised that the four species of tephritid fruit flies differ in their distribution, abundance and host utilisation patterns in different habitats. The rapid spread and distribution of F. arisanus in Hawaii indicated the reality that among the parasitoids, F. arisanus has the highest adaptation capabilities in the Hawaiian ecosystem comparable to that of B. dorsalis and C. capitata, the most persistent fruit fly species in Hawaii. A strategy receiving high priority to improve biological control of tephritid fruit flies is foreign exploration to find new parasitoids for introduction into tephritid fruit fly invested areas including Guatemala and Hawaii. It is possible another species comparable to F. arisanus might be found. New introductions could increase the diversity of parasitoid species and result in the introduction of species more efficient for suppressing B. latifrons in Hawaii. The cost of parasitoid exploration is very expensive, US$100,000 or

  3. The colours of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Would you move into an office painted in a colour you hate? As we all know, taste in colour is individual. Thanks to the establishment of a new Painting Charter, conflicting opinions will be unified.   The four new paint colours established in the Painting Charter. There were many reasons behind the creation of the Painting Charter by the GS SEM Department. Unlike many companies, CERN has not until now regulated which colours can be used inside buildings. With many nationalities passing through CERN, tastes tend to differ: northern countries usually prefer colder colours, while southern countries seem to prefer warm colours. It’s not hard to imagine how quickly we could make a rainbow! In addition, whenever an office needs to be repainted, it can be difficult to find exactly the same colour. This results in entire walls being repainted, which increases the cost. If – by chance – the original colour is found, it could be out of stock. While ...

  4. Colour: code, mode, modality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2014-01-01

    This article uses a social semiotic approach to discuss the influence of film, video and digital technologies on the way colour is used in audiovisual media......This article uses a social semiotic approach to discuss the influence of film, video and digital technologies on the way colour is used in audiovisual media...

  5. Colouring outside the lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commissariat, Tushna

    2017-10-01

    Walk into a bookshop today, or even a gift shop, and you will most likely come across an entire section of colouring books for adults. Visions of Numberland: a Colouring Journey Through the Mysteries of Maths by Alex Bellos and Edmund Harriss is one such book.

  6. Graph Colouring Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husfeldt, Thore

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents an introduction to graph colouring algorithms. The focus is on vertex-colouring algorithms that work for general classes of graphs with worst-case performance guarantees in a sequential model of computation. The presentation aims to demonstrate the breadth of available...

  7. Chemistry of Colours

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    focus on why things have colour and what causes them to change their colour. Light is a form of .... Another pigment found in the leaves of many plants is carotene. Carotene absorbs ... structure of cyanidin changes with pH. The form shown in ...

  8. Impact of fruit fly control programmes using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enkerlin, W.R.

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the impact of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes, that use the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control fruit fly pests of economic significance, is complex. These programmes affect practically the whole horticultural food chain. In this chapter, the impact of the programmes is assessed by focusing only on the benefits generated to producers and traders of horticultural products, the direct beneficiaries. This is done first by describing the types of benefits accrued from these programmes, second by explaining the factors that shape programme benefits, and finally by presenting several examples to illustrate how the SIT technology, when properly applied for eradication, containment, suppression, or prevention purposes, can generate substantial direct and indirect benefits to the horticulture industry. (author)

  9. Detection Of Irradiated Fruits And Assessment Of Quality Parameters Of The Stone Fruits During Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Magide, A.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    quality attributed for plums, the fruits treated with 0.5 kGy or 0.75 kGy were significantly more preferred from the panelists due to their freshness, juiciness and taste hedonic scale. On the other hand, the control fruits showed the highest scores of colour and peel bitterness whereas for peaches, the fruits irradiated at 0.5 kGy or 0.75 kGy exhibited the highest score of quality with non-significant differences between them in most cases and the reverse was true for treatment with 1 kGy.

  10. Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, David H.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic colour Doppler is an imaging technique that combines anatomical information derived using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques with velocity information derived using ultrasonic Doppler techniques to generate colour-coded maps of tissue velocity superimposed on grey-scale images of tissue...... anatomy. The most common use of the technique is to image the movement of blood through the heart, arteries and veins, but it may also be used to image the motion of solid tissues such as the heart walls. Colour Doppler imaging is now provided on almost all commercial ultrasound machines, and has been...... vectors. This review briefly introduces the principles behind colour Doppler imaging and describes some clinical applications. It then describes the basic components of conventional colour Doppler systems and the methods used to derive velocity information from the ultrasound signal. Next, a number of new...

  11. Application of visible/near infrared spectroscopy to quality control of fresh fruits and vegetables in large-scale mass distribution channels: a preliminary test on carrots and tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghi, Roberto; Giovenzana, Valentina; Tugnolo, Alessio; Guidetti, Riccardo

    2018-05-01

    The market for fruits and vegetables is mainly controlled by the mass distribution channel (MDC). MDC buyers do not have useful instruments to rapidly evaluate the quality of the products. Decisions by the buyers are driven primarily by pricing strategies rather than product quality. Simple, rapid and easy-to-use methods for objectively evaluating the quality of postharvest products are needed. The present study aimed to use visible and near-infrared (vis/NIR) spectroscopy to estimate some qualitative parameters of two low-price products (carrots and tomatoes) of various brands, as well as evaluate the applicability of this technique for use in stores. A non-destructive optical system (vis/NIR spectrophotometer with a reflection probe, spectral range 450-1650 nm) was tested. The differences in quality among carrots and tomatoes purchased from 13 stores on various dates were examined. The reference quality parameters (firmness, water content, soluble solids content, pH and colour) were correlated with the spectral readings. The models derived from the optical data gave positive results, in particular for the prediction of the soluble solids content and the colour, with better results for tomatoes than for carrots. The application of optical techniques may help MDC buyers to monitor the quality of postharvest products, leading to an effective optimization of the entire supply chain. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Computational colour science using MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Westland, Stephen; Cheung, Vien

    2012-01-01

    Computational Colour Science Using MATLAB 2nd Edition offers a practical, problem-based approach to colour physics. The book focuses on the key issues encountered in modern colour engineering, including efficient representation of colour information, Fourier analysis of reflectance spectra and advanced colorimetric computation. Emphasis is placed on the practical applications rather than the techniques themselves, with material structured around key topics. These topics include colour calibration of visual displays, computer recipe prediction and models for colour-appearance prediction. Each t

  13. Combination of UV-C treatment and Metschnikowia pulcherrimas for controlling Alternaria rot in postharvest winter jujube fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dongqi; Zhu, Lixia; Hou, Xujie

    2015-01-01

    The potential of using antagonistic yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrimas alone or in combination with ultraviolet-C (UV-C) treatment for controlling Alternaria rot of winter jujube, and its effects on postharvest quality of fruit was investigated. The results showed that spore germination of Alternaria alternata was significantly inhibited by each of the 3 doses (1, 5, and 10 kJ m(-2) ) in vitro. In vivo, UV-C treatment (5 kJ m(-2) ) or antagonist yeast was capable of reducing the percentage of infected wounds and lesion diameter in artificially inoculated jujube fruits, however, in fruit treated with combination of UV-C treatment and M. pulcherrima, the percentage of infected wounds and lesion diameter was only 16.0% and 0.60 cm, respectively. The decay incidence on winter jujube fruits treated with the combination of UV-C treatment and M. pulcherrima was 23% after storage at 0 ± 1 °C for 45 d followed by 22 °C for 7 d. None of the treatments impaired quality parameters of jujube fruit. Thus, the combination of UV-C radiation and M. pulcherrima could be an alternative to synthetic fungicides for controlling postharvest Alternaria rot of winter jujube. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Effects of an African weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda, in controlling mango fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mele, Paul; Vayssières, Jean-François; Van Tellingen, Esther; Vrolijks, Jan

    2007-06-01

    Six mango, Mangifera indica L., plantations around Parakou, northern Benin, were sampled at 2-wk intervals for fruit fly damage from early April to late May in 2005. Mean damage ranged from 1 to 24% with a weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda (Latreille), being either abundant or absent. The fruit fly complex is made up of Ceratitis spp. and Bactrocera invadens Drew et al., a new invasive species in West Africa. In 2006, Ceratitis spp. peaked twice in the late dry season in early April and early May, whereas B. invadens populations quickly increased at the onset of the rains, from mid-May onward. Exclusion experiments conducted in 2006 with 'Eldon', 'Kent', and 'Gouverneur' confirmed that at high ant abundance levels, Oecophylla significantly reduced fruit fly infestation. Although fruit fly control methods are still at an experimental stage in this part of the world, farmers who tolerated weaver ants in their orchard were rewarded by significantly better fruit quality. Conservation biological control with predatory ants such as Oecophylla in high-value tree crops has great potential for African and Asian farmers. Implications for international research for development at the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research level are discussed.

  15. Synaesthetic colours do not camouflage form in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheri, C; Chopping, S; Morgan, M J

    2008-04-07

    One of the major issues in synaesthesia research is to identify the level of processing involved in the formation of the subjective colours experienced by synaesthetes: are they perceptual phenomena or are they due to memory and association learning? To address this question, we tested whether the colours reported by a group of grapheme-colour synaesthetes (previously studied in an functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment) influenced them in a visual search task. As well as using a condition where synaesthetic colours should have aided visual search, we introduced a condition where the colours experienced by synaesthetes would be expected to make them worse than controls. We found no evidence for differences between synaesthetes and normal controls, either when colours should have helped them or where they should have hindered. We conclude that the colours reported by our population of synaesthetes are not equivalent to perceptual signals, but arise at a cognitive level where they are unable to affect visual search.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii infection in workers occupationally exposed to unwashed raw fruits and vegetables: a case control seroprevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarado-Esquivel Cosme

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Through a case control seroprevalence study, we sought to determine the association of Toxoplasma gondii infection with occupational exposure to unwashed raw fruits and vegetables. Methods Subjects, numbering 200, who worked growing or selling fruits and vegetables, and 400 control subjects matched by age, gender, and residence were examined by enzyme immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Socio-demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics from the study subjects were obtained. Results Of the 200 fruit and vegetable workers, 15 (7.5% of whom, and 31 (7.8% of the 400 controls were positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies (P = 0.96. Anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies were found in 2 (1% of the fruit workers and in 11 (2.8% of the control subjects (P = 0.23. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma antibodies increased with age (P = 0.0004. In addition, seropositivity to Toxoplasma was associated with ill status (P = 0.04, chronic tonsillitis (P = 0.03, and reflex impairment (P = 0.03. Multivariate analysis showed that Toxoplasma infection was associated with consumption of raw meat (OR = 5.77; 95% CI: 1.15-28.79; P = 0.03, unwashed raw fruits (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.11-5.63; P = 0.02, and living in a house with soil floors (OR = 3.10; 95% CI: 1.22-7.88; P = 0.01, whereas Toxoplasma infection was negatively associated with traveling abroad (OR = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12-0.67; P = 0.005. Conclusions This is the first report of seroprevalence and contributing factors for Toxoplasma infection in workers occupationally exposed to unwashed raw fruits and vegetables, and the results may help in the design of optimal preventive measures against Toxoplasma infection especially in female workers at reproductive age.

  17. Bait station devices can improve mass trapping performance for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro-Llopis, Vicente; Primo Millo, Jaime; Vacas González, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUNDThe use of traps and other attract-and-kill devices in pest management strategies to reduce Mediterranean fruit fly populations has proved to be efficient. Nevertheless, many farmers are concerned about the effect of these devices on the trees where they are hung. Direct field observations have revealed that fruit damage is higher in trees with traps than in trees without them. This work evaluates the efficacy of different types of attract-and-kill device to protect fruit of the sin...

  18. Let them eat fruit! The effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on psychological well-being in young adults: A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamlin S Conner

    Full Text Available This study tested the psychological benefits of a 14-day preregistered clinical intervention to increase fruit and vegetable (FV consumption in 171 low-FV-consuming young adults (67% female, aged 18-25. Participants were randomly assigned into a diet-as-usual control condition, an ecological momentary intervention (EMI condition involving text message reminders to increase their FV consumption plus a voucher to purchase FV, or a fruit and vegetable intervention (FVI condition in which participants were given two additional daily servings of fresh FV to consume on top of their normal diet. Self-report outcome measures were depressive symptoms and anxiety measured pre- and post-intervention, and daily negative and positive mood, vitality, flourishing, and flourishing behaviors (curiosity, creativity, motivation assessed nightly using a smartphone survey. Vitamin C and carotenoids were measured from blood samples pre- and post-intervention, and psychological expectancies about the benefits of FV were measured post-intervention to test as mediators of psychological change. Only participants in the FVI condition showed improvements to their psychological well-being with increases in vitality, flourishing, and motivation across the 14-days relative to the other groups. No changes were found for depressive symptoms, anxiety, or mood. Intervention benefits were not mediated by vitamin C, carotenoids, or psychological expectancies. We conclude that providing young adults with high-quality FV, rather than reminding them to eat more FV (with a voucher to purchase FV, resulted in significant short-term improvements to their psychological well-being. These results provide initial proof-of-concept that giving young adults fresh fruit and vegetables to eat can have psychological benefits even over a brief period of time.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12615000183583.

  19. Fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Graham B; Østergaard, Lars; Chapman, Natalie H; Knapp, Sandra; Martin, Cathie

    2013-01-01

    Fruiting structures in the angiosperms range from completely dry to highly fleshy organs and provide many of our major crop products, including grains. In the model plant Arabidopsis, which has dry fruits, a high-level regulatory network of transcription factors controlling fruit development has been revealed. Studies on rare nonripening mutations in tomato, a model for fleshy fruits, have provided new insights into the networks responsible for the control of ripening. It is apparent that there are strong similarities between dry and fleshy fruits in the molecular circuits governing development and maturation. Translation of information from tomato to other fleshy-fruited species indicates that regulatory networks are conserved across a wide spectrum of angiosperm fruit morphologies. Fruits are an essential part of the human diet, and recent developments in the sequencing of angiosperm genomes have provided the foundation for a step change in crop improvement through the understanding and harnessing of genome-wide genetic and epigenetic variation.

  20. Molluscan shell colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Suzanne T

    2017-05-01

    The phylum Mollusca is highly speciose, and is the largest phylum in the marine realm. The great majority of molluscs are shelled, including nearly all bivalves, most gastropods and some cephalopods. The fabulous and diverse colours and patterns of molluscan shells are widely recognised and have been appreciated for hundreds of years by collectors and scientists alike. They serve taxonomists as characters that can be used to recognise and distinguish species, however their function for the animal is sometimes less clear and has been the focus of many ecological and evolutionary studies. Despite these studies, almost nothing is known about the evolution of colour in molluscan shells. This review summarises for the first time major findings of disparate studies relevant to the evolution of shell colour in Mollusca and discusses the importance of colour, including the effects of visual and non-visual selection, diet and abiotic factors. I also summarise the evidence for the heritability of shell colour in some taxa and recent efforts to understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning synthesis of shell colours. I describe some of the main shell pigments found in Mollusca (carotenoids, melanin and tetrapyrroles, including porphyrins and bile pigments), and their durability in the fossil record. Finally I suggest that pigments appear to be distributed in a phylogenetically relevant manner and that the synthesis of colour is likely to be energetically costly. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  1. Exploitation of microbial antagonists for the control of postharvest diseases of fruits: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukare, Ajinath Shridhar; Paul, Sangeeta; Nambi, V Eyarkai; Gupta, Ram Kishore; Singh, Rajbir; Sharma, Kalyani; Vishwakarma, Rajesh Kumar

    2018-01-16

    Fungal diseases result in significant losses of fruits and vegetables during handling, transportation and storage. At present, post-production fungal spoilage is predominantly controlled by using synthetic fungicides. Under the global climate change scenario and with the need for sustainable agriculture, biological control methods of fungal diseases, using antagonistic microorganisms, are emerging as ecofriendly alternatives to the use of fungicides. The potential of microbial antagonists, isolated from a diversity of natural habitats, for postharvest disease suppression has been investigated. Postharvest biocontrol systems involve tripartite interaction between microbial antagonists, the pathogen and the host, affected by environmental conditions. Several modes for fungistatic activities of microbial antagonists have been suggested, including competition for nutrients and space, mycoparasitism, secretion of antifungal antibiotics and volatile metabolites and induction of host resistance. Postharvest application of microbial antagonists is more successful for efficient disease control in comparison to pre-harvest application. Attempts have also been made to improve the overall efficacy of antagonists by combining them with different physical and chemical substances and methods. Globally, many microbe-based biocontrol products have been developed and registered for commercial use. The present review provides a brief overview on the use of microbial antagonists as postharvest biocontrol agents and summarises information on their isolation, mechanisms of action, application methods, efficacy enhancement, product formulation and commercialisation.

  2. Sublethal Effects in Pest Management: A Surrogate Species Perspective on Fruit Fly Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Banks

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tephritid fruit flies are economically important orchard pests globally. While much effort has focused on controlling individual species with a combination of pesticides and biological control, less attention has been paid to managing assemblages of species. Although several tephritid species may co-occur in orchards/cultivated areas, especially in mixed-cropping schemes, their responses to pesticides may be highly variable. Furthermore, predictive efforts about toxicant effects are generally based on acute toxicity, with little or no regard to long-term population effects. Using a simple matrix model parameterized with life history data, we quantified the responses of several tephritid species to the sublethal effects of a toxicant acting on fecundity. Using a critical threshold to determine levels of fecundity reduction below which species are driven to local extinction, we determined that threshold levels vary widely for the three tephritid species. In particular, Bactrocera dorsalis was the most robust of the three species, followed by Ceratitis capitata, and then B. cucurbitae, suggesting individual species responses should be taken into account when planning for area-wide pest control. The rank-order of susceptibility contrasts with results from several field/lab studies testing the same species, suggesting that considering a combination of life history traits and individual species susceptibility is necessary for understanding population responses of species assemblages to toxicant exposure.

  3. MODEL PERUBAHAN WARNA KERIPIK BUAH SELAMA PENGGORENGAN VAKUM Model of Fruit Flaky Color Change during Vacuum Frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin Jamaluddin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The natural colour of fruit flaky product is one of specific property prefered by consumer. To maintain the natural colourof the fruit flaky during frying, it is necessary to pay attention the characteristic changes of raw material and control the process in order not to have much changes to get the intended colour. The objective of this research is to develop empirically mathematical model of fruit flaky colour changes during vacuum frying process by considering the change of water and sucrose contents in the product. Sample of the research were jack fruits fried in the temperature of 70–100OC, frying duration of 15–60 minutes, and vacuum pressure of 13-23 kPa. The observed parameters are colour (L, colour (a, colour (b, water and sukrose contents before and after frying. The result showed that colour changes (L, a and b were influenced by free water vaporization and sukrose decreasing in product, so empirically, the developed mathematical model of colour changes (L, a and b can be used to predict fruit flaky colour changes during vacuum frying. ABSTRAK Warna alami pada produk keripik buah adalah merupakan salah satu sifat khas yang disukai oleh konsumen, untukmempertahankan warna alami keripik buah agar tidak banyak mengalami perubahan selama dalam penggorengan, perlu diperhatikan perubahan karakteristik bahan baku dan pengendalian proses, agar warna keripik buah yang dihasilkan sesuai dengan yang diinginkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan secara empirik model matematik perubahan warna keripik buah selama dalam proses penggorengan vakum dengan mempertimbangkan ke dalam model perubahan kadar air dan kadar sukrosa di dalam padatan. Sampel penelitian adalah buah nangka digoreng pada suhu70-100 OC, lama penggorengan 15-60 menit dan tekanan vakum 13-23 kPa. Parameter yang diamati adalah warna (L, warna (a, warna (b, kadar air dan kadar sukrosa sebelum dan setelah sampel digoreng. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perubahan warna L, a

  4. Object Knowledge Modulates Colour Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Witzel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis.

  5. Object knowledge modulates colour appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Valkova, Hanna; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective) colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis. PMID:23145224

  6. Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, David H; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic colour Doppler is an imaging technique that combines anatomical information derived using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques with velocity information derived using ultrasonic Doppler techniques to generate colour-coded maps of tissue velocity superimposed on grey-scale images of tissue...... anatomy. The most common use of the technique is to image the movement of blood through the heart, arteries and veins, but it may also be used to image the motion of solid tissues such as the heart walls. Colour Doppler imaging is now provided on almost all commercial ultrasound machines, and has been...

  7. An unconventional colour superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Mei

    2007-01-01

    Superfluidity, or superconductivity with mismatched Fermi momenta, appears in many systems such as charge-neutral dense quark matter, asymmetric nuclear matter, and in imbalanced cold atomic gases. The mismatch plays the role of breaking the Cooper pairing, and the pair-breaking state cannot be properly described in the framework of standard BCS theory. I give a brief review on recent theoretical developments in understanding unconventional colour superconductivity, including a gapless colour superconductor, chromomagnetic instabilities and the Higgs instability in the gapless phase. I also introduce a possible new framework for describing an unconventional colour superconductor

  8. Plasmonic colour laser printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Vannahme, Christoph; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil

    2016-01-01

    -beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB), both expensive and not scalable processes that are not suitable for post-processing customization. Here we show a method of colour printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation...... that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances leading to different colour appearances can be created. Using this technique we can print all primary colours...

  9. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  10. FUZZY RIPENING MANGO INDEX USING RGB COLOUR SENSOR MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Ab Razak Mansor; Mahmod Othman; Mohd Nazari Abu Bakar; Khairul Adilah Ahmad; Tajul Rosli Razak

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the mango ripeness classification is determined manually by human graders according to a particular procedure. This method is inconsistent and subjective in nature because each grader has different techniques. Thus, it affects the quantity and quality of the mango fruit that can be marketed. In this project, a new model for classifying mango fruit is developed using the fuzzy logic RGB sensor colour model build in the MATLAB software. The grading system was programme...

  11. PacCYP707A2 negatively regulates cherry fruit ripening while PacCYP707A1 mediates drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Dai, Shengjie; Sun, Yufei; Yuan, Bing; Kai, Wenbin; Pei, Yuelin; He, Suihuan; Liang, Bin; Zhang, Yushu; Leng, Ping

    2015-07-01

    Sweet cherry is a non-climacteric fruit and its ripening is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) during fruit development. In this study, four cDNAs (PacCYP707A1-4) encoding 8'-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA, were identified in sweet cherry fruits using tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and particle bombardment approaches. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed significant down-regulation of target gene transcripts in VIGS-treated cherry fruits. In PacCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruits, ripening and fruit colouring were promoted relative to control fruits, and both ABA accumulation and PacNCED1 transcript levels were up-regulated by 140%. Silencing of PacCYP707A2 by VIGS significantly altered the transcripts of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes, including the ABA metabolism-associated genes NCED and CYP707A, the anthocyanin synthesis genes PacCHS, PacCHI, PacF3H, PacDFR, PacANS, and PacUFGT, the ethylene biosynthesis gene PacACO1, and the transcription factor PacMYBA. The promoter of PacMYBA responded more strongly to PacCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruits than to PacCYP707A1-RNAi-treated fruits. By contrast, silencing of PacCYP707A1 stimulated a slight increase in fruit colouring and enhanced resistance to dehydration stress compared with control fruits. These results suggest that PacCYP707A2 is a key regulator of ABA catabolism that functions as a negative regulator of fruit ripening, while PacCYP707A1 regulates ABA content in response to dehydration during fruit development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Effect of Post-Harvest Treatments on Enzyme Activity and Quality of Cold Stored Ber Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhjit K. JAWANDHA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk fruits are perishable in nature and have poor shelf- life. To extend the storage life of ber fruits different post-harvest treatments, like CaCl2 (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%, Ca(NO32 (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%, gibberellic acid (GA3 (20, 40 and 60 ppm and Bavistin (0.1% were given to fruits and their effect was studied on the storage life and quality of Umran ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk fruits under cold storage conditions. Fruits of uniform size and colour were harvested, from healthy plants, and subjected to post harvest dip of different chemicals, before packing in CFB boxes and placed in cold storage (3-5C and 85-90% RH They have been evaluated after 10, 20 and 30 days of storage for physiological loss in weight (PLW, firmness, pectin methyl esterase (PME activity and palatability rating. The PLW increased and fruit firmness decreased during storage at each treatment. The sensory rating increased up to 10 days at all treatments, except control but subsequently it decreased during storage. The increase rate in PME activity was faster, up to 10 days, in untreated fruits, while treated fruits showed slower rise in PME activity, up to 20 days with a decline afterwards. It can be concluded that ber fruits can be stored up to 20 days by post-harvest treatment using GA3 at 60 ppm, with acceptable quality.

  13. Minimum Colour Differences Required To Recognise Small Objects On A Colour CRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Peter L.

    1985-05-01

    Data is required to assist in the assessment, evaluation and optimisation of colour and other displays for both military and general use. A general aim is to develop a mathematical technique to aid optimisation and reduce the amount of expensive hardware development and trials necessary when introducing new displays. The present standards and methods available for evaluating colour differences are known not to apply to the perception of typical objects on a display. Data is required for irregular objects viewed at small angular subtense ((1°) and relating the recognition of form rather than colour matching. Therefore laboratory experiments have been carried out using a computer controlled CRT to measure the threshold colour difference that an observer requires between object and background so that he can discriminate a variety of similar objects. Measurements are included for a variety of background and object colourings. The results are presented in the CIE colorimetric system similar to current standards used by the display engineer. Apart from the characteristic small field tritanopia, the results show that larger colour differences are required for object recognition than those assumed from conventional colour discrimination data. A simple relationship to account for object size and background colour is suggested to aid visual performance assessments and modelling.

  14. Colour Mixing Based on Daylight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Colour science is based on the sensation of monochromatic light. In contrast to that, surface colours are caused by reflection of wide sections of the daylight spectrum. Non-spectral colours like magenta and purple appear homologous to colours with spectral hue, if the approach of mixing monochromatic light is abandoned. It is shown that a large…

  15. About Coloured Cold Asphaltic Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Judele

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first coloured bitumen was obtained by using bitumen from Peru and then bitumen from the Middle East, with a low content of asphaltenes, also called "colourable" bitumens. The colours obtained by adding iron oxides led nevertheless to dark colours, due to the presence of asphaltenes. Nowadays the coloured asphalt is obtained from synthesis binders with translucent aspect. The colours are obtained by adding inorganic pigments, mainly iron oxide for red, chromic oxide for green, titanic dioxide for white. The properties and behaviour of the coloured bitumen during its lifetime are comparable with the ones of classic bitumen, sometimes even better.

  16. Independently controlled wing stroke patterns in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Chakraborty

    Full Text Available Flies achieve supreme flight maneuverability through a small set of miniscule steering muscles attached to the wing base. The fast flight maneuvers arise from precisely timed activation of the steering muscles and the resulting subtle modulation of the wing stroke. In addition, slower modulation of wing kinematics arises from changes in the activity of indirect flight muscles in the thorax. We investigated if these modulations can be described as a superposition of a limited number of elementary deformations of the wing stroke that are under independent physiological control. Using a high-speed computer vision system, we recorded the wing motion of tethered flying fruit flies for up to 12,000 consecutive wing strokes at a sampling rate of 6250 Hz. We then decomposed the joint motion pattern of both wings into components that had the minimal mutual information (a measure of statistical dependence. In 100 flight segments measured from 10 individual flies, we identified 7 distinct types of frequently occurring least-dependent components, each defining a kinematic pattern (a specific deformation of the wing stroke and the sequence of its activation from cycle to cycle. Two of these stroke deformations can be associated with the control of yaw torque and total flight force, respectively. A third deformation involves a change in the downstroke-to-upstroke duration ratio, which is expected to alter the pitch torque. A fourth kinematic pattern consists in the alteration of stroke amplitude with a period of 2 wingbeat cycles, extending for dozens of cycles. Our analysis indicates that these four elementary kinematic patterns can be activated mutually independently, and occur both in isolation and in linear superposition. The results strengthen the available evidence for independent control of yaw torque, pitch torque, and total flight force. Our computational method facilitates systematic identification of novel patterns in large kinematic datasets.

  17. Independently controlled wing stroke patterns in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Soma; Bartussek, Jan; Fry, Steven N; Zapotocky, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Flies achieve supreme flight maneuverability through a small set of miniscule steering muscles attached to the wing base. The fast flight maneuvers arise from precisely timed activation of the steering muscles and the resulting subtle modulation of the wing stroke. In addition, slower modulation of wing kinematics arises from changes in the activity of indirect flight muscles in the thorax. We investigated if these modulations can be described as a superposition of a limited number of elementary deformations of the wing stroke that are under independent physiological control. Using a high-speed computer vision system, we recorded the wing motion of tethered flying fruit flies for up to 12,000 consecutive wing strokes at a sampling rate of 6250 Hz. We then decomposed the joint motion pattern of both wings into components that had the minimal mutual information (a measure of statistical dependence). In 100 flight segments measured from 10 individual flies, we identified 7 distinct types of frequently occurring least-dependent components, each defining a kinematic pattern (a specific deformation of the wing stroke and the sequence of its activation from cycle to cycle). Two of these stroke deformations can be associated with the control of yaw torque and total flight force, respectively. A third deformation involves a change in the downstroke-to-upstroke duration ratio, which is expected to alter the pitch torque. A fourth kinematic pattern consists in the alteration of stroke amplitude with a period of 2 wingbeat cycles, extending for dozens of cycles. Our analysis indicates that these four elementary kinematic patterns can be activated mutually independently, and occur both in isolation and in linear superposition. The results strengthen the available evidence for independent control of yaw torque, pitch torque, and total flight force. Our computational method facilitates systematic identification of novel patterns in large kinematic datasets.

  18. Controlled atmosphere pO2 alters ripening dynamics of 1-MCP treated ‘d’Anjou’ pear (Pyrus communis L.) fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripening and development of physiological disorders and decay were assessed in ‘d’Anjou’ pear fruit following 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment and cold storage in air or controlled atmosphere (CA). Fruit were exposed after harvest to 0 or 12.6 µmol•L-1 1-MCP and then stored at 0.5 oC in air o...

  19. A 'Big leaf, big fruit, big substrate' model for experiments on receding horizon optimal control of nutrient supply to greenhouse tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straten, van G.; Vanthoor, B.H.E.; Willigenburg, van L.G.; Elings, A.

    2006-01-01

    A dynamic model was set up to describe the mineral content, fruit dry matter content, and biomass of greenhouse tomato, for use in an experiment aiming at controlling the fertigation so as to reach the best compromise between disinfection costs of the recycled water and income from fruit fresh

  20. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot water immersion of papaya (Carica papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M.H.A.; Grout, B.W.W.; Continella, A.; Mahmud, T.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green and 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability. The combined treatment had no significant, negative impact on ripening, with quality characteristics such as surface and internal colour change, firmness, soluble solids, acidity and vitamin C maintained at acceptable levels. - Highlights: • Storage of papaya extended to 28 days whilst retaining commercial quality. • Additive effect of low gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min) and hot-water treatment. • Significant reduction in surface fungal lesions. • No significant impact on colour change or flesh quality during storage

  1. Evaluation of the impact of a school gardening intervention on children's fruit and vegetable intake: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Meaghan S; Evans, Charlotte El; Nykjaer, Camilla; Hancock, Neil; Cade, Janet E

    2014-08-16

    Current academic literature suggests that school gardening programmes can provide an interactive environment with the potential to change children's fruit and vegetable intake. This is the first cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) designed to evaluate whether a school gardening programme can have an effect on children's fruit and vegetable intake. The trial included children from 23 schools; these schools were randomised into two groups, one to receive the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS)-led intervention and the other to receive the less involved Teacher-led intervention. A 24-hour food diary (CADET) was used to collect baseline and follow-up dietary intake 18 months apart. Questionnaires were also administered to evaluate the intervention implementation. A total of 641 children completed the trial with a mean age of 8.1 years (95% CI: 8.0, 8.4). The unadjusted results from multilevel regression analysis revealed that for combined daily fruit and vegetable intake the Teacher-led group had a higher daily mean change of 8 g (95% CI: -19, 36) compared to the RHS-led group -32 g (95% CI: -60, -3). However, after adjusting for possible confounders this difference was not significant (intervention effect: -40 g, 95% CI: -88, 1; p = 0.06). The adjusted analysis of process measures identified that if schools improved their gardening score by 3 levels (a measure of school gardening involvement - the scale has 6 levels from 0 'no garden' to 5 'community involvement'), irrespective of group allocation, children had, on average, a daily increase of 81 g of fruit and vegetable intake (95% CI: 0, 163; p = 0.05) compared to schools that had no change in gardening score. This study is the first cluster randomised controlled trial designed to evaluate a school gardening intervention. The results have found very little evidence to support the claims that school gardening alone can improve children's daily fruit and vegetable intake. However, when a gardening

  2. Legal and Illegal Colours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian

    2008-01-01

    opinions on food additives, including colours, and on the bioavailability and safety of nutrient sources. The WG ADD consists of several members from the AFC Panel together with selected external experts. The draft opinions go forward to the AFC Panel for discussion and final adoption. The adopted opinions......://www.efsa.europa.eu/EFSA/efsa_locale-1178620753812_1178620761956.htm. Accessed 12.05.08.] this paper only deals with some of the major issues that the Panel has faced in relation to the use of food colours. The three topics to be dealt with are (1) evaluation of illegal colours in food in the EU (EFSA, 2005), (2) re-evaluation of the authorised...... food colours in the EU (ongoing, but one opinion on Red 2G has been published; EFSA, 2007), and (3) evaluation of 'the Southampton study' on hyperactivity in children after intake of food colours (and sodium benzoate) (ongoing at the time of this presentation, but an opinion has now been published...

