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Sample records for controls fertility outcome

  1. Fertility outcomes in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is increasing of an association between asthma and aspects of female reproduction. However, current knowledge is limited and furthermore relies on questionnaire studies or small populations. In a prospective observational cohort study to investigate whether time to pregnancy, the number...... of fertility treatments, and the number of successful pregnancies differ significantly between women with unexplained infertility with and without asthma.245 women with unexplained infertility (aged 23-45 years) underwent questionnaires and asthma and allergy testing while undergoing fertility treatment. 96...... women entering the study had either a former doctor's diagnosis of asthma or were diagnosed with asthma when included. After inclusion they were followed for a minimum of 12 months in fertility treatment, until they had a successful pregnancy, stopped treatment, or the observation ended.The likelihood...

  2. The Obesity-Fertility Protocol: a randomized controlled trial assessing clinical outcomes and costs of a transferable interdisciplinary lifestyle intervention, before and during pregnancy, in obese infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Karine; Langlois, Marie-France; Carranza-Mamane, Belina; Pesant, Marie-Hélène; Hivert, Marie-France; Poder, Thomas G; Lavoie, Hélène B; Ainmelk, Youssef; St-Cyr Tribble, Denise; Laredo, Sheila; Greenblatt, Ellen; Sagle, Margaret; Waddell, Guy; Belisle, Serge; Riverin, Daniel; Jean-Denis, Farrah; Belan, Matea; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Obesity in infertile women increases the costs of fertility treatments, reduces their effectiveness and increases significantly the risks of many complications of pregnancy and for the newborn. Studies suggest that even a modest loss of 5-10 % of body weight can restore ovulation. However, there are gaps in knowledge regarding the benefits and cost-effectiveness of a lifestyle modification program targeting obese infertile women and integrated into the fertility clinics. This study will evaluate clinical outcomes and costs of a transferable interdisciplinary lifestyle intervention, before and during pregnancy, in obese infertile women. We hypothesize that the intervention will: 1) improve fertility, efficacy of fertility treatments, and health of mothers and their children; and 2) reduce the cost per live birth, including costs of fertility treatments and pregnancy outcomes. Obese infertile women (age: 18-40 years; BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) or ≥27 kg/m(2) with polycystic ovary syndrome) will be randomised to either a lifestyle intervention followed by standard fertility treatments after 6 months if no conception has been achieved (intervention group) or standard fertility treatments only (control group). The intervention and/or follow-up will last for a maximum of 18 months or up to the end of pregnancy. Evaluation visits will be planned every 6 months where different outcome measures will be assessed. The primary outcome will be live-birth rates at 18 months. The secondary outcomes will be sub-divided into four categories: lifestyle and anthropometric, fertility, pregnancy complications, and neonatal outcomes. Outcomes and costs will be also compared to similar women seen in three fertility clinics across Canada. Qualitative data will also be collected from both professionals and obese infertile women. This study will generate new knowledge about the implementation, impacts and costs of a lifestyle management program in obese infertile women. This information

  3. Is Wildlife Fertility Control Always Humane?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan O. Hampton

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of fertility control techniques to reduce reproductive rates in wildlife populations has been the source of much research. Techniques targeting wildlife fertility have been diverse. Most research into fertility control methods has focused upon efficacy, with few studies rigorously assessing animal welfare beyond opportunistic anecdote. However, fertility control techniques represent several very different mechanisms of action (modalities, each with their own different animal welfare risks. We provide a review of the mechanisms of action for fertility control methods, and consider the role of manipulation of reproductive hormones (“endocrine suppression” for the long-term ability of animals to behave normally. We consider the potential welfare costs of animal manipulation techniques that are required to administer fertility treatments, including capture, restraint, surgery and drug delivery, and the requirement for repeated administration within the lifetime of an animal. We challenge the assumption that fertility control modalities generate similar and desirable animal welfare outcomes, and we argue that knowledge of reproductive physiology and behaviour should be more adeptly applied to wild animal management decisions. We encourage wildlife managers to carefully assess long-term behavioural risks, associated animal handling techniques, and the importance of positive welfare states when selecting fertility control methods as a means of population control.

  4. Is Wildlife Fertility Control Always Humane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Jordan O.; Hyndman, Timothy H.; Barnes, Anne; Collins, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary There are various fertility control methods (modalities) currently available that aim to reduce the abundance of problematic free-ranging mammalian wildlife. Here, we propose that dissimilarities in the mechanism of action indicate these methods produce great variation in animal welfare outcomes. We present a framework to assist managers in minimising animal welfare risks. Abstract Investigation of fertility control techniques to reduce reproductive rates in wildlife populations has been the source of much research. Techniques targeting wildlife fertility have been diverse. Most research into fertility control methods has focused upon efficacy, with few studies rigorously assessing animal welfare beyond opportunistic anecdote. However, fertility control techniques represent several very different mechanisms of action (modalities), each with their own different animal welfare risks. We provide a review of the mechanisms of action for fertility control methods, and consider the role of manipulation of reproductive hormones (“endocrine suppression”) for the long-term ability of animals to behave normally. We consider the potential welfare costs of animal manipulation techniques that are required to administer fertility treatments, including capture, restraint, surgery and drug delivery, and the requirement for repeated administration within the lifetime of an animal. We challenge the assumption that fertility control modalities generate similar and desirable animal welfare outcomes, and we argue that knowledge of reproductive physiology and behaviour should be more adeptly applied to wild animal management decisions. We encourage wildlife managers to carefully assess long-term behavioural risks, associated animal handling techniques, and the importance of positive welfare states when selecting fertility control methods as a means of population control. PMID:26506395

  5. Sexuality and fertility in men with hypospadias; improved outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örtqvist, L; Fossum, M; Andersson, M; Nordenström, A; Frisén, L; Holmdahl, G; Nordenskjöld, A

    2016-12-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate sexual function and fertility in adult men born with hypospadias. Patients born with hypospadias, age-matched controls, and a group of circumcised men completed a questionnaire constructed to reflect their psychosexual situation and fertility. Core gender identity, sexual orientation, and gender role behavior was also assessed. 167 patients [63% distal, 24% mid shaft and 13% proximal, mean age 34 (19-54) years], 169 controls from the general population [mean age 33 (19-48) years] and 47 controls circumcised because of phimosis (mean age 26 [19-44]) participated and completed the questionnaire. There were no differences in having a partner, reported fertility, age at sexarche (mean age 17.8), number of sex partners or sexual interest between the patients and controls. More patients than controls reported anejaculation. Reported glanular sensitivity was lower in hypospadias patients and circumcised controls compared with non-circumcised controls. The odds of being satisfied with their sexual life increased with a higher penile perception score in patients (OR = 1.54, p = 0.01). There was no association with penile length. Sexual orientation, core gender identity and gender role behavior were sex-typical in both patients and controls. Patients with proximal hypospadias had a lower reported fertility, experienced anejaculation more often, and were less satisfied with their sexual life. Men born with hypospadias have a good long-term outcome concerning sexual function and fertility. Men born with proximal hypospadias have a more impaired outcome concerning both sexual function and fertility. As satisfaction with genital appearance is important for sexual life satisfaction, clinical, and psychological follow-up into adulthood is especially important in boys born with proximal hypospadias.

  6. Auricular acupressure reduces anxiety levels and improves outcomes of in vitro fertilization: a prospective, randomized and controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Fan; Zhang, Dan; Chen, Lu-Ting; Wang, Fang-Fang; Pan, Jie-Xue; Zhu, Yi-Min; Ma, Chun-Mei; Huang, Yi-Ting; Ye, Xiao-Qun; Sun, Sai-Jun; Zheng, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Run-Ju; Xu, Jian; Xing, Lan-Feng; Huang, He-Feng

    2014-05-22

    The study was to explore whether auricular acupressure (AA) can relieve anxiety during the period from trans-vaginal oocyte retrieval to the embryo transfer in IVF treatment and whether AA can improve the outcomes of IVF. 305 infertile patients with tubal blockage who were referred for IVF were included. The women were randomized into a control group with 102 cases, a Sham-AA group with 102 cases and an AA group with 101 cases. The anxiety levels were rated with Spielberger's State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale. Data of clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), implantation rate (IR) and live birth rate (LBR) were obtained. The levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) in the follicular fluids were detected with ELISA. After treatment, in AA group, the levels of state anxiety, preoperative anxiety and need-for-information were significantly lower, whereas CPR, IR, LBR and NPY levels in the follicular fluids were markedly higher than Sham-AA group and control group. We concluded that AA could help to reduce anxiety levels associated with IVF and improves the outcomes of IVF partly through increasing the levels of NPY in the follicular fluids.

  7. Modelling and simulations of controlled release fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Sayed Ameenuddin; Razali, Radzuan; Shaari, Ku Zilati Ku; Mansor, Nurlidia

    2016-11-01

    The recent advancement in controlled release fertilizer has provided an alternative solution to the conventional urea, controlled release fertilizer has a good plant nutrient uptake they are environment friendly. To have an optimum plant intake of nutrients from controlled release fertilizer it is very essential to understand the release characteristics. A mathematical model is developed to predict the release characteristics from polymer coated granule. Numerical simulations are performed by varying the parameters radius of granule, soil water content and soil porosity to study their effect on fertilizer release. Understanding these parameters helps in the better design and improve the efficiency of controlled release fertilizer.

  8. Can Chinese herbal medicine improve outcomes of in vitro fertilization? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Cao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large number of infertile couples are choosing Chinese herbal medicine (CHM as an adjuvant therapy to improve their success when undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF. There is no systematic review to evaluate the impact of CHM on the IVF outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of CHM with concurrent IVF versus IVF alone on the outcomes of IVF and its safety. METHODS: The protocol of this study is registered at PROSPERO. Eligible RCTs searched from 8 databases which compared a combination of CHM and IVF with IVF alone were included. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed methodological quality. Meta-analysis of RCTs was conducted if there was non-significant heterogeneity (evaluated by I(2 test among trials. All statistical analysis was performed using RevMan 5.1 software. RESULTS: Twenty trials involving 1721 women were included in the meta-analysis. Three trials were evaluated as having an unclear risk of bias. The remaining trials were evaluated as having a high risk of bias. Combination of CHM and IVF significantly increases clinical pregnancy rates (OR 2.04, 95%CI 1.67 to 2.49, p<0.00001 and ongoing pregnancy rates (OR 1.91, 95%CI 1.17 to 3.10, p = 0.009. Use of CHM after embryo transfer had no better outcome in reducing the rate of ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome (OR 0.39, 95%CI 0.14 to 1.11, p = 0.08. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis showed that combination of IVF and CHM used in the included trials improve IVF success, however due to the high risk of bias observed with the trials, the significant differences found with the meta-analysis are unlikely to be accurate. No conclusion could be drawn with respect to the reproductive toxicity of CHM. Further large randomized placebo controlled trials are warranted to confirm these findings before recommending women to take CHM to improve their IVF success.

  9. Urinary paraben concentrations and in vitro fertilization outcomes among women from a fertility clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chiu, Yu-Han; Messerlian, Carmen; Williams, Paige L.; Sabatini, Mary E.; Toth, Thomas L.; Ford, Jennifer B.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between urinary paraben concentrations and IVF outcomes among women attending an academic fertility center. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Fertility clinic in a hospital setting. Patient(s) A total of 245 women contributing 356 IVF cycles. Intervention(s) None. Quantification of urinary concentrations of parabens by isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry, and assessment of clinical endpoints of IVF treatments abstracted from electronic medical records at the academic fertility center. Main Outcome Measure(s) Total and mature oocyte counts, proportion of high quality embryos, fertilization rates, and rates of implantation, clinical pregnancy and live births. Results The geometric mean of the urinary concentrations of methyl (MP), propyl (PP) and butyl paraben (BP) in our study population were 133, 24 and 1.5 µg/L, respectively. In models adjusted for age, body mass index, race/ethnicity, smoking status and primary infertility diagnosis, urinary MP, PP and BP concentrations were not associated with IVF outcomes, specifically total and mature oocyte counts, proportion of high embryo quality and fertilization rates. Moreover, no significant associations were found between urinary paraben concentrations and rates of implantation, clinical pregnancy and live births. Conclusion(s) Urinary paraben concentrations were not associated with IVF outcomes among women undergoing infertility treatments. PMID:26654974

  10. Controlled release fertilizer workshop, 1991: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheib, R.M. [ed.

    1991-11-01

    Over the last 20 years the Tennessee Valley Authority`s National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has carried out a number of programs to develop controlled release fertilizers. They pioneered the development and commercialization of sulfur coated urea and conducted extensive research in an attempt to develop an economical synthesis for oxamide. In recent years there has developed an increasing interest in the environmental impact of fertilizers, particularly on the potential for ground water contamination by nitrate derived from fertilizer materials. In response to this interest NFERC`s Chemical Research Department organized a five member Controlled Release Fertilizer (CRF) Team to reassess the potential for controlled release materials in agriculture with a view to minimizing any adverse environmental impact and increasing the efficiency of nutrient utilization by the crop. This workshop was part of that reassessment program. The workshop goals were: To determine the present status of CRF research, production and use; to assess the future needs of CRF producers and consumers; and to promote communication and exchange of information. To accomplish these goals the team invited speakers from across` the United States representing academics, experimental station researchers, fertilizer producers, environmentalists, and marketing experts to present papers.

  11. Controlled release fertilizer workshop, 1991: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheib, R.M. (ed.)

    1991-11-01

    Over the last 20 years the Tennessee Valley Authority's National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has carried out a number of programs to develop controlled release fertilizers. They pioneered the development and commercialization of sulfur coated urea and conducted extensive research in an attempt to develop an economical synthesis for oxamide. In recent years there has developed an increasing interest in the environmental impact of fertilizers, particularly on the potential for ground water contamination by nitrate derived from fertilizer materials. In response to this interest NFERC's Chemical Research Department organized a five member Controlled Release Fertilizer (CRF) Team to reassess the potential for controlled release materials in agriculture with a view to minimizing any adverse environmental impact and increasing the efficiency of nutrient utilization by the crop. This workshop was part of that reassessment program. The workshop goals were: To determine the present status of CRF research, production and use; to assess the future needs of CRF producers and consumers; and to promote communication and exchange of information. To accomplish these goals the team invited speakers from across' the United States representing academics, experimental station researchers, fertilizer producers, environmentalists, and marketing experts to present papers.

  12. Meticulous Overview on the Controlled Release Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siafu Ibahati Sempeho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the high demand for fertilizer formulations that will exhaust the possibilities of nutrient use efficiency (NUE, regulate fertilizer consumption, and lessen agrophysicochemical properties and environmental adverse effects instigated by conventional nutrient supply to crops, this review recapitulates controlled release fertilizers (CRFs as a cutting-edge and safe way to supply crops’ nutrients over the conventional ways. Essentially, CRFs entail fertilizer particles intercalated within excipients aiming at reducing the frequency of fertilizer application thereby abating potential adverse effects linked with conventional fertilizer use. Application of nanotechnology and materials engineering in agriculture particularly in the design of CRFs, the distinctions and classification of CRFs, and the economical, agronomical, and environmental aspects of CRFs has been revised putting into account the development and synthesis of CRFs, laboratory CRFs syntheses and testing, and both linear and sigmoid release features of CRF formulations. Methodical account on the mechanism of nutrient release centring on the empirical and mechanistic approaches of predicting nutrient release is given in view of selected mathematical models. Compositions and laboratory preparations of CRFs basing on in situ and graft polymerization are provided alongside the physical methods used in CRFs encapsulation, with an emphasis on the natural polymers, modified clays, and superabsorbent nanocomposite excipients.

  13. Immunocontraceptives: New Approaches to Fertility Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranjeet Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly increasing global population has bowed the attention of family planning and associated reproductive health programmes in the direction of providing a safe and reliable method which can be used to limit family size. The world population is estimated to exceed a phenomenal 10 billion by the year 2050 A.D., thus presenting a real jeopardy of overpopulation with severe implications for the future. Despite the availability of contraceptive methods, there are over one million elective abortions globally each year due to unintended pregnancies, having devastating impact on reproductive health of women worldwide. This highlights the need for the development of newer and improved contraceptive methods. A novel contraceptive approach that is gaining substantial attention is “immunocontraception” targeting gamete production, gamete outcome, or gamete function. Amongst these, use of sperm antigens (gamete function seems to be an exciting and feasible approach. However, the variability of immune response and time lag to attain titer among vaccinated individuals after active immunization has highlighted the potential relevance of preformed antibodies in this league. This review is an attempt to analyze the current status and progress of immunocontraceptive approaches with respect to their establishment as a future fertility control agent.

  14. Marital moratorium and fertility control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, H Y

    1970-11-01

    Abstract Since 1949, the issue of marital postponement has been extensively discussed in China. Unlike some other means of fertility control (e.g. abortion and oral contraception), marital postponement has been welcomed with the fewest misgivings. Lately, marital postponement has also been given renewed emphasis by those outside China who see a weak link between various current national family planning programmes based on improved technology and the goal of fertility reduction. One aim of this paper is to render a comprehensive account of the marital postponement programme in China in the course of the birth control campaign during the last two decades. The second objective is to discuss the lessons that may be learned from it, and its implications for the current fertility controversy in the United States. Four general conclusions emerge from a careful analysis of the available documents: (1) in China, proponents of delayed marriage were divided on the question of how to secure its general acceptance. One issue dividing them was whether or not China's Marriage Law of 1950 should be amended in order to achieve it. Those who favoured raising the minimum legal age disagreed on the details of the presumably needed change. There is enough evidence to suggest that medical personnel were the chief advocates of compulsory postponement of marriage. The government rejected this legalistic approach and, in so doing, agreed with Chen Ta (a noted demographer) and others who sought to achieve postponement of marriage through appropriate social and economic measures. (2) Decisions to delay matrimony in different socio-cultural settings are not necessarily identical sociological phenomena. In some societies, (e.g. the United States), they may amount to no more than a course of action that enables individuals involved to realize or develop alternate goals in life. In others (e.g. China), they are literally acts of rebellion. (3) The fertility policy dispute has been carried on in

  15. Alterations in uterine hemodynamics caused by uterine fibroids and their impact on in vitro fertilization outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Jei-Won; Kim, Chung-Hoon; Kim, Jun-Bum; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kang, Byung-Moon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of fibroids on the blood flow of the uterine and subendometrial arteries and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. Methods In this study, we analyzed 86 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles in which a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol was used for controlled ovarian stimulation between January 2008 and March 2009. The subjects comprised 86 infertile women with (fibroid group, n=43) or without (control group, n=43) uterine fib...

  16. Fertility intentions and outcomes: Implementing the Theory of Planned Behavior with graphical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencarini, Letizia; Vignoli, Daniele; Gottard, Anna

    2015-03-01

    This paper studies fertility intentions and their outcomes, analyzing the complete path leading to fertility behavior according to the social psychological model of Theory Planned Behavior (TPB). We move beyond existing research using graphical models to have a precise understanding, and a formal description, of the developmental fertility decision-making process. Our findings yield new results for the Italian case which are empirically robust and theoretically coherent, adding important insights to the effectiveness of the TPB for fertility research. In line with TPB, all intentions' primary antecedents are found to be determinants of the level of fertility intentions, but do not affect fertility outcomes, being pre-filtered by fertility intentions. Nevertheless, in contrast with TPB, background factors are not fully mediated by intentions' primary antecedents, influencing directly fertility intentions and even fertility behaviors.

  17. Status of fertility control in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefnawi, F I

    1982-01-01

    The concern for fertility control is not alien to the cultural and religious heritage of Egypt. Historically, Egyptian interest in fertility dates to the Pharoahs. Contraceptive recipes written at least 15-18 centuries B.C. have been found. Romans may have borrowed some of the more effective methods from Egypt when it became part of the Roman Empire as evidenced by the decline in size of aristocratic Roman families at the beginning of the Christian era. Muslim conquerors of Egypt encouraged fertility control. In the 9th century differences of opinion about the legality of contraception appeared among the interpreters of Islamic law. Some methods found in the writings of Muslim doctors as al-Razi and Avicenna still survive in the folk medicine of Egypt. In modern times use of barrier methods of contraception were encouraged by family planning organizations in Egypt. The medical profession was not deeply involved since these methods did not require much medical assistance. In 1936 a religiouss verdict declared contraception to be a lawful act of Islam. National programs in family planning in the 1960's encouraged the use of the Lippes Loop IUD. The medical problem of blood loss associated with the IUD caused anxiety because of the high incidence of anemia in the female Egyptian population. There was also a cultural limitation on the wide use of the IUD. "Spotting" due to the IUD resulted in females being ritually unclean and therefore unfit to pray or observe the Islamic fast. The Pill, initially favored caused complications due to its effect on breast milk which is the universal source of nutrition for infants in Egypt. Replacement of the Pill by depo-provera injections during the post partum period of lactation is a practical solution. Permanent sterilization is limited to females and only performed when medically indicated. Abortion is illegal and permitted only as a therapeutic measure.

  18. Outcome of in vitro fertilization in endometriosis-associated infertility: a 5-year database cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xiao-na; WEI Min-ling; TONG Xiao-mei; XU Wei-hai; ZHOU Feng; HUANG Qiong-xiao; WEN Guo-feng; ZHANG Song-ying

    2012-01-01

    Background Endometriosis affects natural fertility through various approaches,and in vitro fertilization (IVF) is a good treatment.But the IVF result of endometriosis patients is still under debate.We investigated the effect of endometriosis on IVF by analyzing the data from a single reproductive center.Methods A retrospective,database-searched cohort study was performed.Relevant information was collected from the electronic records of women who underwent IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection between January 2006 and December 2010 in the Assisted Reproductive Unit of Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital.Patients with endometriosis were enrolled the study group.The rest of the women formed the control group.The main outcome was the clinical pregnancy rate.Secondary outcomes were oocytes retrieved number,fertilization rate,high-quality embryo rate,number of high-quality embryo for embryo transplantation,and implantation embryo/high-quality embryo ratio (IE/HQE ratio).Comparisons were performed by the x2-test and independent t-test.Results The endometriosis group (n=177) had a markedly lower oocytes retrieved number,fertilization rate,implantation rate,and clinical pregnancy rate (7.6±5.1,63.6%,27.7%,and 45.2%,respectively) compared with the non-endometriosis group (n=4267; 11.8±7.3,68.4%,36.2%,and 55.2%,respectively).Stratified analysis showed that this difference was found in the subgroup younger than 35-years old,while only fertilization rate and implantation rate were different in the elder subgroup.The ratio of high-quality embryos transferred is lower in endometriosis group (53.7% vs.71.8%,P <0.05),but there is no difference in IE/HQE ratio between two groups.There is no significant difference in fertilization rate,implantation rate,and clinical pregnancy rate between mild and severe endometriosis patients.Conclusions Endometriosis patients suffer a decreasing IVF pregnancy rates mainly caused by reducing oocytes number and fertilization rate

  19. Chemical analysis of substrates with controlled release fertilizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreij, de C.

    2004-01-01

    Water-soluble fertilizer added to media containing controlled release fertilizer cannot be analysed with the 1:1.5 volume water extract, because the latter increases the element content in the extract. During storage and stirring or mixing the substrate with the extractant, part of the controlled re

  20. Controlled release fertilizer improves quality of container longleaf pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Jeff Parkhurst; James P. Barnett

    2005-01-01

    In an operational trial, increasing the amount of nitrogen (N) applied to container longleaf pine seedlings by incorporating controlled release fertilizer (CRF) into the media improved seedling growth and quality. Compared with control seedlings that received 40 mg N, seedlings receiving 66 mg N through CRF supplemented with liquid fertilizer had needles that were 4 in...

  1. Chemical analysis of substrates with controlled release fertilizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreij, de C.

    2004-01-01

    Water-soluble fertilizer added to media containing controlled release fertilizer cannot be analysed with the 1:1.5 volume water extract, because the latter increases the element content in the extract. During storage and stirring or mixing the substrate with the extractant, part of the controlled re

  2. Ultrasound characteristics and histological dating of the endometrium in a natural cycle in infertile women compared with fertile controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhard, A; Ravn, V; Bentin-Ley, U

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare endometrial dating and ultrasound texture in a natural cycle before IVF and relate these to outcome and to fertile references. DESIGN: Prospective study with a fertile reference group. SETTING: Four university IVF clinics. PATIENT(S): Seventy-five IVF patients and 21 fertile...... in nonpregnant women compared with in women with ongoing pregnancies and with fertile controls. A periovulatory hyperechogenic endometrium resulted in no ongoing pregnancies. CONCLUSION(S): In a natural cycle preceding IVF, a low midluteal P level predicts a low implantation rate. A periovulatory hyperechogenic...... women. INTERVENTION(S): Ultrasound, biopsy, blood sampling. In vitro fertilization-ET in the following cycle. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Endometrial evaluation, P, IVF outcome. RESULT(S): At day LH+7, 42% infertile vs. 67% fertile women demonstrated endometria that were in phase (statistically...

  3. Relationship between Antithyroid Antibody and Pregnancy Outcome following in Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-ping Zhong, Ying Ying, Hai-tao Wu, Can-quan Zhou, Yan-wen Xu, Qiong Wang, Jie Li, Xiao-ting Shen, Jin Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the impact of antithyroid antibody on pregnancy outcome following the in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET.Methods: A total of 90 patients (156 cycles positive for antithyroid antibody (ATA+ group and 676 infertile women (1062 cycles negative for antithyroid antibody (ATA- group undergoing IVF/ICSI from August 2009 to August 2010 were retrospectively analyzed.Results: There was no significant difference in the days of ovarian stimulation, total gonadotropin dose, serum E2 level of HCG day and number of oocytes retrieved between the two groups. The fertilization rate, implantation rate and pregnancy rate following IVF-ET were significantly lower in women with antithyroid antibody than in control group (64.3% vs 74.6%, 17.8% vs 27.1% and 33.3% vs 46.7%, respectively, but the abortion rate was significantly higher in patients with antithyroid antibody (26.9% vs 11.8%.Conclusion: Patients with antithyroid antibody showed significantly lower fertilization rate, implantation rate and pregnancy rate and higher risk for abortion following IVF-ET when compared with those without antithyroid antibody. Thus, the presence of antithyroid antibody is detrimental for the pregnancy outcome following IVF-ET.

  4. Silicone Doped Chitosan-Acrylamide Coencapsulated Urea Fertilizer: An Approach to Controlled Release Fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Sempeho Ibahati Siafu

    2017-01-01

    In the absence of special management practices, urea is known to undergo chemical transformations resulting in severe losses (≈60–70%) of total fertilizer applied. In an attempt to design urea controlled release fertilizers in order to counterbalance the 60–70% loss, urea was cross-linked with chitosan and acrylamide under refluxed in situ copolymerization technique; the procedures were repeated with silicone doping prior cross-linking with MBA. The particles were characterized with FTIR/ATR,...

  5. Silicone Doped Chitosan-Acrylamide Coencapsulated Urea Fertilizer: An Approach to Controlled Release Fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Sempeho Ibahati Siafu

    2017-01-01

    In the absence of special management practices, urea is known to undergo chemical transformations resulting in severe losses (≈60–70%) of total fertilizer applied. In an attempt to design urea controlled release fertilizers in order to counterbalance the 60–70% loss, urea was cross-linked with chitosan and acrylamide under refluxed in situ copolymerization technique; the procedures were repeated with silicone doping prior cross-linking with MBA. The particles were characterized with FTIR/ATR,...

  6. Spontaneous fertility and in vitro fertilization outcome: new evidence of human papillomavirus sperm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garolla, Andrea; Engl, Bruno; Pizzol, Damiano; Ghezzi, Marco; Bertoldo, Alessandro; Bottacin, Alberto; Noventa, Marco; Foresta, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the reproductive outcome of infertile couples undergoing assisted reproduction techniques (ART) with or without human papillomavirus (HPV) semen infection. Cross-sectional clinical study. Units of andrology, reproductive medicine, and gynecology. A total of 226 infertile couples. Male partners were evaluated by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for HPV on semen. After a diagnostic period, female partners underwent intrauterine insemination (IUI) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Seminal parameters and FISH analysis for HPV in sperm head. Spontaneous or assisted pregnancies, live births, and miscarriages were recorded. Statistical analysis included unpaired Student t test and chi-square test. Fifty-four male partners (23.9%) had HPV semen infection confined to sperm, confined to exfoliated cells, or in both cells. During the diagnostic period, noninfected couples showed spontaneous pregnancies. IUI and ICSI treatments were performed in, respectively, 60 and 98 noninfected and in 21 and 33 infected couples, with 38.4% and 14.2% cumulative pregnancy rates, respectively. The follow-up of pregnancies showed a higher miscarriage rate in infected couples (62.5% vs. 16.7%). Ongoing pregnancies of the latter group were characterized by HPV infection confined to exfoliated cells. A reduction in natural and assisted cumulative pregnancy rate and an increase in miscarriage rate are related to the presence of HPV at sperm level. Although the exact mechanism by which sperm infection is able to impair fertility remains unclear, this aspect is worthy of further investigations. If confirmed, these results could change the clinical and diagnostic approach to infertile couples. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Contraceptive supply and fertility outcomes: evidence from Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Total fertility rates in Sub-Saharan Africa are nearly double that of any other region in the world. Evidence is mixed on whether providing contraceptives has an impact on fertility. I exploit exogenous, intermittent reductions in contraceptive supply in Ghana, resulting from cuts in U.S. funding, to examine impacts on pregnancy, abortion, and births. Women are unable to fully compensate for the 22% supply reduction using traditional methods for preventing pregnancy, which increases by 10%. O...

  8. Encapsulated Urea-Kaolinite Nanocomposite for Controlled Release Fertilizer Formulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sempeho, Siafu Ibahati; Kim, Hee Taik; Mubofu, Egid; Pogrebnoi, Alexander; Shao, Godlisten; Hilonga, Askwar

    2015-01-01

    Urea controlled release fertilizer (CRF) was prepared via kaolinite intercalation followed by gum arabic encapsulation in an attempt to reduce its severe losses associated with dissolution, hydrolysis, and diffusion...

  9. The effects of intrauterine malnutrition on birth and fertility outcomes: evidence from the 1974 Bangladesh famine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Julián, Rey; Mansour, Hani; Peters, Christina

    2014-10-01

    This article uses the Bangladesh famine of 1974 as a natural experiment to estimate the impact of intrauterine malnutrition on sex of the child and infant mortality. In addition, we estimate the impact of malnutrition on post-famine pregnancy outcomes. Using the 1996 Matlab Health and Socioeconomic Survey (MHSS), we find that women who were pregnant during the famine were less likely to have male children. Moreover, children who were in utero during the most severe period of the Bangladesh famine were 32 % more likely to die within one month of birth compared with their siblings who were not in utero during the famine. Finally, we estimate the impacts of the famine on subsequent pregnancy outcomes. Controlling for pre-famine fertility, we find that women who were pregnant during the famine experienced a higher number of stillbirths in the post-famine years. This increase appears to be driven by an excess number of male stillbirths.

  10. Controlled-release fertilizer(CRF):A green fertilizer for controlling non-point contamination in agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Xiao-yun; SUN Ke-jun; WANG De-han; LIAO Zong-wen

    2005-01-01

    Fertilizers contribute greatly to high yields but also result in environmental non-point contamination, including the emission of greenhouse gas(N2O) and eutrophication of water bodies. How to solve this problem has become a serious challenge, especially for China as its high ecological pressure. Controlled-release fertilizer(CRF) has been developed to minimize the contamination while keeping high yield and has become a green fertilizer for agriculture. Several CRFs made with special coating technology were used for testing the fertilizer effects in yield and environment through pot experiment and field trial. The result indicated that the CRFs had higher N use efficiency, thus reducing N loss through leaching and volatilization while keeping higher yields. Comparing with imported standard CRFs,the test on CRFs showed similar fertilizer effect but with much lower cost. CRFs application is becoming a new approach for minimizing non-point contamination in agriculture.

  11. Factors influencing fertility outcome after ectopic pregnancy: a descriptive observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena KS

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Subfertility, tubal pathology and age will influence on future fertility outcome following ectopic pregnancy. Radical or conservative surgery does not have influence on future pregnancy outcome. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 820-823

  12. FERLENT - a controlled release fertilizer produced from a polymer material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The possibility to use release controlled fertilizers in the agriculture of the tropical countries is more important than in the agriculture of the countries of the template regions. In this context, this work purpose the development of a new Fertilizer of Controlled Release named FERLENT, which was obtained starting from a polymeric material, under controlled conditions which allowed to corroborate the adjustment of the synthesis parameters under the modulate of nutrients liberation. It was characterized by, Scanning Microscopy Electron (SEM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). (author)

  13. Exposure to heavy metals (lead, cadmium and mercury) and its effect on the outcome of in-vitro fertilization treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Coskun, Serdar; Mashhour, Abdullah; Shinwari, Neptune; El-Doush, Inaam; Billedo, Grisellhi; Jaroudi, Kamal; Al-Shahrani, Abdulaziz; Al-Kabra, Maya; El Din Mohamed, Gamal

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the effect of lead, cadmium and mercury exposure on pregnancy and fertilization rate outcome among 619 Saudi women (age 19-50 years) who sought in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment between 2002 and 2003. The concentrations of lead, cadmium and mercury were measured in both blood and follicular fluids. At levels well below the current US occupational exposure limit guidelines (40microg/dL) and even less than the current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention level of concern for preventing lead poisoning in children (10microg/dL), blood lead level was negatively associated with fertilization outcome in both adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression models. We found that among various demographic, socioeconomic and environmental factors, fish consumption was positively associated with blood lead levels. These results support the hypothesis that a raised blood lead level affects infertility and intervention to reduce the lead exposure might be needed for women of reproductive age. The present results also revealed unexpected finding - the positive relationship between follicular cadmium levels and fertilization outcome, which points to the necessity for further investigation. Though adverse effect of mercury on pregnancy outcome or fertilization rate was not evident in this study, mercury5.8microg/L (EPA safety limit) was found in the blood and follicular fluid of 18.7% and 8.3% of the women, respectively. Concerns about its possible adverse effects on the physiology of reproduction or fetal development cannot be ruled out. It should be noted that skin-lightening creams and dental amalgam were important contributors to mercury exposure. Such finding is alarming and priority for further studies are, urgently, needed.

  14. Alterations in uterine hemodynamics caused by uterine fibroids and their impact on in vitro fertilization outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jei-Won; Kim, Chung-Hoon; Kim, Jun-Bum; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kang, Byung-Moon

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the impact of fibroids on the blood flow of the uterine and subendometrial arteries and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. In this study, we analyzed 86 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles in which a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol was used for controlled ovarian stimulation between January 2008 and March 2009. The subjects comprised 86 infertile women with (fibroid group, n=43) or without (control group, n=43) uterine fibroids. Patient characteristics were similar between the fibroid and control groups. The IVF/ICSI outcomes in patients with fibroids were similar to those of patients in the control group. The resistance index (RI) and pulsatile index (PI) of the uterine and subendometrial arteries on the day of embryo transfer were also comparable between the two groups. IVF outcomes and uterine hemodynamics in patients with multiple (≥2) fibroids were similar to those of patients with a single fibroid. However, clinical pregnancy and implantation rates were significantly lower in patients with fibroids who experienced uterine cavity distortion than in patients with fibroids who had a normal uterine cavity (both p<0.05). The RI and PI of the subendometrial artery were significantly higher on the day of embryo transfer in patients with fibroids who experienced uterine cavity distortion than in patients with fibroids who had a normal uterine cavity (both p<0.05). Fibroids which distorting the uterine cavity might impair the subendometrial artery blood flow clinical pregnancy rate and embryo implantation rate in infertile patients undergoing IVF. Otherwise, IVF outcomes were not influenced by the presence of uterine fibroids.

  15. Does human papillomavirus infection do harm to in-vitro fertilization outcomes and subsequent pregnancy outcomes?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Rui; WANG Ying; QIAO Jie; LIU Ping; GENG Li; GUO Yan-li

    2013-01-01

    Background Some studies suggested that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection could reduce the clinical pregnancy rate and double the spontaneous abortion rate compared with non-infected women after in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET).But some other studies showed there was no difference between HPV infected and non-infected groups of ART outcomes.The role of HPV infection in infertile women undergoing IVF treatments has been a controversial issue which this article attempts to investigate.Methods This is a retrospective analysis of 3880 infertile women undergoing IVF treatment at Peking University Third hospital reproductive medical center in 2008.Patients with abnormal thin-layer preparation cytologic test (TCT) results who underwent fresh cycle embryo transfer were divided into an HPV positive group (n=56) and an HPV negative group (n=56).The clinical parameters were compared (using Student's t-test and chi-squared test).Univariate and multivariate analyses were taken to see if HPV infection affects the clinical pregnancy rate.Results Of the 3880 cases 157 had TCT abnormality (4.0%).Of the 149 patients who had HPVtest results,112 women (81.2%) received a fresh cycle embryo transfer.Each group had 56 cases.The patients were of similar age and BMI,basic hormone levels,and infertile factors were similar.The gonadotropin use,oocyte retrieval number,clinical pregnancy rate,abortion rate and newborn condition were all similar between groups.Analyses showed neither HPV infection nor HPV hybrid capture (HC) Ⅱ results affected clinical pregnancy rate after IVF treatments,but the FSH level did.Conclusion HPV positivity did not appear to impact assisted reproductive technology (ART) success."Extensive treatment" for HPV before IVF was not recommended because treatment time will increase age and reduce ovarian function,which will lead to inferior IVF outcomes.

  16. Controlled root targeted delivery of fertilizer using an ionically crosslinked carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Drew W; Verma, Mohit S; Gu, Frank X

    2013-01-01

    Aims The recent increases in food prices caused by the corresponding increases in fertilizer costs have highlighted the demand for reducing the overuse of fertilizers in industrial agriculture. There has been increasing interest in developing plant root-targeted delivery (RTD) of fertilizers in order to address the problem of inefficient fertilizer use. The aim of this study is to develop a low cost controlled release device to deliver fertilizers to plant roots and thereby increase fertilize...

  17. Controlled root targeted delivery of fertilizer using an ionically crosslinked carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Drew W; Mohit S. Verma; Gu, Frank X.

    2013-01-01

    Aims The recent increases in food prices caused by the corresponding increases in fertilizer costs have highlighted the demand for reducing the overuse of fertilizers in industrial agriculture. There has been increasing interest in developing plant root-targeted delivery (RTD) of fertilizers in order to address the problem of inefficient fertilizer use. The aim of this study is to develop a low cost controlled release device to deliver fertilizers to plant roots and thereby increase fertilize...

  18. Effect of body mass index on in vitro fertilization outcomes in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Sathya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background :Obesity has become a major health problem across the world. In women, it is known to cause anovulation, subfecundity, increased risk of fetal anomalies and miscarriage rates. However, in women going for assisted reproduction the effects of obesity on egg quality, embryo quality, clinical pregnancy, live birth rates are controversial. Objectives :To assess the effect of women′s body mass index (BMI on the reproductive outcome of non donor In vitro fertilization (IVF/Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. The effects of BMI on their gonadotrophin levels (day 2 LH, FSH, gonadotrophin dose required for ovarian stimulation, endometrial thickness and oocyte/embryo quality were looked at, after correcting for age and poor ovarian reserve. Materials and Methods : Retrospective study of medical records of 308 women undergoing non donor IVF cycles in a University affiliated teaching hospital. They were classified into three groups: normal weight (BMI25 30 kg/m 2 . All women underwent controlled ovarian hyper stimulation using long agonist protocol. Results : There were 88 (28.6% in the normal weight group, 147 (47.7% in the overweight and 73 (23.7% in the obese group. All three groups were comparable with respect to age, duration of infertility, female and male causes of infertility. The three groups were similar with respect to day 2 LH/FSH levels, endometrial thickness and gonadotrophin requirements, oocyte quality, fertilization, cleavage rates, number of good quality embryos and clinical pregnancy rates. Conclusion :Increase in body mass index in women does not appear to have an adverse effect on IVF outcome. However, preconceptual counselling for obese women is a must as weight reduction helps in reducing pregnancy-related complications.

  19. Fertility rates and perinatal outcomes of adolescent pregnancies: a retrospective population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: analyze trends in fertility rates and associations with perinatal outcomes for adolescents in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods: a population-based study covering 2006 to 2013 was carried out to evaluate associations between perinatal outcomes and age groups, using odds ratios, and Chi-squared tests. Results: differences in the fertility rate among female adolescents across regions and time period were observed, ranging from 40.9 to 72.0 per 1,000 in mothers aged 15-19 years. Adolescents had fewer prenatal care appointments than mothers ≥20 years, and a higher proportion had no partner. Mothers aged 15-19 years were more likely to experience preterm birth (OR:1.1; CI:1.08-1.13; p<0.001, have an infant with low birthweight (OR:1.1; CI:1.10-1.15; p<0.001 and low Apgar score at 5 minutes (OR:1.4; CI:1.34-1.45; p<0.001 than mothers ≥20 years, with the odds for adverse outcomes greater for those aged 10-14 years. Conclusion: this study provides evidence of fertility rates among adolescents remaining higher in regions of social and economic deprivation. Adolescent mothers and their infants more likely to experience adverse perinatal outcomes. Nurses, public health practitioners, health and social care professionals and educators need to work collaboratively to better target strategies for adolescents at greater risk; to help reduce fertility rates and improve outcomes.

  20. Fertility-preserving treatment and pregnancy outcomes in the early stage of endometrial carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Xiao-mei; LIN Xiao-na; JIANG Hong-fei; JIANG Ling-ying; ZHANG Song-ying; LIANG Feng-bing

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to review the available literature on fertility-preserving treatment and pregnancy outcomes in patients with early-stage endometrial carcinoma who desired to preserve their fertility.Data sources The PubMed database (1992-2012) was searched for the words "conservative "OR" fertility sparing "OR"fertility preserving" AND "endometrial neoplasms" (MeSH).All relevant articles in English and the relevant references were collected.Study selection Data from published articles about fertility-preserving treatment of endometrial cancer,including the response and recurrence rate of conservative treatment,strategies of infertility treatment,pregnancy,and obstetric outcomes,were selected.Data were mainly extracted from 41 studies,which are listed in the reference section of this review.Results Hormone therapy was the most common method used for early-stage endometrial carcinoma in patients who wished to preserve fertility.Sixty percent of the patients became pregnant after remission of the carcinoma.The percentage of patients who conceived in the assisted reproductive technology group was higher than that of the natural pregnancy group (80.0% vs.43.2%,P<0.01).A higher rate of preterm labor and multiple pregnancies was observed in the assisted reproductive technology group than that in the natural pregnancy group.The majority of pregnancies (71.4%) in the assisted reproductive technology group were achieved by in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer.The clinical pregnancy rate of transfer cycles in patients with endometrial carcinoma was 34.1%.Conclusions Assisted reproductive technology is a good option in well-selected patients with early-stage endometrial carcinoma who have completed conservative treatment.In vitro fertilization-embryo transfer offers an opportunity to achieve an immediate pregnancy.

  1. Stages of endometriosis: Does it affect in vitro fertilization outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Pop-Trajkovic

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The American Society for Reproductive Medicine classification of endometriosis is useful in predicting IVF outcome. Advanced endometriosis means a worse prognosis for IVF treatment compared to milder stages or tubal factor infertility. The decreased fertilization rate in Stage I/II endometriosis might be a cause of subfertility in these women, as a result of a hostile environment caused by the disease.

  2. The impact of bariatric surgery on obesity-related infertility and in vitro fertilization outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Orkun; Carr, Bruce R

    2012-12-01

    Obesity-related infertility is one of the most common problems of reproductive-age obese women who desire childbearing. The various types of bariatric surgeries have proved effective in controlling excessive weight gain, improving fertility, and preventing certain maternal and fetal complications in these women. This article summarizes the current evidence regarding the impact of bariatric surgery on obesity-related infertility and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. We have also attempted to draw conclusions about maternal and fetal risks and the benefits of bariatric surgery. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and Roux-en-Y procedures are the two most commonly performed bariatric surgeries. Bariatric surgery was believed to improve menstrual irregularity and increase ovulation rate in anovulatory obese women, which lead to increased pregnancy rates. Although there are data in the literature suggesting the improvement of both the ovulatory function and the spontaneous pregnancy rates in obese women who lost weight after bariatric surgery, most of these are case-control studies with a small number of patients. The data are insufficient to determine an ideal time interval for pregnancy after bariatric surgery; however, the general consensus is that pregnancy should be delayed 12 to 18 months after bariatric surgery to avoid nutritional deficiencies. Few data exist regarding IVF success rates in women who have undergone bariatric surgery. One pairwise study discussed five patients who underwent bariatric surgery followed by IVF that resulted in three term pregnancies in three patients after the first IVF cycle. Many studies reported reductions in obesity-related pregnancy complications such as gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders after bariatric surgery. Although data are inconsistent, some studies reported increased rate of preterm delivery and small for gestational age infants after bariatric surgery. Pregnancies after bariatric surgery may be

  3. Clinical outcomes of fertility-sparing treatments in young patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun HU; Li-rong ZHU; Zhi-qing LIANG; Yuan-guang MENG; Hong-yan GUO; Peng-peng QU; Cai-ling MA; Cong-jian XU; Bi-bo YUAN

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the clinical outcomes of fertility-sparing treatments in young patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC).Methods:A retrospective study of young EOC inpatients (≤40 years old) was performed during January 1994 and December 2010 in eight institutions.Results:Data were analyzed from 94 patients treated with fertility-sparing surgery with a median follow-up time of 58.7 months.As histologic grade increased,overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of patients receiving fertility-sparing surgery declined.Neither staging surgery nor laparoscopy of early stage EOC with conservative surgery had a significant effect on OS or DFS.Normal menstruation recommenced after chemotherapy in 89% of the fertility-sparing group.Seventeen pregnancies among twelve patients were achieved by the end of the follow-ups.Conclusions:Fertility-sparing treatment for patients with EOC Stage Ⅰ Grade 1 could be cautiously considered for young patients.The surgical procedure and surgical route might not significantly influence the prognosis.Standard chemotherapy is not likely to have an evident impact on ovarian function or fertility in young patients.

  4. Silicone Doped Chitosan-Acrylamide Coencapsulated Urea Fertilizer: An Approach to Controlled Release Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sempeho Ibahati Siafu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of special management practices, urea is known to undergo chemical transformations resulting in severe losses (≈60–70% of total fertilizer applied. In an attempt to design urea controlled release fertilizers in order to counterbalance the 60–70% loss, urea was cross-linked with chitosan and acrylamide under refluxed in situ copolymerization technique; the procedures were repeated with silicone doping prior cross-linking with MBA. The particles were characterized with FTIR/ATR, EDX, XRD, and SEM. The IR bands observed within 3426–409 cm−1 revealed the formation of new bands after coencapsulation for the νγN-H, νβN-H, νOH, νsNH2, νCH2, νC=O, δ′NH2, νC=C, δNH2, νC-N, βCH3, $C-N, γNH2, νC=O, and $CH2. Crystallinity indices for urea with and without silicone doping were found to be 50.9% and 72.1%, respectively, with a distinctive split peak at (d 12.30°. The formation of Microdunes and Microballs 3D network sized 0.64 μm was noted. Release profiles demonstrated that 80% N was released in a period of 30 days at RT and pH 7. The release patterns exhibited linear and deformed sigmoid release models. Empirically, the findings demonstrated that it is possible to design urea controlled release fertilizers with varying particle sizes and morphologies by using chitosan-acrylamide coencapsulation.

  5. Encapsulated Urea-Kaolinite Nanocomposite for Controlled Release Fertilizer Formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Siafu Ibahati Sempeho; Hee Taik Kim; Egid Mubofu; Alexander Pogrebnoi; Godlisten Shao; Askwar Hilonga

    2015-01-01

    Urea controlled release fertilizer (CRF) was prepared via kaolinite intercalation followed by gum arabic encapsulation in an attempt to reduce its severe losses associated with dissolution, hydrolysis, and diffusion. Following the beneficiation, the nonkaolinite fraction decreased from 39.58% to 0.36% whereas the kaolinite fraction increased from 60.42% to 99.64%. The X-ray diffractions showed that kaolinite was a major phase with FCC Bravais crystal lattice with particle sizes ranging betwee...

  6. Encapsulated Urea-Kaolinite Nanocomposite for Controlled Release Fertilizer Formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Siafu Ibahati Sempeho; Hee Taik Kim; Egid Mubofu; Alexander Pogrebnoi; Godlisten Shao; Askwar Hilonga

    2015-01-01

    Urea controlled release fertilizer (CRF) was prepared via kaolinite intercalation followed by gum arabic encapsulation in an attempt to reduce its severe losses associated with dissolution, hydrolysis, and diffusion. Following the beneficiation, the nonkaolinite fraction decreased from 39.58% to 0.36% whereas the kaolinite fraction increased from 60.42% to 99.64%. The X-ray diffractions showed that kaolinite was a major phase with FCC Bravais crystal lattice with particle sizes ranging betwee...

  7. Deep phenotyping to predict live birth outcomes in in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Prajna; Choi, Bokyung; Shahine, Lora K; Jun, Sunny H; O'Leary, Kathleen; Lathi, Ruth B; Westphal, Lynn M; Wong, Wing H; Yao, Mylene W M

    2010-08-03

    Nearly 75% of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments do not result in live births and patients are largely guided by a generalized age-based prognostic stratification. We sought to provide personalized and validated prognosis by using available clinical and embryo data from prior, failed treatments to predict live birth probabilities in the subsequent treatment. We generated a boosted tree model, IVFBT, by training it with IVF outcomes data from 1,676 first cycles (C1s) from 2003-2006, followed by external validation with 634 cycles from 2007-2008, respectively. We tested whether this model could predict the probability of having a live birth in the subsequent treatment (C2). By using nondeterministic methods to identify prognostic factors and their relative nonredundant contribution, we generated a prediction model, IVF(BT), that was superior to the age-based control by providing over 1,000-fold improvement to fit new data (plive birth probabilities. We showed that data from a prior cycle could be used effectively to provide personalized and validated live birth probabilities in a subsequent cycle. Our approach may be replicated and further validated in other IVF clinics.

  8. Innovative use of controlled availability fertilizers with high performance for intensive agriculture and environmental conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadao SHOJI

    2005-01-01

    A variety of slow release fertilizers, controlled release (availability) fertilizers (CAFs),and stability fertilizers have been developed in response to the serious drawbacks of the conventional fertilizers since the early 1960's. Of these fertilizers, CAFs which are coated with resin are consumed in the largest quantity in the world. Selecting CAFs with higher performance, the author will discuss about: 1) Innovation of agro-technologies for various field crops including new concepts of fertilizer application, 2) high yielding of field crops, 3) enhancing quality and safety of farm products, and 4) controlling the adverse effect of intensive agriculture on the environment.

  9. Controlled-release fertilizer composition substantially coated with an impermeable layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankeny, Mark

    2016-03-29

    A controlled-release fertilizer composition is provided that is substantially coated with an impermeable layer. The fertilizer composition may further include one or more hollow sections to allow for root penetration and efficient delivery of nutrients.

  10. Economic consequences of overweight and obesity in infertility : a framework for evaluating the costs and outcomes of fertility care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, A. M. H.; Kuchenbecker, W. K. H.; Groen, H.; Hoek, A.; Land, J. A.; Khan, K. S.; Mol, B. W. J.

    2010-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are an epidemic in Western society, and have a strong impact on fertility. We studied the consequences of overweight and obesity with respect to fecundity, costs of fertility treatment and pregnancy outcome in subfertile women. We searched the literature for systematic reviews

  11. [Research advances on controlled-release mechanisms of nutrients in coated fertilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijun; Wu, Zhijie; Liang, Wenju; Xie, Hongtu

    2003-12-01

    Using encapsulation techniques to coat easily soluble fertilizers is an important way to improve fertilizer use efficiency while reduce environmental hazards. Based on a wide range of literature collection on coated fertilizer research, the theories, processes, and characters of nutrient controlled-release from coated fertilizer were discussed, and the factors affecting nutrient controlled-release and the mathematical simulations on it were reviewed. The main tendencies related to this research in China were also put forward.

  12. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure affects fertilization outcome in swine animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabò, N; Tettamanti, E; Russo, V; Martelli, A; Turriani, M; Mattoli, M; Barboni, B

    2010-06-01

    Modern society continuously exposes the population to electromagnetic radiation, the effects of which on human health, in particular reproduction, are still unknown. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of acute (1h) exposure of boar spermatozoa to a 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on early fertility outcome. The effect of intensities ranging from 0 to 2 mT on morpho-functional integrity of capacitated spermatozoa was examined in vitro. The oviducts containing or without spermatozoa were then exposed to the minimum in vivo, TD(50,) and maximum intensities determined in vitro, 4h before ovulation. The effects of ELF-EMF on spermatozoa in terms of early embryo development were evaluated after 12h and 6 days. It was found that in vitro ELF-EMF > 0.5 mT induced a progressive acrosome damage, thus compromising the ability of spermatozoa to undergo acrosomal reaction after zona pellucida stimulation and reducing the in vitro fertilization outcome. These effects became evident at 0.75 mT and reached the plateau at 1 mT. Under in vivo conditions, the ELF-EMF intensity of 1 mT was able to compromise sperm function, significantly reducing the fertilization rate. In addition, the exposure of oviducts to fields > or = 0.75 mT in the absence of spermatozoa was able to negatively affect early embryo development. In fact, it was found to cause a slowdown in the embryo cleavage. In conclusion, it was demonstrated how and at which intensities ELF-EMF negatively affect early fertility outcome in a highly predictive animal model.

  13. Variable Fertilizer Control System for Deep-fertilization Liquid Fertilizer Applicator%深施型液态肥变量施肥控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎春玲; 王金武; 王金峰; 何剑南; 郗晓焕

    2013-01-01

    A control system for variahle rate fertilization, which depends on deep-fertilization liquid fertilizer applicator, was introduced. The single chip microcomputer was used as core processor and electromagnetic proportion regulator valve was used as execution unit. Software was designed for selecting data and sending commands. The test results in the test-bed showed that the system can complete the control of variable rate fertilization and the error of the variable fertilizing was less than 0. 5 mL in each time, which meets the liquid fertilizer variables requirement.%以深施型液态施肥机为依托,采用单片机作为核心处理器,以电磁比例调节阀为执行部件,设计了深施型液态变量施肥控制系统.设计了与硬件配套的上位机软件,用于采集数据与发送命令.喷肥针施肥量控制误差台架试验结果表明,该系统可实现深施型液态变量施肥,施肥误差不超过0.5 mL/次,满足液态变量施肥作业要求.

  14. The effect of group X secreted phospholipase A2 on fertilization outcome is specific and not mimicked by other secreted phospholipases A2 or progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi Nahed, Roland; Escoffier, Jessica; Revel, Charlaine; Jeammet, Louise; Payré, Christine; Ray, Pierre F; Hennebicq, Sylviane; Lambeau, Gerard; Arnoult, Christophe

    2014-04-01

    Mouse group X sPLA2 (mGX) is an acrosomal protein playing an important role in fertilization and controlling acrosome reaction (AR) occurring during capacitation. We demonstrated previously that sperm from mGX knock-out mice had a severely impaired fertilization potential in vitro. We also showed that treatment of wild-type sperm with recombinant mGX during capacitation improved fertilization outcome. This interesting property suggests that sPLA2s could be used to improve fertilization in assisted reproductive technologies (ART). However the molecular mechanism explaining the mGX-dependent enhancing effect on fertilization outcome remains unclear so far. Interestingly, like progesterone (P4), mGX is a very potent activator of AR and the role of mGX-induced AR in fertilization outcome was not evaluated so far. To assess the role of sPLA2-induced AR in IVF, we first tested the potency of 9 mouse and 2 human sPLA2s and P4 to trigger AR of mouse sperm. We then tested the ability of 6 of these molecules (mouse Group IIA, mouse Group IID, mouse Group X, human Group V, human Group X and P4) to improve the yield of 2-cell embryos obtained by IVF in mouse. We showed that in the mouse neither P4 nor any of the other sPLA2s tested were able to mimic the IVF improvement produced by mGX-treatment. These results demonstrate that sPLA2s are not commutable in the context of mouse sperm fertility, indicating that their utilisation in other species, is subjected to the identification of probably unique species-specific active sPLA2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Using polymer-coated controlled-release fertilizers in the nursery and after outplanting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2009-01-01

    Controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) are the newest and most technically advanced way of supplying mineral nutrients to nursery crops. Compared to conventional fertilizers, their gradual pattern of nutrient release better meets plant needs, minimizes leaching, and therefore improves fertilizer use efficiency. In our review of the literature, we found many terms used...

  16. The Effects of Controlled Release Fertilizer and Conventional Complex Fertilizer on the Photosynthetic Characteristics in Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The quantity and quality of the fertilizers affected the photosynthetic characteristic of the winter wheat. So, the rationality applied, reduced fertilizers not only can decline pollution for soil and ground water, but also save the cost. The quantity and quality of the fertilizers determine the relationship between the photosynthetic characteristics. Therefore, the different effects about the using of the Controlled Release Fertilizer (CRF and the Conventional Complex Fertilizer (CCF on photosynthetic characteristics in winter wheat were studied in the open field by pots experiment. The results showed that the SPAD value, photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance of the treatments of the mixture of the CRF and equivalent CCF applied were higher than that of the treatments of CRF used alone and the control treatment, but the intercellular carbon dioxide concentration of both latter was higher than that of the former. So it can conclude that it was the best way to maintain higher photosynthetic rate in winter wheat by using the amount application and the way of application of fertilizer of T6.

  17. Design and Experiment of Slave Computer Control System for Applying Variable-rate Liquid Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ying-zi; Chen Hai-tao; Hou Shou-yin; Ji Wen-yi; Ouyang Bin-lin; Dun Guo-qiang; Zhang Ji-cheng

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the applying rate of liquid fertilizer and reduce environmental pollution, a slave computer control system for applying variable-rate liquid fertilizer was designed. The system used SMC as core processor and electrically controlled pressure regulator as execution component. The characteristic equation of the system was obtained by using classical control theory. Results indicated that the characteristic equation met the requirements of routh-criterion, which indicated the working process of the system was stable. Performance of the slave computer was verified via bench tests. Results demonstrated that there was no significant influence on the response from interclass error. The fertilization error was less than 0.9, and the fertilization accuracy was larger than 97%. The liquid fertilizer emitted by the fertilizing devices had no significant difference in uniformity, which met the demands of the slave computer control system for applying variable-rate liquid fertilizer.

  18. [Effects of mechanical transplanting of rice with controlled release bulk blending fertilizer on rice yield and soil fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Ding, Jun-Shan; Liu, Yan-Ling; Gu, Yan; Han, Ke-Feng; Wu, Liang-Huan

    2014-03-01

    Abstract: A 2-year field experiment with a yellow-clay paddy soil in Zhejiang Province was conducted to study the effects of different planting measures combined with different fertilization practices on rice yield, soil nutrients, microbial biomass C and N and activities of urease, phosphatase, sucrase and hydrogen peroxidase at the maturity stage. Results showed that mechanical transplanting of rice with controlled release bulk blending (BB) fertilizer (BBMT) could achieve a significantly higher mean yield than traditional manual transplanting with traditional fertilizer (TFTM) and direct seeding with controlled release BB fertilizer (BBDS) by 16.3% and 27.0%, respectively. The yield by BBMT was similar to that by traditional manual transplanting with controlled release BB fertilizer (BBTM). Compared with TFTM, BBMT increased the contents of soil total-N, available N, available P and microbial biomass C, and the activities of urease, sucrase and hydrogen peroxidase by 21.5%, 13.6%, 41.2%, 27.1%, 50.0%, 22.5% and 46.2%, respectively. Therefore, BBMT, a simple high-efficiency rice cultivation method with use of a light-weighted mechanical transplanter, should be widely promoted and adopted.

  19. Stressful life events are associated with a poor in vitro fertilization (IVF) - outcome: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Signe Maria Schneevoigt; Zachariae, Robert; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is preliminary evidence to suggest an impact of stress on chances of achieving a pregnancy with in-vitro fertilization (IVF). The majority of the available research has focused on stress related to infertility and going through IVF-treatment, and it is still unclear whether non......-fertility-related, naturally occurring stressors may influence IVF pregnancy chances. Our aim was to explore the association between IVF-outcome and negative, i.e. stressful, life-events during the previous 12 months. METHODS: Prior to IVF, 809 women (mean age: 31.2 years) completed the List of Recent Events (LRE......) and questionnaires measuring perceived stress and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Women who became pregnant reported fewer non-fertility-related negative life-events prior to IVF (Mean: 2.5; SD: 2.5) than women who did not obtain a pregnancy (Mean: 3.0; SD: 3.0) (t(465.28) = 2.390, P = 0.017). Logistic regression...

  20. Comparison between in vitro fertilization outcome of two motile sperm separation methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuanMZ; ZhuWJ

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficiency of Percoll density gradient and swim-up methods for motile sperm isolation for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) program.Methods:The fertilization rate,cleavage rate,embryo developing status and pregnancy outcome of 362 IVF cycles using sperm obtained by the two methods were studied.Results:There was no significant difference in fertilization rate and cleavage rate between the Percoll and swim-up groups.Although the two groups showed no significant difference in the embryo cell number,the percentage of embryos with <20% debris was significantly higher in the Percoll group (77.6%) than in swim-up group (65.9%).The pregnancy rate and the life birth rate were also significantly higher (P<0.01) in the Percoll group (43.7% and 70.3%,respectively) than in the swim-up group(36.6% and 60.7%),respectively).Conclusion:The efficiency of the Percoll density gradient method is superior to the swim-up method in motile sperm separation for the IVF-ET program.

  1. The Effects of Different Amounts of Controlled Release Fertilizer on the Root Growth and the Filling Rate in Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the fertilizer use efficiency and yield in winter wheat, the effects of controlled release fertilizer on the root growth and the filling rate in winter wheat by applying different amounts of controlled release fertilizer had been studied in open field. The results indicated that conventional complex fertilizer and controlled release fertilizer could cause corresponding changes of the wheat root activity, dry root weight, root-shoot ratio and filling rate, but the fertilizer of conventional fertilizer performed in the pre-stage significantly, controlled release fertilizer performed in the middle and late stage gradually. So mixing conventional fertilizer with controlled release fertilizer can ensure the nutrient supply of whole growth and development of wheat to explore the most appropriate collocation dosage. This will make fertilizer and economic benefits achieve the best.

  2. Effect of Kelp Residue Microbial Fertilizer on Eco-Control Peanut Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus Parasiticus 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xiao; Peisheng Yan

    2016-01-01

    Ecological prevention and control of plant disease is very important in sustainable agriculture. Adjusting soil pH value and fertilizing organic microbial fertilizer are two effective measures in this process. Kelp residue contains a large amount of organic compounds and alkaline metal ions. The bio⁃control Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Hitwh⁃BA2 was inoculated into kelp residue medium to produce kelp residue microbial fertilizer. Acidic soil and alkaline soil were used to study the effect of kelp residue microbial fertilizer on soil pH and soil suppressive activity. Tip⁃culture method was used to determine soil leachate suppressive activity, which characterized the soil suppressive activity. Results showed that fertilizing kelp residue microbial fertilizer had increased the soil pH and soil suppressive ability significantly, which was verified by peanut validation experiments as well. Peanut potting experiments proved that fertilizing kelp residue microbial fertilizer not only improved the yield of peanuts obviously, but also reduced the amount of Aspergillus parasiticus 95 in peanut geocarposphere soil significantly. Results also showed that fertilizing kelp residue microbial fertilizer was effective in reducing A. parasiticus 95 infection rate. So the kelp residue microbial fertilizer has good potential application prospect on ecological prevention and control of plant disease.

  3. Aquaporin-11 control of testicular fertility markers in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannonhouse, John L; Urbanski, Henryk F; Woo, Shih-Lung; Fong, Li An; Goddard, Scott D; Lucas, William F; Jones, Edward R; Wu, Chaodong; Morgan, Caurnel

    2014-06-25

    The present study sought novel changes to the hamster testicular transcriptome during modulation of fertility by well-characterized photoperiodic stimuli. Transition from long days (LD, 14 h light/day) to short days (SD, 10h light/day) triggered testicular regression (61% reduction of testis weight, relative to LD) in SD-sensitive (SD-S) hamsters within 16 weeks. After 22 weeks of SD exposure, a third cohort of hamsters became SD-refractory (SD-R), and exhibited testicular recrudescence (137% testis weight gain, relative to SD-S). Partial interrogation of the testicular transcriptome by annealing-control-primer-modified differential display PCR provided several candidates for regulation of testicular functions. Multiple linear regression modeling indicated the best correlation for aquaporin 11 (Aqp11) with changes in testis weight. Correlations were also strongest for Aqp11 with expression levels of reference cDNAs that control spermatogenesis (Hspa2 and Tnp2), steroidogenesis (Cox2, 3βHsd, and Srebp2), sperm motility (Catsper1, Pgk2, and Tnp2), inflammation (Cox2), and apoptosis (Bax and Bcl2). Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of testicular Aqp11 mRNA and protein reduced Hspa2 and Tnp2 mRNA levels, and it increased 3βHsd mRNA levels. It also reduced mRNA levels for Sept12, which is a testis-specific inducer of spermatogenesis. These results suggest a central role for testicular Aqp11 signaling in the coordinate regulation of crucial components of fertility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Effects of sulfur- and polymer-coated controlled release urea fertilizers on wheat yield and quality and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fu-Liang; Song, Fu-Peng; Gao, Yang; Zou, Peng

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of sulfur- and polymer-coated controlled release urea fertilizers on wheat yield and its quality, plow layer soil inorganic nitrogen (N) contents, and fertilizer N use efficiency. Compared with traditional urea fertilizer, both sulfur- and polymer-coated controlled release urea fertilizers increased the grain yield by 10.4%-16.5%, and the grain protein and starch contents by 5.8%-18.9% and 0.3%-1.4%, respectively. The controlled release urea fertilizers could maintain the topsoil inorganic N contents to meet the N requirement for the wheat, especially during its late growth stage. In the meantime, the fertilizer N use efficiency was improved by 58.2%-101.2%. Polymer-coated urea produced better wheat yield and higher fertilizer N use efficiency, compared with sulfur-coated controlled release urea.

  5. Effects of Controlled Release Fertilizer on the Flag Leaves Senescence in Dry-land Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to select a reasonable controlled release fertilizer application method to slow down the senescence of flag leaf in dry-land wheat. The effects of controlled release fertilizer on soluble protein content, MDA content, the Catalase (CAT activity, the Superoxide Dismutase (SOD activity on the flag leaves senescence in dry-land wheat had been studied in the open field with the variety wheat Jimai22. The results indicated that, the combination application of controlled release fertilizer with conventional complex fertilizer on wheat was more conducive to the promotion of the soluble protein synthesis and it controlled the increasing of MDA content in flag leaf more effectively than the application of conventional complex fertilizer or controlled-release fertilizer alone on wheat. And it was more conductive to control or delay the process of flag leaf senescence with better maintenance of the SOD activity. The treatments in application of controlled release fertilization alone were conducive to these treatments with conventional complex fertilizer alone. Among these treatments, T6 was the best fertilization method with the lowest flag leaf senescence speed.

  6. The Effects of Different Amounts of Controlled Release Fertilizer on the Root Growth and the Filling Rate in Winter Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Li; Jingtian Yang; Liyuan Yan; Yan Shi

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase the fertilizer use efficiency and yield in winter wheat, the effects of controlled release fertilizer on the root growth and the filling rate in winter wheat by applying different amounts of controlled release fertilizer had been studied in open field. The results indicated that conventional complex fertilizer and controlled release fertilizer could cause corresponding changes of the wheat root activity, dry root weight, root-shoot ratio and filling rate, but the fertiliz...

  7. The Effects of Different Amounts of Controlled Release Fertilizer on the Root Growth and the Filling Rate in Winter Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Li; Jingtian Yang; Liyuan Yan; Yan Shi

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase the fertilizer use efficiency and yield in winter wheat, the effects of controlled release fertilizer on the root growth and the filling rate in winter wheat by applying different amounts of controlled release fertilizer had been studied in open field. The results indicated that conventional complex fertilizer and controlled release fertilizer could cause corresponding changes of the wheat root activity, dry root weight, root-shoot ratio and filling rate, but the fertiliz...

  8. [Fate and balance of bulk blending controlled release fertilizer nitrogen under continuous cropping of mustard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pan-Pan; Fan, Xiao-Lin

    2012-10-01

    Under the conditions of applying water soluble fertilizer and its bulk blending with controlled release fertilizer (BB-CRF), and by using micro-lysimeter, this paper quantitatively studied the nitrogen (N) uptake by mustard, the soil N losses from N2O emission, leaching and others, and the N residual in soil in three rotations of continuously cropped mustard. In the treatment of BB-CRF with 25% of controlled release nitrogen, the N uptake by mustard increased with rotations, and the yield by the end of the experiment was significantly higher than that in the treatment of water soluble fertilizer. The cumulated N2O emission loss and the N leaching loss were obviously higher in treatment water soluble fertilizer than in treatment BB-CRF. NO3(-)-N was the primary form of N in the leachate. In relative to water soluble fertilizer, BB-CRF altered the fates of fertilizer nitrogen, i.e., the N uptake by mustard and the N residual in soil increased by 75.4% and 76.0%, and the N leaching loss and other apparent N losses decreased by 27.1% and 66.3%, respectively. The application of BB-CRF could be an effective way to reduce the various losses of fertilizer N while increase the fertilizer N use efficiency, and the controlled release fertilizer is the environmentally friendly fertilizer with the property of high N use efficiency.

  9. Phosphorus fertilization for rice and control of environmental pollution problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, A T M A; Kennedy, I R; Ahmed, M F; Kecskés, M L

    2007-07-01

    Aim of this study to review information on various aspects of P fertilization in rice i.e., P nutrition of rice, P response of rice plant, P availability in rice soils and P adsorption in rice soils for better understanding of P fertilization in rice culture. A substantial portion of the applied P along with the soil P is lost from rice fields to water bodies causing environmental pollution problems through eutrophication. These pollution problems can be minimized by using proper source of P as fertilizer, proper timing and methods of P fertilizer application, soil P management, transport management, use of plant growth promoting microorganisms which helps in efficient use of P by crops and use of green manure crops which improves soil fertility as well as helps in efficient use of P by crops.

  10. Use of Controlled Release Fertilizer for Increasing N Efficiency of Direct Seeding Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Field trials on a silt-loamy paddy soil derived from shallow-sea deposit in direct seeding rice fields were conducted in Zhejiang, China, in 1996 to compare N efficiency of controlled release fertilizers (LP fertilizers) with the conventional urea. Six treatments including CK (no N fertilizer), conventional urea and different types of LP fertilizers at different rates were designed for two succeeding crops of early and late rice. A blend of different types of LP fertilizers as a single preplant "co-situs" application released N in a rate and amount synchronizing with uptake pattern of direct seeding rice. A single preplant application of the LP fertilizers could meet the N requirement of rice for the whole growth period without need of topdressing. Using LP fertilizer blends, equivalent grain yields could be maintained even if the N fertilization rates were reduced by 25%~50% compared with the conventional urea. Agronomic efficiency of the LP fertilizers was 13.6%~86.4% higher than that of the conventional urea in early rice and 100%~164.1% in late rice, depending on the amounts of the LP fertilizers applied. N fertilizer recovery rate increased from 27.4% for the conventional application of urea to 41.7%~54.1% for the single preplant "co-situs" application of the LP fertilizers. Use of the LP fertilizers was promising if the increase in production costs due to the high LP fertilizer prices could be compensated by increase in yield and N efficiency, reduction in labor costs and improvement in environment.

  11. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human follicular fluid and in vitro fertilization outcomes, a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Michael S; Fujimoto, Victor Y; Storm, Robin; Zhang, Li; Butts, Celeste D; Sollohub, Diana; Jansing, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitously distributed among the U.S. population and adversely impact human reproduction. These compounds have been detected in human ovarian follicular fluid (FF), where they directly contact a developing oocyte. As a pilot investigation, we measured 43 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and its persistent metabolite p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in residual FF collected from 32 women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). We identified significant inverse associations between higher levels of PCB congeners and indicators of ovarian reserve (e.g., antral follicle count), follicular response to administered gonadotropins (e.g., peak estradiol, number of oocytes retrieved, endometrial thickness), intermediate IVF endpoints (e.g., oocyte fertilization and embryo quality), and clinical IVF outcomes (e.g., embryo implantation and live birth), after adjusting for body mass index, cigarette smoking, race, and age. Our results suggest that ongoing exposure to POPs impacts IVF and merit confirmation in a larger and more definitive future study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rudiments of recent fertility decline in Hungary: Postponement, educational differences, and outcomes of changing partnership forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Spéder

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Our study describes fundamental changes in childbearing behavior in Hungary. It documents current postponement of entry into motherhood (first birth and uncovers signs of delay in second birth. We place the behavioral modifications into historical time and reveal the basic role of the political, economic, and societal transformation of Hungary that started in 1989-1990 in these modifications. We document postponement as well as differentiation, and mothers' highest level of education will represent the structural position of individuals. We shed light on the different speed of postponement and support the assumption of behavioral differences according to the highest level of education. Particular attention will be paid to changing partnership relations: Fertility outcomes remain to be strongly associated with the type of partnership and its development; profound changes in partnership formation, namely the proliferation of cohabitation and the increasing separation rate of first partnerships, may therefore facilitate fertility decline in Hungary. The analysis is based on the first wave of the Hungarian panel survey "Turning points of the life course" carried out in 2001/2002.

  13. Nutrients Release from a Novel Gel-Based Slow/Controlled Release Fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, H.; Y. S. Zhang; Li, W. H.; Zheng, X. Z.; Wang, M. K.; Tang, L. N.; Chen, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    A novel gel-based slow/controlled release fertilizer (G-CRF) was developed, which was produced by combining various natural, seminatural, and/or synthetic organic macromolecule materials and natural inorganic mineral with conventional NPK fertilizers. Its nutrient release characteristics were studied to compare with conventional fertilizers through the soil column leaching method. The influences of soil factors, including temperature, pH, water, and nutrient contents in the G-CRF on nutrient ...

  14. A Comprehensive Analysis of Body Mass Index Effect on in Vitro Fertilization Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarais, Veronica; Pagliardini, Luca; Rebonato, Giorgia; Papaleo, Enrico; Candiani, Massimo; Viganò, Paola

    2016-02-23

    The effect of a raised body mass index (BMI) on the outcome of assisted reproduction technology (ART) still represents a controversial issue. Even less clear is whether BMI acts with a potential detrimental effect on IVF outcomes via a deleterious effect on innate quality of oocytes or on the environmental milieu within the uterus. With the aim to better understand the mechanisms underlying the potential deleterious effect of an increased BMI on IVF outcomes, we have evaluated the effects of female BMI on number and quality of retrieved oocytes, fertilization rate, embryo score and incidences of ongoing pregnancy and live births among couples undergoing IVF in an Italian population. Data from 1602 women who underwent their first IVF cycle were retrospectively analyzed. A significantly reduced percentage of mature oocytes when comparing obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²) and normal-weight patients (BMI = 18.50-24.99 kg/m²) was found. After adjusting for maternal age and other confounders, odds for ongoing pregnancy rate showed no differences across different BMI categories. However, a significant increased odds ratio (OR) could be observed for miscarriage rate in patients with BMI ≥ 25 (OR = 2.5; p = 0.04). These results should be taken into account in order to define optimal strategies for overweight and obese patients referring to ART procedures.

  15. Decrease in fertilization and cleavage rates, but not in clinical outcomes for infertile men with AZF microdeletion of the Y chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuan-Chang; Wu, Tong-Hua; Li, Guan-Gui; Yin, Biao; Liu, Hong-Jie; Song, Cheng; Mo, Mei-Lan; Zeng, Yong

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to explore whether the presence of a Y chromosome azoospermia factor (AZF) microdeletion confers any adverse effect on embryonic development and clinical outcomes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. Fifty-seven patients with AZF microdeletion were included in the present study and 114 oligozoospermia and azoospermia patients without AZF microdeletion were recruited as controls. Both AZF and control groups were further divided into subgroups based upon the methods of semen collection: the AZF-testicular sperm extraction subgroup (AZF-TESE, n = 14), the AZF-ejaculation subgroup (AZF-EJA, n = 43), the control-TESE subgroup (n = 28) and the control-EJA subgroup (n = 86). Clinical data were analyzed in the two groups and four subgroups respectively. A retrospective case-control study was performed. A significantly lower fertilization rate (69.27 versus 75.70%, P = 0.000) and cleavage rate (89.55 versus 94.39%, P = 0.000) was found in AZF group compared with the control group. Furthermore, in AZF-TESE subgroup, the fertilization rate (67.54 versus 74.25%, P = 0.037) and cleavage rate (88.96 versus 94.79%, P = 0.022) were significantly lower than in the control-TESE subgroup; similarly, the fertilization rate (69.85 versus 75.85%, P = 0.004) and cleavage rate (89.36 versus 94.26%, P = 0.002) in AZF-EJA subgroup were significantly lower than in the control-EJA subgroup; however, the fertilization rate and cleavage rate in AZF-TESE (control-TESE) subgroup was similar to that in the AZF-EJA (control-EJA) subgroup. The other clinical outcomes were comparable between four subgroups (P > 0.05). Therefore, sperm from patients with AZF microdeletion, obtained either by ejaculation or TESE, may have lower fertilization and cleavage rates, but seem to have comparable clinical outcomes to those from patients without AZF microdeletion.

  16. "The effects of hydrosalpinx on in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer outcomes "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbari Asbagh F

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrosalpins (dilatation of Fallpian tube that can be seen by hysterosalpingogeraphy. Laparoscocpy, and in severe cases by sonography is one of the probable confounding factors of assited – reproduction therapy (ART outcomes. This cohort study is conducted to determine the effects of hydrosalpins on IVF-ET outcomes. For this, of the total number of patients who had approached the infertility Department Mirza Koochak Khan Hospital in the period between ordibehcesht 1377 to Aban 1378 (April 1998 to November 1999, 392 patients had come for the IVF0 ET cysles and were selected for our study. In these patients the numbers of oocytes retrieved and fertilized, the number of embryos transferred to the uterine cavity and resulting clinical pregnancy rates were measured.51 patients who had hydrosalpins were studied in two separate comparisons. Initially with 50 patients who had tubal involvement other hydrosalpinx, but had other indications of IVF-ET. These groups had similar age distribution. The numbers of oocytes retrieved (in first comparison = 1.6 & 3.92 and in second comparison = 4.6 & 4.65 and the number of embryo comparison = 2.6& 2.47 didn’t have significant statistical differences, but despite the fact that the same number of embryos were transferred to the uterine cavity (in the first comparison = 2.53 & 2.14 and in the second comparison= 2.53 & 2.27 , the clinical pregnancy rates in both comparisons were reduced by more than 50% in patients with hydrosaplins as comparison = 7.8% & 20% and in second comparison = 7.8% & 16.1% . we conclude that hydrosalpins didn’t result in impaired ovarian stimulation or decreased oocyte fertilization. It did however interfere with implantation and reduced to some degree the success of IVF in achieving a clinical pregnancy.

  17. Fertility rates and perinatal outcomes of adolescent pregnancies: a retrospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Maria de Lourdes de; Lynn, Fiona Ann; Johnston, Linda; Tavares, Eduardo Cardoso Teixeira; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria; Botelho, Lúcio José

    2017-04-06

    analyze trends in fertility rates and associations with perinatal outcomes for adolescents in Santa Catarina, Brazil. a population-based study covering 2006 to 2013 was carried out to evaluate associations between perinatal outcomes and age groups, using odds ratios, and Chi-squared tests. differences in the fertility rate among female adolescents across regions and time period were observed, ranging from 40.9 to 72.0 per 1,000 in mothers aged 15-19 years. Adolescents had fewer prenatal care appointments than mothers ≥20 years, and a higher proportion had no partner. Mothers aged 15-19 years were more likely to experience preterm birth (OR:1.1; CI:1.08-1.13; pprematuros (OR:1,1; IC:1,08-1,13; pprematuro (OR:1,1; IC:1,08-1,13; p<0,001), bebé con peso bajo al nacer (OR:1,1; IC:1,10-1,15; p<0,001) y puntuación de Apgar baja a los 5 minutes (OR:1,4; IC:1,34-1,45; p<0,001) fue superior para madres entre 15 y 19 años en comparación con madres ≥20 años, con mayores chances de resultados negativos para aquellas entre 10 y 14 años de edad. este estudio evidencia que las tasas de fertilidad entre las adolescentes siguen superiores en regiones de pobreza social y económica. Madres adolescentes y sus bebés tienen mayor probabilidad de efectos perinatales adversos. Enfermeros, trabajadores de salud pública, profesionales de salud y asistencia social y educadores deben colaborar para mejor dirigir estrategias a adolescentes con riesgo superior; para fines de ayudar a reducir las tasas de fertilidad y mejorar los resultados.

  18. Long-term outcomes of fertility-sparing treatment of atypical polypoid adenomyoma with medroxyprogesterone acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Hidetaka; Sugiyama, Yuko; Tanigawa, Terumi; Matoda, Maki; Kanao, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Eiji; Takeshima, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to analyze the long-term oncologic outcomes of fertility-preserving hormonal treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in patients with APA. In a retrospective chart review, we identified patients with APA who were treated with MPA for fertility preservation at our hospital between 2001 and 2011. Eighteen patients with histologically diagnosed APA were identified. Clinical data including treatment, obstetrical, and oncologic outcomes were recorded. The mean observation period was 77.6 months (median 73.5, range 22-142), and the mean age was 33.6 years. Four patients also developed well-differentiated endometrial carcinoma. After the treatment, 14 patients (77.8 %) achieved either a complete response or partial response. Eight patients experienced recurrence, while four experienced persistent disease. Ten patients (55.6 %) eventually underwent hysterectomy. The median time to hysterectomy was 40.3 months (range 24-68). Nine patients progressed to endometrial cancer, and one experienced persistent APA. Among younger patients (<35 years of age), four out of five patients who were married could have children. Seven patients (38.9 %) showed no evidence of the disease during the observation period (median 60 months, range 22-117 months). No one died because of the disease during the observation period. MPA yields a high response rate in APA, and if only younger patients are considered, a favorable pregnancy rate can be obtained. However, because recurrence rate is high, long-term follow-up under supervision of a trained gynecologic oncologist is required. To confirm MPA's utility, multi-center collaboration would be warranted.

  19. Paternal Urinary Concentrations of Parabens and Other Phenols in Relation to Reproductive Outcomes among Couples from a Fertility Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Laura E.; Williams, Paige L.; Williams, Michelle A.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Toth, Thomas L.; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human exposure to phenols, including bisphenol A and parabens, is widespread. Evidence suggests that paternal exposure to environmental chemicals may adversely affect reproductive outcomes. Objectives We evaluated associations of paternal phenol urinary concentrations with fertilization rate, embryo quality, implantation, and live birth. Methods Male–female couples who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) and/or intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles in a prospective study of environmental determinants of fertility and pregnancy outcomes were included. The geometric mean of males’ specific gravity–adjusted urinary phenol concentrations measured before females’ cycle was quantified. Associations between male urinary phenol concentrations and fertilization rate, embryo quality, implantation, and live birth were investigated using generalized linear mixed models to account for multiple cycles per couple. Results Couples (n = 218) underwent 195 IUI and 211 IVF cycles. Paternal phenol concentrations were not associated with fertilization or live birth following IVF. In adjusted models, compared with the lowest quartile of methyl paraben, paternal concentrations in the second quartile were associated with decreased odds of live birth following IUI (adjusted odds ratio = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.82). Conclusions To our knowledge, these are some of the first data on the association of paternal urinary phenol concentrations with reproduction and pregnancy outcomes. Although these results do not preclude possible adverse effects of paternal paraben exposures on such outcomes, given the modest sample size, further understanding could result from confirmation using a larger and more diverse population. Citation Dodge LE, Williams PL, Williams MA, Missmer SA, Toth TL, Calafat AM, Hauser R. 2015. Paternal urinary concentrations of parabens and other phenols in relation to reproductive outcomes among couples from a fertility clinic. Environ Health Perspect 123

  20. Encapsulated Urea-Kaolinite Nanocomposite for Controlled Release Fertilizer Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siafu Ibahati Sempeho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urea controlled release fertilizer (CRF was prepared via kaolinite intercalation followed by gum arabic encapsulation in an attempt to reduce its severe losses associated with dissolution, hydrolysis, and diffusion. Following the beneficiation, the nonkaolinite fraction decreased from 39.58% to 0.36% whereas the kaolinite fraction increased from 60.42% to 99.64%. The X-ray diffractions showed that kaolinite was a major phase with FCC Bravais crystal lattice with particle sizes ranging between 14.6 nm and 92.5 nm. The particle size varied with intercalation ratios with methanol intercalated kaolinite > DMSO-kaolinite > urea-kaolinite (KPDMU. Following intercalation, SEM analysis revealed a change of order from thick compact overlapping euhedral pseudohexagonal platelets to irregular booklets which later transformed to vermiform morphology and dispersed euhedral pseudohexagonal platelets. Besides, dispersed euhedral pseudohexagonal platelets were seen to coexist with blocky-vermicular booklets. In addition, a unique brain-form agglomeration which transformed into roundish particles mart was observed after encapsulation. The nanocomposites decomposed between 48 and 600°C. Release profiles showed that 100% of urea was released in 97 hours from KPDMU while 87% was released in 150 hours from the encapsulated nanocomposite. The findings established that it is possible to use Pugu kaolinite and gum arabic biopolymer to prepare urea CRF formulations.

  1. Effects of Control Release Fertilizers on Nutrient Leaching, Palm Growth and Production Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Pushpa Soti; Angie Fleurissaint; Stewart Reed; Krish Jayachandran

    2015-01-01

    Objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different controlled release fertilizer technologies on nutrient leaching and plant growth parameters of two palm species, Chinese Fan (Livistona chinensis) and Queen (Syagrus romanzoffiana). We compared Nutri-Pak (12-4-12 controlled release packet) and Harrell’s (12-4-12 controlled release polymer coated urea) against Atlantic (8-4-12 controlled release polymer coated urea, coated sulfate of potash), the most commonly used palm fertilize...

  2. Reducing Runoff Loss of Applied Nutrients in Oil Palm Cultivation Using Controlled-Release Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled-release fertilizers are expected to minimize nutrient loss from crop fields due to their potential to supply plant-available nutrients in synchrony with crop requirements. The evaluation of the efficiency of these fertilizers in tropical oil palm agroecological conditions is not yet fully explored. In this study, a one-year field trial was conducted to determine the impact of fertilization with water soluble conventional mixture and controlled-release fertilizers on runoff loss of nutrients from an immature oil palm field. Soil and nutrient loss were monitored for one year in 2012/2013 under erosion plots of 16 m2 on 10% slope gradient. Mean sediments concentration in runoff amounted to about 6.41 t ha−1. Conventional mixture fertilizer posed the greatest risk of nutrient loss in runoff following fertilization due to elevated nitrogen (6.97%, potassium (13.37%, and magnesium (14.76% as percentage of applied nutrients. In contrast, this risk decreased with the application of controlled-release fertilizers, representing 0.75–2.44% N, 3.55–5.09% K, and 4.35–5.43% Mg loss. Meanwhile, nutrient loss via eroded sediments was minimal compared with loss through runoff. This research demonstrates that the addition of controlled-release fertilizers reduced the runoff risks of nutrient loss possibly due to their slow-release properties.

  3. The Supply of Birth Control Methods, Education, and Fertility: Evidence from Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Eleches, Cristian

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the supply of birth control methods on fertility behavior by examining Romania's 23-year period of pronatalist policies. Following the lifting of the restrictions in 1989 the immediate decrease in fertility was 30 percent. Women who spent most of their reproductive years under the restrictive regime…

  4. The Supply of Birth Control Methods, Education, and Fertility: Evidence from Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Eleches, Cristian

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the supply of birth control methods on fertility behavior by examining Romania's 23-year period of pronatalist policies. Following the lifting of the restrictions in 1989 the immediate decrease in fertility was 30 percent. Women who spent most of their reproductive years under the restrictive regime…

  5. Outcome of singleton pregnancy following in-vitro fertilization: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is observed that any spontaneous pregnancy does not always result in healthy baby and healthy mother. The aim of the study was to study the obstetrical outcome of singleton pregnancies following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET. Methods: All cases undergoing IVF-ET at ART Centre were followed up after Day18 (of ET for estimation of serum beta HCG and trans-vaginal ultrasound done on day 21 and 5th week. The selected singleton pregnancies were followed for the various parameters to be studied and the data was statistically analyzed. A resultant 73 patients with single intrauterine gestational sac was followed up. Results: In our study population of 73 post IVF-ET singleton pregnancies, 13.69% underwent first and second trimester abortions. They had increased risk of developing hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Study also showed increased incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus. Yet another important outcome also included pregnancy with intrauterine growth restriction. Preterm birth was noted in 10 singleton pregnancies. Out of 73 followed up patients one third underwent caesarean delivery and another few underwent instrumental delivery. One in four babies accounted for weight more than 2.5 kgs. Out of followed up 73 cases of singleton IVF-ET pregnancies, 5 cases had congenital anomalies. Most common indication for NICU admission was respiratory distress. The incidence of small for gestational age came out to be significant. Conclusions: Outcome of singleton pregnancy after IVF-ET is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Couples should be made aware that even singleton pregnancies resulting from ART are at increased risk for obstetric complications.

  6. The long-term outcome of 946 consecutive couples visiting a fertility clinic in 2001-2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donckers, Janneke; Evers, Johannes L. H.; Land, Jolande A.

    Objective: To describe the outcome of fertility work-up, treatment, and dropout in a cohort of subfertile couples in a well-defined area in Western Europe. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Maastricht University Medical Center. Patient(s): Subfertile couples referred by their general

  7. A Preliminary Study on Natural Matrix Materials for Controlled Release Nitrogen Fertilizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Chang-Wen; ZHOU Jian-Min; WANG Huo-Yan; LI Shou-Tian

    2004-01-01

    A controlled release N fertilizer was developed by the carrier method using natural polysaccharides (PS)and urea. The results showed that mixing of PS and urea led to significant control of urea release. When a cross-linker (boric acid or glutaraldehyde) was added, a better control effect was observed. During a 30 min leaching time the nitrogen release rate from the controlled release fertilizer was nearly constant, which was significantly different from normal urea. One of the controlled release mechanisms was related to space resistance from a large molecular structure. Infrared (IR) analysis indicated that interaction of PS with urea was through a hydrogen bond or a covalent bond. These bonds created an α-helix or high molecular network fertilizer carrier system, which was another reason for a controlled nutrient release. Pot experiment showed that nitrogen use efficiency could increase significantly with a carrier fertilizer.

  8. The correlation between endometrial thickness and outcome of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Rejjal Rafat

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the relationship between endometrial thickness on day of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration (hCG and pregnancy outcome in a large number of consecutive in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET cycles. Methods A retrospective cohort study including all patients who had IVF-ET from January 2003–December 2005 conducted at a tertiary center. Results A total of 2464 cycles were analysed. Pregnancy rate (PR was 35.8%. PR increased linearly (r = 0.864 from 29.4% among patients with a lining of less than or equal to 6 mm, to 44.4% among patients with a lining of greater than or equal to 17 mm. ROC showed that endometrial thickness is not a good predictor of PR, so a definite cut-off value could not be established (AUC = 0.55. Conclusion There is a positive linear relationship between the endometrial thickness measured on the day of hCG injection and PR, and is independent of other variables. Hence aiming for a thicker endometrium should be considered.

  9. Effects of Controlled Release Fertilizer on the Flag Leaves Senescence in Dry-land Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Dandan Liu; Yan Shi

    2013-01-01

    In order to select a reasonable controlled release fertilizer application method to slow down the senescence of flag leaf in dry-land wheat. The effects of controlled release fertilizer on soluble protein content, MDA content, the Catalase (CAT) activity, the Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity on the flag leaves senescence in dry-land wheat had been studied in the open field with the variety wheat Jimai22. The results indicated that, the combination application of controlled release fertiliz...

  10. Effects of Controlled Release Fertilizer on the Flag Leaves Senescence in Dry-land Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Dandan Liu; Yan Shi

    2013-01-01

    In order to select a reasonable controlled release fertilizer application method to slow down the senescence of flag leaf in dry-land wheat. The effects of controlled release fertilizer on soluble protein content, MDA content, the Catalase (CAT) activity, the Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity on the flag leaves senescence in dry-land wheat had been studied in the open field with the variety wheat Jimai22. The results indicated that, the combination application of controlled release fertiliz...

  11. [Bakri balloon tamponade for severe post-partum haemorrhage: efficiency and fertility outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alouini, S; Bedouet, L; Ramos, A; Ceccaldi, C; Evrard, M L; Khadre, K

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate efficiency of Bakri balloon tamponade (BB) to stop severe post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) and fertility outcomes. Retrospective study including all patients who underwent Bakri balloon tamponade for severe PPH between January 2009 and December 2013. The objectives were to stop PPH by BB and to evaluate the fertility after Bakri balloon tamponade. Sixty-one women had a Bakri balloon inserted in utero for severe PPH. The PPH was stopped in 55 patients out of 61 (88%). The reasons of severe PPH were uterine atony in 44 cases (72%), placental retention in 10 cases, placenta praevia in 3 cases, and cervical or vaginal tears in 4 cases. In one third of cases, the pregnancy was complicated by diabetes, placenta praevia, hypertensive troubles. A cesarean section or an instrumental delivery was performed for one third of patients. The mean duration of the Bakri balloon insertion was of 7 hours [5-9] and the mean filling of the balloon was of 350 ml [205-450]. The mean blood loss was of 1600 [1200-2250]. Sixty-three percent of patients (n=38) received red blood cells transfusion. The BB was efficient after a vaginal delivery or after a caesarean section and in all cases of placenta praevia. In 6 cases, the BB was inefficient and uterine embolisation or a surgical procedure was performed to stop PPH. Nine women underwent a new pregnancy after the insertion of Bakri balloon for severe PPH and 3 delivered healthy newborns. Bakri balloon tamponade is a minimally invasive intrauterine device efficient to stop severe post-partum haemorrhage. New pregnancies and deliveries are possible after tamponade by Bakri balloon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. CONTROL OF SOME PATHOGENS BY USING SPECIAL FOLIAR FERTILIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I OROIAN

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work points out to the interdisciplinary experimental results, obtained in the experimental fields of the Plant Protection and Soil Science Department, as well as at data which stress upon the interdependency between the satisfaction of the trophically needs of the wheat plants and the aggressiveness of the pathogens which cause the disease. The experimental results underline the fact that the attack level expressed through intensity and attack degree is different, both with the “out of root” fertilized variants and with the soil fertilization variants. The conclusions which come off the study of the obtained data point out at the fact that the fertilizer application, no matter the method, determines the growth or the regress of the attack degree. They also have an influence upon the Puccinia striformis f.sp. tritici, Blumeria graminis and, Septoria spp. fungus manifestation.

  13. [Fertility pattern of contemporary peasant and population control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z

    1991-04-01

    The fertility decline among people in rural areas of China where 80% of the country's population reside is the key issue in the solution of population problems in China. But the current fertility in rural areas is far above the level of government population policy requirement. Field studies and newspaper reports in some rural provinces in 1989 suggested that the prevalent family pattern among farmers is 2 sons and 1 daughter. In order to have at least 1 son, some rural families would keep having children even if they have to pay fines. The fertility aspiration of rural families could be attributed to numerous factors. The Chinese culture believes in sons to carry on family lineage. Children, especially sons, are means of old age support to rural farmers. Rural children start to contribute to family income or family welfare from a young age whereas the cost of raising children is relatively low. And the flow of wealth is generally considered in favor of parents. Because level of child mortality is still high in rural areas, farmers would want to have more children to ensure that enough survive to adulthood. Contraception failure is another cause of excessive fertility. Women who become accidentally pregnant when contraceptive methods are used would find it an excuse to have the child. The implication of contraceptive failure to fertility should not be ignored. It was estimated that with 85-90% contraceptive effectiveness, a women would have 1.2-2.4 accidental pregnancies in her life time. The difference in the acceptance of the current government population policy between urban and rural areas suggests that it is important to produce political, economic, and cultural changes which subsequently induce changes in fertility. Development of an education system and introduction of means of old age support in rural areas would be the necessary steps to achieve this goal.

  14. [Control of fertilization by self-incompatibility mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fobis-Loisy, Isabelle; Gaude, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Flowering plants (angiosperms) are the most prevalent and evolutionarily advanced group of plants. Reproductive strategies that promote cross-fertilization have played an essential role in the success of angiosperms as they contribute to genetic variability among plant species. A major genetic barrier to self-fertilization is self-incompatibility (SI), which allows female reproductive cells to discriminate between self- and non-self pollen and specifically reject self-pollen. In this review, we describe three SI mechanisms showing that different flowering plant families use distinct molecules for recognition of self as well as diverse biochemical pathways to arrest pollen tube growth.

  15. Ecological feedbacks can reduce population-level efficacy of wildlife fertility control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason I.; Powers, Jenny G.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Baker, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    1. Anthropogenic stress on natural systems, particularly the fragmentation of landscapes and the extirpation of predators from food webs, has intensified the need to regulate abundance of wildlife populations with management. Controlling population growth using fertility control has been considered for almost four decades, but nearly all research has focused on understanding effects of fertility control agents on individual animals. Questions about the efficacy of fertility control as a way to control populations remain largely unanswered. 2. Collateral consequences of contraception can produce unexpected changes in birth rates, survival, immigration and emigration that may reduce the effectiveness of regulating animal abundance. The magnitude and frequency of such effects vary with species-specific social and reproductive systems, as well as connectivity of populations. Developing models that incorporate static demographic parameters from populations not controlled by contraception may bias predictions of fertility control efficacy. 3. Many population-level studies demonstrate that changes in survival and immigration induced by fertility control can compensate for the reduction in births caused by contraception. The most successful cases of regulating populations using fertility control come from applications of contraceptives to small, closed populations of gregarious and easily accessed species. 4. Fertility control can result in artificial selection pressures on the population and may lead to long-term unintentional genetic consequences. The magnitude of such selection is dependent on individual heritability and behavioural traits, as well as environmental variation. 5. Synthesis and applications. Understanding species' life-history strategies, biology, behavioural ecology and ecological context is critical to developing realistic expectations of regulating populations using fertility control. Before time, effort and funding are invested in wildlife

  16. [Effects of slow/controlled release fertilizers on the growth and nutrient use efficiency of pepper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shuan-Hu; Zhang, Fa-Bao; Huang, Xu; Chen, Jian-Sheng; Xu, Pei-Zhi

    2008-05-01

    Pot trails were conducted from 2003 to 2005 to study the effects of slow/controlled release fertilizers on the growth and nutrient use efficiency of pepper. The results indicated that in comparison with conventional splitting fertilization (T1), basal application of polymer-coated controlled release fertilizer (T2) enhanced the single fruit mass and vitamin C concentration, improved the root activity, and increased the fruit yield by 8.4%, but no significant effect was observed on the dissoluble sugar concentration in fruit. NH4MgPO4-coated controlled release fertilizer (T3) increased the dissoluble sugar concentration by 5.67%, but had less effect on single fruit mass and vitamin C concentration. Under the application of T3, the root system had a vigorous growth at early stages but became infirm at later stages, resulting in a lower yield. Comparing with T1, the application of 3 slow release fertilizers increased the dissoluble sugar concentration in fruit, enhanced the root activity, but had less effect on the yield. All test slow/controlled release fertilizers increased the use efficiency of N, P, and K significantly, with an exception for T2 which increased the use efficiency of N and K but decreased that of P. It was demonstrated that an appropriate application of slow/controlled release fertilizers could enhance pepper' s root activity and improve nutrient use efficiency.

  17. Association of basal serum testosterone levels with ovarian response and in vitro fertilization outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate basal testosterone (T levels during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as a predictor for ovarian response and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome. Method We analyzed data retrospectively from hospital-based IVF center including one thousand two hundred and sixty Chinese Han women under their first IVF cycle reached the ovum pick-up stage, without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or endometriosis undergoing long IVF protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1: patients with diminished ovarian reserve (basal FSH >10 IU/L (n = 187; Group 2: patients with normal ovarian reserve (basal FSH Results Basal T levels were markly different between pregnant and non-pregnant women in Group 1; whereas not in Group 2. A testosterone level of 47.85 ng/dl was shown to predict pregnancy outcome with a sensitivity of 52.8% and specificity of 65.3%; and the basal T was correlated with the numbers of large follicles (> 14 mm on HCG day in Group 1. Significantly negative correlations were observed between basal T, days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins after adjusting for confounding factors in both groups. Conclusion In women with diminished ovarian reserve, basal T level was a predictor for the number of large follicles on HCG day and pregnancy outcome; but could not in those with normal serum FSH. Basal T levels were associated with both days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins, indicating that lower level of T might relate with potential ovarian poor response.

  18. A study of the effect of the FertilMate™ scrotum cooling patch on male fertility. SCOP trial (scrotal cooling patch - study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male infertility is a significant contributor to the need for fertility treatment. Treatment currently involves correcting any identifiable adverse lifestyle factors in men with suboptimal sperm parameters, and if these measures are unsuccessful, assisted conception is offered, which can be quite expensive. Raised scrotal temperature is one of the least studied but easily corrected risk factors for male infertility. In a recent review of the literature, sperm count, motility and morphology improved with scrotal cooling devices. The devices used to achieve testicular cooling were, however, not practical for day-to-day use. A potentially more practical device for scrotal cooling has recently been developed. The Babystart® FertilMate™ Scrotum Cooling Patch is a hydrogel pad which allows for comfortable application. The aims of this study were to investigate whether exposing the scrotum to lower temperatures by means of these new patches could improve semen parameters, thereby improving fertility, and to assess the feasibility of a clinical trial. Methods/design This is a randomised controlled trial set in a university teaching hospital in the United Kingdom. The proposed sample size was 40 men with mild, moderate or severe oligoasthenospermia, of whom 20 would be randomised to wearing the scrotum cooling patch for 90 days and 20 men would be acting as controls and not wearing the patches. The primary outcome measure was the change in sperm concentration. Secondary outcome measures included the change in sperm volume, motility and morphology; endocrine parameters; metabolomic biomarkers; testicular volume and blood flow. Reasons for dropping out and non-compliance were also going to be noted and reported. Discussion The study started recruiting in October 2011 and as of November 2011 four men had been consented and were participating in the study. No operational challenges had been encountered at the time of the submission

  19. Pilot study on molecular quantitation and sequencing of endometrial cytokines gene expression and their effect on the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sabry

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human trophoblast invasion and differentiation are essential for successful pregnancy outcome. The molecular mechanisms, however, are poorly understood. Interleukin (IL-11, a cytokine, regulates endometrial epithelial cell adhesion. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF is one of the key cytokines in the embryo implantation regulation. The present study aimed to assess the levels of LIF, IL-11, and IL-11 α receptor gene expression in the endometrium of women undergoing IVF and correlate their levels with the IVF pregnancy outcome. Also, the study aimed to detect any mutation in these three genes among IVF pregnant and non-pregnant women versus control menstrual blood of fertile women. Endometrial tissue biopsies were taken from 15 women undergoing IVF on the day of oocyte retrieval. The quantitative expression of IL-11, IL-11Rα, and LIF genes was assessed by real-time PCR and PCR products were sequenced. Menstrual blood from 10 fertile women was used as control to compare the DNA sequence versus DNA sequence of the studied genes in endometrial biopsies. LH, FSH, and E2 were assessed for enrolled patients by ELISA. Endometrial thickness was also assessed by pelvic ultrasonography. No significant difference was detected between quantitative expression of the three studied genes and pregnancy IVF outcome. Although DNA sequence changes were found in IL-11 and LIF genes of women with negative pregnancy IVF outcome compared to women with positive pregnancy IVF outcome, no DNA sequence changes were detected for IL-11Rα. Other studied parameters (e.g., age, LH, FSH, E2, and endometrial thickness showed no significant differences or correlation of quantitative expression of the three studied involved genes. Data suggested that there were no significant differences between quantitative expression of IL-11, IL-11Rα, and LIF genes and the IVF pregnancy outcome. The present study may reveal that changes in IL-11 and LIF genes sequence may contribute in

  20. The development of a phosphite-mediated fertilization and weed control system for rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Mrinalini; Achary, V. Mohan M.; Islam, Tahmina; Agrawal, Pawan K.; Reddy, Malireddy K.

    2016-01-01

    Fertilizers and herbicides are two vital components of modern agriculture. The imminent danger of phosphate reserve depletion and multiple herbicide tolerance casts doubt on agricultural sustainability in the future. Phosphite, a reduced form of phosphorus, has been proposed as an alternative fertilizer and herbicide that would address the above problems to a considerable extent. To assess the suitability of a phosphite-based fertilization and weed control system for rice, we engineered rice plants with a codon-optimized ptxD gene from Pseudomonas stutzeri. Ectopic expression of this gene led to improved root growth, physiology and overall phenotype in addition to normal yield in transgenic plants in the presence of phosphite. Phosphite functioned as a translocative, non-selective, pre- and post-emergent herbicide. Phosphite use as a dual fertilizer and herbicide may mitigate the overuse of phosphorus fertilizers and reduce eutrophication and the development of herbicide resistance, which in turn will improve the sustainability of agriculture. PMID:27109389

  1. Random-start GnRH antagonist for emergency fertility preservation: a self-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Checa MA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Miguel A Checa,1,2 Mario Brassesco,2 Margalida Sastre,1 Manuel Gómez,2 Julio Herrero,3 Laura Marque,3 Arturo Brassesco,2 Juan José Espinós3 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Parc de Salut Mar, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 2Centro de Infertilidad y Reproducción Humana (CIRH, 3Centro de Reproducción Asistida Sagrada Familia, Clínica Sagrada Familia, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and safety of random-start controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH for emergency fertility preservation, regardless of the phase of the menstrual cycle. A self-controlled pilot clinical trial (NCT01385332 was performed in an acute-care teaching hospital and in two private reproductive centers in Barcelona, Spain. Eleven egg donors participated in the study. Two random-start gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist protocols were assessed in which ganirelix was initiated on either day 10 (protocol B or on day 20 (protocol C of the menstrual cycle and was continued until estradiol levels were below 60 pg/dL. These protocols were compared with a standard protocol (protocol A. The main outcome of interest was the number of metaphase 2 oocytes retrieved. Results from this study show that the number of mature oocytes retrieved was comparable across the different protocols (14.3±4.6 in the standard protocol versus 13.0±9.1 and 13.2±5.2 in protocols B and C, respectively; values expressed as mean ± standard deviation. The mean number of days needed for a GnRH antagonist to lower estradiol levels, as well as the ongoing pregnancy rates, were also similar when protocols B (stimulation in follicular phase and C (stimulation on luteal phase were compared with protocol A (standard stimulation. GnRH antagonists can be effectively used for random-start controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with an ovarian response similar to that of standard protocols, and the antagonists appear suitable for emergency

  2. Spontaneous fertility and pregnancy outcomes amongst 480 women with Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Valérie; Donadille, Bruno; Zenaty, Delphine; Courtillot, Carine; Salenave, Sylvie; Brac de la Perrière, Aude; Albarel, Frédérique; Fèvre, Anne; Kerlan, Véronique; Brue, Thierry; Delemer, Brigitte; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Carel, Jean-Claude; Chanson, Philippe; Léger, Juliane; Touraine, Philippe; Christin-Maitre, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    were observed. The median birthweight was 3030 g (range 2020-3460). Two cases of TS were identified in the 17 daughters issued from this cohort. It would have been interesting to evaluate AMH levels and SP occurrence, as a predictive factor. Unfortunately, hormonal measurements were missing for some patients. Prospective studies are necessary to display prognostic values of AMH for SP and thus better target fertility preservation programmes in TS patients. This study suggests that pregnancy outcomes in SPs are more favourable than those after oocyte donation in TS patients. However, the risk of fetal chromosomal abnormalities remains high. Our study will be useful in order to give patients with TS, their families, paediatricians and physicians involved in reproduction, better counselling concerning their fertility. Funding was provided by the Association pour la recherche Claude Bernard, Paris France All authors claim no competing interests. NA. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Decreased Sperm Motility Retarded ICSI Fertilization Rate in Severe Oligozoospermia but Good-Quality Embryo Transfer Had Achieved the Prospective Clinical Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jufeng; Lu, Yongning; Qu, Xianqin; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Luiwen; Gao, Minzhi; Shi, Huijuan; Jin, Xingliang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Spermatozoa motility is the critical parameter to affect the treatment outcomes during assisted reproductive technologies (ART), but its reproductive capability remains a little informed in condition of severe male factor infertility. This retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the effects of reduced sperm motility on the embryological and clinical outcomes in intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment of severe oligozoospermia. Patients and Methods 966 cycles (812 couples) of severe oligozoospermia diagnosed by spermatozoa count ≤ 5 × 106/mL and motile spermatozoa ≤ 2 × 106/mL were divided into four groups in according to the number of motile spermatozoa in one ejaculate on the day of oocyte retrieval (Group B—E). The control (Group A) was 188 cycles of moderate oligozoospermia with spermatozoa count > 5 × 106/mL and motile spermatozoa > 2 × 106/mL. All female partners were younger than 35 years of age. Logistic regression analyzed embryological outcomes (the rates of fertilization, cleavage and good-quality embryo) and clinical outcomes (the rates of pregnancy, implantation, early miscarriage and live birth). Quality of embryo transfer (ET) was divided into three classes as continuous factor to test the effects of embryo quality on clinical outcomes. Results The reduction in the number of motile sperm in four groups of severe oligozoospermia gave rise to comparable inability of the fertilization (p < 0.001) and a decreased rate of good-quality embryo at Day 3 (p < 0.001) by compared to the control. The cleavage rate of the derived zygotes was similar to the control. ET classes significantly affected the clinical outcomes (p < 0.001). Class I ET gave rise to similar rates of clinical outcomes between five groups, but Class II and Class III ET retarded the rates of pregnancy, implantation and live birth and this particularly occurred in Group C, D and E. The rate of early miscarriage was not comparably different between groups

  4. Relationship between lower number of oocytes retrieved and clinical outcomes of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xue-mei; Jiang Hong; Zhang Wen-xiang; Wei Zhao-lian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical outcomes of the infertile women with retrieved oocytes less than or equal to 5 undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).Methods: The clinical data of 216 embryo transfer cycles with retrieved oocytes less than or equal to 5 during the procedure of IVF/ICSI in Reproductive Medicine Center of the 105th Hospital of PLA from Jul.2008 to Dec.2011 were analyze retrospectively.All the patients were divided into group A (< 35 years),group B (35-39 years) and group C (≥40 years) according to the ages,and 409 IVF/ICSI cycles with patients’ age less than 35 years old and 6-15 retrieved oocytes in the same period were served as controlled group.Then the patients ≥ 35 years were subdivided into gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) long protocol group,GnRH-a short group and GnRH antagonist group according to the protocols of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH).The clinical date and the outcomes were analyzed and compared among all groups.Results: There were significantly differences in clinical pregnancy rate (38.3 % vs.19.4 %) and early abortion rate (16.1% vs.50.0%) between group A and group C (P<0.05),and there were no significant differences in clinical pregnancy rate(38.3% vs.41.6%)and early abortion rate (16.1% vs.10.0%) between group A and control group (P>0.05).There were no significant differences in clinical pregnancy rates (29.01% vs.26.1% vs.25.9%)and early abortion rates (33.3% vs.33.3% vs.40.0%) among GnRH-a long protocol group,GnRH-a short group and GnRH antagonist group (P>0.05).Conclusions: Relatively satisfactory clinical outcomes of IVF/ICSI would still be got for the patients <35 years with retrieved oocytes less than or equal to 5,but whatever COH protocols such as GnRH-a long protocol,GnRH-a short and GnRH antagonist could not improve the outcomes of IVF/ICSI for the patients aged ≥35 with retrieved

  5. Controlled-release NPK fertilizer encapsulated by polymeric membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosiewicz, Anna; Tomaszewska, Maria

    2003-01-15

    The commercial granular fertilizer NPK6-20-30 was coated using polysulfone (PSF), polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and cellulose acetate (CA). The coatings were formed from the polymer solutions by the phase inversion technique. Measurements of the thickness and porosity of the prepared coatings and a microphotographic observation of the coatings were performed. The physical properties of the coatings influence the release rate of macronutrients which are present in the core of the coated fertilizer. In the case of PAN coating with 60.45% porosity, prepared from a 16% polymer solution, 100% of NH(4)(+) and P(2)O(5) was released after 4 h of test and 99.7% of K(+) after 5 h of test, whereas in the case of coating with 48.8% porosity, 31.8% of NH(4)(+), 16.7% of P(2)O(5), and 11.6% of K(+) was released after 5 h. In all experiments, different selectivities of the coatings in terms of the release of components were observed. The release of potassium through the coatings made of PSF and PAN was the slowest. The same tendency was observed for the release of nitrogen through a coating of CA. The release of fertilizer active components was the slowest in the case of PSF. The lowest porosity coating was prepared from the 18% PSF solution.

  6. Hit or Miss: Fertilization Outcomes of Natural Inseminations by Japanese Quail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Adkins-Regan

    Full Text Available Variation in fertilization success underlies sexual selection, yet mating does not guarantee fertilization. The relationship between natural inseminations and fertilization success is essential for understanding sexual selection, yet that relationship and its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood in sperm-storing vertebrates such as birds. Here the relationship is analyzed in mating trials using Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, which show striking variation in the fertilizing success of inseminations. Failures of males' inseminations to fertilize eggs were mainly due to failures prior to sperm-egg contact. Fertilization probabilities on any given day were unrelated to whether the female had laid an egg the previous day, arguing against stimulation of sperm release from sperm storage tubules by the events of the daily egg-laying cycle. Instead, an unfertilized egg laid between two fertilized eggs predicted a longer sperm storage interval. Both sexes gained similar numbers of fertilized eggs by mating with a second partner the next day, but males, unlike females in a previous study, did not gain by having two females to mate with at the same time. Instead, they were both behaviorally and sperm limited, whereas females gain by mating twice in quick succession. Even double inseminations often failed to fertilize any eggs, and multiple matings would be needed for an entire clutch to be fertilized with high certainty. Paradoxically, this low and probabilistic fertilization success co-occurs with other notable characteristics of male quail suggestive of past sexual selection for increased success, including vigorous copulatory behavior, forced copulations, foamy secretion aiding in sperm competition, large testes and unusual sperm morphology.

  7. Hit or Miss: Fertilization Outcomes of Natural Inseminations by Japanese Quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Variation in fertilization success underlies sexual selection, yet mating does not guarantee fertilization. The relationship between natural inseminations and fertilization success is essential for understanding sexual selection, yet that relationship and its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood in sperm-storing vertebrates such as birds. Here the relationship is analyzed in mating trials using Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), which show striking variation in the fertilizing success of inseminations. Failures of males’ inseminations to fertilize eggs were mainly due to failures prior to sperm-egg contact. Fertilization probabilities on any given day were unrelated to whether the female had laid an egg the previous day, arguing against stimulation of sperm release from sperm storage tubules by the events of the daily egg-laying cycle. Instead, an unfertilized egg laid between two fertilized eggs predicted a longer sperm storage interval. Both sexes gained similar numbers of fertilized eggs by mating with a second partner the next day, but males, unlike females in a previous study, did not gain by having two females to mate with at the same time. Instead, they were both behaviorally and sperm limited, whereas females gain by mating twice in quick succession. Even double inseminations often failed to fertilize any eggs, and multiple matings would be needed for an entire clutch to be fertilized with high certainty. Paradoxically, this low and probabilistic fertilization success co-occurs with other notable characteristics of male quail suggestive of past sexual selection for increased success, including vigorous copulatory behavior, forced copulations, foamy secretion aiding in sperm competition, large testes and unusual sperm morphology. PMID:26222780

  8. Optimal control for predicting customized drug dosage for superovulation stage of in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenkie, Kirti M; Diwekar, Urmila

    2014-08-21

    in vitro fertilization (IVF) is one of the most highly pursued assisted reproductive technologies (ART) worldwide. IVF procedure is divided into four stages: Superovulation, Egg-retrieval, Insemination/Fertilization and Embryo transfer. Among these superovulation is the most crucial stage since it involves external injection of hormones to stimulate development and maturation of multiple follicles or oocytes. Although numerous advancements have been made in IVF procedures, little attention has been given to modifying the existing protocols based on a 'patient specific' predictive model. A model for follicle growth and number change as a function of the injected hormones and patient characteristics has been developed and validated for data available on 50 superovulation cycles. The model has 9 patient specific parameters which can be determined from the initial 2 days of observation and can help in projecting the superovulation outcome for the ongoing cycle. Based on this model, the dosage of the hormones to stimulate multiple ovulation or follicle growth is predicted by using the theory of optimal control. The objective of successful superovulation is to obtain maximum number of mature oocytes/follicles within a particular size range. Using the mathematical model of follicle growth dynamics and optimal control theory, optimal dose and frequency of medication customized for each patient (n=5) is predicted for obtaining the desired result. The results indicate a better final day follicle size distribution when the dosage of the hormones is varied by some amounts as compared to the actual dosage given to the patient in the existing cycles. This ensures a better success rate for the superovulation cycles and reduces the costs of excess medication and daily monitoring. The idea is to provide the medical practitioners with a guideline for planned treatment, for a procedure currently based on trial and error in order to get better success rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  9. Measuring patient-centredness, the neglected outcome in fertility care: a random multicentre validation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Empel, I.W.H. van; Aarts, J.W.; Cohlen, B.J.; Huppelschoten, D.; Laven, J.S.E.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-quality fertility care should be effective and safe, but also patient-centred. However, a suitable instrument for measuring patient-centredness is lacking. This study aims to develop and validate an instrument that can reliably measure patient-centredness in fertility care: patient-

  10. Measuring patient-centredness, the neglected outcome in fertility care: A random multicentre validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.W.H. van Empel; J.W.M. Aarts (Johanna); B.J. Cohlen (Ben); D.A. Huppelschoten (Dana); J.S.E. Laven (Joop); W.L.D.M. Nelen (Willianne); J.A.M. Kremer

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: High-quality fertility care should be effective and safe, but also patient-centred. However, a suitable instrument for measuring patient-centredness is lacking. This study aims to develop and validate an instrument that can reliably measure patient-centredness in fertility ca

  11. [Effects of applying controlled-release compound fertilizer on Platycodon grandiflorum growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-xiang; Wang, Jian-hua

    2010-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in 2008 to study the effects of applying controlled-release compound fertilizer (N:P2O5:K2O = 14:14:14) on the growth of Platycodon grandiflorum in the medicinal herbal farm of Shandong Agricultural University. Comparing with the application of common compound fertilizer (N:P2O5: K2O=15: 15: 15), applying equivalent amount of the controlled-release fertilizer increased the leaf chlorophyll content, root volume, root activity, and root diameter of P. grandiflorum at the late growth stage, but decreased the root length. When the N application rate was 0.24 and 0.32 g x kg(-1) soil, applying the controlled-release compound fertilizer increased the root yield by 26.78% and 22.50%, and the root soluble sugar, protein, and total saponin contents by 9.77% and 6.99%, 11.38% and 2.20%, and 8.85% and 5.47%, respectively, compared with applying the common compound fertilizer. More nitrogen application made the root soluble sugar content decreased but the total saponin content increased. Under our experimental condition, applying the controlled-release compound fertilizer with an application rate of 0.24 g N x kg(-1) soil could obtain the best effect for P. grandiflorum.

  12. Aneuploidy does not explain the difference in outcomes observed between Asian and Caucasian patients undergoingin vitro fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jonathan Kort; David Smotrich; Michelle Gaona; XiaWang; BarryBehr

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To understand whether reduced pregnancy and live birth rates for Asian patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) could be explained by discrepant rates of aneuploid embryos.Methods:A retrospective cohort study of all autologous and donor IVF cycles utilizing pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS) at a single infertility clinic from January 2012 to December 2013.Results:After controlling for maternal age, there was no difference in aneuploidy rates of Caucasian patients compared to Asian patients’. A trend was discerned that embryos of Caucasians form blastocysts more frequently than those of Asian patients, reaching significance for patients aged 25 to 30 and 40 to 45, but there was no difference in the likelihood of having at least one euploid blastocyst to transfer in any age group. Conclusion:While there may be a slight difference in blastocyst formation rates, there is no difference in aneuploidy or euploid blastocyst transfer rates between Asian and Caucasian patients that would explain the discrepancy in IVF outcomes observed between these patient populations. Possible ethnicity specific differences in non-ploidy related embryo viability and endometrial receptivity should be investigated as potential etiologies for this observation.

  13. Ion channels that control fertility in mammalian spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Betsy; Kirichok, Yuriy; Chung, Jean-Ju; Clapham, David E

    2008-01-01

    Whole-cell voltage clamp of mammalian spermatozoa was first achieved in 2006. This technical advance, combined with genetic deletion strategies, makes unambiguous identification of sperm ion channel currents possible. This review summarizes the ion channel currents that have been directly measured in mammalian sperm, and their physiological roles in fertilization. The predominant currents are a Ca2+-selective current requiring expression of the 4 mCatSper genes, and a rectifying K+ current with properties most similar to mSlo3. Intracellular alkalinization activates both channels and induces hyperactivated motility.

  14. Detecting the Evolution of Deliberate Fertility Control before the Demographic Transition in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaksandr Amialchuk

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pervious literature has established the existence of deliberate non-parity-specific fertility control in pre-transitional populations. However, less focus has been given to the timing of its onset. In addition, previous studies focused on the changes in fertility in response to the local prices of grains, which may be endogenous. OBJECTIVE This paper studies the emergence and evolution of deliberate fertility control by investigating the link between child mortality and economic stress on the one hand and non-parity-specific birth control on the other, in historic German villages between 1700 and 1900. METHODS Birth histories from fourteen German villages (1700-1900 and rye price series are used in a micro-level event history analysis. The fertility response of second and higher-order births to the mortality of children over age two and exogenous fluctuations in rye price are used as measures of the extent of deliberate non-parity-specific birth control. RESULTS Over the course of the demographic transition, the effect of the death of children generally increases after controlling for the effect of the death of children less than two years old. The negative fertility response to high rye prices before and in the year immediately following the price change occurred only after 1800. CONCLUSIONS The replacement and insurance effects associated with child mortality generally increased before the demographic transition. The emergence of the negative effect of high rye prices on fertility after 1800 further supports the presence and evolution of deliberate non-parity-specific fertility control before the demographic transition.

  15. Effects of Control Release Fertilizers on Nutrient Leaching, Palm Growth and Production Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa Soti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different controlled release fertilizer technologies on nutrient leaching and plant growth parameters of two palm species, Chinese Fan (Livistona chinensis and Queen (Syagrus romanzoffiana. We compared Nutri-Pak (12-4-12 controlled release packet and Harrell’s (12-4-12 controlled release polymer coated urea against Atlantic (8-4-12 controlled release polymer coated urea, coated sulfate of potash, the most commonly used palm fertilizer in South Florida. Plants were grown in 25 cm (11 L pots under 70% shade, watered weekly, with pest and weed control done as required. Plant growth parameters: number of leaves, leaf length and width, and basal diameter, were measured every two months. Leachate was collected weekly after irrigation and a two-month composite sample was analyzed for nutrient concentrations. There was no difference in the growth parameters among the three fertilizers for Chinese Fan plants. However for Queen, Atlantic and Harrell’s had significantly thicker basal diameter than Nutri-Pak. Significant difference in the concentration of nutrients in the leachate was observed among the fertilizer types. Throughout the study period, Nutri-Pak had a lower concentration of nutrients in the leachate than Atlantic and Harrell’s. Our research indicates that Nutri-Pak control release fertilizer is comparable to other commercial fertilizers in Chinese Fan growth, but the larger Queen palms likely require an additional packet. Nutri-Pak fertilizer resulted in less nutrient leaching and could be a better environmental choice.

  16. Royal Jelly alleviates sperm toxicity and improves in vitro fertilization outcome in Stanozolol-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalizar Jalali, Ali; Najafi, Gholamreza; Hosseinchi, Mohammadreza; Sedighnia, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    Stanozolol (ST) is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid often abused by athletes. An increasing body of evidence points towards the role of ST misuses in the pathogenesis of a wide range of adverse effects including reprotoxicity. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible reproprotective effect of royal jelly (RJ) as an efficient antioxidant in ST-treated mice. Adult male mice were divided into four groups (n=5). Two groups of mice received ST (4.6 mg/kg/day) via gavage for 35 days. RJ was given orally to one of these groups at the dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight per day synchronously. Untreated control group and RJ-only treated group were also included. Epididymal sperm characteristics and in vitro fertilizing capacity were evaluated after 35 days. ST treatment caused a significant (prepro-protective action against ST-induced reproductive toxicity in mice. However, clinical studies are warranted to investigate such an effect in human subjects.