  3. Potential application of digital image-processing method and fitted logistic model to the control of oriental fruit moths (Grapholita molesta Busck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z G; Rong, E H; Li, S C; Zhang, L J; Zhang, Z W; Guo, Y Q; Ma, R Y

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring of oriental fruit moths (Grapholita molesta Busck) is a prerequisite for its control. This study introduced a digital image-processing method and logistic model for the control of oriental fruit moths. First, five triangular sex pheromone traps were installed separately within each area of 667 m2 in a peach orchard to monitor oriental fruit moths consecutively for 3 years. Next, full view images of oriental fruit moths were collected via a digital camera and then subjected to graying, separation and morphological analysis for automatic counting using MATLAB software. Afterwards, the results of automatic counting were used for fitting a logistic model to forecast the control threshold and key control period. There was a high consistency between automatic counting and manual counting (0.99, P model, oriental fruit moths had four occurrence peaks during a year, with a time-lag of 15-18 days between adult occurrence peak and the larval damage peak. Additionally, the key control period was from 28 June to 3 July each year, when the wormy fruit rate reached up to 5% and the trapping volume was approximately 10.2 per day per trap. Additionally, the key control period for the overwintering generation was 25 April. This study provides an automatic counting method and fitted logistic model with a great potential for application to the control of oriental fruit moths.

  4. Cadmium colours: composition and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, J.; Knuutinen, U.

    2004-01-01

    The composition and the properties of cadmium aquarelle colours are discussed. The examined colours were 24 different aquarelle cadmium colours from six different manufacturers. The colours ranged from light, bright yellows to dark, deep-red tones. The aim of this research was to find out if the pigments contain cadmium salts: sulphides and/or selenides. This information will help in choosing watercolours in conservation processes. Today, aquarelle colours not containing cadmium pigments are being sold as cadmium colours; thus their properties might be different from actual cadmium colours. The aim of the research was to verify that the colour samples contained cadmium pigments and to estimate their compositions and ageing properties. Element analyses were performed from colour samples using micro-chemical tests and X-ray fluorescence measurements. Thin-layer chromatography was used for analysing gum Arabic as a possible binding medium in the chosen colour samples. Through ageing tests, the resistance of the colour samples to the exposure to light, heat and humidity was studied. Visible-light spectroscopy was used in determining the hues and hue changes of the aquarelle colour samples. The spectrophotometer used the CIE L * a * b * tone colour measuring system. From the colour measurements the changes in the lightness/darkness, the redness, the yellowness and the saturation of the samples were examined. (orig.)

  5. Integrated management of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This film introduces species of fruit-flies and their reproduction cycle and suggests various methods for controlling insect pests (insect traps, treatment of infested fruits, chemical, legal, and biological control -sterile male technique

  6. Colour in flux: describing and printing colour in art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraman, Carinna

    2008-01-01

    This presentation will describe artists, practitioners and scientists, who were interested in developing a deeper psychological, emotional and practical understanding of the human visual system who were working with wavelength, paint and other materials. From a selection of prints at The Prints and Drawings Department at Tate London, the presentation will refer to artists who were motivated by issues relating to how colour pigment was mixed and printed, to interrogate and explain colour perception and colour science, and in art, how artists have used colour to challenge the viewer and how a viewer might describe their experience of colour. The title Colour in Flux refers, not only to the perceptual effect of the juxtaposition of one colour pigment with another, but also to the changes and challenges for the print industry. In the light of screenprinted examples from the 60s and 70s, the presentation will discuss 21 st century ideas on colour and how these notions have informed the Centre for Fine Print Research's (CFPR) practical research in colour printing. The latter part of this presentation will discuss the implications for the need to change methods in mixing inks that moves away from existing colour spaces, from non intuitive colour mixing to bespoke ink sets, colour mixing approaches and colour mixing methods that are not reliant on RGB or CMYK.

  7. [Stages of change related to fruit and vegetables consumption, physical activity, and weight control in Chilean university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardones H, María Angélica; Olivares C, Sonia; Araneda F, Jacqueline; Gómez F, Nelly

    2009-09-01

    In order to design effective health promotion interventions, nutritional status and the stages of change related to the consumption of fruit and vegetables, physical activity, and weight control were determined in 955 students of both genders at the University of Bio-Bio, Chile. The sample was randomly selected by campus, faculty, and career, with a level of confidence of 95% and a maximum error of 3%. Beside the descriptive analysis, to evaluate the association among nutritional status, fruit and vegetables consumption, physical activity and weight control, Chi2 test was applied. Nutritional status was determined by Body Mass Index and WHO reference standards for adults. A questionnaire previously validated by INTA was applied to evaluate the stages of change. The prevalence of overweight and obesity reached 48.2% in men and 25.5% in women (pphysical activity regularly (pphysical activity.

  8. Control of postharvest diseases of fruit by heat and fungicides: efficacy, residue levels, and residue persistence. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirra, Mario; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Cabras, Paolo; Angioni, Alberto

    2011-08-24

    Extensive research has been done in recent years to reduce the heavy dependence on chemical fungicides to control postharvest diseases and disorders of horticultural crops. Alternative strategies were based on improved cultural practices, biological control, plant-defense promoters, and physical treatments such as UV illumination, radiofrequency treatment, heat therapy, and storage technologies. Among these, postharvest heat treatments such as hot water dips, short hot water rinsing and brushing, and hot air conditioning have reduced rot development and enhanced fruit resistance to chilling injury in sensitive cultivars while retaining fruit quality during cold storage and shelf life. Additive or synergistic increases in effectiveness were observed by integrating heat therapy with various chemical compounds, thus leading to significant reductions in the application of active ingredients to protect produce from decay. This paper highlights the knowledge on this topic with emphasis on heat therapy effects and factors affecting the uptake, persistence, and performance of fungicide residues when they are applied in combination with hot water.

  9. Biological and Cultural Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California---Utilization of Parasitoids from USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala and Cultural Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitoid Psytallia humilis = P. cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), larvae at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier, for biological ...

  10. Laser colouring on titanium alloys: characterisation and potential applications

    OpenAIRE

    Franceschini, Federica; Demir, Ali Gökhan; Dowding, Colin; Previtali, Barbara; Griffiths, Jonathan David

    2014-01-01

    Oxides of titanium exhibit vivid colours that can be generated naturally or manipulated through controlled oxidation processes. The application of a laser beam for colouring titanium permits flexible manipulation of the oxidized geometry with high spatial resolution. The laser-based procedure can be applied in an ambient atmosphere to generate long-lasting coloured marks. Today, these properties are largely exploited in artistic applications such as jewellery, eyewear frames, watch components...

  11. Coloured phase singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    For illumination with white light, the spectra near a typical isolated phase singularity (nodal point of the component wavelengths) can be described by a universal function of position, up to linear distortion and a weak dependence on the spectrum of the source. The appearance of the singularity when viewed by a human observer is predicted by transforming the spectrum to trichromatic variables and chromaticity coordinates, and then rendering the colours, scaled to constant luminosity, on a computer monitor. The pattern far from the singularity is a white that depends on the source temperature, and the centre of the pattern is flanked by intensely coloured 'eyes', one orange and one blue, separated by red, and one of the eyes is surrounded by a bright white circle. Only a small range of possible colours appears near the singularity; in particular, there is no green. (author)

  12. Flare colours and luminosities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristaldi, S.; Rodono, M.

    1975-01-01

    Flare colours determined from simultaneous UBV observations made at Catania Observatory and from sequential UBV observations made at McDonald Observatory are presented. They fit fairly well with the theoretical colours computed according to the Gurzadian's (1970) non-thermal model. Only part of the observed flare colours are consistent with the solar type models by Gershberg (1967) and Kunkel (1970). From a B-band patrol of UV Cet-type stars carried out from 1967 to 1972, some quantitative estimates of flare frequencies and luminosities and their average contributions to the stellar radiation are given. The corresponding parameters for the Sun, which were estimated from 'white light' flare activity, are also given for comparison. The Sun and V 1216 Sgr can be regarded as low-activity flare stars of the type found by Kunkel (1973). (Auth.)

  13. Colour pyrometer. Farbpyrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhleich, H; Suetterlin, L; Borchers, D; Pflaum, P

    1980-12-11

    The colour pyrometer according to the invention, in which two beams of limited wavelength from the incoming beam of light are filtered through a chopper with two colour filters of the same diameter rotating round and axis, and are taken to a photo-electric element, from the output signals of which a quotient proportional to the surface temperature of the object is formed in an electrical network, is characterized by the fact that the colour filters in the cylinder wall are arranged at a right angle to each other in a drum rotating around the cylinder axis transverse to the incoming light beam, and are parallel to the axis of rotation, and that the drum wall has openings in the sides diametrically opposite the filters.

  14. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    Coloured Petri nets (CP-nets) can be used for several fundamentally different purposes like functional analysis, performance analysis, and visualisation. To be able to use the corresponding tool extensions and libraries it is sometimes necessary to include extra auxiliary information in the CP......-net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... of the same basic CP-net. One solution to this problem is that the auxiliary information is not integrated into colour sets and arc inscriptions of a CP-net, but is kept separately. This makes it easy to disable this auxiliary information if a CP-net is to be used for another purpose. This paper proposes...

  15. Product quality control, irradiation and shipping procedures for mass-reared tephritid fruit flies for sterile insect release programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    This document represents the recommendations, reached by consensus of an international group of quality control experts, on the standard procedures for product quality control (QC) for mass reared tephritid flies that are to be used in Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs. In addition, the manual describes recommended methods of handling and packaging pupae during irradiation and shipment. Most of the procedures were designed specifically for use with Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), but they are applicable, with minor modification in some cases, for other tephritid species such as Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspense, Mexican fruit fly A. ludens, and various Bactrocera species. The manual is evolving and subject to periodic updates. The future additions will include other fruit flies as the need is identified. If followed, procedures described in this manual will help ensure that the quality of mass-produced flies is measured accurately in a standardised fashion, allowing comparisons of quality over time and across rearing facilities and field programmes. Problems in rearing, irradiation and handling procedures, and strain quality can be identified and hopefully corrected before control programmes are affected. Tests and procedures described in this document are only part of a total quality control programme for tephritid fly production. The product QC evaluations included in this manual are, unless otherwise noted, required to be conducted during SIT programmes by the Field programme staff not the production staff. Additional product QC tests have been developed and their use is optional (see ancillary test section). Production and process QC evaluations (e.g., analysis of diet components, monitoring the rearing environment, yield of larvae, development rate, etc.) are not within the scope of this document. Quality specifications are included for minimum and mean acceptability of conventional strains of C. capitata, A. ludens, and A

  16. Madeira-Med, a sterile insect technique programme for control of the Mediterranean fruit fly in Madeira, Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.; Barbosa, A.; Silva, N.; Caldeira, J.; Dantas, L.; Pacheco, J.

    2000-01-01

    The islands of Madeira are located 980 km west-southwest from mainland Portugal and have a population of approximately 255,000. The islands are volcanic with very little level land suitable for large agricultural production. Approximately 47% of the land area is above 700 m. Thus the area likely to require Medfly control is about half of the islands. Agricultural production is on small scale, frequently part-time and mostly terraced because of the volcanic nature of the land. Grapes for wine and bananas are the predominant fruit crops. Neither are primary Medfly hosts. Citrus and tropical fruits are not produced in large quantities and are generally not of high quality. This is, to a large extent, because intensive Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), attack has prevented the establishment of citrus and tropical fruit production. Medflies are present the year round on land below 300 m, resulting in the necessity of continuous control measures, usually insecticide bait sprays. Current annual losses from the Medflies in Madeira are estimated at US$3 million. In 1992, the agricultural officials of Madeira applied for an European Union (EU) grant to eliminate the Medfly from Madeira using the sterile insect technique (SIT). After extensive discussions, the project was changed from eradication to control and approved in late 1993 with EU support of about 8 million ECU over a 7-year period. Subsequently, the Madeira officials applied for, and received, a technical assistance project from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The IAEA support is primarily for training and consultant services. Sterile female Medflies puncture fruits when they try to lay eggs. These punctures, called 'sterile stings', result in a reduced crop value. For this reason, the Madeira-Med programme will use only sterile male Medflies in its SIT programme. This not only eliminates the sterile sting problem but also increases the efficacy of the sterile males from

  17. Dissipation pattern of flubendiamide residues on capsicum fruit (Capsicum annuum L.) under field and controlled environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddidathi, Radhika; Mohapatra, Soudamini; Siddamallaiah, Lekha; Manikrao, Gourishankar; Hebbar, Shibara Shankara

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to compare the dissipation pattern of flubendiamide in capsicum fruits under poly-house and open field after giving spray applications at the recommended and double doses of 48 g a.i. ha(-1) and 96 g a.i. ha(-1). Extraction and purification of capsicum fruit samples were carried out by the QuEChERS method. Residues of flubendiamide and its metabolite, des-iodo flubendiamide, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array, and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Limit of quantification of the method was 0.05 mg kg(-1), and recovery of the insecticides was in the range of 89.6-104.3%, with relative standard deviation being 4.5-11.5%. The measurement uncertainty of the analytical method was in the range of 10.7-15.7%. Initial residue deposits of flubendiamide on capsicum fruits grown under poly-house conditions were (0.977 and 1.834 mg kg(-1)) higher than that grown in the field (0.665 and 1.545 mg kg(-1)). Flubendiamide residues persisted for 15 days in field-grown and for 25 days in poly-house-grown capsicum fruits. The residues were degraded with the half-lives of 4.3-4.7 and 5.6-6.6 days in field and poly-house respectively. Des-iodo flubendiamide was not detected in capsicum fruits or soil. The residues of flubendiamide degraded to below the maximum residue limit notified by Codex Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) after 1 and 6 days in open field, and 3 and 10 days in poly-house. The results of the study indicated that flubendiamide applied to capsicum under controlled environmental conditions required longer pre-harvest interval to allow its residues to dissipate to the safe level.

  18. Control of Black Rot Disease in Tomato Fruits by Using Formulated Ginger Essential oil Treated by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helal, I.M.; Abdeldaiem, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Ginger essential oil (Zingiber officinale) treated by gamma radiation at dose of 10 kGy was selected as an active ingredient for formulation of the biocide. Liquid formulations (emulsifiable concentrates) were prepared using different emulsifiers (Emulgator B.L.M. and tween 80 or tween 20) and additive oil (soybean oil). Physicochemical properties of the formulated oil (spontaneous emulsification, emulsion stability; cold stability and heat stability, viscosity, surface tension and ph) were measured. The formulated oil was tested in vivo to investigate its efficiency for controlling the growth of Alternaria alternata inoculated into tomato fruits. The results indicated that soaking inoculated tomato fruits in the formulated oil (ginger essential oil + soybean oil + emulgator B.L.M. + tween 80) treatment at concentration of 300 ppm for a period of 12 minute was the most effective for controlling the growth of the tested fungus. In addition, the formulated oil had efficiency for controlling the rot development on tomato fruits when applied as therapeutic and protective agents

  19. Lambda-cyhalothrin efficiency on fruit borer control and quali-quantitative spraying aspects in a pinecone crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Lavinscky Costa Morais

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, the state of Bahia is one of the largest pinecone (Annona squamosa L. growers; nevertheless, fruit borer (Cerconota anonella L. presence limits production. This research aimed to test the efficiency of lambda-cyhalothrin in controlling fruit borer using different spray volumes; additionally, this research tested qualitative and quantitative operational aspects. Trials were carried out in pinecone orchards in Caraíbas-BA, Brazil. Pesticide efficiency was tested by a randomized block experiment with six treatments and five replications. Treatments consisted of lambda-cyhalothrin application (1.5 g a.i. 100 L-1 water with a surfactant (0.03% v v-1 at spray volumes of 100, 200, 268, 382 and 488 L ha-1 and one control (without spray. Pest infestation was assessed by counting symptomatic fruits for further percentage calculation. Five treatments with five replications were developed to evaluate spraying performance. These treatments consisted of an aqueous solution with a Brilliant Blue tracer at 0.15% (p v-1 and a surfactant at 0.03% (v v-1, using the same spray volumes as the first experiment. Qualitative assessments were performed on water-sensitive paper cards and were quantified through tracer deposit levels on leaves. Spray volumes between 100 and 382 L ha-1 with lambda-cyhalothrin were efficient to control Cerconota anonella in the pinecone crop, providing good quality application.

  20. Specifying colours for colour vision testing using computer graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toufeeq, A

    2004-10-01

    This paper describes a novel test of colour vision using a standard personal computer, which is simple and reliable to perform. Twenty healthy individuals with normal colour vision and 10 healthy individuals with a red/green colour defect were tested binocularly at 13 selected points in the CIE (Commission International d'Eclairage, 1931) chromaticity triangle, representing the gamut of a computer monitor, where the x, y coordinates of the primary colour phosphors were known. The mean results from individuals with normal colour vision were compared to those with defective colour vision. Of the 13 points tested, five demonstrated consistently high sensitivity in detecting colour defects. The test may provide a convenient method for classifying colour vision abnormalities.

  1. Asymmetric chiral colour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuypers, F.

    1990-01-01

    Chiral colour is considered in a general framework where the coupling constants associated with each SU(3) component are allowed to be different. To reproduce QCD at low energy, gluons and axigluons cannot then be maximally mixed. Present data form e + e - colliders contrains the axigluon mass to values between 50 GeV and 375 GeV whilst the mixing angle is bounded by 13deg and 45deg. The lower limit of the axigluon mass is a definite bound at 90% C.L., whereas the upper limit only applies if chiral colour is to explain the anomalously high rates of hadron production at TRISTAN. (orig.)

  2. Survey of South African fruit juices using a fast screening HILIC-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stander, Marietjie A; Kühn, Wernich; Hiten, Nicholas F

    2013-01-01

    Adulteration of fruit juices--by the addition of sugar or other less expensive fruit juices as well as preservatives, artificial sweeteners and colours--was tested for by using a developed screening method. The method employs hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) using electrospray ionisation in the negative mode and ultraviolet light detection. Different fruit juices can be differentiated by the content of marker compounds like sorbitol, certain phenolic molecules and their saccharide profile. This method was used to test 46 fruit juice samples from the retail market as well as 12 control samples. The study focused on the main types of fruit juices consumed on the South African market including apple, orange, grape and blends of these juices with other fruits like mango, pear and guava. Overall, the 46 samples tested mostly agreed with label claims. One grape juice sample was adulterated, probably with apple juice. Natamycin above the legal limits was found in two samples. In addition, two samples contained natamycin and one sample benzoate without it being indicated on the label. The method is well suited as a quick screening method for fruit juice adulteration and if used routinely would reduce fruit juice adulteration without the cost of the current array of tests needed for authenticity testing.

  3. Shelf stable intermediate moisture fruit cubes using radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Bibhuti B.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Gautam, Satyendra; Chander, Ramesh; Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    A process has been developed to prepare shelf stable ready-to-eat (RTE) intermediate moisture pineapple slices and papaya cubes using radiation technology. The combination of hurdles including osmotic dehydration, blanching, infrared drying, and gamma radiation dose of 1 kGy successfully reduced the microbial load to below detectable limit. The shelf life of the intermediate moisture pineapple slices and papaya cubes was found to be 40 days at ambient temperature (28 ± 2 deg C). The control samples spoiled within 6 days. The RTE intermediate moisture fruit products were found to have good texture, colour and sensory acceptability during this 40 days storage. (author)

  4. Ethylene Control of Fruit Ripening: Revisiting the Complex Network of Transcriptional Regulation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervin, Christian; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone ethylene plays a key role in climacteric fruit ripening. Studies on components of ethylene signaling have revealed a linear transduction pathway leading to the activation of ethylene response factors. However, the means by which ethylene selects the ripening-related genes and interacts with other signaling pathways to regulate the ripening process are still to be elucidated. Using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) as a reference species, the present review aims to revisit the mechanisms by which ethylene regulates fruit ripening by taking advantage of new tools available to perform in silico studies at the genome-wide scale, leading to a global view on the expression pattern of ethylene biosynthesis and response genes throughout ripening. Overall, it provides new insights on the transcriptional network by which this hormone coordinates the ripening process and emphasizes the interplay between ethylene and ripening-associated developmental factors and the link between epigenetic regulation and ethylene during fruit ripening. PMID:26511917

  5. Review: computer vision applied to the inspection and quality control of fruits and vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Saldaña

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of the current existing literature concerning the inspection of fruits and vegetables with the application of computer vision, where the techniques most used to estimate various properties related to quality are analyzed. The objectives of the typical applications of such systems include the classification, quality estimation according to the internal and external characteristics, supervision of fruit processes during storage or the evaluation of experimental treatments. In general, computer vision systems do not only replace manual inspection, but can also improve their skills. In conclusion, computer vision systems are powerful tools for the automatic inspection of fruits and vegetables. In addition, the development of such systems adapted to the food industry is fundamental to achieve competitive advantages.

  6. The apple skin: colourful healthiness : developmental and environmental regulation of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid in apples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awad, M.A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The ultimate objective of the production, handling and distribution of fresh fruits and vegetables is to satisfy consumers requirements. In general the attractiveness of fruits and vegetables to consumers is determined both by visible (e.g. colour) and invisible (e.g. healthiness) quality

  7. The guidance of spatial attention during visual search for colour combinations and colour configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Nick; Eimer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Representations of target-defining features (attentional templates) guide the selection of target objects in visual search. We used behavioural and electrophysiological measures to investigate how such search templates control the allocation of attention in search tasks where targets are defined by the combination of two colours or by a specific spatial configuration of these colours. Target displays were preceded by spatially uninformative cue displays that contained items in one or both tar...

  8. Detection of irradiated cheese and exotic fruits by a simple routine control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegelberg, A.; Schulzki, G.; Helle, N.; Boegl, K.W.; Schreiber, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The results demonstrate very clearly that Florisil chromatography is a suitable routine method to detect irradiation treatment in Camembert, mango seeds and avocado flesh. Inspite of excluding 1-14:1 as marker for irradiation treatment on account of fat attendant flavour compounds in fruits, an unequivocal revelation of irradiated samples was possible because the most important radiation-induced hydrocarbons 1,7-26:2 and 8-14:1 (arising from oleic acid) could be clearly detected in both fruits. In addition, high amounts of 1-16:1 from stearic acid are present in irradiated mango and 6,9-17:2 from linoleic acid in avocado. (orig.)

  9. Oculomotor capture by colour singletons depends on intertrial priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stefanie I

    2010-10-12

    In visual search, an irrelevant colour singleton captures attention when the colour of the distractor changes across trials (e.g., from red to green), but not when the colour remains constant (Becker, 2007). The present study shows that intertrial changes of the distractor colour also modulate oculomotor capture: an irrelevant colour singleton distractor was only selected more frequently than the inconspicuous nontargets (1) when its features had switched (compared to the previous trial), or (2) when the distractor had been presented at the same position as the target on the previous trial. These results throw doubt on the notion that colour distractors capture attention and the eyes because of their high feature contrast, which is available at an earlier point in time than information about specific feature values. Instead, attention and eye movements are apparently controlled by a system that operates on feature-specific information, and gauges the informativity of nominally irrelevant features. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Automaticity and localisation of concurrents predicts colour area activity in grapheme-colour synaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould van Praag, Cassandra D; Garfinkel, Sarah; Ward, Jamie; Bor, Daniel; Seth, Anil K

    2016-07-29

    In grapheme-colour synaesthesia (GCS), the presentation of letters or numbers induces an additional 'concurrent' experience of colour. Early functional MRI (fMRI) investigations of GCS reported activation in colour-selective area V4 during the concurrent experience. However, others have failed to replicate this key finding. We reasoned that individual differences in synaesthetic phenomenology might explain this inconsistency in the literature. To test this hypothesis, we examined fMRI BOLD responses in a group of grapheme-colour synaesthetes (n=20) and matched controls (n=20) while characterising the individual phenomenology of the synaesthetes along dimensions of 'automaticity' and 'localisation'. We used an independent functional localiser to identify colour-selective areas in both groups. Activations in these areas were then assessed during achromatic synaesthesia-inducing, and non-inducing conditions; we also explored whole brain activations, where we sought to replicate the existing literature regarding synaesthesia effects. Controls showed no significant activations in the contrast of inducing > non-inducing synaesthetic stimuli, in colour-selective ROIs or at the whole brain level. In the synaesthete group, we correlated activation within colour-selective ROIs with individual differences in phenomenology using the Coloured Letters and Numbers (CLaN) questionnaire which measures, amongst other attributes, the subjective automaticity/attention in synaesthetic concurrents, and their spatial localisation. Supporting our hypothesis, we found significant correlations between individual measures of synaesthetic phenomenology and BOLD responses in colour-selective areas, when contrasting inducing against non-inducing stimuli. Specifically, left-hemisphere colour area responses were stronger for synaesthetes scoring high on phenomenological localisation and automaticity/attention, while right-hemisphere colour area responses showed a relationship with localisation

  11. Fun with Colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Curriculum: Science for Year 5 includes "recognising that the colour of an object depends on the properties of the object and the color of the light source". This article shows how much more can be done with color in the science laboratory. Activities include using a prism to explore white light, using a hand lens to…

  12. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...

  13. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  14. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism an...

  15. Colour chemistry in water

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels have increased dramatically in the last few decades. Famous for causing global warming, CO2 is also resulting in the acidification of seas and oceans. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/colour-chemistry-in-water/

  16. ATLAS Colouring Book

    CERN Multimedia

    Anthony, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment Colouring Book is a free-to-download educational book, ideal for kids aged 5-9. It aims to introduce children to the field of High-Energy Physics, as well as the work being carried out by the ATLAS Collaboration.

  17. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1987-01-01

    The author describes a Petri net model, called coloured Petri nets (CP-nets), by means of which it is possible to describe large systems without having to cope with unnecessary details. The author introduces CP-nets and provide a first impression of their modeling power and the suitability...

  18. Colour, vision and ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age.

  19. Mapping a candidate gene (MdMYB10 for red flesh and foliage colour in apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Andrew C

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrating plant genomics and classical breeding is a challenge for both plant breeders and molecular biologists. Marker-assisted selection (MAS is a tool that can be used to accelerate the development of novel apple varieties such as cultivars that have fruit with anthocyanin through to the core. In addition, determining the inheritance of novel alleles, such as the one responsible for red flesh, adds to our understanding of allelic variation. Our goal was to map candidate anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes in a population segregating for the red flesh phenotypes. Results We have identified the Rni locus, a major genetic determinant of the red foliage and red colour in the core of apple fruit. In a population segregating for the red flesh and foliage phenotype we have determined the inheritance of the Rni locus and DNA polymorphisms of candidate anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes. Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in the candidate genes were also located on an apple genetic map. We have shown that the MdMYB10 gene co-segregates with the Rni locus and is on Linkage Group (LG 09 of the apple genome. Conclusion We have performed candidate gene mapping in a fruit tree crop and have provided genetic evidence that red colouration in the fruit core as well as red foliage are both controlled by a single locus named Rni. We have shown that the transcription factor MdMYB10 may be the gene underlying Rni as there were no recombinants between the marker for this gene and the red phenotype in a population of 516 individuals. Associating markers derived from candidate genes with a desirable phenotypic trait has demonstrated the application of genomic tools in a breeding programme of a horticultural crop species.

  20. The sterile-insect technique for the control of fruit flies: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, E.J.

    1975-01-01

    Some advantages of the sterile-insect technique (SIT) are its minimum contribution to environmental pollution and its minimum adverse effect on non-target organisms. A review is made of the melon fly and sterile Mediterranean fruit fly release programmes, the accomplishments, and the implications. Recommendations are made for research leading to development of methods for practical use of the SIT. (author)

  1. Are biological control agents, isolated from tropical fruits, harmless to potential consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Suarez, Iris Betsabee; López, Zaira; Calderón-Santoyo, Montserrat; Ragazzo-Sánchez, Juan Arturo; Knauth, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Postharvest losses of fruits and vegetables can reach up to 25% in developed and up to 50% in developing countries. (Sub)tropical fruits are especially susceptible because their protecting peel can easily be damaged. Traditionally used pesticides are associated to environmental pollution and possible harmful health effects. An alternative are biocontrol agents (BCA), means bacteria or yeasts applied onto the fruits to inhibit the growth of phytopathogens. Many reports on their effectiveness have been published, however, reports on their harmlessness to consumers are still rare. Culture extracts of six BCAs, tested on two human lines (Caco-2, HeLa), exhibited no cytotoxic effect, when used directly (1×) to protect the fruits; however, when they are 5×overconcentrated, the confluence of proliferating cells was reduced, but not of differentiated Caco-2. In both cases necrosis was not increased. On proliferating cells, the 5×-extract from Cryptococcus laurentii or Debaryomyces hansenii reduced lysosome functionality and the 6.25×extract from Meyerozyma guilliermondii or Candida famata increased membrane permeability, while only the 25×-extract from M. guilliermondii or M. caribbica reduced slightly the metabolic activity. The extract of Bacillus subtilis showed no cytotoxic effect up to 10× concentration. Overall, their low cytotoxicity combined with high biodegradability make these products suitable for sustainable agriculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of a coating composed of chitosan from Mucor circinelloides and carvacrol to control Aspergillus flavus and the quality of cherry tomato fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro eDe Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill fruits are susceptible to contamination by Aspergillus flavus, which may cause the development of fruit rot and significant postharvest losses. Currently there are significant drawbacks for the use of synthetic fungicides to control pathogenic fungi in tomato fruits, and it has increased the interest in exploring new alternatives to control the occurrence of fungal infections in these fruits. This study evaluated the efficacy of chitosan (CHI from M. circinelloides in combination with carvacrol (CAR in inhibiting A. flavus in laboratory media and as a coating on cherry tomato fruits (25 °C, 12 days and 12 °C, 24 days. During a period of storage, the effect of coatings composed of CHI and CAR on autochthonous microflora, as well as on some quality characteristics of the fruits such as weight loss, color, firmness, soluble solids and titratable acidity was evaluated. CHI and CAR displayed MIC values of 7.5 mg/mL and 10 µL/mL, respectively, against A. flavus. The combined application of CHI (7.5 or 3.75 mg/mL and CAR (5 or 2.5 µL/mL strongly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of A. flavus. The coating composed of CHI (3.75 mg/mL and CAR (2.5 or 1.25 µL/mL inhibited the growth of A. flavus in artificially contaminated fruits, as well as the native fungal microflora of the fruits stored at room or low temperature. The application of the tested coatings preserved the quality of cherry tomato fruits as measured by some physicochemical attributes. From this, composite coatings containing CHI and CAR offer a promising alternative to control postharvest infection caused by A. flavus or native fungal microflora in fresh cherry tomato fruits without negatively affecting their quality over storage.

  3. The Sputum Colour Chart as a predictor of lung inflammation, proteolysis and damage in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: a case-control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeminne, Pieter C; Vandooren, Jennifer; Moelants, Eva A; Decraene, Ann; Rabaey, Evelyn; Pauwels, Ans; Seys, Sven; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Proost, Paul; Dupont, Lieven J

    2014-02-01

    Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) is characterized by a vicious cycle of airway infection, inflammation and structural damage with inappropriate mucus clearance. Our aim was to relate the value of proteolytic enzymes, proteolytic enzyme activity and inflammatory markers to disease severity and symptoms in patients with NCFB. Sputum induction in NCFB patients and healthy controls was performed. Sputum was analysed for total and differential cell count, markers of inflammation (CXCL8 (also known as interleukin-8) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) and proteolytic enzymes (neutrophil elastase (NE), gelatin zymography and total gelatinolytic activity (TGA)). Each patient was evaluated by spirometry, Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) and Sputum Colour Chart (SCC). Patient files were analysed to determine Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization status. The computed tomography (CT) closest to the date sputum induction was scored by a radiologist. NCFB patients showed significantly higher neutrophils, CXCL8, TNF-α, NE and TGA than healthy controls. TGA subanalysis showed that the majority of the activity was NE (82 ± 6.4%). Residual activity was mainly zinc ion-dependent matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity (18 ± 6.4%). Subanalysis showed that patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization had more activated MMP-9. Correlations were seen between proteolytic enzymes and inflammation and disease severity (spirometry and CT score), but not with the LCQ. SCC was associated with increased markers of inflammation, proteolytic enzymes and worse CT score. We show that sputum purulence assessment in daily clinical practice using the SCC is a quick and easy tool that reflects severity of inflammation, destruction and proteolytic enzymatic activity/presence. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  4. Application of 1-methylcyclopropene on mango fruit (Cv. Kesar): potential for shelf life enhancement and retention of quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhale, B K; Gaikwad, S S; Chavan, R F

    2018-02-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of gaseous application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on quality and shelf life of mango fruits of Cv. Kesar. The freshly harvested matured mango fruits were washed, cleaned and treated with fungicide at 500 ppm concentration for 10 min. The fruits were then subjected to 1-MCP treatment at different concentrations (500, 1000, 1500, 2000 ppb) and exposed for 18 and 24 h at 20 °C temperature in an air tight chamber along with control sample. The results indicated that the ripening in the early stages of mango was delayed by 1-MCP and shelf life of the fruits was increased with increase in the concentration of 1-MCP, also the physico-chemical changes such as percent physiological loss in weight of fruit, total soluble solids and colour was slowly increased and ascorbic acid content was effectively reduced. 1-MCP treatment of 2000 ppb for 24 h exposure time gave the best results for percent physiological loss in weight of fruit from 6.1 to 13% and ascorbic acid content from 80.28 to 22.34 mg/100 g, total soluble solids increased from 7.3 to 16.23 °Brix and the colour was improved from 50.9 to 68.6 h with shelf life of 20 days.