  17. Preparation and characterization of controlled-release fertilizers coated with marine polysaccharide derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Song; Qin, Yukun; Chen, Xiaolin; Xing, Rong'e.; Yu, Huahua; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2017-09-01

    Encapsulation of water-soluble nitrogen fertilizers by membranes can be used to control the release of nutrients to maximize the fertilization effect and reduce environmental pollution. In this research, we formulated a new double-coated controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) by using food-grade microcrystalline wax (MW) and marine polysaccharide derivatives (calcium alginate and chitosan-glutaraldehyde copolymer). The pellets of water-soluble nitrogen fertilizer were coated with the marine polysaccharide derivatives and MW. A convenient and eco-friendly method was used to prepare the CRF. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the morphology and composition of the products. The nitrogen-release properties were determined in water using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The controlled-release properties of the fertilizer were improved dramatically after coating with MW and the marine polysaccharide derivatives. The results show that the double-coated CRFs can release nitrogen in a controlled manner, have excellent controlled-release features, and meet the European Standard for CRFs.

  18. Preparation and characterization of controlled-release fertilizers coated with marine polysaccharide derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Song; Qin, Yukun; Chen, Xiaolin; Xing, Rong'e.; Yu, Huahua; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-10-01

    Encapsulation of water-soluble nitrogen fertilizers by membranes can be used to control the release of nutrients to maximize the fertilization effect and reduce environmental pollution. In this research, we formulated a new double-coated controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) by using food-grade microcrystalline wax (MW) and marine polysaccharide derivatives (calcium alginate and chitosan-glutaraldehyde copolymer). The pellets of water-soluble nitrogen fertilizer were coated with the marine polysaccharide derivatives and MW. A convenient and eco-friendly method was used to prepare the CRF. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the morphology and composition of the products. The nitrogen-release properties were determined in water using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The controlled-release properties of the fertilizer were improved dramatically after coating with MW and the marine polysaccharide derivatives. The results show that the double-coated CRFs can release nitrogen in a controlled manner, have excellent controlled-release features, and meet the European Standard for CRFs.

  19. The changing contexts of fertility outcomes: case studies from a remote village in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Mellissa; Browner, Carole H

    2012-01-01

    In the context of ready access to contraceptives, we sought to determine which individual and socio-cultural factors were most important in the dramatic fertility decline seen in an impoverished rural Balinese community. The study built on a 2002 longitudinal survey of 1528 Balinese reproductive-age married women that four years later found a significant proportion did not meet their expressed fertility aspirations. Four case studies of women whose expressed fertility intentions evolved over the study period are described. Culturally specific contextual factors (notably son preference), in interaction with increasing poverty, helped explained when and why their expressed fertility intentions changed. Moreover, many categorized in the second survey as not having meet their previously reported fertility aspirations were, in fact, intentionally spacing births. Although many women opted for smaller families than they actually wanted, and a decades-long, aggressive, two-child government campaign helped make them socially acceptable, contraception enabled the women to engage in strategic birth planning. We conclude that it is unrealistic to expect women in such settings, or indeed any setting, to give meaningful answers to questions in demographic surveys regarding future fertility aspirations.

  20. Soil fertility controls the size-specific distribution of eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Christian

    2010-05-01

    The large range of body-mass values of soil organisms provides a tool to assess the organization of soil ecological communities. Relationships between log-transformed body mass M and log-transformed numerical abundance N of all eukaryotes occurring under organic pastures, mature grasslands, and seminatural heathlands in the Netherlands were investigated. The observed allometry of (M,N) assemblages of below-ground communities strongly reflects the availability of primary macronutrients and essential micronutrients. This log-linear model describes the continuous variation in the allometric slope of animals and fungi along an increasing soil fertility gradient. The aggregate contribution of small invertebrates (M soil explains 72% of these shifts but the nitrogen concentration explains only 36%, with copper and zinc as intermediate predictors (59% and 49%, respectively). Empirical evidence supports common responses of invertebrates to the rates of resource supply and, possibly, to the above-ground primary production of ecosystems.

  1. Impact of dehydroepiandrosterone on clinical outcome in poor responders: A pilot study in women undergoing in vitro fertilization, using bologna criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Rekha Jirge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA supplementation in women with poor ovarian response (POR undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF. Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Private tertiary fertility clinic. MATERIALS AND Methods: 31 infertile women with POR diagnosed as per the Bologna criteria. Interventions: DHEA supplementation for 2 months and a subsequent IVF cycle, after two previous IVF cycles with POR. Main Outcome Measure(S: Dose and duration of gonadotropin therapy, oocyte yield, embryo number and quality, pregnancy and live birth rate. Results: No difference was seen in gonadotropin requirement before and after DHEA supplementation. There was a significant increase in total and metaphase II oocytes (5.9 ± 0.68 vs. 2.73 ± 0.24; 4.45 ± 0.47 vs. 2.09 ± 0.26, fertilization (3.65 ± 0.49 vs. 2.00 ± 0.27, Grade I embryos (1.52 ± 0.25 vs. 0.55 ± 0.18, pregnancy rate (30% vs. 9.1% and live birth rate (25% vs 0% in those who completed the cycle, following DHEA supplementation. Conclusions: Dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation results in an improvement in oocyte yield, embryo quality, and live birth rate in a group of women with POR having undergone at least two previous failures due to POR.

  2. Substrates and controlled-release fertilizations on the quality of eucalyptus cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson B. G. da Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To produce cuttings with quality, the most appropriate nutritional management strategies should be sought to reduce wastage of fertilizer, while accounting for the characteristics of each substrate. This study evaluated the effect of substrates and doses of controlled-release fertilizer on the quality of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake cuttings. The substrates consisted of several mixtures: vermiculite+carbonized rice chaff+coconut fibre (1:1:1; vermiculite+coconut fibre (1:1; and vermiculite+carbonized rice chaff (1:1. These mixtures were added to 2, 4, 6 and 8 kg of controlled-release fertilizer per cubic meter of substrate. The substrates that do not support root development and have lower water retention, independently of the dose of controlled-release fertilizer, reduce the quality of the root system. For substrates with proper values of water retention, such as vermiculite+coconut fibre (1:1 and vermiculite+carbonised rice chaff+coconut fibre (1:1:1, the utilization of dose 2 kg of controlled-release fertilizer to each cubic meter is enough to promote cuttings with greater quality of the root systems and proper heights and stem diameters.

  3. Application of waterborne acrylic emulsions in coated controlled release fertilizer using reacted layer technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yazhen Shen; Cong Zhao; Jianmin Zhou; Changwen Du

    2015-01-01

    Waterborne acrylic emulsions modified with organic siloxanes and aziridine crosslinker were synthesized and applied as coating of controlled release fertilizer. The free films were characterized and the nutrient release pro-files of the coated fertilizers were determined. The results show that methyl silicone oil and methylsilanolate so-dium could not improve water resistance performance and glass transition temperature Tg of coatings, while the firmness is enhanced. Aziridine crosslinker improves the water resistance performance, firmness and Tg. Incorpo-ration of methyl silicone oil and aziridine crosslinker gives an excellent aqueous acrylic emulsion for coated con-trol ed release fertilizer, with the 30-day cumulative nutrient release reduced to 16%and an estimated nutrient release duration over 190 days. Therefore, this waterborne coating is promising to meet the requirements for controlled release of nutrient and environmental protection.

  4. Analytical solution of diffusion model for nutrient release from controlled release fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameenuddin Irfan, Sayed; Razali, Radzuan; KuShaari, KuZilati; Mansor, Nurlidia; Azeem, Babar

    2017-09-01

    An analytical method has been developed to solve the initial value problem which arises from Fick’s diffusion equation encountered in the modelling of the Controlled Release Fertilizers. The proposed analytical solution is developed using the modified Adomian decomposition method. This method does not require the discretization method, reliability and efficiency of this method is more and it also reduces the calculation time. The model has predicted the effect of granule radius and diffusion coefficient on the nutrient release and total release time of Controlled Release Fertilizer. Model has predicted that increase in the radius of granule reduces the release and vice versa in case of diffusion coefficient. Detailed understanding of these parameters helps in improved designing of Controlled Release Fertilizer.

  5. Fertility and Pregnancy Outcome after Myoma Enucleation by Minilaparotomy under Microsurgical Conditions in Pronounced Uterus Myomatosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floss, K; Garcia-Rocha, G-J; Kundu, S; von Kaisenberg, C S; Hillemanns, P; Schippert, C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Besides the typical complaints and symptoms, myomas can cause sterility, infertility and complications during pregnancy. Laparoscopic interventions reach their limits with regard to organ preservation and the simultaneous desire to have children in the removal of multiple and larger intramural myoma nodes. The aim of this study is to examine fertility status and pregnancy outcome after myoma removal by minilaparotomy (skin incision maximal 8 cm) in women with pronounced uterus myomatosus. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study makes use of the data from 160 patients with an average age of 34.6 years. Factors analysed include number, size and localisation of the myomas, complaints due to the myoma, pre- and postoperative gravidity, mode of delivery, and complications of birth. Results: Indications for organ-sparing myoma enucleation were the desire to have children (72.5 %), bleeding disorders (60 %) and pressure discomfort (36.5 %). On average 4.95 (SD ± 0.41), maximally 46 myomas were removed. The largest myoma had a diameter of 6.64 cm (SD ± 2.74). 82.5 % of the patients had transmural myomas, in 17.5 % the uterine cavity was inadvertently opened. On average the operating time was 163 minutes (SD ± 45.47), the blood loss 1.59 g/dL (SD ± 0.955). 60.3 % of the patients with the desire to have children became pregnant postoperatively. 75.3 % of the pregnancies were on average carried through to the 38th week (28.4 % vaginal deliveries, 71.6 % Caesarean sections). In the postoperative period there was one case of uterine rupture in the vicinity of a previous scar. Discussion: By means of the microsurgical "mini-laparotomy" even extensive myomatous uterine changes can, in the majority of cases, be operated in an organ-sparing manner with retention of the ability to conceive and to carry a pregnancy through to maturity of the infant. The risk for a postoperative uterine rupture in a subsequent pregnancy and

  6. Pregnancy Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization with or without Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A Retrospective Cohort Study in Chinese Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Jiang; Cheng-Yan Deng; Zheng-Yi Sun; Wei-Lin Chen; Han-Bi Wang; Yuan-Zheng Zhou; Li Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) on pregnancy outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients is still ambiguous.This study aimed to analyze pregnancy outcomes of IVF with or without OHSS in Chinese patients.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken to compare pregnancy outcomes between 190 women with OHSS and 197 women without OHSS.We examined the rates of clinical pregnancy, multiple pregnancies, miscarriage, live birth, preterm delivery, preterm birth before 34 weeks' gestation, cesarean delivery, low birth weight (LBW), and small-for-gestational age (SGA) between the two groups.Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of measure of clinical pregnancy were also analyzed.Results: The clinical pregnancy rate of OHSS patients was significantly higher than that of non-OHSS patients (91.8% vs.43.5%, P < 0.001).After controlling for drug protocol and causes of infertility, the adjusted ORs of moderate OHSS and severe/critical OHSS for clinical pregnancy were 4.65 (95% CI, 1.86-11.61) and 5.83 (95% CI, 3.45-9.86), respectively.There were no significant differences in rates of multiple pregnancy (4.0% vs.3.7%) and miscarriage (16.1% vs.17.5%) between the two groups.With regard to ongoing clinical pregnancy, we also found no significant differences in the rates of live birth (82.1% vs.78.8%), preterm delivery (20.9% vs.17.5%), preterm birth before 34 weeks' gestation (8.6% vs.7.9%), cesarean delivery (84.9% vs.66.3%), LBW (30.2% vs.23.5%), and SGA (21.9% vs.17.6%) between the two groups.Conclusion: OHSS, which occurs in the luteal phase or early pregnancy in IVF patients and represents abnormal transient hemodynamics, does not exert any obviously adverse effect on the subsequent pregnancy.

  7. Methods of fertility control in cats: Owner, breeder and veterinarian behavior and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jane K; Mosteller, Jill R; Loberg, Jenny M; Andersson, Maria; Benka, Valerie A W

    2015-09-01

    Fertility control is important for population management of owned and unowned cats, provides health benefits at the individual level and can reduce unwanted sexually dimorphic behaviors such as roaming, aggression, spraying and calling. This article reviews the available evidence regarding European and American veterinarian, owner and pedigree cat breeder attitudes toward both surgical sterilization and non-surgical fertility control. It additionally presents new data on veterinarians' and pedigree cat breeders' use of, and attitudes toward, alternative modalities of fertility control. Within the United States and Europe, the proportion of cats reported to be sterilized varies widely. Published estimates range from 27-93% for owned cats and 2-5% for cats trapped as part of a trap-neuter-return (TNR) program. In some regions and populations of cats, non-surgical fertility control is also used. Social context, cultural norms, individual preferences, economic considerations, legislation and professional organizations may all influence fertility control decisions for cats. Particularly in Europe, a limited number of non-surgical temporary contraceptives are available for cats; these include products with regulatory approval for cats as well as some used 'off label'. Non-surgical methods remove the risk of complications related to surgery and offer potential to treat more animals in less time and at lower cost; they may also appeal to pedigree cat breeders seeking temporary contraception. However, concerns over efficacy, delivery methods, target species safety, duration and side effects exist with current non-surgical options. Research is under way to develop new methods to control fertility in cats without surgery. US and European veterinarians place high value on three perceived benefits of surgical sterilization: permanence, behavioral benefits and health benefits. Non-surgical options will likely need to share these benefits to be widely accepted by the veterinary

  8. Comparison of Endocrine Profile and In Vitro Fertilization Outcome in Patients with PCOS, Ovulatory PCO, or Normal Ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yi-Ping; Ying, Ying; Wu, Hai-Tao; Zhou, Can-Quan; Xu, Yan-Wen; Wang, Qiong; Li, Jie; Shen, Xiao-Ting; Li, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To compare the basic endocrine profile and outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), ovulatory polycystic ovaries (PCO), or normal ovaries (NO). Methods. The basic clinical features and in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer outcome in patients receiving IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were retrospectively analyzed. Results. The body mass index, basal luteinizing hormone, and testosterone levels were significantly lower in patients with ovulatory PCO compared to those in patients with PCOS. The PCOS patients exhibited the shortest duration of ovarian stimulation and lowest dose of gonadotropin, followed by the ovulatory PCO and NO patients. The ovulatory PCO and PCOS patients showed similar levels of E2 on the human chorionic gonadotropin treatment day and numbers of oocytes, which were both significantly higher than those of the NO patients. The fertilization rate of the PCOS patients was significantly lower than the other two groups. Compared to NO patients, the cleavage rate was lower in both PCOS and ovulatory PCO patients, however, the number of available embryos was significantly more in these two groups. The incidence of the moderate to severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) was markedly higher in the PCOS and ovulatory PCO patients. Conclusion. Ovulatory PCO patients do not express similar endocrine abnormalities as PCOS patients. Although the fertilization rate and cleavage rate were relatively low in PCOS patients, ultimately, all the three groups showed similar transferred embryo numbers, clinical pregnancy rates, and implantation rates. Since the incidence of OHSS was much higher in the PCOS and ovulatory PCO patients, we should take more care of these patients and try to prevent severe OHSS.

  9. Doses of controlled-release fertilizer for production of rubber tree rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Luis Grisi Macedo; Elainy Botelho Carvalho Pereira; Ailton Vitor Pereira; Nelson Venturin; Antonio Nilson Zamunér Filho

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study aimed to evaluate the effects of doses of controlled-release fertilizer (ALL) on the development of rubber tree rootstocks. The fertilizer used was Osmocote®, scheduled to be released for 8-9 months and with the following composition: N (15%), P2O5 (9%), K2O (12%), Mg (1%), S (2.3%), B (0.02%), Cu (0.05%), Fe (1%), Mn (0.06%), Mo (0.02%) and Zn (0.05%). A randomized block design was used, with four treatments and eight replicates of 20 plants per plot. The controlled-r...

  10. [Effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer blended with conventional nitrogen fertilizer on Chinese cabbage yield and quality as well as nitrogen losses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun-gang; Xu, Kai; Tong, Er-jian; Cao, Bing; Ni, Xiao-hui; Xu, Jun-xiang

    2010-12-01

    An open field experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer blended with rapidly available chemical N fertilizer on Chinese cabbage yield and quality as well as nitrogen losses, including ammonia volatilization and NO3- -N accumulation and leaching in Beijing suburb. The results showed that a combined application of 2:1 controlled-release fertilizer and urea fertilizer (total N rate 150 kg x hm(-2)) did not induce the reduction of Chinese cabbage yield, and decreased the leaf nitrate and organic acid contents significantly, compared with conventional urea N application (300 kg x hm(-2)), and had no significant difference in the cabbage yield and leaf nitrate content, compared with applying 150 kg x hm(-2) of urea N. The combined application of 2:1 controlled-release fertilizer and urea fertilizer improved the N use efficiency of Chinese cabbage, and reduced the ammonia volatilization and NO3- -N leaching. At harvest, the NO3- -N concentrations in 20-40, 60-80 and 80-100 cm soil layers were significantly lower in the combined application treatment than in urea N treatment.

  11. Do fertility control policies affect health in old age? Evidence from China's one-child experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Asadul; Smyth, Russell

    2015-05-01

    How do fertility control policies contribute to the welfare of women, and their husbands, particularly as they get older? We consider whether the reduction in fertility resulting from population control policies has had any effect on the health of elderly parents in China. In particular, we examine the influence of this fertility decline, experienced due to China's one-child policy, on several measures of the health of parents in middle and old age. Overall, our results suggest that having fewer children has a positive effect on self-reported parental health but generally no effect on other measures of health. The results also suggest that upstream financial transfers have a positive effect on several measures of parental health.

  12. Effects of Controlled Release Fertilizer on the Post-Production Performance of Impatiens Wallerana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlled release fertilizers (CRF) in production systems have been known to reduce environmental contamination. However, there is a lot to be explored as per its use in bedding plant production. Bedding plant growers have not adapted CRF use because there is little information about its use and ...

  13. Longevity of controlled release fertilizer influences the growth of bedding Impatiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) have not been extensively used in floriculture production, perhaps due to lack of grower experience and research-based information with their use in herbaceous plant production. Any information about the correct use of CRF should increase growers’ confidence in ...

  14. In vitro fertilization outcome in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome treated with GnRH analogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Mehrafza

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrinological disorders that affect approximately 5-7% of women in reproductive age. There is not any consensus about the efficient in vitro fertilization (IVF protocol for patients with PCOS. The aim of the present study was to compare the half and one-third dose depot gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist protocols versus the GnRH antagonist protocol in PCOS patients.Methods: In the present study, we retrospectively evaluated 119 infertile women with PCOS. The patients entered in the study in accordance with Rotterdam criteria. According to GnRH analogue used for pituitary suppression, patients were divided into three groups: half and one-third dose depot GnRH agonist protocols and GnRH antagonist protocol. In GnRH agonist protocol, half or one-third dose depot Decapeptyl (1.875 mg, 1.25 mg was injected on 21st day of previous cycle. In GnRH antagonist cycles, cetrotide 0.25 mg were administered daily when the leading follicles reached 14 mm. All basal and controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH characteristics were analyzed. Results: Basal characteristics including: age, FBS, prolactin, hirsutism, length of menstrual cycle were similar between 3 groups. Statically significant decreases in days of stimulation, number of gonadotrophin ampoules and metaphase II (MII oocytes were found in GnRH antagonist protocol (P<0.001, P<0.001 and P=0.045, while the decrease in biochemical pregnancy (P=0.083 and live birth rate (P=0.169 wasn't significant. Number of embryos transferred were similar in the half and one-third dose depot GnRH agonist and GnRH antagonist cycles (P=0.881. The incidence of OHSS weren't significantly different between 3 groups (5%, 4.9% and 12.8%, P=0.308. Conclusion: Our study suggest that one-third dose depot GnRH agonist protocol could be a suitable choice for treatment of PCOS because of lower incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS as

  15. Follicular fluid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate is a credible marker of oocyte maturity and pregnancy outcome in conventional in vitro fertilization cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natachandra M Chimote

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate if the level of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s in follicular fluid (FF influences the competence of oocytes to fertilize, develop to the blastocyst stage, and produce a viable pregnancy in conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles. Settings and Design: Prospective study of age-matched, nonpolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS women undergoing antagonist stimulation protocol involving conventional insemination and day 5 blastocyst transfer. Materials and Methods: FF levels of DHEA-s and E2 were measured by a radio-immuno-assay method using diagnostic kits. Fertilization rate, embryo development to the blastocyst stage and live birth rate were main outcome measures. Cycles were divided into pregnant/nonpregnant groups and also into low/medium/high FF DHEA-s groups. Statistical analysis was done by GraphPad Prism V software. Results: FF DHEA-s levels were significantly higher in pregnant (n = 111 compared to nonpregnant (n = 381 group (1599 ± 77.45 vs. 1372 ± 40.47 ng/ml; P = 0.01. High (n = 134 FF DHEA-s group had significantly higher percentage of metaphase II (MII oocytes (91.5 vs. 85.54 vs. 79.44%, P < 0.0001, fertilization rate (78.86 vs. 74.16 vs. 71.26%, P < 0.0001, cleavage rate (83.67 vs. 69.1 vs. 66.17%, P = 0.0002, blastocyst formation rate (37.15 vs. 33.01 vs. 26.95%, P < 0.0001, and live birth rate (29.85 vs. 22.22 vs. 14.78%, P = 0.017 compared to medium (n = 243 and low (n = 115 FF DHEA-s groups, respectively despite comparable number of oocytes retrieved and number of blastocysts transferred. FF DHEA-s levels correlated significantly with the attainment of MII oocytes (Pearson r = 0.41 and fertilization rates (Pearson r = 0.35. Conclusion: FF DHEA-s level influences the oocyte maturation process and is predictive of fertilization, embryo development to the blastocyst stage and live birth rates in non-PCOS women undergoing conventional IVF cycles.

  16. Quality control analysis of imported fertilizers used in Ghana: the macronutrients perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheriff Enti-Brown

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this environmental research was to validate specifications indicated by manufacturers on their fertilizer products. Selected fertilizers types were sampled from five major fertilizer importing companies in Ghana for macronutrient analysis to determine the fertilizer quality. Five analytical techniques including Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA, flame photometry, Kjeldahl method for nitrogen analysis and UV-visible spectroscopy were employed to achieve this objective. Two reference materials (IAEA Soil-7 and SRM 1646a Estuarine Sediment were used to validate the quantitative method employed in the INAA. There was generally good agreements (98% and above between the measured values and the certified values for the primary macronutrients nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (N, P and K. However, same could not be said for secondary macronutrients calcium, magnesium and sulphur (Ca, Mg and S. The secondary macronutrient values measured were compared to standard values from the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MOFA in cases where they were not certified by the manufacturer. Most of the manufacturers' claims for primary macronutrients were valid. However, most of them fell short of the requirements for secondary macronutrient concentration. There is therefore the need for a good quality control system to undertake periodic quality monitoring of the chemical compositions of fertilizers imported into the country since they may directly or indirectly have impacts on the environment.

  17. Foliar Potassium Fertilizer Additives Affect Soybean Response and Weed Control with Glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in 2004 and 2005 determined the effects of foliar-applied K-fertilizer sources (0-0-62-0 (%N-%P2O5-%K2O-%S, 0-0-25-17, 3-18-18-0, and 5-0-20-13 and additive rates (2.2, 8.8, and 17.6 kg K ha−1 on glyphosate-resistant soybean response and weed control. Field experiments were conducted at Novelty and Portageville with high soil test K and weed populations and at Malden with low soil test K and weed populations. At Novelty, grain yield increased with fertilizer additives at 8.8 kg K ha−1 in a high-yield, weed-free environment in 2004, but fertilizer additives reduced yield up to 470 kg ha−1 in a low-yield year (2005 depending on the K source and rate. At Portageville, K-fertilizer additives increased grain yield from 700 to 1160 kg ha−1 compared to diammonium sulfate, depending on the K source and rate. At Malden, there was no yield response to K sources. Differences in leaf tissue K (P=0.03, S (P=0.03, B (P=0.0001, and Cu (P=0.008 concentrations among treatments were detected 14 d after treatment at Novelty and Malden. Tank mixtures of K-fertilizer additives with glyphosate may provide an option for foliar K applications.

  18. [Effects of controlled release fertilizers on N2O emission from paddy field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangmin; Fan, Xiaolin; Liu, Fang; Wang, Qiang

    2004-11-01

    With close chamber method, this paper studied the effects of controlled release fertilizer (CRF), non-coated compound fertilizer (Com) and conventional urea (CK) on N2O emission from paddy field. The results showed that within 10 days after transplanting, the ammonium and nitrate concentrations in the surface water of the plot treated with CRF were significantly different from those treated with Com. The partial coefficient between N2O emission rates and corresponding nitrate concentrations in the water was significantly high (r = 0.6834). Compared with Com, CRF was able to reduce N2O emission from the paddy field. Within 100 days after basal application, the N2O emission rate of treatment CRF was only 13.45%-21.26% of Corn and 71.17%-112.47% of CK. The N2O emission of Com was mainly concentrated in 1-25 d after basal fertilization and mid-aeration period, but that of CRF was remarkably lower during same period, while the peak of N2O emission of CK was postponed and reduced. It was concluded that both one-time fertilization of CRF and several-time fertilizations of conventional urea were able to reduce N2O emission from the paddy field.

  19. [Nutrient release characteristics and use efficiency of slow- and controlled release fertilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Min; Liu, Gang; Shang, Zhao-Cong; Yang, Yi

    2009-05-01

    Water extraction method and soil incubation method were used to study the nutrient release characteristics of four slow- and controlled release fertilizers (CRF1, CRF2, SCU, and IBDU), and pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of the release characteristics on the nutrient requirements of canola (Brassica napus L.). The nutrient release curves of test fertilizers in water were S pattern for CRF1 and CRF2, burst pattern for SCU, and reverse L pattern for IBDU. The nutrient release characteristics of the four fertilizers in water and in soil all fitted binomial equations, suggesting that there existed some similarities in the nutrient release in the two media. The nutrient uptake and biomass of canola plants treated with CRF1 and CRF2 were significantly higher than those treated with SCU and IBDU, and CRF2 had the greatest effect. The nutrient release curves of CRF1 and CRF2 accorded more closely with the nutrient requirements of canola.

  20. An effective method for improving outcomes in patients with a fertilization defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hye Jin; Kim, Hyung Jun; Bae, In Hee; Chae, Soo Jin; Yoon, San Hyun; Lee, Won Don; Lim, Jin Ho

    2014-09-01

    The effect of artificial oocyte activation (AOA) with a calcium ionophore on intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) was examined in patients with histories of repeated failed implantation attempts. Four singleton pregnancies and one twin pregnancy were obtained after embryos transfer (5/14, 35.7%). Therefore, AOA combined with IMSI can be considered an option for cycles with a fertilization defect and recurrent implantation failures.

  1. 包膜控释肥及其包膜材料研究进展%A Review of Controlled Release Fertilizer and Fertilizer Coating Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧; 陈少雄

    2012-01-01

    This paper examined differences between the slow release fertilizer and controlled release fertilizer and reviews the course of development of slow/controlled release fertilizers. We classified controlled release fertilizers cun~nfly available on the market in China according to types of coating materials and examine the nutrient release mechanism of the different materials. Methods for detecting the type of coating material were also examined and criteria for evaluating controlled release fertilizers, including some models of their nutrient release, were identified. Shortcomings of the currently available controlled release fertiliTers were discussed and priorities for future development of controlled released fertilizers were discussed.%本文区分了缓释肥、控释肥之间的差别,回顾了国内外缓/控释肥的发展历程,并就目前市场上已有的缓/控释肥,根据其所使用的包膜材料进行了分类,阐述了不同的包膜材料控释肥各自养分释放的机理及包膜材料性质的检测方法,介绍目前已有的缓/控释肥料的评价标准及拟合模型,最后分析了目前的缓/控释肥料的不足,并提出未来控释肥发展的方向。

  2. Effect of gibberellic acid on the quality of sperm and in vitro fertilization outcome in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Hosseinchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellic acid (GA3 is a group of plant hormones identified in various plants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GA3 on sperm parameters and in vitro fertilization (IVF. Fifty six adult male rats were divided into seven groups as, control, treatment and sham. Following 15, 30 and 45 days of GA3 and methanol alcohol (MA administration, rats were euthanized and epididymis tail was transferred to human tubular fluid (HTF medium containing 4 mg mL-1 bovine serum albumin (BSA .Total number of sperms, the percentage of live sperms, immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin and IVF were examined. The oocytes were obtained from immature rats after the injection of pregnant mare's serum (PMSG and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG hormones. Human tubular fluid was used as the fertilization medium and zygotes transferred to fresh 1-cell rat embryos culture medium (mR1ECM to reach the blastocyst stage. This study showed that GA3 could decrease the number of total sperms on days 30 and 45 in treated group comparison with the control and sham groups. Additionally, GA3 increased the immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin. The percentage of fertilization, two-cell embryos and blastocyst resulting from the treatment group on days 30 and 45 also decreased and showed significant differences with the control and sham groups (p < 0.05. The results obtained from this study indicated that the oral use of GA3 could reduce the fertility in rats by influencing the sperm number and the quality of sperm’s chromatins.

  3. Effects of controlled release fertilizer and foliage fertilizer on potted strawberry%控释肥与叶面肥对盆栽草莓的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋成国; 李增红; 周杰; 彭婷亭

    2015-01-01

    以草莓品种‘红颜’为试验材料,通过调查草莓相关指标,探究控释肥与叶面肥对草莓‘红颜’营养生长、繁殖、产量等的影响,为基质盆栽草莓提供施肥技术和方法。结果表明:①叶面肥和控释肥对草莓营养生长有促进作用,除功能叶数外,对其他性状的促进作用都是显著的;控释肥对功能叶数和株高的影响达到极显著水平。②叶面肥增强了草莓的无性繁殖力,有效分株和匍匐茎分别增加了38.64%和133.77%;控释肥增加了草莓的有效分株,而降低了草莓匍匐茎数。③控释肥和叶面肥对基质盆栽草莓结果数和产量都有显著的负面影响。%The strawberry variety ‘Hongyan’was used as a test material,and its vegetative growth,repro-duction and fruit yield were investigated so as to explore controlled release fertilizer and foliage fertilizer practices of soilless potted strawberry.The results indicated that both foliage fertilizer and controlled release fertilizer had a significant accelerating effect on the vegetative growth of strawberry except the functional leaves,while controlled release fertilizer very significantly influenced the number of functional leaves and the plant height;Foliage fertiliz-er enhanced the asexual reproduction of strawberry,with the effective offshoots and stolons increasing by 38.64%and 133.77% respectively;Controlled release fertilizer increased the effective offshoots of strawberry but reduced the number of strawberry runners;Both foliage fertilizer and controlled release fertilizer had a significant negative effect on the fruit number and yield of soilless potted strawberry.

  4. Weed control through seedling abrasion with an organic fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many tools exist to control weeds in organic crops, and each has utility in specific situations. Nevertheless, surveys of organic farmers indicate that weed management often is second only to labor supply as their main bottleneck for success. Consequently, new tactics for managing weeds are desirabl...

  5. Cumulative release characteristics of controlled-release nitrogen and potassium fertilizers and their effects on soil fertility, and cotton growth

    OpenAIRE

    Xiuyi Yang; Jibiao Geng; Chengliang Li; Min Zhang; Xiaofei Tian

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the interacting effects of polymer coated urea (PCU) and polymer coated potassium chloride (PCPC) on cotton growth, an experiment was conducted with containerized plants in 2014 and 2015. There were two kinds of nitrogen fertilizer, PCU and urea, which were combined with PCPC at three application rates (40, 80 and 120 kg ha−1). The kinds of nitrogen fertilizer formed the main plot, while individual rates of PCPC were the subplots. The results suggested N and K release patterns ...

  6. Cumulative release characteristics of controlled-release nitrogen and potassium fertilizers and their effects on soil fertility, and cotton growth

    OpenAIRE

    Xiuyi Yang; Jibiao Geng; Chengliang Li; Min Zhang; Xiaofei Tian

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the interacting effects of polymer coated urea (PCU) and polymer coated potassium chloride (PCPC) on cotton growth, an experiment was conducted with containerized plants in 2014 and 2015. There were two kinds of nitrogen fertilizer, PCU and urea, which were combined with PCPC at three application rates (40, 80 and 120 kg ha−1). The kinds of nitrogen fertilizer formed the main plot, while individual rates of PCPC were the subplots. The results suggested N and K release patterns ...

  7. {sup 15}N uptake from manure and fertilizer sources by three consecutive crops under controlled conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiroga Garza, Hector Mario, E-mail: quiroga.mario@inifap.gob.m [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agricolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP), Coahuila (Mexico); Delgado, Jorge A.; Wong, Jose Antonio Cueto, E-mail: jorge.delgado@ars.usda.go, E-mail: cueto.jose@inifap.gob.m [United States Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), Fort Collins, CO (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Soil Plant Nutrient Research Unit; Lindemann, William C., E-mail: wlindema@nmsu.ed [New Mexico State University (NMST), Las Cruces, NM (United States). Dept. Agronomy and Horticulture

    2009-09-15

    There are several regions of the world where soil N analysis and/or N budgets are not used to determine how much N to apply, resulting in higher than needed N inputs, especially when manure is used. One such region is the North Central 'La Comarca Lagunera', one of the most important dairy production areas of Mexico. We conducted a unique controlled greenhouse study using {sup 15}N fertilizer and {sup 15}N isotopic-labeled manure that was labeled under local conditions to monitor N cycling and recovery under higher N inputs. The manure-N treatment was applied only once and was incorporated in the soil before planting the first forage crop at an equivalent rate of 30, 60 and 120 Mg ha{sup -1} dry manure. The {sup 15}N treatments were equivalent to 120 and 240 kg ha{sup -1} (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}-N for each crop. The total N fertilizer for each N fertilized treatment were 360, and 720 kg ha{sup -1} N. We found very low N recoveries: about 9 % from the manure N inputs, lower than the 22 to 25 % from the fertilizer N inputs. The manure N recovered below ground in soil and roots ranged from 82 to 88 %. The low recoveries of N by the aboveground and low soil inorganic nitrate (NO{sup 3}-N) and ammonium (NH{sub 4}-N) content after the third harvested suggested that most of the {sup 15}N recovered below ground was in the soil organic form. The losses from manure N inputs ranged from 3 to 11 %, lower than the 34 to 39 % lost from fertilizer N sources. Our study shows that excessive applications of manure or fertilizer N that are traditionally used in this region will not increase the rate of N uptake by aboveground compartment but will increase the potential for N losses to the environment. (author)

  8. Land-use versus natural controls on soil fertility in the Subandean Amazon, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Lina; Aström, Mats; Oberg, Tomas

    2010-01-15

    Deforestation to amplify the agricultural frontier is a serious threat to the Amazon forest. Strategies to attain and maintain satisfactory soil fertility, which requires knowledge of spatial and temporal changes caused by land-use, are important for reaching sustainable development. This study highlights these issues by evaluating the relative effects of agricultural land-use and natural factors on chemical fertility of Inceptisols on redbed lithologies in the Subandean Amazon. Macro and micronutrients were determined in topsoil and subsoil in the vicinity of two villages at a total of 80 sites including pastures, coffee plantations, swidden fields, secondary forest and, as a reference, adjacent primary forest. Differences in soil fertility between the land cover classes were investigated by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR). Primary forest soil was found to be chemically similar to that of coffee plantations, pastures and secondary forests. There were no significant differences between soils of these land cover types in terms of plant nutrients (e.g. N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mo, Mn, Zn, Cu and Co) or other fertility indicators (OM, pH, BS, EC, CECe and exchangeable acidity). The parent material (as indicated by texture and sample geographical origin) and the slope of the sampled sites were stronger controls on soil fertility than land cover type. Elevated concentrations of a few nutrients (NO(3) and K) were, however detected in soils of swidden fields. Despite being fertile (higher CECe, Ca and P) compared to Oxisols and Ultisols in the Amazon lowland, the Subandean soils frequently showed deficiencies in several nutrients (e.g. P, K, NO(3), Cu and Zn), and high levels of free Al at acidic sites. This paper concludes that deforestation and agricultural land-use has not introduced lasting chemical changes in the studied Subandean soils that are significant in comparison to the natural variability.

  9. APPLICATION OF FOLIAR FERTILIZER AND FUNGICIDES ON WHITE SPOT DISEASE CONTROL AND DEVELOPMENT OF MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Brito

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of forms of application of foliar fertilizers and fungicides to control fungus causing white maize spot, Phaeosphaeria maydis, and the growth and development of hybrids maize. The design had randomized blocks, with the use two sources hybrids maize with different reaction to white maize spot: resistant and susceptive and application with moisture of foliar chemical fungicide + cobalt foliar + molybdenum foliar + manganese and control treatment, without application consisting of four treatments and five replications. In the treatments with application of moisture were done on vegetative maize growth stage V8 (stage that determine that the number of kernel rows, VT (stage that arrives when the last branch of the tassel is completely visible and reproductive maize growth stage R2 (kernels are white on the outside and resemble a blister. The evaluation of variables of growth of maize plants: grain dry mass, cob dry mass, leaf dry mass, culm dry mass and modificated leaf ear and total plant dry mass. Harvest was carried out when the grains were 20% humidity. The application of fungicides and foliar fertilizers increased the leaves, culm, ear modificated, cobs and shoot dry mass plants maize. The application of fungicides and foliar fertilizers providing returning of 11.409,5 kg ha-1 of shoot dry mass plants with increased of 1.296 kg ha-1 on soil(12,81%. In the susceptive hybrid maize the application of fungicides and foliar fertilizers provide higher dry mass grains and shoot of plants.

  10. Doses of controlled-release fertilizer for production of rubber tree rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Luis Grisi Macedo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study aimed to evaluate the effects of doses of controlled-release fertilizer (ALL on the development of rubber tree rootstocks. The fertilizer used was Osmocote®, scheduled to be released for 8-9 months and with the following composition: N (15%, P2O5 (9%, K2O (12%, Mg (1%, S (2.3%, B (0.02%, Cu (0.05%, Fe (1%, Mn (0.06%, Mo (0.02% and Zn (0.05%. A randomized block design was used, with four treatments and eight replicates of 20 plants per plot. The controlled-release fertilizer was added to Rendimax Floreira® substrate at doses of 0, 3, 6 and 9 g per liter, and rootstocks were produced in plastic containers with a capacity of two liters of substrate. Three seeds of clone GT 1 were scattered in each container and thinning was performed on day 60, leaving the most vigorous plant only. After the fourth leaf shot from each rootstock, the containers of each treatment were topped, due to compaction, with 300 mL of the relevant fertilizer and substrate mixture. The rootstocks were evaluated at eight months of age as to height, stem diameter (DC 5 cm above root collar, total dry matter, shoot and root dry matter, leaf nutrient levels and percentage of plants suitable for grafting (DC≥1.0 cm. Results revealed that adequate development and nutrition of rootstocks was achieved by using 6 g of controlled-release fertilizer per liter of substrate.

  11. Estimating the impact of birth control on fertility rate in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaiya, Gafar T; Raheem, Usman A; Olatinwo, Abdulwaheed O; Ijaiya, Munir-Deen A; Ijaiya, Mukaila A

    2009-12-01

    Using a cross-country data drawn from 40 countries and a multiple regression analysis, this paper examines the impact of birth control devices on the rate of fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. Our a-priori expectations are that the more women used birth control devices, the less will be the fertility rate in sub-Saharan Africa. The result obtained from the study indicates that except for withdrawal method that fall contrary to our expectation other variables (methods) like the use of pills, injection, intra uterine device (IUD), condom/diaphragm and cervical cap, female sterilization and periodic abstinence/rhythm fulfilled our a-priori expectations. These results notwithstanding, the paper suggests measures, such as the need for massive enlightenment campaign on the benefit of these birth control devices, the frequent checking of the potency of the devices and good governance in the delivery of the devices

  12. [Effects of controlled-release N and K fertilizers on N, P, and K use efficiency of mauls (Manlus robusta)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lei; Wang, Li-xia; Zhang, Min; Sun, Zhi-jun

    2010-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of controlled-release N and K fertilizers on mauls seedlings growth, their P and K use efficiency, and the N balance in soil-plant system. The results showed that the nutrient release from controlled-release fertilizers accorded well with the nutrient requirement of mauls seedlings. Controlled-release N fertilizer significantly increased the K use efficiency, and controlled-release K fertilizer significantly increased the N use efficiency. Under the same K application rate, the plant height and stem diameter under the application of controlled-release N fertilizer (CN) and controlled-release N and K fertilizers (NK) had no significant difference, while those under the application of common fertilizer (SF) were all higher. The plant dry mass and the P and K use efficiency were in the order of NK>CN>SF. Under the application of NK, the application rate of K had no significant effects on the plant height and stem diameter, but significantly affected the plant dry mass. The P use efficiency increased with increasing application rate of controlled-release K fertilizer, but was less affected by application rate common K fertilizer. The K use efficiency decreased with increasing application rate of K. The N use efficiency was in the order of NK>CN>SF, while the N loss rate was in adverse. The residual rate of NK and CN had no significant difference, but was higher than that of SF. The application rate of controlled-release K fertilizer had significant effects on the N use efficiency and N loss rate, but no significant effects on N residual rate.

  13. Predictive value of early serum beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin for the successful outcome in women undergoing in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Pregnancies achieved by in vitro fertilization (IVF are at increased risk of adverse outcome. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-HCG and age of the patient for the successful outcome in IVF. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was done in 139 pregnancies after IVF at single IVF center from June 2007 to July 2012. The age of the patient and initial serum values of β-HCG on day 14 of embryo transfer were correlated with ongoing pregnancy (>12 weeks gestation. Results: The β-HCG level on day 14 of more than 347 mIU/ml has a sensitivity of 72.2% and specificity of 73.6% in prediction of pregnancy beyond 12 weeks period of gestation. Positive likelihood ratio (LR is 2.74 and negative LR is 0.37, (receiver operating characteristic area = 0.79. Discussion: In IVF cycles, there is a lot of stress on the couples while the cycle is going on. There was a positive correlation between the higher values of early serum β-HCG levels and ongoing pregnancy. Hence, it can be used as an independent predictor of a successful outcome of IVF cycle. Conclusion: We concluded from our study that early serum β-HCG can be used as a predictor of a successful outcome in IVF.

  14. Use of medroxyprogesterone acetate in women with ovarian endometriosis undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haiyan; Wang, Yun; Chen, Qiuju; Chai, Weiran; Sun, Lihua; Ai, Ai; Fu, Yonglun; Lyu, Qifeng; Kuang, Yanping

    2017-09-20

    This study investigated the use of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) or a short protocol for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) in patients with advanced endometriosis who have normal ovarian function, and to compare cycle characteristics and pregnancy outcomes after frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET). This was a retrospective case-control study of 244 patients with advanced endometriosis undering COH. The patients were allocated to three groups: the surgery group with MPA COH (62 patients, 71 IVF/ICSI cycles, 78 FET cycles); the aspiration group with MPA COH (85 patients had ovarian "chocolate" cysts (>3 cm) aspirated, 90 IVF/ICSI cycles, 76 FET cycles); and the short protocol group (97 patients, 101 IVF/ICSI cycles, 51 FET cycles). The results showed that higher rates of mature oocyte, D3 high quality embryo, hMG dose were observed in the two study groups using MPA compared with the short protocol. The number of >10-14 mm follicles on the trigger day, D3 top-quality embryos, viable embryos, rates of cancellation, fertilization, implantation, pregnancy outcomes were similar among the three groups. The oocytes, embryos, and pregnancy outcomes were not influenced by endometrioma surgery or presence of endometrioma. MPA COH could be effective for women with ovarian advanced endometriosis who had normal ovarian function.

  15. Impact of number of retrieved oocytes in women under 35 years old with a long protocol for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation on the clinical outcome of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer%35岁以下患者长方案促排卵获卵数对体外受精-胚胎移植结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅琴; 杨菁; 徐望明; 谢青贞; 肖卓妮; 尹太郎

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF-ET)周期最佳获卵数及其对妊娠结局的影响.方法 回顾性分析我院2009年9月至2010年8月35岁以下行长方案IVF-ET治疗的544个获卵周期的资料.比较不同获卵数的受精率、卵裂率、优胚率、临床妊娠率及并发症等指标的差异.结果 不同获卵数各组间促性腺激素(Gn)刺激天数、Gn用量、卵裂率、优胚率无明显差别(P>0.05),获卵数>25个组受精率低于其他各组(P15个,临床妊娠率较前下降,累积妊娠率随获卵数增加而增加,当获卵数>25个,临床妊娠率和累积妊娠率明显下降.结论 获得适量的卵有利于获得较满意的妊娠结局.%Objective: To explore the effect of retrieved oocyte number on pregnancy outcome of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET).Methods: A retrospective analysis was carried out on 544-oocyte pick up(OPU) cycles in women under 35 years old with long protocol IVF-ET in the hospital from Sep 2009 to Aug 2010. The women were divided into 6 groups according to retrieved oocyte number: Group A (≤5 oocytes), Group B (6-10 oocytes), Group C (11-15 oocytes), Group D (16-20 oocytes), Group E (21-25 oocytes), Group F(>25 oocytes). The fertilization rate, cleavage rate, advanced embryo rate, clinical pregnancy rate, accumulated clinic pregnancy rate, complications etc. in 6 groups were analyzed.Results: The gonadotropin doses, gonadotropin days, cleavage rate or advanced embryo rate showed no statistical difference in women withdifferent number of retrieved oocytes (P>0. 05). The fertilization rate in the Group F was less than that in other groups (P<0.05). The frozen embryo number, the serum E2 level and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome rate were raised with number retrieved oocytes increased.The clinical pregnancy rate enhanced with the retrieved oocyte number increased in ≤15 oocytes of groups,while decreased in >15 oocytes of groups. The accumulated pregnancy rate

  16. Evaluation of fertility outcome as a consequence of intravaginal inoculation with sperm-impairing micro-organisms in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander, Harpreet; Prabha, Vijay

    2015-04-01

    The concept of infertility as a result of asymptomatic microbial colonization of the female reproductive tract has been neglected to date. However, increasing incidence of infertility and advanced research has drawn attention towards this idea. Many of these micro-organisms have been reported to bring about adverse changes in sperm parameters in vitro, but their in vivo potential to cause infertility is still a controversy. The present study was carried out to observe what effect the intravaginal inoculation of sperm-agglutinating Serratia marcescens and sperm-immobilizing Candida albicans had in the reproductive tract and consequently in fertility outcome. When these strains were intravaginally inoculated into female BALB/c mice at 10(4), 10(6) and 10(8) c.f.u. in 20 µl PBS for 10 consecutive days, with mating of mice on day 12, the results showed 100 % decrease in fertility in all groups as compared with control mice receiving PBS alone. Furthermore, no clinical or histopathological changes were observed in the reproductive organs (i.e. ovary, uterus and vagina), suggesting that colonization of the genital tract with sperm-impairing micro-organisms could be a feasible reason for female infertility.

  17. [Effects of controlled-release fertilizer on chrysanthemum leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and ornamental quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xu-xu; Zheng, Cheng-shu; Sun, Xia; Ma, Hai-yan

    2011-07-01

    Taking cut flower chrysanthemum 'Baima' as test material, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of controlled-release fertilizer on the leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, chlorophyll and nutrient contents, and ornamental quality of chrysanthemum. Under no fertilization, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II in dark (F(v)/F(m)), potential photochemical efficiency of PS II (F(v)/F(0)), and quantum yield of PS II electron transport (phi(PS II)) decreased significantly, compared with those under fertilization. With the application of conventional compound fertilizers CCFA (N:P:K=20:8:10) and CCFB (N:P:K= 14:14:14), the F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(0) and phi(PS II) had a slight increase in early period (30-60 d) but a remarkable decrease in mid and later periods (75 - 120 d), compared with those under the application of controlled-release fertilizers CRFA (N:P:K = 20:8:10) and CRFB (N:P:K= 14:14:14). Under the application of CRFA, the F(v)/F(m), phi(PS II), and photochemical quenching (q(P)) had somewhat increase, as compared with the application of CRFB. The non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) under the application of CRFA and CRFB decreased significantly, compared with that under the application of CCFA and CCFB and the control. The chlorophyll content had a similar change trend with F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(0), and phi(PS II). The leaf N, P, and K contents, flower stalk length and stalk diameter, flower diameter, and flower fresh and dry mass at harvest stage all increased under the application of CRFA and CRFB, compared with those under the application of CCFA and CCFB and the control, and the flower fresh and dry mass was significantly higher under the application of CRFA than of CRFB. This study showed that controlled-release fertilizer could improve the ornamental quality of chrysanthemum via improving the leaf chlorophyll content, photochemical transduction rate, and nutrient uptake, and CRFA had better effects than CRFB.

  18. Using iron fertilizer to control Cd accumulation in rice plants: A new promising technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Effects of two kinds of iron fertilizer, FeSO4 and EDTA·Na2Fe were studied on cadmium accumulation in rice plants with two rice genotypes, Zhongzao 22 and Zhongjiazao 02, with soil culture systems. The results showed that application of iron fertilizers could hardly make adverse effects on plant growth and rice grain yield. Soil application of EDTA·Na2Fe significantly reduced the Cd accumulation in rice roots, shoots and rice grain. Cd concentration in white rice of both rice genotypes in the treatment of soil application of EDTA·Na2Fe was much lower than 0.2 mg/kg, the maximal Cd permission concentra- tion in cereal crop foods in State standard. However, soil application of FeSO4 or foliar application of FeSO4 or EDTA·Na2Fe resulted in the significant increase of Cd accumulation in rice plants including rice grain compared with the control. The results also showed iron fertilizers increased the concentra- tion of iron, copper and manganese element in rice grain and also affected zinc concentration in plants. It may be a new promising way to regulate Cd accumulation in rice grain in rice production through soil application of EDTA·Na2Fe fertilizers to maintain higher content of available iron and ferrous iron in soils.

  19. Using iron fertilizer to control Cd accumulation in rice plants: a new promising technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, GuoSheng; Chen, MingXue; Wang, DanYing; Xu, ChunMei; Mou, RenXiang; Cao, ZhaoYun; Zhang, XiuFu

    2008-03-01

    Effects of two kinds of iron fertilizer, FeSO4 and EDTA.Na2Fe were studied on cadmium accumulation in rice plants with two rice genotypes, Zhongzao 22 and Zhongjiazao 02, with soil culture systems. The results showed that application of iron fertilizers could hardly make adverse effects on plant growth and rice grain yield. Soil application of EDTA.Na2Fe significantly reduced the Cd accumulation in rice roots, shoots and rice grain. Cd concentration in white rice of both rice genotypes in the treatment of soil application of EDTA.Na2Fe was much lower than 0.2 mg/kg, the maximal Cd permission concentration in cereal crop foods in State standard. However, soil application of FeSO4 or foliar application of FeSO4 or EDTA.Na2Fe resulted in the significant increase of Cd accumulation in rice plants including rice grain compared with the control. The results also showed iron fertilizers increased the concentration of iron, copper and manganese element in rice grain and also affected zinc concentration in plants. It may be a new promising way to regulate Cd accumulation in rice grain in rice production through soil application of EDTA.Na2Fe fertilizers to maintain higher content of available iron and ferrous iron in soils.

  20. Using iron fertilizer to control Cd accumulation in rice plants: A new promising technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO GuoSheng; CHEN MingXue; WANG DanYing; XU ChunMei; MOU RenXiang; CAO ZhaoYun; ZHANG XiuFu

    2008-01-01

    Effects of two kinds of iron fertilizer, FeSO4 and EDTA·Na2Fe were studied on cadmium accumulation in rice plants with two rice genotypes, Zhongzao 22 and Zhongjiazao 02, with soil culture systems. The results showed that application of iron fertilizers could hardly make adverse effects on plant growth and rice grain yield. Soil application of EDTA.Na=Fe significantly reduced the Cd accumulation in rice roots, shoots and rice grain. Cd concentration in white rice of both rice genotypes in the treatment of soil application of EDTA·Na2Fe was much lower than 0.2 mg/kg, the maximal Cd permission concentration in cereal crop foods in State standard. However, soil application of FeSO4 or foliar application of FeSO4 or EDTA·Na2Fe resulted in the significant increase of Cd accumulation in rice plants including rice grain compared with the control. The results also showed iron fertilizers increased the concentration of iron, copper and manganese element in rice grain and also affected zinc concentration in plants.It may be a new promising way to regulate Cd accumulation in rice grain in rice production through soil application of EDTA·Na2Fe fertilizers to maintain higher content of available iron and ferrous iron in soils.

  1. Controlling fertilization and cAMP signaling in sperm by optogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Vera; Alvarez, Luis; Balbach, Melanie; Strünker, Timo; Hegemann, Peter; Kaupp, U Benjamin; Wachten, Dagmar

    2015-01-20

    Optogenetics is a powerful technique to control cellular activity by light. The light-gated Channelrhodopsin has been widely used to study and manipulate neuronal activity in vivo, whereas optogenetic control of second messengers in vivo has not been examined in depth. In this study, we present a transgenic mouse model expressing a photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (bPAC) in sperm. In transgenic sperm, bPAC mimics the action of the endogenous soluble adenylyl cyclase (SACY) that is required for motility and fertilization: light-stimulation rapidly elevates cAMP, accelerates the flagellar beat, and, thereby, changes swimming behavior of sperm. Furthermore, bPAC replaces endogenous adenylyl cyclase activity. In mutant sperm lacking the bicarbonate-stimulated SACY activity, bPAC restored motility after light-stimulation and, thereby, enabled sperm to fertilize oocytes in vitro. We show that optogenetic control of cAMP in vivo allows to non-invasively study cAMP signaling, to control behaviors of single cells, and to restore a fundamental biological process such as fertilization.

  2. Intercalation of urea into kaolinite for preparation of controlled release fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdavi Fariba; Abdul Rashid Suraya; Khanif Yusop Mohd

    2014-01-01

    In this study urea was intercalated between layers of kaolinite by dry grinding technique to be used for preparing controlled release fertilizer. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) patterns confirmed the intercalation of urea into kaolinite by the significant expansion of the basal spacing of kaolinite layers from 0.710 nm to 1.090 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) also confirmed the hydrogen bonding between urea and kaolinite. Based on CHNS ...

  3. Fertility Effects of Abortion and Birth Control Pill Access for Minors

    OpenAIRE

    GULDI, MELANIE

    2008-01-01

    This article empirically assesses whether age-restricted access to abortion and the birth control pill influence minors’ fertility in the United States. There is not a strong consensus in previous literature regarding the relationship between laws restricting minors’ access to abortion and minors’ birthrates. This is the first study to recognize that state laws in place prior to the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision enabled minors to legally consent to surgical treatment—including abortion—in some st...

  4. Intercalation of urea into kaolinite for preparation of controlled release fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdavi Fariba; Abdul Rashid Suraya; Khanif Yusop Mohd

    2014-01-01

    In this study urea was intercalated between layers of kaolinite by dry grinding technique to be used for preparing controlled release fertilizer. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) patterns confirmed the intercalation of urea into kaolinite by the significant expansion of the basal spacing of kaolinite layers from 0.710 nm to 1.090 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) also confirmed the hydrogen bonding between urea and kaolinite. Based on CHNS ...

  5. The Effects of Controlled Release Fertilizer and Conventional Complex Fertilizer on the Dry Matter Accumulation and the Yield in Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to research the use ratio of controlled release fertilizer in winter wheat. So, the experiment about the effects of Controlled Release Fertilizer (CRF and Conventional Complex Fertilizer (CCF on the dry matter accumulation and the grain yield in winter wheat has studied with pots in the open field. The results indicated that the CRF improved the proportion of the number of effective tillers to the total number of tillers. And the mixture of the CRF and equivalent CCF have more improved the proportion of the dry root weight to the total dry matters of the after of wheat flowering stage than that of the CRF used alone (T1, T2, T3. The treatment T6 was more improved the accumulation of the dry matters of aerial part than others. And the weight gain of T6 after a thesis was higher than other treatments and the control treatment (CK. In the facts of grain number per spike, thousand grain weight and yield, the treatments of the mixture of the CRF and equivalent CCF (T4,T5,T6 were higher than that of the treatments of CRF used only (T1,T2,T3 and CK, in which the T6 was highest. So, we think that this treatment namely T6 was used fertilizers least and gained the highest yield of grain.

  6. Nutrients Release from a Novel Gel-Based Slow/Controlled Release Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel gel-based slow/controlled release fertilizer (G-CRF was developed, which was produced by combining various natural, seminatural, and/or synthetic organic macromolecule materials and natural inorganic mineral with conventional NPK fertilizers. Its nutrient release characteristics were studied to compare with conventional fertilizers through the soil column leaching method. The influences of soil factors, including temperature, pH, water, and nutrient contents in the G-CRF on nutrient release, were also investigated through soil-water incubation method. These results indicated that the G-CRF had better effect on controlling release of N, P, and K nutrients, and the effect was more efficient when soil-water content was lower than 45% (w/w, temperature was below 35°C, and soil pH was in the range from weak acid to neutral. In addition, considering the effect of controlling nutrient release and cost of the materials in the G-CRF, it is recommended that the most feasible NPK nutrient contents in the G-CRF ranged from 30 to 35%.

  7. Intercalation of urea into kaolinite for preparation of controlled release fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdavi Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study urea was intercalated between layers of kaolinite by dry grinding technique to be used for preparing controlled release fertilizer. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD patterns confirmed the intercalation of urea into kaolinite by the significant expansion of the basal spacing of kaolinite layers from 0.710 nm to 1.090 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR also confirmed the hydrogen bonding between urea and kaolinite. Based on CHNS elemental analysis, 20% (wt. urea was intercalated between kaolinite layers. The urea-intercalated kaolinite was mixed with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC binder and was granulated to prepare the nitrogen-based controlled release fertilizer. To study the nitrogen release behavior of granules, ultraviolet/visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy was used through the diacetyl monoxime (DAM colorimetric method. The result of UV-Vis spectroscopy showed that intercalation of urea into kaolinite decreased the nitrogen release from 25.50 to 13.66 % after 24 hours and from 98.15 to 70.01% after 30 days incubation in water. According to the results, the prepared controlled release fertilizer (CRF behaved according to the standard for CRFs.

  8. [Effects of controlled-release fertilizers on summer maize grain yield, field ammonia volatilization, and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Dong, Shu-Ting; Wang, Kong-Jun; Zhang, Ji-Wang; Liu, Peng

    2009-11-01

    A field experiment with colophony-coated fertilizer (CRF) and sulfur-coated fertilizer (SCF) showed that under the same application rates of N, P and K, applying CRF and SCF increased the summer maize grain yield by 13.15% and 14.15%, respectively, compared to the application of common compound fertilizer CCF. When the applied amount of CRF and SCF was decreased by 25%, the yield increment was 9.69% and 10.04%, respectively; and when the applied amount of CRF and SCF was decreased by 50%, the yield had less difference with that under CCF application. The field ammonia volatilization rate in treatments CRF and SCF increased slowly, with a peak appeared 7 days later than that in treatment CCF, and the total amount of ammonia volatilization in treatments CRF and SCF was ranged from 0.78 kg N x hm(-2) to 4.43 kg N x hm(-2), with a decrement of 51.34%-91.34% compared to that in treatment CCF. The fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency of CRF and SCF were also significantly higher than those of CCF.

  9. [Soil biological activities at maize seedling stage under application of slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongpo; Wu, Zhijie; Chen, Lijun; Liang, Chenghua; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Weicheng; Yang, Defu

    2006-06-01

    With pot experiment and simulating field ecological environment, this paper studied the effects of different slow/ controlled release N fertilizers on the soil nitrate - reductase and urease activities and microbial biomass C and N at maize seedling stage. The results showed that granular urea amended with dicyandiamide (DCD) and N-(n-bultyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) induced the highest soil nitrate-reductase activity, granular urea brought about the highest soil urease activity and microbial biomass C and N, while starch acetate (SA)-coated granular urea, SA-coated granular urea amended with DCD, methyl methacrylate (MMA) -coated granular urea amended with DCD, and no N fertilization gave a higher soil urease activity. Soil microbial C and N had a similar variation trend after applying various kinds of test slow/controlled release N fertilizers, and were the lowest after applying SA-coated granular urea amended with DCD and NBPT. Coated granular urea amended with inhibitors had a stronger effect on soil biological activities than coated granular urea, and MMA-coating had a better effect than SA-coating.

  10. 体外受精中受精低下周期的促排卵方案及妊娠结局观察%Analysis of ovarian stimulation protocols and pregnancy outcomes of in vitro fertilization cycles with low fertilization rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金仁桃; 童先宏; 吴丽敏; 骆丽华; 周桂香; 栾红兵; 刘雨生

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析体外受精(IVF)周期受精低下的原因及妊娠结局.方法 观察IVF受精低下83周期(受精低下组),以同期受精正常的1,717个IVF周期为对照组,比较两组的卵裂率、优质胚胎率、种植率、临床妊娠率、流产率;同时观察不同促排方案对受精低下的影响.结果 两组不同促排方案的受精低下比率无显著差异(P>0.05);卵裂率、优质胚胎率、种植率、临床妊娠率、流产率也均无显著差异(P>0.05).结论 促排卵方案不是影响受精低下的因素,受精低下周期中获得的胚胎质量及发育潜能没有影响.%Objective: To analyze the possible reason and pregnancy outcomes of low fertilization rate cycle of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Methods: Eighty-three IVF cycles with low fertilization rate were retrospectively studied, with 1,717 cycles with normal fertilization rate during the same period as control. Cleavage rate, good embryo rate, clinical pregnancy rate, implantation rate and abortion rate were analyzed. The possible association of different ovarian stimulation protocols with low fertilization cycles was studied. Results: There was no significant difference in the incidence of low-fertilization-rate cycle between different stimulation protocols (P>0.05). The rates of cleavage, good embryo, implantation, clinical pregnancy or abortion were not significantly different between low-fertilization-rate cycles and normal control cycles (P>0.05). Conclusions: Ovarian stimulation protocol was not an influencing factor of low fertilization rate, and low fertilization rate did not have much impact on embryo quality and development potential.

  11. Preparation and Testing of Cementing and Coating Nano-Subnanocomposites of Slow/Controlled-Release Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiu-mei; FENG Zhao-bin; ZHANG Fu-dao; ZHANG Shu-qing; HE Xu-sheng

    2006-01-01

    To select the cementing and coating materials of slow/controlled-release fertilizer, the natural kaoline and abandoned foam plastics were used to prepare nano-subnanocomposites through the methods of organic material intercalation, semiemulsification, and cut at high velocity techniques. Besides, two kinds of nano-subnanocomposites were tested in this study using several instruments, including the scanning electron microscope (SEM), the X-ray diffraction (XRD), the infrared ray spectrum (IR), and the laser granularity. The main results were as follows: 1) The organic material was intercalated in the layers of kaoline clays, and the natural kaoline exfoliated into nanometer-sized layers. The organic agent and clays formed nanocomposites through hydrogen bond combination. 2) The SEM pictures of polystyrenestarch nano-subnanocomposites showed that many pores and rugas were present on the surface of film at sizes ranging from 10 to 20 nm. These nano-subnanocomposites were used as the cementing and coating materials of slow/controlledrelease fertilizer.

  12. Foliar Potassium Fertilizer Additives Affect Soybean Response and Weed Control with Glyphosate

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Kelly A.; Peter P. Motavalli; Stevens, William E.; Kendig, John A.; David Dunn; Manjula Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Research in 2004 and 2005 determined the effects of foliar-applied K-fertilizer sources (0-0-62-0 (%N-%P2O5-%K2O-%S), 0-0-25-17, 3-18-18-0, and 5-0-20-13) and additive rates (2.2, 8.8, and 17.6 kg K ha−1) on glyphosate-resistant soybean response and weed control. Field experiments were conducted at Novelty and Portageville with high soil test K and weed populations and at Malden with low soil test K and weed populations. At Novelty, grain yield increased with fertilizer additives at 8.8 kg K ...

  13. Menstrual patterns, fertility and main pregnancy outcomes after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodi, Sandra; Spinelli, Simonetta; Bruzzi, Paolo; Anserini, Paola; Di Grazia, Carmen; Bacigalupo, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Two-hundred and sixty-nine females aged ≤42 and undergoing an allogeneic stem cell transplant were retrospectively studied to assess the effect of age, conditioning regimen and chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) on resumption of stable menstrual cyclicity. Overall, a stable menstrual cyclicity was observed in 22% of cases. The cumulative probability of menses resumption was significantly age and conditioning regimen related. A statistically significant inverse correlation between cGVHD severity and menses resumption was observed only in univariate analysis. In patients with residual ovarian function, infertility was found in 43% and early menopause in 45%. An increased incidence of prematurity and low birth weight (LBW) was observed among the single spontaneous pregnancies. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and 17 beta-oestradiol levels were found to be inadequate to detect both early signs of menses resumption and menstrual stability. Our study confirms the crucial role of full dose total body irradiation (TBI) and age on menses recovery and fertility after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The impact of severe cGVHD remains unclear.

  14. Effects of solid water and foliar fertilizer on survival and growth of seedlings in sand prevention and control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yutao; LI Jiyue; LIU Ping

    2007-01-01

    To promote afforestation in sandy lands and increase the effects of prevention and control of desertification,the application of a new drought-resistant productsolid water and foliar fertilizer "Shifengle"-was studied.A comparison of three treatments (solid water,foliar fertilizer,and control) showed that both solid water and foliar fertilizer increased plant survival rate by 10% and 18.2%,respectively.Afforestation survival rates of Salix psammophila and Hedysarum mongolicum reached over 90%.In addition,height and crown growth as well as biomass of seedlings were improved by the treatments.

  15. Milder ovarian stimulation for in-vitro fertilization reduces aneuploidy in the human preimplantation embryo: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.B. Baart (Esther); E. Martini (Elena); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); D. van Opstal (Diane); N.G.M. Beckers (Nicole); A. Verhoeff (Arie); N.S. Macklon (Nick); B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: To test whether ovarian stimulation for in-vitro fertilization (IVF) affects oocyte quality and thus chromosome segregation behaviour during meiosis and early embryo development, preimplantation genetic screening of embryos was employed in a prospective, randomized controlled

  16. Effects of a controlled-release fertilizer on yield, nutrient uptake, and fertilizer usage efficiency in early ripening rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chang; Zhou, Xuan; Liu, Qiang; Peng, Jian-wei; Wang, Wen-ming; Zhang, Zhen-hua; Yang, Yong; Song, Hai-xing; Guan, Chun-yun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) are critical nutrient elements necessary for crop plant growth and development. However, excessive inputs will lead to inefficient usage and cause excessive nutrient losses in the field environment, and also adversely affect the soil, water and air quality, human health, and biodiversity. Methods: Field experiments were conducted to study the effects of controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) on seed yield, plant growth, nutrient uptake, and fertilizer usage efficiency for early ripening rapeseed (Xiangzayou 1613) in the red-yellow soil of southern China during 2011–2013. It was grown using a soluble fertilizer (SF) and the same amounts of CRF, such as SF1/CRF1 (3750 kg/hm2), SF2/CRF2 (3000 kg/hm2), SF3/CRF3 (2250 kg/hm2), SF4/CRF4 (1500 kg/hm2), SF5/CRF5 (750 kg/hm2), and also using no fertilizer (CK). Results: CRF gave higher seed yields than SF in both seasons by 14.51%. CRF4 and SF3 in each group achieved maximum seed yield (2066.97 and 1844.50 kg/hm2, respectively), followed by CRF3 (1929.97 kg/hm2) and SF4 (1839.40 kg/hm2). There were no significant differences in seed yield among CK, SF1, and CRF1 (P>0.05). CRF4 had the highest profit (7126.4 CNY/hm2) and showed an increase of 12.37% in seed yield, and it decreased by 11.01% in unit fertilizer rate compared with SF4. The branch number, pod number, and dry matter weight compared with SF increased significantly under the fertilization of CRF (Pfertilizer rate at maturity, and the N, P, and K usage efficiency decreased with increasing the fertilizer rate. The N, P, and K uptakes and usage efficiencies of the CRF were significantly higher than those of SF (Pefficiency of CRF increased by an average of 13.66% and 9.74 percentage points, respectively, compared to SF. In conclusion, CRF significantly promoted the growth of rapeseed with using total N as the base fertilizer, by providing sufficient N in the later growth stages, and last by reducing the

  17. A comparison of perinatal outcomes in singletons and multiples born after in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection stratified for neonatal risk criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesch, M.M. van; Evers, J.L.H.; Dumoulin, J.C.; Hoeven, M.A. van der; Beijsterveldt, C.E. van; Bonsel, G.J.; Dykgraaf, R.H.; Goudoever, J.B. van; Koopman-Esseboom, C.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Steiner, K.; Tamminga, P.; Tonch, N.; Zonneveld, P. van; Dirksen, C.D.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare perinatal singleton and multiple outcomes in a large Dutch in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) population and within risk subgroups. Newborns were assigned to a risk category based on gestational age, birthweight, Apgar score and congenital malf

  18. Evaluation of Methods for Control of Ammonia Volatilization from Surface—Applied Nitrogen Fertilizers to Sugarcane Trash in North Queensland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONGWEI-PING; A.W.WOOD; 等

    1993-01-01

    Micrometeorological and microplot experiments were conducted in the field of freshly harvested green cane in Queensland,Australia.Results showed that high ammonia loss of fertilizer N could occur under relatively dry conditions when urea or commercial product of mixture of urea and muriate of potash were applied to the surface of sugarcane trash.The moisture content in the trash and the pH of fertilizer were two important factors controlling the processes of urea hydrolysis and ammonia volatilization.Most of the N in the soil was transformed to the nitratel-nitrite from after 70 days of fertilizer application.No significant leaching was found.Urea-free N fertilizers had higher N recoveries compared to urea-containing fertilizers.

  19. Interpregnancy interval raise odds of adverse perinatal outcome in high fertility region Mewat, Haryana

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    Anam ul Haq

    2014-06-01

    Methods: Retrospective cross sectional study in which 400 meo women (para 2 to para 5 fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria having diverse interpregnancy intervals were selected. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess the risk of adverse perinatal outcome. Results: As compared with infants conceived within a time period of 16 to 48 months after a live birth, infants conceived within 16 months after a live birth had odds ratios of 2.1 (95% CI 1.3 to 3.5 for low birth weight, 2.2 (95% CI 1.3 to 3.8 for preterm birth, and 2.3 (95% CI 1.4 to 3.8 for small size for gestational age; infants conceived more than 48 months after a live birth had odds ratios of 1.88 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.1, 1.96 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.4, and 2.08 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.6 for these three adverse outcomes, respectively; P value <0.05. Conclusions: We came to conclusion that interpregnancy interval of 16 - 48 months is the optimal interval carrying least risk of adverse perinatal outcomes and both short as well as long interpregnancy intervals are significantly associated with birth of preterm, low birth weight and small for gestational age babies. Counselling regarding optimal interpregnancy interval and methods of contraception can go a long way in reducing adverse perinatal outcome. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 598-603

  20. Disease control through fertility control: Secondary benefits of animal birth control in Indian street dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoak, Andrew J; Reece, John F; Gehrt, Stanley D; Hamilton, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    We sought to (1) survey sexually intact street dogs for a wide range of diseases in three cities in Rajasthan, India and (2) evaluate links between the health of non-treated dogs and both the presence and duration of animal birth control (ABC) programs. ABC regimes sterilize and vaccinate stray dogs in an attempt to control their population and the spread of rabies. They are commonly suggested to improve the health of those dogs they serve, but here we provide evidence that these benefits also extend to untreated dogs in the community. Viral and bacterial disease seroprevalences were assessed in 240 sexually intact street dogs from Jaipur, Jodhpur, and Sawai Madhopur cities in October and September 2011. Those individuals and 50 additional dogs were assessed for the presence of ticks, fleas, fight wounds, and given body condition scores. Dogs in cities with an ABC program had with significantly (phepatitis, Ehrlichia canis, Leptospira interrogans serovars, and canine distemper virus antibodies. However, those same dogs in cities with ABC programs had significantly higher prevalence of Brown Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) infestations. Canine parvovirus and Brucella canis prevalences were not significantly different between cities. This study is the first to demonstrate the health benefits of ABC on non-vaccinated diseases and non-treated individuals. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of Body Mass Index on Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Among Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Cui

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of body mass index (BMI on outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF / intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI among polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS and non-PCOS patients. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study that was performed in the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University. Patients who were under 35 years old were included in the study and were divided into four groups based on their BMI. The number of retrieved oocytes, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate and live births among PCOS and non-PCOS patients were compared between different BMIs. Results: IVF/ICSI pregnancies in obese PCOS women had a considerably higher risk of miscarriage and low rate of clinical pregnancy than in non-obese PCOS pregnancies. However, in non-PCOS patient, obesity significantly elevated miscarriage rate but did not affect clinical pregnancy rate. Conclusion: Obesity in PCOS patients led to poor outcomes of IVF/ICSI.

  2. Data from the PALS (Pregnancy and Lifestyle Study, a Community-Based Study of Lifestyle on Fertility and Reproductive Outcome

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    Judith Helen Ford

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the possible effects of lifestyle on fertility and pregnancy outcome, the PALS (Pregnancy and Lifestyle study collected extensive data on a broad range of parameters termed ‘lifestyle’ from couples who were planning a natural (non-assisted pregnancy in the coming months. There was no intervention. Participants were recruited over a six year period from 1988 to 1993 in response to extensive promotion in the local media. Male and female partners were interviewed independently and all interviews were conducted prospectively before the couple attempted to conceive. The result of each month of ‘trying’ was recorded and pregnancies were confirmed by urine tests and by ultrasound. The length of gestation of each pregnancy was recorded and pregnancies at term were classified with respect to weight. Multiple pregnancies and/or babies with congenital abnormalities have been excluded from the dataset. The data is stored as an xls file and each variable has a codename. For each of 582 couples there are 355 variables, the codes for which are described in a separate metadata file. The questionnaire based data includes information about households, occupation, chemical exposures at work and home, diet, smoking, alcohol use, hobbies, exercise and health. Recorded observations include monthly pregnancy tests and pregnancy outcomes.

  3. Dystocia in sheep and goats: outcome and fertility following surgical and non-surgical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Bani Ismail

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cesarean section is a life-saving surgical procedure usually undertaken in sheep and goats that fail to deliver vaginally (dystocia. Unfortunately, there are no recent review articles in literature that summarize the results of published case reports and clinical trials concerning indications, surgical approaches and procedures and outcomes following cesarean section in sheep and goats. Therefore, the aim of this article was to compile available data related to dystocia and cesarean section in small ruminants. Fortunately, the incidence of dystocia in small ruminants is considered to be low. It can be caused by either maternal or fetal factors. Maternal-related dystocia is most commonly because of failure of cervical dilation, narrow birth canal and uterine inertia. Those related to fetal causes are usually associated with fetal malposition/presentation, feto-pelvic disproportion/fetal oversize, and fetal malformation. Manual extraction of the fetus may be attempted in most cases, however, early surgical intervention by performing cesarean section ensures satisfactory outcome. Cesarean section is usually performed in lateral recumbency through left paralumbar fossa or left paralumbar fossa oblique celiotomy under local analgesia. The success rates and post-operative complications in sheep and goats are underreported; however, early surgical intervention using aseptic technique usually results in a satisfactory outcome for both the dam and newborn with acceptable prognosis for future breeding soundness.

  4. Modeling controlled nutrient release from polymer coated fertilizers: diffusion release from single granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaviv, Avi; Raban, Smadar; Zaidel, Elina

    2003-05-15

    A comprehensive model describing the complex and "non-Fickian" (mathematically nonlinear) nature of the release from single granules of membrane coated, controlled release fertilizers (CRFs) is proposed consisting of three stages: i. a lag period during which water penetrates the coating of the granule dissolving part of the solid fertilizer in it ii. a period of linear release during which water penetration into and release out occur concomitantly while the total volume of the granules remains practically constant; and iii. a period of "decaying release", starting as the concentration inside the granule starts to decrease. A mathematical model was developed based on vapor and nutrient diffusion equations. The model predicts the release stages in terms of measurable geometrical and chemophysical parameters such as the following: the product of granule radius and coating thickness, water and solute permeability, saturation concentration of the fertilizer, and its density. The model successfully predicts the complex and "sigmoidal" pattern of release that is essential for matching plant temporal demand to ensure high agronomic and environmental effectiveness. It also lends itself to more complex statistical formulations which account for the large variability within large populations of coated CRFs and can serve for further improving CRF production and performance.

  5. Controlled outcome studies of child clinical hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinolfi, Barbara; Gava, Nicoletta

    2013-09-01

    Background Hypnosis is defined as "as an interaction in which the hypnotist uses suggested scenarios ("suggestions") to encourage a person's focus of attention to shift towards inner experiences". Aim of the work The focus of this review is to summarize the findings of controlled outcome studies investigating the potential of clinical hypnosis in pediatric populations. We will examine the following themes: anesthesia, acute and chronic pain, chemotherapy-related distress, along with other specific medical issues. Results Hypnosis is an effective method to reduce pain and anxiety before, during and after the administration of anesthetics, during local dental treatments, invasive medical procedures and in burn children. Hypnosis can be successfully used to manage recurrent headaches, abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome and chemotherapy-related distress. Hypnosis has an important role in managing symptoms and improving the quality of life of children suffering from asthma and cystic fibrosis and in facilitating the treatment of insomnia in school-age children. Finally, hypnosis can be effectively used for the treatment of some habitual disorders such as nocturnal enuresis and dermatologic conditions, including atopic dermatitis and chronic eczema Conclusions Clinical hypnosis seems to be a useful, cheap and side-effects free tool to manage fear, pain and several kinds of stressful experiences in pediatric populations. Children who receive self-hypnosis trainings achieve significantly greater improvements in their physical health, quality of life, and self-esteem.

  6. Effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on clinical outcomes for Chinese couples undergoing in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lin-Tao; Wang, Rui-Xue; He, Bing; Mo, Wei-Ying; Huang, Li; Wang, Shi-Kai; Mao, Xian-Bao; Cheng, Jun-Ping; Huang, Yue-Yue; Liu, RuiZhi

    2016-12-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on the fertilization rate, embryo development and pregnancy outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in a cohort of Chinese couples. Methods Infertile couples that had undergone assisted reproductive technology at our centre between January 2011 and December 2013 were included in this retrospective study. Fractions of prepared sperm samples were evaluated for sperm DNA fragmentation on the day of oocyte recovery. Results Of the 550 couples selected, 415 had undergone IVF and 135 ICSI. Sperm DNA fragmentation rate was significantly negatively correlated with the fertilization rate in the ICSI cycles but not the IVF cycles. No association was found between sperm DNA fragmentation and cleavage rate or good quality embryo formation rates in IVF or ICSI cycles. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the sperm DNA fragmentation rate was a statistically significant prognostic indicator of the clinical fertilization rate in ICSI cycles; a rate > 22.3% was associated with a lower fertilization rate following ICSI compared with a rate ≤ 22.3%. Conclusions High values of sperm DNA fragmentation were associated with a low fertilization rate following ICSI but were not associated with alterations in pregnancy or live birth rates in either ICSI or IVF in this cohort of Chinese couples.

  7. Comparison of clinical outcomes between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in IVF-ICSI split insemination cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Jae Hyun; Park, Yong-Seog; Yang, Kwang Moon; Lim, Chun Kyu

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in sibling oocytes. Additionally, we evaluated whether the implementation of split insemination contributed to an increase in the number of ICSI procedures. A total of 571 cycles in 555 couples undergoing split insemination cycles were included in this study. Among them, 512 cycles (89.7%) were a couple's first IVF cycle. The patients were under 40 years of age and at least 10 oocytes were retrieved in all cycles. Sibling oocytes were randomly allocated to IVF or ICSI. Total fertilization failure was significantly more common in IVF cycles than in ICSI cycles (4.0% vs. 1.4%, p<0.05), but the low fertilization rate among retrieved oocytes (as defined by fertilization rates greater than 0% but <30%) was significantly higher in ICSI cycles than in IVF cycles (17.2% vs. 11.4%, p<0.05). The fertilization rate of ICSI among injected oocytes was significantly higher than for IVF (72.3%±24.3% vs. 59.2%±25.9%, p<0.001), but the fertilization rate among retrieved oocytes was significantly higher in IVF than in ICSI (59.2%±25.9% vs. 52.1%±22.5%, p<0.001). Embryo quality before embryo transfer was not different between IVF and ICSI. Although the sperm parameters were not different between the first cycle and the second cycle, split insemination or ICSI was performed in 18 of the 95 cycles in which a second IVF cycle was performed. The clinical outcomes did not differ between IVF and ICSI in split insemination cycles. Split insemination can decrease the risk of total fertilization failure. However, unnecessary ICSI is carried out in most split insemination cycles and the use of split insemination might make ICSI more common.

  8. Combined GnRH-agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin trigger improves ICSI cycle outcomes in patients with history of poor fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Rony T; Pereira, Nigel; Artusa, Lisa; Kelly, Amelia G; Pasternak, Monica; Lekovich, Jovana P; Palermo, Gianpiero D; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of a combined GnRH-agonist (GnRH-a) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger in improving ICSI cycle outcomes in patients with poor fertilization history after standard hCG trigger in prior ICSI cycles. Retrospective cohort study. Patients with a fertilization rate of trigger were compared to those who underwent another ICSI cycle with a combined GnRH-a and hCG trigger. Oocyte maturity, fertilization, clinical pregnancy, and live birth rates were compared. A multiple linear regression model was used to explore the association between combined GnRH-a and hCG trigger (vs hCG trigger alone) and fertilization rate. A total of 427 patients with mean age of 37.3 ± 1.94 years and mean baseline fertilization rate of 17.9 ± 2.03% were included, of which 318 (74.5%) and 109 (25.5%) patients underwent a subsequent ICSI cycle with hCG and combined GnRH-a and hCG trigger, respectively. The baseline parameters of the male and female partner were similar. The mean fertilization rate in the combined trigger group was 16.4% (95% CI: 7.58-25.2%) higher than the hCG trigger group, even after adjustment for confounders. Patients in the combined trigger group had higher oocyte maturity (82.1 vs 69.8%), higher clinical pregnancy (27.5 vs 5.67%), and higher live birth rates (20.2 vs 3.46%) compared to the hCG trigger group. Combined GnRH-a and hCG trigger in ICSI cycles increase oocyte maturity, fertilization, clinical pregnancy, and live birth rates in patients with a history of poor fertilization after standard hCG trigger alone.

  9. Population ecology of feral horses in an era of fertility control management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, J.I.

    2012-01-01

    Management of wildlife often requires intervention to regulate growth of populations that would otherwise become overabundant. Controlling fecundity using contraceptives has become an increasingly popular tool for attempting to manage locally overabundant wildlife species, but the population-level effects of such applications are largely unknown. Contraceptive treatments can produce unexpected feedbacks that act on births, survival, immigration, and emigration. Such feedbacks may considerably influence our ability to regulate populations using fertility control. I followed feral horses (Equus caballus) in three intensively managed populations to assess longitudinal treatment effects on demography. The transient contraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) produced longer duration of infertility than intended. Repeated PZP vaccinations of females extended the duration of infertility far beyond the targeted management period, with time to first post-treatment parturition increasing 411days for every annual inoculation received. When these animals did conceive and give birth, parturition was later in the year and temporally asynchronous with forage abundance. An average of 30% (range=11–77%) of females were contracepted annually during the treatment period in all three populations and apparent annual population growth rate was 4–9% lower in the post-treatment years as compared to pretreatment years. Population growth was positive, however, and increased steadily every year that a management removal did not occur. The observed number of births was 33% fewer than the expected number of births, based on number of treated females, individual efficacy of treatment, and number of untreated females and their age-specific fecundity rates. Only half of this difference was explained by the apparent residual effect of treatment. Birth rate in the youngest untreated females (age 2–5 years old) was reduced in years when their conspecifics were treated, enhancing the effects of

  10. Evaluation of Animal Dungs and Organomineral Fertilizer for the Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Sweet Potato

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    Oluremi Solomon Osunlola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is an important animate pathogen causing major damage and severe reductions in the growth, yield, and quality of sweet potato. Nematicides are expensive and their application also causes environmental pollution. A field experiment was therefore conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of poultry dung (10 or 20 t/ha, cow dung (10 or 20 t/ha, horse dung (10 or 20 t/ha, goat dung (10 or 20 t/ha, organomineral fertilizer (2 or 4 t/ha, and carbofuran (3 kg a.i/ha in the management of M. incognita on sweet potato using a randomized complete block design. The unamended plots served as control. Data were analysed using ANOVA (p≤0.05. All organic materials and carbofuran significantly (p≤0.05 reduced nematode reproduction and root damage compared with control. Poultry dung (10 and 20 t/ha and carbofuran were, however, more efficient in nematode control than other organic materials. Sweet potato plants that were grown on soil treated with organomineral fertilizer had the highest mean number of vines and fresh shoot weight, while poultry dung improved sweet potato quality and yield. It is therefore recommended that the use of poultry dung be employed in combination with other nematode control strategies to achieve sustainable, economic, and environment-friendly nematode management.

  11. Response of faba bean to phosphate fertilizer and weed control on nitisols of ethiopian highlands

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    Getachew Agegnehu

    Full Text Available The effects of phosphorus fertilizer and weed control on yield and major yield components of faba bean (Vicia faba L. were studied on Nitisols of Ethiopian highlands. Factorial combinations of four levels of phosphorus fertilizer (0, 10, 20 and 30 kg P ha-1 as triple super phosphate (TSP and two levels of weeding (W1 = no weeding and W2 = hand weeding once six weeks after crop emergence were laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that highly significant positive responses of number of pods per plant, total biomass and seed yields of faba bean to phosphorus fertilizer and weeding treatments were noted. Phosphorus level × weed control interaction over three years significantly (P ≤ 0.05 affected faba bean seed yield at Rob Gebeya but not at Welmera. Phosphorus application at the rates of 10, 20 and 30 kg P ha-1 resulted in mean seed yield increases compared to the control of 20, 41 and 53%, respectively on the average of locations; 13, 33 and 51%, respectively at Welmera, and 26, 48 and 55%, respectively at Rob Gebeya.Weeding once increased mean seed yields of faba bean by 25% on the average (35 and 17% at Welmera and Rob Gebeya, respectively compared to unweeded check. Seed yield was positively correlated with total biomass and number of pods per plant (r = 0.95*** and 0.75***, respectively at Welmera, and (r = 0.94*** and 0.55**, respectively at Rob Gebeya. The results of economic analysis indicated that the highest marginal rate of return was obtained from weeding once six weeks after crop emergence and application of 20 kg P ha-1, which is economically the most feasible alternative on Nitisols of central Ethiopian highlands.

  12. Fertilizer standards for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture: El Salobral-Los Llanos case study, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Haro, S.; Llopis-Albert, C.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Pulido-Velazquez, D.

    2010-10-01

    SummaryAlthough the legislation on groundwater quality targets pollutant concentration, the effects of measures on non-point source pollution control are often evaluated in terms of their emission reduction potential at the source, not on their capacity of reducing the pollutant concentration in groundwater. This paper applies a hydro-economic modelling framework to an aquifer, El Salobral-Los Llanos aquifer (Mancha Oriental, Spain), where nitrate concentrations higher than those allowed by the EU Water Framework Directive and Groundwater Directive are locally found due to the intense fertilizer use in irrigated crops. The approach allows defining the economically optimal allocation of spatially variable fertilizer standards in agricultural basins using a hydro-economic model that links the fertilizer application with groundwater nitrate concentration at different control sites while maximizing net economic benefits. The methodology incorporates results from agronomic simulations, groundwater flow and transport into a management framework that yields the fertilizer allocation that maximizes benefits in agriculture while meeting the environmental standards. The cost of applying fertilizer standards was estimated as the difference between the private net revenues from actual application and the scenarios generated considering the application of the standards. Furthermore, the cost of applying fertilizer standards was compared with the cost of taxing nitrogen fertilizers in order to reduce the fertilizer use to a level that the nitrate concentration in groundwater was below the limit. The results show the required reduction of fertilizer application in the different crop areas depending on its location with regards to the control sites, crop types and soil-plant conditions, groundwater flow and transport processes, time horizon for meeting the standards, and the cost of implementing such a policy (as forgone benefits). According to the results, a high fertilizer price

  13. Perinatal outcomes by mode of assisted conception and sub-fertility in an Australian data linkage cohort.

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    Jennifer L Marino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fertility treatment is associated with increased risk of major birth defects, which varies between in vitro fertilisation (IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, and is significantly reduced by embryo freezing. We therefore examined a range of additional perinatal outcomes for these exposures. METHODS: All patients in South Australia receiving assisted conception between Jan 1986-Dec 2002 were linked to the state-wide perinatal collection (all births/stillbirths ≥20 weeks gestation or 400 g birth weight, n = 306 995. We examined stillbirth, mean birth weight, low birth weight (90th percentile, preterm birth (32-<37 weeks, <32 weeks gestation, postterm birth (≥41 weeks gestation, Apgar <7 at 5 minutes and neonatal death. RESULTS: Relative to spontaneous conceptions, singletons from assisted conception were more likely to be stillborn (OR = 1.82, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.34-2.48, while survivors as a group were comprehensively disadvantaged at birth, including lower birth weight (-109 g, CI -129--89, very low birth weight (OR = 2.74, CI 2.19-3.43, very preterm birth (OR = 2.30, CI 1.82-2.90 and neonatal death (OR = 2.04, CI 1.27-3.26. Outcomes varied by type of assisted conception. Very low and low birth weight, very preterm and preterm birth, and neonatal death were markedly more common in singleton births from IVF and to a lesser degree, in births from ICSI. Using frozen-embryos eliminated all significant adverse outcomes associated with ICSI but not with IVF. However, frozen-embryo cycles were also associated with increased risk of macrosomia for IVF and ICSI singletons (OR = 1.36, CI 1.02-1.82; OR = 1.55, CI 1.05-2.28. Infertility status without treatment was also associated with adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Births after assisted conception show an extensive range of compromised outcomes that vary by treatment modality, that are substantially reduced after embryo freezing, but which

  14. Productivity of irrigated beans due to sources of stabilized nitrogen fertilizer and controlled release

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiely Gomes Bernardes; Pedro Marques da Silveira; Marcia Thaís de Melo Carvalho; Beáta Emöke Madari; Maria da Conceição Santana Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT New nitrogen fertilizers are available in the market actually, however, does not have results on the efficiency of the Cerrado conditions. With that objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of urea including stabilized and controlled release urea on yield of irrigated common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L) in no-tillage system. The experiment was conducted in the winter crop, at Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, State of Goiás, Brazil. The experimental design ...

  15. Promoting fertilizer use via controlled release of a bacteria-encapsulated film bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-San

    2010-05-26

    A phosphate-solubilizing bacterium ( Burkholderia cepacia isolate) encapsulated in maleic anhydride (MA) grafted onto poly(butylene succinate adipate) (PBSA) and then combined with starch as film bag material (PBSA-g-MA/starch) incubated in a saline solution required approximately 20 days to deplete the starch in the film bags. Thereafter, the cell concentration in the saline solution increased significantly because of the release of cells from the severely destroyed film bags and also their growth by use of depolymerized PBSA-g-MA fragments as a substrate. The incubation proceeded for 60 days, by which time the PBSA-g-MA/starch composite had suffered a >80% weight loss. For practical application, effectiveness of the above-mentioned film bags was demonstrated because it could improve the absorbability of a fertilizer for plants and promote the growth of plants. As a result, it can avoid the accumulation of the phosphate in excess fertilizer that lead to the phenomenon of poor soils. These results demonstrate that PBSA-g-MA/starch can be used to encapsulate cells of an indigenous phosphate-solubilizing bacterium ( B. cepacia isolate) to form a controlled release of bacteria-encapsulated film bag (BEFB). The B. cepacia isolate was able to degrade the film bags material, causing cell release. Biodegradability of the film bags depended upon the type of material used, because the PBSA film bags were also degraded but to a lesser degree. The addition of starch made the film bags more biodegradable. The decrease in intrinsic viscosity was also higher for the starch composite, suggesting a strong connection between the biodegradability and these characteristics. The results suggest that the release of fertilizer-promoted bacteria might be controllable via a suitable film bag material formulation. In addition, this work adopted live bacteria to promote the absorption of phosphate, which is superior to the phosphate used in the traditional way.

  16. Effects of Film-Degraded Rice Controlled Release Fertilizer on the Nitrogen Uptake and Yield of the Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Field experiment was carried out to nitrogen release characteristics of rice controlled release fertilizer (RCRF) coated with natural and half natural high molecular materials, and to thereof effects on the nitrogen uptake and yield of early and late hybrid rice from 1999 to 2000, with urea as control.In experimental fields regardless of early and late seasons, the amount of N in the plants increased exponentially at the early growth stage (y=abx) and nonlinearly at the middle and late growth stages (y=a+bx+cx2).Rice controlled release fertilizer lengthened the exponential phase and increased the parameter -b/c during the nonlinear phase. Although the N amount of plants was less in rice controlled release fertilizer plots than in urea plots within 20 days after transplanting, at the heading and maturity stages, the N amount of plants in rice controlled release fertilizer plots was above two times greater than in the urea plots due to the higher N recovery, and the high absorption density of N in the nonlinear phase. Tillers pattern and achievement of the maximum tillering stage varied with fertilizer types. The maximum tillering stage in the urea plots occurred a week earlier than in the rice controlled release fertilizer plots. Yield sink size and potential sink size of the plants reflected the N absorption pattern and the amount of N in the plants. The yields of early and late rice with 90 kg N ha-1of rice controlled release fertilizer were respectively increased by 832.7 kg ha-1 and 412.8 kg ha-1 than those with 90 kg N ha-1 of urea, almost equivalent to the yield of early and late hybrid rice with 180 kg N ha-1 of urea.

  17. Fertility effects of abortion and birth control pill access for minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldi, Melanie

    2008-11-01

    This article empirically assesses whether age-restricted access to abortion and the birth control pill influence minors' fertility in the United States. There is not a strong consensus in previous literature regarding the relationship between laws restricting minors' access to abortion and minors' birth rates. This is the first study to recognize that state laws in place prior to the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision enabled minors to legally consent to surgical treatment-including abortion-in some states but not in others, and to construct abortion access variables reflecting this. In this article, age-specific policy variables measure either a minor's legal ability to obtain an abortion or to obtain the birth control pill without parental involvement. I find fairly strong evidence that young women's birth rates dropped as a result of abortion access as well as evidence that birth control pill access led to a drop in birth rates among whites.

  18. Paternal obesity negatively affects male fertility and assisted reproduction outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jared M; Lane, Michelle; Owens, Julie A; Bakos, Hassan W

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review investigated the effect of paternal obesity on reproductive potential. Databases searched were Pubmed, Ovid, Web of Science, Scopus, Cinahl and Embase. Papers were critically appraised by two reviewers, and data were extracted using a standardized tool. Outcomes were: likelihood of infertility, embryo development, clinical pregnancy, live birth, pregnancy viability, infant development, sperm; concentration, morphology, motility, volume, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and seminal plasma factors. Thirty papers were included, with a total participant number of 115,158. Obese men were more likely to experience infertility (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.53-1.79), their rate of live birth per cycle of assisted reproduction technology (ART) was reduced (OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.97) and they had a 10% absolute risk increase of pregnancy non-viability. Additionally, obese men had an increased percentage of sperm with low MMP, DNA fragmentation, and abnormal morphology. Clinically significant differences were not found for conventional semen parameters. From these findings it can be concluded that male obesity is associated with reduced reproductive potential. Furthermore, it may be informative to incorporate DNA fragmentation analysis and MMP assessment into semen testing, especially for obese men whose results suggest they should have normal fertility.

  19. Design and integration of components for site specific control of fertilizer application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergeijk, van J.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: Precision Agriculture, Site Specific Agriculture, Global Positioning System, GPS, Fertilizer Application, Information System.

    Spatial and temporal variability in soil, crop and climate characteristics results in non optimal use of fertilizers when the application

  20. Effect of fertilization rate difference after IVF on the clinical outcome of half-ICSI%half-ICSI中IVF受精率的差异对临床结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜红姿; 刘寒艳; 龙晓林; 孙筱放; 张伟良

    2011-01-01

    fertilization) after IVF, and control group was consisted of 19 half-ICSI cycles with normal fertilization (defined as ≥ 65% fertilization) at the same time.Results: The fertilization rate, cleavage rate, good quality embryo rate, implantation rate, pregnancy rate and delivery rate in total fertilization failure after IVF were 68.94%, 95.50%, 53.77%, 19.23%, 33.33%, 33.33%, 0%, respectively; and in low fertilization after IVF those were 71.43%, 94.4%, 52.54%, 18.75%, 36.84%, 31.58%, 14.29%,respectively.There was no significant differences (P>0.05) between study group and the control (81.34%,97.25 %, 55.66%, 21.74%, 36.84%, 36.84%, 0%) except for fertilization rate (P<0.05).Sperm analysis outcome had no significantly differences in among 3 groups.Conclusion: IVF fertilization failure in half-ICSI cycles would effect the fertilization rate after ICSI, but there is no significant influence to embryo development and pregnancy outcome.

  1. Efficacy of oxytocin antagonist infusion in improving in vitro fertilization outcomes on the day of embryo transfer: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seul Ki; Han, E-Jung; Kim, Sun Mie; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Jee, Byung Chul; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2016-12-01

    Uterine contraction induced by the embryo transfer (ET) process has an adverse effect on embryo implantation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oxytocin antagonist supplementation on the day of ET on in vitro fertilization outcomes via a meta-analysis. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Four online databases (Embase, Medline, PubMed, and Cochrane Library) were searched through May 2015 for RCTs that investigated oxytocin antagonist supplementation on the day of ET. Studies were selected according to predefined inclusion criteria and meta-analyzed using RevMan 5.3. Only RCTs were included in this study. The main outcome measures were the clinical pregnancy rate, the implantation rate, and the miscarriage rate. A total of 123 studies were reviewed and assessed for eligibility. Three RCTs, which included 1,020 patients, met the selection criteria. The implantation rate was significantly better in patients who underwent oxytocin antagonist infusion (19.8%) than in the control group (11.3%) (n=681; odds ratio [OR], 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-2.96). No significant difference was found between the two groups in the clinical pregnancy rate (n=1,020; OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 0.92-2.67) or the miscarriage rate (n=456; OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.44-1.33). The results of this meta-analysis of the currently available literature suggest that the administration of an oxytocin antagonist on the day of ET improves the implantation rate but not the clinical pregnancy rate or miscarriage rate. Additional, large-scale, prospective, randomized studies are necessary to confirm these findings.

  2. [Nutrient use efficiency and yield-increasing effect of single basal application of rice specific controlled release fertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiansheng; Xu, Peizhi; Tang, Shuanhu; Zhang, Fabao; Xie, Chunsheng

    2005-10-01

    A series of pot and field experiments and field demonstrations showed that in comparing with the commonly used specific-fertilizers containing same amounts of nutrients, single basal application of rice-specific controlled release fertilizer could increase the use efficiency of N and P by 12.2% - 22.7% and 7.0% - 35.0%, respectively in pot experiment, and the use efficiency of N by 17.1% in field experiment. In 167 field demonstrations successively conducted for 3 years in various rice production areas of Guangdong Province, single basal application of the fertilizer saved the application rate of N and P by 22.1% and 21.8%, respectively, and increased the yield by 8.2%, compared with normal split fertilization.

  3. The ESEP study: Salpingostomy versus salpingectomy for tubal ectopic pregnancy; The impact on future fertility: A randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Mello Norah M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For most tubal ectopic pregnancies (EP surgery is the treatment of first choice. Whether surgical treatment should be performed conservatively (salpingostomy or radically (salpingectomy in women wishing to preserve their reproductive capacity, is subject to debate. Salpingostomy preserves the tube, but bears the risks of both persistent trophoblast and repeat ipsilateral tubal EP. Salpingectomy, avoids these risks, but leaves only one tube for reproductive capacity. This study aims to reveal the trade-off between both surgical options: whether the potential advantage of salpingostomy, i.e. a better fertility prognosis as compared to salpingectomy, outweighs the potential disadvantages, i.e. persistent trophoblast and an increased risk for a repeat EP. Methods/Design International multi centre randomised controlled trial comparing salpingostomy versus salpingectomy in women with a tubal EP without contra lateral tubal pathology. Hemodynamically stable women with a presumptive diagnosis of tubal EP, scheduled for surgery, are eligible for inclusion. Patients pregnant after in vitro fertilisation (IVF and/or known documented tubal pathology are excluded. At surgery, a tubal EP must be confirmed. Only women with a tubal EP amenable to both interventions and a healthy contra lateral tube are included. Salpingostomy and salpingectomy are performed according to standard procedures of participating hospitals. Up to 36 months after surgery, women will be contacted to assess their fertility status at six months intervals starting form the day of the operation. The primary outcome measure is the occurrence of spontaneous viable intra uterine pregnancy. Secondary outcome measures are persistent trophoblast, repeat EP, all pregnancies including those resulting from IVF and financial costs. The analysis will be performed according to the intention to treat principle. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed within a decision

  4. Outcomes in registered, ongoing randomized controlled trials of patient education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Pino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the increasing prevalence of chronic noncommunicable diseases, patient education is becoming important to strengthen disease prevention and control. We aimed to systematically determine the extent to which registered, ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluated an educational intervention focus on patient-important outcomes (i.e., outcomes measuring patient health status and quality of life. METHODS: On May 6, 2009, we searched for all ongoing RCTs registered in the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry platform. We used a standardized data extraction form to collect data and determined whether the outcomes assessed were 1 patient-important outcomes such as clinical events, functional status, pain, or quality of life or 2 surrogate outcomes, such as biological outcome, treatment adherence, or patient knowledge. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We selected 268 of the 642 potentially eligible studies and assessed a random sample of 150. Patient-important outcomes represented 54% (178 of 333 of all primary outcomes and 46% (286 of 623 of all secondary outcomes. Overall, 69% of trials (104 of 150 used at least one patient-important outcome as a primary outcome and 66% (99 of 150 as a secondary outcome. Finally, for 31% of trials (46 of 150, primary outcomes were only surrogate outcomes. The results varied by medical area. In neuropsychiatric disorders, patient important outcomes represented 84% (51 of 61 of primary outcomes, as compared with 54% (32 of 59 in malignant neoplasm and 18% (4 of 22 in diabetes mellitus trials. In addition, only 35% assessed the long-term impact of interventions (i.e., >6 months. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to improve the relevance of outcomes and to assess the long term impact of educational interventions in RCTs.

  5. Release Characteristics of Different N Forms in an Uncoated Slow/Controlled Release Compound Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yan; WANG Zheng-yin

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the release characteristics of different N forms in an uncoated slow/controlled-release compound fertilizer (UCRF) and the N uptake and N-use efficiency by rice plants. Water dissolution, soil leaching, and pot experiments were employed. The dynamics of N release from the UCRF could be quantitatively described by three equations: the first-order kinetics equation [Nt = N0 (1-e-kt)], Elovich equation (Nt = a + blnt), and parabola equation (Nt = a + bt0.5), with the best fitting by the first-order kinetics equation for different N (r= 0.9569**-0.9999**). The release potentials (N0 values estimated by the first-order kinetics equation) of different N in the UCRF decreased in the order of total N > DON > urea-N > NH4+-N > NO3--N in water, and total N > NH4+-N > DON > urea-N > NO3--N in soil, respectively,being in accordance with cumulative amounts of N release. The constants of N release rate (k values and b values) for different N forms were in decreasing order of total N > DON > NH4+-N > NO3--N in water, whereas the k values were urea-N >DON > NH4+-N > total N > NO3--N, and the b values were total N > NH4+-N > DON > NO3--N > urea-N in soil. Compared with a common compound fertilizer, the N-use efficiency, N-agronomy efficiency, and N-physiological efficiency of the UCRF were increased by 11.4%, 8.32 kg kg-1, and 5.17 kg kg-1, respectively. The ratios of different N to total N in the UCRF showed significant correlation with N uptake by rice plants. The findings showed that the first-order kinetics equation [Nt=N0(1-e-kt)] could be used to describe the release characteristics of different N forms in the fertilizer. The UCRF containing different N forms was more effective in facilitating N uptake by rice compared with the common compound fertilizer containing single urea-N form.

  6. [Effects of controlled release nitrogen fertilizer application on dry matter accumulation and nitrogen balance of summer maize].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Dong-Xia; Cui, Zhen-Ling; Chen, Xin-Ping; Lü, Fu-Tang

    2014-06-01

    Effects of four controlled release nitrogen (N) fertilizers, including two kinds of polyester coated urea (Ncau, CRU) and phosphate (NhnP) and humic acid (NhnF) coated urea on assimilates accumulation and nitrogen balance of summer maize were investigated in a mode of one-time fertilization at the regional N recommended rate. The results showed that the N release curves of the two controlled release fertilizers CRU and Ncau matched well with the summer maize N uptake. Compared with the regional N recommendation rate, CRU could increase maize yield by 4.2% and Ncau could maintain the same yield level. CRU significantly increased the dry matter accumulation rate after anthesis of summer maize, but Ncau markedly increased the dry matter accumulated ratio before anthesis. Meanwhile, CRU could reduce the apparent N losses by 19 kg N x hm(-2) in the case of large precipitation. However, NhnF and NhnP caused the yield losses by 0.1%-8.9%, and enhanced the apparent N losses. Therefore, both CRU and Ncau with one-time fertilization could be a simplified alternative to the "total control, staging regulation" fertilization technique at the regional N recommended rate for summer maize production.

  7. Preschool Children's Control of Action Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freier, Livia; Cooper, Richard P.; Mareschal, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Naturalistic goal-directed behaviours require the engagement and maintenance of appropriate levels of cognitive control over relatively extended intervals of time. In two experiments, we examined preschool children's abilities to maintain top-down control throughout the course of a sequential task. Both 3- and 5-year-olds demonstrated good…

  8. SOLID POLYMERIC MATRIX BASED ON CHITOSAN AND XANTHAN FOR CONTROLLED RELEASE OF FERTILIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A. Melaj

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work was to optimize the preparation conditions of solid polymeric matrix based on Chitosan and Xanthan, to be used in the controlled release of fertilizers. KNO3 was chosen as model agrochemical to be released. Both individual polymers and the Xanthan:Chitosan complex are biocompatible, leaving a residue on the soil which is non-toxic. The influence of different variables on the release pattern was studied: the type of polymer, the pressed conditions of the tablets and the presence of a drug-free polymeric coating. The polymer that presented a more promising release profile was Xanthan. The compression pressure applied to prepare the tablets was a more relevant variable than the compression time, in its effect on the kinetics of release. It was determined that the coating of the polymer matrix with crosslinked chitosan-glutaraldehyde allows getting a larger release time.

  9. Synthesis and Performance of Polyurethane Coated Urea as Slow/controlled Release Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qingshan; WU Shu; RU Tiejun; WANG Limin; XING Guangzhong; WANG Jinming

    2012-01-01

    Polyurethane coated urea slow/controlled release fertilizer was prepared based on urea granules,isocyanate,polyols and paraffin.Isocyanate reacted with polyols to synthesize the polyurethane skin layer on urea granules surface.Paraffin serves as a lubricant during syntheses of polyurethane skin layers.The structure and nutrient release characteristics of the polyurethane skin layers were investigated by FTIR,SEM and TG.Urea nitrogen slow-release behavior of the polyurethane coated urea was tested.The experimental results indicated that compact and dense polyurethane skin layers with a thickness of 10-15 μm were formed on urea surface,the urea nitrogen slow-release time can reach 40-50 days.Paraffin proves to play a key role in inhibiting water to penetrate into urea,but excessive addition would decrease the polyurethane crosslinking density.

  10. Phosphorus Characteristics with Controlled Nitrogen in Fertile Soils in Protected Vegetable Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Heng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an unreasonable phenomenon of fertilization in vegetable facility cultivation, with the serious imbalance of soil nutrient. In purpose of understanding the absorption characteristics of phosphorus from nitrogen-rich soil, a long-term nitrogen-controlled experiment was carried from the year 2004 to 2007, and a split plot experiment of leaching was carried in winter-spring season of 2007. The results showed that the content of phosphorus varied with different nitrogen control. The TP was decreased with nitrogen supply of none(NN 、organic manure(MN 、organic manure and straw(MN+S, and the decreased range was NN>MN>MN+S, meanwhile the increase range of TP was traditional-nitrogen(CN >traditional-nitrogen+straw(CN+S >optimized-nitrogen+straw(SN+S >optimized-nitrogen(SN. The available P with CN and CN+S reached to 213.7 mg· kg -1 、225.4 mg·kg -1, which increased by 17.1 percent and 23.5 percent, which declared the phosphorus was accumulated; The available P with other nitrogen controlled decreased with the range of NN>MN>MN+S>SN+S>SN跃CN>CN+S, which showed that the supply reduction of nitrogen could slowdown the phosphorus accumulated and promote the utilization ratio of phosphorus. The organophosphorus was increased except NN, with obvious increase with CN、CN+S(308.4 mg·kg -1 、331.4 mg·kg -1 by 28.5 percent and 38.2 percent. The absorption coefficient of phosphorus with SN+S(P 2 O 5,mg· 100 g -1 reached to 1 571, increased by 143.6 percent; Otherwise the absorption coefficient of phosphorus with CN、CN+S showed negative growth, the CN dipped to 416(P 2 O 5,mg·100 g -1 by 35.5 percent. Adding wheat straw could greatly improved the capacity of absorption of phosphorus and slow down the accumulation of available phosphorus to some extent. The concentrations of total phosphorus in the filtrate with SN+S were less than SN, contrary to the concentration of organophosphorus, thus the straw returning had a certain effect on

  11. Biology of male fertility control: an overview of various male contraceptive approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsiani, D R; Abou-Haila, A

    2015-04-01

    The population of our planet continues to grow at an alarming rate. If the growth continues at the present rate, the estimated current world population of about seven billion is expected to double in the next forty years. Accumulated data from surveys by the United Nations Population Control Division suggest that a majority of today's young men in many countries are willing to have fewer children than their parents did. However, the contraceptive options available to them have not changed in several decades. In spite of the general agreement that men, like women, must take full responsibility of their fertility, the availability of safe, reversible and affordable contraceptives for men have lagged behind because of the complexity of the science of the male reproductive system. Thus, the contraceptive needs of millions of men/couples go unmet every single day and results in millions of unwanted pregnancies. In this article, we intend to discuss new hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptive approaches that are at various stages of research and development and may someday provide new contraceptives for men. In addition, we intend to discuss many details of three safe, effective, affordable and reversible vas-based approaches that are inching closer to being approved for use by millions of men in multiple countries. Finally, our intention is to discuss the male contraceptive pill that will soon be available to men only in Indonesia. The availability of these male contraceptives will allow both men and women to take full control of their fertility and participate in slowing down the growth of world population.

  12. Renal and Hepatic Functions after A Week of Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation during In Vitro Fertilization Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romito Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One the main aspects of in vitro fertilization (IVF cycle is to avoid any possible systemic damage on women undergoing a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH. The aim of this work is to evaluate renal and hepatic function blood tests in patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation during IVF cycles. Materials and Methods: We performed a prospective cohort analysis. All patients re- ceived a long stimulation protocol with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH analogues by daily administration, since the twenty-first day of the previous ovarian cycle followed by COH with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH. The daily dose of exogenous gonadotropins for every single patient was modified according to her follicular growth. The oocytes were retrieved during the oocyte pick up and fertilized by standard procedures of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. The blood samples to evaluate renal and hepatic functions were taken at the 7th day of ovarian stimulation. Results: We enrolled 426 women aged between 19 and 44 years, with a mean body mass index (BMI of 24.68 Kg/m2. The mean value of blood urea nitrogen was 14 ± 3.16 mg/ dl, creatinine: 1 ± 0.45 mg/dl, uric acid: 4 ± 1.95 mg/dl, total proteins: 7 ± 3.93 mg/dl, aspartate aminotransferase: 18 ± 6.29 mU/ml, alanine aminotransferase: 19 ± 10.41 mU/ ml, alkaline phosphatase: 81 ± 45.25 mU/ml, total bilirubin 1 ± 0.35 mg/dL. All of the results were considered as a normal range following the Medical Council of Canada. Conclusion: Our data suggest that, unlike ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS, COH patients did not show any alteration to renal and hepatic functions.

  13. Productivity of irrigated beans due to sources of stabilized nitrogen fertilizer and controlled release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiely Gomes Bernardes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT New nitrogen fertilizers are available in the market actually, however, does not have results on the efficiency of the Cerrado conditions. With that objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of urea including stabilized and controlled release urea on yield of irrigated common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L in no-tillage system. The experiment was conducted in the winter crop, at Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, State of Goiás, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five replicates. Treatments consisted of five N sources (urea, urea + NBPT, urea + polymer, ammonium sulphate, and ammonium nitrate and a control (without N being applied 20 kg ha-1 of N at sowing and 80 kg ha-1 onf N in topdressing. We evaluated the chlorophyll content in leaves of common beans, the leaf N content and dry mass weight (MSPA in the flowering of common beans, the number of pods per plant, number of grains per pod, mass of 100 grains, grain yield and final stand of the common beans. The sources of nitrogen fertilizer did not influence, leaf N content, the mass of MSPA and the relative chlorophyll index of common beans. The use of polymerized urea and urea with urease inhibitor, did not produce increases in the number of grains per pod, number of pods per plant, mass of 100 grains and common beans yield compared to traditional sources of N, urea, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate.

  14. Premature luteinization during gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist cycles and its relationship with in vitro fertilization outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Ernesto; Valencia, Iván; Escudero, Ernesto; Crespo, Juana; Simón, Carlos; Remohí, José; Pellicer, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    To determine the prevalence and the effect of premature luteinization in GnRH antagonist IVF-ET cycles. Prospective observational study. In vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. Eighty-one infertile patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with gonadotropins and GnRH antagonist for IVF-ET. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist was administered from stimulation day 6. Serum P, E(2), and LH were determined on the day of hCG administration. Cycles were grouped according to serum P level on the day of hCG administration ( or =1.2 ng/mL). Clinical pregnancy and implantation rates were determined. The incidence of premature luteinization was 38.3%. Total recombinant FSH dose and stimulation days differed significantly between the groups. Pregnancy rate (25.8% vs. 54.0%) and implantation rate (13.8% vs. 32.0%) were significantly lower in the premature luteinization group. Premature luteinization during GnRH antagonist IVF-ET cycles is a frequent event that is associated with lower pregnancy and implantation rates. Progesterone elevations are not related to serum LH levels and may reflect the mature granulosa cell response to high FSH exposure.

  15. Nanocomposites for controlled release of nitrogen fertilizer;Nanocompositos para liberacao controlada de fertilizantes nitrogenados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Viviane J.M. da; Visconte, Leila L.Y. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Profa. Eloisa Mano; Matos, Talita S.; Lima, Erica S.A.; Polidoro, Jose Carlos [EMBRAPA Solos, RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, Regina Sandra V. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The study aimed at the development of nano structured materials capable of reducing the rate of release of nitrogen in the soil from an agricultural nitrogen fertilizer. Four different systems of polymer composites were prepared: (1) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, (2) montmorillonite clay/thermoplastic starch and fertilizer, (3) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, thermoplastic starch and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and also (4) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, thermoplastic starch and polycaprolactone. It was confirmed the formation of nano structured materials by elemental analysis (CHN) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The kinetics of nitrogen release was detected by enzymatic colorimetric analysis and spectroscopy in the ultraviolet/visible. The results showed that all materials evaluated were able to reduce the rate of release of nitrogen in the fertilizers. (author)

  16. Delaying the initiation of progesterone supplementation until the day of fertilization does not compromise cycle outcome in patients receiving donated oocytes: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribá, María-José; Bellver, José; Bosch, Ernesto; Sánchez, María; Pellicer, Antonio; Remohí, José

    2006-07-01

    To determine whether the initiation of P supplementation as artificial luteal phase support (day -1, day 0, or day +1 of egg donation) in extensive programs of ovum donation influences cycle cancellation, pregnancy outcome, and implantation rate in day 3 embryo transfers. Prospective randomized trial. Oocyte donation program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad, Valencia, Spain. Three hundred recipients with normal ovarian function, absence of uterine anomalies, and undergoing their first egg donation were recruited between September 2003 and September 2004. A computer-based randomization divided the recipients into three groups when hCG was administered to their matched donors. The first group (group A) started P supplementation the day before oocyte retrieval; the second group (group B) started P supplementation on the day of the oocyte retrieval; and the third group (group C) started P supplementation 1 day after the egg retrieval once fertilization was confirmed. Implantation, pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates were the primary outcome measures considered. The secondary outcome measure was the cancellation rate, especially due to fertilization failure. Global cancellation rate and cancellation rate due to fertilization failure were significantly higher in group A (12.4% and 8.2%, respectively) than in group C (3.3% and 0%, respectively). Reproductive outcome was similar in all the groups except for a higher biochemical pregnancy rate in group A (12.9%) than in groups B (6.6%) and C (2.3%). Initiation of P on day +1 of embryo development decreases cancellation rates of day 3 embryo transfers in extensive programs of ovum donation without any deleterious effect on pregnancy outcome or implantation rate.

  17. Comparison of clinical outcomes between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in IVF-ICSI split insemination cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Jae Hyun; Park, Yong-Seog; Yang, Kwang Moon

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in sibling oocytes. Additionally, we evaluated whether the implementation of split insemination contributed to an increase in the number of ICSI procedures. Methods A total of 571 cycles in 555 couples undergoing split insemination cycles were included in this study. Among them, 512 cycles (89.7%) were a couple's first IVF cycle. The patients were under 40 years of age and at least 10 oocytes were retrieved in all cycles. Sibling oocytes were randomly allocated to IVF or ICSI. Results Total fertilization failure was significantly more common in IVF cycles than in ICSI cycles (4.0% vs. 1.4%, pfertilization rate among retrieved oocytes (as defined by fertilization rates greater than 0% but fertilization rate of ICSI among injected oocytes was significantly higher than for IVF (72.3%±24.3% vs. 59.2%±25.9%, pfertilization rate among retrieved oocytes was significantly higher in IVF than in ICSI (59.2%±25.9% vs. 52.1%±22.5%, pfertilization failure. However, unnecessary ICSI is carried out in most split insemination cycles and the use of split insemination might make ICSI more common. PMID:28795049

  18. [Effects of applying controlled release fertilizers on N2O emission from a lateritic red soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ya-qin; Zheng, Li-xing; Fan, Xiao-lin

    2011-09-01

    Static closed chamber technique and contrast method were adopted to study the effects of three coated compound fertilizers (N:P2O5:K2O = 19:8.6:10.5, high N; 14.4:14.4:14.4, balanced NPK; and 12.5:9.6:20.2, high K) on the NO2O emission from a lateritic red soil under the condition of no crop planting, taking uncoated compound fertilizers (N:P2O5:K2O = 20:9:11, high N; 15:15:15, balanced NPK; and 13:10:21, high K) as the contrasts. Different formula of fertilizer NPK induced significant difference in the N2O emission. Under the application of uncoated compound fertilizers, the cumulative N2O emission was in the order of balanced NPK > or = high N > high K. Applying coated compound fertilizers decreased the N2O emission significantly, and the emission amount under the application of high N, balanced NPK, and high K was 34.4%, 30.5%, and 89.3% of the corresponding uncoated compound fertilizers, respectively. Comparing with the application of uncoated compound fertilizers, applying coated compound fertilizers also decreased the daily N2O flux significantly, and delayed and shortened the N2O peak, suggesting that coated fertilizers could reduce soil nitrogen loss and the global warming potential induced by N2O emission.

  19. Milder ovarian stimulation for in-vitro fertilization reduces aneuploidy in the human preimplantation embryo : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, Esther B.; Martini, Elena; Eijkemans, Marinus J.; Van Opstal, Diane; Beckers, Nicole G. M.; Verhoeff, Arie; Macklon, Nicolas S.; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    To test whether ovarian stimulation for in-vitro fertilization (IVF) affects oocyte quality and thus chromosome segregation behaviour during meiosis and early embryo development, preimplantation genetic screening of embryos was employed in a prospective, randomized controlled trial, comparing two ov

  20. Initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affect chemical properties of bagged substrates containing controlled release fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagged potting mixes can be stored for weeks or months before being used by consumers. Some bagged potting mixes are amended with controlled release fertilizers (CRF). The objective of this research was to observe how initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affect the chemical p...

  1. The impact of subjective work control, job strain and work-family conflict on fertility intentions: a European comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begall, K.; Mills, M.

    2011-01-01

    The link between employment and fertility is often only examined by focussing on women’s labour market status or the impact of part- versus full-time employment. This study introduces a new explanation by extending research to examine how women’s subjective perceptions of control or autonomy over wo

  2. The Impact of Subjective Work Control, Job Strain and Work-Family Conflict on Fertility Intentions : a European Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begall, Katia; Mills, Melinda

    2011-01-01

    The link between employment and fertility is often only examined by focussing on women's labour market status or the impact of part- versus full-time employment. This study introduces a new explanation by extending research to examine how women's subjective perceptions of control or autonomy over wo

  3. Follicle-stimulating hormone administered at the time of human chorionic gonadotropin trigger improves oocyte developmental competence in in vitro fertilization cycles: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Julie D; Shen, Shehua; McCulloch, Charles; Jalalian, Liza; Cedars, Marcelle I; Rosen, Mitchell P

    2011-04-01

    To determine whether an additional follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) bolus administered at the time of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger can improve the developmental competence of the oocyte. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Academic medical center. Women undergoing a long agonist suppression in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocol for treatment of infertility. FSH bolus at time of hCG trigger versus placebo. Primary outcome; fertilization; secondary outcomes: oocyte recovery, implantation rate, and clinical and ongoing pregnancy/live birth rates. A total of 188 women (mean age: 36.2 years; range: 25 to 40 years) were randomized. Fertilization (2PN/#oocyte) was statistically significantly improved in the treatment arm (63% vs. 55%) as was the likelihood of oocyte recovery (70% vs. 57%). There was no statistically significant difference in clinical pregnancy rate (56.8% vs. 46.2%) or ongoing/live birth rate (51.6% vs. 43.0%). Improvements in IVF success rates have largely been due to optimization of embryo culture and stimulation protocols; less attention has been directed toward methods to improve induction of final oocyte maturation. This was the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to modify the ovulation trigger to improve oocyte competence, as demonstrated by the statistically significant improvement in fertilization. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of entomopathogenic fungus species, and impact of fertilizers, on biological control of pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Gardner, Wayne A; Wells, Lenny; Cottrell, Ted E; Behle, Robert W; Wood, Bruce W

    2013-04-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch. Prior research indicated the potential for use of Hypocreales fungi to suppress C. caryae. We compared the efficacy of two fungal spp., Beauveria bassiana (GHA strain) and Metarhizium brunneum (F52), in their ability to cause C. caryae mortality. The fungus, B. bassiana, was applied to trunks of pecan trees (a method previously shown to be effective in C. caryae suppression) and efficacy was compared with M. brunneum applied to the ground or to the trunk with or without SoyScreen Oil as an ultraviolet protecting agent. Results indicated B. bassiana to be superior to M. brunneum regardless of application method; consequently, the potential for applying B. bassiana to control C. caryae was explored further. Specifically, the impact of different fertilizer regimes (as used by pecan growers) on the persistence of B. bassiana (GHA) in soil was determined. B. bassiana was applied to soil in a pecan orchard after one of several fertilizer treatments--i.e., ammonium nitrate, crimson clover, poultry litter, clover plus poultry litter, and a no-fertilizer control. B. bassiana persistence up to 49 d in 2009 and 2010 was assessed by plating soil onto selective media and determining the number of colony forming units, and by baiting soil with a susceptible host, Galleria mellonella (L.). Fertilizer treatments did not impact B. bassiana persistence. We conclude that standard fertilizers for nitrogen management, when applied according to recommended practices, are unlikely to negatively impact survival of B. bassiana in pecan orchards when the fungus is applied for C. caryae suppression during weevil emergence. Additional research on interactions between entomopathogenic fungi and fertilizer amendments (or other tree nutrition or soil management practices) is merited.