  5. Efficacy of plant essential oils on postharvest control of rots caused by fungi on different stone fruits in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Reyes, Jorge Giovanny; Spadaro, Davide; Prelle, Ambra; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2013-04-01

    The antifungal activity of plant essential oils was evaluated as postharvest treatment on stone fruit against brown rot and grey mold rot of stone fruit caused by Monilinia laxa and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. The essential oils from basil (Ocimum basilicum), fennel (Foeniculum sativum), lavender (Lavandula officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), oregano (Origanum vulgare), peppermint (Mentha piperita), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), savory (Satureja montana), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and wild mint (Mentha arvensis) were tested at two different concentrations on apricots (cv. Kyoto and cv. Tonda di Costigliole), nectarines (cv. Big Top and cv. Nectaross) and plums (cv. Italia and cv. TC Sun). The volatile composition of the essential oils tested was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The treatments containing essential oils from oregano, savory, and thyme at 1% (vol/vol) controlled both B. cinerea and M. laxa growing on apricots cv. Tonda di Costigliole and plums cv. Italia and cv. TC Sun; however, the same treatments were phytotoxic for the carposphere of nectarines cv. Big Top and cv. Nectaross. Treatments with 10% (vol/vol) essential oils were highly phytotoxic, notwithstanding their efficacy against the pathogens tested. The essential oils containing as major components α-pinene, p-cymene, carvacrol, and thymol showed similar results on stone fruit, so their antimicrobial activity and the phytotoxicity produced could be based on the concentration of their principal compounds and their synergistic activity. The efficacy of the essential oil treatments on control of fungal pathogens in postharvest depended on the fruit cultivar, the composition and concentration of the essential oil applied, and the length of storage.

  6. Colours Convey Lanna Identity in Lamphun and Chiang Mai Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raksawin, Karuna; Wonglaksanapan, Arphaphon; Suthasupa, Supagtra

    2017-10-01

    Colour control is a specific tool to identify local environment. Especially in the historic area or conservation area, to promote colour control is very necessary. Therefore, there are many standards of colour to control such as Munsell, colour name, and L*a*b*. This research is aimed to analyze the appropriate colour control by using a Munsell standard colour which is suitable to visual perception. The study area is scoped in northern region of Lanna culture in Thailand which nowadays used names of colours to control. Chiang Mai and Lamphun are selected to be case study because they are in a center of Lanna Empire of Thailand and have many historic significant things such as city wall, temple, monastery, palace, and city moat. The mainly procedure conducts in this article is based on the analysis of material colour. The study chose local natural materials which are used in the historic significant things. Earthen clay tile, wooden roof tile, burnt clay brick, laterites, hard wood, bamboo, silver, and gold are evaluated. The procedure used the DIC application of android processor on smart phone. This application has a conversion data to switch a colour value from pick-up point in photo to many colour values such as RGB, CMYK which Munsell value is included. The photos were taken within the historic area of Chiang Mai and Lamphun by random. The result can scope a range of colours of Munsell standard of natural colour (N), red (R), yellow (Y), and yellow-red (YR). A natural colour (N) can be suggested a range 1.0-9.0 (N 1.0-9.0). Red can be ranged the value between 3.0-7.0 and chroma between 3.0-9.0 (R 3.0-7.0/3.0-9.0). Yellow can be ranged the value between 6.0-9.0 and chroma between 4.0-12.0 (Y 6.0-9.0/4.0-12.0). Yellow-red can be ranged the value between 2.0-8.0 and chroma between 2.0-11.0 (YR 2.0-8.0/2.0-11.0). The results can be revealed a process of colour analysis of historic colour control and may offer to be an ordinance in further.

  7. On colour categorization of nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.

    1998-01-01

    The following research elaborates on some of the 'semantic' and 'algorithmic' aspects of the categorization process for thc colour domain. The structure of colour categories is argued to resemble the structure of Ihe distribution of colours in the perceived world. This distribution can be

  8. Control of foodborne pathogens on fresh-cut fruit by a novel strain of Pseudomonas graminis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Isabel; Viñas, Inmaculada; Usall, Josep; Teixidó, Neus; Figge, Marian J; Abadias, Maribel

    2013-06-01

    The consumption of fresh-cut fruit has substantially risen over the last few years, leading to an increase in the number of outbreaks associated with fruit. Moreover, consumers are currently demanding wholesome, fresh-like, safe foods without added chemicals. As a response, the aim of this study was to determine if the naturally occurring microorganisms on fruit are "competitive with" or "antagonistic to" potentially encountered pathogens. Of the 97 and 107 isolates tested by co-inoculation with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria innocua on fresh-cut apple and peach, respectively, and stored at 20 °C, seven showed a strong antagonistic capacity (more than 1-log unit reduction). One of the isolates, CPA-7, achieved the best reduction values (from 2.8 to 5.9-log units) and was the only isolate able to inhibit E. coli O157:H7 at refrigeration temperatures on both fruits. Therefore, CPA-7 was selected for further assays. Dose-response assays showed that CPA-7 should be present in at least the same amount as the pathogen to adequately reduce the numbers of the pathogen. From the results obtained in in vitro assays, competition seemed to be CPA-7's mode of action against E. coli O157:H7. The CPA-7 strain was identified as Pseudomonas graminis. Thus, the results support the potential use of CPA-7 as a bioprotective agent against foodborne pathogens in minimally processed fruit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple as affected by localized Application of GA3 under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moneruzzaman Khandaker

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of gibberellin (GA3 on the fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple. The wax apple trees were rubbing treated with 0, 20, 50 and 100 mgGA3/l under field conditions. The localized application (rubbing of 50 mg GA3/l significantly increased the fruit set, fruit length and diameter, color development, weight and yieldcompared to the control. In addition, GA3 treatments significantly reduced the fruit drop. With regard to the fruit quality, 50 mg/l GA3 treatment increased the juice content, K+, TSS, total sugar and sugar acid ratio of wax apple fruits. In addition, higher vitamin C, phenol, flavonoid, anthocyanin, carotene content, PAL and antioxidant activities were recorded in the treated fruits. There was a positive correlation between the peel colour and TSS content and between the PAL activity and anthocyanin formation in the GA3-treated fruit. It was concluded that rubbing with 50 mg/L GA3 at inflorescence developing point of phloem once a week from the tiny inflorescence bud until the flower opening resulted in better yield and quality of wax apple fruits and could be an effective technique to safe the environment from excessive spray.

  10. COLOUR THEREPY-BOON TO MANKIND

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Sajan Kurien Mathew

    2017-01-01

    Colour Therapy is a complementary therapy for which there is evidence dating back thousands of years to the ancient cultures of Egypt, China and India. Colour is simply light of varying wavelengths, thus each colour has its own particular wavelength and energy. "Colour affects our life. Colour is physical..........we see it. Colour communicates............we recieve information from the language of colour. Colour is emotional..........it evokes our feeling."1 The energy relating to each of th...

  11. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron.Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron , uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditionalmaterials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  12. The ability of a cold-adapted Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain from Tibet to control blue mold in pear fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Yan, Fujie; Wilson, Charles; Shen, Qing; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2015-12-01

    Cold-adapted yeasts were isolated from soil samples collected in Tibet and evaluated as potential biocontrol agents against blue mold (Penicillium expansum) of pear fruit in cold storage. YC1, an isolate identified as Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, was found to exhibit the greatest biocontrol activity among the different isolates that were screened. A washed cell suspension of YC1 exhibited the best biocontrol activity among three different preparations that were used in the current study. A concentration of 10(8) cells/ml reduced the incidence of decay to 35 %, compared to the control where decay incidence was 100 %. A higher intracellular level of trehalose and a higher proportion of polyunsaturated acids present in YC1, was associated with increased the tolerance of this strain to low temperatures, relative to the other strains that were evaluated. The increased tolerance to low temperature allowed the YC1 strain of yeast to more effectively compete for nutrients and space in wounded pear fruit that had been inoculated with spores of P. expansum and placed in cold storage. The present study demonstrated the ability to select cold-adapted yeasts from cold climates and use them as biocontrol agents of postharvest diseases of fruit placed in cold storage.

  13. Hue-specific colour memory impairment in an individual with intact colour perception and colour naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, L S; Pearson, P M; Robertson, B

    2008-01-15

    Cases of hue-selective dyschomatopsias, together with the results of recent optical imaging studies [Xiao, Y., Casti, A. R. R., Xiao, J., & Kaplan, E. (2006). A spatially organized representation of colour in macaque primary visual cortex. Perception, 35, ECVP Abstract Supplement; Xiao, Y., Wang, Y., & Felleman, D. J. (2003). A spatially organized representation of colour in macaque cortical area V2. Nature, 421, 535-539], have provided support for the idea that different colours are processed in spatially distinct regions of extrastriate cortex. In the present report, we provide evidence suggesting that a similar, but distinct, map may exist for representations of colour in memory. This evidence comes from observations of a young woman (QP) who demonstrates an isolated deficit in colour memory secondary to a concussive episode. Despite having normal colour perception and colour naming skills, and above-average memory skills in other domains, QP's ability to recall visually encoded colour information over short retention intervals is dramatically impaired. Her long-term memory for colour and her colour imagery skills are also abnormal. Surprisingly, however, these impairments are not seen with all hues; specifically, her ability to remember or imagine blue shades is spared. This interesting case contributes to the literature suggesting that colour perception, naming, and memory can be clinically dissociated, and provides insights into the organization of colour information in memory.

  14. Colour isomers in quark material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegaasen, H.

    1981-01-01

    Quantum chromodynamics is stated to be analogous to quantum electrodynamics and colour to electric charge. However since there are eight gluon fields and only one photon field, and gluons have colour while photons are electrically neutral, QCD is much more complicated than QED. The concept of colour confine confinement is introduced and the addition rules for colour multiplets are discussed. It is shown that quark colour leads to isomeric meson states. Bubble chamber films from CERN groups have been examined and hyperons and (sup a)Y* resonance particles have been found, which appears to confirm the theory. (JIW)

  15. Behavioural evidence for colour vision in an elasmobranch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van-Eyk, Sarah M; Siebeck, Ulrike E; Champ, Connor M; Marshall, Justin; Hart, Nathan S

    2011-12-15

    Little is known about the sensory abilities of elasmobranchs (sharks, skates and rays) compared with other fishes. Despite their role as apex predators in most marine and some freshwater habitats, interspecific variations in visual function are especially poorly studied. Of particular interest is whether they possess colour vision and, if so, the role(s) that colour may play in elasmobranch visual ecology. The recent discovery of three spectrally distinct cone types in three different species of ray suggests that at least some elasmobranchs have the potential for functional trichromatic colour vision. However, in order to confirm that these species possess colour vision, behavioural experiments are required. Here, we present evidence for the presence of colour vision in the giant shovelnose ray (Glaucostegus typus) through the use of a series of behavioural experiments based on visual discrimination tasks. Our results show that these rays are capable of discriminating coloured reward stimuli from other coloured (unrewarded) distracter stimuli of variable brightness with a success rate significantly different from chance. This study represents the first behavioural evidence for colour vision in any elasmobranch, using a paradigm that incorporates extensive controls for relative stimulus brightness. The ability to discriminate colours may have a strong selective advantage for animals living in an aquatic ecosystem, such as rays, as a means of filtering out surface-wave-induced flicker.

  16. Camouflage through colour change: mechanisms, adaptive value and ecological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Rafael C; Flores, Augusto A V; Stevens, Martin

    2017-07-05

    Animals from a wide range of taxonomic groups are capable of colour change, of which camouflage is one of the main functions. A considerable amount of past work on this subject has investigated species capable of extremely rapid colour change (in seconds). However, relatively slow colour change (over hours, days, weeks and months), as well as changes arising via developmental plasticity are probably more common than rapid changes, yet less studied. We discuss three key areas of colour change and camouflage. First, we review the mechanisms underpinning colour change and developmental plasticity for camouflage, including cellular processes, visual feedback, hormonal control and dietary factors. Second, we discuss the adaptive value of colour change for camouflage, including the use of different camouflage types. Third, we discuss the evolutionary-ecological implications of colour change for concealment, including what it can tell us about intraspecific colour diversity, morph-specific strategies, and matching to different environments and microhabitats. Throughout, we discuss key unresolved questions and present directions for future work, and highlight how colour change facilitates camouflage among habitats and arises when animals are faced with environmental changes occurring over a range of spatial and temporal scales.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Preferences by Rhagoletis indifferens (Dipt., Tephritidae) and non-target flies for rectangles of various yellow colours and fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven sticky rectangle traps of various yellow colours and fluorescence made of cardboard were field tested against western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, in paired trap preference experiments in Washington state, USA. Alpha Scents (proprietary paint), Fluorescent Yellow (aerosol ...

  18. Working memory in children and adolescents with Down syndrome: evidence from a colour memory experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Glynis

    2002-03-01

    This paper reports information on the visual and verbal short-term memory of individuals with Down syndrome. Colour memory in 16 children and adolescents with Down syndrome was compared with that of 16 typically developing children matched for receptive vocabulary. It was suggested that focal colours should be remembered more successfully than non-focal colours on the basis that the former could be remembered using a verbal recoding strategy. However, children with Down syndrome, for whom a deficit in verbal short-term memory makes the use of such a strategy unlikely, should remember focal and non-focal colours equally well. More importantly, if individuals with Down syndrome have more developed visual memory abilities than control children, they should outperform them in recognising non-focal colours. Although the group with Down syndrome demonstrated significantly better Corsi blocks performance than controls, and displayed similar levels of colour knowledge, no advantage for colour memory was found. Non-focal colours were remembered by individuals with Down syndrome as successfully as focal colours but there was no indication of a visual memory advantage over controls. Focal colours were remembered significantly more successfully than non-focal colours by the typically developing children. Their focal colour memory was significantly related to digit span, but only Corsi span was related to focal colour memory in the group with Down syndrome.

  19. Economic evaluation of three alternative methods for control of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Israel, Palestinian Territories, and Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enkerlin, W.; Mumford, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is a major pest of fruit crops in the Mediterranean Basin countries. If no control measures are applied in Israel, Palestinian Territories, and Jordan against this pest, the annual fruit losses are estimated to be about U.S. $365 million, which is more than half the total revenue produced by fruits considered to be Mediterranean fruit fly hosts in these countries. Under the current control programs, the direct damage (yield loss and control costs) and indirect damage (environmental impact and market loss) amount to U.S. $192 million per year. This amount could increase each year if the current control programs are kept. The aim of this study was to evaluate, on a regional basis, the economic returns of 3 improved alternative Mediterranean fruit fly control methods using a 9-yr time frame. The control alternatives include population suppression using bait sprays, population suppression using massive release of sterile male flies, and population eradication also using massive releases of sterile male flies. For each option, an action plan was prepared which includes intensity, frequency and timing of sampling (trapping and fruit gathering), control (bait sprays and sterile male releases), and postcontrol (quarantine and emergency capacity) techniques. For the economic evaluation costs and benefits at net present value are computed for each control option to estimate the economic indices. Results indicate that the 3 area-wide control options are technically and economically feasible and all are better than the current control programs. For each option, the economic returns on a medium and long term are discussed, along with the environmental impact. Over the 9-yr time frame, the greatest economic return is from the sterile male suppression option. Over a much longer time frame, the greatest return is for the sterile male eradication option

  20. Quorum Quenching and Microbial Control through Phenolic Extract of Eugenia Uniflora Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Adeline Conceição; Zola, Flávia Guimarães; Ávila Oliveira, Brígida D'; Sacramento, Nayara Thais Barbosa; da Silva, Elis Regina; Bertoldi, Michele Corrêa; Taylor, Jason Guy; Pinto, Uelinton Manoel

    2016-10-01

    We describe the characterization of the centesimal composition, mineral and phenolic content of Eugenia uniflora fruit and the determination of the antioxidant, antimicrobial and quorum quenching activities of the pulp phenolic extract. Centesimal composition was determined according to standard methods; trace elements were measured by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The phenolic compounds were extracted by solid-phase chromatography and quantified by spectrophotometry. Antioxidant activity was determined by using 3 different methods. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against a panel of foodborne microorganisms and antiquorum sensing activity in Chromobacterium violaceum was performed by measuring inhibition of quorum sensing dependent violacein production. The centesimal composition (per 100 g of pulp) was as follows: protein 3.68 ± 0.21 g, lipids 0.02 ± 0.03 g, carbohydrates 10.31 g and fiber 2.06 g. Trace elements (mg/g of pulp) were determined as: K 0.90, Ca 3.36, Fe 0.60, Zn 0.17, Cl 0.56, Cr 0.06, Ni 0.04, and Cu 0.07. The pulp is a source of phenolic compounds and presents antioxidant activity similar to other berries. The fruit phenolic extract inhibited all tested bacteria. We also found that the fruit phenolic extract at low subinhibitory concentrations inhibited up to 96% of violacein production in C. violaceum, likely due to the fruit's phenolic content. This study shows the contribution of E. uniflora phenolic compounds to the antioxidant, antimicrobial and the newly discovered quorum quenching activity, all of which could be used by the food and pharmaceutical industries to develop new functional products. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Use of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for fruit fly control: a novel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo, E-mail: jtoledo@ecosur.m [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Subdireccion de Desarrollo de Metodos; Campos, Sergio E.; Villasenor, Antonio [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Programa Moscamed. Direccion de Operaciones de Campo

    2006-07-01

    The potential of two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) Sorokin, as practical fruit fly biocontrol agents is studied. These natural inhabitants of soil are found infecting a wide range of insect species that spend at least one stage of their life cycle in the soil. Sterile flies are used as vectors of the infection. A summary of results from different laboratory and field cage experiments is presented. (MAC)

  2. Use of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for fruit fly control: a novel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Campos, Sergio E.; Villasenor, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The potential of two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) Sorokin, as practical fruit fly biocontrol agents is studied. These natural inhabitants of soil are found infecting a wide range of insect species that spend at least one stage of their life cycle in the soil. Sterile flies are used as vectors of the infection. A summary of results from different laboratory and field cage experiments is presented. (MAC)

  3. Chiral colour and axigluons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuypers, F.

    1989-01-01

    The authors studies the phenomenological implications of the Chiral Colour model which allow him to derive experimental bounds on the axigluon mass or to predict deviations from the Standard Model. After a short introduction to the theory, the author examines the way it modifies the standard decay of quarkonium. Comparison with the observed lifetime of the upsilon allows him to exclude the existence of axigluons lighter than 9 GeV. (Others have since extended the work and were able to increase this limit to 25 GeV.) He then studies the Chiral Colour contribution to the hadronic cross-section in the electron-positron scattering and derive a conservative lower bound of 50 GeV for the axigluon mass. Finally, he predicts observable enhancements of the lifetime and rare decay channels of the Z O in the presence of light axigluons

  4. Field evalution of controling methods of mango fruit flies bactrocera zonata (Biptera:Tephritidae in the southern part of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khosravi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Bactrocera zonata (Diptera, Tephritidae, is considered as a dangerous pest of mango in the south of Iran, which its control is one of the main concerns of farmers who are facing numerous problems. To assay the different methods for controlling B. zonata, this study was carried out. Method: The treatments were, A spraying 7% methyl eugenol+7% technical malathion on trunk and tree branches, B soaking 8-10 layers of jute sacks with previous treatment that were attached to tree branches, C bucket trap along with chipboard that was saturated with 6 ml of methyl eugenol, D spraying 3% protein hydrolysate+3 ppm malathion (EC 57% on the trunk and tree branches, E spraying 3% sugar permit+3 ppm malathion on the trunk and tree branches, and F control (no treatment. The experiments were repeated at two consecutive years. Results: The results confirmed that the differences among treatments and the effect of the year on the treatments were significant (p>1%. The treatment D captured the highest numbers of fruit flies in both years of replications. The treatments had significant effect on percentage of fruit infestation. Conclusion: The findings confirmed that treatments C and B had the greatest impact on pest control.

  5. Daylight Influence on Colour Design : Empirical Study on Perceived Colour and Colour Experience Indoors

    OpenAIRE

    Hårleman, Maud

    2007-01-01

    It is known that one and the same interior colouring will appear different in rooms with windows facing north or facing south, but it is not known how natural daylight from these two compass points affects perceived colour and the ways in which colour is experienced. The objective is to describe the perceived colours to be expected in rooms with sunlight and diffused light, and thus develop a tool for colour design. Two empirical investigations provide the basis for six attached papers. The m...

  6. Application of the sterile-insect technique for control of Mediterranean fruit flies in Israel under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamburov, S.S.; Yawetz, A.

    1975-01-01

    A large-scale field experiment, carried out in 1973 in Israel, employing the sterile-insect technique against the Mediterranean fruit fly and conducted over a 10 000 dunam area containing commercial citrus groves, is discussed. The release area was surrounded by a 500-m-wide low-volume (LV) bait spray barrier. Sterile flies were released from the ground and by air twice weekly. Results indicate successful control of the wild fly population for several months only and a clear suppression until July; thereafter, wild fertile females immigrated into the release area through the LV barrier. (author)

  7. Codling moth control by release of radiation-sterilized moths in a pome fruit orchard and observations of other pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proverbs, M.D.; Newton, J.R.; Logan, D.M.; Brinton, F.E.

    1975-01-01

    Release of radiation-sterilized male and female Laspeyresia pomonella (L.) in a 40-ha pome fruit orchard from 1969-72 in the Similkameen Valley of British Columbia reduced the wild population of this pest to a very low level without causing serious problems in control of other apple and pear pests. Percent apples injured by codling moth larvae at harvest were 0.1 in 1968 (after 3 sprays of azinphosmethyl), and 0.05, 0.02, 0.007, and 0.001 from 1969-72

  8. Impact of introduction of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) and classical biological control releases of Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on economically important fruit flies in French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Leblanc, Luc; Putoa, Rudolph; Eitam, Avi

    2007-06-01

    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), was discovered on Tahiti Island in July 1996. Eradication programs were conducted from 1997 to 2001, but failed. From 1998 to 2006, B. dorsalis was recovered from 29 different host fruit from the five Society Islands: Tahiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Tahaa, and Huahine. Analysis of coinfestation patterns by B. dorsalis, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), and Bactrocera kirki (Froggatt) suggested B. dorsalis had displaced these two species and become the most abundant fruit fly in coastal areas. To suppress B. dorsalis populations, a classical biological control program was initiated to introduce the natural enemy Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) into French Polynesia from Hawaii. Wasps were released and established on Tahiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Tahaa, and Huahine Islands. In guava, Psidium guajava L., collections for Tahiti, F. arisanus parasitism of fruit flies was 2.1, 31.8, 37.5, and 51.9% for fruit collected for 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively. Based on guava collections in 2002 (before releases) and 2006 (after releases), there was a subsequent decrease in numbers of B. dorsalis, B. tryoni, and B. kirki fruit flies emerging (per kilogram of fruit) by 75.6, 79.3, and 97.9%, respectively. These increases in F. arisanus parasitism and decreases in infestation were similar for other host fruit. Establishment of F. arisanus is the most successful example of classical biological control of fruit flies in the Pacific area outside of Hawaii and serves as a model for introduction into South America, Africa, and China where species of the B. dorsalis complex are established.

  9. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forder, Lewis; Taylor, Olivia; Mankin, Helen; Scott, Ryan B.; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry), detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d’) and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object’s stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain. PMID:27023274

  10. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forder, Lewis; Taylor, Olivia; Mankin, Helen; Scott, Ryan B; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry), detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d') and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object's stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain.

  11. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Forder

    Full Text Available The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry, detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d' and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object's stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain.

  12. Colour Reproduction on Tablet Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Zorić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of Internet and mobile devices client services and other print production are migrating more and more to online platforms. In a recent technology changeover it is obvious that there is growing number of printers as well need from the customers for the print service providers to expand their business to online and mobile platforms. With this technological transition there are some open questions regarding the possibilities of using the tablet devices for colour soft proofing and other colour related operations. As a display devices on a hardware level there are large similarities with the desktop display devices but the operating systems which are driving them are not yet colour smart. There have been some initial attempts to characterize the colour reproduction on this type of devices and find a possibility of using them not just for information content but also for colour managed content. In this study we have tested several tablets (Apple iPad2,Asus Transformer TF101, Samsung Galaxy Tab 1 with different display and OS technology and tested a software which is intended for colour managed viewing of the reproduction. We have measured the colour reproduction of the tablets with the digital version of the GretagMacbeth ColorChecker card and have calculated the colour differences between the colour chart data and the displayed data. We have calibrated the Ipad2 with the only existing colour management tool the Spyder Gallery and we have also tested the chart display with and without the colour correction of the software. We have found that there are differences in the colour reproduction of the display technologies and that the possibilities of a real colour managed workflow has yet to be resolved on the OS level of tablet and mobile devices

  13. Irradiation as a quarantine treatment against the invader fruit fly (Bactrocera Invadens, Drew) in mangoes (Mangifera Indica L,)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odai, B.T.

    2010-06-01

    The detection of the African invader fly, Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta and White, in Ghana has led to limitations in the export of mango fruits from Ghana to other countries. The limitations ranging from increased control costs to outright rejection of exports has necessitated a study in the area of quarantine treatment. A study was conducted to ascertain the effectiveness of gamma radiation for control of Bactrocera invadens in fruit destined for export. Pupae were obtained from the incubation of mango fruits collected from various locations. Adults were reared and infestation levels were determined after fruits were exposed to 5, 10, 20 females in different cages. Late instar larvae in fruits were irradiated at 15, 25, 35, 45, 50, 60 and 75 Gy to determine an effective dose for B. invadens. The mortality of the fly was determined at the various doses to obtain a probit 9 figure of 68.06 Gy (rounded to 70 Gy). The confirmatory test for 3050 larvae endorsed the effective dose as the probit 9 dose. Non-infested mature green export grade mango fruits were irradiated with 0, 70 and 150 Gy to determine its effect on ascorbic acid and total acidity content, sweetness, colour, juiciness, sourness, aroma and firmness of the mango fruits. Ascorbic acid and total acidity were not irradiation dependent. Varietal differences (p 0.05) by irradiation. Varietal differences did not affect the acceptability of the sweetness, sourness and colour of the fruits (p>0.05). Storage days significantly affected (p<0.05) the acceptability of all the sensory attributes. (au)

  14. Country-wine making from Eembe fruit (Berchemia discolor) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Country-wine was made from dried Eembe fruit purchased from Katima Mulilo open market using commercial wine yeast. The fruit produced a wine with 8.6% alcohol content when no sugar was added. Fermentation to produce the wine was carried out at 22ºC. The clarity, aroma, colour and acceptability of the wine was ...

  15. In Vitro Control of Post-Harvest Fruit Rot Fungi by Some Plant Essential Oil Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luigi Rana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight substances that are main components of the essential oils from three Mediterranean aromatic plants (Verbena officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare, previously found active against some phytopathogenic Fungi and Stramenopila, have been tested in vitro against five etiological agents of post-harvest fruit decay, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, P. expansum, Phytophthora citrophthora and Rhizopus stolonifer. The tested compounds were β-fellandrene, β-pinene, camphene, carvacrol, citral, o-cymene, γ-terpinene and thymol. Citral exhibited a fungicidal action against P. citrophthora; carvacrol and thymol showed a fungistatic activity against P. citrophthora and R. stolonifer. Citral and carvacrol at 250 ppm, and thymol at 150 and 250 ppm stopped the growth of B. cinerea. Moreover, thymol showed fungistatic and fungicidal action against P. italicum. Finally, the mycelium growth of P. expansum was inhibited in the presence of 250 ppm of thymol and carvacrol. These results represent an important step toward the goal to use some essential oils or their components as natural preservatives for fruits and foodstuffs, due to their safety for consumer healthy and positive effect on shelf life extension of agricultural fresh products.

  16. Supervised Object Class Colour Normalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riabchenko, Ekatarina; Lankinen, Jukka; Buch, Anders Glent

    2013-01-01

    . In this work, we develop a such colour normalisation technique, where true colours are not important per se but where examples of same classes have photometrically consistent appearance. This is achieved by supervised estimation of a class specic canonical colour space where the examples have minimal variation......Colour is an important cue in many applications of computer vision and image processing, but robust usage often requires estimation of the unknown illuminant colour. Usually, to obtain images invariant to the illumination conditions under which they were taken, color normalisation is used...... in their colours. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method with qualitative and quantitative examples from the Caltech-101 data set and a real application of 3D pose estimation for robot grasping....

  17. Colour mixing based on daylight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Colour science is based on the sensation of monochromatic light. In contrast to that, surface colours are caused by reflection of wide sections of the daylight spectrum. Non-spectral colours like magenta and purple appear homologous to colours with spectral hue, if the approach of mixing monochromatic light is abandoned. It is shown that a large region of the colour space can be covered by mixing three primary colours derived from lossless spectral decomposition of daylight. These primaries are specified by hue, saturation and luminosity. Duality of additive and subtractive mixing is formulated quantitatively. Experimental demonstrations of calculated results are suggested. This paper is intended for undergraduate optics courses, and advanced interdisciplinary seminars on arts and physics

  18. Use of Bacteriophages to Control Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Domestic Ruminants, Meat Products, and Fruits and Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Qu, Kunli; Li, Xiaoyu; Cao, Zhenhui; Wang, Xitao; Li, Zhen; Song, Yaxiong; Xu, Yongping

    2017-09-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important foodborne pathogen that causes severe bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Ruminant manure is a primary source of E. coli O157:H7 contaminating the environment and food sources. Therefore, effective interventions targeted at reducing the prevalence of fecal excretion of E. coli O157:H7 by cattle and sheep and the elimination of E. coli O157:H7 contamination of meat products as well as fruits and vegetables are required. Bacteriophages offer the prospect of sustainable alternative approaches against bacterial pathogens with the flexibility of being applied therapeutically or for biological control purposes. This article reviews the use of phages administered orally or rectally to ruminants and by spraying or immersion of fruits and vegetables as an antimicrobial strategy for controlling E. coli O157:H7. The few reports available demonstrate the potential of phage therapy to reduce E. coli O157:H7 carriage in cattle and sheep, and preparation of commercial phage products was recently launched into commercial markets. However, a better ecological understanding of the phage E. coli O157:H7 will improve antimicrobial effectiveness of phages for elimination of E. coli O157:H7 in vivo.

  19. Efficacy of protein bait sprays in controlling melon fruit fly [Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)] in vegetable agro-ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abro, Z.U.A.; Baloch, N.

    2017-01-01

    Melon fruit fly [Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)] is an injurious pest of vegetables and fruits throughout the cosmos. Vegetables are key source of proteins, minerals and vitamins for human nutrition. However, a number of factors, such as Tephritid flies, confine production of vegetables. Among them , B. cucurbitae is most deleterious pests of the vegetables. In the present investigation, conducted at two field locations of district, Hyderabad during 2016, efficacy of various bait sprays was evaluated in controlling Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) infestation. The field locations were Jeay Shah and Dehli farm and the cucurbit vegetable crops were bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) and bitter gourd ( Momordica charantia). For this purpose, three food attractants such as Nu-lure, Protein hydrolysate and Prima were sprayed on onemeter square per field area, as spot treatment. Significantly higher reductions in B. cucurbitae infestations (24.80+-2.63, 21.20+-2.75) were recorded with Protein hydrolysate followed by Nu-lure (27.80+-3.26, 24.20+-3.57), as compared with untreated plots, at both field locations (P<0.05). Moreover, higher number of pupae were recovered (121.40+-13.81, 115.00+-14.17) and higher number of flies and trap catches were observed in control (P<0.05). This study established that Protein hydrolysate is an effective food attractant for reducing B. cucurbitae in all the tested cucurbits. Results of the present investigation would be useful in developing a sustainable pest management strategy in the cucurbit agro-ecosystem. (author)

  20. Characteristics of the home food environment that mediate immediate and sustained increases in child fruit and vegetable consumption: mediation analysis from the Healthy Habits cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Rebecca; Wolfenden, Luke; Bisquera, Alessandra

    2015-09-17

    The home food environment can influence the development of dietary behaviours in children, and interventions that modify characteristics of the home food environment have been shown to increase children's fruit and vegetable consumption. However to date, interventions to increase children's fruit and vegetable consumption have generally produced only modest effects. Mediation analysis can help in the design of more efficient and effective interventions by identifying the mechanisms through which interventions have an effect. This study aimed to identify characteristics of the home food environment that mediated immediate and sustained increases in children's fruit and vegetable consumption following the 4-week Healthy Habits telephone-based parent intervention. Analysis was conducted using 2-month (immediate) and 12-month (sustained) follow-up data from a cluster randomised control trial of a home food environment intervention to increase the fruit and vegetable consumption of preschool children. Using recursive path analysis, a series of mediation models were created to investigate the direct and indirect effects of immediate and sustained changes to characteristics of the home food environment (fruit and vegetable availability, accessibility, parent intake, parent providing behaviour, role-modelling, mealtime eating practices, child feeding strategies, and pressure to eat), on the change in children's fruit and vegetable consumption. Of the 394 participants in the randomised trial, 357 and 329 completed the 2- and 12-month follow-up respectively. The final mediation model suggests that the effect of the intervention on the children's fruit and vegetable consumption was mediated by parent fruit and vegetable intake and parent provision of these foods at both 2- and 12-month follow-up. Analysis of data from the Healthy Habits trial suggests that two environmental variables (parental intake and parent providing) mediate the immediate and sustained effect of the

  1. Colour reconstruction of underwater images

    OpenAIRE

    Hoth, Julian; Kowalczyk, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Objects look very different in the underwater environment compared to their appearance in sunlight. Images with correct colouring simplify the detection of underwater objects and may allow the use of visual SLAM algorithms developed for land-based robots underwater. Hence, image processing is required. Current algorithms focus on the colour reconstruction of scenery at diving depth where different colours can still be distinguished. At greater depth this is not the case. In this study it is i...