  5. Use of versapoint to refashion the cervical canal to overcome unusually difficult embryo transfers and improve in-vitro fertilization-embryo transfer outcome: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mahajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Smooth atraumatic embryo transfer is paramount for the success of in-vitro fertilization (IVF. In difficult cases, cervical canal manipulation may be required. Aim : To see if surgical correction of the cervical canal or cervical canal refashioning could improve ease of embryo transfer. Setting : Private infertility and IVF hospital. Design : Prospective study. Materials and Methods : Patients: 11 women with failed 1-3 IVF cycles with history of extremely difficult embryo transfers (ETs despite undergoing cervical dilatation in the cycle prior to IVF. Interventions : Operative hysteroscopy using Versapoint for refashioning of the cervical canal. Main Outcome Measures : Ease of ET in the subsequent IVF cycle. Secondary outcome measure was to assess reproductive outcome. Results : Easy and atraumatic ET in the IVF cycle after procedure in 100% patients. PR was 46.5%. Conclusions : Use of Versapoint for refashioning the cervical canal can improve the quality of ET and PR.

  6. Effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on the clinical outcomes for in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in women with different ovarian reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jianyuan; Pan, Chengshuang; Fei, Qianjin; Ni, Wuhua; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Liya; Huang, Xuefeng

    2015-04-01

    To investigate effect of sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) on clinical outcomes of assisted reproductive technology in women with normal ovarian reserve (NOR) versus reduced ovarian reserve (ROR). Retrospective clinical study. University-affiliated tertiary teaching hospital. A total of 2,865 consecutive couples undergoing their first in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle. SDF assessed using sperm chromatin dispersion in sperm samples 1-2 months before treatment. SDF, IVF, and ICSI outcomes. The grouping criteria were [1] basal follicle stimulating hormone >10 IU/L, [2] antral follicle count DNA fragmentation has a greater impact on IVF and ICSI outcomes among women with ROR, so SDF testing may be of particular clinical significance for these couples. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ecological basis for fertility control in the house mouse (Mus domesticus) using immunocontraceptive vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, G R; Farroway, L N; Chambers, L K; Lawson, M A; Smith, A L; Hinds, L A

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory studies confirm the potential for fertility control in the house mouse Mus domesticus using mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) as a vector for an immunocontraceptive vaccine. This article presents an overview of key results from research in Australia on enclosed and field populations of mice and the associated epidemiology of MCMV. The virus is geographically widespread in Australia. It also persists in low population densities of mice, although if population densities are low for at least a year, transmission of the virus is sporadic until a population threshold of approximately 40 mice ha(-1) is reached. The serological prevalence of MCMV was high early in the breeding season of four field populations. Enclosure studies confirm that MCMV has minimal impact on the survival and breeding performance of mice and that it can be transmitted to most adults within 10-12 weeks. Other enclosure studies indicate that about two-thirds of females would need to be sterilized to provide effective control of the rate of growth of mouse populations. If this level is not maintained for 20-25 weeks after the commencement of breeding, the mouse population can compensate through increased recruitment per breeding female. The findings from this series of descriptive and manipulative population studies of mice support the contention that MCMV would be a good carrier for an immunocontraceptive vaccine required to sustain female sterility levels at or above 65%.

  8. Review on materials & methods to produce controlled release coated urea fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeem, Babar; KuShaari, KuZilati; Man, Zakaria B; Basit, Abdul; Thanh, Trinh H

    2014-05-10

    With the exponential growth of the global population, the agricultural sector is bound to use ever larger quantities of fertilizers to augment the food supply, which consequently increases food production costs. Urea, when applied to crops is vulnerable to losses from volatilization and leaching. Current methods also reduce nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) by plants which limits crop yields and, moreover, contributes towards environmental pollution in terms of hazardous gaseous emissions and water eutrophication. An approach that offsets this pollution while also enhancing NUE is the use of controlled release urea (CRU) for which several methods and materials have been reported. The physical intromission of urea granules in an appropriate coating material is one such technique that produces controlled release coated urea (CRCU). The development of CRCU is a green technology that not only reduces nitrogen loss caused by volatilization and leaching, but also alters the kinetics of nitrogen release, which, in turn, provides nutrients to plants at a pace that is more compatible with their metabolic needs. This review covers the research quantum regarding the physical coating of original urea granules. Special emphasis is placed on the latest coating methods as well as release experiments and mechanisms with an integrated critical analyses followed by suggestions for future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of a Control Release Nitrogen Fertilizer and Thinning on the Nitrogen Dynamics of a Mid-Rotation Loblolly Pine Stand in the Piedmont of Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot, James Robertson

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen deficiency is characteristic of many mid-rotation loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations in the Piedmont region of the southeastern USA. Fertilization with urea is the most common method used to correct this deficiency. Previous studies show that urea fertilization produces a rapid pulse of available nitrogen (N) with only a portion being utilized by plantation trees. Controlled release fertilizers release available N more slowly over a longer period of time and therefore may ...

  10. Effects of a Control Release Nitrogen Fertilizer and Thinning on the Nitrogen Dynamics of a Mid-Rotation Loblolly Pine Stand in the Piedmont of Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot, James Robertson

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen deficiency is characteristic of many mid-rotation loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations in the Piedmont region of the southeastern USA. Fertilization with urea is the most common method used to correct this deficiency. Previous studies show that urea fertilization produces a rapid pulse of available nitrogen (N) with only a portion being utilized by plantation trees. Controlled release fertilizers release available N more slowly over a longer period of time and therefore may ...

  11. Artificial oocyte activation to improve reproductive outcomes in women with previous fertilization failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfontouris, Ioannis A; Nastri, Carolina O; Lima, Maria L S; Tahmasbpourmarzouni, Eisa; Raine-Fenning, Nick; Martins, Wellington P

    2015-08-01

    In couples with previous fertilization failure, are reproductive outcomes improved using ICSI followed by artificial oocyte activation (ICSI-AOA) compared with conventional ICSI? There is insufficient evidence available from RCTs to judge the efficacy and safety of ICSI-AOA for couples with previous fertilization failure. In cases with previous low fertilization rates or total fertilization failure using ICSI due to sperm-related, oocyte activation deficiency, several methods of AOA have been described, which employ mechanical, electrical or chemical stimuli. Reported fertilization and pregnancy rates appear to be improved after ICSI-AOA compared with conventional ICSI; however, the small studies performed to date make it difficult to assess the clinical efficacy or safety of AOA. The present systematic review and meta-analysis identified RCTs that compared ICSI-AOA and conventional ICSI. The last electronic search was conducted in August 2014 and there was no limitation regarding language, publication date, or publication status. We included studies that randomized either oocytes or women and included them in two different parts of this review: a women-based review and an oocyte-based review. For the women-based review, the primary outcome of effectiveness was live birth per randomized woman and the primary outcome for safety was congenital anomalies per clinical pregnancy. For the oocyte-based review, the primary outcome was embryo formation per oocyte randomized. Record screening and data extraction were performed independently by two authors and risk of bias was assessed by three authors. The effects of ICSI-AOA compared with conventional ICSI were summarized as risk ratio (RR) and the precision of the estimates was evaluated by the 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 14 articles were assessed for eligibility and 9 included in the meta-analysis: 2 studies comprised the woman-based review (n = 168 women) and 7 studies the oocyte-based review (n = 4234

  12. Effects of in vitro fertilization and maternal characteristics on perinatal outcomes : a population-based study using siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seggers, Jorien; Pontesilli, Martina; Ravelli, Anita C. J.; Painter, Rebecca C.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Heineman, Maas Jan; Repping, Sjoerd; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Ensing, Sabine

    Objective: To study birthweight in consecutively born sibling singletons conceived with and without in vitro fertilization (IVF) to disentangle the effects of maternal characteristics from those of the IVF treatment itself. Design: Population-based study. Setting: Not applicable. Patient(s):

  13. The correlation analysis of AMH and Inhibin B levels in controlled ovarian stimulation with pregnancy outcome in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer%控制性促排卵中AMH和Inhibin B水平与IVF-ET结局的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟燕红; 李莹; 杨晓葵

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨控制性促排卵过程中抗苗勒氏管激素(anti-müllerian hormone,AMH)和抑制素B (inhibin B,INHB)水平与体外受精(in vitro fertilization,IVF)/卵母细胞浆内单精子注射(intracytoplasmic sperm injection,ICSI)—胚胎移植(embryo transfer,ET)妊娠结局的相关性.方法 选择2012年1月至201 3年12月因输卵管因素和/或男方因素在我院生殖中心首次接IVF/ICSI-ET助孕患者为研究对象,共92个促排卵周期,检测促排卵周期中血清及取卵日卵泡液AMH和INHB水平,根据妊娠结局分为妊娠组和非妊娠组,比较两组患者的一般特点、内分泌激素水平、AMH和INHB水平、获卵数、受精率等促排卵相关参数,并进行相关性分析.结果 在妊娠组和非妊娠组中,患者的一般情况、激素水平、血清及卵泡液AMH和INHB水平、获卵数、受精率等促排卵相关参数均无统计学差异(P>0.05);血清AMH和INHB水平及卵泡液AMH水平均与窦卵泡数、hCG日雌二醇水平、获卵数存在显著正相关(P<0.001).结论 AMH和INHB水平可以反映促排卵周期中卵巢反应性,与IVF/ICSI-ET妊娠结局无直接相关性.

  14. Molecular karyotyping of single sperm with nuclear vacuoles identifies more chromosomal abnormalities in patients with testiculopathy than fertile controls: implications for ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garolla, Andrea; Sartini, Barbara; Cosci, Ilaria; Pizzol, Damiano; Ghezzi, Marco; Bertoldo, Alessandro; Menegazzo, Massimo; Speltra, Elena; Ferlin, Alberto; Foresta, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    Is there a difference between molecular karyotype of single sperm selected by high-magnification microscopy from infertile patients with testicular damage and from proven fertile controls? The molecular karyotype of single sperm from patients with testiculopathy had a significantly higher percentage of chromosomal alterations than fertile controls. Infertile patients with testicular impairment have many sperm with aneuploidies and/or increased structural chromosome alterations. In these patients, sperm use by ICSI has poor outcome and raises concerns about the possible impact on pregnancy loss and transmission of genes abnormalities in offspring. High-magnification microscopy has been recently introduced to select morphologically better sperm aimed at improving ICSI outcome. However, there are no studies evaluating the molecular karyotype of sperm selected by this method. Three consecutive infertile patients with oligozoospermia due to testicular damage and three age-matched proven fertile men attending a tertiary care center, were enrolled in the study from September to November 2014. Inclusion criteria of patients were age ≥30 ≤35 years, at least 2 years of infertility, oligozoospermia (sperm count below 10 million), reduced testicular volumes high FSH plasma levels and absence of altered karyotype, Y chromosome microdeletions, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene mutations, sperm infections, cigarette smoking, varicocele, obesity. Participants were evaluated for sperm parameters, sex hormones and testicular color-doppler ultrasound. From each semen sample, 20 sperm with large vacuoles (LVs), 20 with small vacuoles (SVs) and 20 with no vacuoles (NVs) were retrieved individually by a micromanipulator system. Each cell was further analyzed by whole genome amplification and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). The aCGH allowed us to detect chromosomal aneuploidies, unbalanced translocations and complex abnormalities. Sperm selected

  15. Controlled release fertilizer increased phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartmill, Andrew D; Cartmill, Donita L; Alarcón, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the application of controlled release fertilizer [(CRF) 0, 4,6, or 8 kg m(-3)] on Lolium multiflorum Lam. survival and potential biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (0, 3000, 6000, or 15000 mg kg(-1)) in sandy soil. Plant adaptation, growth, photosynthesis, total chlorophyll, and proline content as well as rhizosphere microbial population (culturable heterotrophic fungal and bacterial populations) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-degradation were determined. Petroleum induced-toxicity resulted in reduced plant growth, photosynthesis, and nutrient status. Plant adaptation, growth, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll content were enhanced by the application of CRF in contaminated soil. Proline content showed limited use as a physiological indicator of petroleum induced-stress in plants. Bacterial and filamentous fungi populations were stimulated by the petroleum concentrations. Bacterial populations were stimulated by CRF application. At low petroleum contamination, CRF did not enhance TPH-degradation. However, petroleum degradation in the rhizosphere was enhanced by the application of medium rates of CRF, especially when plants were exposed to intermediate and high petroleum contamination. Application of CRF allowed plants to overcome the growth impairment induced by the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils.

  16. Controlled release fertilizer and container volumes in the production of Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Gasparin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Growing demand for native tree seedlings will require improvements in quality standards of production processes through the use of more efficient cultivation techniques. This study evaluated the effects of different doses of controlled release fertilizer (CRF and different container volumes in the production of Parapiptadenia rigida seedlings. We examined the effects of five different concentrations (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 g L-1 substrate of CRF (18-5-9 NPK and three different container volumes (50, 110 and 180 cm3 on seedling height (H and collar diameter (CD measured monthly for seven months and then calculated H/CD ratios. After 210 days of growth, the dry masses of the aerial portions, root systems, and total masses were determined, as well as the concentrations of macro- and micronutrients in the aerial portions of the seedlings. In general, the dose 9 g L-1 substrate combined with the 180 cm3 cultivation tubes demonstrated the best results in terms of the morphological variables analyzed, resulting in consistent quality seedlings for field planting.

  17. Environmental control of biological rhythms: effects on development, fertility and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, F G; Castrucci, A M; Cipolla-Neto, J; Poletini, M O; Mendez, N; Richter, H G; Sellix, M T

    2014-09-01

    Internal temporal organisation properly synchronised to the environment is crucial for health maintenance. This organisation is provided at the cellular level by the molecular clock, a macromolecular transcription-based oscillator formed by the clock and the clock-controlled genes that is present in both central and peripheral tissues. In mammals, melanopsin in light-sensitive retinal ganglion cells plays a considerable role in the synchronisation of the circadian timing system to the daily light/dark cycle. Melatonin, a hormone synthesised in the pineal gland exclusively at night and an output of the central clock, has a fundamental role in regulating/timing several physiological functions, including glucose homeostasis, insulin secretion and energy metabolism. As such, metabolism is severely impaired after a reduction in melatonin production. Furthermore, light pollution during the night and shift work schedules can abrogate melatonin synthesis and impair homeostasis. Chronodisruption during pregnancy has deleterious effects on the health of progeny, including metabolic, cardiovascular and cognitive dysfunction. Developmental programming by steroids or steroid-mimetic compounds also produces internal circadian disorganisation that may be a significant factor in the aetiology of fertility disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome. Thus, both early and late in life, pernicious alterations of the endogenous temporal order by environmental factors can disrupt the homeostatic function of the circadian timing system, leading to pathophysiology and/or disease. © 2014 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  18. The right to be born: surrogacy and the legal control of human fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, M L

    1989-01-01

    South African law, in common with many other legal systems, has exercised a strong measure of control over the fertility of its citizens via the sanction of illegitimacy and the prohibition of marriage (and hence legitimate children) between certain persons, e.g. those who fall within the so-called prohibited degrees of relationship. Until last year, when the Mixed Marriages Act was abolished, marriage across the colour line was prohibited in South Africa. The requirement of a valid consent by both prospective spouses in order to enter into marriage further excludes certain categories of persons from procreating legitimate children, e.g. the insane and mentally feeble, while the requirement of consummation will exclude certain categories of paraplegics from solemnizing a valid marriage. Age restrictions on marriages and the requirement of parental consent for minors are further factors limiting the individual's freedom to procreate. These restrictions have a well-established historical basis extending over many hundreds of years. They can be broadly categorised as having as their objective the preservation of the family unit. The above provisions were formulated at a time when the law never contemplated the spectacular advances in human biology that have produced the numerous artificial forms of conception, such as AID, IVF and surrogacy. The legislature, both in South Africa and elsewhere, at first adopted a neutral approach to this new fertility revolution and watched the courts struggle to adapt outmoded principles to the new technology. Legislation relating to AID and IVF eventually appeared in many jurisdictions; as a result of its delayed introduction public opinion had been educated to accept the new techniques and the legislation is by and large favourable to these new techniques. Not so, however, as far as surrogacy is concerned. South Africa, England and Australia have produced essentially negative legislation on this subject. Certain American states

  19. Molecular Control of Male Reproductive Development and Pollen Fertility in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Xin Guo; Yao-Guang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Anther development and male fertility are essential biological processes for flowering plants and are important for crop seed production.Genetic manipulation of male fertility/sterility is critical for crop hybrid breeding.Rice (Oryza sativa L.) male sterility phenotypes,including genic male sterility,hybrid male sterility,and cytoplasmic male sterility,are generally caused by mutations of fertility-related genes,by incompatible interactions between divergent allelic or non-allelic genes,or by genetic incompatibilities between cytoplasmic and nuclear genomes.Here,we review the recent advances in the molecular basis of anther development and male fertility-sterility conversion in specific genetic backgrounds,and the interactions with certain environmental factors.The highlighted findings in this review have significant implications in both basic studies and rice genetic improvement.

  20. Fertilization practices and soil variations control nitrogen oxide emissions from tropical sugar cane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, P. A.; Billow, C.; Hall, S.; Zachariassen, J.

    1996-08-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization of agricultural systems is thought to be a major source of the increase in atmospheric N2O; NO emissions from soils have also been shown to increase due to N fertilization. While N fertilizer use is increasing rapidly in the developing world and in the tropics, nearly all of our information on gas emissions is derived from studies of temperate zone agriculture. Using chambers, we measured fluxes of N2O and NO following urea fertilization in tropical sugar cane systems growing on several soil types in the Hawaiian Islands, United States. On the island of Maui, where urea is applied in irrigation lines and soils are mollisols and inceptisols, N2O fluxes were elevated for a week or less after fertilization; maximum average fluxes were typically less than 30 ng cm-2 h-1. NO fluxes were often an order of magnitude less than N2O. Together, N2O and NO represented from 0.03 to 0.5% of the applied N. In fields on the island of Hawaii, where urea is broadcast on the surface and soils are andisols, N2O fluxes were similar in magnitude to Maui but remained elevated for much longer periods after fertilization. NO emissions were 2-5 times higher than N2O through most of the sampling periods. Together the gas losses represented approximately 1.1-2.5% of the applied N. Laboratory studies indicate that denitrification is a critical source of N2O in Maui, but that nitrification is more important in Hawaii. Experimental studies suggest that differences in the pattern of N2O/NO and the processes producing them are a result of both carbon availability and placement of fertilizer and that the more information-intensive fertilizer management practice results in lower emissions.

  1. Efficacies and pregnant outcomes of fertility-sparing treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate for endometrioid adenocarcinoma and complex atypical hyperplasia: our experience and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyagi-Hara, Chifumi; Sawada, Kenjiro; Aki, Isobe; Mabuchi, Seiji; Kobayashi, Eiji; Ueda, Yutaka; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Masami; Tsutsui, Tateki; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed oncologic and reproductive outcomes of fertility-seeking premenopausal women with complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH) or Grade 1 endometrial adenocarcinoma (G1EA) who underwent medical management with high-dose medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) therapy. Patients were given a dose of 400-600 mg of MPA orally on a daily basis. They had histologically confirmed CAH or G1EA at presumed stage IA and wished to preserve fertility. Endometrial tissue sampling was carried out by dilation and curettage before and after the treatment and the pathologic response to MPA treatment was assessed. A total of 27 premenopausal patients received MPA therapy. The median follow-up time was 39.2 months (3.4-153.8 months). Complete response was achieved in 81.8 % (9/11) of CAH cases and 68.8 % (11/16) of G1EA. Although no recurrences were found in CAH patients, nine G1EA patients (81.8 %) eventually recurred and underwent total hysterectomy. Neither therapeutic death nor irreversible toxicities were observed during the follow-up periods. Five patients (4 CAH and 1 G1EA) became pregnant and had nine live births. The high efficacy of fertility-sparing treatment with MPA was shown demonstrated. MPA therapy can be considered acceptable for the purpose of enabling patients to preserve their fertility. However, the rate of recurrence was high in patients with G1EA. Even in responders, close follow-up is required and a total hysterectomy needs to be considered without delay. Patients should be aware of the risks and limitations of this conservative treatment.

  2. Control of estrus and ovulation: Fertility to timed insemination of gilts and sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rensis, F; Kirkwood, R N

    2016-10-01

    It is possible to control follicular development in gilts and sows with the use of hormones including the progestogen altrenogest, GnRH, eCG, hCG, and porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH). These hormones can be used to develop protocols for control of estrus with artificial insemination (AI) timed to estrus detection (timed artificial insemination; TAI) or to control estrus and ovulation with insemination at a fixed time without the requirement of estrus detection (fixed-timed artificial insemination; FTAI). In cyclic gilts, double TAI after protocols based on altrenogest and eCG plus hCG administration can achieve a 70% of farrowing rate. Valuable results can be obtained in weaned sows by the utilization of protocols based on eCG administration at weaning and then GnRH or pLH at estrus onset followed by single or double TAI. In cyclic gilts, single or double FTAI regardless of estrus expression can be applied after protocols based on altrenogest administration followed by eCG and then GnRH, hCG, or pLH some hours later; farrowing rates are similar to control animals inseminated at estrus detection. With sows, a protocol based on eCG administration at weaning and hCG, GnRH, or pLH some hours later followed by single or double FTAI can give fertility rates comparable to control animal inseminated at estrus. Most recently, injection or vaginal deposition of GnRH 96 hours after weaning followed by a single FTAI 24 to 30 hours later is resulting in reproductive performance not different to animals subject to multiple inseminations after natural estrus. It is possible to apply FTAI in lactating sows. The protocols are based on eCG during lactation followed by hCG and FTAI. These protocols will induce ovulation during lactation, but pregnancy rates are reduced. However, in the future, a better knowledge on the effect of hormone administration on follicular dynamics during lactation may allow the development of more effective protocols.

  3. Forecasting the Effects of Fertility Control on Overabundant Ungulates: White-Tailed Deer in the National Capital Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M Raiho

    Full Text Available Overabundant populations of ungulates have caused environmental degradation and loss of biological diversity in ecosystems throughout the world. Culling or regulated harvest is often used to control overabundant species. These methods are difficult to implement in national parks, other types of conservation reserves, or in residential areas where public hunting may be forbidden by policy. As a result, fertility control has been recommended as a non-lethal alternative for regulating ungulate populations. We evaluate this alternative using white-tailed deer in national parks in the vicinity of Washington, D.C., USA as a model system. Managers seek to reduce densities of white-tailed deer from the current average (50 deer per km2 to decrease harm to native plant communities caused by deer. We present a Bayesian hierarchical model using 13 years of population estimates from 8 national parks in the National Capital Region Network. We offer a novel way to evaluate management actions relative to goals using short term forecasts. Our approach confirms past analyses that fertility control is incapable of rapidly reducing deer abundance. Fertility control can be combined with culling to maintain a population below carrying capacity with a high probability of success. This gives managers confronted with problematic overabundance a framework for implementing management actions with a realistic assessment of uncertainty.

  4. Forecasting the effects of fertility control on overabundant ungulates: White-tailed deer in the National Capital Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiho, Ann M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Bates, Scott; Hobbs, N. Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Overabundant populations of ungulates have caused environmental degradation and loss of biological diversity in ecosystems throughout the world. Culling or regulated harvest is often used to control overabundant species. These methods are difficult to implement in national parks, other types of conservation reserves, or in residential areas where public hunting may be forbidden by policy. As a result, fertility control has been recommended as a non-lethal alternative for regulating ungulate populations. We evaluate this alternative using white-tailed deer in national parks in the vicinity of Washington, D.C., USA as a model system. Managers seek to reduce densities of white-tailed deer from the current average (50 deer per km2) to decrease harm to native plant communities caused by deer. We present a Bayesian hierarchical model using 13 years of population estimates from 8 national parks in the National Capital Region Network. We offer a novel way to evaluate management actions relative to goals using short term forecasts. Our approach confirms past analyses that fertility control is incapable of rapidly reducing deer abundance. Fertility control can be combined with culling to maintain a population below carrying capacity with a high probability of success. This gives managers confronted with problematic overabundance a framework for implementing management actions with a realistic assessment of uncertainty.

  5. 缓/控释肥料的研究进展%Research development of slow/controlled release fertilizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛永生; 明大增; 李志祥; 李沪萍

    2012-01-01

    The basic connotation of slow/controlled release fertilizer at home and abroad and its research background and progress are presented. The recent research status of integument of slow/controlled release fertilizer is summarized. The principle of increase production is described briefly, and the key points of study and development prospect are overviewed.%介绍了缓/控释肥料的基本内涵和国内外的研究背景和进展,对国内外最新研究的缓/控释肥料包裹层进行了综述.简单说明了缓/控释肥料的增产原理,对缓/控释肥料的研究重点和发展前景进行了展望.

  6. Random-start controlled ovarian stimulation for emergency fertility preservation in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports a case of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger in a young female with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS who underwent fertility preservation using random-start controlled ovarian stimulation. This method involves the stimulation of the ovary regardless of a patient's menstrual-cycle phase. A review of the related literature is also provided. A 17-year-old patient was diagnosed with MDS and required initiation of peripheral blood stem cell transplantation within a maximum of 3 weeks and was in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle when the possibility of attempting preservation of fertility was presented to her. She opted for a random-start controlled ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins. With successful hemorrhagic prophylaxis, 17 oocytes were retrieved including 10 mature and 7 immature oocytes. Of the immature oocytes, 3 were successfully matured in vitro and a vitrification protocol was used to freeze the 13 mature oocytes.

  7. Reaction-Multi Diffusion Model for Nutrient Release and Autocatalytic Degradation of PLA-Coated Controlled-Release Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Ameenuddin Irfan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for the reaction-diffusion equation is developed to describe the nutrient release profiles and degradation of poly(lactic acid (PLA-coated controlled-release fertilizer. A multi-diffusion model that consists of coupled partial differential equations is used to study the diffusion and chemical reaction (autocatalytic degradation simultaneously. The model is solved using an analytical-numerical method. Firstly, the model equation is transformed using the Laplace transformation as the Laplace transform cannot be inverted analytically. Numerical inversion of the Laplace transform is used by employing the Zakian method. The solution is useful in predicting the nutrient release profiles at various diffusivity, concentration of extraction medium, and reaction rates. It also helps in explaining the transformation of autocatalytic concentration in the coating material for various reaction rates, times of reaction, and reaction-multi diffusion. The solution is also applicable to the other biodegradable polymer-coated controlled-release fertilizers.

  8. Sample size considerations for historical control studies with survival outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Zhang, Song; Ahn, Chul

    2015-01-01

    Historical control trials (HCTs) are frequently conducted to compare an experimental treatment with a control treatment from a previous study, when they are applicable and favored over a randomized clinical trial (RCT) due to feasibility, ethics and cost concerns. Makuch and Simon developed a sample size formula for historical control (HC) studies with binary outcomes, assuming that the observed response rate in the HC group is the true response rate. This method was extended by Dixon and Simon to specify sample size for HC studies comparing survival outcomes. For HC studies with binary and continuous outcomes, many researchers have shown that the popular Makuch and Simon method does not preserve the nominal power and type I error, and suggested alternative approaches. For HC studies with survival outcomes, we reveal through simulation that the conditional power and type I error over all the random realizations of the HC data have highly skewed distributions. Therefore, the sampling variability of the HC data needs to be appropriately accounted for in determining sample size. A flexible sample size formula that controls arbitrary percentiles, instead of means, of the conditional power and type I error, is derived. Although an explicit sample size formula with survival outcomes is not available, the computation is straightforward. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed method preserves the operational characteristics in a more realistic scenario where the true hazard rate of the HC group is unknown. A real data application of an advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) clinical trial is presented to illustrate sample size considerations for HC studies in comparison of survival outcomes. PMID:26098200

  9. Effect of music therapy on the anxiety levels and pregnancy rate of women undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aba, Yilda Arzu; Avci, Dilek; Guzel, Yilmaz; Ozcelik, Semanur Kumral; Gurtekin, Basak

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of music therapy on the anxiety levels and pregnancy rates of women who underwent in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer. This prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted with 186 infertile women who presented to the In Vitro Fertilization Unit at the American Hospital in Turkey between April 2015 and April 2016. The infertile women who met the inclusion criteria were assigned to the music therapy group or the standard therapy group through block randomization. The study data were collected using the Personal Information Form, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Early treatment success was determined by serum beta human chorionic gonadotrophin levels seven or ten days after the luteal day zero. For the analysis, descriptive statistics, chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, independent sample t-test were used. After the embryo transfer, the mean state anxiety scores decreased in both groups, and the mean trait anxiety score decreased in the music therapy group; however, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Clinical pregnancy rates did not differ between the music (48.3%) and standard (46.4%) therapy groups. After the two sessions of music therapy, state and trait anxiety levels decreased and pregnancy rates increased, but the difference was not significant. Therefore, larger sample sizes and more sessions are needed to evaluate whether music therapy has an effect on clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Utilization of wheat straw for the preparation of coated controlled-release fertilizer with the function of water retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lihua; Liu, Mingzhu; Ni, Boli; Wang, Yanfang

    2012-07-18

    With the aim of improving fertilizer use efficiency and minimizing the negative impact on the environment, a new coated controlled-release fertilizer with the function of water retention was prepared. A novel low water solubility macromolecular fertilizer, poly(dimethylourea phosphate) (PDUP), was "designed" and formulated from N,N'-dimethylolurea (DMU) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Simultaneously, an eco-friendly superabsorbent composite based on wheat straw (WS), acrylic acid (AA), 2-acryloylamino-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS), and N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide (NHMAAm) was synthesized and used as the coating to control the release of nutrient. The nitrogen release profile and water retention capacity of the product were also investigated. The degradation of the coating material in soil solution was studied. Meanwhile, the impact of the content of N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide on the degradation extent was examined. The experimental data showed that the product with good water retention and controlled-release capacities, being economical and eco-friendly, could be promising for applications in agriculture and horticulture.

  11. [Effect of controlled release fertilizer on nitrous oxide emission from paddy field under plastic film mulching cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Lü, Shi-Hua; Ma, Jing; Xu, Hua; Yuan, Jiang; Dong, Yu-Jiao

    2014-03-01

    A field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of controlled release fertilizer on N2O emission in paddy field under plastic film mulching cultivation (PM) with water-saving irrigation. Results showed that in the rice growing season, cumulative N2O emissions from the plots applied with urea (PM+U) and with controlled release fertilizer (PM+CRF) were (38.2 +/- 4.4) and (21.5 +/- 5.2) mg N x m(-2), respectively. The N2O emission factors were 0.25% and 0.14% in the treatments PM+U and PM+CRF, respectively. The controlled release fertilizer decreased the total N2O emission by 43.6% compared with urea, of which 49.6% was reduced before the drying period. It also reduced the peak of N2O emission by 52.6%. However, it did not affect soil microbial biomass N and soil NH(4+)-N content at any rice growing stage, and grain yield either. No significant correlation was observed between N2O flux and soil Eh or soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm.

  12. Bulk controlled-release fertilizers' nutrient release characteristics and sustained-release effect%块状控释肥养分释放特性及缓释效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧; 陈少雄; 杜阿朋; 吴志华

    2012-01-01

    采用淋溶和水浸两种方式研究了相同原料配方的块状肥和粒状肥的NPK的释放特性及其缓释效果.用一级动力学方程,抛物线扩散方程和Elovich方程对它们释放养分的行为进行拟合,结果显示一级动力学方程对于块状肥料的拟合效果最好,其拟合度大多可达0.95以上,而Elovich方程对粒状肥料的拟合效果较好.并以浸提液中的P释放浓度为指标分阶段进行比较,结果显示不同外形设计和不同质量的肥料之间均有不同程度的差异,其中块状肥和对照组中的粒状肥之间差异显著.另外,利用拟合方程计算肥料中的P在第1天和第28天的释放率,与国标进行对比,检验所有肥料的缓释性,实验结果显示缓释性均达到国标要求.其中无孔块状肥料相对于粒状肥料在第1天和第28天的溶出率分别减少了46.02%和6.30%,有孔块状肥料相对粒状肥料分别减少了36.92%和10.92%,缓释效果显著.结合苗木需肥的实际情况,在本研究中,最终选六号肥为最佳肥料.%The leaching and extracting methods and were used to study NPK releasing characteristics and their sustained-release properties of bulk fertilizer and granular fertilizer, which were made of the same raw materials. The kinetic equation, Parabolic diffusion equation and Elovich equation were used to fit the element releasing processes. The results show the kinetic equation was the best one for matching the bulk fertilizer, its degree of fitting was more than 0.95, and the Elovich equation was more suitable for matching the granular fertilizer. Meanwhile, the release concentrations of P in different stages weere compared, the outcomes were that the fertilizers with different shape and quality had differences, the bulk fertilizer and the granular fertilizer in control group were significant different. In addition, the fitted equations of P were used to calculate the releasing rate of different fertilizer on the 1st

  13. Relationship between sperm nuclear maturity and outcomes of in vitro fertilization%精子核成熟度与体外受精结局的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛冉冉; 江莉

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨精子核成熟度与体外受精(IVF)结局的关系.方法 采用精子苯胺蓝染色试验对95例接受IVF的不育患者进行精子核成熟度检测,分析不成熟精子率与精液其他相关指标及IVF结局相关指标的相关性.结果 Spearman相关分析示不成熟精子率与精液密度、活率、处理后正常形态率、IVF受精率、正常受精率呈负相关(r=-0.209、-0.266、-0.369、-0.343、-0.253,P均<0.05),与处理前正常形态率、卵裂率、优质胚胎率无相关性.结论 精子核成熟度可影响精液常规参数及IVF受精率、正常受精率;精子核成熟度检测对预测IVF结局有一定作用.%Objective To evaluate the relationship between sperm nuclear maturity and outcomes of in vitro fertilisation ( IVF). Methods The sperm nuclear maturity of 95 infertile couples participating in 1VF program was analyzed by aniline blue staining, then correlation between the rate of immature sperm and conventional semen parameters, IVF outcomes was analyzed. Results A significant negative relationship was found between the rate of immature sperm and sperm density and motility, normal morphology rate after treatment, IVF fertilization rate, normal fertilisation rate(r= -0.209, —0.266, -0.369, -0.343, -0.253, allP<0.05), however, no correlation was found between the rate of immature sperm and normal morphomogy sperm rate, cleavage rate, good quality embryo rate. Conclusions The sperm nuclear maturity can affect semen parameters of the conventional and IVF fertilization rates and normal fertilization rate; measurement of sperm nuclear maturity might have a certain extent clinical significance for predicting IVF fertilization rate.

  14. Controlled-release fertilizer prepared using a biodegradable aliphatic copolyester of poly(butylene succinate) and dimerized fatty acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubkowski, Krzysztof; Smorowska, Aleksandra; Grzmil, Barbara; Kozłowska, Agnieszka

    2015-03-18

    The preparation and characterization of a controlled-release multicomponent (NPK) fertilizer with the coating layer consisting of a biodegradable copolymer of poly(butylene succinate) and a butylene ester of dilinoleic acid (PBS/DLA) is reported. The morphology and structure of the resulting polymer-coated materials and the thickness of the covering layers were examined using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The mechanical properties of these materials were determined with a strength-testing machine. Nutrient release was measured in water using spectrophotometry, potentiometry, and conductivity methods. The results of the nutrient release experiments from these polymer-coated materials were compared with the requirements for controlled-release fertilizers. A conceptual model is presented describing the mechanism of nutrient release from the materials prepared in this study. This model is based on the concentrations of mineral components inside the water-penetrated fertilizer granules, the diffusion properties of the nutrients in water, and a diffusion coefficient through the polymer layer. The experimental kinetic data on nutrient release were interpreted using the sigmoidal model equation developed in this study.

  15. [Two hundred and sixty eigth medicinal plants used to fertility control in some countries of South America (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorero, R M; Schvartzman, B

    1975-01-01

    A review is made of the various anthropological, botanical and empirical medical papers from a number of the countries of the South-American continent, whose populations use medical plants for fertility control. Also included is a field research conducted among indigenous and rural populations of Paraguay. The scientific name, family and common name 268 plants are described. With each plant, the country and type of population (indigenous or rural) using same is stated, as well as their empiric properties attributed to same and the name of the author. Comments are made upon the background related to the use of said plants at the level of the American indigenous, world folkloric and Paraguayan indigenous & folkloric medicine. Emphasis is given to the significance of these data on contraceptives, abortives, sterilization and fertilization agents of vegetal origin, due to their value for future research in the physiology and clinic of reproduction.

  16. Fertility and Fertility Control in Prerevolutionary China%新中国成立前的生育和生育控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武雅士; 尹泰尔; 佟春霞; 张海洋

    2011-01-01

    本文认为李中清和王丰在《人类的四分之一:马尔萨斯神话与中国现实,1700~2000》中挑战马尔萨斯以及公认的中国解放前生育状况的观点是失败的。主要有两个原因:一是他们缺少普遍存在生育控制的证据。二是与李中清和王丰的中心论题相反,中国的总和生育率比欧洲高很多。这使得中国还是生育了超出其资源可以承受的人口。%Lee and Wang challenged to the argument of Malthus and the received fertility view of China.This paper suggests that their arguments donot hold water from two aspects.The first is they lack evidence for widespread deliberate birth control.The second is th

  17. Post-emergence weed control through abrasion with an approved organic fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn gluten meal (CGM) is an approved organic fertilizer and preemergence herbicide that can be manufactured in the form of grit. This grit was tested for its ability to abrade seedlings of the summer annual weedy grass, Setaria pumila, when plants were in the 1- to 5-leaf stages of growth. It was p...

  18. Studies on the effectiveness of various sulfur fertilizers under controlled conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, G.H.; Oenema, O.

    1990-01-01

    Three factorial experiments with four replications were conducted in a greenhouse to examine the effectiveness of gypsum, elemental sulfur (ES powder) and three S containing N fertilizers, viz., ammonium sulfate (AS), urea ES, and Ureas (20% AS and 80% urea). All experiments were conducted twice in

  19. 控释氮肥在插秧水稻上的施用效果%Effects of controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer on transplanting rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翰霖

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of field experiment in 2012, to continue the experiment of different controlled release fertilizer on rice growth and yield of rice transplanting in 2013, the results show that one-time use of 60 days and 90 days two kinds of controlled release fertilizer on planting rice, rice yields were 672.3 kg and 679.7 kg, to effect a bit better of 90 days controlled release fertilizer, the difference is not obvious about two fertilizer use and conventional fertilization. Through field experiments for two consecutive years, understanding the effects of controlled release nitrogen fertilizer on rice growth and yield conditions, in order to explore the fertilizer application prospects and corresponding technical measures on rice production in Yinchuan .%在2012年田间试验的基础上,于2013年继续进行不同控释肥对插秧水稻生长与产量的影响试验.结果表明:在插秧稻上一次性施用60 d和90 d 2种控释肥时,水稻产量分别为672.3、679.7 kg/666.7 m2,以90 d控释肥效果较好,分2次施用和常规施肥差别不显著.

  20. Comparison of serum vitamin D between fertile and infertile men in a vitamin D deficient endemic area: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavizadegan, Hamed; Karbakhsh, Mojgan

    2017-06-26

    The aim of this study was to compare serum vitamin D between fertile and infertile men in endemic area of vitamin D deficiency. The role of vitamin D in all aspects of human health has attracted a great interest. Vitamin D effect on female fertility and to a lesser extent in men is under investigation. Previous researchers have found meaningful positive relationship between semen quality and serum vitamin D level. However, in endemic area of vitamin D deficiency, this effect is under question. Serum 25-OH-Vitamin D was compared between infertile male patients and fertile control group.Infertile cases were from patients of our infertility clinic and fertile controls from healthy cases with at least one child below 5 years of age.SPSS version 19 was used for statistical analysis (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Mann-Whitney test). Between 116 fertile and 114 infertile men who entered the study, serum level of 20 was a critical point, which patients with upper serum level had significantly better spermogram. In addition to it, even in vitamin D deficient patients and controls, fertile controls had higher serum vitamin D. There is a positive correlation between serum level of vitamin D and spermogram quality, even in vitamin D deficient areas. Fertile people have a higher level of serum vitamin D in comparison to infertile patient in aforementioned areas.

  1. Prenatal emotion management improves obstetric outcomes: a randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Li, He-Jiang; Wang, Jue; Mao, Hong-Jing; Jiang, Wen-Ying; Zhou, Hong; Chen, Shu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Negative emotions can cause a number of prenatal problems and disturb obstetric outcomes. We determined the effectiveness of prenatal emotional management on obstetric outcomes in nulliparas. All participants completed the PHQ-9 at the baseline assessment. Then, the participants were randomly assigned to the emotional management (EM) and usual care (UC) groups. The baseline evaluation began at 31 weeks gestation and the participants were followed up to 42 days postpartum. Each subject in the EM group received an extra EM program while the participants in the UC groups received routine prenatal care and education only. The PHQ-9 and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) were used for assessment. The EM group had a lower PHQ-9 score at 36 weeks gestation, and 7 and 42 days after delivery (P Prenatal EM intervention could control anxiety and depressive feelings in nulliparas, and improve obstetric outcomes. It may serve as an innovative approach to reduce the cesarean section rate in China.

  2. Bacillus cereus X5 Enhanced Bio-Organic Fertilizers Effectively Control Root-Knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne sp.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Tong-Jian; CHEN Fang; GAO Chao; ZHAO Qing-Yun; SHEN Qi-Rong; RAN Wei

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of Bacillus cereus X5 as a potential biological control agent against root-knot nematodes was evaluated in vitro by examining second-stage juvenile mortality and egg hatching rate under addition of culture filtrate and in planta by application of bio-organic fertilizers enhanced with B.cereus X5,B.thuringiensis BTG,or Trichoderma harzianum SQR-T037 alone or together in greenhouse and field experiments.The biofumigation of the root-knot nematode-infested soil with organic materials (chicken manure,pig manure and rice straw) alone or in combination with B.cereus X5 was also conducted in greenhouse experiments.In laboratory,the filtrate of B.cereus X5 more effectively reduced egg hatching rates during the incubation period for 14 d and more effectively killed the second-stage juvenile during the incubation period of 24 h than that of B.thuringiensis BTG.The highest dry shoot weights for greenhouse tomatoes and field muskmelons were found in both the treatment consisting of the bio-organic fertilizer enhanced with the three biocontrol agents and the treatment consisting of the bio-organic fertilizer enhanced only with B.cereus X5.The two bio-organic fertilizers achieved better nematicidal effects than those enhanced only with B.thuringiensis BTG or T.harzianum SQR-T037.B.cereus X5 also enhanced effect of biofumigation,which resulted in increased plant biomass and reduced nematode counts in the roots and rhizosphere soil.Therefore,these results suggested that biological control of root-knot nematodes both in greenhouses and fields could be effectively achieved by using B.cereus X5 and agricultural wastes.

  3. Development on significance of slow/controlled release fertilizer%积极发展缓控释肥的重大意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲均峰; 傅送保; 操斌

    2011-01-01

    Based on the status of low fertilizer utilization rate and return rate in china, the necessity of slow / controlled release fertilizer development, development background and great significance are analyzed, and some suggestions on the slow/controlled release fertilizer future development are proposed.%根据我国农业用肥利用率低、回报率低等现状,分析缓控释肥开发的必要性、发展背詈及重大意义,并对缓控释肥未来发展提出了建议。

  4. Effect of myo-inositol and melatonin versus myo-inositol, in a randomized controlled trial, for improving in vitro fertilization of patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchiarotti, Alessandro; Carlomagno, Gianfranco; Antonini, Gabriele; Pacchiarotti, Arianna

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) induces anovulation in women of reproductive age, and is one of the pathological factors involved in the failure of in vitro fertilization (IVF). Indeed, PCOS women are characterized by poor quality oocytes. Therefore, a treatment for enhancing oocyte quality becomes crucial for these patients. Myo-Inositol and melatonin proved to be efficient predictors for positive IVF outcomes, correlating with high oocyte quality. We tested the synergistic effect of myo-inositol and melatonin in IVF protocols with PCOS patients in a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial. Five-hundred twenty-six PCOS women were divided into three groups: Controls (only folic acid: 400 mcg), Group A (Inofolic® plus, a daily dose of myo-inositol: 4000 mg, folic acid: 400 mcg, and melatonin: 3 mg), and Group B (Inofolic®, a daily dose of myo-inositol: 4000 mg, and folic acid: 400 mcg). The main outcome measures were oocyte and embryo quality, clinical pregnancy and implantation rates. The treatment lasted from the first day of the cycle until 14 days after embryo transfer. Myo-inositol and melatonin have shown to enhance, synergistically, oocyte and embryo quality. In consideration of the beneficial effect observed in our trial and on the bases of previous studies, we decided to integrate routinely MI and M supplementation in the IVF protocols. The same treatment should be taken carefully in consideration in all procedures of this kind.

  5. Thermal post-treatment alters nutrient release from a controlled-release fertilizer coated with a waterborne polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Zijun Zhou; Changwen Du; Ting Li; Yazhen Shen; Jianmin Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) use a controlled-release technology to enhance the nutrient use efficiency of crops. Many factors affect the release of nutrients from the waterborne polymer-coated CRF, but the effects of thermal post-treatments remain unclear. In this study, a waterborne polyacrylate-coated CRF was post-treated at different temperatures (30 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C) and durations (2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h) after being developed in the Wurster fluidized bed. To characterize the ...

  6. Thermal post-treatment alters nutrient release from a controlled-release fertilizer coated with a waterborne polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Zijun Zhou; Changwen Du; Ting Li; Yazhen Shen; Jianmin Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) use a controlled-release technology to enhance the nutrient use efficiency of crops. Many factors affect the release of nutrients from the waterborne polymer-coated CRF, but the effects of thermal post-treatments remain unclear. In this study, a waterborne polyacrylate-coated CRF was post-treated at different temperatures (30 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C) and durations (2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h) after being developed in the Wurster fluidized bed. To characterize the ...

  7. The Outcome of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome in comparison with tubal factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fazel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose : Infertility with an incidence of about 15% has mainly been one of the community burdens that have even been threatening to the continuity of the family life. One of the most prevalent causes of women infertility is ovarian causes particularly PCOS. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of IVF & ET in women with PCOS in comparison with tubal factor.Materials and methods : This was a historical cohort study performed from 1997 to 1999, at Royan Institute. 33 patients with PCOS (without any other causes of infertility who failed standard ovulation induction treatment with clomiphen citrate (≥6 cycles underwent 33 cycles of IVF & ET. Controlled group include 76 patients with only tubal factor infertility. Long protocol with Buserelin (GnRHa/HMG was used in this study.IVF & ET cycle characteristics were compared using students t-test and χ2 and Fisher’s exact test.Results : The results of this research showed that there were statistically significant difference in mean age and incidence of OHSS in two groups. Howerer there were no satistically significant differences in duration of follicular phase, the duration of GnRHa usage up to the onset of HMG, cyst number after using GnRHa, cyst aspiration percent, HMG ampoule retrieved oocyte, produced embryo per person, embryo transfer per person, cycle cancellation and pregnancy rate per embryo transfer in two groups.Conclusion : It seems that IVF & ET are successful procedures in PCOS patients resistant to other usual treatment and hormonal dysfunction of this group of patients did not affect the results.

  8. Metformin and ageing: improving ageing outcomes beyond glycaemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Willy Marcos; Palacio, Ana; Tamariz, Leonardo; Florez, Hermes

    2017-08-02

    In a world where the population is ageing, there is growing interest and demand for research evaluating strategies that address the ageing process. After 60 years of successful use of metformin in our pharmaceutical armamentarium, we are learning that, beyond improving glycaemic control, metformin may have additional mechanisms and pathways of action that need further study. Although, metformin's effect on clinical ageing outcomes may still be considered speculative, the findings from studies into cellular and animal models and from observational and pilot human studies support the existence of beneficial effects on ageing. At present, progress for human research, using randomised clinical trials to evaluate metformin's clinical impact, has just started. Here, we present a review on the ageing process and the mechanisms involved, and the role that metformin may have to counter these. We go on to discuss the upcoming large randomised clinical trials that may provide insight on the use of metformin for ageing outcomes beyond glycaemic control.

  9. Associations of tobacco control policies with birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Baum, Christopher F; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W

    2014-11-01

    It is unclear whether the benefits of tobacco control policies extend to pregnant women and infants, especially among racial/ethnic minority and low socioeconomic populations that are at highest risk for adverse birth outcomes. To examine the associations of state cigarette taxes and the enactment of smoke-free legislation with US birth outcomes according to maternal race/ethnicity and education. Using a quasi-experimental approach, we analyzed repeated cross sections of US natality files with 16,198,654 singleton births from 28 states and Washington, DC, between 2000 and 2010. We first used probit regression to model the associations of 2 tobacco control policies with the probability that a pregnant woman smoked (yes or no). We then used linear or probit regression to estimate the associations of the policies with birth outcomes. We also examined the association of taxes with birth outcomes across maternal race/ethnicity and education. State cigarette taxes and smoke-free restaurant legislation. Birth weight (in grams), low birth weight (90th percentile for gestational age and sex). White and black mothers with the least amount of education (0-11 years) had the highest prevalence of maternal smoking during pregnancy (42.4% and 20.0%, respectively) and the poorest birth outcomes, but the strongest responses to cigarette taxes. Among white mothers with a low level of education, every $1.00 increase in the cigarette tax reduced the level of smoking by 2.4 percentage points (-0.0024 [95% CI, -0.0004 to -0.0001]), and the birth weight of their infants increased by 5.41 g (95% CI, 1.92-8.89 g). Among black mothers with a low level of education, tax increases reduced smoking by 2.1 percentage points (-0.0021 [95% CI, -0.0003 to -0.0001]), and the birth weight of their infants increased by 3.98 g (95% CI, 1.91-6.04 g). Among these mothers, tax increases also reduced the risk of having low-birth-weight, preterm, and small-for-gestational-age babies, but increased the risk

  10. Effects of Controlled-Release Fertilizers and Their Application Methods on Germination and Seedling Growth of Dent and Sweet Corns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Xiao-hong; SAIGUSA Masahiko; KIKAWA Naoto

    2005-01-01

    Effects of controlled-release fertilizers (CRFs) (C-AS, polyolefin coated ammonium sulfate, 50-day-type; Dd-LP, polyolefin coated urea with dicyandiamide, 40-day-type; C-ANP, polyolefin coated ammonium nitrate phosphate, 40-day-type; and C-DAP, polyolefin coated diammonium acid phosphate, 40-day-type), ammonium sulphate and no fertilizer control, and their application methods (spot, band, surface and mixed) on germination and seedling development of sweet corn (Zea mays L.var. saccharata Sturt.) and dent corn (Zea mays L.var. indentata Sturt.) were investigated in a greenhouse. Under co-situs application (band and spot) of CRFs, there were no obvious differences in the germination speed and rate for both dent corn and sweet corn relative to control. Mortality rates of sweet corn seedlings under co-situs application were high in experiment 1, but were very low in experiment 2, because the environmental conditions were different in the two experiments. That is, under lower temperature and weaker sunlight, young seedlings easily die due to high soil nutrient concentration and slow growth speed of corn. Shoot weight of both dent and sweet corn did not greatly decrease in experiment 1. In experiment 2, there were no significant differences in shoot and root weight of both corns between cositus and surface or mixed application methods. However, with spot and band application of ammonium sulfate, shoot and root weight were significantly reduced. Soil EC and pH were considerably affected by co-situs application, especially at the fertilizer application site. For both dent and sweet corn, EC in the 0-3 cm soil was significantly higher under co-situs application and surface application than that under mixed application, whereas in the 3-6 cm soil depth the situation was reversed. Compared with control, mixed application of CRFs decreased soil pH slightly (0-3 cm depth) or greatly (3-6 cm depth).

  11. Mycorrhizal association as a primary control of the CO₂ fertilization effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrer, César; Vicca, Sara; Hungate, Bruce A; Phillips, Richard P; Prentice, I Colin

    2016-07-01

    Plants buffer increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations through enhanced growth, but the question whether nitrogen availability constrains the magnitude of this ecosystem service remains unresolved. Synthesizing experiments from around the world, we show that CO2 fertilization is best explained by a simple interaction between nitrogen availability and mycorrhizal association. Plant species that associate with ectomycorrhizal fungi show a strong biomass increase (30 ± 3%, P nitrogen availability, whereas low nitrogen availability limits CO2 fertilization (0 ± 5%, P = 0.946) in plants that associate with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The incorporation of mycorrhizae in global carbon cycle models is feasible, and crucial if we are to accurately project ecosystem responses and feedbacks to climate change.

  12. Anesthetic management for oocyte retrieval: An exploratory analysis comparing outcome in in vitro fertilization cycles with and without pre-implantation genetic diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ioscovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To date, there has been no comparison of outcomes in women undergoing anesthesia for in vitro fertilization (IVF oocyte retrieval for the purpose of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD because of their or their partner′s genetic disease relative to the outcome in women requiring IVF because of fertility issues. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study, wherein all demographic and anesthetic management data were collected from IVF and PGD units′ records for a 6-month period. Descriptive analyses and parametric tests were employed. Results: There were 307 cases IVF and 76 cases PGD: most (97.4% and 99.7%, respectively received general anesthesia with propofol and fentanyl ± dipyrone (90.5% and 93.3%, respectively with no adverse effects. The only statistically significant difference between IVF and PGD groups that was potentially clinically significant was post-procedure recovery time (23.0 ± 20.4 vs. 29.4 ± 35.8 min, respectively; P < 0.0001, but is explainable as greater caution by Anesthesiologists for higher-risk PGD cases having autosomal dominant diseases that may impact anesthesia management (myotonic dystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Marfan′s; two of these cases also recovered in the general post-anesthesia care unit, as a precaution for early diagnosis and treatment of potential post-procedural complication. Conclusions: Results of this first-ever survey of anesthesia for PGD compared with IVF cases imply that propofol-and-fentanyl-based anesthesia is safe and can be recommended, bearing in mind that with patients who have autosomal dominant diseases impacting anesthetic management it is prudent to be more cautious post-recovery.

  13. Sexual and Reproductive Outcomes in Early Stage Cervical Cancer Patients after Excisional Cone as a Fertility-sparing Surgery: An Italian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanfani, Francesco; Landoni, Fabio; Gagliardi, Maria Lucia; Fagotti, Anna; Preti, Eleonora; Moruzzi, Maria Cristina; Monterossi, Giorgia; Scambia, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to analyze the quality of life in terms of sexual and reproductive outcome in patients suffering from early stage cervical cancer, submitted to an excisional cone as fertility-sparing treatment. Methods A multicenter retrospective analysis about specific dimensions of physical, psychological, reproductive and sexual functions after a cold-knife conization plus pelvic laparoscopic lymphadenectomy was conducted at Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome-Italy and at Division of Gynecology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan-Italy. The aim of this study was twofold. It aimed to analyze the quality of life in patients submitted to minimally invasive surgery and to compare these data with radical trachelectomy. Results Twenty-three patients with an average age of 30 years decided to participate in this study. After the treatment, all women (100%) had regular menstruation, 7 (30.4%) had increased not invalidating dysmenorrhea; 1 (4.4%) experienced a cervical stenosis; 6 among 10 patients that tried to conceive (60%) obtained one spontaneous pregnancy; 4 more (40%) underwent in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and only 1 of them (25%) was successful. About sexual assessment, 1 patient (4.4%) had trouble in lubricating, 3 (13%) had anxiety about performance, 6 (26.1%) complained of dyspareunia which was resolved within 3 subsequent months. All patients (100%) obtained a complete psychological and physical recovery. Conclusion This study demonstrated preliminary encouraging data about sexual and reproductive outcome after excisional conization. A comparison with trachelectomy surely needs longer follow-ups, more cases and prospective analyses. PMID:24696793

  14. Improving patient-centeredness of fertility care using a multifaceted approach: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huppelschoten Aleida G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beside traditional outcomes of safety and (cost-effectiveness, the Institute of Medicine states patient-centeredness as an independent outcome indicator to evaluate the quality of healthcare. Providing patient-centered care is important because patients want to be heard for their ideas and concerns. Healthcare areas associated with high emotions and intensive treatment periods could especially benefit from patient-centered care. How care can become optimally improved in patient-centeredness is unknown. Therefore, we will conduct a study in the context of Dutch fertility care to determine the effects of a multifaceted approach on patient-centeredness, patients’ quality of life (QoL and levels of distress. Our aims are to investigate the effectiveness of a multifaceted approach and to identify determinants of a change in the level of patient-centeredness, patients’ QoL and distress levels. This paper presents the study protocol. Methods/Design In a cluster-randomized trial in 32 Dutch fertility clinics the effects of a multifaceted approach will be determined on the level of patient-centeredness (Patient-centredness Questionnaire – Infertility, patients’ QoL (FertiQoL and levels of distress (SCREENIVF. The multifaceted approach includes audit and feedback, educational outreach visits and patient-mediated interventions. Potential determinants of a change in patient-centeredness, patients’ QoL and levels of distress will be collected by an addendum to the patients’ questionnaire and a professionals’ questionnaire. The latter includes the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument about the clinic’s culture as a possible determinant of an increase in patient-centered care. Discussion The study is expected to yield important new evidence about the effects of a multifaceted approach on levels of patient-centeredness, patients’ QoL and distress in fertility care. Furthermore, determinants associated with a change

  15. Control of fertilization-independent endosperm development by the MEDEA polycomb gene in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyosue, T; Ohad, N; Yadegari, R; Hannon, M; Dinneny, J; Wells, D; Katz, A; Margossian, L; Harada, J J; Goldberg, R B; Fischer, R L

    1999-03-30

    Higher plant reproduction is unique because two cells are fertilized in the haploid female gametophyte. Egg and sperm nuclei fuse to form the embryo. A second sperm nucleus fuses with the central cell nucleus that replicates to generate the endosperm, a tissue that supports embryo development. To understand mechanisms that initiate reproduction, we isolated a mutation in Arabidopsis, f644, that allows for replication of the central cell and subsequent endosperm development without fertilization. When mutant f644 egg and central cells are fertilized by wild-type sperm, embryo development is inhibited, and endosperm is overproduced. By using a map-based strategy, we cloned and sequenced the F644 gene and showed that it encodes a SET-domain polycomb protein. Subsequently, we found that F644 is identical to MEDEA (MEA), a gene whose maternal-derived allele is required for embryogenesis [Grossniklaus, U., Vielle-Calzada, J.-P., Hoeppner, M. A. & Gagliano, W. B. (1998) Science 280, 446-450]. Together, these results reveal functions for plant polycomb proteins in the suppression of central cell proliferation and endosperm development. We discuss models to explain how polycomb proteins function to suppress endosperm and promote embryo development.

  16. 控释掺混专用肥对水稻生长的影响%Effects of Controlled-release Compound Fertilizer on Growth of Paddy Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑磊; 陈宝成; 范玲超; 王怀利; 蒋曦龙; 齐英杰

    2013-01-01

    In order to provide scientific evidence for the production and safety application of the special controlled-release fertilizer for paddy rice, field experiment was conducted to study the effects of controlled-release fertilizer on paddy rice yield, fertilizer utilization and economic benefit. The results indicated that: compared with common fertilization, there was no significant difference on the height and lamina chlorophyll content of paddy rice under controlled-release compound fertilizations with various nutrient proportions and different fertilization. Based on the same application of fertilizers, the level of soil nutrient was higher under controlled-release compound fertilizer treatments than under common fertilizations, controlled-release compound fertilization increased the content of N, P and K in paddy rice 5.0%-20.3%, 2.7%-40.8%,-8.2%-39.9%, respectively. The yield of paddy rice increased up to 6.90%-15.3% under controlled-release compound fertilizer treatments. The utilization rate of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium fertilizers was 6.07%-29.91%, 41.86%-85.57%, 38.57%-95.43%, respectively. The income of paddy rice under controlled-release compound fertilizer enhanced 537-1296 yuan/hm2 in comparison with common fertilization. Controlled-release compound fertilizer could effectively simplified the cultivation techniques of paddy rice, and special controlled release fertilizer for paddy rice should be developed and promoted actively.%为了保证控释肥在水稻生产中的安全施用和水稻专用控释肥的生产改进提供科学依据,通过采用田间小区试验的方法,研究了不同控释肥处理对水稻产量、肥料利用率和经济效益的影响。结果表明,与普通肥相比,等量控释肥、减量控释肥、减氮控释肥、种子保姆肥不能显著提高水稻株高和叶绿素含量;施肥量相近下,控释掺混肥处理土壤养分含量较高;水稻吸收氮磷钾量分别提高5.0%~20.3%、2

  17. Application Effect of Controlled-Release BB Fertilizers on Wheat%控失BB肥在小麦上的应用效果∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙克刚; 李玉顺; 和爱玲; 张运红; 顾朝晖; 岳艳军; 冯梦喜

    2016-01-01

    为了验证控失BB肥的优越性并发现其在施用过程中存在的问题,为进一步改进控失尿素产品提出建议,对控失BB肥在小麦上的应用效果进行了大田试验和示范处理。试验结果表明,控失BB肥能有效提高氮肥利用率,但氮肥利用率随氮肥使用量的增加而下降。示范结果表明,控失BB肥比普通BB肥处理小麦增产372.0 kg/hm2,增产率4.7%。%In order to verify the superiority of controlled-release BB fertilizer and to find problems existing in application, and to make suggestions for further improving controlled-release urea products, the field experiment and treatment demonstration of controlled-release BB fertilizer application effect on wheat are carried out. Experimental results show that controlled-release BB fertilizer can improve utilization ratio of nitrogen fertilizer effectively, but nitrogen fertilizer utilization ratio decreases with the increase in amount of nitrogen fertilizer used. Treatment demonstration results show that with controlled-release BB fertilizer the wheat yield increases by 372. 0 kg/hm2 than that of common BB fertilizer, the rate of growth is 4. 7%.

  18. Surfactant modified coir pith, an agricultural solid waste as adsorbent for phosphate removal and fertilizer carrier to control phosphate release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, C; Kumar, M V Suresh

    2005-10-01

    The surface of coir pith, an agricultural solid waste was modified using a cationic surfactant, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA) and the modified coir pith was investigated to assess the capacity for the removal of phosphate from aqueous solution. Optimum pH for maximum phosphate adsorption was found to be 4.0. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to model the adsorption equilibrium data. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption obeyed second order kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated and the overall adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. Effect of coexisting anions has also been studied. The feasibility of using spent adsorbent as fertilizer carrier to control phosphate release was also investigated.

  19. 缓/控释化肥合成研究的新进展%New development of preparation of slow/controlled release fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建超; 刘华; 刘俊杰; 刘亚青

    2011-01-01

    drawbacks caused by the traditional fertilizer. In this paper, the pollution damage to environment and food safety caused by the traditional fertilizer is briefly pointed out. In contrast, several sorts of slow/controlled release fertilizers such as chemically modified, biochemically modified, physically encapsulated and biochemically & physically encapsulated modified fertilizer,classified according to the manufacture process and slow/controlled release mechanism, are introduced in detail. Furthermore, the prospect of slow/controlled release fertilizer is also proposed.slow/controlled release fertilizer; synthesis; development%缓/控释化肥的合成研究是目前肥料领域发展的热点之一,缓/控释化肥可有效弥补传统肥料带来的诸多缺点.简述了传统肥料对环境和食品安全的危害,根据缓/控释化肥的制造工艺和释放原理,重点介绍了化学型、生物化学型、物理包膜型和生物化学与物理包膜结合型缓/控释化肥合成方法的现状,并对缓/控释化肥的发展进行了展望.

  20. Effects of polycystic ovaries on the outcomes of in vitro fertilization -embryo transfer%卵巢多囊样改变对体外受精-胚胎移植结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂明月; 洪黎明; 杨晓葵

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨卵巢多囊样改变( polycystic ovaries,PCO)伴不孕患者体外受精-胚胎移植( in vitro fertilization andembrgo transfer,IVF-ET)治疗的效果。方法回顾性分析2011~2014年首都医科大学附属北京妇产医院因输卵管因素行IVF助孕的PCO患者180例,同期180例因输卵管因素行IVF助孕的非PCO患者为对照组,对两组患者的基本情况和治疗结局进行统计分析。结果与对照组相比,PCO组促性腺激素( gonadotropin, Gn )用量少,绒毛膜促性腺激素( Human chorionic gonadotropin, HCG )日血清雌二醇( estrodiol,E2)高,获卵数较多。两组受精率、优质胚胎率和临床妊娠结局等比较差异无统计学意义( P >0.05)。结论单纯PCO合并输卵管性不孕的患者行IVF具有良好的结局,但应警惕卵巢过度刺激综合征( ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, OHSS)的发生。%Objective To explore the effects of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer ( IVF-ET ) in patients with polycystic ovaries( PCO) complicated with infertility. Methods 180 PCO patients with tubal factors receiving IVF from 2011 to 2014 were analyzed retrospectively, and the control group consisted of 180 patients with tubal factor infertility but without ovary disease, generally characteristics and clinical outcomes of two groups were analyzed. Results In PCO group, the dosage of gonadotropin administration was significantly smaller, the estrodiol on Human chorionic gonadotropin ( HCG ) day and the number of oocytes retrieved were significantly higher. There were no significantly differences between fertilization rate, rate of high quality embryos and clinical pregnancy outcomes. Conclusion Polycystic ovaries patients complicated with tubal factor infertility have good consequences through IVF, but more attention should be paid in case of the occurrence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome ( OHSS) .

  1. Fertility Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Fertility Awareness KidsHealth > For Teens > Fertility Awareness Print A A A What's in this article? ... español Monitoreo de fertilidad What Is It? Fertility awareness is a way to prevent pregnancy by not ...

  2. 缓控释肥在蜜柚上的施用效果研究%Effects of Slow-Controlled Release Fertilizer on Honeyed Shaddock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴凌云; 李志忠; 丁文

    2011-01-01

    蜜柚施用缓控释肥的田间试验结果表明,缓控释肥处理比配方施肥、习惯施肥处理分别增产4.76%、12.35%;缓控释肥处理与习惯施肥处理相比,柚子可溶性总糖、可溶性固形物和维生素C含量分别提高0.6%、0.9%和1.9 mg/100 g;缓控释肥、配方施肥处理比习惯施肥处理每667 m2产值分别增加588.0元、345.0元,纯收益分别增加544.0元、461.9元。%A field experiment was conducted with application of slow controlled release fertilizer in honeyed shaddock.The results showed that slow-controlled releasing fertilizer could increase the yield of honey shaddock by 4.76% and 12.35% than formulated and regular fertilization,respectively.Compared with regular fertilization,slow-controlled releasing fertilizer increased the soluble sugar content by 0.6%,soluble solids by 0.9%,and vitamin C content by 1.9 mg/100 g in honeyed shaddock.Meanwhile,compared with regular fertilization,slow controlled release fertilizer and formulated fertilization increased the yield of honeyed shaddock per 667 m2(0.067 hm2) by 588.0 and 345.0 Yuan,and increased the net economical benefit by 544.0 and 461.9 Yuan per 667 m2(0.067 hm2).

  3. The role of Angiotensin-converting enzyme in blood pressure control, renal function, and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esther, C R; Marino, E M; Bernstein, K E

    1997-07-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc peptidase that plays a major role in the renin-angiotensin system. In mammals, the enzyme is present as two isozymes: a somatic form involved in blood-pressure regulation and a testis form of unknown function. Mice lacking ACE have been created and shown to have low systolic blood pressures and defects in renal development and function. These mice also have reduced male fertility, implicating the testis isozyme in reproductive function. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997;8:181-186). (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  4. Residual effects of fertilization history increase nitrous oxide emissions from zero-N controls:Implications for estimating fertilizer-induced emission factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural N fertilization is the dominant driver of increasing atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations over the past half century, yet there is considerable uncertainty in estimates of N2O emissions from agriculture. Such estimates are typically based on the amount of N applied and a ferti...

  5. Predictors of in vitro fertilization outcomes in women with highest follicle-stimulating hormone levels ≥ 12 IU/L: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina N Huang

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate factors predictive of outcomes in women with highest follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH levels ≥ 12 IU/L on basal testing, undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF.A prospective cohort study was conducted at Stanford University Hospital in the Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Center for 12 months. Women age 21 to 43 undergoing IVF with highest FSH levels on baseline testing were included. Donor/Recipient and frozen embryo cycles were excluded from this study. Prognostic factors evaluated in association with clinical pregnancy rates were type of infertility diagnosis and IVF stimulation parameters.The current study found that factors associated with clinical pregnancy were: increased number of mature follicles on the day of triggering, number of oocytes retrieved, number of Metaphase II oocytes if intracytoplasmic sperm injection was done, and number of embryos developed 24 hours after retrieval.Our findings suggest that it would be beneficial for women with increased FSH levels to attempt a cycle of IVF. Results of ovarian stimulation, especially embryo quantity appear to be the best predictors of IVF outcomes and those can only be obtained from a cycle of IVF. Therefore, increased basal FSH levels should not discourage women from attempting a cycle of IVF.

  6. Deleterious effects of obesity upon the hormonal and molecular mechanisms controlling spermatogenesis and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lien M; Millar, Kate; Jones, Celine; Fatum, Muhammad; Coward, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Worldwide obesity rates have nearly doubled since 1980 and currently over 10% of the population is obese. In 2008, over 1.4 billion adults aged 20 years and older had a body mass index or BMI above a healthy weight and of these, over 200 million men and nearly 300 million women were obese. While obesity can have many ramifications upon adult life, one growing area of concern is that of reproductive capacity. Obesity affects male infertility by influencing the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, thus causing detrimental effects upon spermatogenesis and subsequent fertility. In particular, evidence indicates that excess adipose tissue can alter the relative ratio of testosterone and oestrogen. Additional effects involve the homeostatic disruption of insulin, sex-hormone-binding-globulin, leptin and inhibin B, leading to diminished testosterone production and impairment to spermatogenesis. Aberrant spermatogenesis arising from obesity is associated with downstream changes in key semen parameters, defective sperm capacitation and binding, and deleterious effects on sperm chromatin structure. More recent investigations into trans-generational epigenetic inheritance further suggest that molecular changes in sperm that arise from obesity-related impaired spermatogenesis, such as modified sperm RNA levels, DNA methylation, protamination and histone acetylation, can impact upon the development of offspring. Here, we summarise our current understanding of how obesity exerts influence over spermatogenesis and subsequent fertility status, and make recommendations for future investigative research.

  7. Effect of interval after surgery on in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes in patients with stage Ⅲ/Ⅳ endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiao-wu; QIAO Jie; XIA En-lan; MA Yan-min; WANG Ying

    2010-01-01

    Background For patients with severe endometriosis, the spontaneous pregnancy rates have been reported to be near 0 due to extreme distortion of normal pelvic anatomy.Surgery is one of the treatment options; however, if patients failed to conceive after surgery, in vitro fertilization (IVF) is effective.The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the clinical characteristics of IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in patients with stage Ⅲ/Ⅳ endometriosis, and to determine the impact of the interval from surgery to IVF/ICSI on outcome.Methods One hundred and sixty patients who were diagnosed with stage Ⅲ/Ⅳ endometriosis underwent IVF/ICSI cycles between February 2004 and June 2009 were enrolled.The mean interval from surgery to IVF, number of oocytes retrieved, fertilization rate, implantation rate, embryos transferred, and good embryos transferred were compared between two age groups (≤35 years and > 35 years).Results The mean interval from surgery to IVF was (37.9±28.9) months for the group ≤ 35 years of age and (57.6±39.7)months for the group >35 years of age.Twenty-five IVF/ICSI cycles (12.8%) were performed during the first year after surgery, and 34.9% IVF/ICSI cycles were performed 2 years after surgery.No significant differences existed between the two groups with respect to the fertilization rate, implantation rate, number of embryos transferred, number of good embryos,clinical pregnancy rates, live birth rates, and cumulative clinical pregnancy rates (P >0.05).The probability of cumulative clinical pregnancies was 75%, 50%, and 25% ((29.0±4.8), (61.0±7.6), and (120.0±16.9) months after surgery, respectively).Conclusions For infertile patients with stage Ⅲ/Ⅳ endometriosis, the optimal time to conceive by IVF/ICSI is <2 years after surgery; nevertheless, most of the patients took a longer time to conceive.

  8. Negative Control Outcomes and the Analysis of Standardized Mortality Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David B; Keil, Alexander P; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; Cooper, Glinda

    2015-09-01

    In occupational cohort mortality studies, epidemiologists often compare the observed number of deaths in the cohort to the expected number obtained by multiplying person-time accrued in the study cohort by the mortality rate in an external reference population. Interpretation of the result may be difficult due to noncomparability of the occupational cohort and reference population with respect to unmeasured risk factors for the outcome of interest. We describe an approach to estimate an adjusted standardized mortality ratio (aSMR) to control for such bias. The approach draws on methods developed for the use of negative control outcomes. Conditions necessary for unbiased estimation are described, as well as looser conditions necessary for bias reduction. The approach is illustrated using data on bladder cancer mortality among male Oak Ridge National Laboratory workers. The SMR for bladder cancer was elevated among hourly-paid males (SMR = 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3, 2.7) but not among monthly-paid males (SMR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.67, 1.3). After indirect adjustment using the proposed approach, the mortality ratios were similar in magnitude among hourly- and monthly-paid men (aSMR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.5, 3.2; and, aSMR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 2.8, respectively). The proposed adjusted SMR offers a complement to typical SMR analyses.

  9. Physiological Basis of Photosynthetic Function and Senescence of Rice Leaves as Regulated by Controlled-Release Nitrogen Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Jun; ZHENG Sheng-xian; DAI Pin-gan; XIAO Jian; YI Guo-ying

    2005-01-01

    The physiological mechanism of photosynthetic function and senescence of rice leaves was studied by using early rice variety Baliangyou 100 and late rice variety Weiyou 46, treated with controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer (CRNF), urea and no nitrogen fertilizer. CRNF showed obvious effects on delaying the senescence and prolonging photosynthetic function duration of rice leaves. Compared with urea, CRNF could significantly increase the chlorophyll content of functional leaves in both early and late rice varieties, and this difference between the treatments became larger as rice growth progressed; CRNF increased the activities of active oxygen scavenging enzymes super oxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), and decreased the accumulation amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) in functional leaves during leaf aging; Photosynthetic rate of functional leaves in CRNF treatment was significantly higher than that in urea treatment. The result also indicated that CRNF could effectively regulate the contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in functional leaves; IAA content was higher and ABA content was lower in CRNF treatment than those in urea treatment. Therefore, application of CRNF could increase the rice yield significantly due to these physiological changes in the functional leaves.

  10. [Effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer and its combination with urea on nitrous oxide emission during rice growth period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yang; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Ma, Jing; Li, Xiao-ping; Xu, Hua; Cai, Zu-cong

    2011-08-01

    By the method of static chamber, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) and its combination with urea on the N2O emission during rice growth period. Four treatments, i.e., no fertilization (CK), urea (U), urea and CRF with a ratio of 3:7 (U+C), and CRF (C) were installed, and the N application rate in treatments U, U+C, and C was the same. Compared with treatment U, treatments U+C and C decreased the N2O emission during rice growth season by 40.4% and 59.6%, and decreased the emission at midseason aeration stage by 65.1% and 83.9%, respectively (P stage. Applying CRF increased rice yield, and the increment in treatments C and U+C was 7.8% and 9.8%, respectively, as compared to treatment U. Applying CRF delayed the peak time of soil inorganic nitrogen concentration, resulting in the reduction of N2O emission at midseason aeration stage. During rice growth season, no significant correlation was observed between N2O flux and soil Eh or soil temperature.

  11. Suppression of Ammonia Volatilization from Urea-Based Fertilizers Using Urease Inhibitors: A Reasonably Available Control Technology for Agriculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robarge, W. P.

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia loss from fertilizers can impact formation of atmospheric aerosols, as well as contribute to nitrogen (N) deposition in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Urea is the predominant form of N fertilizer used worldwide due to its high N content (46.6% N) and low cost. Once in contact with soil or vegetation, urea is hydrolyzed to ammonium via naturally occurring urease enzymes. Losses of N from surface applied urea as ammonia can exceed 30%. To address this issue, various physical and chemical mechanisms have been incorporated into granular urea. The most common approach is incorporation of urease inhibitors such as N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT). We have been investigating ammonia volatilization from urea granules (+/- urease inhibitors) in various field and laboratory controlled experiments for the past several years. Laboratory experiments are conducted with a customized growth chamber system designed to continuously measure ammonia volatilization. Field measurements are conducted using a passive sampler technology with an acid-coated trap in PVC cylinders, or annular denuder technology using flow-through PVC chambers. Daily exchanges of acid-coated denuder tubes enhance the sensitivity of ammonia volatilization measurements for the urease-inhibitor treated product. Loss of N from commercial urea granules has ranged from 6 - ~ 35%, depending on ambient temperature. This loss typically occurs within the first 5-10 days under field conditions. Some urease-inhibitors can minimize loss of N via volatilization (technology for use in agriculture to reduce ammonia emissions.

  12. Types of slow/controlled release fertilizer and its quality evaluation method%缓/控释肥料类型及质量评价方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红竹; 郑国亮; 刘海林; 林清火; 罗微

    2016-01-01

    缓/控释肥料具有减少养分淋失、挥发损失,提高肥料利用率等诸多优点,近年来在国内发展尤其迅速,是今后肥料发展的主要方向之一。介绍缓/控释肥料的概念、分类和质量评价方法,并对今后的研究方向进行展望。%S low/controlled release fertilizers has many advantages, such as it can improve the uptake of nutrients by plants, reduce possible losses of nutrients and losses of ammonia. In recent years, slow/controlled release fertilizers develops fastly in domestic market. Slow/controlled release fertilizers is one of the main direction for the future development of fertilizer. This paper introduceds the concept, classification and quality evaluation method of slow/controlled release fertilizer, and looks forward to the future research.

  13. Research on Application Effect of Controlled-Release Fertilizer and Traditional Fertilizer on Carnation in Yinchuan City%控释肥与常规化肥在银川市康乃馨上的应用效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜燕燕

    2016-01-01

    The effects of controlled-release fertilizer and traditional fertilizer on carnation showed that the effect of controlled-release fertilizer was better than traditional fertilizer.Using controlled-release fertilizer could reduce the number of fertilizer,labor and the labor intensity,increase the ratio of outputs to inputs objectively.%选用控释肥和常规化肥种植康乃馨,结果表明:控释肥的效果优于常规化肥。控释肥减少了追肥、用工的次数,降低了劳动强度,客观上增大了产投比。

  14. Establishment of a rice-duck integrated farming system and its effects on soil fertility and rice disease control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Qing; Hu, Xue-Feng; Cheng, Chang; Luo, Zhi-Qing; Luo, Fan

    2015-04-01

    Rice-duck integrated farming is an ecological farming system newly established in some areas of southern China . It was reported that the ducks walking around the paddy fields is beneficial to control weed hazards and reduce rice pests and diseases. To study and evaluate the effects of the rice-duck integrated farming on soil fertility and rice disease control, a field experiment of rice cultivation was carried out in the suburb of Shanghai in 2014. It includes a treatment of raising ducks in the fields and a control without ducks. The treatment was implemented by building a duck coop nearby the experimental fields and driving 15 ducks into a plot at daytime since the early stage of rice growth. Each plot is 667 m2 in area. The treatment and control were replicated for three times. No any herbicides, pesticides, fungicides and chemical fertilizers were applied during the experiment to prevent any disturbance to duck growing and rice weed hazards and disease incidences from agrochemicals. The results are as follows: (1) The incidences of rice leaf rollers (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) and stem borers treated with ducks, 0.45%and 1.18% on average, respectively, are lower than those of the control, 0.74% and 1.44% on average, respectively. At the late stage of rice growth, the incidence of rice sheath blight treated with ducks, 13.15% on average, is significantly lower than that of the control, 16.9% on average; and the incidence of rice planthoppers treated with ducks, 11.3 per hill on average, is also significantly lower than that of the control, 47.4 per hill on average. (2) The number of weeds in the plots treated with ducks, 8.3 per m2 on average, is significantly lower than that of the control, 87.5 m2 on average. (3) Raising ducks in the fields could also enhance soil enzyme activity and nutrient status. At the late stage of rice growth, the activities of urease, phosphatase, sucrase and catalase in the soils treated with ducks are 1.39 times, 1.40 times, 1

  15. Effects of organic and chemical fertilizer on plant nutritional status and soil fertility of tomatoes grown under greenhouse condition

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRTAŞ, Elif Işıl; ÖKTÜREN ASRİ, Filiz; Cevdet Fehmi ÖZKAN; Nuri ARI

    2012-01-01

    The effect of some plant originated liquid organic fertilizer on soil fertility and plant nutritional status of tomato plants were investigated. The experiment was planned to compare the control, organic fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, 1/1chemical+organic fertilizer, ½chemical+organic fertilizer, chemical fertilizer+foliar organic fertilizer application. The trial was conducted in randomised complete block design with four replications. Plant and soil samples were analyzed. According to the ...

  16. Impact of early cleaved zygote morphology on embryo development and in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer outcome: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesters, Laëtitia; Prisant, Nadia; Fanchin, Renato; Méndez Lozano, Daniel H; Feyereisen, Estelle; Frydman, René; Tachdjian, Gérard; Frydman, Nelly

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of the first division morphology on embryo development and IVF-embryo transfer outcome. Prospective study. Teaching hospital, France. All zygotes from 201 couples were checked for early cleavage. We defined as "even," early cleaved (EC) zygotes with 2 cells of even size; as "uneven," EC zygotes with 2 cells of uneven size; and as "fragmented," EC zygotes with more than 20% fragmentation rate. Day 2 embryo quality was assessed as "top" embryo or "non-top," with the evaluation of multinucleated blastomeres. None. Day 2 embryo quality, pregnancy and implantation rates. Among EC zygotes, 59.1% were even, 13.0% were uneven, and 27.9% were fragmented. Even EC yielded more "top" embryos and less multinucleated blastomere embryos than uneven EC (77.0% vs. 46.3%) and fragmented EC (77.0% vs. 13.9%). The 125 double embryo transfers that comprised at least one embryo derived from even EC zygote led to higher pregnancy rate (PR) (64.0% vs. 43.4%) and implantation rate (42.0% vs. 27.6%) compared to the 76 double embryo transfers with embryos derived from breakdown or 2PN zygotes. The morphology of the early cleaved zygote is involved in embryo development. Evaluation of this morphology is an effective and valuable method of assessing the embryo quality.

  17. Bio-based Interpenetrating Network Polymer Composites from Locust Sawdust as Coating Material for Environmentally Friendly Controlled-Release Urea Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shugang; Yang, Yuechao; Gao, Bin; Wan, Yongshan; Li, Yuncong C; Zhao, Chenhao

    2016-07-20

    A novel polymer-coated nitrogen (N) fertilizer was developed using bio-based polyurethane (PU) derived from liquefied locust sawdust as the coating material. The bio-based PU was successfully coated on the surface of the urea fertilizer prills to form polymer-coated urea (PCU) fertilizer for controlled N release. Epoxy resin (EP) was also used to further modify the bio-based PU to synthesize the interpenetrating network (IPN), enhancing the slow-release properties of the PCU. The N release characteristics of the EP-modified PCU (EMPCU) in water were determine at 25 °C and compared to that of PCU and EP-coated urea (ECU). The results showed that the EP modification reduced the N release rate and increased the longevity of the fertilizer coated with bio-based PU. A corn growth study was conducted to further evaluate the filed application of the EMPCU. In comparison to commercial PCU and conventional urea fertilizer, EMPCU was more effective and increased the yield and total dry matter accumulation of the corn. Findings from this work indicated that bio-based PU derived from sawdust can be used as coating materials for PCU, particularly after EP modification. The resulting EMPCU was more environmentally friendly and cost-effective than conventional urea fertilizers coated by EP.

  18. Role of Embryo Glue as a transfer medium in the outcome of fresh non-donor in-vitro fertilization cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: EmbryoGlue is a hyaluronan-enriched embryo transfer (ET medium which aids in implantation of embryos, hence, improves pregnancy rates in in-vitro fertilization-ET cycles (IVF-ET. Aim: To evaluate the role of EmbryoGlue in improving implantation and pregnancy rates. Design and Setting: A prospective case-control study conducted at assisted reproductive center of a tertiary care hospital. Method: In 42 women undergoing IVF, embryos were transferred into 50 μL of EmbryoGlue for 10 min prior to transfer inside uterine cavity. In the control group (n = 42, embryos were transferred to conventional blastocyst culture medium. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS IBM version 19.0. Results: Clinical pregnancy rate in the study group was 7% higher than the control group. The difference, however, was not statistically significant. In addition, no improvement in implantation rates was observed in the study group. However, significant difference (P = 0.04 in clinical pregnancy rate was observed with the EmbryoGlue in patients with previous IVF failure. In the study group, 50% patients (6/12 with previous IVF failure had successful implantation, but in the control group none of the patients (0/11 with previous implantation failure could achieve pregnancy. Conclusion: It is difficult to conclude a favourable role of EmbryoGlue in IVF-ET cycles with a good prognosis. However, in patients with recurrent implantation failure, it may be considered as a useful transfer medium.

  19. Case report: a successful pregnancy outcome in a patient with non-mosaic Turner syndrome (45, X) via in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Nobuo; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Araki, Yasuhisa

    2013-03-01

    We describe a successful pregnancy outcome in a patient with non-mosaic Turner syndrome (45, X) via in vitro fertilization. The patient achieved a second pregnancy at 35 years of age. The her blood lymphocyte karyotype was examined by G-band and FISH. Furthermore, cumulus cells and her elbow skin cells were evaluated via FISH. Non-mosaic Turner syndrome was determined by G-banding [100 % (50/50) 45, X]. Lymphocytes were shown as 478/500 (95.6 %) cells of X sex chromosome signal, 15/500 (3.0 %) cells of XXX signal, and 7/500 (1.4 %) cells of XX signal. The cumulus cells were mosaic: 152/260 (58.5 %) were X; 84/260 (32.3 %) were XXX, 20/260 (7.7 %) were XX, and 4/260 (1.5 %) were XY. Moreover, skin cells included a mosaic karyotype [47, XXX(29)/46, XX(1)]. We conclude that the collection of a large number of blood lymphocytes can reveal different mosaic patterns (X, XX and XXX) by FISH in spite of non-mosaic Turner syndrome.

  20. [Retrospective analysis of outcomes of selectively or spontaneously reduced multiple pregnancies out of 6 917 in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer pregnancy cycles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q L; Ye, H; Ding, X Y; Shen, X L; Huang, G N

    2017-03-25

    Objective: To analyze the effects of fetal reduction in early pregnancy on obstetric and neonatal outcomes of spontaneously or selectively reduced multiple pregnancies produced by in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Methods: Retrospective study of 6 917 clinical pregnancies from IVF-ET cycles, including 754 multiple pregnancies divided into two groups according to the remaining fetus number: reduced singleton group (n=599) and reduced twin group (n=155); and maternal and neonatal outcomes of two groups were compared to primary singleton group (n=3 589) and primary twin group (n=2 574). Results: The rate of pregnancy complication [9.85%(59/599) versus 6.21%(223/3 589)], preterm birth [19.37%(116/599) versus 10.73%(385/3 589)], low birth weight [9.71%(56/577) versus 4.57% (152/3 324)], perinatal death [0.69%(4/577) versus 0.12%(4/3 324)] and malformation [2.95%(17/577) versus 1.02%(34/3 324)] in reduced singleton group were significantly higher than those in primary singleton group (all P0.05). In reduced singleton group, birth defect rate was 2.95%, which was higher than those of the other three groups (Ppregnancy reduction accounted for 89.3% (535/599). Conclusions: (1) The rate of pregnancy complication, preterm birth, low birth weight, perinatal death and malformation in reduced singleton group are still higher than primary singletons, suggesting embryo reduction only is a compensated method in multiple pregnancies. Limiting the number of embryos transferred is the essential solution. (2) The rate of birth defect in spontaneous pregnancy reduction group is higher, so prenatal examination should be reinforced in this group.

  1. Outcome of conservative treatment and subsequent assisted reproductive technology for patients with early-stage endometrial adenocarcinoma and poor fertility potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Xiao-mei; ZHU Hai-yan; LIN Xiao-na; JIANG Ling-ying; XU Wei-hai; LIU Liu; ZHANG Song-ying

    2012-01-01

    Conservative treatment with high doses of progestin is an alternative to standard hysterectomy for young patients with early-stage endometrial adenocarcinoma who desire to preserve their fertility.Here we report a patient with well-differentiated early-stage endometrial adenocarcinoma and poor fertility potential who failed to become pregnant in two in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer cycles and suffered a relapse after conservative treatment.This case illustrates that assessment of fertility potential is critical at the time of initial evaluation and conservative treatment planning for patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma.Chin Med J 2012; 125(19):3578-3580

  2. Effects of Controlled-release Fertilizer Application with Cow Manure on Yield (Brassica napa L), Drainage Water Quality and N2O Emission

    OpenAIRE

    AMKHA, Suphachai; Inubushi, Kazuyuki

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) supply is a major factor controlling the yield and quality of vegetables. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of different rates of controlled-release N fertilizers (CRFs) and urea applications with cow manure on a) yield (Brassica napa L.), b) nitrate leaching from soil, and c) N2O flux in surface soil. The fertilizers were applied according to the following 6 type-rate combinations: 1) CM-CDU 450 (kg ha-1), 2) LP 450, 3) urea 450, 4) CM-CDU 360, and 5)...

  3. Isolation of Promoters and Fragments of Genes Controlling Endosperm Development Without Fertilization in Arabidopsis and Engineering of the Antisense Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigory A. Gerashchenkov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apomixis is asexual seed reproduction without both meiosis and fertilization based on the complex developmental processes such as apomeiosis, parthenogenesis and specific endosperm development. This investigation is aimed at engineering of apomixis in Arabidopsis thaliana with sexual seed reproduction. The fragments of known genes of endosperm formation MEA, FIE, FIS2 and gene of apomeiosis DYAD (as control were isolated using Q5 high fidelity DNA polymerase. These gene fragments of interest at the antisense orientation were fused with isolated constitutive and meiosis specific promoters of Arabidopsis at NcoI sites. The fused promoter-gene fragment modules were cloned in pCambia1301 at SalI cites. The engineered constructions will be used for the floral dip transformation of Arabidopsis and down regulation of these genes at engineering of apomixis.

  4. Letrozole in a low-cost in vitro fertilization protocol in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles for male factor infertility: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiuli Mukherjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Letrozole, a selective aromatase inhibitor, reduces the total dose of gonadotrophin required for inducing follicular maturation. We evaluated if incorporation of letrozole could be an effective alternative for low-cost in vitro fertilization (IVF protocol particularly in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles where male factor infertility is the sole indication for IVF. Materials and Methods: It is a randomized controlled single-blind trial. 94 women with history of severe male factor infertility were selected. 42 women (study group received letrozole, 5 mg daily from day 3-7 and recombinant FSH (rFSH 75IU/day from day 5 continuously till hCG injection. 52 women (control group underwent continuous stimulation by rFSH (150-225IU/day from day 2. GnRH-antagonist (Inj. Orgalutran 0.25 ml sub-cutaneous was started at maximum follicle size of 14 in both groups. Ovulation was triggered by 10,000IU of hCG followed by IVF-ET. Main outcome measures were total dose of rFSH (IU/cycle, terminal E2 (pg/ml, number of mature follicles, number of oocyte retrieved, transferable embryo, endometrial thickness, pregnancy rate and mean expenditure. Statistical analysis is done by using SPSS11. Results :0 As compared to control group (1756 ± 75IU, the study group i.e., Let-rFSH received (625 ± 98IU significantly lower (P = 0.0001 total dose of rFSH. Terminal E2 was significantly lower (P = 0.0001 in study group than control (830 ± 36 vs. 1076 ± 41 pg/ml with significant increment in endometrial thickness (P = 0.0008 in study group, (9.1 ± 0.32 vs. 8.7 ± 0.69 which maintained an improved pregnancy rate though nonsignificant. The risk of hyperstimulation had significantly (P = 0.01 reduced in study group than control (0 vs. 7.Treatment outcome in all other aspects including pregnancy rate were statistically comparable. Per cycle mean expenditure was reduced by 34% in study group than control. Conclusion: Adjunctive use of letrozole may be an

  5. Vitamin D and female fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Rabe, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Apart from the well known effects of vitamin D on maintaining calcium homeostasis and promoting bone mineralization, there is some evidence suggesting that vitamin D also modulates human reproductive processes. We will review the most interesting and relevant studies on vitamin D and female fertility published over the past year. In the past year, several observational studies reported a better in-vitro fertilization outcome in women with sufficient vitamin D levels (≥30 ng/ml), which was mainly attributed to vitamin D effects on the endometrium. One randomized controlled trial found an increased endometrial thickness in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) receiving vitamin D during intrauterine insemination cycles. Further, vitamin D supplementation had a beneficial effect on serum lipids in PCOS women. Vitamin D treatment improved endometriosis in a rat model and increased vitamin D intake was related to a decreased risk of incident endometriosis. Vitamin D was also favorably associated with primary dysmenorrhea, uterine leiomyoma, and ovarian reserve in late reproductive aged women. In women undergoing in-vitro fertilization, a sufficient vitamin D level (≥30 ng/ml) should be obtained. Vitamin D supplementation might improve metabolic parameters in women with PCOS. A high vitamin D intake might be protective against endometriosis.

  6. Short-term and long-term effects of weed control and fertilization on growth and wood anatomy of a Populus deltoides clone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Estela Monteoliva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims of study: The short- and long-term effects of weed control and fertilization on growth and wood anatomy of 10-y-old Populus deltoides were investigated. Weed control and fertilization usually leads to an increase the growth rate of trees, and consequently, a possible modification in the quality of produced wood. Area of study: We analyzed trees from an experimental plantation in Buenos Aires, Argentina (34° 50’ S Lat; 60° 30’ W Long. Methods: 32 trees from three treatments: mechanical weed control (M, chemical and mechanical weed control (CHM and fertilized plus chemical and mechanical weed control (CHM-F were analyzed. Basal area, fibre morphology, cell wall area and vessel size were measured in the growth ring 1, 3 and 10. Results: differences on wood anatomy among treatments were mainly observed at the third year (short-term effect. Long-term negative effects were not observed. Fertilized trees had greater proportion and quality of wood closer to pith. Research highlights: fibre and vessel differences seen in CHM and CHM-F compared to controls in year 3 could be interpreted as evidence of maturation in cambial development (thicker, longer and wider fibres and greater vessels. The CHM-F treatment had a greater proportion of wood that showed characteristics of more mature wood.

  7. 我国缓/控释肥料的应用进展%Application Development of Slow/Controlled Released Fertilizer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱明旭

    2012-01-01

    Slow/controlled released fertilizer has become a hot research topic in recent years. The effects on crop yield, traits, quality and fertilizer utilization were the main direction of its application research. The application progress of slow/controlled released fertilizer in China in recent years was summarized.%缓/控释肥料是近年来的一个研究热点.它对作物产量、性状、品质以及肥料利用率等的影响是其应用研究的主要方向.笔者总结了近年来我国缓/控释肥料的应用进展.

  8. 硅藻土对肥料的控释作用研究%Features of Controlled Release of Diatomite-coated Compound Fertilizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀兰; 栗印环; 王晓晶; 申盼

    2014-01-01

    用硅藻土作为包裹剂,以正硅酸乙酯作为黏结保护层,将氮、钾、磷肥在不同分散剂中进行包裹处理,利用红外光谱分析样品的官能团,通过滴淋实验测试肥料的控释性能。结果表明:硅藻土对易溶的氮、钾肥有良好的缓释效果,而对难溶的磷肥有促释效果,用正硅酸乙酯为黏结保护层的氮、钾肥控释作用较好。%The diatomite was used as wrapping reagent and tetraethyl orthosilicate as adhesive to link layers of diat-omite,and thus the compound fertilizer of diatomite coated nitrogenous,potassium and phosphate fertilizers were pre-pared in different dispersants. The characterization of functional groups of the samples were performed with Infrared spectrum. The controlled release property was tested by means of drop-leaching experiment. The results showed that the diatomite exhibited slowly releasing effect for the soluble N and K fertilizers. However,the diatomite promoted the re-lease of insoluble P fertilizer. The effect of controlled release N and K fertilizers was good with the tetraethyl orthosili-cate as binder.

  9. Impact of GnRH analogues on oocyte/embryo quality and embryo development in in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigó János

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the clinical outcomes of ovarian stimulation with either GnRH-agonist or GnRH-antagonist analogues for in vitro fertilization (IVF being well analysed, the effect of analogues on oocyte/embryo quality and embryo development is still not known in detail. The aim of this case-control study was to compare the efficacy of a multiple-dose GnRH antagonist protocol with that of the GnRH agonist long protocol with a view to oocyte and embryo quality, embryo development and IVF treatment outcome. Methods Between October 2001 and December 2008, 100 patients were stimulated with human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG and GnRH antagonist in their first treatment cycle for IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. One hundred combined GnRH agonist + HMG (long protocol cycles were matched to the GnRH antagonist + HMG cycles by age, BMI, baseline FSH levels and by cause of infertility. We determined the number and quality of retrieved oocytes, the rate of early-cleavage embryos, the morphology and development of embryos, as well as clinical pregnancy rates. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's matched pairs rank sum test and McNemar's chi-square test. P Results The rate of cytoplasmic abnormalities in retrieved oocytes was significantly higher with the use of GnRH antagonist than in GnRH agonist cycles (62.1% vs. 49.9%; P Conclusion Antagonist seemed to influence favourably some parameters of early embryo development dynamics, while other morphological parameters seemed not to be altered according to GnRH analogue used for ovarian stimulation in IVF cycles.

  10. Female Fertility: Is it Safe to "Freeze?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the safety and risk of cryopreservation in female fertility preservation. Data sources: The data analyzed in this review were the English articles from 1980 to 2013 from journal databases, primarily PubMed and Google scholar. The criteria used in the literature search show as following: (1 human; embryo; cryopreservation/freezing/vitrification, (2 human; oocyte/immature oocyte; cryopreservation/ freezing/vitrification, (3 human; ovarian tissue transplantation; cryopreservation/freezing/vitrification, (4 human; aneuploidy/DNA damage/epigenetic; cryopreservation/freezing/vitrification, and (5 human; fertility preservation; maternal age. Study selection: The risk ratios based on survival rate, maturation rate, fertilization rate, cleavage rate, implantation rate, pregnancy rate, and clinical risk rate were acquired from relevant meta-analysis studies. These studies included randomized controlled trials or studies with one of the primary outcome measures covering cryopreservation of human mature oocytes, embryos, and ovarian tissues within the last 7 years (from 2006 to 2013, since the pregnancy rates of oocyte vitrification were significantly increased due to the improved techniques. The data involving immature oocyte cryopreservation obtained from individual studies was also reviewed by the authors. Results: Vitrifications of mature oocytes and embryos obtained better clinical outcomes and did not increase the risks of DNA damage, spindle configuration, embryonic aneuploidy, and genomic imprinting as compared with fresh and slow-freezing procedures, respectively. Conclusions: Both embryo and oocyte vitrifications are safe applications in female fertility preservation.

  11. Natural fertility in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, E G

    1982-01-01

    The hypothesis that modernization trends in the Philippines led to an increase in fecundity and natural fertility between 1953-1972 was tested, using data from the 1973 National Demographic Survey. More specifically, it was hypothesized that increases in education, income levels, urbanization, female labor force participation, and other factors exerted a positive influence on the population's health and nutritional status and increased the risk of pregnancy by diminishing the strength of sexual taboos and by decreasing the incidence of breastfeeding. These changes, in turn, had a positive impact on natural fertility. Natural fertility was defined as marital fertility in the absence of specific efforts to control fertility. The use of natural fertility instead of fecundity allowed for the influence of behavioral patterns, such as breastfeeding and sexual taboos, on fertility. Period analysis of age specific marital fertility rates for each 5 year period between 1953-72 and cohort analysis of age specific marital fertility rates for the birth cohorts, aged 55-59, 50-54, 45-49, 40-44, and 35-39 in 1973 were undertaken. The effect of fertility control was determined by using an index derived from an equation provided by Coale and Trussell. Findings of both the period and cohort analysis supported the hypothesis. Period analysis revealed that natural fertility increased between 1953-57 and 1969-72 by 10% and that the greatest increase occurred during the 1950s when Philippine society experienced major modernization changes. The increases in natural fertility were accompanied by corresponding increases in fertility regulation in each time period. These trends tended to cancel each other out and resulted in a relatively stable total marital fertility rate throughout the time period. Cohort analysis revealed that only the total marital fertility rate of the youngest cohort was influenced by fertility regulation. The level of natural fertility for all cohorts as a group

  12. Do We Pay Enough Attention to Culture Conditions in Context of Perinatal Outcome after In Vitro Fertilization? Up-to-Date Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Marianowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse perinatal outcomes in singleton IVF pregnancies have been most often explained by parental underlying diseases and so far laboratory conditions during embryo culture are still not explored well. The following review discusses the current state of knowledge on the influence of IVF laboratory procedures on the possible perinatal outcome. The role of improved media for human embryo culture is unquestionable. Addition of certain components to culture media and their effect on embryo survival and implantation rates have been taken into consideration recently and studied on animal model. Impact of media on perinatal outcome in IVF offspring has also been studied. It has been discovered that epigenetic changes and neonatal birth weight are probably associated with the use of specific culture media, as is the relation between placental size and its influence on perinatal outcome. There are still questions in the discussion about duration of embryo culture (cleavage stage versus blastocyst transfer. Some of the IVF methods, such as in vitro maturation of oocytes and freezing/thawing procedures, also require well-powered randomized controlled trials in order to define their exact impact on perinatal outcome. Constant further research is needed to assess the impact of laboratory environment on fetal and postnatal development.

  13. Do We Pay Enough Attention to Culture Conditions in Context of Perinatal Outcome after In Vitro Fertilization? Up-to-Date Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marianowski, Piotr; Dąbrowski, Filip A; Zyguła, Aleksandra; Wielgoś, Mirosław; Szymusik, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Adverse perinatal outcomes in singleton IVF pregnancies have been most often explained by parental underlying diseases and so far laboratory conditions during embryo culture are still not explored well. The following review discusses the current state of knowledge on the influence of IVF laboratory procedures on the possible perinatal outcome. The role of improved media for human embryo culture is unquestionable. Addition of certain components to culture media and their effect on embryo survival and implantation rates have been taken into consideration recently and studied on animal model. Impact of media on perinatal outcome in IVF offspring has also been studied. It has been discovered that epigenetic changes and neonatal birth weight are probably associated with the use of specific culture media, as is the relation between placental size and its influence on perinatal outcome. There are still questions in the discussion about duration of embryo culture (cleavage stage versus blastocyst transfer). Some of the IVF methods, such as in vitro maturation of oocytes and freezing/thawing procedures, also require well-powered randomized controlled trials in order to define their exact impact on perinatal outcome. Constant further research is needed to assess the impact of laboratory environment on fetal and postnatal development.

  14. Supratentorial Ependymoma: Disease Control, Complications, and Functional Outcomes After Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landau, Efrat [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Boop, Frederick A. [Department of Neurosurgery, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Ependymoma is less commonly found in the supratentorial brain and has known clinical and molecular features that are unique. Our single-institution series provides valuable information about disease control for supratentorial ependymoma and the complications of supratentorial irradiation in children. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 children with newly diagnosed supratentorial ependymoma were treated with adjuvant radiation therapy (RT); conformal methods were used in 36 after 1996. The median age at RT was 6.5 years (range, 1-18.9 years). The entire group was characterized according to sex (girls 27), race (white 43), extent of resection (gross-total 46), and tumor grade (anaplastic 28). The conformal RT group was prospectively evaluated for neurologic, endocrine, and cognitive effects. Results: With a median follow-up time of 9.1 years from the start of RT for survivors (range, 0.2-23.2 years), the 10-year progression-free and overall survival were 73% + 7% and 76% + 6%, respectively. None of the evaluated factors was prognostic for disease control. Local and distant failures were evenly divided among the 16 patients who experienced progression. Eleven patients died of disease, and 1 of central nervous system necrosis. Seizure disorders were present in 17 patients, and 4 were considered to be clinically disabled. Clinically significant cognitive effects were limited to children with difficult-to-control seizures. The average values for intelligence quotient and academic achievement (reading, spelling, and math) were within the range of normal through 10 years of follow-up. Central hypothyroidism was the most commonly treated endocrinopathy. Conclusion: RT may be administered with acceptable risks for complications in children with supratentorial ependymoma. These results suggest that outcomes for these children are improving and that complications may be limited by use of focal irradiation methods.

  15. Discussion on the Green Tax Stimulation Measure of Nitrogen Fertilizer Non-Point Source Pollution Control - Taking the Dongting Lake Area in China as a Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Ping-an; ZHOU Yan; HUANG Huang; ZHENG Hua

    2007-01-01

    A study on designing the tax of nitrogen fertilizer can provide a new method for controlling nitrogen fertilizer non-point source pollution. The tax design of nitrogen fertilizer was discussed by utilizing the external theory and the demand elasticity theory. The results indicated that the coefficient of price elasticity of nitrogen fertilizer demand is -0.21, which instructed that the market demand is in lack of elasticity in the short period and the impact of nitrogen fertilizer manufacturers is subtle. The 11 counties (cities and boroughs) in the Dongting Lake area in China, where the farmland nitrogen application surpassed the average ecological fertilization dosage, is listed to the taxation scope of nitrogen fertilizer tax. The environment loss will reduce 0.07 hundred million RMB yuan and the revenue will increase 0.89 hundred million RMB yuan in the country after levying on nitrogen fertilizer. The loss, which was brought by the decreasing food supplies production, will be 0.58 hundred million RMB yuan and the net social benefit will be 0.38 hundred million RMB yuan following revenue collection. The variation scope of the increasing expenditure of farmers will range from 0.95 to 1.49%. The variation scope of the income of farmers will range from -8.41 to 6.44%. The 5 areas, Yunxi Borough, Junshan Borough, Hanshou County, Jinshi City, and Ziyang Borough, had an increase in food supplies production after the revenue collection. The environment loss will reduce 0.01 hundred million RMB yuan and the revenue will increase 0.16 hundred million RMB yuan in the country after levying on nitrogen fertilizer. The economic benefits, which was brought by the increasing cereals production, will be 0.67 hundred million RMB yuan and the net social benefit will be 0.84 hundred million RMB yuan after revenue collection. The variation scope of the increasing expenditure of farmers will range from 0.95 to 1.06%. The variation scope of the increasing income of farmers will

  16. Ovarian fluid allows directional cryptic female choice despite external fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Suzanne H; Stiver, Kelly A; Marsh-Rollo, Susan E

    2016-08-16

    In species with internal fertilization, females can favour certain males over others, not only before mating but also within the female's reproductive tract after mating. Here, we ask whether such directional post-mating (that is, cryptic) female mate choice can also occur in species with external fertilization. Using an in vitro sperm competition experiment, we demonstrate that female ovarian fluid (ovarian fluid) changes the outcome of sperm competition by decreasing the importance of sperm number thereby increasing the relative importance of sperm velocity. We further show that ovarian fluid does not differentially affect sperm from alternative male phenotypes, but generally enhances sperm velocity, motility, straightness and chemoattraction. Under natural conditions, female ovarian fluid likely increases the paternity of the preferred parental male phenotype, as these males release fewer but faster sperm. These results imply females have greater control over fertilization and potential to exert selection on males in species with external fertilization than previously thought possible.

  17. A randomized control comparison study of culture media (HTF versus P1) for human in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artini, Paolo G; Valentino, Valeria; Cela, Vito; Cristello, Francesca; Vitè, Alessandra; Genazzani, Andrea R

    2004-10-15

    It is now widely accepted that increasing the number of replacement embryos (>3 embryos per embryo transfer [ET]) is associated with an increased risk of multiple pregnancies. While embryo reduction is often proposed when there is a high risk of multiple pregnancies, it is a difficult decision for the couple. For this reason, different studies have focused on single embryo transfer, more precisely blastocyst transfer. The aim of the study is to confirm that phosphate-free culture media can be used to generate greater quality embryos. We carried out a study to compare the efficacy of human tubal fluid (HTF) versus preimplantation stage one (P1) as culture media for assisted reproductive therapy (ART). In 109 nonselected patients, we obtained an embryo fertilization rate with HTF and P1 culture media of 58.6 and 62.5% (P = 0.003), respectively. After 48 and 72 h, the morphology was similar for both P1 and HTF embryos in most patients. However, in the same patients, when HTF embryo quality was low (15.4%), P1 embryo quality was significantly higher 68.7% (P = 0.002). Some embryos were transferred at 48 h and some at 72 h after retrieval, in a randomized manner. We transferred a maximum of up to three embryos per ET. The implantation rate was significantly different; at 48 h, it was 6.8 and 12.2% for HTF and P1, respectively (P = 0.02). The pregnancy rate was 17.1% for HTF embryos and 23.7% for P1 embryos (P = 0.02). Therefore, we observed a significant difference between P1 and HTF in the fertilization rate, in embryo quality, in implantation rate and in pregnancy rate. But the most important difference between this study and others is that every patient was the control of herself, so we eliminated every variable.

  18. Evaluation of a soil incubation method to characterize nitrogen release patterns of slow- and controlled-release fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, L Carolina; Sartain, Jerry B; Obreza, Thomas A; Hall, William L; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    Several technologies have been proposed to characterize the nutrient release patterns of slow-release fertilizers (SRF) and controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) during the last few decades. These technologies have been developed mainly by manufacturers, and are product-specific, based on the regulation and analysis of each SRF and CRF product. Despite previous efforts to characterize SRF and CRF materials, no standardized, validated method exists to assess their nutrient release patterns. However, the increased production and distribution of these materials in specialty and nonspecialty markets requires an appropriate method to verify product claims and material performance. A soil incubation column leaching procedure was evaluated to determine its suitability as a standard method to estimate nitrogen (N) release patterns of SRFs and CRFs during 180 days. The influence of three soil/sand ratios, three incubation temperatures, and four soils on method behavior was assessed using five SRFs and three CRFs. In general, the highest soil/sand ratio increased the N release rate of all materials, but this effect was more marked for the SRFs. Temperature had the greatest influence on N release rates. For CRFs, the initial N release rates and the percentage N released/day increased as temperature increased. For SRFs, raising the temperature from 25 to 35 degreesC increased initial N release rate and the total cumulative N released, and almost doubled the percentage released/day. The percentage N released/day from all products generally increased as the texture of the soil changed from sandy to loamy (lowa>California>Pennsylvania>Florida). The soil incubation technique was demonstrated to be robust and reliable for characterizing N release patterns from SRFs and CRFs. The method was reproducible, and variations in soil/sand ratio, temperature, and soil had little effect on the results.

  19. Studies on the Mechanism of Single Basal Application of Controlled-Release Fertilizers for Increasing Yield of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Shuan-hu; YANG Shao-hai; CHEN Jian-sheng; XU Pei-zhi; ZHANG Fa-bao; AI Shao-ying; HUANG Xu

    2007-01-01

    This paper was to explore the mechanism of single basal application of controlled-release fertilizers for increasing yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Pot trials and cylinder trials were carried out from 2002 to 2005 to study the influences of single basal application of 3 controlled-release fertilizers on the changes of soil available N, root development, senescence and lodging resistance at late growth stages. Results showed that at 30 days after fertilization, single basal application of controlled-release fertilizers coated with vegetal-substance (CRF1) and polymer materials (CRF3) increased soil available N to 12.0 and 147.9%, respectively, in comparison to split fertilization of rice-specific fertilizer (RSF1). Treatments of the two CRFs obviously benefited the development of root system, resulting in greater rice root weights with extensive distribution and higher root activity. In addition, the two CRF treatments, in comparison to RSF1, enhanced chlorophyll consents of the flag leaves to 9.5 and 15.5%, and soluble protein up to 89.7 and 108.0% respectively. Application of the two CRFs also made the base of rice stems strong and large, declined the proportion of shoot and root, increased root depth index. Though relatively low K rate, single basal application of the CRF3 coated with NH4MgPO4 could also promote the development of root system, enhance root activity and some physiological functions of flag leaves. Based on these results, it was concluded that major mechanisms for increasing rice yield by single basal application of the CRFs should be attributed to grater soil available N supply, superior development of root systems, better nutrient absorption capacity, slower senescence and enhancement of lodging resistance at late stages.

  20. 液体注肥器定量控制系统的设计%Design of Weighing Control System of Liquid Fertilizer Injector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹伟; 王秀; 张睿; 郝强

    2013-01-01

      针对目前液体施肥机的不足,设计了可以定量控制施肥量的注肥控制系统。系统采用电机带动离心泵输送液态肥料,通过计算注肥器管道中流量传感器的脉冲信号,获取系统实际排出的液体体积,根据实际施肥量与设定值的差值控制电机运转,从而实现根据实际需要精确控制施肥量。实际运行结果表明,该系统运行可靠,系统对施肥控制量误差相对比较小,可以在一定程度上实现精准注肥,减少肥料浪费。%Because of deficiency of the liquid fertilizer applicator , the weighing control system of liquid fertilizer injector was designed .The liquid fertilizer is delivered by a centrifugal pump which adopts the motor drive .Through the calcula-tion of the flow sensor pulse signal in the pipe , the controller gains the actual discharged liquid volume .The difference between the actual value and the set value determines whether the motor running .The fertilizer control error of the system is relatively small , the crops can be fertilization accurately and the fertilizer waste can be reduced in a sense .

  1. Thermal post-treatment alters nutrient release from a controlled-release fertilizer coated with a waterborne polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zijun; Du, Changwen; Li, Ting; Shen, Yazhen; Zhou, Jianmin

    2015-09-01

    Controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) use a controlled-release technology to enhance the nutrient use efficiency of crops. Many factors affect the release of nutrients from the waterborne polymer-coated CRF, but the effects of thermal post-treatments remain unclear. In this study, a waterborne polyacrylate-coated CRF was post-treated at different temperatures (30 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C) and durations (2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h) after being developed in the Wurster fluidized bed. To characterize the polyacrylate membrane, and hence to analyze the mechanism of nutrient release, Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed. The nutrient-release model of CRF post-treated at 30 °C was the inverse “L” curve, but an increased duration of the post-treatment had no effect. The nutrient-release model was “S” curve and nutrient-release period was enhanced at higher post-treatment temperatures, and increased post-treatment duration lengthened slowed nutrient release due to a more compact membrane and a smoother membrane surface as well as a promoted crosslinking action. CRF equipped with specified nutrient-release behaviors can be achieved by optimizing the thermal post-treatment parameters, which can contribute to the development and application of waterborne polymer-coated CRF and controlled-release technologies.

  2. Evaluation of the interactions between chitosan and humics in media for the controlled release of nitrogen fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Bruno R; Romão, Luciane P C; Doumer, Marta E; Mangrich, Antonio S

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the interactions of peat, humic acids, and humin with urea dispersed in chitosan, in systems intended for the controlled release of urea. Spheres of chitosan with humic material and urea intentionally added to the media were prepared and characterized by means of elemental analysis (CHN), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The spheres possessed functional groups related to humic substances that interacted with the chitosan, and the presence of urea in the media was also confirmed after it has been added. Release experiments demonstrated that the samples released urea in a controlled manner that was dependent on pH, increasing in the order: pH 2.5 < pH 4.0 < pH 9.0. In soil experiments, the degree of release of urea (α) increased over time, with values of 0.44 for chitosan-humic acids-urea (CHAU), 0.48 for chitosan-peat-urea (CPTU), and 0.67 for chitosan-humin-urea (CHMU) obtained in the first day of the experiment. The release of urea did not exceed 70% after 7 days. The results demonstrated the potential of using peat, humic acids, and humin, in combination with chitosan, in order to manufacture controlled release urea fertilizers and contribute to reducing adverse environmental and economic impacts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 常规IVF中受精失败相关因素及后续处理结果分析%Factors Relating with Fertilization Failure and Subsequent Treatment Outcomes in Conventional IVF-ET Cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤英; 俞炽阳; 何畏; 李玉艳; 张觇宇; 屈宗银; 龙玲

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the factors relating with fertilization failure in conventional IVF cycles so as to increase the fertilization rate for further clinical treatment. Methods: Relating factors of patients with fertilization failure or low fertilization rate in conventional IVF cycles and the further treatment outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. Results: In 438 conventional IVF cycles, there were 30 cycles (6.85%) with fertilization rate <25% (group A). Among these 30 cycles, rescue ICSI or repeated IVF was carried out at d 1 in 12 cycles, and finally there were 20 cycles with embryo transfer, but no clinical pregnancy was obtained. The sperm density, motility, grade a motility, percentage of progressive motile sperm (PMS), total progressive motile sperm count (TPMSC) and the separated sperm motility, percentage of PMS, concentration in group A were significantly lower than those in normal fertilization rate group (group B) (all P<0.05). The number of retrieved oocytes had no significant difference between group A and group B, but the oocyte number at M_I and GV stage in group A was significantly more as compared with those in group B (all P<0.01). The other factors relating with fertilization failure included sever teratospermia, bacterial contaminant semen, oocyte development block and so on. Among patients with fertilized-failure result of sperm factors, 7 patients were fertilized with ICSI in the next cycles, and there were 5 patients with clinical pregnancy. Conclusion: Many factors are related with fertilization failure. However, low semen parameters or poor sperm quality and immature oocytes are main factors. Outcome of recuse ICSI at d 1 or repeated IVF is poor. ICSI selected in the next cycle may give satisfactory outcomes for fertilization failure patient relating with sperm factors.%目的:分析常规IVF受精失败原因,以进一步提高IVF受精率.方法:回顾性分析常规IVF中受精率低下或受精失败患者的各种因

  4. Function of controlled release fertilizer in maintaining high agronomic use efficiency and minimizing environmental pollution in rice field of southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Xionghui; Luo Lanfang; Zheng Shengxian

    2006-01-01

    Development and use of controlled release fertilizer (CRF) in southern China, potential advantages of CRF in increasing rice yield and nutrient use efficiency were introduced, as well as its role of minimizing rice field's environmental contamination was discussed. Meanwhile, some suggestions were proposed.

  5. Use of CT imaging to examine the coarse roots, rhizomes, and peat associated with creek bank Spartina alterniflora in fertilized and control creeks in Plum Island (MA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used computer-aided tomography (CT) to quantify the wet mass, abundance, and diameter of coarse roots and rhizomes as well as the wet mass and particle density of marsh peat in 7-year fertilized and control creeks in Plum Island (MA). In shallow soils (0 – 10 cm) and at dep...

  6. Is Buddhism the low fertility religion of Asia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Skirbekk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The influence of religion on demographic behaviors has been extensively studied mainly for Abrahamic religions. Although Buddhism is the world's fourth largest religion and is dominant in several Asian nations experiencing very low fertility, the impact of Buddhism on childbearing has received comparatively little research attention. Objective: This paper draws upon a variety of data sources in different countries in Asia in order to test our hypothesis that Buddhism is related to low fertility. Methods: Religious differentials in terms of period fertility in three nations (India, Cambodia and Nepal and cohort fertility in three case studies (Mongolia, Thailand and Japan are analyzed. The analyses are divided into two parts: descriptive and multivariate analyses. Results: Our results suggest that Buddhist affiliation tends to be negatively or not associated with childbearing outcomes, controlling for education, region of residence, age and marital status. Although the results vary between the highly diverse contextual and institutional settings investigated, we find evidence that Buddhist affiliation or devotion is not related to elevated fertility across these very different cultural settings. Conclusions: Across the highly diverse cultural and developmental contexts under which the different strains of Buddhism dominate, the effect of Buddhism is consistently negatively or insignificantly related to fertility. These findings stand in contrast to studies of Abrahamic religions that tend to identify a positive link between religiosity and fertility.

  7. Effects of a controlled-release fertilizer on yield, nutrient uptake, and fertilizer usage efficiency in early ripening rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang TIAN; Xuan ZHOU; Qiang LIU; Jian-wei PENG; Wen-ming WANG; Zhen-hua ZHANG; Yong YANG; Hai-xing SONG; Chun-yun GUAN

    2016-01-01

    中文概要题目:控释肥料对早熟油菜产量、养分吸收和肥料利用率的影响目的:氮(N)、磷(P)和钾(K)是作物生长发育所必需的营养元素。然而,过度地投入会导致田间低效的利用率,造成大量养分损失,影响土壤、水和大气的质量,以及人类健康和生物多样性。因此,本实验研究控释肥料(CRF)是否可以替代可溶性肥料(SF),有效地增加作物产量,提高肥料利用率,减少田间养分损失。创新点:连续2年(2011~2013年)在中国南方红黄壤地区开展田间试验,研究控释肥料对早熟油菜(湘杂油1613)的产量、生长、养分吸收和肥料利用率的影响。可更好地解决稻‒稻‒油生产过程中的季节矛盾,简化油菜生产模式,增加农民收入,并确保国家粮油安全。方法:设置SF和等量CRF五个施用量处理,即SF1/CRF1(3750 kg/hm2)、SF2/CRF2(3000 kg/hm2)、SF3/ CRF3(2250 kg/hm2)、SF4/CRF4(1500 kg/hm2)和SF5/CRF5(750 kg/hm2),以及不施肥处理(CK)。结论:CRF 处理油菜产量较 SF 处理两年平均提高14.51%,其中 CRF4和 SF3处理获得最大产量(2066.97和1844.50 kg/hm2),其次是CRF3处理(1929.97 kg/hm2)和SF4处理(1839.40 kg/hm2)。此外,CRF4处理利润最高(人民币7126.4元每公顷),与SF4处理相比,其油菜产量增加12.37%和单位肥料施用量下降11.01%。较SF处理,CRF处理显著增加油菜分支数、角果数和干物质重量(P0.05). CRF4 had the highest profit (7126.4 CNY/hm2) and showed an increase of 12.37% in seed yield, and it decreased by 11.01% in unit fertilizer rate compared with SF4. The branch number, pod number, and dry matter weight compared with SF increased significantly under the fertilization of CRF (P<0.05). The pod number per plant was the major contributor to seed yield. On the other hand, the N, P, and K up-takes increased at first and

  8. Field Test of Controlled-release BB Fertilizer Applied in Sugarcane%甘蔗控释BB肥田间肥效试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    容小阳; 丁春华; 贾应明; 李言春

    2011-01-01

    Controlled-release BB Fertilizer for sugarcane is a special formula fertilizer using patented technology according to soil nutrient content and the requirements of sugarcane growth. It can provide successive nutrients to crops according to the growth stage of the crop. Application of Controlled-release BB Fertilizer can considerably improve fertilizer utilization, prevent fertilizer waste, and reduce pollution to the environment. It can increase crop yield and improve crop quality without imposing harmful effect to the soil, water and atmosphere. The once-for-all fertilization process can also reduce manpower requirements.%甘蔗控释BB肥是根据土壤中养分含量水平,按照甘蔗对养分的需求规律,采用专利技术研制而成。该肥料根据作物生长各时期对肥料的需求持续提供养分。使用控释BB肥可以明显提高肥料的利用率,有效避免肥料的流失浪费,大幅降低化肥对环境的污染,既保护了土壤、水体、空气环境,又提高了作物的产量和质量。同时,采用一次性施肥方法还节约了劳动力和成本,效果十分明显。

  9. [Nitrogen uptake rate and use efficiency by rice under different levels of the controlled-release N fertilizers (CRF) in the Nansi Lake basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Wen; Du, Chun-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Wei; Li, Gui-Chun; Wang, Ming

    2011-07-01

    The nitrogen (N) fertilizers overused or misused are the main contributors for water eutrophication of the Nansi Lake in eastern China. A field experiment with different application levels of controlled-release N fertilizer (CRF) was carried out at a rice field in the Nansi lake basin to provide information on the nitrogen uptake rate and use efficiency by rice with CRF application at different growth stages of rice. The fertilization levels for the controlled fertilizer in this study were 0, 300, 337.5 and 375 kg/hm2, respectively, and 375 kg/hm2 for conventional urea (CU). We estimated the N uptake rate in different growing season and apparent recovery of fertilizer in root, stover and grain of rice. The result showed that grain yield increased by higher N rate. However, the N uptake rate did not increase linearly with the nitrogen application amount. The highest N uptake rate was 22.48 mg/(plant x d) under the fertilization amount of 337.5 kg/hm2 during the young panicle differentiation stage. Apparent N recovery efficiency for CU with traditional application amount of 375 kg/hm2 was 21.86%. Apparent N recovery efficiency for CRF with application amount of 337.5 kg/hm2 was highest with 37.17%. Based on the statistical data, with CU of traditional urea application amount of 375 kg/hm2, nitrogen loss and soil N residue at one growing season are 130.07 x 10(3) t for Jining city and 11.4 x 10(3) t for Yutai county of the Nansi Lake basin. If using CRF with the optimized application amount of 337.5 kg/hm2, nitrogen loss and soil residual at one growing season is 10.46 x 10(4) t for Jining city. It could reduce losses of 2.55 x 10(4) t N for Jining city and 2 235.26 t N for Yutai county per year. Because of releasing patterns more closely matched to crop N uptake patterns, controlled release N fertilizer could be a good way to prevent water eutrophication due to nitrogen fertilizer overused or misused in the Nansi Lake.