  2. Colouring and knot polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, D.J.A.

    1991-01-01

    These lectures will attempt to explain a connection between the recent advances in knot theory using the Jones and related knot polynomials with classical problems in combinatorics and statistical mechanics. The difficulty of some of these problems will be analysed in the context of their computational complexity. In particular we shall discuss colourings and groups valued flows in graphs, knots and the Jones and Kauffman polynomials, the Ising, Potts and percolation problems of statistical physics, computational complexity of the above problems. (author). 20 refs, 9 figs

  3. Theory of colours

    CERN Document Server

    Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

    2006-01-01

    The wavelength theory of light and color had been firmly established by the time the great German poet published his Theory of Colours in 1810. Nevertheless, Goethe believed that the theory derived from a fundamental error, in which an incidental result was mistaken for a elemental principle. Far from affecting a knowledge of physics, he maintained that such a background would inhibit understanding. The conclusions Goethe draws here rest entirely upon his personal observations.This volume does not have to be studied to be appreciated. The author's subjective theory of colors permits him to spe

  4. The Metric of Colour Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    and found the MacAdam ellipses which are often interpreted as defining the metric tensor at their centres. An important question is whether it is possible to define colour coordinates such that the Euclidean distance in these coordinates correspond to human perception. Using cubic splines to represent......The space of colours is a fascinating space. It is a real vector space, but no matter what inner product you put on the space the resulting Euclidean distance does not correspond to human perception of difference between colours. In 1942 MacAdam performed the first experiments on colour matching...

  5. The effects of stimulus competition and voluntary attention on colour-graphemic synaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Anina N; Mattingley, Jason B

    2003-10-06

    Colour-graphemic synaesthetes experience vivid colours when reading letters, digits and words. We examined the effect of stimulus competition and attention on these unusual colour experiences in 14 synaesthetes and 14 non-synaesthetic controls. Participants named the colour of hierarchical local-global stimuli in which letters at each level elicited synaesthetic colours that were congruent or incongruent with the display colour. Synaesthetes were significantly slower to name display colours when either level was incongruent than when both levels were congruent. This effect was significantly reduced when synaesthetes focused attention on one level while the congruency of letters at the ignored level was varied. These findings suggest that competition between multiple inducers and mechanisms of voluntary attention influence colour-graphemic synaesthesia.

  6. Biological Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies in Argentina: Historical Review, Current Status, and Future Trends for Developing a Parasitoid Mass-Release Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovruski, Sergio M; Schliserman, Pablo

    2012-09-14

    In Argentina there are two tephritid fruit fly species of major economic and quarantine importance: the exotic Ceratitis capitata that originated from Southeast Africa and the native Anastrepha fraterculus. In recent years, the use of fruit fly parasitoids as biocontrol agents has received renewed attention. This increasing interest has recently led to the establishment of a program for the mass rearing of five million Diachasmimorpha longicaudata parasitoids per week in the BioPlanta San Juan facility, San Juan, Argentina. The first augmentative releases of D. longicaudata in Argentina are currently occurring on commercial fig crops in rural areas of San Juan as part of an integrated fruit fly management program on an area-wide basis. In this context, research is ongoing to assess the suitability of indigenous parasitoid species for successful mass rearing on larvae of either C. capitata or A. fraterculus. The purpose of this article is to provide a historical overview of the biological control of the fruit fly in Argentina, report on the strategies currently used in Argentina, present information on native parasitoids as potential biocontrol agents, and discuss the establishment of a long-term fruit fly biological control program, including augmentative and conservation modalities, in Argentina's various fruit growing regions.

  7. Biological Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies in Argentina: Historical Review, Current Status, and Future Trends for Developing a Parasitoid Mass-Release Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio M. Ovruski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Argentina there are two tephritid fruit fly species of major economic and quarantine importance: the exotic Ceratitis capitata that originated from Southeast Africa and the native Anastrepha fraterculus. In recent years, the use of fruit fly parasitoids as biocontrol agents has received renewed attention. This increasing interest has recently led to the establishment of a program for the mass rearing of five million Diachasmimorpha longicaudata parasitoids per week in the BioPlanta San Juan facility, San Juan, Argentina. The first augmentative releases of D. longicaudata in Argentina are currently occurring on commercial fig crops in rural areas of San Juan as part of an integrated fruit fly management program on an area-wide basis. In this context, research is ongoing to assess the suitability of indigenous parasitoid species for successful mass rearing on larvae of either C. capitata or A. fraterculus. The purpose of this article is to provide a historical overview of the biological control of the fruit fly in Argentina, report on the strategies currently used in Argentina, present information on native parasitoids as potential biocontrol agents, and discuss the establishment of a long-term fruit fly biological control program, including augmentative and conservation modalities, in Argentina’s various fruit growing regions.

  8. Subjective estimates of colour attributes for surface colours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishak, I.G.H.; Bouma, H.; van Bussel, H.J.J.

    1970-01-01

    Subjective estimates of hue, saturation, and lightness are reported for sixty coloured Munsell samples, shown against seven backgrounds (black, grey, white, red, yellow, green, and blue) as judged by two observers. The results show the adequacy of this method for studies on colour appearance. The

  9. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot Water immersion of Papaya (Carica Papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rashid, M.H.A.; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Continella, A.

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local an....... The combined treatment had no significant, negative impact on ripening, with quality characteristics such as surface and internal colour change, firmness, soluble solids, acidity and vitamin C maintained at acceptable levels....... and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green...... and 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability...

  10. Flight control of fruit flies: dynamic response to optic flow and headwind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Kiaran K K; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2017-06-01

    Insects are magnificent fliers that are capable of performing many complex tasks such as speed regulation, smooth landings and collision avoidance, even though their computational abilities are limited by their small brain. To investigate how flying insects respond to changes in wind speed and surrounding optic flow, the open-loop sensorimotor response of female Queensland fruit flies ( Bactrocera tryoni ) was examined. A total of 136 flies were exposed to stimuli comprising sinusoidally varying optic flow and air flow (simulating forward movement) under tethered conditions in a virtual reality arena. Two responses were measured: the thrust and the abdomen pitch. The dynamics of the responses to optic flow and air flow were measured at various frequencies, and modelled as a multicompartment linear system, which accurately captured the behavioural responses of the fruit flies. The results indicate that these two behavioural responses are concurrently sensitive to changes of optic flow as well as wind. The abdomen pitch showed a streamlining response, where the abdomen was raised higher as the magnitude of either stimulus was increased. The thrust, in contrast, exhibited a counter-phase response where maximum thrust occurred when the optic flow or wind flow was at a minimum, indicating that the flies were attempting to maintain an ideal flight speed. When the changes in the wind and optic flow were in phase (i.e. did not contradict each other), the net responses (thrust and abdomen pitch) were well approximated by an equally weighted sum of the responses to the individual stimuli. However, when the optic flow and wind stimuli were presented in counterphase, the flies seemed to respond to only one stimulus or the other, demonstrating a form of 'selective attention'. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. The role of Molecular Markers in Improvement of Fruit Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor Ahmad BHAT

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Markers have been used over the years for the classification of plants. Markers are any trait of an organism that can be identified with confidence and relative easy, and can be followed in a mapping population on another hand markers be defined as heritable entities associated with the economically important trait under the control of polygenes. Morphological markers can be detected with naked eye (naked eye polymorphism or as difference in physical or chemical properties of the macromolecules. In other words, there are two types of genetic markers viz. morphological markers or naked eye polymorphism and non-morphological markers or molecular markers. Morphological markers include traits such as plant height, disease response, photoperiod, sensitivity, shape or colour of flowers, fruits or seeds etc. Molecular markers include biochemical constituents. Morphological markers have many limitations for being used as markers particularly in fruit crops because of long generation time and large size of fruit trees besides being influenced by environment. Consequently, molecular markers could be appropriate choice to study and preserve the diversity in any germplasm. Molecular markers have diverse applications in fruit crop improvement, particularly in the areas of genetic diversity and varietal identification studies, gene tagging, disease diagnostics, pedigree analysis, hybrid detection, sex differentiation and marker assisted selection.

  12. Across light: through colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Isabel; Richardson, Martin; Bernardo, Luis Miguel

    2012-03-01

    The speed at which our world is changing is reflected in the shifting way artistic images are created and produced. Holography can be used as a medium to express the perception of space with light and colour and to make the material and the immaterial experiments with optical and digital holography. This paper intends to be a reflection on the final product of that process surrounding a debate of ideas for new experimental methodologies applied to holographic images. Holography is a time-based medium and the irretrievable linear flow of time is responsible for a drama, unique to traditional cinematography. If the viewers move to left or right, they see glimpses of the next scene or the previous one perceived a second ago. This interaction of synthetic space arises questions such as: can we see, in "reality", two forms in the same space? Trying to answer this question, a series of works has been created. These concepts are embryonic to a series of digital art holograms and lenticulars technique's titled "Across Light: Through Colour". They required some technical research and comparison between effects from different camera types, using Canon IS3 and Sony HDR CX105.

  13. A colourful clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester C van Diepen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms are an essential property of life on Earth. In mammals, these rhythms are coordinated by a small set of neurons, located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN. The environmental light/dark cycle synchronizes (entrains the SCN via a distinct pathway, originating in a subset of photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs that utilize the photopigment melanopsin (OPN4. The pRGCs are also innervated by rods and cones and, so, are both endogenously and exogenously light sensitive. Accumulating evidence has shown that the circadian system is sensitive to ultraviolet (UV, blue, and green wavelengths of light. However, it was unclear whether colour perception itself can help entrain the SCN. By utilizing both behavioural and electrophysiological recording techniques, Walmsley and colleagues show that multiple photic channels interact and enhance the capacity of the SCN to synchronize to the environmental cycle. Thus, entrainment of the circadian system combines both environmental irradiance and colour information to ensure that internal and external time are appropriately aligned.

  14. Involvement of an ethylene response factor in chlorophyll degradation during citrus fruit degreening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorophyll degradation naturally occurs during plant senescence. However, in fruit such as citrus, it is a positive characteristic, as degreening is an important colour development contributing to fruit quality. In the present work, Citrus sinensis Osbeck, cv. Newhall fruit was used as a model for ...

  15. Colour Perception in Ancient World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, D. I.; Fedorova, M. Yu

    2017-11-01

    How did the human thought form the surrounding color information into the persistent semantic images of a mythological, pseudoscientific and religious nature? The concepts associated with colour perception are suggested. The existence of colour environment does not depend on the human consciousness. The colour culture formation is directly related to the level of the human consciousness development and the possibility to influence the worldview and culture. The colour perception of a person goes through the stages similar to the development of colour vision in a child. Like any development, the colour consciousness has undergone stages of growth and decline, evolution and stagnation. The way of life and difficult conditions for existence made their own adjustments to the development of the human perception of the surrounding world. Wars have been both a powerful engine of progress in all spheres of life and a great destructive force demolishing the already created and preserved heritage. The surrounding world has always been interesting for humans, evoked images and fantasies in the consciousness of ancient people. Unusual and inexplicable natural phenomena spawned numerous legends and myths which was reflected in the ancient art and architecture and, accordingly, in a certain manifestation of colour in the human society. The colour perception of the ancient man, his pragmatic, utilitarian attitude to colour is considered as well as the influence of dependence on external conditions of existence and their reflection in the colour culture of antiquity. “Natural Science” conducts research in the field of the colour nature and their authorial interpretation of the Hellenic period. Several authorial concepts of the ancient world have been considered.

  16. Disruptive colouration and perceptual grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Irene; Cuthill, Innes C

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is the primary defence of many animals and includes multiple strategies that interfere with figure-ground segmentation and object recognition. While matching background colours and textures is widespread and conceptually straightforward, less well explored are the optical 'tricks', collectively called disruptive colouration, that exploit perceptual grouping mechanisms. Adjacent high contrast colours create false edges, but this is not sufficient for an object's shape to be broken up; some colours must blend with the background. We test the novel hypothesis that this will be particularly effective when the colour patches on the animal appear to belong to, not merely different background colours, but different background objects. We used computer-based experiments where human participants had to find cryptic targets on artificial backgrounds. Creating what appeared to be bi-coloured foreground objects on bi-coloured backgrounds, we generated colour boundaries that had identical local contrast but either lay within or between (illusory) objects. As predicted, error rates for targets matching what appeared to be different background objects were higher than for targets which had otherwise identical local contrast to the background but appeared to belong to single background objects. This provides evidence for disruptive colouration interfering with higher-level feature integration in addition to previously demonstrated low-level effects involving contour detection. In addition, detection was impeded in treatments where targets were on or in close proximity to multiple background colour or tone boundaries. This is consistent with other studies which show a deleterious influence of visual 'clutter' or background complexity on search.

  17. Disruptive colouration and perceptual grouping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Espinosa

    Full Text Available Camouflage is the primary defence of many animals and includes multiple strategies that interfere with figure-ground segmentation and object recognition. While matching background colours and textures is widespread and conceptually straightforward, less well explored are the optical 'tricks', collectively called disruptive colouration, that exploit perceptual grouping mechanisms. Adjacent high contrast colours create false edges, but this is not sufficient for an object's shape to be broken up; some colours must blend with the background. We test the novel hypothesis that this will be particularly effective when the colour patches on the animal appear to belong to, not merely different background colours, but different background objects. We used computer-based experiments where human participants had to find cryptic targets on artificial backgrounds. Creating what appeared to be bi-coloured foreground objects on bi-coloured backgrounds, we generated colour boundaries that had identical local contrast but either lay within or between (illusory objects. As predicted, error rates for targets matching what appeared to be different background objects were higher than for targets which had otherwise identical local contrast to the background but appeared to belong to single background objects. This provides evidence for disruptive colouration interfering with higher-level feature integration in addition to previously demonstrated low-level effects involving contour detection. In addition, detection was impeded in treatments where targets were on or in close proximity to multiple background colour or tone boundaries. This is consistent with other studies which show a deleterious influence of visual 'clutter' or background complexity on search.

  18. Colour thresholding and objective quantification in bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermin, C. D.; Gerber, M. A.; Torre-Bueno, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Computer imaging is rapidly becoming an indispensable tool for the quantification of variables in research and medicine. Whilst its use in medicine has largely been limited to qualitative observations, imaging in applied basic sciences, medical research and biotechnology demands objective quantification of the variables in question. In black and white densitometry (0-256 levels of intensity) the separation of subtle differences between closely related hues from stains is sometimes very difficult. True-colour and real-time video microscopy analysis offer choices not previously available with monochrome systems. In this paper we demonstrate the usefulness of colour thresholding, which has so far proven indispensable for proper objective quantification of the products of histochemical reactions and/or subtle differences in tissue and cells. In addition, we provide interested, but untrained readers with basic information that may assist decisions regarding the most suitable set-up for a project under consideration. Data from projects in progress at Tulane are shown to illustrate the advantage of colour thresholding over monochrome densitometry and for objective quantification of subtle colour differences between experimental and control samples.

  19. Complementary Colours for a Physicist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Vitomir; Cepic, Mojca

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple experiment which enables splitting incident light into two different modes, each having a colour exactly complementary to the other. A brief historical development of colour theories and differences in a physicist's point of view with respect to an artist's one is discussed. An experimental system for producing…

  20. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...

  1. Colouring our view of safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spare, P.

    2000-01-01

    The public have great difficulty interpreting numerical risk data, and particularly the relative importance of the hazards presented by advanced technologies compared with everyday activities. A form of presentation is proposed, utilizing a decade-based seven colour spectrum. The colours are directly connected to the auditable statistics and provide a qualitative measure of the risk to the non-specialist. (author)

  2. Phenomenology of colour exotic fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luest, D.

    1986-01-01

    The authors discuss the phenomenological consequences of a dynamical scenario according to which the electroweak symmetry breaking and generation of fermion masses is due to fermions that transform under high colour representations. Particular emphasis is given to the predictions for rare processes and to the spectrum of high colour boundstates. (Auth.)

  3. The brightness of colour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Corney

    Full Text Available The perception of brightness depends on spatial context: the same stimulus can appear light or dark depending on what surrounds it. A less well-known but equally important contextual phenomenon is that the colour of a stimulus can also alter its brightness. Specifically, stimuli that are more saturated (i.e. purer in colour appear brighter than stimuli that are less saturated at the same luminance. Similarly, stimuli that are red or blue appear brighter than equiluminant yellow and green stimuli. This non-linear relationship between stimulus intensity and brightness, called the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch (HK effect, was first described in the nineteenth century but has never been explained. Here, we take advantage of the relative simplicity of this 'illusion' to explain it and contextual effects more generally, by using a simple Bayesian ideal observer model of the human visual ecology. We also use fMRI brain scans to identify the neural correlates of brightness without changing the spatial context of the stimulus, which has complicated the interpretation of related fMRI studies.Rather than modelling human vision directly, we use a Bayesian ideal observer to model human visual ecology. We show that the HK effect is a result of encoding the non-linear statistical relationship between retinal images and natural scenes that would have been experienced by the human visual system in the past. We further show that the complexity of this relationship is due to the response functions of the cone photoreceptors, which themselves are thought to represent an efficient solution to encoding the statistics of images. Finally, we show that the locus of the response to the relationship between images and scenes lies in the primary visual cortex (V1, if not earlier in the visual system, since the brightness of colours (as opposed to their luminance accords with activity in V1 as measured with fMRI.The data suggest that perceptions of brightness represent a robust

  4. Skin Colour Analysis of Iraqi Kurdish Population

    OpenAIRE

    Zardawi, Faraedon M; Xiao, Kaida; Yates, Julian M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Skin colour measurement and analysis was performed for Iraqi Kurdish population in sulaimani city. The purpose of this study was to produce a dedicated skin shade guide for precise colour reproduction and colour matching of maxillofacial prostheses with the patient’s original skin colour. Methodology: A skin colour measurement was undertaken for 140 subjects (73 female and 67 male). A method of capturing their (L* a* b*) colour values from nine body parts was performed using a Mi...

  5. Natural Blue Food Colour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda-Serrat, Maria Cinta

    In recent years, there has been a growing tendency to avoid the use of artificial colorants and additives in food products, especially after some studies linked their consumption with behavioural changes in children. However, the incorporation of colorants from natural origin remains a challenge...... for food technologists, as these are typically less vivid and less stable than their synthetic alternatives. Regarding blue colorants, phycocyanins from cyanobacteria are currently in the spotlight as promising new natural blue colorants. Phycocyanins are proteins which blue colour results from...... the presence of the chromophore phycocyanobilin (PCB), a covalently attached linear tetrapyrrole. The applications of phycocyanins as food colorants are however limited, as they show poor stability in certain conditions of pH, light and temperature. Cleavage of PCB from the protein followed by careful product...

  6. Application of irradiated chitosan for fruit preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieu N. Lan [Post Harvest Technology Inst. of Vietnam (Viet Nam)

    2000-09-01

    Application of irradiated chitosan has been investigated for coating of fruit preservation. Anti-fungal activity of chitosan was induced by {gamma}-ray irradiation in dry condition at 25 kGy. The irradiated chitosan can suppress the growth of Aspergillus. spp. and Fusarium. spp. isolated from Vietnam mango. Fusarium. spp. was sensitive for irradiated chitosan than the other strains. The coating from irradiated chitosan solution at dose 31 kGy has prolonged the storage life of mango from 7 to 15 days. At the 15th day mango keeps good colour, natural ripening, without spoilage, weight loss 10%, whereas the control is spoiled completely and the sample of fruit with unirradiated chitosan coating could not ripe. The effect is due to the anti-fungal activity and change in physico-chemical properties of chitosan by irradiation. Radiation causes the decrease in viscosity affecting the gas permeability of coating film. The irradiated chitosan coating has positive effect on mango that is susceptible to chilling injury at low storage temperature. (author)

  7. Application of irradiated chitosan for fruit preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieu N, Lan; Nguyen D, Lam; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu

    2000-01-01

    Application of irradiated chitosan has been investigated for coating of fruit preservation. Anti-fungal activity of chitosan was induced by γ-ray irradiation in dry condition at 25 kGy. The irradiated chitosan can suppress the growth of Aspergillus. spp. and Fusarium. spp. isolated from Vietnam mango. Fusarium. spp. was sensitive for irradiated chitosan than the other strains. The coating from irradiated chitosan solution at dose 31 kGy has prolonged the storage life of mango from 7 to 15 days. At the 15th day mango keeps good colour, natural ripening, without spoilage, weight loss 10%, whereas the control is spoiled completely and the sample of fruit with unirradiated chitosan coating could not ripe. The effect is due to the anti-fungal activity and change in physico-chemical properties of chitosan by irradiation. Radiation causes the decrease in viscosity affecting the gas permeability of coating film. The irradiated chitosan coating has positive effect on mango that is susceptible to chilling injury at low storage temperature. (author)

  8. Monitoring, genomic study and control of patulin producing fungi in Korean fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongho; Lim, Sangyong; Joe, Minho; Yun, Hyejung; Kim, Suhyun; Park, Jongchun

    2008-07-01

    This study was intended to apply irradiation technology for the degradation of patulin from apples and apple juices by investigating their physical, mechanical, biological, and pharmacochemical properties in view of potential uses in the bio-industry. The patulin producing fungi was separated from in Korean apples. Totally, 16 morphological types of fungi were isolated from the apples and a patulin producing fungi was identified. The isolated patulin producing fungus was found to a represent species of Penicillium crustosum. The patulin, dissolved in distilled water at a concentration of 50 ppm was practically degraded by the gamma irradiation at the dose of 1.0 kGy, while 33% of the patulin was remained at apple juice. In conclusion, it was suggested that 1 kGy of gamma irradiation (recommended radiation doses for radicidation and/or quarantine in fruits) is effective for the reduction of patulin, but the nutritional elements should be considered because the radio-degradation effects are environment dependant. The effects of a gamma irradiation on the physiochemical and physical characteristics of apple was investigated during a post-irradiation storage at 4 and 25. Gamma irradiation dose not affect stability of the nutritional contents, functional properties and physical characteristics of apples, especially in the condition of a cold storage after a radiation treatment. The degradation condition characteristics of patulin in apple juice and functional properties of corresponding condition were monitored by response surface methodology (RSM)

  9. Monitoring, genomic study and control of patulin producing fungi in Korean fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongho; Lim, Sangyong; Joe, Minho; Yun, Hyejung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suhyun [KBSI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jongchun [Seonam Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    This study was intended to apply irradiation technology for the degradation of patulin from apples and apple juices by investigating their physical, mechanical, biological, and pharmacochemical properties in view of potential uses in the bio-industry. The patulin producing fungi was separated from in Korean apples. Totally, 16 morphological types of fungi were isolated from the apples and a patulin producing fungi was identified. The isolated patulin producing fungus was found to a represent species of Penicillium crustosum. The patulin, dissolved in distilled water at a concentration of 50 ppm was practically degraded by the gamma irradiation at the dose of 1.0 kGy, while 33% of the patulin was remained at apple juice. In conclusion, it was suggested that 1 kGy of gamma irradiation (recommended radiation doses for radicidation and/or quarantine in fruits) is effective for the reduction of patulin, but the nutritional elements should be considered because the radio-degradation effects are environment dependant. The effects of a gamma irradiation on the physiochemical and physical characteristics of apple was investigated during a post-irradiation storage at 4 and 25. Gamma irradiation dose not affect stability of the nutritional contents, functional properties and physical characteristics of apples, especially in the condition of a cold storage after a radiation treatment. The degradation condition characteristics of patulin in apple juice and functional properties of corresponding condition were monitored by response surface methodology (RSM)

  10. Analytical strategies for controlling polysorbate-based nanomicelles in fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krtkova, Veronika; Schulzova, Vera; Lacina, Ondrej; Hrbek, Vojtech; Tomaniova, Monika; Hajslova, Jana

    2014-06-01

    This study focused on the detection and quantification of organic micelle-type nanoparticles (NPs) with polysorbate components (polysorbate 20 and polysorbate 80) in their micelle shells that could be used to load biologically active compounds into fruit juice. Several advanced analytical techniques were applied in the stepwise method development strategy used. In the first phase, a system consisting of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography employing a size exclusion column coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (UHPLC-SEC-ELSD) was used for the fractionation of micelle assemblies from other, lower molecular weight sample components. The limit of detection (LoD) of these polysorbate micelles in spiked apple juice was 500 μg mL(-1). After this screening step, mass spectrometric (MS) detection was utilized to confirm the presence of polysorbates in the detected micelles. Two alternative MS techniques were tested: (i) ambient high-resolution mass spectrometry employing a direct analysis in real time ion source coupled with an Orbitrap MS analyzer (DART-Orbitrap MS) enabled fast and simple detection of the polysorbates present in the samples, with a lowest calibration level (LCL) of 1000 μg mL(-1); (ii) ultrahigh-performance reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRTOF-MS) provided highly selective and sensitive detection and quantification of polysorbates with an LCL of 0.5 μg mL(-1).

  11. Biological Control of Bacterial Fruit Blotch of Watermelon Pathogen (Acidovorax citrulli with Rhizosphere Associated Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Adhikari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB, which is caused by Acidovorax citrulli, is a serious threat to watermelon growers around the world. The present study was conducted to screen effective rhizobacterial isolates against 35 different A. citrulli isolates and determine their efficacy on BFB and growth parameters of watermelon. Two rhizobacterial isolates viz. Paenibacillus polymyxa (SN-22, Sinomonas atrocyanea (NSB-27 showed high inhibitory activity in the preliminary screening and were further evaluated for their effect on BFB and growth parameters of three different watermelon varieties under greenhouse conditions. The greenhouse experiment result revealed that SN-22 and NSB-27 significantly reduced BFB and had significant stimulatory effect on total chlorophyll content, plant height, total fresh weight and total dry weight compared to uninoculated plants across the tested three watermelon varieties. Analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA sequences revealed that strains SN-22 belong to P. polymyxa and NSB-27 to S. atrocyanea with the bootstrap value of 99% and 98%, respectively. The isolates SN-22 and NSB-27 were tested for antagonistic and PGP traits. The result showed that the tested isolates produced siderophore, hydrolytic enzymes (protease and cellulose, chitinase, starch hydrolytic enzymes and they showed phosphate as well as zinc solubilizing capacity. This is the first report of P. polymyxa (SN-22 and S. atrocyanea (NSB-27 as biocontrol-plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on watermelon.

  12. Induced resistance in tomato fruit by γ-aminobutyric acid for the control of alternaria rot caused by Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiali; Sun, Cui; Zhang, Yangyang; Fu, Da; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting

    2017-04-15

    The study investigated the effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the control of alternaria rot in tomato fruit and the possible mechanism involved. Our results showed exogenous GABA could stimulate remarkable resistance to the alternaria rot, while it had no direct antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata. Moreover, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, along with the expression of these corresponding genes, were significantly induced in the GABA treatment. The obtained data suggested GABA induced resistance against the necrotrophic pathogen A. alternata, at least in part by activating antioxidant enzymes, restricting the levels of cell death caused by reactive oxygen species. Meanwhile, the key enzyme genes of GABA shunt, GABA transaminase and succinic-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, were found up-regulated in the GABA treatment. The activation of the GABA shunt might play a vital role in the resistance mechanism underpinning GABA-induced plant immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of dragon fruit on glycemic control in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolsup, Nalinee; Suksomboon, Naeti; Paw, Naw Juna

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically determine the effect of dragon fruit on glycemic control in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Electronic databases including MEDLINE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Scopus, ScienceDirect®, Proquest, Web of Science®, LILACS, NAPRALERT, SciFinder, Clinicalkey, Herbmed, NCCIH and Google Scholar were searched from their earliest inception up to March 2017 for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared dragon fruit with placebo or no treatment in prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. Clinicaltrials.gov, clinicaltrialresults.org, and ISRCTN registry were also searched. Personal contact with experts and historical search of related articles was undertaken. Outcome of interest were fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2 hours post-prandial glucose (2HPP). Study selection, data extraction and study quality assessment were performed independently by two investigators. Disagreements were resolved by a third reviewer. Treatment effect was estimated with mean difference (MD). Effect estimates were pooled using inverse-variance weighted method. Heterogeneity was assessed with the Q statistic and quantified with the I2 statistic. DerSimonian and Laird random-effects model was used when the Q-statistic was significant at the level of 0.1, otherwise a fixed-effects model was used. Among 401 studies identified from literature search, 4 RCTs involving 36 prediabetes subjects and 109 type 2 diabetes patients were included in the analysis. In prediabetes, FPG reduction was significant with MD of -15.1 mg/dL (95% CI: -23.8 to -6.5 mg/dL, P-value = 0.0006). Meta-analysis in type 2 diabetes showed no effect of dragon fruit on FPG (MD -26.5 mg/dL, 95% CI: -72.6 mg/dL to 19.6 mg/dL) and in 2HPP (MD -30.5 mg/dL, 95% CI: -80.9 mg/dL to 19.9 mg/dL). The available evidence in prediabetes is interesting. This will shed some light on diabetes prevention. The effect in T2DM was not significant. However, a trend towards greater blood glucose reduction with

  14. Area-wide control of fruit flies and other insect pests. Joint proceedings of the international conference on area-wide control of insect pests and the fifth international symposium on fruit flies of economic importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Keng-Hong

    2000-01-01

    With the world population attaining the six billion mark, the urgency of increasing quality food production and reducing the spread of diseases transmitted by insects, without affecting our fragile environment, will be of paramount importance. Losses currently experienced in agricultural production, due to insect pests and through diseases transmitted by insect vectors, are very high especially in developing and poor countries. Many insect pests and vectors are of economic importance, and several such as fruit flies, mosquitoes and tsetse flies have attracted international concerns. Most pests are traditionally controlled through heavy reliance on pesticides which can cause environmental pollution, pesticide resistance, and pest resurgence. The control, management or eradication of insect pests and vectors with minimal adverse impact on our food quality, environment, health and well-being should be of great concern to many agriculturists, biological and physical scientists as well as to national and international agencies responsible for pest control. Steps taken by the various concerned agencies to improve and implement the area-wide control will hopefully lead us into the next millennium free from major insect pests and vectors while at the same time protect our precarious global environment. This volume is the culmination of proceedings conducted in two recent international meetings, FAO/IAEA International Conference on Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, 28 May - 2 June 1998, and the Fifth International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, 1-5 June 1998, held in Penang, Malaysia. Over three hundred papers (both oral contributions and posters) were presented at the two meetings. The manuscripts submitted by authors are divided according to broad topics into eighteen sections originally defined by the organisers as corresponding to the sessions of the meetings. The organisers identified one to several individuals in each of the sessions to deliver an

  15. Influence of Astaxanthin and β-carotene on Kissing Gourami (Helostoma temminckii Colouring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Kopecký

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the role of carotenoids in regulate the skin color of Kissing Gourami (Helostoma temminckii. 40 fishes were randomly selected into 2 groups (20 each group. Control group was fed with standard flake feed. Astaxanthin (12mg/kg and β-carotene (157 mg/kg were added to the standard diet for experimental group. Fish skin colour was compare with colour scale. Colour change was recorded weekly for the 12 weeks of experiment. First colour change was record in 5 th week in control group. No other change of colour was determinate. In experimental group was first colour change in 3rd week and the maximal influence of carotenoids was recorded in 8th week. No other colour change was record in experimental group to the end of experiment.

  16. Effect of Post-Harvest Treatments on Enzyme Activity and Quality of Cold Stored Ber Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhjit K. JAWANDHA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk fruits are perishable in nature and have poor shelf- life. To extend the storage life of ber fruits different post-harvest treatments, like CaCl2 (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%, Ca(NO32 (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%, gibberellic acid (GA3 (20, 40 and 60 ppm and Bavistin (0.1% were given to fruits and their effect was studied on the storage life and quality of �Umran� ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk fruits under cold storage conditions. Fruits of uniform size and colour were harvested, from healthy plants, and subjected to post harvest dip of different chemicals, before packing in CFB boxes and placed in cold storage (3-5�C and 85-90% RH They have been evaluated after 10, 20 and 30 days of storage for physiological loss in weight (PLW, firmness, pectin methyl esterase (PME activity and palatability rating. The PLW increased and fruit firmness decreased during storage at each treatment. The sensory rating increased up to 10 days at all treatments, except control but subsequently it decreased during storage. The increase rate in PME activity was faster, up to 10 days, in untreated fruits, while treated fruits showed slower rise in PME activity, up to 20 days with a decline afterwards. It can be concluded that ber fruits can be stored up to 20 days by post-harvest treatment using GA3 at 60 ppm, with acceptable quality.

  17. Connected Colourings of Complete Graphs and Hypergraphs

    OpenAIRE

    Leader, Imre; Tan, Ta Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Gallai's colouring theorem states that if the edges of a complete graph are 3-coloured, with each colour class forming a connected (spanning) subgraph, then there is a triangle that has all 3 colours. What happens for more colours: if we $k$-colour the edges of the complete graph, with each colour class connected, how many of the $\\binom{k}{3}$ triples of colours must appear as triangles? In this note we show that the `obvious' conjecture, namely that there are always at least $\\binom{k-1}{2}...

  18. Use of gamma radiations as a quarternary process to control the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on orange fruits (Citrus sinensis), variety 'pera' and observations on its effects on fruits quality; Utilizacao da radiacao gama como um processo quarentenario para o 'bicho furao' Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) em laranja pera (Citrus sinensis), e o estudo dos seus efeitos sobre a qualidade dos frutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Jose Tadeu de

    1997-07-01

    The objective of the present research was to determine if gamma radiations could be used as a quarentenary process against the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927), infesting oranges of the variety 'Pera', beyond observations on some fruit quality parameters. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranges from the control to 500 Gy. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranged from the control to 500 Gy. It was observed that over 200 Gy avoid emergency of viable adults of the orange fruit borer. Only one single female, and even these with wing malformations, emerged at the dose of 300 Gy. Dose up to 500 Gy did not interfere on fruits weight loss nor on the period of conservation of the oranges. Acidity, Brix value and skin resistance against perforation also did not showed any changes due to radiations. The irradiation of green fruit induced into a smaller loss of weight than when the fruits were irradiated in the mature stage. (author)

  19. The role of leaves and fruits in determining the specific cultivar characters of peach fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manolov, P.; Petrov, A.

    1982-01-01

    At the Institute of Fruit Growing, Plovdiv, triple buds were grafted on the crowns of 6 year-old peach trees in the following cultivar combinations: 1. Springtime (early8 ripening in the second half of June, white fleshed) on Rio oso gem (late, ripening in the first half of September, yellow fleshed); 2. Fillette (early, ripening in the second half of June, yellow fleshed) on Rio oso gem; 3. Rio oso gem on Springtime; 4. Rio oso gem on Fillette. At the begining of the following growing period the development of the grafted generative organs was fully dependent on assimilates produced by the leaves of the other cultivar. The interrelations between the leaves and the fruits in the various combinations were followed by biometrical and radio-isotopic ( 14 C) methods. Results substantiated the conclusion that the genetic information on the development of the specific cultivar characters such as flavour, arome, skin colour, fruit flesh texture and colour, fruit size and date of ripening was borne by the fruits themselves. The synthetic processes of the leaves during photosynthesis are not directly related with the synthetic processes producing the fruits' organic matter. The basic constructing substances were produced in the leaves and were transported to the fruits, where they were subjected to metabolic transformations in accordance with the biological characteristics of the cultivar and the phase of fruit development

  20. Effects of regulated deficit irrigation on physiology, yield and fruit quality in apricot trees under Mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pérez-Sarmiento

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Scarce water resources mainly in arid and semi-arid areas have caused an increasing interest for applying irrigation protocols aiming to reduce water spends. The effects of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI on the performance of apricot trees (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. “Búlida” were assessed in Murcia (SE Spain, during three consecutive growing seasons (2008-2010. The hypothesis was that RDI would not restrict yield but increase fruit quality while saving water. Two irrigation treatments were established: i control, irrigated to fully satisfy crop water requirements (100% ETc and ii RDI, that reduced the amount of applied water to: a 40% of ETc at flowering and stage I of fruit growth; b 60% of ETc during the stage II of fruit growth and c 50% and 25% of ETc during the late postharvest period (from 60 days after harvest. Stem water potential, gas exchanges, trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA, fruit diameter, yield and fruit quality traits were determined. Vegetative growth was decreased by the use of RDI (12% less TCSA on average for the three years, whereas yield was unaffected. In addition, some qualitative characteristics of the fruits, such as the level of soluble solids, sweetness/acidity relation and fruit colour, were improved by the use of RDI. These results and average water savings of approximately 30%, lead us to conclude that RDI strategies are a possible solution for irrigation management in areas with water shortages, such as arid and semi-arid environments.

  1. Effects of regulated deficit irrigation on physiology, yield and fruit quality in apricot trees under Mediterranean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Sarmiento, F.; Mirás-Avalos, J.M.; Alcobendas, R.; Alarcón, J.J.; Mounzer, O.; Nicolas, E.

    2016-01-01

    Scarce water resources mainly in arid and semi-arid areas have caused an increasing interest for applying irrigation protocols aiming to reduce water spends. The effects of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on the performance of apricot trees (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. “Búlida”) were assessed in Murcia (SE Spain), during three consecutive growing seasons (2008-2010). The hypothesis was that RDI would not restrict yield but increase fruit quality while saving water. Two irrigation treatments were established: i) control, irrigated to fully satisfy crop water requirements (100% ETc) and ii) RDI, that reduced the amount of applied water to: a) 40% of ETc at flowering and stage I of fruit growth; b) 60% of ETc during the stage II of fruit growth and c) 50% and 25% of ETc during the late postharvest period (from 60 days after harvest). Stem water potential, gas exchanges, trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA), fruit diameter, yield and fruit quality traits were determined. Vegetative growth was decreased by the use of RDI (12% less TCSA on average for the three years), whereas yield was unaffected. In addition, some qualitative characteristics of the fruits, such as the level of soluble solids, sweetness/acidity relation and fruit colour, were improved by the use of RDI. These results and average water savings of approximately 30%, lead us to conclude that RDI strategies are a possible solution for irrigation management in areas with water shortages, such as arid and semi-arid environments.

  2. Effects of regulated deficit irrigation on physiology, yield and fruit quality in apricot trees under Mediterranean conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Sarmiento, F.; Mirás-Avalos, J.M.; Alcobendas, R.; Alarcón, J.J.; Mounzer, O.; Nicolas, E.

    2016-07-01

    Scarce water resources mainly in arid and semi-arid areas have caused an increasing interest for applying irrigation protocols aiming to reduce water spends. The effects of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on the performance of apricot trees (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. “Búlida”) were assessed in Murcia (SE Spain), during three consecutive growing seasons (2008-2010). The hypothesis was that RDI would not restrict yield but increase fruit quality while saving water. Two irrigation treatments were established: i) control, irrigated to fully satisfy crop water requirements (100% ETc) and ii) RDI, that reduced the amount of applied water to: a) 40% of ETc at flowering and stage I of fruit growth; b) 60% of ETc during the stage II of fruit growth and c) 50% and 25% of ETc during the late postharvest period (from 60 days after harvest). Stem water potential, gas exchanges, trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA), fruit diameter, yield and fruit quality traits were determined. Vegetative growth was decreased by the use of RDI (12% less TCSA on average for the three years), whereas yield was unaffected. In addition, some qualitative characteristics of the fruits, such as the level of soluble solids, sweetness/acidity relation and fruit colour, were improved by the use of RDI. These results and average water savings of approximately 30%, lead us to conclude that RDI strategies are a possible solution for irrigation management in areas with water shortages, such as arid and semi-arid environments.

  3. Calidad postcosecha de tomates almacenados en atmósferas controladas Postharvest quality of tomato fruits stored under controlled atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla A. Gómez

    2002-03-01

    maturity stages and, at the same time, affecting their quality. The effects of controlled atmospheres were studied (low oxygen concentrations and free of carbon dioxide and ethylene, on color, firmness and the main components of tomato fruit taste, cv. Diva. On April 1998, fruits harvested at the turning stage (USDA in INTA Balcarce (Argentina were stored in 3 L hermetic flasks at 12ºC during 36 days. The experimental design was completely randomized with three replications. Each flask containing four fruits was considered as the experimental unit. Treatments were four, a flow through system of: a 1%, b 3%, c 5% and d 21% (check of oxygen balanced with nitrogen to 100%. Color, measured with a colorimeter, changed more slowly and firmness remained higher with decreasing oxygen concentrations. The final color of fruits at 5% O2 was the same as those from check fruits. Fruits from the treatment 3% reached the optimum color only when transferred to 20ºC, while those stored at 1% did not reach a normal color. On the other side, and in all the treatments, soluble solids and titratable acidity were lower and pH was higher than those at the beginning. Color and firmness preferred by the consumers (Color index » 12 and firmness » 65 KPa were reached after 7-day storage at 21% O2, 12 days at 5%, 14 days at 3% and 21 days at 1% according to decreasing values of the soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio. This would indicate that fruits externally alike could have different organoleptic properties. Effects observed could be related to both the low oxygen levels and the absence of ethylene.

  4. Thresholds and noise limitations of colour vision in dim light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelber, Almut; Yovanovich, Carola; Olsson, Peter

    2017-04-05

    Colour discrimination is based on opponent photoreceptor interactions, and limited by receptor noise. In dim light, photon shot noise impairs colour vision, and in vertebrates, the absolute threshold of colour vision is set by dark noise in cones. Nocturnal insects (e.g. moths and nocturnal bees) and vertebrates lacking rods (geckos) have adaptations to reduce receptor noise and use chromatic vision even in very dim light. In contrast, vertebrates with duplex retinae use colour-blind rod vision when noisy cone signals become unreliable, and their transition from cone- to rod-based vision is marked by the Purkinje shift. Rod-cone interactions have not been shown to improve colour vision in dim light, but may contribute to colour vision in mesopic light intensities. Frogs and toads that have two types of rods use opponent signals from these rods to control phototaxis even at their visual threshold. However, for tasks such as prey or mate choice, their colour discrimination abilities fail at brighter light intensities, similar to other vertebrates, probably limited by the dark noise in cones.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Producing colour pictures from SCAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robichaud, K.

    1982-01-01

    The computer code SCAN.TSK has been written for use on the Interdata 7/32 minicomputer which will convert the pictures produced by the SCAN program into colour pictures on a colour graphics VDU. These colour pictures are a more powerful aid to detecting errors in the MONK input data than the normal lineprinter pictures. This report is intended as a user manual for using the program on the Interdata 7/32, and describes the method used to produce the pictures and gives examples of JCL, input data and of the pictures that can be produced. (U.K.)

  6. Colour reconnection in WW events

    CERN Document Server

    D'Hondt, J

    2003-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for a measurement of the kappa parameter used in the JETSET SK-I model of colour reconnection in W /sup +/W/sup -/ to qq'qq' events at LEP2. An update on the investigation of colour reconnection effects in hadronic decays of W pairs, using the particle flow in DELPHI is presented. A second method is based on the observation that two different m/sub W/ estimators have different sensitivity to the parametrised colour reconnection effect. Hence the difference between them is an observable with information content about kappa. (6 refs).

  7. Effects of an Encapsulated Fruit and Vegetable Juice Concentrate on Obesity-Induced Systemic Inflammation: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan J. Williams

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals from fruit and vegetables reduce systemic inflammation. This study examined the effects of an encapsulated fruit and vegetable (F&V juice concentrate on systemic inflammation and other risk factors for chronic disease in overweight and obese adults. A double-blinded, parallel, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 56 adults aged ≥40 years with a body mass index (BMI ≥28 kg/m2. Before and after eight weeks daily treatment with six capsules of F&V juice concentrate or placebo, peripheral blood gene expression (microarray, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, plasma tumour necrosis factor (TNFα (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, body composition (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA and lipid profiles were assessed. Following consumption of juice concentrate, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and plasma TNFα decreased and total lean mass increased, while there was no change in the placebo group. In subjects with high systemic inflammation at baseline (serum C-reactive protein (CRP ≥3.0 mg/mL who were supplemented with the F&V juice concentrate (n = 16, these effects were greater, with decreased total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and plasma TNFα and increased total lean mass; plasma CRP was unchanged by the F&V juice concentrate following both analyses. The expression of several genes involved in lipogenesis, the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK signalling pathways was altered, including phosphomevalonate kinase (PMVK, zinc finger AN1-type containing 5 (ZFAND5 and calcium binding protein 39 (CAB39, respectively. Therefore, F&V juice concentrate improves the metabolic profile, by reducing systemic inflammation and blood lipid profiles and, thus, may be useful in reducing the risk of obesity-induced chronic disease.

  8. Development of quality control procedures for mass produced and released oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera philippinensis for SIT programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resilva, Sotero S.; Obra, Glenda B.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes different quality control tests necessary to monitor the behavior of oriental fruit fly, B. philippinensis from the mass rearing facility to the release site. Results of routine quality control tests revealed that pupal size, emergence, fliers, sex ration, stress tests, mating index and fertility tests were all above satisfactory levels in pre-and post-irradiation treatment. Tests at the release site showed similar findings except for mating index where poor performance of flies were observed. Fertility and fecundity tests indicate that complete sterility of OFF was achieved at dose ranging from 68-104 Gy. Standard specifications required for weekly and monthly quality control tests was not yet established because release of sterile flies in Guimaras started only last April, 2001. In determining eye color changes in relation to physiological development, eye appearance of the pupae is dark yellowish brown (HUE 10 YR 3/6) at 7 days old where irradiation is to be applied for sterilization. Cross correlation of results showed large pupae had great advantage over medium and small pupae in terms of flight dispersal. Poor emergence and fliers of small pupae were observed when irradiated and chilled for 24 hours. However, no significant difference was observed on mating preference, longevity and fertility among the three pupal size groups. (Author)

  9. Grapheme-colour synaesthesia improves detection of embedded shapes, but without pre-attentive 'pop-out' of synaesthetic colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jamie; Jonas, Clare; Dienes, Zoltan; Seth, Anil

    2010-04-07

    For people with synaesthesia letters and numbers may evoke experiences of colour. It has been previously demonstrated that these synaesthetes may be better at detecting a triangle made of 2s among a background of 5s if they perceive 5 and 2 as having different synaesthetic colours. However, other studies using this task (or tasks based on the same principle) have failed to replicate the effect or have suggested alternative explanations of the effect. In this study, we repeat the original study on a larger group of synaesthetes (n = 36) and include, for the first time, an assessment of their self-reported colour experiences. We show that synaesthetes do have a general advantage over controls on this task. However, many synaesthetes report no colour experiences at all during the task. Synaesthetes who do report colour typically experience around one third of the graphemes in the display as coloured. This is more consistent with theories of synaesthesia in which spatial attention needs to be deployed to graphemes for conscious colour experiences to emerge than the interpretation based on 'pop-out'.

  10. Characterisation of Colourant Extracted from Riped Cashew Fruits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    distilled water is derivatives of benzene and naphthalene. However ... including high performance liquid chromatography. (HPLC), thin-layer ... its pollution, serious health hazards like allergy, have ..... Application and Sustainability Issues in S.

  11. Optimal colour quality of LED clusters based on memory colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, Kevin; Ryckaert, Wouter R; Pointer, Michael R; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2011-03-28

    The spectral power distributions of tri- and tetrachromatic clusters of Light-Emitting-Diodes, composed of simulated and commercially available LEDs, were optimized with a genetic algorithm to maximize the luminous efficacy of radiation and the colour quality as assessed by the memory colour quality metric developed by the authors. The trade-off of the colour quality as assessed by the memory colour metric and the luminous efficacy of radiation was investigated by calculating the Pareto optimal front using the NSGA-II genetic algorithm. Optimal peak wavelengths and spectral widths of the LEDs were derived, and over half of them were found to be close to Thornton's prime colours. The Pareto optimal fronts of real LED clusters were always found to be smaller than those of the simulated clusters. The effect of binning on designing a real LED cluster was investigated and was found to be quite large. Finally, a real LED cluster of commercially available AlGaInP, InGaN and phosphor white LEDs was optimized to obtain a higher score on memory colour quality scale than its corresponding CIE reference illuminant.

  12. Heat treatment and gamma radiation on the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. et Sacc., causal agent of the papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) anthracnose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Tanni Maria Werneck da.

    1988-12-01

    For controlling papaya anthracnose on stored fruits the effect of heat treatment and gamma radiation on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was studied in vitro and in vivo. Some physiological studies with four isolades of C. gloeosporioides from papaya fruits concerning the best conditions for mycelial growth and sporulation were also performed. The results showed that the best conditions for isolates development in BDA were: temperature between 25 and 27 0 C for mycelium radial growth; between 27 and 30 0 C under 12 hours alternating periods of fluorescent). (author). 131 refs., 9 figs., 33 tabs

  13. Colour-tunable light-emitting diodes based on InP/GaP nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatami, Fariba; Masselink, W Ted; Harris, James S

    2006-01-01

    We describe a novel colour-tunable light-emitting diode whose operation is based on direct band-gap emission from coupled configurations of InP quantum dots and quantum wells embedded in GaP. The control of the emission colour stems from a marked difference in the current dependence of intensities of two different emission processes. At lower currents, the emission is dominated by the 720 nm luminescence from the quantum dots and appears red; at higher currents, the emission is dominated by the 550 nm quantum-well luminescence and the perceived colour is green. Thus, we are able to tune the colour of such diodes from red to green by means of drive current. A multi-colour pixel can be realized by a single diode, with rapid switching between colour states to provide a range of colour mix

  14. The control of fruiting body formation in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora Auersw. by regulation of hyphal development : An analysis based on scanning electron and light microscopic observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, B; Bahn, M; Walk, R A; Nitschke, U

    1978-01-01

    The morphological effects of biotin and L-arginine on fruiting body formation of the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora are investigated by scanning electron and light microscopy. Biotin is recognized as an elongation factor and arginine as a branching factor in vegetative and reproductive hyphae. In the absence of exogenous biotin, development is blocked after the ascogonium-core hypha stage of protoperithecial morphogenesis, whereas linear growth of the myceliar front is maintained. The addition of exogenous arginine to a biotin deficient culture induces the formation of numerous side branches even in the older mycelium. Fruiting body formation, however, remains blocked at the protoperithecial stage as before, because of the inability of the side branches to elongate. When biotin and arginine are administered simultaneously, a most vigorous branching and growth are induced in the older mycelium, accompanied by a rapid and maximal formation of fruiting bodies. The results are summarized in a model of the exogenous control of hyphal morphogenesis. The model is designed to explain the relationship between fruiting and hyphal density as well as the edge effect on fruiting body formation.

  15. Efficacy of a microencapsulated iron pyrophosphate-fortified fruit juice: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in Spanish iron-deficient women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Toxqui, Laura; González-Vizcayno, Carmen; Delgado, Marco A; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2011-06-01

    Fe-deficiency anaemia is a worldwide health problem. We studied the influence of consuming an Fe-fortified fruit juice on Fe status in menstruating women. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 16 weeks of duration was performed. Subjects were randomised into two groups: the P group (n 58) or the F group (n 64), and consumed, as a supplement to their usual diet, 500 ml/d of a placebo fruit juice or an Fe-fortified fruit juice, respectively. The Fe-fortified fruit juice, containing microencapsulated iron pyrophosphate, provided 18 mg Fe/d (100 % of the RDA). At baseline and monthly, dietary intake, body weight and Fe parameters were determined: total erythrocytes, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), Hb, serum Fe, serum ferritin, serum transferrin, transferrin saturation, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP). The fruit juice consumption involved increased intake of carbohydrates and vitamin C, and increased BMI within normal limits. Ferritin was higher in the F group after week 4 (P juice improves Fe status and may be used to prevent Fe-deficiency anaemia.

  16. Colour Separation and Aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Haigh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aversion to achromatic patterns is well documented but relatively little is known about discomfort from chromatic patterns. Large colour differences are uncommon in the natural environment and deviation from natural statistics makes images uncomfortable (Fernandez and Wilkins 2008, Perception, 37(7, 1098–113; Juricevic et al 2010, Perception, 39(7, 884–899. We report twelve studies documenting a linear increase in aversion to chromatic square-wave gratings as a function of the separation in UCS chromaticity between the component bars, independent of their luminance contrast. Two possible explanations for the aversion were investigated: (1 accommodative response, or (2 cortical metabolic demand. We found no correlation between chromaticity separation and accommodative lag or variance in lag, measured using an open-field autorefractor. However, near infrared spectroscopy of the occipital cortex revealed a larger oxyhaemoglobin response to patterns with large chromaticity separation. The aversion may be cortical in origin and does not appear to be due to accommodation.

  17. Creating action plans in a serious video game increases and maintains child fruit-vegetable intake: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child fruit and vegetable intake is below recommended levels, increasing risk for chronic disease. Interventions to influence fruit and vegetable intake among youth have had mixed effects. Innovative, theory-driven interventions are needed. Goal setting, enhanced by implementation intentions (i.e., ...

  18. Prediction of fruit and vegetable intake from biomarkers using individual participant data of diet-controlled intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souverein, O.W.; Vries, J.H.M. de; Freese, R.; Watzl, B.; Bub, A.; Miller, E.R., III; Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Pasman, W.J.; Hof, K. van het; Chopra, M.; Karlsen, A.; Dragsted, L.O.; Winkels, R.; Itsiopoulos, C.; Brazionis, L.; O'Dea, K.; Loo-Bouwman, C.A. van; Naber, T.H.J.; Voet, H. van der; Boshuizen, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption produces changes in several biomarkers in blood. The present study aimed to examine the dose-response curve between fruit and vegetable consumption and carotenoid (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin), folate and vitamin C

  19. Pos-harvest control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, Hayda Oliveira Souza

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of the treatment with steam heating, hot water and gamma radiation of Co-60 on eggs and fruit flies larvae (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and analyze the effect of these treatments in the fruit quality (chemical composition)

  20. Biological control of olive fruit fly in California - release, establishment and impact of Psyttalia lounsburyi and Psyttalia humilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geographic strains of the African endoparasitoids Psyttalia lounsburyi and Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were released to suppress the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, in California from 2006 – 2016. Both parasitoid species were recovered post-release within the same fruit season; ho...

  1. Control of the Mediterranean fruit fly in the Near East region using the sterile insect technique. Subregional proposals to eradicate the Medfly and establish fruit fly free areas in Cyprus, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, The Syrian Arab Republic and the territories under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly or medfly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, is the single most important pest species affecting fresh fruits and vegetables within the Mediterranean region, but especially the Near East. For a wide range of commercial crops, including most citrus varieties, mangoes, grapes, apples, peaches, apricots, pears, plums, figs, dates, persimmons, papayas, peppers and tomatoes, it is the only economically important fruit fly in the region. This document, prepared at the request of Member States in the Near East region and developed by a group on international experts in fruit fly control, outlines plans to eradicate the medfly from three subregions of the Near East. The objective is the eradication of the medfly and establishment of fruit fly free areas within participating countries in order to reduce pesticide applications and to enable fresh fruit exports without post-harvest treatments. 12 refs, 6 figs, 19 tabs

  2. String Formation Beyond Leading Colour

    CERN Document Server

    Christiansen, Jesper R.

    2015-08-03

    We present a new model for the hadronisation of multi-parton systems, in which colour correlations beyond leading $N_C$ are allowed to influence the formation of confining potentials (strings). The multiplet structure of $SU(3)$ is combined with a minimisation of the string potential energy, to decide between which partons strings should form, allowing also for "baryonic" configurations (e.g., two colours can combine coherently to form an anticolour). In $e^+e^-$collisions, modifications to the leading-colour picture are small, suppressed by both colour and kinematics factors. But in $pp$ collisions, multi-parton interactions increase the number of possible subleading connections, counteracting their naive $1/N_C^2$ suppression. Moreover, those that reduce the overall string lengths are kinematically favoured. The model, which we have implemented in the PYTHIA 8 generator, is capable of reaching agreement not only with the important $\\left(n_\\mathrm{charged})$ distribution but also with measured rates (and ra...

  3. Control of egg hatch ability and adult emergence of three fruit fly species in papayas by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resilva, S.S.; Pasion, W.B.; Moy, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of gamma radiation on the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel), melon fly, Bactrocera Cucurbitae (Coquilett), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Weidemann) were studied. Melon fly was determined to be the most susceptible of the three species. A dosage of 550 Gy rendered the eggs 100% sterile when irradiated in papayas at 4-6 hours before hatching. Oriental and mediterranean fruit flies were found to be more resistant, requiring doses of 750 and 850 Gy, respectively. A dose of only 100 Gy was needed to inhibit adult eclosion when the three species were treated at third instar larvae. Warm water treatment at 49 0 C for 20 minutes was found sufficient in preventing the hatching of any egg in the infested papaya fruits. However, since eggs may hatch before the warm-water treatment can be applied, a combination of irradiation treatment using 100 Gy is recommended for disinfestation of papaya fruits. (author). 17 refs.; 3 tabs

  4. Colour tuneable light-emitting transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmeier, Eva J.; Melzer, Christian; Seggern, Heinz von [Electronic Materials Department, Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In recent years the interest in ambipolar organic light-emitting field-effect transistors has increased steadily as the devices combine switching behaviour of transistors with light emission. Usually, small molecules and polymers with a band gap in the visible spectral range serve as semiconducting materials. Mandatory remain balanced injection and transport properties for both charge carrier types to provide full control of the spatial position of the recombination zone of electrons and holes in the transistor channel via the applied voltages. As will be presented here, the spatial control of the recombination zone opens new possibilities towards light-emitting devices with colour tuneable emission. In our contribution an organic light-emitting field-effect transistors is presented whose emission colour can be changed by the applied voltages. The organic top-contact field-effect transistor is based on a parallel layer stack of acenes serving as organic transport and emission layers. The transistor displays ambipolar characteristics with a narrow recombination zone within the transistor channel. During operation the recombination zone can be moved by a proper change in the drain and gate bias from one organic semiconductor layer to another one inducing a change in the emission colour. In the presented example the emission maxima can be switched from 530 nm to 580 nm.

  5. A new universal colour image fidelity metric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Lucassen, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    We extend a recently introduced universal grayscale image quality index to a newly developed perceptually decorrelated colour space. The resulting colour image fidelity metric quantifies the distortion of a processed colour image relative to its original version. We evaluated the new colour image

  6. What Colour Is a Shadow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S. W.

    2009-01-01

    What colour is a shadow? Black, grey, or some other colour? This article describes how to use a digital camera to test the hypothesis that a shadow under a clear blue sky has a blue tint. A white sheet of A4 paper was photographed in full sunlight and in shadow under a clear blue sky. The images were analysed using a shareware program called…

  7. Influence of gamma irradiation and benzyl adenine on keeping quality of custard apple fruits during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouksey, Swati; Singh, Alpana; Thakur, Rajendra Singh; Deshmukh, Reena

    2013-10-01

    The custard apple (Annona squamosa) fruits were procured from local market, irradiated with radiation doses 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75 kGy and then treated with benzyl adenine (50 and 100 part per million) and stored at ambient temperature (25 ± 5 °C, Relative Humidity 90 ± 2%) for 12 days. The treated fruits were evaluated for sensory (viz; flavour, texture, internal and external colour) and chemical constituents (viz; Total Soluble Solids, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, free soluble sugar, reducing sugar. non reducing sugar, carbohydrate) during storage. The study concluded that radiation dose of 1.5 kilo Gray along with 50 ppm benzyl adenine enhanced in shelf-life of custard apple fruits by 6 days at ambient temperature with good pulp texture, flavour, colour and nutritional quality as compared to control.

  8. The sterile-male technique for control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied., in the Mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serghiou, C.

    1975-01-01

    Certain problems caused by the use of insecticides in the management of agricultural pests, such as environmental pollution, insecticide resistance and disturbance of biological balance, has led to the development of selective pest control methods. A prominent place among these for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly has been attained by the species specific sterile-insect technique (SIT). This study reviews the status of field programmes in countries of the Mediterranean basin, and of related mass rearing, irradiation and field release methodology. The SIT has been successfully tested in Spain, Italy, Israel and Cyprus. In all these cases, however, tests were conducted in small semi-isolated areas where at best a high degree of suppression but not eradication of the fly could be obtained since immigration of gravid females was always possible. The SIT programme in Cyprus and data on medfly ecology in the island is here reviewed in more detail. A proposal is make for the eradication of medfly from Cyprus by the use of an integration of methods, namely bait spraying, cultural practices and sterile-insect releases. (author)

  9. Colour Day: an innovative project

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    This year, the Children’s Day-Care Centre (EVE) and School works on the theme of colours. Every class has their own project revolving around this common theme. The class of Claire, Sandrine and Nadia, introduced a monthly “Colour Day”. The objective of this day is to offer children different activities (arts and crafts, baking, etc.) designed around a specific colour. The children get a chance to decorate their classroom and learn in many different ways inspired by the colours blue, red, and many others. The parents are also called to contribute and invited to dress their children in the colour of the day. In September, we discovered the colour blue, in October it was time for red, and in mid-November yellow will brighten up our structure. Everyone plays along, making this a very festive day for us all. On Tuesday, 20 September, we saw the whole School turn blue! We were all dressed in blue and we made blue paintings, too! We made beautiful artwork inspired by artists like Ma...

  10. Genetics and evolution of colour patterns in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Mats; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Ballen, Cissy

    2013-01-01

    The study of coloration in the polyphyletic reptilians has flourished in the last two decades, in particular with respect to the underlying genetics of colour traits, the function of colours in social interactions, and ongoing selection on these traits in the wild. The taxonomic bias, however, is profound: at this level of resolution almost all available information is for diurnal lizards. Therefore, we focus on case studies, for which there are as complete causal sequences of colour evolution as possible, from phenotypic expression of variation in colour, to ongoing selection in the wild. For work prior to 1992 and for a broader coverage of reptilian coloration we refer the readers to Cooper and Greenburg's (Biology of the Reptilia, 1992) review. There are seven major conclusions we would like to emphasise: (a) visual systems in diurnal lizards are broadly conserved but among the wider range of reptiles in general, there is functionally important variation in the number and type of photoreceptors, spectral tuning of photopigments and optical properties of the eye; (b) coloration in reptiles is a function of complex interactions between structural and pigmentary components, with implications for both proximate control and condition dependence of colour expression; (c) studies of colour-variable species have enabled estimates of heritability of colour and colour patterns, which often show a simple Mendelian pattern of inheritance; (d) colour-polymorphic lizard species sometimes, but not always, show striking differences in genetically encoded reproductive tactics and provide useful models for studying the evolution and maintenance of polymorphism; (e) both male and female colours are sometimes, but not always, a significant component of socio-sexual signalling, often based on multiple traits; (f) evidence for effects of hormones and condition on colour expression, and trade-offs with immunocompetence and parasite load, is variable; (g) lizards show fading of colours

  11. Sterile insect technique: new technology to control fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, in the Lower Basin of the Sao Francisco Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranhos, Beatriz Aguiar Jordao; Barbosa, Flavia Rabelo; Nascimento, Antonio Souza do; Viana, Rodrigo; Malavasi, Aldo; Sampaio, Raimundo; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges

    2008-01-01

    The SIT is the creation, on a large scale, the insect-pest to be controlled and weekly release of these insects sterilized in the field.The sterile insects copulate with the wild, but do not generate descendants. The basic premises for the use of SIT in insect control are: the reproduction is through sexual intercourse, the female copulate preferably only once there is ease of creation of the plague in industrial scale in artificial diet. The efficiency of the SIT may be greater when only the males are released in the field because they increase the probability of copulating with wild females only, with reductions in the cost of production and release. In the case of fruit-flies, sterile females continue doing puncture in the fruits, which decreases the quality for export. To be able to release only males in the field, in 1980s, was developed a mutant strain, whose females emerge from pupae white, thus being able to discard the white ones, keeping the pupae Brown for the release of sterile males. Ten years after, to save on the industrial scale production system, was obtained a mutant whose females possess lethal temperature sensitivity of 34 deg C, still in the embryo stage. Then the eggs are placed on artificial diet, and when they arrive at the pupa stage, they are all brown and males. Forty-eight to 24 hours before the emergence of adults, the pupae are painted with fluorescent powder paint, bagged and irradiated with gamma radiation of 95Gy of Co-60 or X-ray. As soon as the males emerge, are marked with fluorescent ink and when they reach 3 to 5 days old, are released into the field. Thus, when monitoring is done in Jackson traps in the field, it is possible to distinguish wild male sterile under black light or epifluorescence microscope with males, because the sterile are fluorescent. On application of the SIT to Moscamed, sterile males are released in the field must display good dispersibility, good survival and good sexual performance. The efficiency and

  12. Peptidergic control of a fruit crop pest: the spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuropeptides play an important role in the regulation of feeding in insects and offer potential targets for the development of new chemicals to control insect pests. A pest that has attracted much recent attention is the highly invasive Drosophila suzukii, a polyphagous pest that can cause serious...