  10. Modeling controlled nutrient release from a population of polymer coated fertilizers: statistically based model for diffusion release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaviv, Avi; Raban, Smadar; Zaidel, Elina

    2003-05-15

    A statistically based model for describing the release from a population of polymer coated controlled release fertilizer (CRF) granules by the diffusion mechanism was constructed. The model is based on a mathematical-mechanistic description of the release from a single granule of a coated CRF accounting for its complex and nonlinear nature. The large variation within populations of coated CRFs poses the need for a statistically based approach to integrate over the release from the individual granules within a given population for which the distribution and range of granule radii and coating thickness are known. The model was constructed and verified using experimentally determined parameters and release curves of polymer-coated CRFs. A sensitivity analysis indicated the importance of water permeability in controlling the lag period and that of solute permeability in governing the rate of linear release and the total duration of the release. Increasing the mean values of normally distributed granule radii or coating thickness, increases the lag period and the period of linear release. The variation of radii and coating thickness, within realistic ranges, affects the release only when the standard deviation is very large or when water permeability is reduced without affecting solute permeability. The model provides an effective tool for designing and improving agronomic and environmental effectiveness of polymer-coated CRFs.

  11. Finding the Balance: Fertility Control for the Management of Fragmented Populations of a Threatened Rock-Wallaby Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Willers

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Australian marsupials can become overabundant, resulting in detrimental impacts on the environment. For example, the threatened black-flanked rock-wallaby ( Petrogale lateralis lateralis has previously been perceived as overabundant and thus ‘unwanted’ when they graze crops and cause habitat degradation. Hormonally-induced fertility control has been increasingly used to manage population size in other marsupials where alternative management options are not viable. We tested whether deslorelin, a superagonist of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, would suppress reproduction in free-living adult female rock-wallabies without adversely impacting body condition. We trapped, synchronised reproduction and allocated female rock-wallabies to a placebo implant (control, n = 22, one (n = 22 or two (n = 20 subcutaneous implants of deslorelin. Females were then recaptured over the following 36 months to monitor reproduction, including Luteinising Hormone levels, and body condition. Following treatment, diapaused blastocysts reactivated in five females and the resulting young were carried through to weaning. No wallabies treated with deslorelin, conceivede a new young for at least 27 months. We did not observe adverse effects on body condition on treated females. We conclude that deslorelin implants are effective for the medium-term suppression of reproduction in female black-flanked rock-wallabies and for managing overabundant populations of some marsupials.

  12. Clinical outcomes of twin pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization compared with spontaneous twin pregnancies%试管婴儿双胎及自然受孕双胎临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张惠琴; 樊蕊; 田国华; 李凌; 张志红; 张月萍

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析试管婴儿双胎与自然受孕双胎产妇和新生儿的临床结局。方法收集2010年1月至2014年4月106例试管婴儿双胎妊娠(试管组)与256例自然受孕双胎妊娠(对照组)的产妇年龄、妊娠周期、分娩方式、妊娠期合并症、新生儿体格发育、新生儿出生缺陷及新生儿围生期疾病等临床资料,并进行统计学比较分析。结果试管组产妇平均年龄(32±4岁)高于对照组(28±4岁,P0.05)。结论本研究显示试管婴儿双胎与自然受孕双胎围生期结局无明显差异;试管婴儿双胎妊娠的产妇在妊娠期需密切关注血压及血糖的波动情况。%Objective To compare the maternal and perinatal outcomes of twin pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) with outcomes of spontaneous twin pregnancies. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted between January 2010 and April 2014 to investigate the maternal age, gestation length, modes of delivery, pregnancy complications and neonatal physical development, birth defects and perinatal diseases in 106 IVF-assisted twin pregnancies (IVF group) and 256 spontaneous twin pregnancies (control group). Results The mothers in the IVF group were signiifcantly older than those in the control group (32±4 years vs 28±4 years, P0.05). Conclusions Twins conceived by IVF have similar outcomes as spontaneously conceived twins in the perinatal period. However, special attention is needed to monitor the levels of blood pressure and blood glucose for pregnant women with twins conceived by IVF during prenatal checkups.

  13. The control outcome calibration approach for causal inference with unobserved confounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Unobserved confounding can seldom be ruled out with certainty in nonexperimental studies. Negative controls are sometimes used in epidemiologic practice to detect the presence of unobserved confounding. An outcome is said to be a valid negative control variable to the extent that it is influenced by unobserved confounders of the exposure effects on the outcome in view, although not directly influenced by the exposure. Thus, a negative control outcome found to be empirically associated with the exposure after adjustment for observed confounders indicates that unobserved confounding may be present. In this paper, we go beyond the use of control outcomes to detect possible unobserved confounding and propose to use control outcomes in a simple but formal counterfactual-based approach to correct causal effect estimates for bias due to unobserved confounding. The proposed control outcome calibration approach is developed in the context of a continuous or binary outcome, and the control outcome and the exposure can be discrete or continuous. A sensitivity analysis technique is also developed, which can be used to assess the degree to which a violation of the main identifying assumption of the control outcome calibration approach might impact inference about the effect of the exposure on the outcome in view.

  14. Impact of air pollution on fertility: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, Víctor; González-Comadrán, Mireia; Solà, Ivan; Jacquemin, Benedicte; Carreras, Ramón; Checa Vizcaíno, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has gained considerable interest because of the multiple adverse effects reported on human health, although its impact on fertility remains unclear. A systematic search was performed to evaluate the impact of air pollutants on fertility. Controlled trials and observational studies assessing animal model and epidemiological model were included. Occupational exposure and semen quality studies were not considered. Outcomes of interest included live birth, miscarriage, clinical pregnancy, implantation, and embryo quality. Ten studies were included and divided into two groups: animal studies and human epidemiological studies including the general population as well as women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF/ET). Results from this systematic review suggest a significant impact of air pollution on miscarriage and clinical pregnancy rates in the general population, whereas among subfertile patients certain air pollutants seem to exert a greater impact on fertility outcomes, including miscarriage and live birth rates. Besides, studies in mammals observed a clear detrimental effect on fertility outcomes associated to air pollutants at high concentration. The lack of prospective studies evaluating the effect of air pollution exposure in terms of live birth constitutes an important limitation in this review. Thus, further studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  15. The fertility decline in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W C; Harbison, S F

    1995-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa Kenya is a prime example of a country experiencing a rapid decline in fertility and greater contraceptive prevalence. These changes have occurred since 1980 when fertility was high at 8.0 children per woman. In 1993 the total fertility rate (TFR) was 5.4, and the growth rate declined to about 2.0%. This transition is swifter than any country in contemporary Asia or historical Europe. The likely projection for Kenya is attainment of replacement level fertility during the 2020s and a leveling of population at about 100 million persons. Fertility has declined the most in urban areas and central and eastern regions. Bongaarts' proximate determinants (TFR, total marital fertility rate, total natural marital fertility rate, and total fecundity) are reduced to the proportion of currently married women using contraception, the proportion in lactational nonfecund status, and the proportion currently married. Actual fertility change is accounted for by total fertility change of 3.0 children. Lactational infecundability accounts for 0.5 potential births, and changes in marital fertility account for 1.0 reduced births per woman. About 70% of fertility reduction is accounted for by contraception and abortion. During 1977-78 80% of fertility control was due to lactational nonfecundity, 10% to nonmarriage, and 10% to contraception. In 1993 lactational nonfecundity accounted for 50% of the reduction, nonmarriage for 20%, and abortion about 30%. Future fertility is expected to be dependent on contraceptive prevalence. Kenya has experienced the Coale paradigm of preconditions necessary for demographic transition (willing, ready, and able). High fertility in Africa is not intractable. Creating the change in attitudes that leads to readiness is linked to education, health, and exposure to modernizing media and urban lifestyles. The public sector family planning program in Kenya has created the opportunity for access and availability of contraception. The key

  16. Massage Therapy and Labor Outcomes: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Patricia; Shroff, Farah; Jaspar, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Massage is a time-honored method by which women have received comfort throughout the millennia, yet it has not been rigorously evaluated in the modern day delivery suite. No study to date that we are aware of has evaluated the effect of massage therapy by a regulated massage therapist on labor pain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of massage therapy provided by registered massage therapists in managing pain among women in active labor. Methods BC Women’s Hospital, Vancouver, BC. Research Design: a randomized controlled trial. Participants: 77 healthy nulliparous women presenting in spontaneous labor. Intervention: Swedish massage administered for up to five hours by a registered massage therapist during labor vs. standard care. Main outcome measures include: cervical dilation at the time of administration of epidural, compared using estimated marginal means in an analysis of covariance. We also compared perception of pain at three time periods during labor according to cervical dilation at 3–4 cm, 5–7 cm, and 8–10 cm using the McGill Present Pain Intensity Scale. Results The mean cervical dilation at the time of epidural insertion after adjustment for station of the presenting part, cervical dilation, and status of membranes on admission to hospital was 5.9 cm (95% CI 5.2–6.7) compared to 4.9 in the control group (95% CI 4.2–5.8). Scores on the McGill Pain Scale were consistently lower in the massage therapy group (13.3 vs. 16.9 at 3–4 cm, 13.3 vs. 15.8 at 5–6 cm, and 19.4 vs. 28.3 at 7–8 cm), although these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Our findings from this pilot study suggest that massage therapy by a registered massage therapist has the potential to be an effective means of pain management that may be associated with delayed use of epidural analgesia. It may therefore have the potential to reduce exposure to epidural analgesia during labor and decrease rates of associated

  17. The significance of clinical experience on learning outcome from resuscitation training-a randomised controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Lind; Lippert, Freddy; Hesselfeldt, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    and retention of learning. Materials and methods: This was a prospective single blinded randomised controlled study of the learning outcome from a standard ALS course on a volunteer sample of the entire cohort of newly graduated doctors from Copenhagen University. The outcome measurement was ALS...... a small but statistically significant impact on the retention of learning, but not on the immediate learning outcome....

  18. Present Situation, Existing Problems of Controlled Release Fertilizer Research and Countermeasures%控释肥料研究现状、存在问题及对策①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海林; 林钊沐; 罗微; 华元刚; 郑国亮; 王龙宇

    2014-01-01

    综述控释肥料的定义及与缓释肥料的区别,分析控释肥料包膜材料、包膜工艺研究现状,指出控释肥料研究和产业化中存在的问题,提出对策,并对今后控释肥料研究发展进行展望。%On the base of research data about controlled release fertilizer, in this paper we expounded the definition of controlled release fertilizer, explained the difference between controlled release fertilizer and slow release fertilizer. We also analyzed the present situation on coated materials, coating technique, discussed the existing problems on research and industrialization of controlled release fertilizer, and puts forward strategy according to the problem. The last, we prospected the research and development in the future.

  19. Comparative Test of Different Dosages of Controlled-released Fertilizer on Winter Potato%冬季马铃薯控释肥用量试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云梅; 黄修芬; 罗晓玲; 付立会; 杨颉; 彭明强

    2016-01-01

    在川西南冬季马铃薯种植区,开展马铃薯专用控释配方肥不同用量对青薯9号增产效应的对比试验。试验结果表明,以每667 m2施用60 kg马铃薯专用控释配方肥作底肥为最佳施肥方案,该处理的平均单株质量、商品薯率最高,平均鲜薯产量为2114.0 kg/667 m2,比对照(不施肥)增产1063.5 kg/667 m2,增幅为101.2%。%We carried out the comparative test to study the effects of different dosages of controlled-released fertilizer specially used for potato on yield increasing of Qingshu No.9 in winter potato planting area of southwest Sichuan . The results showed that, the best fertilization scheme was applying 60 kg/667 m2 controlled-released fertilizer specially used for potato as base fertilizer. The treatment had the heaviest average single plant weight and highest marketable tuber rate, and the fresh tuber yield was 2 114.0 kg/667 m2, which was increased by 1 063.5 kg/667 m2 compared to the control treatment (no fertilizer application), with the yield increasing rate of 101.2%.

  20. Study on the Rapid Method to Predict Longevity of Controlled Release Fertilizer Coated by Water Soluble Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Jian-jun; FAN Xiao-lin; YU Jian-gang; LIU Fang; ZHANG Qiao

    2008-01-01

    The study discussed the rapid method to test and predict the longevity of controlled release fertilizers (CRFs) coated by water soluble resin by using the short-term leaching under higher temperature.Pure water dissolving incubation and higher temperature leaching were used to study the patterns of the nutrient release of the CRFs.The correlation analysis between the days at 25℃ and the hours at 80℃ of Trincote 1 and Trincote 2 for the same cumulative release rates were conducted.Patterns of cumulative nutrient release curve followed one factor quadratic regression equation at each given temperatures,and each of relative coefficient was bigger than 0.995.As the temperature increased,nutrients release of the CRFs increased.The longevity of resin coated CRFs were predicted by use of both the cumulative nutrients release equation at 80℃ and the regression equation of release time needed for the same cumulative release rates between 25 and 80℃.There were only 0.3-6.9% relative errors between the tested longevity and predicted one.In conclusion,the longevity of resin coated CRFs could be predicted more quickly and precisely by use of the higher temperature short-term leaching method than that of the traditional differential release rate.The longevity of resin coated CRF could be rapidly and precisely predicted in a few hours by application of the higher temperature shortterm leaching method.

  1. 控释配方肥中不同控释养分比例对香蕉产量的影响%Effect of the ratio of controlled release nutrients in blending controlled release fertilizers on yield of banana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘延涛; 樊小林; 王南南; 刘庆虎

    2011-01-01

    【Objective】 The regression equation of blending controlled release fertilizer for banana was established to determine the optimal percentage of controlled-N,-P and-K in the total nutrient amounts,and thus to provide an efficient-convenient fertilizer source and fertilization technology for banana production.【Method】 Ternary quadratic regression design and field trials were used to study the effect of ratio of controlled nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium in blending controlled-release fertilizers(BCRF) on yield of banana to determine the rational formula of the BCRF,compared with no fertilizer and conventional fertilizer.【Result】 Compared with total water soluble compound fertilizers,high N and K contained blending controlled release fertilizers(T3 treatment),that is,the fertilizer contained 46.5% controlled-N,3.5% controlled-P and 18.2% controlled-K over the total N,P or K.The production of the T3 was 30.44 kg/plant and the yield increased by 22.65%.Of the compound fertilizers,the ratio of controlled-N and-K significantly affected the banana yield whereas the ratio of controlled-P didn’t.Blending controlled release N and K fertilizer cooperated with water soluble fertilizers could prevent the N and K deficiency during the latter stage of banana growth compared with the treatment with only water soluble compound fertilizers.Application of controlled release blending fertilizer(BCRF) could enhance yields significantly.【Conclusion】 Controlled-N and controlled-K had great impact on banana yield,despite the little effect of controlled-P.The controlled-N,controlled-P and controlled-K content for the optimal yield were 33.6%,0% and 11.0% over the total N,P and K in the BCRF espectively.%【目的】建立香蕉系列控释配方肥的产量效应方程,确定适于香蕉生长发育的控释氮、磷、钾比例,为香蕉产业提供高效、简便的肥料和施肥技术。【方法】采用大田试验及三元二次回归设计,以不

  2. Effect of loop electrosurgical excision procedure on outcome of subsequent fertility and pregnancy%宫颈电环锥切术对生育能力及妊娠结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨越红; 郑文玲; 谭峰; 何虹

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of cervical loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) to fertility and pregnancy outcome of patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).Methods 20 inpatients of CIN from January 2009 to August 2011 were given the LEEP treatment,as the observation group,while other 20 healthy pregnant women randomly selected within the same period of the pregnancy out-patient hospital treatment without history of gynecological surgery,were observed as the control group,the observed pregnancy rate and pregnancy outcome were examined.Results The pregnancy rate of the observation group of 20 patients was 85% (17/20),preguancy rate was 90% (18/20) in the control group,there was no significant difference (P> 0.05).Cesarean section rate of the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05),and there was also no significant difference in abortion incidence,incidence of preterm premature,rupture of membranes incidence and the incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) children in two groups(P>0.05),no neonatal deaths occurred in the patients of two groups.Conclusion LEEP has no significant effect on the fertility of the CIN patients,without increasing the abortion rate,the rate of preterm birth,premature rupture of membranes,and incidence of SGA children.%目的 探讨宫颈电环锥切术(LEEP)对宫颈上皮内瘤变(CIN)患者的生育能力及妊娠结局的影响.方法 2009年1月-2011年8月于我院因CIN住院治疗的患者20例,给予LEEP治疗,作为观察组,同时随机抽取我院孕前门诊同期内就诊的无妇科手术史的20例健康孕妇,作为对照组,观察妊娠情况及妊娠结局.结果 观察组患者的妊娠率为85%(17/20),对照组健康孕妇的妊娠率为90%(8/20),两组妊娠率比较差异无显著性(P>0.05).观察组剖宫产率显著高于对照组(P<0.05),两组患者流产发生率、早产发生率、胎膜早破发生率以及小于

  3. Fever control and its impact on outcomes: what is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiyagari, Venkatesh; Diringer, Michael N

    2007-10-15

    Fever is common in a variety of neurological disorders. There is abundant experimental evidence suggesting that fever leads to, or exacerbates, neuronal injury in conditions such as cerebral ischemia and traumatic brain injury. However, conclusive evidence linking control of fever to improved outcomes is lacking. It has been difficult to design studies looking at the impact of fever control on outcome, in part because traditional methods of fever control are ineffective. Recently, several new devices to control temperature have become available. These devices appear to be more effective than conventional means and might allow us to design studies that definitively answer the question: "Does controlling fever improve outcome?"

  4. Occupational risk for male infertility: a case-control study of 218 infertile and 227 fertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, S E; Tay, S K

    2001-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if certain occupations pose an increased risk for infertility (of no known cause) among a group of infertile men compared with a group of fertile men. A total of 640 consecutive men whose spouses were unable to conceive were recruited from an infertility clinic. Of these, 218 men (cases) were found to have no known cause for their infertility. A total of 227 men whose spouses were pregnant at the time of the study were recruited as controls. The Singapore Standard Occupational Classification was used to code the subjects' occupations. Semen parameters (density, total sperm counts, motility, viability, and normal morphology) in all of the cases were significantly poorer than those in the controls. The risk for infertility is associated with smoking adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.85 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.91 to 4.24. Work, independently, is not a risk factor for infertility. Engineering technicians (adjusted OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.36 to 5.54), finance analysts (adjusted OR, 4.66; 95% CI, 1.90 to 11.40), corporate and computing managers (adjusted OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.04 to 5.98), and teachers (adjusted OR, 7.72; 95% CI, 1.86 to 32.10) were at a greater risk of infertility compared with "services and clerical workers." Using services and clerical workers as a reference group, certain occupations are at a higher risk for infertility. Higher work demands and possible electromagnetic field exposure could be contributory factors for infertility.

  5. Effects of Phaseolus vulgaris QTL in controlling host-bacteria interactions under two levels of nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Alessandra A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers were used to estimate the effect of mineral nitrogen on the phenotypic expression of quantitative trait loci (QTL controlling the number of Rhizobium nodules (NN and resistance to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli in the common bean. Recombinant inbred lines derived from a BAT-93 x Jalo EEP558 cross were grown in a greenhouse in the absence or presence (5 mM NH4NO3 of nitrogen. Resistance to Xanthomonas was assessed as diseased leaf area (DLA and the number of nodules was obtained by direct counting. Analyses of variance were used to detect significant associations between 85 marker loci from 12 linkage groups (LG and quantitative traits. In the absence of nitrogen, 15 and 11 markers, distributed over 7 and 5 LG, showed a significant association with NN and DLA, respectively. The combined percentage of phenotypic variance explained by the marker-loci and QTL associations was 34% for NN and 42% for DLA. In the presence of nitrogen, there were only five significant associations for NN and eight for DLA, which explained 28 and 26% of the total phenotypic variance, respectively. The effects of some QTL were detected only at a certain level of nitrogen. The contribution of parental alleles at two NN QTL was dependent on the level of nitrogen. Four QTL were associated with both the number of Rhizobium nodules and resistance to Xanthomonas, suggesting a common genetic control of responses to bacterial infections in the common bean. Despite the dramatic environmental interactions noted with some QTL, in other cases the phenotypic effects were not affected by the amount of nitrogen. The stability of the latter QTL may be relevant when breeding cultivars adapted to variable soil fertility.

  6. Outcomes from a School-Randomized Controlled Trial of Steps to Respect: A Bullying Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eric C.; Low, Sabina; Smith, Brian H.; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of Steps to Respect: A Bullying Prevention Program conducted in 33 California elementary schools. Schools were matched on school demographic characteristics and assigned randomly to intervention or waitlisted control conditions. Outcome measures were obtained from (a) all school…

  7. Statistical correlation of the soil incubation and the accelerated laboratory extraction methods to estimate nitrogen release rates of slow- and controlled-release fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, L Carolina; Sartain, Jerry; Obreza, Thomas; Hall, William L; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    Several technologies have been proposed to characterize the nutrient release patterns of enhanced-efficiency fertilizers (EEFs) during the last few decades. These technologies have been developed mainly by manufacturers and are product-specific based on the regulation and analysis of each EEF product. Despite previous efforts to characterize nutrient release of slow-release fertilizer (SRF) and controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) materials, no official method exists to assess their nutrient release patterns. However, the increased production and distribution of EEFs in specialty and nonspecialty markets requires an appropriate method to verify nutrient claims and material performance. Nonlinear regression was used to establish a correlation between the data generated from a 180-day soil incubation-column leaching procedure and 74 h accelerated lab extraction method, and to develop a model that can predict the 180-day nitrogen (N) release curve for a specific SRF and CRF product based on the data from the accelerated laboratory extraction method. Based on the R2 > 0.90 obtained for most materials, results indicated that the data generated from the 74 h accelerated lab extraction method could be used to predict N release from the selected materials during 180 days, including those fertilizers that require biological activity for N release.

  8. Optimization and validation of an accelerated laboratory extraction method to estimate nitrogen release patterns of slow- and controlled-release fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, L Carolina; Sartain, Jerry B; Obreza, Thomas A; Hall, William L; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    Several technologies have been proposed to characterize the nutrient release and availability patterns of enhanced-efficiency fertilizers (EEFs), especially slow-release fertilizers (SRFs) and controlled-release fertilizers (CRFs) during the last few decades. These technologies have been developed mainly by manufacturers and are product-specific based on the regulation and analysis of each EEF product. Despite previous efforts to characterize EEF materials, no validated method exists to assess their nutrient release patterns. However, the increased use of EEFs in specialty and nonspecialty markets requires an appropriate method to verify nutrient claims and material performance. A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature, fertilizer test portion size, and extraction time on the performance of a 74 h accelerated laboratory extraction method to measure SRF and CRF nutrient release profiles. Temperature was the only factor that influenced nutrient release rate, with a highly marked effect for phosphorus and to a lesser extent for nitrogen (N) and potassium. Based on the results, the optimal extraction temperature set was: Extraction No. 1-2:00 h at 25 degrees C; Extraction No. 2-2:00 h at 50 degrees C; Extraction No. 3-20:00 h at 55 degrees C; and Extraction No. 4-50:00 h at 60 degrees C. Ruggedness of the method was tested by evaluating the effect of small changes in seven selected factors on method behavior using a fractional multifactorial design. Overall, the method showed ruggedness for measuring N release rates of coated CRFs.

  9. Fertility in female childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Van den Berg, Marleen H

    2009-01-01

    chemotherapy and radiotherapy may have an adverse effect on ovarian function, ovarian reserve and uterine function, clinically leading to sub-fertility, infertility, premature menopause and/or adverse pregnancy outcomes. Here we will first address normal female fertility and methods to detect decreased...... fertility. Hence we will focus on direct effects as well as late fertility-related adverse effects caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and we will conclude with a summary of current options for fertility preservation in female childhood cancer survivors....

  10. 载体型控释肥料在玉米上的应用效果%Effects of Supported Controlled Release Fertilizers on Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑秀琴; 丁洪; 张玉树; 何新桃; 洪曾纯

    2011-01-01

    研究了栽体型控释肥料在玉米上的应用效果.结果表明,在等养分比例和等养分量处理下,控释肥料处理的经济产量比普通肥料混合后一次性施用处理增加14.9% ~17.0%,总生物量增加11.3%~14.5%,氮、磷、钾当季利用率分别提高8.2%~11.2%、4.0% ~4.6%和2.7% ~ 5.5%.与普通肥料混合后分2次施用处理相比,经济产量增加10.9% ~ 13.0%,总生物量增加9.8%~13.0%,氮、磷、钾当季利用率分别提高5.8% ~8.8%、2.1% ~2.7%和7.6% ~10.4%.此外,控释肥料还可以改善玉米的品质,子粒的粗脂肪和粗蛋白含量都有所提高.%Effects of supported controlled release fertilizers on maize were studied. The results showed that the controlled release fertilizers could increase economic yield of maize by 14. 9% - 17.0% ,biological yield by 11. 3% -14. 5% ,and improved nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium use efficiency by 8. 2% - 11. 2% ,4. 0% -4. 6% and 2.7% -5. 5% , respectively compared with common fertilizers used at one time under the conditions of all treatments with same NPK proportion and amount. To compare with common fertilizers used at two times, the controlled release fertilizers increased economic yield of maize by 10. 9% -13. 0% ,biological yield by 9. 8% -13.0% ,and improved nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium use efficiency by 5. 8% - 8. 8% ,2. 1% - 2. 7% and 7. 6% -10. 4% , respectively. In addition,the controlled release fertilizers also influenced the quality of maize since the contents of protein and fat in grains were improved more or less.

  11. Effects of organic and chemical fertilizer on plant nutritional status and soil fertility of tomatoes grown under greenhouse condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Işıl DEMİRTAŞ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of some plant originated liquid organic fertilizer on soil fertility and plant nutritional status of tomato plants were investigated. The experiment was planned to compare the control, organic fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, 1/1chemical+organic fertilizer, ½chemical+organic fertilizer, chemical fertilizer+foliar organic fertilizer application. The trial was conducted in randomised complete block design with four replications. Plant and soil samples were analyzed. According to the results of analysis, combinations of organic and chemical fertilizer generally gave more positive results.

  12. Development Status and Research Trends of Slow/Controlled Release Fertilizer%我国缓/控释肥研究现状和发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恩飞; 崔智多; 何璐; 肖传绪; 莫海涛; 张小勇

    2011-01-01

    从养分控释的途径对缓/控释肥进行分类,介绍代表产品,总结我国当前研究情况,并对研究趋势进行展望.%Slow/controlled release fertilizer was classified by the means of the nutrient release. The representative products were introduced.The current research situation in China were summarized. And the research trends were discussed.

  13. Do increased levels of progesterone and progesterone/estradiol ratio on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin affects pregnancy outcome in long agonist protocol in fresh in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of elevated levels of serum progesterone (P 4 and estradiol (E 2 on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin and their cut-off value on in vitro fertilization (IVF outcomes is still not clear. Aims: The aim was to evaluate the association between serum P 4 , E 2 and progesterone/estradiol ratio (P 4 /E 2 on pregnancy outcome in IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles with long agonist protocol. Setting and Design: Retrospective, single center, cohort study. Materials and Methods: A review of complete data of 544 women undergoing fresh IVF/ICSI cycles (539 cycles with long agonist protocol from January 2012 to February 2014 was done. Data were stratified into Three groups according to the number of oocytes retrieved: low (≤4 oocytes obtained, intermediate (5-19 oocytes obtained, and high ovarian response (≥20 oocytes obtained. Statistical Analysis: Fishers exact test/Chi-square was carried for comparing categorical data. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed to determine the cut-off value for P 4 and P 4 /E 2 detrimental for pregnancy. Results: A negative association was observed between pregnancy rate (PR and serum P 4 and P 4 /E 2 levels with no effect on fertilization and cleavage rate. The overall cut-off value of serum P 4 and P 4 /E 2 ratio detrimental for pregnancy was found to be 1.075 and ≥0.35, respectively. Different P 4 threshold according to the ovarian responders were calculated, 1.075 for intermediate and 1.275 for high responders. Serum E 2 levels were not found to be significantly associated with PR. Conclusion: Serum P 4 levels and P 4 /E 2 ratio are a significant predictor for pregnancy outcome without affecting cleavage and fertilization rate while serum estradiol levels do not seem to affect PR.

  14. 缓/控释肥料的研究现状及发展趋势%Researching Present Situation and Developing Trend for Releasing Fertilizer Slowly/Controlled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英; 熊海蓉; 李霞; 熊远福; 文祝友; 王楠楠

    2012-01-01

    Author has introduced the definition and type of releasing fertilizer slowly/controlled ; has described the developing process and researching progress for the releasing fertilizer slowly/controlled abroad and at home; has prospected the developing tendency of the releasing fertilizer slowly/ controlled.%介绍了缓/控释肥料的定义和类型;阐述了国内外缓/控释肥料的发展历程和研究进展;展望了缓/控释肥料的发展趋势。

  15. Intrafollicular endocrine milieu after addition of hCG to recombinant FSH during controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuesen, L L; Andersen, A Nyboe; Loft, A; Smitz, J

    2014-02-01

    The role of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) supplementation on the intrafollicular steroid milieu has been studied. The objective of the study was to assess the impact on steroid levels in follicular fluids (FFs) after different doses of hCG supplementation to recombinant FSH for controlled ovarian stimulation. This was a prospective randomized dose-response study conducted at Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Denmark. From 62 in vitro fertilization patients, 334 FFs were selected for analyses. Patients were treated using a GnRH agonist protocol with recombinant FSH 150 IU/d and randomized from stimulation day 1 to supplementation with hCG: D0, 0 IU/d; D50, 50 IU/d; D100, 100 IU/d; and D150, 150 IU/d. Intrafollicular hormone concentrations in relation to treatment groups, follicular sizes, and embryo quality were measured. In large follicles, hCG supplementation induced a nearly 3-fold increase of estradiol (nanomoles per liter) [D0: 1496; D50: 3138; D100: 4338; D150: 4009 (P D100: 72; D150: 56 (P D100 and the highest in D0. Large follicles giving rise to good-quality embryos had significantly higher estradiol and progesterone levels and estradiol to T, estradiol to androstenedione, and progesterone to estradiol ratios, compared with small follicles, leading to poor-quality embryos. Increasing doses of hCG supplementation markedly stimulated the intrafollicular concentration of both estradiol and androgens, with a shift toward a more androgenic milieu. In large follicles with oocytes giving rise to good-quality embryos, the FFs were significantly more estrogenic than in small follicles with oocytes developing into poor quality embryos.

  16. A Health Belief Model-Social Learning Theory approach to adolescents' fertility control: findings from a controlled field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, M; Zellman, G L; McAlister, A L

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated an 8- to 12-hour Health Belief Model-Social Learning Theory (HBM-SLT)-based sex education program against several community- and school-based interventions in a controlled field experiment. Data on sexual and contraceptive behavior were collected from 1,444 adolescents unselected for gender, race/ethnicity, or virginity status in a pretest-posttest design. Over 60% completed the one-year follow-up. Multivariate analyses were conducted separately for each preintervention virginity status by gender grouping. The results revealed differential program impacts. First, for preintervention virgins, there were no gender or intervention differences in abstinence maintenance over the follow-up year. Second, female preintervention Comparison program virgins used effective contraceptive methods more consistently than those who attended the HBM-SLT program (p less than 0.01); among males, the intervention programs were equally effective. Third, both interventions significantly increased contraceptive efficiency for teenagers who were sexually active before attending the programs. For males, the HBM-SLT program led to significantly greater follow-up contraceptive efficiency than the Comparison program with preintervention contraceptive efficiency controlled (p less than 0.05); for females, the programs produced equivalent improvement. Implications for program planning and evaluation are discussed.

  17. The Effects of Controlled Release Fertilizer on Apple Orchard Root Domain Environment%控释肥对苹果根域环境的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文胜; 秦旭; 陈宏坤; 李芳东; 王敏; 李林光; 杨力

    2012-01-01

    The effects of controlled release fertilizer on apple orchard was studied including soil microbes,organic matter,pH value,mineral elements contents such as N,P,K,Ca,Mg,Cu,Fe,Zn,Mn by the applying apple special controlled release fertilizer with different experiment's treatment.Results showed that,compared with treatments common compound fertilizer applied,application of controlled release fertilizer increased contents of soil microbial biomass nitrogen,soil microbial biomass carbon,pH value,soil available N,Fe and Zn,and decreased the contents of soil available P,soil exchangeable Ca,Mg and Mn,but there was no significant difference with content of organic matter.Contents of available potassium in different experimental sites were different,and most of the indicators of different treatments CRFs applied were not significant difference.%采用苹果专用控释肥,设计不同试验处理,研究控释肥对果园土壤微生物,有机质,pH值和N、P、K、Ca、Mg、Cu、Fe、Zn、Mn等矿质元素含量的影响。结果表明,与普通复合肥相比,控释肥提高了果园土壤微生物量氮、微生物量碳和pH值,对有机质含量影响差异不明显;增加了土壤碱解氮、Fe和Zn含量,降低了土壤速效磷、交换性Ca、交换性Mg和Mn的含量,不同试验点速效钾和Cu的含量结果不一致;不同控释肥处理间大部分指标差异不明显。

  18. 控释氮肥在小麦上的示范应用效果%Application Effect of Controlled-Release Nitrogen Fertilizer on Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于立芝; 史桂萍; 孙治军

    2014-01-01

    采用田间示范试验研究了控释氮肥在小麦上的应用效果。结果表明:使用控释肥,降低纯氮30%,小麦的公顷穗数、穗粒数、千粒重均有所增加,前诸留村的增产率为9.9%,中村的增产率为7.9%;降低纯氮50%,小麦的穗粒数基本不变,而千粒重增加0.3 g,增产率为3.5%;控释氮肥施用量降氮30%的示范应用效果明显优于降氮50%的。%The application effect of controlled -release nitrogen fertilizer on wheat was researched by field demonstration test .The results showed that the use of controlled -release nitrogen fertilizer to reduce 30% of pure nitrogen increased the spike number per hectare , grain number per spike and 1 000-grain weight; the yield of the villages Qianzhuliucun and Zhongcun increased by 9.9%and 7.9%respectively .The use of con-trolled-release fertilizer to reduce 50%of pure nitrogen could increase 0.3 g of 1 000-grain weight but change fewer in grain number per spike , so the yield increased by 3.5%.The application effect of controlled -release nitrogen fertilizer reducing 30%pure nitrogen was obviously better than that reducing 50%nitrogen .

  19. Effect of Controlled Release Nitrogen Fertilizer on Rapeseed Yield, Agronomic Characters and Soil Fertility%施用控释氮肥对油菜产量、农艺性状及土壤肥力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉桃; 鲁艳红; 聂军; 廖育林; 谢坚; 杨曾平; 周兴

    2014-01-01

    为了探讨控释氮肥对油菜的肥料效应,通过池栽试验,选取洞庭湖区3种主要土壤在连续4年“稻-稻-冬闲”后将冬闲改种油菜施用旱作控释氮肥,研究控释氮肥对油菜产量、农艺性状、生长性状及土壤肥力的影响。结果表明,在紫潮泥及河沙泥2种土壤中施用控释氮肥促进了油菜植株的生长发育,可获得较高油菜产量,比施等N量尿素处理分别增产12.2%和9.8%,70%控释氮肥效果明显降低。施用控释氮肥后河沙泥土壤碱解氮和有机碳含量比油菜试验前分别增加25.0%和3.2%,紫潮泥碱解氮含量提高13.5%,并均高于尿素和70%控释氮肥2个处理。而红黄泥施用控释氮肥对油菜产量和土壤肥力的影响均不及等N量尿素处理,70%控释氮肥处理的效应则更小。施用控释氮肥对紫潮泥及河沙泥的油菜生产具有显著增产效果及土壤氮素肥力提升作用。%In order to study the effects of controlled release nitrogen fertilizer (CRNF) on rapeseed, a simulated experiment was adopted with 3 types of paddy soils in Dong-Ting Lake area after 4-years of continuous applying CRNF under double rice cropping and fallow system and the fallow changed to rapeseed. The effect of controlled release fertilizer on rapeseed yield, agronomic characters and soil fertility were studied in this paper. The results showed that CRNF improved the growth of rapeseed plant and the highest grain yield occurred in CRNF treatments in purple calcareous clayed paddy soil (PCS) and alluvial loamy paddy soil (ALS) which increased by 12.2%and 9.8%, respectively, compared with applying urea (CF treatment). Yield in 70%CRNF treatment decreased obviously compared with CF treatment. Contents of available N and organic carbon in soil increased by 25.0%and 3.2%after rapeseed cropping than before rapeseed cropping under CRNF treatment in ALS, and available N increased by 13.5%in PCS. Both rapeseed yield and soil

  20. Fertility incentives and disincentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Financioglu, N

    1984-06-01

    Some 40 countries use some form of incentives and disincentives in support of population policies, about half with the aim of reducing fertility and half with the aim of increasing it. These schemes range from limitations on tax and family allowances or maternity benefits after a given family size has been reached to payments to acceptors of fertility control methods. Some schemes aim to eliminate or reduce the cost and inconvenience people may face in achieving their fertility preferences, whereas others contain an element of deterrence. It is difficult to isolate and measure the impact of incentives on fertility from the effects of other factors such as family planning service availability or modernization. Studies in pronatalist countries suggest that incentive schemes produce short-term fertility increases without a change in average family size. Monetary incentives must be constantly increased to keep pace with inflation, placing a heavy burden on government budgets. Administrative capacity to operate the scheme is critical in terms of both manpower and efficient systems for record keeping, monitoring, and close supervision to prevent abuse. There is also considerable debate on the moral and ethical implications of incentives and disincentives as policy tools. Incentives offered for the acceptance of a particular fertility control method potentially contravene the principle of voluntary and informed consent. In addition, the relative value of the reward is greater for those in the lower income groups. The discriminatory nature of certain types of incentives and disincentives is illustrated by measures introduced in Singapore that give highest priority in school enrollment to the children of highly educated mothers with 2-3 children. This ruling is expected to further intensify the controversy surrounding incentive and disincentive schemes.

  1. The research of controlled release fertilizer experiment of corn on Ningxia south mountain area%宁夏南部山区玉米控释肥肥效试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    火勇

    2015-01-01

    Controlled release fertilizer had the advantages of reducing nitrogen nutrient volatilization and improving utilization rate of fertilizer.Controlled release fertilizer experiment results in Ningxia south mountainous showed that an average yield of corn was 11 096.1 kg/hm2 with the application of controlled release fertilizer, which was 9.0% higher than that of the custom fertilizer application;the yield of basal application 90 kg/hm2 controlled release fertilizer with 90 days was high and the benefit was good, which was 14.3%higher than yield of the custom fertilizer application and increased 2 145.66 yuan/hm 2.%控释肥具有减少氮素养分挥发,提高肥料利用率等优点,控释肥在宁夏南部山区试验结果表明,施用控释肥平均产量11096.1 kg/hm2,较习惯施肥增产9.0%,基施90 d控释肥600 kg/hm2产量高,效益好,较习惯施肥增产14.3%,增收2145.66元/hm2。

  2. 控释肥不同施用方式对玉米产量的影响研究%A Study of the Effect of Different Application Methods of Controlled Release Fertilizer on Corn Yields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洋

    2012-01-01

    同心县玉米控释肥不同施用方式试验结果表明:采用播种前旋耕施控释肥10~15 cm深,玉米产量最高,为18 450kg/hm2。%The results of the test for different application methods of controlled release fertilizer for corn shows that a highest yield, 18 450 kg/hm2, was achieved when adopting rotary tillage fertilization 10-15 cm depth of controlled release fertilizer before seeding.

  3. 控释复合肥对草莓生长发育、品质及经济效益的影响%Effects of Controlled Release Fertilizer on Growth, Quality and Economic Benefit of Strawberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯志文; 宋凯; 王翠玲; 张继祥

    2011-01-01

    In order to find appropriate fertilizer for the growth of strawberry in greenhouse, with " All -Star" strawberry(Fragaria ananassa Duch cv. "All Star" )as test material, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effects of controlled release fertilizer on the growth potential, fruit yield and quality and fertilizer use efficiency. The results showed that controlled release fertilizer could significantly enhance the stem thickness, plant height and leaf area of strawberry compared to common fertilizer. The effects of controlled release fertilizer on photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content, and root vigor of strawberry were significantly higher than those of common fertilizer, and always kept higher level. Compared to no fertilizer treatment, the fertilizer treatments decreased the quality of strawberry, but the influence of controlled release fertilizer on quality of strawberry was smaller than that of the common fertilizer. In the agronomic efficiency of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus, the controlled release fertilizer was always higher than common fertilizer.%通过对等量肥效的控释肥和普通化肥处理的“全明星”草莓生长发育、产量品质以及肥料利用效率的研究发现,控释肥处理草莓的茎粗、株高及叶面积显著高于普通化肥处理;控释肥处理草莓的叶片光合速率、叶绿素含量、根系活力显著高于普通化肥处理,并一直维持较高水平;与对照相比,各肥料处理草莓的品质有所下降,但控释肥处理的下降幅度较小,对品质的影响低于普通化肥处理;在氮磷钾的农学利用效率方面,控释肥处理始终高于普通化肥处理.

  4. Fixed Schedule for in Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer : Comparison of Outcome between the Short and the Long Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether a short or long protocol would be preferable for simplification of a fixed-schedule for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) program without negatively affecting the pregnancy rate per cycle. All women were allocated, according to the ovarian stimulation protocol, into two groups. In Group 1 for the short protocol (41 occasions), the patients were treated with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) before pituitary desensitization using busere...

  5. Cognitive Dysfunction, Locus of Control and Treatment Outcome among Chronic Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Max W.

    While alcoholism is no longer regarded as a unitary disorder, conventional measures of congition and personality have yet to be shown capable of consistently predicting clinical outcomes. To investigate cognitive dysfunction and locus of control as predictors of post treatment outcome in a large sample of alcoholics, 106 alcoholics (74 men, 32…

  6. Perceived Social Support and Locus of Control as the Predictors of Vocational Outcome Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Erkan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of vocational outcome expectation to social support which is an environmental factor and locus of control which is a personal factor. With this purpose, using Social Cognitive Career Theory as the theoretical framework, 263 undergraduate students completed Vocational Outcome Expectations…

  7. Female Fertility: Is it Safe to "Freeze?"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Zhang; Li-Ying Yan; Xu Zhi; Jie Yan; Jie Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the safety and risk of cryopreservation in female fertility preservation.Data sources:The data analyzed in this review were the English articles from 1980 to 2013 from journal databases,primarily PubMed and Google scholar.The criteria used in the literature search show as following:(1) human; embryo; cryopreservation/freezing/vitrification,(2) human; oocyte/immature oocyte; cryopreservation/freezing/vitrification,(3) human; ovarian tissue transplantation; cryopreservation/ freezing/vitrification,(4) human; aneuploidy/DNA damage/epigenetic; cryopreservation/freezing/vitrification,and (5) human; fertility preservation; maternal age.Study selection:The risk ratios based on survival rate,maturation rate,fertilization rate,cleavage rate,implantation rate,pregnancy rate,and clinical risk rate were acquired from relevant meta-analysis studies.These studies included randomized controlled trials or studies with one of the primary outcome measures covering cryopreservation of human mature oocytes,embryos,and ovarian tissues within the last 7 years (from 2006 to 2013,since the pregnancy rates of oocyte vitrification were significantly increased due to the improved techniques).The data involving immature oocyte cryopreservation obtained from individual studies was also reviewed by the authors.Results:Vitrifications of mature oocytes and embryos obtained better clinical outcomes and did not increase the risks of DNA damage,spindle configuration,embryonic aneuploidy,and genomic imprinting as compared with fresh and slow-freezing procedures,respectively.Conclusions:Both embryo and oocyte vitrifications are safe applications in female fertility preservation.

  8. 缓控释肥对烟草生长和烟叶品质的影响研究进展%Research Progress on Effects of Slow-Controlled Release Fertilizer on Growth and Quality of Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱换换; 符雷; 曾代龙; 祝春岗; 时向东

    2014-01-01

    The effects of slow -controlled release fertilizer on effectiveness of soil nutrients , tobacco growth and quality were summarized in this paper .The development of slow -controlled release fertilizer was also prospected .%本文综述了缓控释肥对土壤养分有效性、烟草生长和烟叶品质的影响,并对缓控释肥在未来的发展前景进行了展望。

  9. Adolescent fertility: worldwide concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M

    1985-04-01

    There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex

  10. Trichoderma harzianum strain SQR-T37 and its bio-organic fertilizer could control Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease in cucumber seedlings mainly by the mycoparasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinqi; Chen, Lihua; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Yang, Xingming

    2011-08-01

    Damping-off disease is caused by Rhizoctonia solani and leads to serious loss in many crops. Biological control is an efficient and environmentally friendly way to prevent damping-off disease. Optical micrographs, scanning electron micrographs, and the determination of hydrolytic enzymes were used to investigate the antagonism of Trichoderma harzianum SQR-T37 (SQR-T37) against R. solani. Experiments were performed in pots to assess the in vivo disease-control efficiency of SQR-T37 and bio-organic fertilizer. The results indicate that the mycoparasitism was the main mechanism accounting for the antagonistic activity of SQR-T37. In one experiment, the population of R. solani was decreased from 10(6) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) copies per gram soil to 10(4) ITS copies per gram soil by the presence of the antagonist. In this experiment, 45% of the control efficiency was obtained when 8 g of SQR-T37 hyphae per gram soil was applied. In a second experiment, as much as 81.82% of the control efficiency was obtained when bio-organic fertilizer (SQR-T37 fermented organic fertilizer, BIO) was applied compared to only 27.27% of the control efficiency when only 4 g of SQR-T37 hyphae per gram soil was applied. Twenty days after incubation, the population of T. harzianum was 4.12 × 10(7) ITS copies per gram soil in the BIO treatment, which was much higher than that in the previous treatment (8.77 × 10(5) ITS copies per gram soil), where only SQR-T37 was applied. The results indicated that SQR-T37 was a potent antagonist against R. solani in a mycoparasitic way that decreased the population of the pathogen. Applying BIO was more efficient than SQR-T37 application alone because it stabilized the population of the antagonist.

  11. 我国保水缓/控释肥料的研发进展%Research progress and development of water-storing slow/controlled release fertilizers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党民团; 刘娟

    2011-01-01

    The water-storing slow/controlled release fertilizer is the new value-added fertilizer in low carbon economy era, as well as one of the most promising fertilizers in the future fertilizer industry. The research progress and development of water-storing slow/controlled release fertilizers in china are reviewed, four kinds of composite integration technologies for water-storing and fertilizer are introduced with the analysises on existing problems, some strategies are provided for the further research and development of water-storing slow/controlled release fertilizers in China.%保水缓/控释肥料是低碳经济时代的新型增值肥料,是未来肥料产业最具前景的重要方向之一。综述了近年来我国保水缓/控释肥料的研发进展和保水剂与肥料复合一体化技术的4种制备方法,分析了相关研发存在的问题,提出了我国保水缓/控释肥料开发应进一步采取的对策。

  12. Socioeconomic outcome of epilepsy surgery: A controlled national study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Sabers, Anne; Christensen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epilepsy surgery has been a standard treatment for refractory epilepsies that cannot be controlled by standard medical treatment. We aimed to evaluate the health and social consequences of resective surgery relative to controls from a study of national data. METHODS: Using the Danish...... National Patient Registry we identified all subjects with an epilepsy diagnosis between 1996 and 2009 and compared them with a group of patients with an epilepsy diagnosis who had had neither epilepsy surgery nor a vagus stimulation diagnosis by the index date, and who were matched by gender, index year...... for epilepsy diagnosis, and index year for epilepsy surgery. We considered all the health and social information available in the Danish health, medication and social registers. The duration of follow-up was three years. RESULTS: 254 epilepsy patients and 989 controls were analyzed. Surgery patients were more...

  13. Effect of preoperative abstinence on poor postoperative outcome in alcohol misusers: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, H; Rosenberg, J; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen;

    1999-01-01

    liver disease admitted for elective colorectal surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Withdrawal from alcohol consumption for 1 month before operation (disulfiram controlled) compared with continuous drinking. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Postoperative complications requiring treatment within the first month after surgery...

  14. 控释BB肥对西瓜生长期土壤酶活性的影响%Effects of Controlled-release BB Fertilizer on Soil Enzymes Activities during Watermelon Growing Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井大炜; 杨广怀; 马文丽; 刘春生

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed to study the effects of controlled-release BB fertilizer (fertilizer blending) applied on soil enzymes activities and provided the theoretical base for the population of controlled-release fertilizer. In the field plot test, the effect of the controlled-release BB fertilizer on soil urease, neutral phosphatase and sucrose enzymes activities during different growth stages of watermelon were studied. The results showed with the application of controlled-release BB fertilizer, the activities of these three enzymes were better than conven-tional fertilizer treatment because of the significantly controlled release effects of the controlled-release BB fer-tilizer.%研究控释BB肥(掺混肥)对土壤中酶活性的影响,为控释肥的推广使用提供理论依据.采用田间小区试验法研究了控释BB肥对西瓜不同生育期土壤脲酶、中性磷酸酶和蔗糖酶活性的影响.在试验条件下,由于控释BB肥对养分的显著控释效果,它的施用对土壤中这三种酶活性的影响要好于习惯施肥处理.

  15. Effects of Coated Controlled-release Blend Bulk Fertilizers on Yield,Quality and Nutrient Content of Scallion%包膜控释BB肥对大葱产量、品质及养分含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董亮; 张玉凤; 李彦; 张英鹏; 孙明; 杨力; 陈广思; 于淑芳

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different coated controlled-release blend bulk fertilizers and decreasing coated controlled-release blend bulk fertilizers on scallion's yield, quality and nutrient content were studied by field experiment. The results showed that fertilizers could increase the scallion's yield. In all the coated controlled-release fertilizers, controlled-release fertilizer Ⅱ was the best which could improve the scallion's yield by 2. 57% compared with traditional fertilizer. Scallion's quality was also improved after using coated controlled-release blend bulk fertilizers. Vc content was increased by 1.64%-14. 29% , nitrate content was decreased by 23. 18% -39. 71 % . The coated controlled-release fertilizer Ⅱ showed the best effect on Vc content improvement and nitrate content control. In all tested treatments of fertilizers, the highest contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in scallion were detected in the coated controlled-release fertilizer Ⅰ,Ⅲ and Ⅱ , respectively. But there was no significant difference in three coated controlled-release fertilizers.%通过大田试验,探索了不同养分比例的包膜控释BB肥及控释BB肥减量化施用对章丘大葱产量、品质及养分含量的影响.结果表明,本试验条件下,施肥能明显增加大葱产量,而在所有包膜控释肥处理中,以包膜控释肥II处理的大葱产量最高,与习惯施肥相比,增幅为2.57%.施用包膜控释BB肥亦能显著提高大葱品质.包膜控释BB肥可以使大葱中Vc含量提高1.64%~14.29%,硝酸盐含量降低23.18% ~39.71%,其中,以包膜控释肥Ⅱ在提高大葱Vc、降低硝酸盐含量方面效果最佳.在大葱养分含量方面,包膜控释肥工处理的大葱吸氮量最高,包膜控释肥m处理的大葱吸磷量最高,包膜控释肥n处理的大葱吸钾量最高,但3种包膜控释肥处理之间差异不显著.

  16. Primary outcomes in two randomized controlled trials of treatments for cannabis use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Erica N; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2011-11-01

    While several randomized controlled trials evaluating a range of treatments for cannabis use disorders have appeared in recent years, these have been marked by inconsistency in selection of primary outcomes, making it difficult to compare outcomes across studies. With the aim of identifying meaningful and reliable outcome domains in treatment studies of cannabis use disorders, we evaluated multiple indicators of marijuana use, marijuana problems, and psychosocial functioning from two independent randomized controlled trials of behavioral treatments for cannabis use disorders (Ns=450 and 136). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the best-fitting model of outcomes in both trials encompassed three distinct factors: frequency of marijuana use, severity of marijuana use, and psychosocial functioning. In both trials, frequency of marijuana use and longest period of abstinence during treatment were most strongly associated with outcome during follow-up. Using two categorical definitions of "clinically significant improvement," individuals who demonstrated improvement differed on most end-of-treatment and long-term outcomes from those who did not improve. Results may guide future randomized controlled trials of treatments for cannabis use disorders in the collection of relevant end-of-treatment outcomes and encourage consistency in the reporting of outcomes across trials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of controlled-release fertilizer on leaf area index and fruit yield in high-density soilless tomato culture using low node-order pinching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi Kinoshita

    Full Text Available To further development of a simplified fertigation system using controlled-release fertilizers (CRF, we investigated the effects of differing levels of fertilizers and plant density on leaf area index (LAI, fruit yields, and nutrient use in soilless tomato cultures with low node-order pinching and high plant density during spring-summer (SS, summer-fall (SF, and fall-winter (FW seasons. Plants were treated with 1 of 3 levels of CRF in a closed system, or with liquid fertilizer (LF with constant electrical conductivity (EC in a drip-draining system. Two plant densities were examined for each fertilizer treatment. In CRF treatments, LAI at pinching increased linearly with increasing nutrient supply for all cropping seasons. In SS, both light interception by plant canopy at pinching and total marketable fruit yield increased linearly with increasing LAI up to 6 m(2 · m(-2; the maximization point was not reached for any of the treatments. In FW, both light interception and yield were maximized at an LAI of approximately 4. These results suggest that maximizing the LAI in SS and FW to the saturation point for light interception is important for increasing yield. In SF, however, the yield maximized at an LAI of approximately 3, although the light interception linearly increased with increasing LAI, up to 4.5. According to our results, the optimal LAI at pinching may be 6 in SS, 3 in SF, and 4 in FW. In comparing LAI values with similar fruit yield, we found that nutrient supply was 32-46% lower with the CRF method than with LF. In conclusion, CRF application in a closed system enables growers to achieve a desirable LAI to maximize fruit yield with a regulated amount of nutrient supply per unit area. Further, the CRF method greatly reduced nutrient use without decreasing fruit yield at similar LAIs, as compared to the LF method.

  18. Effects of controlled-release fertilizer on leaf area index and fruit yield in high-density soilless tomato culture using low node-order pinching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Takafumi; Yano, Takayoshi; Sugiura, Makoto; Nagasaki, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    To further development of a simplified fertigation system using controlled-release fertilizers (CRF), we investigated the effects of differing levels of fertilizers and plant density on leaf area index (LAI), fruit yields, and nutrient use in soilless tomato cultures with low node-order pinching and high plant density during spring-summer (SS), summer-fall (SF), and fall-winter (FW) seasons. Plants were treated with 1 of 3 levels of CRF in a closed system, or with liquid fertilizer (LF) with constant electrical conductivity (EC) in a drip-draining system. Two plant densities were examined for each fertilizer treatment. In CRF treatments, LAI at pinching increased linearly with increasing nutrient supply for all cropping seasons. In SS, both light interception by plant canopy at pinching and total marketable fruit yield increased linearly with increasing LAI up to 6 m(2) · m(-2); the maximization point was not reached for any of the treatments. In FW, both light interception and yield were maximized at an LAI of approximately 4. These results suggest that maximizing the LAI in SS and FW to the saturation point for light interception is important for increasing yield. In SF, however, the yield maximized at an LAI of approximately 3, although the light interception linearly increased with increasing LAI, up to 4.5. According to our results, the optimal LAI at pinching may be 6 in SS, 3 in SF, and 4 in FW. In comparing LAI values with similar fruit yield, we found that nutrient supply was 32-46% lower with the CRF method than with LF. In conclusion, CRF application in a closed system enables growers to achieve a desirable LAI to maximize fruit yield with a regulated amount of nutrient supply per unit area. Further, the CRF method greatly reduced nutrient use without decreasing fruit yield at similar LAIs, as compared to the LF method.

  19. Perennial crop phase effects on soil fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need to develop agricultural management systems that enhance soil fertility and reduce reliance on external inputs. Perennial phases in crop rotations are effective at restoring soil fertility, though little information exists in the northern Great Plains regarding soil-based outcomes re...

  20. The Effects of Fungicide, Soil Fumigant, Bio-Organic Fertilizer and Their Combined Application on Chrysanthemum Fusarium Wilt Controlling, Soil Enzyme Activities and Microbial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang; Chen, Xi; Deng, Shiping; Dong, Xuena; Song, Aiping; Yao, Jianjun; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

    2016-04-21

    Sustained monoculture often leads to a decline in soil quality, in particular to the build-up of pathogen populations, a problem that is conventionally addressed by the use of either fungicide and/or soil fumigation. This practice is no longer considered to be either environmentally sustainable or safe. While the application of organic fertilizer is seen as a means of combating declining soil fertility, it has also been suggested as providing some control over certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Here, a greenhouse comparison was made of the Fusarium wilt control efficacy of various treatments given to a soil in which chrysanthemum had been produced continuously for many years. The treatments comprised the fungicide carbendazim (MBC), the soil fumigant dazomet (DAZ), the incorporation of a Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR21 (P. polymyxa SQR21, fungal antagonist) enhanced bio-organic fertilizer (BOF), and applications of BOF combined with either MBC or DAZ. Data suggest that all the treatments evaluated show good control over Fusarium wilt. The MBC and DAZ treatments were effective in suppressing the disease, but led to significant decrease in urease activity and no enhancement of catalase activity in the rhizosphere soils. BOF including treatments showed significant enhancement in soil enzyme activities and microbial communities compared to the MBC and DAZ, evidenced by differences in bacterial/fungi (B/F) ratios, Shannon-Wiener indexes and urease, catalase and sucrase activities in the rhizosphere soil of chrysanthemum. Of all the treatments evaluated, DAZ/BOF application not only greatly suppressed Fusarium wilt and enhanced soil enzyme activities and microbial communities but also promoted the quality of chrysanthemum obviously. Our findings suggest that combined BOF with DAZ could more effectively control Fusarium wilt disease of chrysanthemum.

  1. 高反应人群超排卵%Controlled ovarian stimulation for high responder women undergoing in vitro fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶虹

    2012-01-01

    High responder women are characterized by high response to exogenous gonadotrophin therapy manifested hy recruitment of a large number of follicles, rapid estradiol response and significant cancellation rate due to the potential risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) during in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer. Even for those patients who progress to oocyte retrieval and embryo transfer, appreciably lower fertilization rate and chromosomally normal blastocyst development rate are found. The super ovulation strategies for high responder women are included to reduce excessive ovarian stimulation and avoid OHSS by several approaches, such as dual suppression with oral contraceptives and GnRH agonist, reduced doses of GnRH agonist, GnRH antagonist protocol and GnRH agonist instead of hCG to trigger the final oocyte maturation, gonadotrophins step up and step down, different gonadotrophins for ovarian stimulation, application of metf ormin, and mild ovarian stimulation.

  2. Randomised controlled trial of whether erotic material is required for semen collection: impact of informed consent on outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelsman, D J; Sivananathan, T; Andres, L; Bathur, F; Jayadev, V; Conway, A J

    2013-11-01

    Semen is collected to evaluate male fertility or cryostore sperm preferentially in laboratories but such collection facilities have no standard fit-out. It is widely believed but untested whether providing erotic material (EM) is required to collect semen by masturbation in the unfamiliar environment. To test this assumption, 1520 men (1046 undergoing fertility evaluation, 474 sperm cryostorage, providing 1932 semen collection episodes) consecutively attending the semen laboratory of a major metropolitan teaching hospital for semen analysis were eligible for randomization to be provided or not with printed erotic material EM (X-rated, soft-core magazines) during semen collection. Randomization was performed by providing magazines in the collection rooms (as a variation on non-standard fit-out) on alternate weeks using a schedule concealed from participants. In the pilot study, men were randomized without seeking consent. In the second part of the study, which continued on from the first without interruption, an approved informed consent procedure was added. The primary outcome, the time to collect semen defined as the time from receiving to returning the sample receptacle, was significantly longer (by ~6%, 14.9 ± 0.3 [mean ± standard error of mean] vs. 14.0 ± 0.2 minutes, p = 0.02) among men provided with EM than those randomized to not being provided. There was no significant increase in the failure to collect semen samples (2.6% overall) nor any difference in age, semen volume or sperm concentration, output or motility according to whether EM was provided or not. The significantly longer time to collect was evident in the pilot study and the study overall, but not in the main study where the informed consent procedure was used. This study provides evidence that refutes the assumption that EM needs to be provided for semen collection in a laboratory. It also provides an example of a usually unobservable participation bias influencing study outcome of a

  3. Soil fertility controls soil-atmosphere carbon dioxide and methane fluxes in a tropical landscape converted from lowland forest to rubber and oil palm plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, E.; Corre, M. D.; Tjoa, A.; Damris, M.; Utami, S. R.; Veldkamp, E.