  13. Independently Controlled Wing Stroke Patterns in the Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chakraborty, Soma; Bartussek, Jan; Fry, S.N.; Zápotocký, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2015), e0116813 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : motor control * wing kinematics * independent component analysis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  14. Limit-cycle-based control of the myogenic wingbeat rhythm in the fruit fly Drosophila

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartussek, J.; Mutlu, A.K.; Zápotocký, Martin; Fry, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 80 (2013), s. 20121013 ISSN 1742-5689 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : motor control * central pattern generator * insect flight * synchronization Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.856, year: 2013

  15. The Categorisation of Non-Categorical Colours: A Novel Paradigm in Colour Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropper, Simon J.; Kvansakul, Jessica G. S.; Little, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a new paradigm for studying the development of the colour ‘signal’ by having observers discriminate and categorize the same set of controlled and calibrated cardinal coloured stimuli. Notably, in both tasks, each observer was free to decide whether two pairs of colors were the same or belonged to the same category. The use of the same stimulus set for both tasks provides, we argue, an incremental behavioural measure of colour processing from detection through discrimination to categorisation. The measured data spaces are different for the two tasks, and furthermore the categorisation data is unique to each observer. In addition, we develop a model which assumes that the principal difference between the tasks is the degree of similarity between the stimuli which has different constraints for the categorisation task compared to the discrimination task. This approach not only makes sense of the current (and associated) data but links the processes of discrimination and categorisation in a novel way and, by implication, expands upon the previous research linking categorisation to other tasks not limited to colour perception. PMID:23536899

  16. Pre-harvest treatments with fungicides and post-harvest dips in sodium bicarbonate to control postharvest decay in stone fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aquino, S; Barberis, A; Satta, D; De Pau, L; Schirra, M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different commercial formulations of fungicides containing one or more active ingredients in controlling postharvest decay of Thyrinthos and Boccuccia apricots, Red top peaches and Caldesi nectarines. Field treatments consisted of two sprays with cupric compounds, at the end of leaf fall and before bud swelling, one with sulfur compound, at fruit about half final size stage, and one with one of the following commercial formulations at the label suggested rates, one week before harvest: Teldor (fenexamid 50%; Bayer Crop Protection), Folicur (Tebuconazole 4.35%; Bayer Crop Protection), Signum (boscalid 26.7%, pyraclostrobin 6.7%; Basf Crop Protection), Score (difenoconazole 23.23%, Syngenta Crop Protection) and Switch (cyprodinil 37.5%, fludioxonil 25%, Syngenta Crop Protection). After harvest the fruit were stored for 1 week at 6 degrees C and 90% RH followed by 1 week at 20 degrees C and 60% RH to simulate retail conditions, or placed directly at 20 degrees C. All formulations significantly reduced decay in all cultivars. Switch, Signum and Folicur were the most active, while Score was slightly less effective. Teldor activity was low, especially in Thyrintos apricots, where the percentage of rotten fruit was slightly lower than in control fruit. Brown rot was the most representative disease, but in apricots a high percentage of fruit was affected by blue mold and grey mold. Rhizopus rot generally developed as a secondary disease on fruit previously affected by other pathogens and was more frequent in control and Teldor treated fruit. Preharvest sprays with Signum 3 days before harvest reduced postharvest decay after 1 week storage at 20 degrees C in Glo haven peaches and Venus nectarine harvested at advanced stage of maturity. Combining pre-harvest sprays with Signum and a 2-min postharvest dip in 2% sodium bicarbonate at 20 degrees C further reduced decay. In Sothern regions of Italy, the use of

  17. A Mobile Phone App Intervention Targeting Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: The Efficacy of Textual and Auditory Tailored Health Information Tested in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Sarah Pietertje; Dijkstra, Arie; Oenema, Anke

    2016-06-10

    Mobile phone apps are increasingly used to deliver health interventions, which provide the opportunity to present health information via different communication modes. However, scientific evidence regarding the effects of such health apps is scarce. In a randomized controlled trial, we tested the efficacy of a 6-month intervention delivered via a mobile phone app that communicated either textual or auditory tailored health information aimed at stimulating fruit and vegetable intake. A control condition in which no health information was given was added. Perceived own health and health literacy were included as moderators to assess for which groups the interventions could possibly lead to health behavior change. After downloading the mobile phone app, respondents were exposed monthly to either text-based or audio-based tailored health information and feedback over a period of 6 months via the mobile phone app. In addition, respondents in the control condition only completed the baseline and posttest measures. Within a community sample (online recruitment), self-reported fruit and vegetable intake at 6-month follow-up was our primary outcome measure. In total, 146 respondents (ranging from 40 to 58 per condition) completed the study (attrition rate 55%). A significant main effect of condition was found on fruit intake (P=.049, partial η(2)=0.04). A higher fruit intake was found after exposure to the auditory information, especially in recipients with a poor perceived own health (P=.003, partial η(2)=0.08). In addition, health literacy moderated the effect of condition on vegetable intake 6 months later (Pmobile health app. The app seems to have the potential to change fruit and vegetable intake up to 6 months later, at least for specific groups. We found different effects for fruit and vegetable intake, respectively, suggesting that different underlying psychological mechanisms are associated with these specific behaviors. Based on our results, it seems worthwhile

  18. Combination of antagonistic yeasts with two food additives for control of brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola on sweet cherry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, G Z; Tian, S P; Xu, Y; Chan, Z L; Li, B Q

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate beneficial effect of two food additives, ammonium molybdate (NH4-Mo) and sodium bicarbonate (NaBi), on antagonistic yeasts for control of brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola in sweet cherry fruit under various storage conditions. The mechanisms of action by which food additives enhance the efficacy of antagonistic yeasts were also evaluated. Biocontrol activity of Pichia membranefaciens and Cryptococcus laurentii against brown rot in sweet cherry fruit was improved by addition of 5 mmol l(-1) NH4-Mo or 2% NaBi when stored in air at 20 and 0 degrees C, and in controlled atmosphere (CA) storage with 10% O2 + 10% CO2 at 0 degrees C. Population dynamics of P. membranefaciens in the wounds of fruit were inhibited by NH4-Mo at 20 degrees C after 1 day of incubation and growth of C. laurentii was inhibited by NH4-Mo at 0 degrees C in CA storage after 60 days. In contrast, NaBi did not significantly influence growth of the two yeasts in fruit wounds under various storage conditions except that the growth of P. membranefaciens was stimulated after storage for 45 days at 0 degrees C in CA storage. When used alone, the two additives showed effective control of brown rot in sweet cherry fruit and the efficacy was closely correlated with the concentrations used. The result of in vitro indicated that growth of M. fructicola was significantly inhibited by NH4-Mo and NaBi. Application of additives improved biocontrol of brown rot on sweet cherry fruit under various storage conditions. It is postulated that the enhancement of disease control is directly because of the inhibitory effects of additives on pathogen growth, and indirectly because of the relatively little influence of additives on the growth of antagonistic yeasts. The results obtained in this study suggest that an integration of NH4-Mo or NaBi with biocontrol agents has great potential in commercial management of postharvest diseases of fruit.

  19. Effect of Passion Fruit Seed Extract Rich in Piceatannol on the Skin of Women: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruki-Uchida, Hiroko; Morita, Minoru; Yonei, Yoshikazu; Sai, Masahiko

    2018-01-01

    Piceatannol has been reported to have a wide variety of effects on the skin, including promoting collagen production, inhibiting melanin synthesis, inducing the antioxidant glutathione, and eliminating reactive oxygen species. In this study, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted to clinically evaluate the effects of piceatannol-rich passion fruit seed extract on the skin of healthy Japanese women (age, 35-54 y). Thirty-two women with dry skin received either passion fruit seed extract (5 mg piceatannol) or a placebo (dextrin) for 8 wk. Skin hydration and other parameters on the face were assessed at 0, 4, and 8 wk by using specialized equipment. Furthermore, questionnaire interviews were conducted regarding the physical condition of subjects at 0, 4, and 8 wk. The results showed that consumption of passion fruit seed extract led to significant increases in the moisture content of human skin after 4 and 8 wk compared with that before the trial. The amount of transepidermal water loss decreased over time, although the differences were not significant. Moreover, a stratified analysis of subjects with moisture values of ≤200 μS revealed increased moisture content in the passion fruit seed extract group as compared with the placebo group. Furthermore, the results of questionnaires showed significant reductions in "perspiration" and "fatigue" in the passion fruit seed extract group as compared with the placebo group. These results indicate that oral intake of passion fruit seed extract that is rich in piceatannol could improve the moisture of dry skin and reduce fatigue.

  20. Fruiting Body Formation in Volvariella volvacea Can Occur Independently of Its MAT-A-Controlled Bipolar Mating System, Enabling Homothallic and Heterothallic Life Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingzhi Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Volvariella volvacea is an important crop in Southeast Asia, but erratic fruiting presents a serious challenge for its production and breeding. Efforts to explain inconsistent fruiting have been complicated by the multinucleate nature, typical lack of clamp connections, and an incompletely identified sexual reproductive system. In this study, we addressed the life cycle of V. volvacea using whole genome sequencing, cloning of MAT loci, karyotyping of spores, and fruiting assays. Microscopy analysis of spores had previously indicated the possible coexistence of heterothallic and homothallic life cycles. Our analysis of the MAT loci showed that only MAT-A, and not MAT-B, controlled heterokaryotization. Thus, the heterothallic life cycle was bipolar. Karyotyping of single spore isolates (SSIs using molecular markers supported the existence of heterokaryotic spores. However, most SSIs were clearly not heterokaryotic, yet contained structural variation (SV markers relating to both alleles of both parents. Heterokaryons from crossed, self-sterile homokaryons could produce fruiting bodies, agreeing with bipolar heterothallism. Meanwhile, some SSIs with two different MAT-A loci also produced fruiting bodies, which supported secondary homothallism. Next, SSIs that clearly contained only one MAT-A locus (homothallism were also able to fruit, demonstrating that self-fertile SSIs were not, per definition, secondary homothallic, and that a third life cycle or genetic mechanism must exist. Finally, recombination between SV markers was normal, yet 10 out of 24 SV markers showed 1:2 or 1:3 distributions in the spores, and large numbers of SSIs contained doubled SV markers. This indicated selfish genes, and possibly partial aneuploidy.

  1. Control efficacy of Ca-containing foliar fertilizers on bitter pit in bagged 'Fuji' apple and effects on the Ca and N contents of apple fruits and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xian-Mei; Wang, Jin-Zheng; Nie, Pei-Xian; Xue, Xaio-Min; Wang, Gui-Ping; An, Miao

    2018-04-20

    The preharvest application of Ca-containing foliar fertilizers can reduce bitter pit (BP) incidence in apples and improve fruit quality by increasing the Ca content and decreasing both the N content and the N/Ca ratio in fruits. In this study, we aimed to investigate the control efficacy of Ca-containing fertilizers on BP incidence and the effects on the Ca and N contents in bagged 'Fuji' apple by spraying the foliar fertilizer containing calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ), calcium nitrate [Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ] or calcium formate [Ca(HCOO) 2 ] at early stage [5 days after full bloom (DAFB) + 40 DAFB] and at late stage (80 DAFB + 125 DAFB). The BP incidences were reduced significantly with the reduce percentage of 43.2~73.0%, and the efficacy of spraying at early stage was significantly higher than that of spraying at late stage. The Ca content of bagged apple fruits was increased while the N content and N/Ca ratio were decreased after spraying Ca-containing foliar fertilizers, however, the Ca content, N content and N/Ca ratio of apple leaves were differentially influenced. The foliar fertilizer containing CaCl 2, Ca(NO 3 ) 2 or Ca(HCOO) 2 could be used at early stage to control BP in apple and improve the quality of bagged apple fruits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. The control of fruiting body formation in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora Auersw. by arginine and biotin: a two-factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molowitz, R; Bahn, M; Hock, B

    1976-01-01

    Fruiting body formation of Sordaria macrospora Auersw. is controlled by L-arginine and biotin when the fungus is grown on a synthetic nutrient medium containing optimal concentrations of fructose, KNO3, KH2PO4, MgSO4, and ZnSO4. Arginine and biotin operate in very low concentrations which exclude unspecific nutrient effects. In spite of the complicated interactions of arginine and biotin which are shown qualitatively (Figs. 3 and 4a) and quantitatively (Figs. 2 and 4b), the following conclusions are reached: 1. In the absence of biotin, the development of Sordaria macrospora is blocked at the stage of small protoperithecia. The external addition of biotin (optimal concentration: 3-12 μg/l) allows the formation of fertile fruiting bodies. This effect cannot be imitated by arginine. The biotin effect is discussed in connection with stimulated RNA synthesis.-2. The developmental velocity is influenced by the external addition of arginine. Without arginine but at permissible biotin concentrations, the total life cycle takes about 10 days, in the presence of arginine (1 mM), however, about 6 days.-3. The hyphal density, as well as the total number of fruiting bodies being produced, is controlled in a similar manner by biotin and arginine. The induction of fruiting body formation obviously takes place after the transgression of a critical hyphal density.

  3. Gamma irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for fresh pome fruits produced in Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, J.; Lires, C.; Horak, C.; Pawlak, E.; Docters, A.; Kairiyama, E.

    2009-07-01

    Argentina produces 1.8 million tons/year of apples ( Malus domestica L.) and pears ( Pyrus communis L.) in the Patagonia region. Cydia pomonella, codling moth, and Grapholita molesta, Oriental fruit moth, ( Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are quarantine pests in pome fruits. Irradiation is a promising phytosanitary treatment because a dose of 200 Gy completely prevents pest adult emergence. A pilot irradiation process of commercially packaged 'Red Delicious' apples and 'Packham's Triumph' pears was performed in an irradiation facility with a Cobalt 60 source. Quality analyses were carried out at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 months of storage (1 °C, RH 99%) to evaluate fruit tolerance at 200, 400 and 800 Gy. Irradiation at 200 and 400 Gy had no undesirable effects on fruit quality (pulp firmness, external colour, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and sensory evaluations). Irradiation of 'Red Delicious' apples and 'Packham's Triumph' pears can be applied as a commercial quarantine treatment with a minimum absorbed dose of 200 Gy (to control codling moth and Oriental fruit moth) and <800 Gy (according to quality results).

  4. Development of an irrigation control device based on solar radiation and its adaptability for cultivation of high soluble solid tomato fruit in root zone restriction culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, M.; Shibuya, K.; Kubai, K.; Komatsu, H.; Hosokawa, T.; Nakamura, K.

    2009-01-01

    An irrigation control device based on solar radiation was developed to allow automatic irrigation management for high soluble solid tomato fruit production in root zone restriction culture. Its adaptability for long-term cultivation (planting carried out in early September and harvesting ending in late June) of high soluble solid tomato fruit in root zone restriction culture was examined. The following results were obtained: 1. The control device was composed of generally available electronic parts. A change of setting was possible for the irrigation starting point, the irrigation time period, and the once amount of irrigation. For the first irrigation of the day, one of two irrigation control modes can be chosen; the first determines irrigation dependent on the solar radiation after the irrigated time of the previous day. The second mode irrigates at a set time. 2. The correlation between the total integrated solar radiation and the evapotranspiration rate of tomato plants were investigated. Positive correlations were observed for each month from October to June. Moreover, total integrated solar radiation per unit evapotranspiration was different for each month. 3. In long-term cultivation of tomato fruit using this device, the marketable yield of high soluble solid tomato fruit (more than Brix 8%) was 9.7t/10a. 4. This device exhibited the necessary adaptability for use in long-term cultivation of high soluble solid tomato fruit in root zone restriction culture, by changing the set value of the irrigation starting point and the irrigation time period in accordance with the growth period

  5. The Role of Monoaminergic Neurotransmission for Metabolic Control in the Fruit Fly Drosophila Melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hormones control various metabolic traits comprising fat deposition or starvation resistance. Here we show that two invertebrate neurohormones, octopamine (OA and tyramine (TA as well as their associated receptors, had a major impact on these metabolic traits. Animals devoid of the monoamine OA develop a severe obesity phenotype. Using flies defective in the expression of receptors for OA and TA, we aimed to decipher the contributions of single receptors for these metabolic phenotypes. Whereas those animals impaired in octß1r, octß2r and tar1 share the obesity phenotype of OA-deficient (tβh-deficient animals, the octß1r, octß2r deficient flies showed reduced insulin release, which is opposed to the situation found in tβh-deficient animals. On the other hand, OAMB deficient flies were leaner than controls, implying that the regulation of this phenotype is more complex than anticipated. Other phenotypes seen in tβh-deficient animals, such as the reduced ability to perform complex movements tasks can mainly be attributed to the octß2r. Tissue-specific RNAi experiments revealed a very complex interorgan communication leading to the different metabolic phenotypes observed in OA or OA and TA-deficient flies.

  6. Quality control method to measure predator evasion in wild and mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrichs, M.; Wornoayporn, V.; Hendrichs, J.; Katsoyannos, B.

    2007-01-01

    Sterile male insects, mass-reared and released as part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, must survive long enough in the field to mature sexually and compete effectively with wild males for wild females. An often reported problem in Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) SIT programs is that numbers of released sterile males decrease rapidly in the field for various reasons, including losses to different types of predators. This is a serious issue in view that most operational programs release sterile flies at an age when they are still immature. Previous field and field-cage tests have confirmed that flies of laboratory strains are less able to evade predators than wild flies. Such tests involve, however, considerable manipulation and observation of predators and are therefore not suitable for routine measurements of predator evasion. Here we describe a simple quality control method with aspirators to measure agility in medflies and show that this parameter is related to the capacity of flies to evade predators. Although further standardization of the test is necessary to allow more accurate inter-strain comparisons, results confirm the relevance of measuring predator evasion in mass-reared medfly strains. Besides being a measure of this sterile male quality parameter, the described method could be used for the systematic selection of strains with a higher capacity for predator evasion. (author) [es

  7. A randomized trial of tailoring and motivational interviewing to promote fruit and vegetable consumption for cancer prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Marci Kramish; Carr, Carol; Devellis, Brenda; Switzer, Boyd; Biddle, Andrea; Amamoo, M Ahinee; Walsh, Joan; Zhou, Bingqing; Sandler, Robert

    2009-10-01

    Healthful dietary patterns, including eating fruits and vegetables (F&V) and avoiding obesity, may decrease the risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. In addition to promoting health for the general population, a cancer diagnosis may provide a "teachable moment," facilitating the adoption of more healthful eating habits and leading to lower risk of chronic disease and better overall health. This study was designed to test the effectiveness of two health communication interventions in increasing F&V consumption and physical activity in a sample of older adults (average age of 66 years), including both colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors and noncolorectal cancer-affected (N-CRC) individuals. CRC survivors and N-CRC individuals were recruited from a population-based case-control study and randomly assigned to four conditions using a 2 x 2 design. We tested two different methods of communicating and promoting health behavior change alone or in combination: tailored print communication (TPC) and brief telephone-based motivational interviewing (TMI). A significant increase in F&V consumption was found for the combined intervention group in the entire sample (p motivational interviewing may be an effective and cost-effective method for promoting dietary behavior change among older healthy adults. More research is needed to identify the optimal dose and timing for intervention strategies to promote dietary and physical activity change among both CRC survivors and the general population.

  8. Quality control of goji (fruits of Lycium barbarum L. and L. chinense Mill.): A value chain analysis perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ruyu; Heinrich, Michael; Wang, Zigui; Weckerle, Caroline S

    2018-06-14

    Goji (fruits of Lycium barbarum L. and L. chinense Mill., Solanaceae) have been used as a traditional food and medicine for hundreds of years in Asian countries and are now consumed globally. Quality of herbal medicines is critical for safe use and has been shown to be affected by value chains. Using a value chain (VC) framework, we aim at understanding the influence of different VC types on goji quality and revenue of stakeholders. Participant observation and semi-structured interviews were conducted during five months of fieldwork in the main production areas in China with a total of 65 stakeholders. Quality of goji, behaviour and financial performance of stakeholders was documented and analysed for different VCs. Ten different types of VCs were identified. VCs with vertical integration and horizontal collaboration were found to have a more coherent quality control and better goji quality as well as improved stakeholders' financial performance. Vertical integration at different levels was found for independent farmer-based VCs, horizontal collaboration was found in the cooperative-based VCs. Full vertically integrated VCs were found in large-scale production. Goji quality and stakeholders' revenues are linked with different types of VCs which mirror stakeholders' behaviour driven by target markets. Considering their positive influence on quality and revenues, well-developed vertically integrated value chains are likely to become more important in the near future. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Cultivos intercalares e controle de plantas daninhas em plantios de maracujá-amarelo Intercropping and weed control in yellow passion fruit orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelise de Almeida Lima

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se identificar cultivos intercalares e métodos integrados de controle de plantas daninhas em maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. como fatores que viabilizem a sua produção e rentabilidade. O experimento foi instalado em maio de 1999, conduzido em espaldeira vertical com um fio de arame a 2,0m do solo, no espaçamento de 2,5m x 5,0m, em blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo T1: milho (Zea mays L. - BR 106 como cultura intercalar; T2: feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. - cultivar Pérola como cultura intercalar; T3: feijão-de-porco nas entrelinhas e capina com enxada nas linhas; T4: feijão-de-porco nas entrelinhas e controle químico nas linhas (glifosate a 1,5 kg/ha; T5: planta daninha controlada quimicamente (em toda a parcela com alachlor a 2,8 kg/ha + diuron a 1,2 kg/ha em pré-emergência e glifosate a 1,5 kg/ha em pós-emergência; e T6: testemunha (capina com enxada em área total. Os dados analisados, no período de produção (maio de 1999 a abril de 2000, mostraram que não houve diferenças estatísticas entre os tratamentos para produtividade (indústria, peso médio, comprimento e diâmetro dos frutos, sólidos solúveis totais e acidez. Contudo, houve significância para produtividade total e in natura, com destaque para a utilização do feijão como cultura intercalar, com produtividade do maracujazeiro de 12,82 t/ha. Tanto o milho como o feijão podem ser recomendados como culturas intercalares no primeiro ano de cultivo do maracujá-amarelo. Os herbicidas aplicados em pré e pós-emergência foram economicamente viáveis e não mostraram efeito tóxico sobre as plantas de maracujá-amarelo.This work aimed identifying crops for intercropping and integrated methods for weed control in yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. orchard, that will favor its production and profitability. The experiment was set up in May 1999, with the plants

  10. Cytokinin-induced VvTFL1A expression may be involved in the control of grapevine fruitfulness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crane, O.; Halaly, T.; Pang, X.; Lavee, S.; Perl, A.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Or, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 235, č. 1 (2012), s. 181-192 ISSN 0032-0935 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Cytokinin * Floral development * Fruitfulness Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.347, year: 2012

  11. Parallel inputs to memory in bee colour vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horridge, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    In the 19(th) century, it was found that attraction of bees to light was controlled by light intensity irrespective of colour, and a few critical entomologists inferred that vision of bees foraging on flowers was unlike human colour vision. Therefore, quite justly, Professor Carl von Hess concluded in his book on the Comparative Physiology of Vision (1912) that bees do not distinguish colours in the way that humans enjoy. Immediately, Karl von Frisch, an assistant in the Zoology Department of the same University of Münich, set to work to show that indeed bees have colour vision like humans, thereby initiating a new research tradition, and setting off a decade of controversy that ended only at the death of Hess in 1923. Until 1939, several researchers continued the tradition of trying to untangle the mechanism of bee vision by repeatedly testing trained bees, but made little progress, partly because von Frisch and his legacy dominated the scene. The theory of trichromatic colour vision further developed after three types of receptors sensitive to green, blue, and ultraviolet (UV), were demonstrated in 1964 in the bee. Then, until the end of the century, all data was interpreted in terms of trichromatic colour space. Anomalies were nothing new, but eventually after 1996 they led to the discovery that bees have a previously unknown type of colour vision based on a monochromatic measure and distribution of blue and measures of modulation in green and blue receptor pathways. Meanwhile, in the 20(th) century, search for a suitable rationalization, and explorations of sterile culs-de-sac had filled the literature of bee colour vision, but were based on the wrong theory.

  12. eEF1A Controls ascospore differentiation through elevated accuracy, but controls longevity and fruiting body formation through another mechanism in Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silar, P; Lalucque, H; Haedens, V; Zickler, D; Picard, M

    2001-01-01

    Antisuppressor mutations in the eEF1A gene of Podospora anserina were previously shown to impair ascospore formation, to drastically increase life span, and to permit the development of the Crippled Growth degenerative process. Here, we show that eEF1A controls ascospore formation through accuracy level maintenance. Examination of antisuppressor mutant perithecia reveals two main cytological defects, mislocalization of spindle and nuclei and nuclear death. Antisuppression levels are shown to be highly dependent upon both the mutation site and the suppressor used, precluding any correlation between antisuppression efficiency and severity of the sporulation impairment. Nevertheless, severity of ascospore differentiation defect is correlated with resistance to paromomycin. We also show that eEF1A controls fruiting body formation and longevity through a mechanism(s) different from accuracy control. In vivo, GFP tagging of the protein in a way that partly retains its function confirmed earlier cytological observation; i.e., this factor is mainly diffuse within the cytosol, but may transiently accumulate within nuclei or in defined regions of the cytoplasm. These data emphasize the fact that the translation apparatus exerts a global regulatory control over cell physiology and that eEF1A is one of the key factors involved in this monitoring. PMID:11514440

  13. The colour of gender stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Sheila J; Macrae, C Neil

    2011-08-01

    Despite legislative attempts to eliminate gender stereotyping from society, the propensity to evaluate people on the basis of their sex remains a pernicious social problem. Noting the critical interplay between cultural and cognitive factors in the establishment of stereotypical beliefs, the current investigation explored the extent to which culturally transmitted colour-gender associations (i.e., pink is for girls, blue is for boys) set the stage for the automatic activation and expression of gender stereotypes. Across six experiments, the results demonstrated that (1) consumer choice for children's goods is dominated by gender-stereotyped colours (Experiment 1); (2) colour-based stereotypic associations guide young children's behaviour (Experiment 2); (3) colour-gender associations automatically activate associated stereotypes in adulthood (Experiments 3-5); and (4) colour-based stereotypic associations bias impressions of male and female targets (Experiment 6). These findings indicate that, despite prohibitions against stereotyping, seemingly innocuous societal practices may continue to promote this mode of thought. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Structural colour printing from a reusable generic nanosubstrate masked for the target image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei, M; Jiang, H; Kaminska, B

    2016-01-01

    Structural colour printing has advantages over traditional pigment-based colour printing. However, the high fabrication cost has hindered its applications in printing large-area images because each image requires patterning structural pixels in nanoscale resolution. In this work, we present a novel strategy to print structural colour images from a pixelated substrate which is called a nanosubstrate. The nanosubstrate is fabricated only once using nanofabrication tools and can be reused for printing a large quantity of structural colour images. It contains closely packed arrays of nanostructures from which red, green, blue and infrared structural pixels can be imprinted. To print a target colour image, the nanosubstrate is first covered with a mask layer to block all the structural pixels. The mask layer is subsequently patterned according to the target colour image to make apertures of controllable sizes on top of the wanted primary colour pixels. The masked nanosubstrate is then used as a stamp to imprint the colour image onto a separate substrate surface using nanoimprint lithography. Different visual colours are achieved by properly mixing the red, green and blue primary colours into appropriate ratios controlled by the aperture sizes on the patterned mask layer. Such a strategy significantly reduces the cost and complexity of printing a structural colour image from lengthy nanoscale patterning into high throughput micro-patterning and makes it possible to apply structural colour printing in personalized security features and data storage. In this paper, nanocone array grating pixels were used as the structural pixels and the nanosubstrate contains structures to imprint the nanocone arrays. Laser lithography was implemented to pattern the mask layer with submicron resolution. The optical properties of the nanocone array gratings are studied in detail. Multiple printed structural colour images with embedded covert information are demonstrated. (paper)

  15. Structural colour printing from a reusable generic nanosubstrate masked for the target image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, M.; Jiang, H.; Kaminska, B.

    2016-02-01

    Structural colour printing has advantages over traditional pigment-based colour printing. However, the high fabrication cost has hindered its applications in printing large-area images because each image requires patterning structural pixels in nanoscale resolution. In this work, we present a novel strategy to print structural colour images from a pixelated substrate which is called a nanosubstrate. The nanosubstrate is fabricated only once using nanofabrication tools and can be reused for printing a large quantity of structural colour images. It contains closely packed arrays of nanostructures from which red, green, blue and infrared structural pixels can be imprinted. To print a target colour image, the nanosubstrate is first covered with a mask layer to block all the structural pixels. The mask layer is subsequently patterned according to the target colour image to make apertures of controllable sizes on top of the wanted primary colour pixels. The masked nanosubstrate is then used as a stamp to imprint the colour image onto a separate substrate surface using nanoimprint lithography. Different visual colours are achieved by properly mixing the red, green and blue primary colours into appropriate ratios controlled by the aperture sizes on the patterned mask layer. Such a strategy significantly reduces the cost and complexity of printing a structural colour image from lengthy nanoscale patterning into high throughput micro-patterning and makes it possible to apply structural colour printing in personalized security features and data storage. In this paper, nanocone array grating pixels were used as the structural pixels and the nanosubstrate contains structures to imprint the nanocone arrays. Laser lithography was implemented to pattern the mask layer with submicron resolution. The optical properties of the nanocone array gratings are studied in detail. Multiple printed structural colour images with embedded covert information are demonstrated.

  16. Ants: Major Functional Elements in Fruit Agro-Ecosystems and Biological Control Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamine Diamé

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ants are a very diverse taxonomic group. They display remarkable social organization that has enabled them to be ubiquitous throughout the world. They make up approximately 10% of the world’s animal biomass. Ants provide ecosystem services in agrosystems by playing a major role in plant pollination, soil bioturbation, bioindication, and the regulation of crop-damaging insects. Over recent decades, there have been numerous studies in ant ecology and the focus on tree cropping systems has given added importance to ant ecology knowledge. The only missing point in this knowledge is the reasons underlying difference between the positive and negative effects of ants in tree cropping systems. This review article provides an overview of knowledge of the roles played by ants in orchards as functional elements, and on the potential of Oecophylla weaver ants as biological control agents. It also shows the potential and relevance of using ants as an agro-ecological diagnosis tool in orchards. Lastly, it demonstrates the potential elements which may determine the divergent negative and positive of their effects on cropping systems.

  17. The colour of an avifauna: A quantitative analysis of the colour of Australian birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhey, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    Animal coloration is a poorly-understood aspect of phenotypic variability. Here I expand initial studies of the colour gamut of birds by providing the first quantitative description of the colour variation of an entire avifauna: Australian landbirds (555 species). The colour of Australian birds occupies a small fraction (19%) of the entire possible colour space and colour variation is extremely uneven. Most colours are unsaturated, concentrated in the centre of colour space and based on the deposition of melanins. Other mechanisms of colour production are less common but account for larger portions of colour space and for most saturated colours. Male colours occupy 45–25% more colour space than female colours, indicating that sexual dichromatism translates into a broader range of male colours. Male-exclusive colours are often saturated, at the edge of chromatic space, and have most likely evolved for signalling. While most clades of birds occupy expected or lower-than-expected colour volumes, parrots and cockatoos (Order Psittaciformes) occupy a much larger volume than expected. This uneven distribution of colour variation across mechanisms of colour production, sexes and clades is probably shared by avifaunas in other parts of the world, but this remains to be tested with comparable data. PMID:26679370

  18. A review of the evolution of animal colour vision and visual communication signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, D; Vorobyev, M

    2008-09-01

    The visual displays of animals and plants are often colourful, and colour vision allows animals to respond to these signals as they forage for food, choose mates and so-forth. This article discusses the evolutionary relationship between photoreceptor spectral sensitivities of four groups of land animals--birds, butterflies, primates and hymenopteran insects (bees and wasps)--, the colour signals that are relevant to them, and how understanding is informed by models of spectral coding and colour vision. Although the spectral sensitivities of photoreceptors are known to vary adaptively under natural selection there is little evidence that those of hymenopterans, birds and primates are specifically adapted to the reflectance spectra of food plants or animal visual signals. On the other hand, the colours of fruit, flowers and feathers may have evolved to be more discriminable for the colour vision of their natural receivers than for other groups of animals. Butterflies are unusual in that they have enjoyed a major radiation in receptor numbers and spectral sensitivities. The reasons for the radiation and diversity of butterfly colour vision remain unknown, but may include their need to find food plants and to select mates.

  19. Termoterapia para o controle de patógenos em pós-colheita em frutos da cajazeira = Thermotherapy for post harvest pathogens on Spondias fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique de Brito

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento térmico, principalmente água quente, é método alternativo que tem sido utilizado para o controle de doenças e infestações de insetos em frutos póscolheita. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a combinação de tempo e temperatura adequada para o controle de fungos de pós-colheita em frutos de cajazeira em atmosfera ambiente. No primeiro tratamento, os frutos foram imersos em água quente e no segundo foram expostos ao vapor a 50°C por 0, 10, 20, 30 e 40 minutos para diferentes lotes de frutos. Foram retiradas de cada fruto/tratamento quatro secções, as quais foram incubadas em placas de Petri com BDA, sendo realizadas as avaliações da incidência de fitopatógenos após 7 dias de incubação. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram uma maior incidência de Rhizophus sp. nos tratamentos avaliados e redução de Aspergillus sp. e Fusariumsp., cujo comportamento foi influenciado pelo tratamento termoterápico, podendo ser indicado os tratamentos vapor e banho-maria a 50ºC a partir de 20 minutos como método alternativo no controle pós-colheita de Aspergillus sp. e Fusarium sp. em frutos da cajazeira.Thermal treatment, mainly hot water, is an alternative method that has been used for diseases and pests infestation in post harvest fruits. The present work aimed to determine a combination of correct time x temperature for post harvest fungus control on Spondias fruits. For the first treatment, fruits were dipped on hot water and, for the second, on hot air, both with 50°C for 0, 10, 20, 30 e 40 minutes for different fruit groups. Four pieces were sectioned from each fruit, per treatment, and incubated in Petri dishes with BDA,being evaluated for fungus incidence after seven days incubation. Obtained results showed higher incidence of Rhizopus sp. on the evaluated treatments, and a reduction of Aspergillus sp. and Fusarium sp., while behaviour was influenced by thermotherapy, indicating air and hot water at 50º

  20. Formation region and amplitude of colour superconductivity in an instanton-induced model

    CERN Document Server

    Liao Jin Feng

    2002-01-01

    Colour superconductivity is investigated in the frame of a two flavour instanton-induced model. The ratio of diquark to quark-antiquark coupling constants is restricted to be c/(N sub c -1) with 1 <=c <=2.87 and controls the formation region and amplitude of colour superconductivity. While the finite current quark mass changes the chiral transition significantly, it does not considerably change the colour superconductivity

  1. Mechano-actuated ultrafast full-colour switching in layered photonic hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Yue, Youfeng; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Haque, Md Anamul; Nakajima, Tasuku; Nonoyama, Takayuki; Li, Xufeng; Kajiwara, Itsuro; Gong, Jian Ping

    2014-01-01

    Photonic crystals with tunability in the visible region are of great interest for controlling light diffraction. Mechanochromic photonic materials are periodically structured soft materials designed with a photonic stop-band that can be tuned by mechanical forces to reflect specific colours. Soft photonic materials with broad colour tunability and fast colour switching are invaluable for application. Here we report a novel mechano-actuated, soft photonic hydrogel that has an ultrafast-respons...

  2. Impact of Precooling and Controlled-Atmosphere Storage on γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Accumulation in Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Molin; Ndeurumio, Kessy H; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Zhuoyan

    2016-08-24

    Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) fruit cultivars 'Chuliang' and 'Shixia' were analyzed for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation after precooling and in controlled-atmosphere storage. Fruit were exposed to 5% O2 plus 3%, 5%, or 10% CO2 at 4 °C, and GABA and associated enzymes, aril firmness, and pericarp color were measured. Aril softening and pericarp browning were delayed by 5% CO2 + 5% O2. GABA concentrations and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD; EC 4.1.1.15) activities declined during storage at the higher-CO2 treatments. However, GABA aminotransferase (GABA-T; EC 2.6.1.19) activities in elevated CO2-treated fruit fluctuated during storage. GABA concentrations increased after precooling treatments. GAD activity and GABA-T activity were different between cultivars after precooling. GABA concentrations in fruit increased after 3 days of 10% CO2 + 5% O2 treatment and then declined as storage time increased. GABA accumulation was associated with stimulation of GAD activity rather than inhibition of GABA-T activity.

  3. Control of Passion Fruit Fungal Diseases Using Essential Oils Extracted from Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus agglomerata) in Egerton University Main Campus Njoro, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waithaka, Paul Njenga; Gathuru, Eliud Mugu; Githaiga, Benson Muriuki; Kimani, Salome Nduta

    2017-01-01

    Growth of fruits which form an important part of human diet has been jeopardized by the many fungal diseases that are present today. This study was conceived to isolate the most common fungal pathogens in passion fruits. Fungi were isolated using potato dextrose agar in addition to characterization using morphological, cultural, and biochemical means. Extraction of essential oils from rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis ) and eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus agglomerata ) was done. Before carrying the sensitivity test of essential oils to the fungal isolates, constituents of the essential oils were determined. The most common fungal pathogens isolated from passion fruits were Alternaria spp. (45%), Fusarium spp. (22%), Colletotrichum spp. (17%), and Penicillium spp. (16%). There was a relationship between heating time and yield of essential oils in rosemary ( r = 0.99) and eucalyptus ( r = 0.99). Conversely, there was no significant difference in the amount of essential oils produced by rosemary and eucalyptus ( P = 0.08). Furthermore, there was a significant difference in growth inhibition of the fungal pathogens between essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus ( P = 0.000438). Fungal pathogens isolated from passion fruits can be controlled using essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus. The oils need to be produced in large scale.

  4. Exploring the benefit of synaesthetic colours: testing for "pop-out" in individuals with grapheme-colour synaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Anina N; Karstoft, Karen-Inge

    2013-01-01

    In grapheme-colour synaesthesia, letters, numbers, and words elicit involuntary colour experiences. Recently, there has been much emphasis on individual differences and possible subcategories of synaesthetes with different underlying mechanisms. In particular, there are claims that for some, synaesthesia occurs prior to attention and awareness of the inducing stimulus. We first characterized our sample using two versions of the "Synaesthetic Congruency Task" to distinguish "projector" and "associator" synaesthetes who may differ in the extent to which their synaesthesia depends on attention and awareness. We then used a novel modification of the "Embedded Figures Task" that included a set-size manipulation to look for evidence of preattentive "pop-out" from synaesthetic colours, at both a group and an individual level. We replicate an advantage for synaesthetes over nonsynaesthetic controls on the Embedded Figures Task in accuracy, but find no support for pop-out of synaesthetic colours. We conclude that grapheme-colour synaesthetes are fundamentally similar in their visual processing to the general population, with the source of their unusual conscious colour experiences occurring late in the cognitive hierarchy.

  5. Exploring the benefit of synaesthetic colours: Testing for “pop-out” in individuals with grapheme–colour synaesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Anina N.; Karstoft, Karen-Inge

    2013-01-01

    In grapheme–colour synaesthesia, letters, numbers, and words elicit involuntary colour experiences. Recently, there has been much emphasis on individual differences and possible subcategories of synaesthetes with different underlying mechanisms. In particular, there are claims that for some, synaesthesia occurs prior to attention and awareness of the inducing stimulus. We first characterized our sample using two versions of the “Synaesthetic Congruency Task” to distinguish “projector” and “associator” synaesthetes who may differ in the extent to which their synaesthesia depends on attention and awareness. We then used a novel modification of the “Embedded Figures Task” that included a set-size manipulation to look for evidence of preattentive “pop-out” from synaesthetic colours, at both a group and an individual level. We replicate an advantage for synaesthetes over nonsynaesthetic controls on the Embedded Figures Task in accuracy, but find no support for pop-out of synaesthetic colours. We conclude that grapheme–colour synaesthetes are fundamentally similar in their visual processing to the general population, with the source of their unusual conscious colour experiences occurring late in the cognitive hierarchy. PMID:23768150

  6. Creating action plans in a serious video game increases and maintains child fruit-vegetable intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbe; Bhatt, Riddhi; Vazquez, Isabel; Cullen, Karen W; Baranowski, Janice; Baranowski, Tom; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-18

    Child fruit and vegetable intake is below recommended levels, increasing risk for chronic disease. Interventions to influence fruit and vegetable intake among youth have had mixed effects. Innovative, theory-driven interventions are needed. Goal setting, enhanced by implementation intentions (i.e., plans tightly connected to a behavioral goal), may offer a solution. Action plans state "how" a goal will be achieved, while coping plans identify a potential barrier and corresponding solution. The research reported here evaluated the short- and long-term effects of goal setting enhanced with implementation intentions on child fruit and vegetable intake in a 10-episode, theoretically-grounded serious videogame promoting fruit and vegetables. This is one of the first studies to test the efficacy of implementation intentions on the dietary intake of healthy children. A four-group randomized design with three data collection periods (baseline, immediate post-intervention, 3 months post-intervention) was employed. Groups varied on whether children created an implementation intention (none, action, coping, both) as part of goal setting. Participants were 4th and 5th grade children (~9-11 years old) and one parent. An a priori power analysis indicated this would provide >80% power to detect a small effect (Cohen's d = 0.17). Children played a 10-episode online videogame; parents received 10 electronic newsletters and access to a parent-only website. The primary outcome was child fruit and vegetable intake, assessed via three, dietitian-assisted telephone recalls at each data collection period. The primary analysis was conducted using a repeated measures analysis of covariance with a mixed model procedure. Secondary analyses examined intervention effects on fruit and vegetables separately. Four hundred parent/child dyads were recruited. A significant group-by-time interaction for fruit and vegetable intake (p adolescent children. Videogames promoting healthy diets offer

  7. Hypersensitivity reactions to food colours with special reference to the natural colour annatto extract (butter colour).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, H; Larsen, J C; Tarding, F

    1978-01-01

    It is well known that synthetic food colours especially some azo dyes can provoke hypersensitivity reactions such as urticaria, angioneurotic oedema, and astma (Michaëlsson and Juhlin, 1973, Granholt and Thune, 1975). Natural food colours are scarcely investigated with respect to potential allergic properties. Annatto extract, a commonly used food colour in edible fats e.g. butter, has been tested in patients. Among 61 consecutive patients suffereing from chornic urticaria and/or angioneurotic oedema 56 patients were orally provoked by annatto extract during elimination diet. Challenge was performed with a dose equivalent to the amount used in 25 grammes of butter. Twentysix per cent of the patients reacted to this colour 4 hours (SD: 2,6) after intake. Similar challenges with synthetic dyes showed the following results: Tartrazine 11%, Sunset Yellow FCF 17%, Food Red 17 16%, Amaranth 9%, Ponceau 4 R 15%, Erythrosine 12% and Brillant Blue FCF 14%. The present study indicates that natural food colours may induce hypersensitivity reactions as frequent as synthetic dyes.

  8. Synaesthetic Colours Can Behave More like Recalled Colours, as Opposed to Physical Colours that Can Be Seen

    OpenAIRE

    Derek H. Arnold; Signy V. Wegener; Francesca Brown; Jason B. Mattingley

    2011-01-01

    Grapheme-color synaesthesia is an atypical condition characterized by coloured sensations when reading achromatic text. Different forms have been characterized, but this is somewhat controversial. In associative grapheme-colour synaesthesia, written graphemes can automatically trigger a sensation of colour in the ?mind's eye?, but hearing the name of a grapheme does not. This allowed us explore the precision with which synaesthetes match triggered synaesthetic colours across separate presenta...

  9. An extract of pomegranate fruit and galangal rhizome increases the numbers of motile sperm: a prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedder, Maja D K; Jakobsen, Henrik B; Giversen, Ina; Christensen, Lars P; Parner, Erik T; Fedder, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) and galangal (Alpinia galanga) have separately been shown to stimulate spermatogenesis and to increase sperm counts and motility in rodents. Within traditional medicine, pomegranate fruit has long been used to increase fertility, however studies on the effect on spermatogenesis in humans have never been published. With this study we investigated whether oral intake of tablets containing standardised amounts of extract of pomegranate fruit and powder of greater galangal rhizome (Punalpin) would increase the total number of motile spermatozoa. The study was designed as a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial. Enrolment was based on the mean total number of motile spermatozoa of two ejaculates. The participants delivered an ejaculate after 4-8 days of tablet intake and two ejaculates just before they stopped taking the tablets. Seventy adult men with a semen quality not meeting the standards for commercial application at Nordic Cryobank, but without azoospermia, were included in the study. Participants were randomized to take tablets containing extract of pomegranate fruit (standardised with respect to punicalagin A+B, punicalin and ellagic acid) and freeze-dried rhizome of greater galangal (standardised with respect to 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate) or placebo on a daily basis for three months. Sixty-six participants completed the intervention (active treatment: n = 34; placebo: n = 32). After the intervention the total number of motile spermatozoa was increased in participants treated with plant extracts compared with the placebo group (p = 0.026). After three months of active treatment, the average total number of motile sperm increased by 62% (from 23.4 to 37.8 millions), while for the placebo group, the number of motile sperm increased by 20%. Sperm morphology was not affected by the treatment. Our findings may help subfertile men to gain an improved amount of motile ejaculated sperm by taking tablets

  10. Platelet inhibitory effects of juices from Pachyrhizus erosus L. root and Psidium guajava L. fruit: a randomized controlled trial in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaptimthong, Thitiporn; Kasemsuk, Thitima; Sibmooh, Nathawut; Unchern, Supeenun

    2016-08-03

    converts to nitrite and further to NO which may attenuate platelet responses to collagen stimulation. Cardiovascular benefits of juices from yam bean root and guava fruit are noteworthy in term of the cardiovascular health-promoting approach. Randomized controlled trial TCTR20150228001 .

  11. Touch-sensitive colour graphics enhance monitoring of loss-of-coolant accident tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snedden, M.D.; Mead, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    A stand-alone computer-based system with an intelligent colour termimal is described for monitoring parameters during loss-of-coolant accident tests. Colour graphic displays and touch-sensitive control have been combined for effective operator interaction. Data collected by the host MODCOMP II minicomputer are dynamically updated on colour pictures generated by the terminal. Experimenters select system functions by touching simulated switches on a transparent touch-sensitive overlay, mounted directly over the face of the colour screen, eliminating the need for a keyboard. Switch labels and colours are changed on the screen by the terminal software as different functions are selected. Interaction is self-prompting and can be learned quickly. System operation for a complete set of 20 tests has demonstrated the convenience of interactive touchsensitive colour graphics

  12. Cross-Modal Associations in Synaesthesia: Vowel Colours in the Ear of the Beholder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Moos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human speech conveys many forms of information, but for some exceptional individuals (synaesthetes, listening to speech sounds can automatically induce visual percepts such as colours. In this experiment, grapheme–colour synaesthetes and controls were asked to assign colours, or shades of grey, to different vowel sounds. We then investigated whether the acoustic content of these vowel sounds influenced participants' colour and grey-shade choices. We found that both colour and grey-shade associations varied systematically with vowel changes. The colour effect was significant for both participant groups, but significantly stronger and more consistent for synaesthetes. Because not all vowel sounds that we used are “translatable” into graphemes, we conclude that acoustic–phonetic influences co-exist with established graphemic influences in the cross-modal correspondences of both synaesthetes and non-synaesthetes.

  13. Mechano-actuated ultrafast full-colour switching in layered photonic hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Youfeng; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Haque, Md Anamul; Nakajima, Tasuku; Nonoyama, Takayuki; Li, Xufeng; Kajiwara, Itsuro; Gong, Jian Ping

    2014-08-18

    Photonic crystals with tunability in the visible region are of great interest for controlling light diffraction. Mechanochromic photonic materials are periodically structured soft materials designed with a photonic stop-band that can be tuned by mechanical forces to reflect specific colours. Soft photonic materials with broad colour tunability and fast colour switching are invaluable for application. Here we report a novel mechano-actuated, soft photonic hydrogel that has an ultrafast-response time, full-colour tunable range, high spatial resolution and can be actuated by a very small compressive stress. In addition, the material has excellent mechanical stability and the colour can be reversibly switched at high frequency more than 10,000 times without degradation. This material can be used in optical devices, such as full-colour display and sensors to visualize the time evolution of complicated stress/strain fields, for example, generated during the motion of biological cells.

  14. Cross-modal associations in synaesthesia: Vowel colours in the ear of the beholder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Anja; Smith, Rachel; Miller, Sam R; Simmons, David R

    2014-01-01

    Human speech conveys many forms of information, but for some exceptional individuals (synaesthetes), listening to speech sounds can automatically induce visual percepts such as colours. In this experiment, grapheme-colour synaesthetes and controls were asked to assign colours, or shades of grey, to different vowel sounds. We then investigated whether the acoustic content of these vowel sounds influenced participants' colour and grey-shade choices. We found that both colour and grey-shade associations varied systematically with vowel changes. The colour effect was significant for both participant groups, but significantly stronger and more consistent for synaesthetes. Because not all vowel sounds that we used are "translatable" into graphemes, we conclude that acoustic-phonetic influences co-exist with established graphemic influences in the cross-modal correspondences of both synaesthetes and non-synaesthetes.

  15. Special Section on Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications.......Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications....

  16. Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  17. Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  18. String formation beyond leading colour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Jesper R. [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14, Lund (Sweden); Theoretical Physics, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Skands, Peter Z. [Theoretical Physics, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University,VIC-3800 (Australia)

    2015-08-03

    We present a new model for the hadronisation of multi-parton systems, in which colour correlations beyond leading N{sub C} are allowed to influence the formation of confining potentials (strings). The multiplet structure of SU(3) is combined with a minimisation of the string potential energy, to decide between which partons strings should form, allowing also for “baryonic” configurations (e.g., two colours can combine coherently to form an anticolour). In e{sup +}e{sup −}collisions, modifications to the leading-colour picture are small, suppressed by both colour and kinematics factors. But in pp collisions, multi-parton interactions increase the number of possible subleading connections, counteracting their naive 1/N{sub C}{sup 2} suppression. Moreover, those that reduce the overall string lengths are kinematically favoured. The model, which we have implemented in the PYTHIA 8 generator, is capable of reaching agreement not only with the important 〈p{sub ⊥}〉(n{sub charged}) distribution but also with measured rates (and ratios) of kaons and hyperons, in both ee and pp collisions. Nonetheless, the shape of their p{sub ⊥} spectra remains challenging to explain.

  19. COLOUR LEARNING IN RETARDED CHILDREN*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COLOUR LEARNING IN RETARDED CHILDREN* !\\'fRS E. K~SEBOOM, Principal, ADS. LEVIN, M.B., M.R.C.P., D.C.H., Hon. Medical Officer, Hamlet B School for. Retarded Children, Johannesburg. '... silly children, with no understanding .. -'. Jeremiah 4:22. Tt has been observed' that mentally retarded children have.

  20. The discovery of coloured kaons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, G.

    1976-01-01

    The recently discovered M(1.86) mesons may be coloured kaons and a weak interaction in Han-Nambu theory is proposed which has the required general properties and forces the charged M particle to decay into the observed exotic state. (Auth.)

  1. Colour reconnection at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P

    2002-01-01

    The preliminary results on the search of colour reconnection effects (CR) from the four experiments at LEP, ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL, are reviewed. Extreme models are excluded by studies of standard variables, and on going studies of a method first suggested by L3, the particle flow method (D. Duchesneau, (2001)), are yet inconclusive. (22 refs).

  2. Thirteen-colour photometry of Be stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M; Schuster, W J [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Astronomia

    1981-01-01

    Thirteen-colour photometry made at the San Pedro Martir Observatory in Baja California, for a number of spectroscopically variable Be and shell stars is presented. Several of these stars also show photometric variability in the ultraviolet and/or infrared over a time base of two to three years. We analyze the more interesting stars in terms of colour-colour diagrams, colour excesses, spectral characteristics and changes in their energy distributions. Prospects for future research are discussed.

  3. Thirteen-colour photometry of Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.; Schuster, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Thirteen-colour photometry made at the San Pedro Martir Observatory in Baja California, for a number of spectroscopically variable Be and shell stars is presented. Several of these stars also show photometric variability in the ultraviolet and/or infrared over a time base of two to three years. We analyze the more interesting stars in terms of colour-colour diagrams, colour excesses, spectral characteristics and changes in their energy distributions. Prospects for future research are discussed. (author)

  4. The "Human Colour" Crayon: Investigating the Attitudes and Perceptions of Learners Regarding Race and Skin Colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Neeske; Costandius, Elmarie

    2017-01-01

    Some coloured and black learners in South Africa use a light orange or pink crayon to represent themselves in art. Many learners name this colour "human colour" or "skin colour". This is troublesome, because it could reflect exclusionary ways of representing race in images and language. This case study, conducted with two…

  5. Search for Colour Singlet and Colour Reconnection Effects in Hadronic Z Decays at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rosenbleck, C; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2004-01-01

    A search is performed in symmetric 3-jet hadronic Z decay events for evidence of colour singlet production or colour reconnection effects. Asymmetries in the angular separation of particles are found to be sensitive indicators of such effects. Upper limits on the level of colour singlet production and colour reconnection effects are established for a variety of models.

  6. Price discounts significantly enhance fruit and vegetable purchases when combined with nutrition education: a randomized controlled supermarket trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterlander, Wilma E; de Boer, Michiel R; Schuit, Albertine J; Seidell, Jacob C; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M

    2013-04-01

    Reducing fruit and vegetable (F&V) prices is a frequently considered policy to improve dietary habits in the context of health promotion. However, evidence on the effectiveness of this intervention is limited. The objective was to examine the effects of a 50% price discount on F&Vs or nutrition education or a combination of both on supermarket purchases. A 6-mo randomized controlled trial within Dutch supermarkets was conducted. Regular supermarket shoppers were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: 50% price discounts on F&Vs, nutrition education, 50% price discounts plus nutrition education, or no intervention. A total of 199 participants provided baseline data; 151 (76%) were included in the final analysis. F&V purchases were measured by using supermarket register receipts at baseline, at 1 mo after the start of the intervention, at 3 mo, at 6 mo (end of the intervention period), and 3 mo after the intervention ended (9 mo). Adjusted multilevel models showed significantly higher F&V purchases (per household/2 wk) as a result of the price discount (+3.9 kg; 95% CI: 1.5, 6.3 kg) and the discount plus education intervention (+5.6 kg; 95% CI: 3.2, 7.9 kg) at 6 mo compared with control. Moreover, the percentage of participants who consumed recommended amounts of F&Vs (≥400 g/d) increased from 42.5% at baseline to 61.3% at 6 mo in both discount groups (P = 0.03). Education alone had no significant effect. Discounting F&Vs is a promising intervention strategy because it resulted in substantially higher F&V purchases, and no adverse effects were observed. Therefore, pricing strategies form an important focus for future interventions or policy. However, the long-term effects and the ultimate health outcomes require further investigation. This trial was registered at the ISRCTN Trial Register as number ISRCTN56596945 and at the Dutch Trial Register (http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/index.asp) as number NL22568.029.08.

  7. An RGB Approach to Prismatic Colours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theilmann, Florian; Grusche, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Teaching prismatic colours usually boils down to establishing the take-home message that white light consists of "differently refrangible" coloured rays. This approach explains the classical spectrum of seven colours but has its limitations, e.g. in discussing spectra from setups with higher resolution or in understanding the well…

  8. Colour Vision Deficiency and Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Louise; Featonby, David

    2016-01-01

    1 in 12 males suffer from some form of colour vision deficiency (CVD) which in the present colour dominated world of education presentation can be a severe disadvantage. Although aware of "colourblindness" most teachers make little or no adjustment for these pupils for whom tasks may be more difficult. This article examines colour vision…

  9. Biological Components of Colour Preference in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Bevis, Laura; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya

    2010-01-01

    Adult colour preference has been summarized quantitatively in terms of weights on the two fundamental neural processes that underlie early colour encoding: the S-(L+M) ("blue-yellow") and L-M ("red-green") cone-opponent contrast channels ( Ling, Hurlbert & Robinson, 2006; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007). Here, we investigate whether colour preference in…

  10. Mixed colour states in QCD confining vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Buividovich, P. V.; Kuvshinov, V. I.

    2005-01-01

    We show that confinement of spinless heavy quarks in fundamental representation of $SU(N_{c})$ gauge group can be treated as decoherence of pure colour state into a white mixture of states. Decoherence rate is found to be proportional to the tension of QCD string and the distance between colour charges. The purity of colour states is calculated.

  11. Kac's ring: The case of four colours

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-15

    Mar 15, 2017 ... generalize the discussion to more than two colours. Although the generalization seems nearly trivial, it will be shown that there appear interesting, unanticipated technical difficulties or surprises when we consider four colours. In this work, we consider the Kac's ring with balls of four colours, calling them red ...

  12. Improper colouring of (random) unit disk graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, R.J.; Müller, T.; Sereni, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    For any graph G, the k-improper chromatic number ¿k(G) is the smallest number of colours used in a colouring of G such that each colour class induces a subgraph of maximum degree k. We investigate ¿k for unit disk graphs and random unit disk graphs to generalise results of McDiarmid and Reed

  13. Detection of coloured tracks of heavy ion particles using photographic colour film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuge, K.; Yasuda, N.; Kumagai, H.; Nakazawa, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Aoki, N.; Hasegawa, A.

    2001-01-01

    A photographic colour film, which was exposed to heavy ions, reveals a coloured dye image of the ion tracks. Since the colour film consists of several layers and different colours appear on each layer, three-dimensional information on the tracks in the layers can be obtained by the colour image. Previously, we have reported the method for which the tracks in different colours represented differences of track depth and we also discussed the disadvantages of using commercial colour films. Here we present the procedure for a self-made photographic coating and the development formula which can overcome the disadvantages

  14. Economic evaluation of damage caused by, and methods of control of, the Mediterranean fruit fly in the Maghreb. An analysis covering three control options, including the sterile insect technique. Report of an expert group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Fruit and vegetable production is an important agricultural sector throughout the Mediterranean Basin, which is dependent on aerial or ground insecticide applications to protect commercial crops against the Mediterranean fruit fly. Pesticide applications are required up to twelve times a year, costing large sums of money. This study assesses for the four North African countries the economics of different pest control/eradication alternatives: insecticide application and the more environmentally friendly alternatives based on the Sterile Insect Technique. It is concluded that Sterile Insect Technique, not only very attractive from environmental point of view, but is also a feasible option from economic point of view. 40 refs, 3 figs, 37 tabs.

  15. Economic evaluation of damage caused by, and methods of control of, the Mediterranean fruit fly in the Maghreb. An analysis covering three control options, including the sterile insect technique. Report of an expert group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    Fruit and vegetable production is an important agricultural sector throughout the Mediterranean Basin, which is dependent on aerial or ground insecticide applications to protect commercial crops against the Mediterranean fruit fly. Pesticide applications are required up to twelve times a year, costing large sums of money. This study assesses for the four North African countries the economics of different pest control/eradication alternatives: insecticide application and the more environmentally friendly alternatives based on the Sterile Insect Technique. It is concluded that Sterile Insect Technique, not only very attractive from environmental point of view, but is also a feasible option from economic point of view. 40 refs, 3 figs, 37 tabs

  16. Radiation processing of foods: fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Post-harvest irradiation of fruits and vegetables improves their shelf-life by: (1) delaying ripening and senescence of fruits, (2) controlling fungal diseases, (3) inhibiting sprouting, and (4) disinfestation. Nutritional and quality aspects of irradiated fruits and vegetables are discussed. Commercial prospects are briefly described. (M.G.B.)

  17. Influences of air and controlled atmosphere storage on the concentration of potentially healthful phenolics in apples and other fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awad, M.A.; Jager, de A.

    2003-01-01

    A diverse array of fruit and vegetable constituents including vitamins such as C, E and A, phytochemicals such as folates, glucosinolates, carotenoids, flavonoids and phenolic acids, lycopene, selenium and dietary fibres form an antioxidant network that is essential in maintaining human health. In

  18. Biological control of olive fruit fly in California – release, establishment and impact of Psyttalia lounsburyi and Psyttalia humilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) likely originated in sub-Saharan Africa, where the wild olive Olea europaea cuspidata L. (Wall. ex G. Don) is found and from which the domesticated olive O. europaea europaea L. was derived. Following the path of olive cult...

  19. Measurements and modelling of the influence of dentine colour and enamel on tooth colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Paul D; Battersby, Stephen J

    2015-03-01

    We provide a quantitative predictive model for the extent to which coloured dentine, visible through the enamel, contributes to tooth colour. Our model uses (L(*),a(*),b(*)) measurements rather than spectral measurements. We have used a model system, composed of a slice of bovine enamel placed on top of coloured paper. We have measured the colour of the enamel-paper combination, as an analogue for a tooth, and have related this to the colour of the paper, as an analogue for dentine. By changing the paper colour, we have been able to explore how the colour of dentine determines tooth colour, according to our model system. We have also compared hydrated and desiccated samples. In qualitative terms, superimposing the enamel on top of the paper increases the "lightness" for all colours tested except white while simultaneously reducing the chromaticity, a measure of the extent to which the colour differs from grey. Desiccated enamel is much more effective at increasing the lightness and reducing the chromaticity than hydrated enamel. Quantitatively, our measurements are reproduced by the mathematical model we have developed to within 2% in "lightness" and about 8% in chromaticity. We are able to predict the colour of an analogue for a tooth, composed of bovine enamel and coloured paper, from the colour of an analogue for the dentine, the coloured paper alone, with good accuracy. This understanding provides insights into the role of dentine colour in determining tooth colour. Our work helps quantify the importance of dentine colour, compared to other, extrinsic causes of colour, such as staining, in determining the visible colour of teeth. Our predicted colours represent a baseline to which extrinsic sources will add. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Out of Sight, out of Mind: The Attentional Blink Can Eliminate Synaesthetic Colours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Anina N.; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms of selective attention exert a powerful influence on visual perception. We examined whether attentional selection is necessary for generation of the vivid colours experienced by individuals with grapheme-colour synaesthesia. Twelve synaesthetes and matched controls viewed rapid serial displays of nonsense characters within which were…

  1. When Less Is More: Poor Discrimination but Good Colour Memory in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Pamela; Ludlow, Amanda; Roberson, Debi

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments children with autism and two groups of controls matched for either chronological or non-verbal mental age were tested on tasks of colour discrimination and memory. The results from experiment 1 showed significantly poorer colour discrimination in children with autism in comparison to typically developing chronological age…

  2. Colour annealing - a toy model of colour reconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhoff, Marisa; Wuppertal U.; Skands, Peter; Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    We present a simple toy model for colour reconnections at the nonperturbative level. The model resembles an annealing-type algorithm and is applicable to any collider and process type, though we argue for a possible enhancement of the effect in hadron-hadron collisions. We present a simple application and study of the consequences for semileptonic t(bar t) events at the Tevatron

  3. Colour annealing - a toy model of colour reconnections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhoff, Marisa; /Wuppertal U.; Skands, Peter; /Fermilab

    2005-12-01

    We present a simple toy model for colour reconnections at the nonperturbative level. The model resembles an annealing-type algorithm and is applicable to any collider and process type, though we argue for a possible enhancement of the effect in hadron-hadron collisions. We present a simple application and study of the consequences for semileptonic t{bar t} events at the Tevatron.

  4. Spatially modulated structural colour in bird feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Andrew J.; Washington, Adam L.; Mykhaylyk, Oleksandr O.; Hill, Christopher J.; Bianco, Antonino; Burg, Stephanie L.; Dennison, Andrew J. C.; Snape, Mary; Cadby, Ashley J.; Smith, Andrew; Prevost, Sylvain; Whittaker, David M.; Jones, Richard A. L.; Fairclough, J. Patrick. A.; Parker, Andrew R.

    2015-12-01

    Eurasian Jay (Garrulus glandarius) feathers display periodic variations in the reflected colour from white through light blue, dark blue and black. We find the structures responsible for the colour are continuous in their size and spatially controlled by the degree of spinodal phase separation in the corresponding region of the feather barb. Blue structures have a well-defined broadband ultra-violet (UV) to blue wavelength distribution; the corresponding nanostructure has characteristic spinodal morphology with a lengthscale of order 150 nm. White regions have a larger 200 nm nanostructure, consistent with a spinodal process that has coarsened further, yielding broader wavelength white reflectance. Our analysis shows that nanostructure in single bird feather barbs can be varied continuously by controlling the time the keratin network is allowed to phase separate before mobility in the system is arrested. Dynamic scaling analysis of the single barb scattering data implies that the phase separation arrest mechanism is rapid and also distinct from the spinodal phase separation mechanism i.e. it is not gelation or intermolecular re-association. Any growing lengthscale using this spinodal phase separation approach must first traverse the UV and blue wavelength regions, growing the structure by coarsening, resulting in a broad distribution of domain sizes.

  5. Spatially modulated structural colour in bird feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Andrew J; Washington, Adam L; Mykhaylyk, Oleksandr O; Hill, Christopher J; Bianco, Antonino; Burg, Stephanie L; Dennison, Andrew J C; Snape, Mary; Cadby, Ashley J; Smith, Andrew; Prevost, Sylvain; Whittaker, David M; Jones, Richard A L; Fairclough, J Patrick A; Parker, Andrew R

    2015-12-21

    Eurasian Jay (Garrulus glandarius) feathers display periodic variations in the reflected colour from white through light blue, dark blue and black. We find the structures responsible for the colour are continuous in their size and spatially controlled by the degree of spinodal phase separation in the corresponding region of the feather barb. Blue structures have a well-defined broadband ultra-violet (UV) to blue wavelength distribution; the corresponding nanostructure has characteristic spinodal morphology with a lengthscale of order 150 nm. White regions have a larger 200 nm nanostructure, consistent with a spinodal process that has coarsened further, yielding broader wavelength white reflectance. Our analysis shows that nanostructure in single bird feather barbs can be varied continuously by controlling the time the keratin network is allowed to phase separate before mobility in the system is arrested. Dynamic scaling analysis of the single barb scattering data implies that the phase separation arrest mechanism is rapid and also distinct from the spinodal phase separation mechanism i.e. it is not gelation or intermolecular re-association. Any growing lengthscale using this spinodal phase separation approach must first traverse the UV and blue wavelength regions, growing the structure by coarsening, resulting in a broad distribution of domain sizes.

  6. Elemental redistribution in coloured films on SUS304 stainless steel produced by current pulse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.J.; Duh, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Coloured films are deposited on an SUS304 substrate by the square wave current pulse method in a 2.5 M CrO 3 + 5 M H 2 SO 4 solution at 75 C. The absolute ratio of anodic to cathodic charge density and the corresponding final value of cathodic potential provide an easy and appropriate approach to the control of colour in the current pulse colouring method. This is proved in this study for a frequency region lower than 1 Hz. The corresponding cathodic potential increases with increasing dwell time in the negative applied current region and is related to the colour tone of the deposited film. The total time required to obtain the same thickness of coloured film is shorter at lower frequency than at higher frequency, which takes more time to charge the double layer. The thickness of the coloured films is determined by both Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profiling and is of submicron order. The film thickness is proportional to the introduced total charge per unit area in the current pulse colouring process. CrO + and FeO + ions are observed in the coloured films and their concentrations increase as the colouring time is increased. The Fe concentration in the coloured films is lower than that in the substrate and decreases with the colouring time. It is the iron species that first becomes involved in the anodic reaction and the spinel oxide structure of iron and chromium is present in the coloured films. (orig.)

  7. Condition-dependence, pleiotropy and the handicap principle of sexual selection in melanin-based colouration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulin, Alexandre

    2016-05-01

    The signalling function of melanin-based colouration is debated. Sexual selection theory states that ornaments should be costly to produce, maintain, wear or display to signal quality honestly to potential mates or competitors. An increasing number of studies supports the hypothesis that the degree of melanism covaries with aspects of body condition (e.g. body mass or immunity), which has contributed to change the initial perception that melanin-based colour ornaments entail no costs. Indeed, the expression of many (but not all) melanin-based colour traits is weakly sensitive to the environment but strongly heritable suggesting that these colour traits are relatively cheap to produce and maintain, thus raising the question of how such colour traits could signal quality honestly. Here I review the production, maintenance and wearing/displaying costs that can generate a correlation between melanin-based colouration and body condition, and consider other evolutionary mechanisms that can also lead to covariation between colour and body condition. Because genes controlling melanic traits can affect numerous phenotypic traits, pleiotropy could also explain a linkage between body condition and colouration. Pleiotropy may result in differently coloured individuals signalling different aspects of quality that are maintained by frequency-dependent selection or local adaptation. Colouration may therefore not signal absolute quality to potential mates or competitors (e.g. dark males may not achieve a higher fitness than pale males); otherwise genetic variation would be rapidly depleted by directional selection. As a consequence, selection on heritable melanin-based colouration may not always be directional, but mate choice may be conditional to environmental conditions (i.e. context-dependent sexual selection). Despite the interest of evolutionary biologists in the adaptive value of melanin-based colouration, its actual role in sexual selection is still poorly understood.

  8. Put on that colour, it fits your emotion: Colour appropriateness as a function of expressed emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dael, Nele; Perseguers, Marie-Noëlle; Marchand, Cynthia; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Mohr, Christine

    2016-01-01

    People associate affective meaning with colour, and this may influence decisions about colours. Hue is traditionally considered the most salient descriptor of colour and colour-affect associations, although colour brightness and saturation seem to have particularly strong affective connotations. To test whether colour choices can be driven by emotion, we investigated whether and how colour hue, brightness, and saturation are systematically associated with bodily expressions of positive (joy) and negative (fear) emotions. Twenty-five non-colour-blind participants viewed videos of these expressions and selected for each video the most appropriate colour using colour sliders providing values for hue, brightness, and saturation. The overall colour choices were congruent with the expressed emotion--that is, participants selected brighter and more saturated colours for joy expressions than for fear expressions. Also, colours along the red-yellow spectrum were deemed more appropriate for joy expressions and cyan-bluish hues for fear expressions. The current study adds further support to the role of emotion in colour choices by (a) showing that emotional information is spontaneously used in an unconstrained choice setting, (b) extending to ecologically valid stimuli occurring in everyday encounters (dressed bodies), and (c) suggesting that all colour parameters are likely to be important when processing affective nonverbal person information, though not independently from each other.

  9. Innate colour preferences of the Australian native stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria Sm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Adrian G; Boyd-Gerny, Skye; Shrestha, Mani; Lunau, Klaus; Garcia, Jair E; Koethe, Sebastian; Wong, Bob B M

    2016-10-01

    Innate preferences promote the capacity of pollinators to find flowers. Honeybees and bumblebees have strong preferences for 'blue' stimuli, and flowers of this colour typically present higher nectar rewards. Interestingly, flowers from multiple different locations around the world independently have the same distribution in bee colour space. Currently, however, there is a paucity of data on the innate colour preferences of stingless bees that are often implicated as being key pollinators in many parts of the world. In Australia, the endemic stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria is widely distributed and known to be an efficient pollinator of both native plants and agricultural crops. In controlled laboratory conditions, we tested the innate colour responses of naïve bees using standard broadband reflectance stimuli representative of common flower colours. Colorimetric analyses considering hymenopteran vision and a hexagon colour space revealed a difference between test colonies, and a significant effect of green contrast and an interaction effect of green contrast with spectral purity on bee choices. We also observed colour preferences for stimuli from the blue and blue-green categorical regions of colour space. Our results are discussed in relation to the similar distribution of flower colours observed from bee pollination around the world.

  10. It is in the nature of the colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pos, Osvaldo Da; Albertazzi, Liliana

    2010-01-01

    This study corroborates the view that perceptual categorization does not require linguistic categories, and simple tasks like ordering colours on the basis of their similarities evince well-structured perceptual categories, defined relatively to visual perception and independently from experience, language and higher-level cognition. The independence of these categories from experience, language, and higher-level cognition would be an argument for their naturalness, and hence for their universality, and for their role in shaping language itself. On the other hand, the influence of language on colour perception would come about by facilitating perception-controlled behaviours. The ordering procedure which rests on perceptual similarity yields a colour system in which perceptual categories are implicit and yet clear and stable. In fact, it shows that whatever speakers in whatever language community share the same experience of colour. The arguments presented favour the 'universalist' thesis and are important in regard to both the research methodology and interpretation of the experimental data. The study's distinctive features are the interdisciplinary nature of its approach, the gestaltist theoretical and methodological conception adopted, and the concept of the naturalness of colour advanced and discussed.

  11. Capture by colour: evidence for dimension-specific singleton capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anthony M; Becker, Stefanie I; Remington, Roger W

    2015-10-01

    Previous work on attentional capture has shown the attentional system to be quite flexible in the stimulus properties it can be set to respond to. Several different attentional "modes" have been identified. Feature search mode allows attention to be set for specific features of a target (e.g., red). Singleton detection mode sets attention to respond to any discrepant item ("singleton") in the display. Relational search sets attention for the relative properties of the target in relation to the distractors (e.g., redder, larger). Recently, a new attentional mode was proposed that sets attention to respond to any singleton within a particular feature dimension (e.g., colour; Folk & Anderson, 2010). We tested this proposal against the predictions of previously established attentional modes. In a spatial cueing paradigm, participants searched for a colour target that was randomly either red or green. The nature of the attentional control setting was probed by presenting an irrelevant singleton cue prior to the target display and assessing whether it attracted attention. In all experiments, the cues were red, green, blue, or a white stimulus rapidly rotated (motion cue). The results of three experiments support the existence of a "colour singleton set," finding that all colour cues captured attention strongly, while motion cues captured attention only weakly or not at all. Notably, we also found that capture by motion cues in search for colour targets was moderated by their frequency; rare motion cues captured attention (weakly), while frequent motion cues did not.

  12. The drop of flowers and fruits in apple, with special reference to the June drop of Cox's orange pippin and its control with growth regulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, S.J.

    1971-01-01

    To study possibilities for increases of yield of the apple cultivar Cox's Orange Pippin, relevant information was gathered about fruit set and fruit drop, in particular about June drop. The information concerned pollination intensity, amount of fruit set, seed content of the fruit, number

  13. Colour dependence of zodiacal light models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, R. H.; Hanner, M. S.; Leinert, C.

    1973-01-01

    Colour models of the zodiacal light in the ecliptic have been calculated for both dielectric and metallic particles in the sub-micron and micron size range. Two colour ratios were computed, a blue ratio and a red ratio. The models with a size distribution proportional to s to the -2.5 power ds (where s is the particle radius) generally show a colour close to the solar colour and almost independent of elongation. Especially in the blue colour ratio there is generally no significant dependence on the lower cutoff size (0.1-1 micron). The main feature of absorbing particles is a reddening at small elongations. The models for size distributions proportional to s to the -4 power ds show larger departures from solar colour and more variation with model parameters. Colour measurements, including red and near infra-red, therefore are useful to distinguish between flat and steep size spectra and to verify the presence of slightly absorbing particles.

  14. Red trap colour of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia does not serve a prey attraction or camouflage function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, G; Rice, S P; Millett, J

    2014-01-01

    The traps of many carnivorous plants are red in colour. This has been widely hypothesized to serve a prey attraction function; colour has also been hypothesized to function as camouflage, preventing prey avoidance. We tested these two hypotheses in situ for the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia. We conducted three separate studies: (i) prey attraction to artificial traps to isolate the influence of colour; (ii) prey attraction to artificial traps on artificial backgrounds to control the degree of contrast and (iii) observation of prey capture by D. rotundifolia to determine the effects of colour on prey capture. Prey were not attracted to green traps and were deterred from red traps. There was no evidence that camouflaged traps caught more prey. For D. rotundifolia, there was a relationship between trap colour and prey capture. However, trap colour may be confounded with other leaf traits. Thus, we conclude that for D. rotundifolia, red trap colour does not serve a prey attraction or camouflage function.

  15. Colour singlets in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassetto, A.

    1979-01-01

    In the axial gauge and at the leading log level, a definite and consistent picture seems to emerge of a parton decay into states in which many partons are found just before confinement should take place. They are grouped into colourless clusters in a number sufficient to exhaust the ''final'' state, still possessing a finite average mass. This result is peculiar of QCD, in particular of its non-abelian nature. Large transverse momenta or more generally average invariant quantities of partons are mainly due to the multiplicities involved in the branching processes. If eventually confinement would convert these clusters into hadrons (and this is of course the main issue which has still to be proven) without a large rearrangement of the colour lines, the picture we have found for colour singlets could apply to the real hadronic world. (author)

  16. Studying colours with a smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, T.; Malgieri, M.; Onorato, P.; De Ambrosis, , A.; Oss, S.

    2017-03-01

    We show how a low-cost spectrometer, based on the use of inexpensive diffraction transmission gratings coupled with a smartphone photo camera, can be assembled and employed to obtain quantitative measurements of spectra from different sources. The analysis of spectra emitted by different light sources (incandescent bulb, fluorescent lamp, gas lamps, LEDs) helps students understand the different physical mechanisms which govern the production of light. Measurements of emission and transmission spectra allow students to focus on the differences between additive and subtractive models of colour formation. For this purpose the spectra of RGB colours emitted from an LCD screen and the transmission spectra of CMY pigments of a laser printer have been studied, using our low-cost spectroscope. A sequence of experimental activities was designed, and proposed to undergraduate students and secondary school teachers in order to study the feasibility and educational potential.

  17. Quark interactions and colour chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Mo, C.

    1982-01-01

    The interaction between quarks, according to the current theory of quantum chromodynamics, is similar to the electromagnetic interaction between electrons and nucleons, both being governed by locally gauge-invariant field theories. It is tempting therefore to discuss the spectroscopy of hadrons, which are quark composites bound by colour forces, in the same language as the spectroscopy of atoms and molecules which are bound states of electrons and nucleons held together by e.m. forces. Because of the difference in gauge groups, however, the dynamics are very different. Nonetheless, it appears likely that metastable multiquark hadron states can exist which are analogous to atoms and molecules in QED. In these lectures, tentative steps are taken in developing the rudiments of a new colour chemistry' of these 'atoms' and 'molecules'. (author)

  18. Portrait of a colour octet

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J A

    2014-01-01

    New colour octets stand out among the new physics proposals to explain the anomalous forward-backward asymmetry measured in $t \\bar t$ production by the CDF experiment at the Tevatron. We perform a fit to $t \\bar t$ observables at the Tevatron and the LHC, including total cross sections, various asymmetries and the top polarisation and spin correlations, to find the most likely parameters of a light colour octet to be consistent with data. In particular, an octet coupling only to right-handed quarks gives a good fit to all measurements. The implications from the general fit are drawn in terms of predictions for top polarisation observables whose measurements are yet not very precise, and observables which simply have not been measured.

  19. Colour application on mammography image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embong, R.; Aziz, N. M. Nik Ab.; Karim, A. H. Abd; Ibrahim, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    The segmentation process is one of the most important steps in image processing and computer vision since it is vital in the initial stage of image analysis. Segmentation of medical images involves complex structures and it requires precise segmentation result which is necessary for clinical diagnosis such as the detection of tumour, oedema, and necrotic tissues. Since mammography images are grayscale, researchers are looking at the effect of colour in the segmentation process of medical images. Colour is known to play a significant role in the perception of object boundaries in non-medical colour images. Processing colour images require handling more data, hence providing a richer description of objects in the scene. Colour images contain ten percent (10%) additional edge information as compared to their grayscale counterparts. Nevertheless, edge detection in colour image is more challenging than grayscale image as colour space is considered as a vector space. In this study, we implemented red, green, yellow, and blue colour maps to grayscale mammography images with the purpose of testing the effect of colours on the segmentation of abnormality regions in the mammography images. We applied the segmentation process using the Fuzzy C-means algorithm and evaluated the percentage of average relative error of area for each colour type. The results showed that all segmentation with the colour map can be done successfully even for blurred and noisy images. Also the size of the area of the abnormality region is reduced when compare to the segmentation area without the colour map. The green colour map segmentation produced the smallest percentage of average relative error (10.009%) while yellow colour map segmentation gave the largest percentage of relative error (11.367%).

  20. Radiation preservation of dry fruits and nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, M.; Sattar, A.; Jan, M.; Ahmad, A.; Khan, I.

    1988-01-01

    Dried fruits are considered a major source of income and foreign exchange in many countries. The spoilage of dried fruits and nuts by insect infestation, colour deterioration and chemical changes during storage are the serious problems especially under humid tropical conditions. The present work was undertaken to study the effect of irradiation in combination with different modified storage environments on insect infestation as well as chemical and sensory quality indices. The affect of gamma radiation dose of 1 KGy and storage environments such as air vacuum and carbon dioxide on insect infestation of dry fruits and nuts. In the case of un-irradiated samples, insect infestation progressed throughout the storage period especially in those kept under air. The vacuum storage was found better in checking infestation followed by CO/sub/2 and air. (orig./A.B.)

  1. Colour reconnections and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennblad, Leif

    1996-01-01

    I argue that the success of recently proposed models describing events with large rapidity gaps in DIS at HERA in terms of non-perturbative colour exchange is heavily reliant on suppression of perturbative gluon emission in the proton direction. There is little or no physical motivation for such suppression and I show that a model without this suppression cannot describe the rapidity gap events at HERA. (author)

  2. Colour Reconnection at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Nandakumar, Raja

    2001-01-01

    Colour reconnection is the final state interaction between quarks from different sources. It is not yet fully understood and is a source of systematic error for W-boson mass and width measurements in hadronic \\WW decays at LEP2. The methods of measuring this effect and the results of the 4 LEP experiments at $183\\gev\\leq\\rts\\leq 202\\gev$ will be presented.

  3. Assessment of colour changes during storage of elderberry juice concentrate solutions using the optimization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkowiak-Tomczak, Dorota; Czapski, Janusz; Młynarczyk, Karolina

    2016-01-01

    the advisability of using an anthocyanin preparation to shape the colour of high-acidity food products, such as fruit fillings, beverages,desserts.

  4. Finite-time analysis of global projective synchronization on coloured ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A novel finite-time analysis is given to investigate the global projective synchronization on coloured networks. Some less conservative conditions are derived by utilizing finite-time control techniques and Lyapunov stability theorem. In addition, two illustrative numerical simulations are provided to verify the effectiveness of ...

  5. Optimization of coagulation-flocculation process for colour removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response surface methodology (RSM) using face-centered central composite design (FCCD) was used to optimize the four variables. Increase in the colour removal efficiency was higher in acidic solution pH. Accurate control of coagulant dosages gave optimum destabilization of charged particles and re-stabilization ...

  6. Drawing ability in typical and atypical development; colour cues and the effect of oblique lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farran, E K; Dodd, G F

    2015-06-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have poor drawing ability. Here, we investigated whether colour could be used as a facilitation cue during a drawing task. Participants with WS and non-verbal ability matched typically developing (TD) children were shown line figures presented on a 3 by 3 dot matrix, and asked to replicate the figures by drawing on an empty dot matrix. The dots of the matrix were either all black (control condition), or nine different coloured dots (colour condition). In a third condition, which also used coloured dots, participants were additionally asked to verbalise the colours of the dots prior to replicating the line drawings (colour-verbal condition). Performance was stronger in both WS and TD groups on the two coloured conditions, compared with the control condition. However, the facilitation effect of colour was significantly weaker in the WS group than in the TD group. Replication of oblique line segments was less successful than replication of non-oblique line segments for both groups; this effect was reduced by colour facilitation in the TD group only. Verbalising the colours had no additional impact on performance in either group. We suggest that colour acted as a cue to individuate the dots, thus enabling participants to better ascertain the spatial relationships between the parts of each figure, to determine the start and end points of component lines, and to determine the correspondence between the model and their replication. The reduced facilitation in the WS group is discussed in relation to the effect of oblique versus non-oblique lines, the use of atypical drawing strategies, and reduced attention to the model when drawing the replication. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Guidance for packing, shipping, holding and release of sterile flies in area-wide fruit fly control programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enkerlin, W.

    2007-01-01

    This guidance represents the recommendations, reached by consensus of an international group of experts, on the standard procedures for the packing, shipping, holding and release of mass reared and sterilized tephritid flies that are to be used in area-wide programmes that include the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The majority of the procedures were initially designed specifically for the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (or Medfly), but they are applicable, with minor modifications, for other tephritid species such as those in the genera Anastrepha, Bactrocera and Dacus. The guidance is designed to be a working document that can be subject to periodic updates due to technological developments and research contributions. Future editions will endeavour to include more specific recommendations for other species of fruit flies as the relevant data become available. The procedures described in this guidance will help ensure that released sterile fruit flies will be of optimal quality and that the resulting field density of these flies will be as closely aligned to the individual programme needs. It is hoped that this guidance will help to quickly identify and correct problems in programme effectiveness, resulting from less than optimal emergence and release conditions

  8. Colour categories are reflected in sensory stages of colour perception when stimulus issues are resolved

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xun; Franklin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Debate exists about the time course of the effect of colour categories on visual processing. We investigated the effect of colour categories for two groups who differed in whether they categorised a blue-green boundary colour as the same- or different-category to a reliably-named blue colour and a reliably-named green colour. Colour differences were equated in just-noticeable differences to be equally discriminable. We analysed event-related potentials for these colours elicited on a passive visual oddball task and investigated the time course of categorical effects on colour processing. Support for category effects was found 100 ms after stimulus onset, and over frontal sites around 250 ms, suggesting that colour naming affects both early sensory and later stages of chromatic processing. PMID:28542426

  9. A Daily Snack Containing Leafy Green Vegetables, Fruit, and Milk before and during Pregnancy Prevents Gestational Diabetes in a Randomized, Controlled Trial in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahariah, Sirazul A; Potdar, Ramesh D; Gandhi, Meera; Kehoe, Sarah H; Brown, Nick; Sane, Harshad; Coakley, Patsy J; Marley-Zagar, Ella; Chopra, Harsha; Shivshankaran, Devi; Cox, Vanessa A; Jackson, Alan A; Margetts, Barrie M; Fall, Caroline Hd

    2016-07-01

    Prospective observational studies suggest that maternal diets rich in leafy green vegetables and fruit may help prevent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Our objective was to test whether increasing women's dietary intake of leafy green vegetables, fruit, and milk before conception and throughout pregnancy reduced their risk of GDM. Project SARAS ("excellent") (2006-2012) was a nonblinded, individually randomized, controlled trial in women living in slums in the city of Mumbai, India. The interventions included a daily snack made from leafy green vegetables, fruit, and milk for the treatment group or low-micronutrient vegetables (e.g., potato and onion) for the control group, in addition to the usual diet. Results for the primary outcome, birth weight, have been reported. Women were invited to take an oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) at 28-32 wk gestation to screen for GDM (WHO 1999 criteria). The prevalence of GDM was compared between the intervention and control groups, and Kernel density analysis was used to compare distributions of 120-min plasma glucose concentrations between groups. Of 6513 women randomly assigned, 2291 became pregnant; of these, 2028 reached a gestation of 28 wk, 1008 (50%) attended for an OGTT, and 100 (9.9%) had GDM. In an intention-to-treat analysis, the prevalence of GDM was reduced in the treatment group (7.3% compared with 12.4% in controls; OR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.86; P = 0.008). The reduction in GDM remained significant after adjusting for prepregnancy adiposity and fat or weight gain during pregnancy. Kernel density analysis showed that this was explained by the fact that fewer women in the treatment group had a 2-h glucose concentration in the range 7.5-10.0 mmol/L. In low-income settings, in which women have a low intake of micronutrient-rich foods, improving dietary micronutrient quality by increasing intake of leafy green vegetables, fruit, and/or milk may have an important protective effect against the development of GDM

  10. Primary scab control using a "during-infection" spray timing and the effect on fruit quality and yield in organic apple production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamar, L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic apple production in Europe depends to a great extent on the use of copper fungicides for scab control (Venturia inaequalis. The objective of this 6-year study (2003-2008 conducted in Belgium was to determine measures for reducing the use of copper fungicides in organic apple production. The effectiveness of a 'during-infection' spray strategy using wettable sulphur (with or without copper, lime sulphur, potassium bicarbonate, silicon and five natural plant extracts (orange peel, soapbark, tea seed, quinoa seed and grapefruit seed for controlling primary scab was investigated in a split-plot field experiment. Four apple cultivars that express a gradient of partial scab resistance were included: a high scab-susceptible cultivar (cv. 'Pinova', a medium scab-susceptible cultivar (cv. 'Pirouette' and two old cultivars expressing low to very low scab susceptibility (cvs. 'Reinette Hernaut' and 'Reinette des Capucins'. Apart from these cultivars, four monogenic Vf scab-resistant cultivars (cvs. 'Initial', 'Topaz', 'Zvatava' and 'JN 20/33/58' were also included in the experimental orchard. In order to reduce the amount of fungicide required, two strategies were used: a specific spray timing involving spraying during the infection processes, before fungal penetration, determined by the RIMpro software warning system, and a tunnel sprayer machine for optimal treatment applications. Depending on the year, a total of 8-12 applications were made annually. Under field conditions that were highly conducive disease, low rates of elemental sulphur (≤ 40 kg.ha-1 per year combined with low rates of copper (≤ 2.1 kg.ha-1 per year provided the best scab control and reduced scab severity on the leaves and fruits by 85-100%, depending on the year and cultivar, compared with the untreated control. In most cases, the lime sulphur spray treatment, which used more elemental sulphur but did not use copper, provided a similar level of scab control to the

  11. The Wide Potential Trophic Niche of the Asiatic Fruit Fly Drosophila suzukii: The Key of Its Invasion Success in Temperate Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyet, Mathilde; Le Roux, Vincent; Gibert, Patricia; Meirland, Antoine; Prévost, Geneviève; Eslin, Patrice; Chabrerie, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The Asiatic fruit fly Drosophila suzukii has recently invaded Europe and North and South America, causing severe damage to fruit production systems. Although agronomic host plants of that fly are now well documented, little is known about the suitability of wild and ornamental hosts in its exotic area. In order to study the potential trophic niche of D. suzukii with relation to fruit characteristics, fleshy fruits from 67 plant species were sampled in natural and anthropic ecosystems (forests, hedgerows, grasslands, coastal areas, gardens and urban areas) of the north of France and submitted to experimental infestations. A set of fruit traits (structure, colour, shape, skin texture, diameter and weight, phenology) potentially interacting with oviposition choices and development success of D. suzukii was measured. Almost half of the tested plant species belonging to 17 plant families allowed the full development of D. suzukii. This suggests that the extreme polyphagy of the fly and the very large reservoir of hosts producing fruits all year round ensure temporal continuity in resource availability and contribute to the persistence and the exceptional invasion success of D. suzukii in natural habitats and neighbouring cultivated systems. Nevertheless, this very plastic trophic niche is not systematically beneficial to the fly. Some of the tested plants attractive to D. suzukii gravid females stimulate oviposition but do not allow full larval development. Planted near sensitive crops, these “trap plants” may attract and lure D. suzukii, therefore contributing to the control of the invasive fly. PMID:26581101

  12. Optical Addressing of Multi-Colour Photochromic Material Mixture for Volumetric Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Ryuji; Shiraki, Atsushi; Naruse, Makoto; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Kakue, Takashi; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2016-08-01

    This is the first study to demonstrate that colour transformations in the volume of a photochromic material (PM) are induced at the intersections of two control light channels, one controlling PM colouration and the other controlling decolouration. Thus, PM colouration is induced by position selectivity, and therefore, a dynamic volumetric display may be realised using these two control lights. Moreover, a mixture of multiple PM types with different absorption properties exhibits different colours depending on the control light spectrum. Particularly, the spectrum management of the control light allows colour-selective colouration besides position selectivity. Therefore, a PM-based, full-colour volumetric display is realised. We experimentally construct a mixture of two PM types and validate the operating principles of such a volumetric display system. Our system is constructed simply by mixing multiple PM types; therefore, the display hardware structure is extremely simple, and the minimum size of a volume element can be as small as the size of a molecule. Volumetric displays can provide natural three-dimensional (3D) perception; therefore, the potential uses of our system include high-definition 3D visualisation for medical applications, architectural design, human-computer interactions, advertising, and entertainment.

  13. Many colours influence the shape and development of the plant : steering plants via light colour moves closer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ieperen, van W.; Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2013-01-01

    The use of LED’s in horticulture is still progressing. And the increasing number of control possibilities is staggering. But the speed at which our knowledge is being transferred into new developments could be faster, certainly when it comes to the influence of light colour. Here is the current

  14. The utility of microsatellite DNA markers for the evaluation of area-wide integrated pest management using SIT for the fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), control programs in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Chinvinijkul, Suksom; Orankanok, Watchreeporn; Guglielmino, Carmela Rosalba; Franz, Gerald; Malacrida, Anna Rodolfa; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2011-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a key pest that causes reduction of the crop yield within the international fruit market. Fruit flies have been suppressed by two Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management programs in Thailand using Sterile Insect Technique (AW-IPM-SIT) since the late 1980s and the early 2000s. The projects' planning and evaluation usually rely on information from pest status, distribution, and fruit infestation. However, the collected data sometimes does not provide enough detail to answer management queries and public concerns, such as the long term sterilization efficacy of the released fruit fly, skepticism about insect migration or gene flow across the buffer zone, and the re-colonisation possibility of the fruit fly population within the core area. Established microsatellite DNA markers were used to generate population genetic data for the analysis of the fruit fly sampling from several control areas, and non-target areas, as well as the mass-rearing facility. The results suggested limited gene flow (m flies in the control areas and flies captured outside. In addition, no genetic admixture was revealed from the mass-reared colony flies from the flies within the control area, which supports the effectiveness of SIT. The control pests were suppressed to low density and showed weak bottleneck footprints although they still acquired a high degree of genetic variation. Potential pest resurgence from fragmented micro-habitats in mixed fruit orchards rather than pest incursion across the buffer zone has been proposed. Therefore, a suitable pest control effort, such as the SIT program, should concentrate on the hidden refuges within the target area.

  15. Blue-yellow colour vision impairment and cognitive deficits in occasional and dependent stimulant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulka, Lea M; Wagner, Michael; Preller, Katrin H; Jenni, Daniela; Quednow, Boris B

    2013-04-01

    Specific blue-yellow colour vision impairment has been reported in dependent cocaine users and it was postulated that drug-induced changes in retinal dopamine neurotransmission are responsible. However, it is unclear whether these changes are confined to chronic cocaine users, whether they are specific for dopaminergic stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine and whether they are related to cognitive functions such as working memory, encoding and consolidation. In 47 occasional and 29 dependent cocaine users, 23 MDMA (commonly known as 'ecstasy') users and 47 stimulant-naive controls, colour vision discrimination was measured with the Lanthony Desaturated Panel D-15 Test and memory performance with the Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Both occasional and dependent cocaine users showed higher colour confusion indices than controls. Users of the serotonergic stimulant MDMA (26%), occasional (30%) and dependent cocaine users (34%) exhibited more frequent blue-yellow colour vision disorders compared to controls (9%). Inferior performance of MDMA users was caused by a subgroup with high amphetamine co-use (55%), while MDMA use alone was not associated with decreased blue-yellow discrimination (0%). Cognitive performance was worse in cocaine users with colour vision disorder compared to users and controls with intact colour vision and both colour vision impairment and cognitive deficits were related to cocaine use. Occasional cocaine and amphetamine use might induce blue-yellow colour vision impairment, whereas the serotonergic stimulant MDMA does not impair colour vision. The association between colour vision impairment and cognitive deficits in cocaine users may reflect that retinal and cerebral dopamine alterations are linked to a certain degree.

  16. Colour agnosia impairs the recognition of natural but not of non-natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Van Der Smagt, Maarten J; Van Zandvoort, Martine J E; De Haan, Edward H F

    2007-03-01

    Scene recognition can be enhanced by appropriate colour information, yet the level of visual processing at which colour exerts its effects is still unclear. It has been suggested that colour supports low-level sensory processing, while others have claimed that colour information aids semantic categorization and recognition of objects and scenes. We investigated the effect of colour on scene recognition in a case of colour agnosia, M.A.H. In a scene identification task, participants had to name images of natural or non-natural scenes in six different formats. Irrespective of scene format, M.A.H. was much slower on the natural than on the non-natural scenes. As expected, neither M.A.H. nor control participants showed any difference in performance for the non-natural scenes. However, for the natural scenes, appropriate colour facilitated scene recognition in control participants (i.e., shorter reaction times), whereas M.A.H.'s performance did not differ across formats. Our data thus support the hypothesis that the effect of colour occurs at the level of learned associations.

  17. The original colours of fossil beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui

    2012-03-22

    Structural colours, the most intense, reflective and pure colours in nature, are generated when light is scattered by complex nanostructures. Metallic structural colours are widespread among modern insects and can be preserved in their fossil counterparts, but it is unclear whether the colours have been altered during fossilization, and whether the absence of colours is always real. To resolve these issues, we investigated fossil beetles from five Cenozoic biotas. Metallic colours in these specimens are generated by an epicuticular multi-layer reflector; the fidelity of its preservation correlates with that of other key cuticular ultrastructures. Where these other ultrastructures are well preserved in non-metallic fossil specimens, we can infer that the original cuticle lacked a multi-layer reflector; its absence in the fossil is not a preservational artefact. Reconstructions of the original colours of the fossils based on the structure of the multi-layer reflector show that the preserved colours are offset systematically to longer wavelengths; this probably reflects alteration of the refractive index of the epicuticle during fossilization. These findings will allow the former presence, and original hue, of metallic structural colours to be identified in diverse fossil insects, thus providing critical evidence of the evolution of structural colour in this group.

  18. Colorimetry and prime colours--a theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornaes, Hans Petter; Wold, Jan Henrik; Farup, Ivar

    2005-08-01

    Human colour vision is the result of a complex process involving topics ranging from physics of light to perception. Whereas the diversity of light entering the eye in principle span an infinite-dimensional vector space in terms of the spectral power distributions, the space of human colour perceptions is three dimensional. One important consequence of this is that a variety of colours can be visually matched by a mixture of only three adequately chosen reference lights. It has been observed that there exists one particular set of monochromatic reference lights that, according to a certain definition, is optimal for producing colour matches. These reference lights are commonly denoted prime colours. In the present paper, we intend to rigorously show that the existence of prime colours is not particular to the human visual system as sometimes stated, but rather an algebraic consequence of the manner in which a kind of colorimetric functions called colour-matching functions are defined and transformed. The solution is based on maximisation of a determinant determining the gamut size of the colour space spanned by the prime colours. Cramer's rule for solving a set of linear equations is an essential part of the proof. By means of examples, it is shown that mathematically the optimal set of reference lights is not unique in general, and that the existence of a maximum determinant is not a necessary condition for the existence of prime colours.

  19. Variance, genetic control and spatial phenotypic plasticity of morphological and phenological traits in Prunus spinosa and its large fruited forms (P. x fruticans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Vander Mijnsbrugge

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prunus spinosa is a highly esteemed shrub in forest and landscape plantings. Shrubs with larger organs occur often and are considered either as large fruited forms of P. spinosa or as P. x fruticans, involving a hybridization process with the ancient cultivated P. insititia (crop-to-wild gene flow. As climate change may augment hybridization processes in the future, a hybrid origin is important to detect. In addition, studying crop-to-wild gene flow can give insights in putative consequences for the wild populations. We studied the P. spinosa – P. x fruticans group, focusing on morphology and phenology in three experimental plantations. Two plantings harbored cuttings of P. spinosa (clone plantations. A third plantation comprised of a half-sib offspring from a population with both P. spinosa and P. x fruticans (family plantation. Several results point to a hybridization process as the origin of P. x fruticans. The clone plantation revealed endocarp traits to be more genetically controlled than fruit size, while this was the opposite in the family plantation, suggesting the control of fruit size being derived from the putative P. insititia parent. Bud burst, flower opening and leaf fall were genetically controlled in the clone plantation, whereas in the family plantation intrafamily variability was remarkably large for the bud burst and leaf fall, but not for the flower opening. This suggests there is a reduced genetic control for the first two phenophases, possibly caused by historic hybridization events. Pubescence on the long shoot leaves in the family plantation deviated from the short shoot leaves on the same plants and from long and short shoot leaves in the clone plantation, suggesting again a P. insititia origin. Finally, we quantified spatial phenotypic plasticity, indicating how P. spinosa may react in a changing environment. In contrast to the bud burst and leaf fall, flower opening did not demonstrate plasticity. The fruit size was

  20. True and false memory for colour names versus actual colours: support for the visual distinctiveness heuristic in memory for colour information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslick, Andrea N; Kostic, Bogdan; Cleary, Anne M

    2010-06-01

    In a colour variation of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, participants studied lists of words critically related to a nonstudied colour name (e.g., "blood, cherry, scarlet, rouge ... "); they later showed false memory for the critical colour name (e.g., "red"). Two additional experiments suggest that participants generate colour imagery in response to such colour-related DRM lists. First, participants claim to experience colour imagery more often following colour-related than standard non-colour-related DRM lists; they also rate their colour imagery as more vivid following colour-related lists. Second, participants exhibit facilitative priming for critical colours in a dot selection task that follows words in the colour-related DRM list, suggesting that colour-related DRM lists prime participants for the actual critical colours themselves. Despite these findings, false memory for critical colour names does not extend to the actual colours themselves (font colours). Rather than leading to source confusion about which colours were self-generated and which were studied, presenting the study lists in varied font colours actually worked to reduce false memory overall. Results are interpreted within the framework of the visual distinctiveness hypothesis.