    2015-10-01

    Expansion of palm oil and rubber production, for which global demand is increasing, causes rapid deforestation in Sumatra, Indonesia, and is expected to continue in the next decades. Our study aimed to (1) quantify changes in soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes with land-use change and (2) determine their controlling factors. In Jambi Province, Sumatra, we selected two landscapes on heavily weathered soils that differ mainly in texture: loam and clay Acrisol soils. In each landscape, we investigated the reference land-use types (forest and secondary forest with regenerating rubber) and the converted land-use types (rubber, 7-17 years old, and oil palm plantations, 9-16 years old). We measured soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes monthly from December 2012 to December 2013. Annual soil CO2 fluxes from the reference land-use types were correlated with soil fertility: low extractable phosphorus (P) coincided with high annual CO2 fluxes from the loam Acrisol soil that had lower fertility than the clay Acrisol soil (P oil palm (107.2 to 115.7 mg C m-2 h-1) decreased compared to the other land-use types (between 178.7 and 195.9 mg C m-2 h-1; P oil palm were the result of strongly decomposed soil organic matter and reduced soil C stocks due to reduced litter input as well as being due to a possible reduction in C allocation to roots due to improved soil fertility from liming and P fertilization in these plantations. Soil CH4 uptake in the reference land-use types was negatively correlated with net nitrogen (N) mineralization and soil mineral N, suggesting N limitation of CH4 uptake, and positively correlated with exchangeable aluminum (Al), indicating a decrease in methanotrophic activity at high Al saturation. Reduction in soil CH4 uptake in the converted land-use types (ranging from -3.0 to -14.9 μg C m-2 h-1) compared to the reference land-use types (ranging from -20.8 to -40.3 μg C m-2 h-1; P < 0.01) was due to a decrease in soil N availability in the converted land-use types. Our study

  4. [Japan-U.S. comparison of the effectiveness of fertility control--the analysis of the incidence of unplanned births (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara Atoh, M

    1982-01-01

    Our major concern in this paper is how Japan could maintain 1 of the lowest levels of fertility in the industrialized world in the 1960s despite the fact that in Japan the proportion of those using contraception is smaller, the main contraceptive method is less efficient, and contraception is initiated at a later stage of reproductive life than in the Western countries. Drawing on the Japanese version of the World Fertility Survey in 1974 and the 1970 National Fertility Study from the US, we compared the effectiveness of fertility control in Japan and the US by focusing on the incidence of unplanned and unwanted births and attempted to clarify the reason for the difference in that incidence by breaking it down into several fertility control factors. The findings were as follows. 1) There is a smaller proportion who opt to delay childbearing in the early reproductive stage in Japan than in the US, and the probability of having a birth as a timing failure is somewhat higher in Japan than in the US. This is due to the fact that contraceptive efficacy for those who delay is lower than that of Americans. In the early reproductive years or when the purpose is for spacing births, induced abortion is used mainly by noncontraceptors. It is rare to find cases of induced abortion backing contraceptive failures at such an early stage. 2) At the later stages of childbearing, a larger proportion of women choose to terminate childbearing in Japan than in the US. The probability of having unwanted high order births is much lower in Japan than in the US. This is partly because contraceptive efficacy is somewhat higher in Japan and partly because induced abortion is used by noncontraceptive terminators. It is mainly because of the use of abortion as backup by contraceptors who choose to terminate unwanted pregnancies. 3) In Japan, those who do not use contraception as a means for avoiding unplanned births rely on induced abortion more or less equally at different stages of their

  5. Effect of Sperm DNA Damage on the Outcome of In Vitro Fertilization-embryo Transfer%精子DNA损伤对体外受精-胚胎移植结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 江莉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of sperm DNA damage on the outcome of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET ). Methods The DNA fragmentation of 51 infertile couples undergoing primary IVF-ET was detected by the sperm chromatin dispersion( SCD )test. The pregnancy rate was observed the first day after IVF-ET,and the transgene situation was observed on the third day. Results The negative correlation of fertilization rate , zygote transgene rate,2PN transgene rate with sperm DNA fracture index( DFI )were found( P <0. 05 ),and but no correlation was found with optimal embryo rate and 2PN transgene rate( P >0. 05 ). Conclusion The damage of sperm DNA has an effect on the outcome of IVF.The fertilization rate of IVF decreases as the DFI of sperms increase,which has an effect on the development of fertilized eggs'cleavage and embryos. Sperm DNA integrity may be an objective indicator to predict the effect of IVF.%目的 探讨精子DNA损伤对体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF-ET)结局的影响.方法 首次行IVF助孕治疗的不孕夫妇51对,运用精子DNA碎片染色质扩散法(SCD)检测精子DNA完整性,夫妇行IVF助孕.于体外受精后第1天观察受精情况,第3天观察卵裂情况.结果 精子DNA断裂指数(DFI)与受精率、受精卵卵裂率、2PN卵裂率均呈显著负相关(P均<0.05),与优胚率、2PN受精率无明显相关关系.结论 精子DNA损伤影响体外受精的治疗结局.随着精子DFI水平的增加,受精率下降,进而对受精卵卵裂及胚胎的发育产生影响.精子DNA完整性可以作为精液质量的检测指标对体外受精结局进行预测.

  6. Acupuncture to improve live birth rates for women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Caroline A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IVF is a costly treatment option for women, their partners, and the public. Therefore new therapies that improve reproductive and health outcomes are highly desirable. There is a growing body of research evaluating the effect of acupuncture administered during IVF, and specifically on the day of embryo transfer (ET. Many trials are heterogeneous and results inconsistent. There remains insufficient evidence to determine if acupuncture can enhance live birth rates when used as an adjunct to IVF treatment. The study will determine the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture with improving the proportion of women undergoing IVF having live births. Other objectives include: determination of the cost effectiveness of IVF with acupuncture; and examination of the personal and social context of acupuncture in IVF patients, and examining the reasons why the acupuncture may or may not have worked. Methods We will conduct a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture compared to placebo acupuncture. Inclusion criteria include: women aged less than 43 years; undergoing a fresh IVF or ICSI cycle; and restricted to women with the potential for a lower live birth rate defined as two or more previous unsuccessful ETs; and unsuccessful clinical pregnancies of quality embryos deemed by the embryologist to have been suitable for freezing by standard criteria. Women will be randomized to acupuncture or placebo acupuncture. Treatment is administered on days 6 to 8 of the stimulated cycle and two treatments on the day of ET. A non-randomized cohort of women not using acupuncture will be recruited to the study. The primary study outcome is the proportion of women reporting a live birth. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of women reporting a clinical pregnancy miscarriage prior to 12 weeks, quality of life, and self-efficacy. The sample size of the study is 1,168 women, with the aim of detecting a 7% difference in live births between groups (P

  7. Acupuncture to improve live birth rates for women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline A; de Lacey, Sheryl; Chapman, Michael; Ratcliffe, Julie; Norman, Robert J; Johnson, Neil; Sacks, Gavin; Lyttleton, Jane; Boothroyd, Clare

    2012-05-18

    IVF is a costly treatment option for women, their partners, and the public. Therefore new therapies that improve reproductive and health outcomes are highly desirable. There is a growing body of research evaluating the effect of acupuncture administered during IVF, and specifically on the day of embryo transfer (ET). Many trials are heterogeneous and results inconsistent. There remains insufficient evidence to determine if acupuncture can enhance live birth rates when used as an adjunct to IVF treatment.The study will determine the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture with improving the proportion of women undergoing IVF having live births. Other objectives include: determination of the cost effectiveness of IVF with acupuncture; and examination of the personal and social context of acupuncture in IVF patients, and examining the reasons why the acupuncture may or may not have worked. We will conduct a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture compared to placebo acupuncture.Inclusion criteria include: women aged less than 43 years; undergoing a fresh IVF or ICSI cycle; and restricted to women with the potential for a lower live birth rate defined as two or more previous unsuccessful ETs; and unsuccessful clinical pregnancies of quality embryos deemed by the embryologist to have been suitable for freezing by standard criteria. Women will be randomized to acupuncture or placebo acupuncture. Treatment is administered on days 6 to 8 of the stimulated cycle and two treatments on the day of ET. A non-randomized cohort of women not using acupuncture will be recruited to the study. The primary study outcome is the proportion of women reporting a live birth. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of women reporting a clinical pregnancy miscarriage prior to 12 weeks, quality of life, and self-efficacy. The sample size of the study is 1,168 women, with the aim of detecting a 7% difference in live births between groups (P = 0.05, 80% power). There remains a need for

  8. DCS控制系统在缓释肥生产中的应用%Application of DCS control system to slow release fertilizer production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石兆军

    2012-01-01

    The variable-ratio control, software configuration and equipment selection of DCS control system in slow release fertilizer production are introduced. DCS control system is used for 300 kt/a slow release fertilizer project in Jinshan Chemical Co., Ltd, the automatic control rate of equipment is 98%; the qualification rate of product is increased by 19 percentage points, reaching to 99%; the material cost of 14 RMB Yuan and energy of 8 kW·h can be saved every ton product; increasing the benefit 5.76 million RMB Yuan every year for enterprise.%介绍DCS控制系统在缓释肥生产中变比值控制方案和系统软件的配置,以及应用DCS控制系统的设备选型。金山化肥公司的300kt/a缓释肥项目采用DCS控制系统,设备自控率达到98%;产品合格率提高了19百分点,达到99%;生产每吨产品节约原料成本14元、节电8kW·h,每年为企业增加效益576万元。

  9. In vitro maturation, fertilization, embryo development & clinical outcome of human metaphase-I oocytes retrieved from stimulated intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Álvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The major cause of fertilisation failure after ICSI is failure of the oocyte to initiate the biochemical processes necessary for activation. This inability could be ascribed to cytoplasmic immaturity of those gametes even if they had reached nuclear maturity. The activation of a mature oocyte is characterised by release from metaphase II (MII arrest and extrusion of the second polar body, followed by pro-nuclear formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fate of in vitro matured (IVM metaphase I (MI oocytes subjected to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI at different time intervals after extrusion of the first polar body (1PB in in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles. Methods: A total of 8030 oocytes were collected from 1400 ICSI cycles, 5504 MII at the time of cumulus retrieval. Four hundred eight metaphase II (MII (27.1% matured to MII after in vitro culture for 2-26 h and 5389 sibling MII in the moment of oocyte denudation were injected. On the other hand, 49 ICSI cycles containing only MI oocytes at retrieval were injected at three different time intervals after reaching the MII. The intervals were as follows: 2-6 h (n=10, 8-11 h (n=4 and 23-26 h (n=10. Fertilization and development potential were evaluated in both studies. Results: Fertilization, embryo cleavage and quality were significantly lower in IVM MI compared to MII at time of denudation. Pregnancy rate was higher in group MII. Pregnancy was achieved in three embryo transfers when ICSI was performed within 2-6 h (group I and 8-11 h (group II after PB extrusion. One pregnancy was obtained in group I and a healthy neonate was born. Interpretation & conclusions: Immature oocytes from women whose ovaries have been stimulated could be matured, fertilized by ICSI, cleaved in vitro and to give rise to a live birth. However, the developmental competence of embryos derived from immature oocytes is reduced, compared with sibling in vivo matured oocytes

  10. Fertility and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korula George

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The changing social scenario together with economic growth and an increase in job opportunities has to a great extent reduced gender inequality and has resulted in more and more older women seeking help from infertility clinics. Fertility and aging have always been closely linked and the age of the female partner remains the single most important factor in predicting success with treatment. Although tests for the ovarian reserve are an important informative tool and are helpful in selecting treatment options, they are poor predictors of the outcome.

  11. Outcomes and Recommendations of an Indian Expert Panel for Improved Practice in Controlled Ovarian Stimulation for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahemmed, Baiju; Sundarapandian, Vani; Gutgutia, Rohit; Balasubramanyam, Sathya; Jagtap, Richa; Biliangady, Reeta; Gupta, Priti; Jadhav, Sachin; Satwik, Ruma; Thakor, Priti

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To improve success of in vitro fertilization (IVF), assisted reproductive technology (ART) experts addressed four questions. What is optimum oocytes number leading to highest live birth rate (LBR)? Are cohort size and embryo quality correlated? Does gonadotropin type affect oocyte yield? Should “freeze-all” policy be adopted in cycles with progesterone >1.5 ng/mL on day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration? Methods. Electronic database search included ten studies on which panel gave opinions for improving current practice in controlled ovarian stimulation for ART. Results. Strong association existed between retrieved oocytes number (RON) and LBRs. RON impacted likelihood of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Embryo euploidy decreased with age, not with cohort size. Progesterone > 1.5 ng/dL did not impair cycle outcomes in patients with high cohorts and showed disparate results on day of hCG administration. Conclusions. Ovarian stimulation should be designed to retrieve 10–15 oocytes/treatment. Accurate dosage, gonadotropin type, should be selected as per prediction markers of ovarian response. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist based protocols are advised to avoid OHSS. Cumulative pregnancy rate was most relevant pregnancy endpoint in ART. Cycles with serum progesterone ≥1.5 ng/dL on day of hCG administration should not adopt “freeze-all” policy. Further research is needed due to lack of data availability on progesterone threshold or index. PMID:28246628

  12. 缓控释肥质量快速检测方法探讨%Discussion on rapid quality detection method for slow/controlled release fertilizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈剑秋; 葛雨明; 孙德芳; 王丽萍; 张民

    2012-01-01

    Based on nutrient release testing method for quality detection experiment, the difference between of slow/controlled release fertilizers standard testing method and rapid is studied. The results show that error range between rapid method and standard method is from 2.7% to 8.3% for CRF1, CRF2, CRF3 and CRF4, which completely meet the demand of national standard of GB/T 23348--2009 about error range (25%); For the products (CRF5 to CRF16) with the production conditions changed such as envelope materials, additives and spraying temperature, the evaluation of slow/controlled release fertilizers is not reliable with the original prediction equation; So one prediction equation can't be used to rapidly and accurately detect every slow/controlled release fertilizer.%通过缓控释肥养分释放试验,研究了缓控释肥标准检测方法与快速测定方法的差异。结果表明:供试CRF1至CRF4样品快速测定方法与标准方法误差范围为2.7%~8-3%,完全满足GB/T23348--2009养分释放期允许误差范围25%的要求;在改变包膜材料、添加剂和喷涂温度条件下,制成的CRF5至CRF16样品采用快速测定方法用原有预测方程预测养分释放期可靠性差,表明一个预测方程不能快速准确评价所有缓控释肥。

  13. Application of a hyaluronic acid gel after intrauterine surgery may improve spontaneous fertility: a randomized controlled trial in New Zealand White rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Huberlant

    Full Text Available Intrauterine adhesions (IUAs are the most common complication after hysteroscopy in patients of reproductive age. Intra-abdominal anti-adhesion gel reduces the incidence of adhesions, but effects on fertility after uterine surgery are not known. The objective of our work was to evaluate the effect of intrauterine anti-adhesion gel on spontaneous fertility after repeated intrauterine surgery with induced experimental synechiae in the rabbit model.Twenty New Zealand White rabbits underwent a double uterine curettage 10 days apart and were randomized into two groups. Each rabbit served as its own control: one uterine tube was the treatment group (A, the second uterine tube was the control group (B to avoid bias through other causes of infertility. Group A received a post curettage intrauterine instillation of anti-adhesion gel whereas group B, the control group, underwent curettage without instillation of the gel. After a recovery period, the rabbits were mated. An abdominal ultrasound performed 21 days after mating allowed us to diagnose pregnancy and quantify the number of viable fetuses.There was a significant difference in total fetuses in favor of group A, with an average of 3.7 (range, 0-9 total fetuses per tube against 2.1 (0-7 in group B (p = .04. The number of viable fetuses shows a trend in favor of group A, with an average of 3.4 (0-7 viable fetuses per tube against 1.9 (0-6 viable fetuses per tube in group B (p = .05.The use of immediate postoperative anti-adhesion gel improved fertility in an animal model after intrauterine surgery likely to cause uterine synechiae. This experimental model will permit comparison of different anti-adhesion solutions, including assessment of their tolerance and potential mucosal toxicity on embryonic development.

  14. Development and evaluation of an Individualized Outcome Measure (IOM) for randomized controlled trials in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesola, Francesca; Williams, Julie; Bird, Victoria; Freidl, Marion; Le Boutillier, Clair; Leamy, Mary; Macpherson, Rob; Slade, Mike

    2015-12-01

    Pre-defined, researcher-selected outcomes are routinely used as the clinical end-point in randomized controlled trials (RCTs); however, individualized approaches may be an effective way to assess outcome in mental health research. The present study describes the development and evaluation of the Individualized Outcome Measure (IOM), which is a patient-specific outcome measure to be used for RCTs of complex interventions. IOM was developed using a narrative review, expert consultation and piloting with mental health service users (n = 20). The final version of IOM comprises two components: Goal Attainment (GA) and Personalized Primary Outcome (PPO). For GA, patients identify one relevant goal at baseline and rate its attainment at follow-up. For PPO, patients choose an outcome domain related to their goal from a pre-defined list at baseline, and complete a standardized questionnaire assessing the chosen outcome domain at baseline and follow-up. A feasibility study indicated that IOM had adequate completion (89%) and acceptability (96%) rates in a clinical sample (n = 84). IOM was then evaluated in a RCT (ISRCTN02507940). GA and PPO components were associated with each other and with the trial primary outcome. The use of the PPO component of IOM as the primary outcome could be considered in future RCTs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Male fertility, obesity, and bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Leonardo Oliveira; Dias, Fernando Goulart Fernandes

    2012-08-01

    Obesity has become a new worldwide health problem with significant impact not only on cardiovascular diseases but also on many other related disorders, highlighting infertility. Obesity may adversely affect male reproduction by endocrinologic, thermal, genetic, and sexual mechanisms. There is good evidence that obesity can be associated with reduced sperm concentrations, but studies about sperm motility, morphology, and DNA fragmentation have been less numerous and more conflicting. Although weight loss is the cornerstone of the treatment of obesity-related infertility, with promising results in restoring fertility and normal hormonal profiles, bariatric surgery impact on male fertility is still unclear and until now there is not enough data to support the informed consent in this scenario. Physicians are encouraged to highlight possible positive and/or negative impacts concerning male capacity of fertilization when informing patients. A balanced judgment and a personalized case-by-case management with patient involvement in decisions are fundamental in this setting and indication of cryopreservation of semen samples should be considered in selected circumstances. Well-structured trials controlled for confounders including female factors and based on solid outcomes (ie, birth rates) must urgently come up to clarify this emerging scenario.

  16. 精子DNA碎片率对辅助生殖结局的影响%Effect of Sperm DNA Fragmentation Index on the Outcome of in Vitro Fertilization-embryo Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晓飞; 宋焱鑫; 李红芳; 董波

    2015-01-01

    目的探讨精子DNA碎片率与IVF-ET结局的相关性。方法对2013年1月~2014年4月因女方(≤35岁)输卵管因素,男方精液常规检查正常或轻中度异常,到我中心行IVT-ET的男性患者进行回顾性分析,行精子DNA碎片率检查的共有112例,不同精子,比较三组间的一般情况、精液常规参数、IVF受精情况及IVF-ET结局。结果三组间精液参数无显著差异(P>0.05),C组IVF受精率最低(0.05)。结论①精子DNA碎片率与精液常规各参数无相关性;②高精子DNA碎片率降低IVF受精率;③目前的胚胎评级并不足以预测胚胎结局,尚需进一步的研究。%Objective To analyze the ef ect of Sperm DNA fragmentation index on the outcome of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET).Methods A retrospective study was conducted in 112 IVF-ET cycles of Institute of Reproduction, Luoyang Women ﹠ Children's Health Care Hospital , among these cycles no women's age were above 35 years old, and the cause of infertility was only fal opion tube factor. The cycles were divided into 3 groups (A, B, C) by dif erent sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI), outcome of IVF-ET was compared among these groups.Results The fertilization rate of IVF of C group was the lowest ( 0.05).Conclusion High sperm DNA fragmentation index reduces the fertilization rate of IVF, the embryo grading standard is not enough to predict outcome, and more research is needed.

  17. Study on Controlled Release Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Technique for Spring Maize%春玉米控释氮肥施用技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢佳贵; 尹彩侠; 张路; 侯云鹏; 秦裕波; 王立春

    2009-01-01

    不同控释氮肥田间试验结果表明,控释氮肥与普通氮肥相比不仅能提高春玉米子粒产量,而且能提高玉米子粒中粗脂肪含量.春玉米的适宜施N量为150 kg/hm~2.控释氮肥与普通氮肥混合施用可显著提高春玉米产量,最佳混配比例为50%控释尿素+50%普通尿素.%Field experiment showed that controlled release N fertilizer could not only increase spring maize yield but also increase its crude fat content, and the appropriate fertilization rate was N 150 kg/ha for spring maize. Mixed application of controlled release N and common N could increase maize yield obviously, and the optimum mixed proportion was 50% controlled release urea + 50% common urea.

  18. Biodegradation of a biochar-modified waterborne polyacrylate membrane coating for controlled-release fertilizer and its effects on soil bacterial community profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zijun; Du, Changwen; Li, Ting; Shen, Yazhen; Zeng, Yin; Du, Jie; Zhou, Jianmin

    2015-06-01

    Biochar-modified polyacrylate-like polymers are promising waterborne polymer-based membrane coatings for controlled-release fertilizers. However, the effect of these membrane polymers on paddy soil is unknown. A soil incubation experiment was conducted using Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy to monitor the changes in the polymer-coated membranes in paddy soil, and Biolog EcoPlates and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were used to detect the effects of the membranes on soil bacterial community profiles. Compared to unmodified membranes, the biodegradation rate of the biochar-modified membrane was slower, and the membrane was more intact, which improved and guaranteed the controlled release of nutrients. Compared to the soil without membranes, the biochar-modified membranes, as well as unmodified ones, showed no significant impacts on the composition diversity of soil dominant bacterial community. The activity and functional diversity of soil culturable microbial community during the early stage of incubation were reduced by biochar-modified membranes due to the release of small amount of soluble organic materials but were both recovered in the 12(th) month of the incubation period. Therefore, the biochar-modified waterborne polyacrylate was environmentally friendly, demonstrating its potential both in the development of coated controlled-release fertilizers and in the utilization of crop residue.

  19. The effect of bovine viral diarrhoea virus on fertility in dairy cows: two case-control studies in the province of Styria, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgstaller, Johann; Obritzhauser, Walter; Kuchling, Sabrina; Kopacka, Ian; Pinior, Beate; Köfer, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) leads to substantial economic losses in beef and dairy herds worldwide. Two case-control studies were carried out using production data from 1996 to 2012 to analyse the impact of BVD virus (BVDV) on fertility in dairy herds in the province of Styria during an eradication programme. In study 1, herds in which at least one persistently BVDV-infected (PI) animal was detected (case herds) were compared to a group of control herds proven free from BVDV infection (contro herds). In study 2, within BVD infected herds the period during which P animals were present (exposed period) was compared to the period after successful BVD eradication (unexposed period). Calving interval (CAl) and the probability of a first service conception (FSC) were used as indicators in a mixed regression model to investigate the impact of BVD on reproductive performance. The model results indicated that BVD had a significant influence on CAl and FSC. Cows from control herds were 1.1 times more likely to conceive at first service compared to cows from case herds and cows served during the BVDV unexposed period were 1.3 times more likely to conceive at first service than those inseminated during the exposed period. In BVD-infected herds the CAI averaged seven days shorter in unexposed periods than in exposed periods. Besides BVD the animal breed and the parity substantially impact the analysed fertility indicators.

  20. Social capital and adverse treatment outcomes of tuberculosis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, P R; Mundra, A; Dawale, A

    2017-08-01

    'Social capital' refers to social norms, relationships, networks and values that affect the functioning and development of society. Social capital influences health positively, but its role in the treatment outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) is not known. To study the role of social capital in determining adverse TB treatment outcomes. Of 516 patients registered under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme in 2014 in Wardha Tuberculosis Unit, Wardha, India, we included 88 patients with adverse treatment outcomes as cases and 187 controls from among those without adverse outcomes. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare standardised Z-scores. A greater proportion of controls than cases belonged to higher quartiles of social capital and its domains than cases, and the mean standardised Z-score was also consistently higher among controls than cases. Respectively 47% and 15% of cases and controls were in the poorest quartile of social capital, whereas respectively 10% and 33% of cases and controls were in the richest quartile. Each unit increase in Z-score of overall social capital reduced the odds of adverse treatment outcomes by 63.1%. Appropriate interventions for building social capital for TB patients and linking them with the programme would improve programme performance.

  1. The relationship between clinical outcomes and medication adherence in difficult-to-control asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Anna C; Proeschal, Amandine; Brightling, Christopher E; Wardlaw, Andrew J; Pavord, Ian; Bradding, Peter; Green, Ruth H

    2012-08-01

    Medication non-adherence and the clinical implications in difficult-to-control asthma were audited. Prescription issue data from 115 patients identified sub-optimal adherence (asthma (p=0.008). The majority of patients with difficult-to-control asthma are non-adherent with their asthma medication. Non-adherence is correlated with poor clinical outcomes.

  2. A grounded theory approach to understand the process of decision making on fertility control methods in urban society of Mashhad, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Khadivzadeh, Talat; Bahrami, Masoud

    2013-09-01

    More than 30% of pregnancies in Iran are unintended and most of them happen among the women who use various contraceptive methods. Results of Integrated Monitoring and Evaluation System (IMES) showed that the rate of innovative contraceptive use in Mashhad has been 41.5%-57% in different urban areas. This study was conducted to explore the process of making decision toward using family planning methods in women of reproductive age in urban society of Mashhad, Iran. In this grounded theory study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 45 purposefully selected participants including 28 women and 17 key informants including family health providers and managers, and participants' mothers and husbands, who lived in urban society of Mashhad, Iran, in 2011-2012. Participants' recruitment continued until data saturation occurred. Data were analyzed using Strauss and Corbin's mode of analysis through constant comparative method, applying levels of open, axial, and selective coding with MAXqda software. Study rigor was confirmed through prolonged engagement, member check, expert debriefing, and thick description of the data. The core category of "caring the comprehensive health of my family," which emerged from the data, described the process of couples' decision making toward using family planning methods in this study. Other developed categories which were presented into a theoretical scheme consisted of 1) shaping the ideas of fertility control, 2) developing cognition about the fertility control methods, 3) appraising available choices and choosing the most appropriate one, 4) managing the course of using methods, and 5) realizing the fertility intentions. It is important that family planning providers understand the motivations, perceptions, and knowledge of women about contraceptive methods in their contextual situation, which illustrates their mode of interaction in the arenas of family planning decision making.

  3. The outcome competency framework for practitioners in infection prevention and control: use of the outcome logic model for evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, E; Loveday, HP; Kiernan, MA; Tannahill, M

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare is delivered in a dynamic environment with frequent changes in populations, methods, equipment and settings. Infection prevention and control practitioners (IPCPs) must ensure that they are competent in addressing the challenges they face and are equipped to develop infection prevention and control (IPC) services in line with a changing world of healthcare provision. A multifaceted Framework was developed to assist IPCPs to enhance competence at an individual, team and organisational level to enable quality performance and improved quality of care. However, if these aspirations are to be met, it is vital that competency frameworks are fit for purpose or they risk being ignored. The aim of this unique study was to evaluate short and medium term outcomes as set out in the Outcome Logic Model to assist with the evaluation of the impact and success of the Framework. This study found that while the Framework is being used effectively in some areas, it is not being used as much or in the ways that were anticipated. The findings will enable future work on revision, communication and dissemination, and will provide intelligence to those initiating education and training in the utilisation of the competences.

  4. Effect Research of Controlled Release Special Fertilizer on Rice in Qing'an County%控释专用肥在庆安县水稻上的应用效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙磊

    2011-01-01

    The application effect of controlled release special fertilizer on rice-production in Qing'an county was carried out using Songjing No. 9. The result showed that compared to the equal nutrition of common compound fertilizer and high nitrogen fertilizer, the controlled release special fertilizer could increase the rice yield by 23.90% and 15.11%. The treatment 4, which decreasing the amount of controlled release special fertilizer by 30 %,could increase yield by 4.62 % compared with the common fertilizer.%为探索控释专用肥在黑龙江省对水稻生长及产量的影响,以松粳9号为试验材料,对控释肥在庆安县水稻生产上的应用效果进行了研究。结果表明:控释专用肥与等养分普通复合肥和常规高氮复合肥比较,可使水稻增产23.90%和15.11%。处理4在减少控释专用肥施用量30%的情况下,比常规施肥增产4.62%。

  5. Design and Experiment on Control System of Self-Propelled Variable-Rate Fertilizer%液压变量施肥控制系统设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈书法; 赵真; 封成龙; 杨进

    2012-01-01

    为解决现有水田撒肥机械存在肥量调节控制技术落后、不能适应变量作业工作要求等问题,设计了一种变量撒肥控制系统.通过分析国内外变量施肥技术研究情况,概述了变量撒肥机总体结构和工作原理,研究了控制内容和控制策略,确定了以AT89C51单片机作为主控制核心元件的计算机控制系统,进行软硬件设计和系统集成.通过场地和田间撒肥试验表明,撒肥机作业效率达到6 hm2/h,施肥量偏差小于5%,排肥量稳定性变异系数仅为6.2%,撒肥机工作性能和控制系统设计满足水田变量撒肥工作要求.%In order to solve the problem, of backward manure regulation control technology which was not suitable for variable -rate fertilization needs of paddy fertilizing machine,a variable -rate fertilization control system was designed.Based on the domestic and foreign research situations of the variable—rate fertilizing technology, the overall structure and working mechanism of the variable-rate fertilizing machine were described,and control content and strategy were studied, AT89C51single chip was used as a core control element in the control system, hardware and software were designed, and control system was integrated. The variable—rate fertilizing experiment in space and paddy field shows that the working efficiency is up to 6hm2/h, the fertilizing error is less than 5%, and the fertilizing stability variation coefficient is only 6.2%, so the working performance and control system design of the fertilizer is suitable for spreading the fertilizer invariable rate widely and efficiently in paddy field.

  6. Adverse effects of depression on glycemic control and health outcomes in people with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, Francois; Nefs, Giesje; Nouwen, Arie

    2013-01-01

    In the past decades, important advances have been achieved in the psychological aspects of diabetes. This article reviews the associations between diabetes, depression, and adverse health outcomes. The article provides an update on the literature regarding the prevalence of depression in diabetes......, discusses the impact of depression on diabetes self-care and glycemic control in people with diabetes, and summarizes the results of longitudinal studies that have investigated depression as a risk factor for adverse health outcomes....

  7. Incidence of Y-chromosome microdeletions in children whose fathers underwent vasectomy reversal or in vitro fertilization with epididymal sperm aspiration: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirelli-Filho, Milton; Marchi, Patricia Leme de; Mafra, Fernanda Abani; Cavalcanti, Viviane; Christofolini, Denise Maria; Barbosa, Caio Parente; Bianco, Bianca; Glina, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of Y-chromosome microdeletions in individuals born from vasectomized fathers who underwent vasectomy reversal or in vitro fertilization with sperm retrieval by epididymal aspiration (percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration). A case-control study comprising male children of couples in which the man had been previously vasectomized and chose vasectomy reversal (n=31) or in vitro fertilization with sperm retrieval by percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (n=30) to conceive new children, and a Control Group of male children of fertile men who had programmed vasectomies (n=60). Y-chromosome microdeletions research was performed by polymerase chain reaction on fathers and children, evaluating 20 regions of the chromosome. The results showed no Y-chromosome microdeletions in any of the studied subjects. The incidence of Y-chromosome microdeletions in individuals born from vasectomized fathers who underwent vasectomy reversal or in vitro fertilization with spermatozoa recovered by percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration did not differ between the groups, and there was no difference between control subjects born from natural pregnancies or population incidence in fertile men. We found no association considering microdeletions in the azoospermia factor region of the Y chromosome and assisted reproduction. We also found no correlation between these Y-chromosome microdeletions and vasectomies, which suggests that the assisted reproduction techniques do not increase the incidence of Y-chromosome microdeletions. Avaliar a incidência de microdeleções do cromossomo Y em indivíduos nascidos de pais vasectomizados submetidos à reversão de vasectomia ou fertilização in vitro com recuperação de espermatozoides por aspiração do epidídimo (aspiração percutânea de espermatozoides do epidídimo). Estudo caso-controle que compreende crianças do sexo masculino de casais em que o homem havia sido previamente vasectomizado e escolheu revers

  8. Adaptive Regulation of Testis Gene Expression and Control of Male Fertility by the Drosophila Harpin RNA Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jiayu; Duan, Hong; Bejarano, Fernando; Okamura, Katsutomo; Fabian, Lacramioara; Brill, Julie A.; Bortolamiol-Becet, Diane; Martin, Raquel; Ruby, J. Graham; Lai, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Although endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs) have been described in many species, still little is known about their endogenous utility. Here, we show that Drosophila hairpin RNAs (hpRNAs) generate an endo-siRNA class with predominant expression in testes. Although hpRNAs are universally recently evolved, we identify highly complementary protein-coding targets for all hpRNAs. Importantly, we find broad evidence for evolutionary divergences that preferentially maintain compensatory pairing between hpRNAs and targets, serving as first evidence for adaptive selection for siRNA-mediated target regulation in metazoans. We demonstrate organismal impact of hpRNA activity, since knockout of hpRNA1 derepresses its target ATP synthase-β in testes and compromises spermatogenesis and male fertility. Moreover, we reveal surprising male-specific impact of RNAi factors on germ cell development and fertility, consistent with testis-directed function of the hpRNA pathway. Finally, the collected hpRNA loci chronicle an evolutionary timeline that reflects their origins from prospective target genes, mirroring a strategy described for plant miRNAs. PMID:25544562

  9. Adjusting for outcome misclassification: the importance of accounting for case-control sampling and other forms of outcome-related selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurek, Anne M; Maldonado, George; Greenland, Sander

    2013-03-01

    Special care must be taken when adjusting for outcome misclassification in case-control data. Basic adjustment formulas using either sensitivity and specificity or predictive values (as with external validation data) do not account for the fact that controls are sampled from a much larger pool of potential controls. A parallel problem arises in surveys and cohort studies in which participation or loss is outcome related. We review this problem and provide simple methods to adjust for outcome misclassification in case-control studies, and illustrate the methods in a case-control birth certificate study of cleft lip/palate and maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Adjustment formulas for outcome misclassification that ignore case-control sampling can yield severely biased results. In the data we examined, the magnitude of error caused by not accounting for sampling is small when population sensitivity and specificity are high, but increases as (1) population sensitivity decreases, (2) population specificity decreases, and (3) the magnitude of the differentiality increases. Failing to account for case-control sampling can result in an odds ratio adjusted for outcome misclassification that is either too high or too low. One needs to account for outcome-related selection (such as case-control sampling) when adjusting for outcome misclassification using external information. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Role of Prestroke Glycemic Control on Severity and Outcome of Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Hjalmarsson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Relatively few studies have investigated the association of prestroke glycemic control and clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke (IS patients, regardless of presence of diabetes mellitus (DM. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of prestroke glycemic control on survival, stroke severity, and functional outcome of patients with acute IS. Methods. We performed a retrospective survival analysis of 501 patients with IS admitted to Sahlgrenska University Hospital from February 15, 2005, through May 31, 2009. The outcomes of interest were acute and long-term survival; the stroke severity (NIHSS and the functional outcome, mRS, at 12 months. Results. HbA1c was a good predictor of acute (HR 1.45; CI, 1.09 to 1.93, P=0.011 and long-term mortality (HR 1.29; CI 1.03 to 1.62; P=0.029. Furthermore, HbA1c >6% was significantly correlated with acute stroke severity (OR 1.29; CI 1.01 to 1.67; P=0.042 and predicted worse functional outcome at 12 months (OR 2.68; CI 1.14 to 6.03; P=0.024. Conclusions. Our study suggests that poor glycemic control (baseline HbA1c prior to IS is an independent risk factor for poor survival and a marker for increased stroke severity and unfavorable long-term functional outcome.

  11. 精浆锌含量与精液质量及体外受精结局的相关性%Correlation between seminal plasma Zinc concentration and semen quality,outcomes of in vitro fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江莉; 李慕军; 牛冉冉; 翟丹梅; 袁华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between seminal plasma Zinc concentration and sperm quality, outcomes of in vitro Fertilization. Methods The seminal plasma Zinc concentration of 81 infertile men was detected by using 5-Br-PAPS staining method. Spearman correlation between seminal plasma Zinc, conventional semen parameters and IVF fertilization rates, cleavage rate, and good quality embryo rate was analyzed. Results A significant positive correlation was found between seminal plasma Zinc concentration with sperm density, motility and IVF fertilization rate (r =0.49, 0. 305, 0.289; all P 0. 05 ). Conclusion Amount of seminal plasma zinc level can promote the maturation of sperm nuclear. Seminal plasma zinc content can decrease sperm density and motility, and also can decrease IVF fertilization rate; but no significant impact can be seen to the normal sperm morphology, IVF embryo cleavage rate and quality rate.%目的 探讨精浆锌含量对精液质量及体外受精(IVF)结局的影响.方法 采用5-Br-PAPS显色法检测81例不育男性患者精浆锌含量,Spearman相关分析法分析精浆锌含量与精液常规参数、成熟精子率及IVF结局的关系.结果 Spearman相关分析显示精浆锌含量与精子密度、精子活率、IVF受精数呈显著正相关(r=0.49、0.305、0.289,P均<0.05,与不成熟精子率呈负相关(r=- 0.278,P<0.05),与精子正常形态率及IVF卵裂率、优胚率无相关性(P均>0.05).结论 适量的精浆锌含量能够促进精子核成熟,精浆锌含量降低可致精子密度和活率下降,使IVF受精数降低;但是对精子的正常形态率,IVF卵裂率和优质胚胎率无显著影响.

  12. 控释肥对西瓜生长发育的影响%Effects of Controlled-release Fertilizer on Growth and Development of Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏元秀; 井大炜; 刘春生

    2011-01-01

    Taking the watermelon Heitong K-8 as meterial,the field experiment was conducted to study effect of controlled-release fertilizer on growth period,plant growth and yield of watermelon.The results showed that controlled-release fertilizer could promote wat%以黑彤K-8西瓜为试验材料,用田间小区试验的方法研究了控释肥对西瓜生育期、植株生长及产量的影响。结果表明,控释肥能促进西瓜早熟3~6 d;相对于习惯施肥,控释肥对植株的生长也有明显的作用;而且对西瓜的产量具有显著的提高作用,在等养分施用情况下与习惯施肥相比,增产幅度为22.32%,而且在减少20%养分用量的情况下,增产幅度仍可达到10.60%;等量控释肥、减量控释肥、减氮控释肥处理的肥料生产率分别为习惯施肥处理的2.28、2.01、1.32倍。

  13. 控失氮肥技术应用及发展总结%Use of Technology for Leach-Control Nitrogenous Fertilizers and Development Summary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛宏光; 黄滨; 徐文峰; 李刚

    2013-01-01

    控失氮肥是在对原有高塔造粒装置进行技术升级改造的基础上,将粉状氯化铵或硫酸铵及尿液与可降低其溶解性或改变其流失特性的化肥养分控失剂充分混合后制备的无膜型缓释脲铵氮肥,适合于大田作物.概述了控失氮肥的形成机理、技术路线及创新点、产品特点及质量标准,并就存在的问题提出了今后的努力方向.%On the basis of the original high-tower prilling unit renovated with technological upgrade, powdery ammonium chloride or ammonium sulfate and melted urea are intimately mixed with nutrient leach-control agents able to reduce the solubility or alter the leach properties, to prepare filmless slow-release urea-ammonium nitrogenous fertilizers, suitable for field crops. An outline is given of the formation mechanism of leach-control nitrogenous fertilizers, technological routes and innovation point, product characteristics and quality standards, and the direction for further efforts for solving the remaining problems.

  14. Childhood self-control and adult outcomes: results from a 30-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M; Boden, Joseph M; Horwood, L John

    2013-07-01

    A study by Moffitt et al. reported pervasive associations between childhood self-control and adult outcomes. The current study attempts to replicate the findings reported by Moffitt et al., adjusting these results for the confounding influence of childhood conduct problems. Data were gathered from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a longitudinal birth cohort studied to age 30 years. Self-control during ages 6 to 12 years was measured analogously to that in Moffitt et al., using parent-, teacher-, and self-report methods. Outcome measures to age 30 included criminal offending, substance use, education/employment, sexual behavior, and mental health. Associations between self-control and outcomes were adjusted for possible confounding by gender, socioeconomic status (SES), IQ, and childhood conduct problems (ages 6-10). In confirmation of the findings of Moffitt et al., all outcomes except major depression were significantly (p self-control. Adjustment for gender, SES, and IQ reduced to some extent the magnitude of the associations. However, adjustment for childhood conduct disorder further reduced the magnitude of many of these associations, with only 4 of the 14 outcomes remaining statistically significantly (p self-control. After adjustment for gender, SES, IQ, and conduct problems, those individuals who scored higher in self-control had lower odds of violent offending and welfare dependence, were more likely to have obtained a university degree, and had higher income levels. The findings from this study suggest that observed linkages between a measure of childhood self-control and outcomes in adulthood were largely explained by the correlated effects of childhood conduct problems, SES, IQ, and gender. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 缓控释肥料氮素释放的动力学%Kinetics of Slow Controlled Nitrogen Release from Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈可可; 张保林; 侯翠红

    2012-01-01

    利用水浸提法研究了国内外6种缓控释肥料在不同温度下的氮素释放特性,并研究了其氮素释放过程的动力学.不同温度下缓控释肥料的氮素累积释放率表明,供试的6种肥料在静水中的氮素累积释放率均随着温度的升高而增大,且温度越高,氮素累积释放率增加的越快.引入一级反应动力学方程,氮素释放速率常数k和氮素释放过程的活化能Ea结果表明,在6种供试肥料中,氮素释放过程对温度最敏感的是缓溶复混肥料(zdLuxe-02),受温度影响最小的为微晶聚合硫包衣尿素(hf-01).%The nitrogen release characteristics of 6 slow-controlled release fertilizers produced by different technologies were studied using water extraction method at different temperature. The results indicated that the cumulative release amount of nitrogen of the 6 slow-controlled release fertilizers increased with the increase of temperature, the higher the temperature, the bigger the cumulative release rate of nitrogen. A first-order kinetic rate expression was introduced. The results of kinetics showed that, with the increase of temperature, the rate constant of nitrogen release (k) increased and the activation energy of nitrogen release (Ea) decreased. Among all the 6 fertilizers, slow-dissolving compound fertilizers (zdLuxe-02) was the most sensitive one to the temperature, whereas Microcrystal-poly-sulfur coated urea (hf-01) was the least sensitive one to the temperature.

  16. Locus of control, self-efficacy, and the mediating effect of outcome control: predicting course-level and global outcomes in an academic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Evelyn W M

    2015-01-01

    The current study utilizes Skinner's framework to examine the unique contributions of internal locus of control, self-efficacy, and perceived outcome control over course performance on students' academic experiences. Undergraduate students (N = 225) took part in a longitudinal study and completed two surveys (Time 1: just before their mid-term exams; Time 2: just before their final exam in the same semester). Both locus of control and self-efficacy at Time 1 predicted course-level perceived control over course performance at Time 2. Student-level perceived control over course performance at Time 2 mediated the relationship between self-efficacy at Time 1 and course-level perseverance, course-specific stress, and course enjoyment at Time 2. For global perceived stress and life satisfaction measured at Time 2, both locus of control and self-efficacy at Time 1 had only a direct effect on global perceived stress at Time 2, but only self-efficacy at Time 1 predicted life satisfaction at Time 2. Both locus of control and self-efficacy uniquely contribute to students' academic experiences. Student-level perceived control plays an important mediating role between locus of control and self-efficacy at Time 1, and course-level perseverance, course-specific stress, and course enjoyment at Time 2.

  17. Environmental friendly nitrogen fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Avi; Shaviv

    2005-01-01

    With the huge intensification of agriculture and the increasing awareness to human health and natural resources sustainability, there was a shift towards the development of environmental friendly N application approaches that support sustainable use of land and sustain food production.The effectiveness of such approaches depends on their ability to synchronize plant nitrogen demand with its supply and the ability to apply favored compositions and dosages of N-species.They are also influenced by farming scale and its sophistication, and include the following key concepts: (i) Improved application modes such as split or localized ("depot") application; (ii) use of bio-amendments like nitrification and urease inhibitors and combinations of (i) and (ii); (iii) use of controlled and slow release fertilizers; (iv) Fertigation-fertilization via irrigation systems including fully automated and controlled systems; and (v) precision fertilization in large scale farming systems. The paper describes the approaches and their action mechanisms and examines their agronomic and environmental significance. The relevance of the approaches for different farming scales, levels of agronomic intensification and agro-technical sophistication is examined as well.

  18. Fertility Awareness Counseling for Adolescent Girls; Guiding Conception: The Right Time, Right Weight, and Right Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudesia, Rashmi; Talib, Hina J; Pollack, Staci E

    2017-02-01

    To provide a detailed summary of fertility awareness counseling pearls for healthy teens and those with fertility-relevant comorbidities, and to assist providers in offering such counseling to adolescents and young adult women. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comprehensive literature review of English-language studies relating to fertility in pediatric and adolescent female patients (ages 13-21 years), and evidence-based dialogue guide. The literature indicates that although adolescents are interested in discussing sexuality and reproduction, this is commonly overlooked during the standard office medical visit. As a result, adolescents often turn to less reliable sources and hold a variety of reproductive misconceptions and a sense of lack of control over future fertility. We found no studies that examined the routine provision of fertility awareness counseling with healthy adolescents. There are a multitude of specific gynecologic and medical conditions that have ramifications for fertility. We detail these comprehensively, and provide a dialogue guide to assist with fertility awareness counseling for the female adolescent, containing specific information and indications for referral. Providers caring for adolescent girls have the opportunity to enhance fertility awareness as part of a larger reproductive health conversation that adolescents desire, and from which they might benefit. Identifying potential future fertility issues, understanding age-related fertility decline, and aiding in health optimization before future conception might empower the adolescent to make informed reproductive decisions. We provide an algorithm to use with adolescents to discuss the "right time, right weight, right way" to pursue childbearing. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Alcohol Sensitivity Moderates the Indirect Associations between Impulsive Traits, Impaired Control over Drinking, and Drinking Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Quilty, Lena C.; Hendershot, Christian S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine impaired control over drinking behavior as a mediator of unique pathways from impulsive traits to alcohol outcomes in young adults and to investigate the moderating influence of self-reported sensitivity to alcohol on these pathways. Method Young adult heavy drinkers (N=172; n=82 women) recruited from the community completed self-report measures of impulsive traits (positive urgency, negative urgency, sensation seeking), alcohol sensitivity (Self-Rating of the Effects of Alcohol scale), impaired control over drinking, and alcohol use and problems. Multiple-groups path analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Path coefficients between urgency and impaired control were larger for individuals with lower versus higher self-reported sensitivity to alcohol. The same was true for the association between impaired control and alcohol problems. For participants lower on alcohol sensitivity, significant indirect paths were observed from both positive and negative urgency to all alcohol outcomes (quantity, frequency, and problems) mediated via impaired control. For participants higher on alcohol sensitivity, only the paths from negative urgency (but not positive urgency) to the three alcohol outcomes via impaired control were statistically significant. Sensation seeking was not uniquely associated with impaired control. Conclusions The findings indicate that relatively low sensitivity to the pharmacological effects of alcohol may exacerbate the association of urgency – especially positive urgency – with impaired control, supporting the notion that personality and level of response to alcohol may interact to increase risk for impaired control over drinking. PMID:25785803

  20. 聚合物包膜缓/控释肥料的研究进展%Research Progress of Polymer Coated Slow/Controlled Release Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范本荣; 沈玉文; 江丽华; 林海涛; 刘兆辉

    2011-01-01

    The research on coated slow/controlled release fertilizers (CRFs) have become hot in domestic and overseas. Especially the polymer coated CRFs gradually occupied the dominant position of market. In order to help people understand polymer coated fertilizer deeply and apply them correctly, the contents were summarized as follows: different types of polymer coated materials, the developing status of polymer coated fertilizers at home and abroad, nutrient release characteristics of CRFs, evaluation methods for nutrient release characteristics and developing prospect of polymer coated CRFs.%缓/控释肥料是近年来国内外的研究热点,尤其是以聚合物为主要包膜材料的缓/控释肥逐渐占据了缓/控释肥料市场的主导地位.为了使人们更为全面地了解聚合物包膜缓/控释肥料并正确的加以应用,我们系统总结了如下内容:不同类型的聚合物包膜材料;聚合物包膜缓/控释肥在国内外的发展状况;聚合物包膜缓/控释肥料的养分释放特征;针对其养分释放特征的评价方法;并展望了聚合物包膜缓/控释肥料的发展前景.

  1. 安徽沿江棉区控失型化肥施用技术研究%Research on the Application Technology of Controlled-release Chemical Fertilizer in the Cotton Area along Yangtze River in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余立祥; 邱冠男; 吴跃进

    2009-01-01

    [目的]研究控失肥在棉区的施用技术,验证控失肥的"控失"效果及其经济效益.[方法]以当地主要推广的抗虫棉品种为供试作物,通过在安徽省沿江棉田进行施肥试验研究了控失肥不同施用方式对棉花产量和效益的影响.[结果]与一次基施全部控失肥相比,将控失肥分3次施用使棉花产量增加了240 kg/hm~2,棉农的净收入增加了156元/hm~2;将控失肥基施,后期追施速效化肥使棉花产量增加了7.04%,棉农的净收入增加了833.4元/hm~2.施用减氮20%的控失肥的棉花的现蕾期提前了6 d,开花期提前了7 d,吐絮期提前了8 d,生育期短了8 d.与施用普通氮肥的棉花相比,施用控失氮肥的棉花的秋桃增加幅度为22.29%~36.31%,皮棉产量增加了27.78%.[结论]该研究为在安徽沿江棉区推广应用控失肥提供了科学依据.%[Objective] The purpose was to research the application technology of controlled-release fertilizer in cotton area and validate its controlled-release effect and economic benefit. [Method] With the insect-resistant cotton varieties mainly popularized in the local place as tested crops, the effect of different application methods of controlled-release fertilizer on the yield and benefit of cotton was researched through carrying out fertilization experiment in the cotton fields along Yangtze River in Anhui Province. [Result] Compared with applying all the controlled-release fertilizer as base fertilizer at the first fertilization, when the controlled-release fertilizer was applied 3 times separately, the cotton yield was increased for 240 kg/hm~2 and the net income of cotton farmers was increased for 156 yuan/hm~2; when the controlled-release fertilizer was applied as base fertilizer and the fast-available chemical fertilizer was dressed in the anaphase, the cotton yield was increased by 7.04% and the net income of cotton farmers was increased for 833.4 yuan/hm~2. The squaring period of cottons applied

  2. Slow fertilization of stickleback eggs: the result of sexual conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Theo C M; Zbinden, Marc; Frommen, Joachim G; Weiss, Alexander; Largiadèr, Carlo R

    2006-05-19

    The fertilization success in sperm competition in externally fertilizing fish depends on number and quality of sperm. The time delay between sequential ejaculations may further influence the outcome of sperm competition. Such a time interval can load the raffle over fertilization if fertilization takes place very fast. Short fertilization times are generally assumed for externally fertilizing fish such as the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). In this pair-spawning fish, territorial males often try to steal fertilizations in nests of neighbouring males. This sneaking behaviour causes sperm competition. Sneakers will only get a share of paternity when eggs are not fertilized immediately after sperm release. Contrary to males, females may be interested in multiple paternity of their clutch of eggs. There thus may be a sexual conflict over the speed of fertilization. In this study we used two different in vitro fertilization experiments to assess how fast eggs are fertilized in sticklebacks. We show that complete fertilization takes more than 5 min which is atypically long for externally fertilizing fishes. This result suggests that the time difference does not imply high costs to the second stickleback male to ejaculate. Slow fertilization (and concomitant prolonged longevity of sperm) may be the result of sexual conflict in which females aimed at complete fertilization and/or multiple paternity.

  3. Slow fertilization of stickleback eggs: the result of sexual conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frommen Joachim G

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fertilization success in sperm competition in externally fertilizing fish depends on number and quality of sperm. The time delay between sequential ejaculations may further influence the outcome of sperm competition. Such a time interval can load the raffle over fertilization if fertilization takes place very fast. Short fertilization times are generally assumed for externally fertilizing fish such as the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus. In this pair-spawning fish, territorial males often try to steal fertilizations in nests of neighbouring males. This sneaking behaviour causes sperm competition. Sneakers will only get a share of paternity when eggs are not fertilized immediately after sperm release. Contrary to males, females may be interested in multiple paternity of their clutch of eggs. There thus may be a sexual conflict over the speed of fertilization. Results In this study we used two different in vitro fertilization experiments to assess how fast eggs are fertilized in sticklebacks. We show that complete fertilization takes more than 5 min which is atypically long for externally fertilizing fishes. Conclusion This result suggests that the time difference does not imply high costs to the second stickleback male to ejaculate. Slow fertilization (and concomitant prolonged longevity of sperm may be the result of sexual conflict in which females aimed at complete fertilization and/or multiple paternity.

  4. Clinical outcomes after posterolateral lumbar fusion in workers' compensation patients: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, Leah Y; Glassman, Steven D; Kantamneni, Neha R; Mugavin, Mark O; Djurasovic, Mladen

    2010-09-01

    Case-control propensity matched. To compare clinical outcomes after lumbar fusion in patients receiving workers' compensation with a case-matched control group who are not on workers' compensation. Previous studies have demonstrated poor outcomes in patients receiving workers' compensation after lumbar fusion. However, a case-control study where patients are matched for covariates known to affect outcomes after lumbar fusion, including baseline clinical outcome measures, has not been done. From 783 patients who underwent posterolateral fusion with complete preoperative and 2-year postoperative outcome measures, 60 patients who were receiving workers' compensation were identified. Outcome measures included the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form-36 (SF-36), and back and leg pain numerical rating scales. Propensity scoring technique was used to match these patients with a control group not receiving workers' compensation using sex, age, smoking status, body mass index, diagnosis, number of levels fused, preoperative ODI, SF-36 Physical Component Summary (PCS), SF-36 Mental Component Summary, and back and leg pain scores, producing 58 matched pairs. There were no significant differences between the demographics, job classification, and preoperative outcome scores in the two groups. At 2 years after operation, patients not receiving workers' compensation had a significantly greater improvement in ODI (P=0.009) and SF-36 PCS (P=0.007) compared with those receiving workers' compensation. Although patients not receiving workers' compensation had greater improvements in back and leg pain compared with those receiving workers' compensation, this did not reach statistical significance (P=0.079). The mean 2-year ODI, SF-36 PCS, and back pain raw scores of patients receiving workers' compensation were significantly lower than those not receiving workers' compensation. Only 19% of workers' compensation patients achieved minimum clinically important difference in terms

  5. A randomized controlled trial of patient-reported outcomes with tai chi exercise in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Liu, Yu; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Fitzgerald, Kathleen; Stock, Ronald; Chou, Li-Shan

    2014-04-01

    A previous randomized, controlled trial of tai chi showed improvements in objectively measured balance and other motor-related outcomes in patients with Parkinson's disease. This study evaluated whether patient-reported outcomes could be improved through exercise interventions and whether improvements were associated with clinical outcomes and exercise adherence. In a secondary analysis of the tai chi trial, patient-reported and clinical outcomes and exercise adherence measures were compared between tai chi and resistance training and between tai chi and stretching exercise. Patient-reported outcome measures were perceptions of health-related benefits resulting from participation, assessed by the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-8) and Vitality Plus Scale (VPS). Clinical outcome measures included motor symptoms, assessed by a modified Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Examination (UPDRS-ME) and a 50-foot speed walk. Information on continuing exercise after the structured interventions were terminated was obtained at a 3-month postintervention follow-up. Tai chi participants reported significantly better improvement in the PDQ-8 (-5.77 points, P = 0.014) than did resistance training participants and in PDQ-8 (-9.56 points, P tai chi, patient-reported improvement in the PDQ-8 and VPS was significantly correlated with their clinical outcomes of UPDRS-ME and a 50-foot walk, but these correlations were not statistically different from those shown for resistance training or stretching. However, patient-reported outcomes from tai chi training were associated with greater probability of continued exercise behavior than were either clinical outcomes or patient-reported outcomes from resistance training or stretching. Tai chi improved patient-reported perceptions of health-related benefits, which were found to be associated with a greater probability of exercise adherence. The findings indicate the potential of patient perceptions to drive exercise

  6. Visual outcome, endocrine function and tumor control after fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy of craniopharyngiomas in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astradsson, Arnar; Munck Af Rosenschöld, Per; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine visual outcome, endocrine function and tumor control in a prospective cohort of craniopharyngioma patients, treated with fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen adult patients with craniopharyngiomas were.......7-13.1) for visual outcome, endocrine function, and tumor control, respectively. RESULTS: Visual acuity impairment was present in 10 patients (62.5%) and visual field defects were present in 12 patients (75%) before FSRT. One patient developed radiation-induced optic neuropathy at seven years after FSRT. Thirteen...

  7. Psychosocial outcome and psychiatric comorbidity in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome: controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, Daniel A; Thompson, Nancy; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with Tourette syndrome generally experience improvement of tics by age 18 years, but psychosocial and comorbidity outcomes at this age are unclear. AIMS: To compare psychosocial outcomes and lifetime comorbidity rates in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome and controls. We...... assessed around 18 years of age regarding psychosocial functioning and lifetime psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Compared with controls, individuals with Tourette syndrome had substantially lower CGAS scores (P = 10(-8)) and higher rates of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), major depression...... and high comorbidity rates in late adolescence....

  8. Psychosocial outcome and psychiatric comorbidity in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome: controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, Daniel A; Thompson, Nancy; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with Tourette syndrome generally experience improvement of tics by age 18 years, but psychosocial and comorbidity outcomes at this age are unclear. AIMS: To compare psychosocial outcomes and lifetime comorbidity rates in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome and controls. We...... hypothesised a priori that individuals with Tourette syndrome would have lower Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores. METHOD: A total of 65 individuals with Tourette syndrome, identified in childhood, and 65 matched community controls without tic or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms were......, learning disorder and conduct disorder (Ptic severity. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically ascertained children with Tourette syndrome typically have impaired psychosocial functioning...

  9. Comparing patient characteristics, type of intervention, control, and outcome (PICO) queries with unguided searching: a randomized controlled crossover trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, A.; Vries Robbé, P.F. de; Overbeke, A.J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Translating a question into a query using patient characteristics, type of intervention, control, and outcome (PICO) should help answer therapeutic questions in PubMed searches. The authors performed a randomized crossover trial to determine whether the PICO format was useful for quick s

  10. Soil fertility controls soil–atmosphere carbon dioxide and methane fluxes in a tropical landscape converted from lowland forest to rubber and oil palm plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hassler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of palm oil and rubber production, for which global demand is increasing, causes rapid deforestation in Sumatra, Indonesia and is expected to continue in the next decades. Our study aimed to (1 quantify changes in soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes with land-use change, and (2 determine their controlling factors. In Jambi Province, Sumatra, we selected two landscapes on heavily weathered soils that differ mainly in texture: loam and clay Acrisol soils. At each landscape, we investigated the reference land uses: forest and secondary forest with regenerating rubber, and the converted land uses: rubber (7–17 years old and oil palm plantations (9–16 years old. We measured soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes monthly from December 2012 to December 2013. Annual soil CO2 fluxes from the reference land uses were correlated with soil fertility: low extractable phosphorus (P coincided with high annual CO2 fluxes from the loam Acrisol soil that had lower fertility than the clay Acrisol soil (P 2 fluxes from the oil palm decreased compared to the other land uses (P 2 fluxes were positively correlated with soil organic carbon (C and negatively correlated with 15N signatures, extractable P and base saturation. This suggests that the reduced soil CO2 fluxes from oil palm was a result of strongly decomposed soil organic matter due to reduced litter input, and possible reduction in C allocation to roots due to improved soil fertility from liming and P fertilization in these plantations. Soil CH4 uptake in the reference land uses was negatively correlated with net nitrogen (N mineralization and soil mineral N, suggesting N limitation of CH4 uptake, and positively correlated with exchangeable aluminum (Al, indicating decrease in methanotrophic activity at high Al saturation. Reduction in soil CH4 uptake in the converted land uses compared to the reference land uses (P 2 and CH4 in a tropical landscape, a mechanism that we were able to detect by conducting this study at the

  11. A case-control study to estimate the effects of acute clinical infection with the Schmallenberg virus on milk yield, fertility and veterinary costs in Swiss dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, M; Lechner, I; Aebi, M; Vögtlin, A; Posthaus, H; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Meylan, M

    2016-04-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was first detected in Switzerland in July 2012 and many Swiss dairy farmers reported acute clinical signs in dairy cattle during the spread of the virus until December 2012. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of an acute infection with SBV on milk yield, fertility and veterinary costs in dairy farms with clinical signs of SBV infection (case farms), and to compare those farms to a matched control group of dairy farms in which cattle did not show clinical signs of SBV infection. Herd size was significantly (pcase farms (33 cows, n=77) than in control farms (25 cows, n=84). Within case herds, 14.8% (median) of the cows showed acute clinical signs. Managers from case farms indicated to have observed a higher abortion rate during the year with SBV (6.5%) than in the previous year (3.7%). Analysis of fertility parameters based on veterinary bills and data from the breeding associations showed no significant differences between case and control farms. The general veterinary costs per cow from July to December 2012 were significantly higher (p=0.02) in case (CHF 19.80; EUR 16.50) than in control farms (CHF 15.90; EUR 13.25). No differences in milk yield were found between groups, but there was a significant decrease in milk production in case farms in the second half year in 2012 compared to the same period in 2011 (pclinical signs (n=461) were treated by a veterinarian. The average calculated loss after SBV infection for a standardized farm was CHF 1606 (EUR 1338), which can be considered as low at the national level, but the losses were subject to great fluctuations between farms, so that individual farms could have very high losses (>CHF 10,000, EUR 8333).

  12. Effects of Controlled-release Fertilizer on Rhizosphere Soil Microoganisms, Soil Fertility and Agronomic Characters of Soybean%控释肥对大豆根际土壤微生物数目、肥力及大豆农艺性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆英; 于忠和; 贾会彬; 张春峰; 朱宝国; 王囡囡; 高雪冬

    2011-01-01

    The objective of current study was to investigate the effects of controlled-release fertilizer treatments on rhizosphere soil microorganisms,soil fertility and agronomic characters of soybean. Four fertilizer treatments,including no fertilizer(CK) , conventional fertilizer(CF) ,controlled-release urea(CRU) and controlled-release compound fertilizer(CRF)were adopted. The numbers of bacteria,fungi,actinomycetes of rhizosphere soil at pre-sowing and maturity were determined through colony counting method;the change of rhizosphere soil microorganisms,soil nutrient content,soybean agronomic characters as well as yield components were investigated. Compared with CK and CF,the numbers of bacteria,fungi,actinomycetes as well as soil fertility were obviously increased under CRU and CRF. The effect of CRF was better than CRU in terms of soil bacteria number and soil fertility. CRU and CRF didn't show significant advantage for agronomic characters and yield components of soybean. Compared with conventional fertilizer,controlled-release fertilizer could increase the numbers of soil microoganisms,improve soil fertility and fertilizer efficiency,hence reduce fertilizer pollution on the environment.%采用无肥、常规肥、控释尿素和控释复合肥4种肥料处理,于大豆播种前和成熟期对大豆根际土壤的细菌、真菌、放线菌采用平板计数法进行测定;并对大豆成熟期根际土壤微生物数量变化、土壤养分含量变化及大豆农艺性状及产量相关因素进行分析.结果表明:与无肥和常规肥比较,控释尿素和控释复合肥可明显增加土壤中细菌、真菌及放线菌数目,并且控释复合肥处理的细菌数目、土壤养分含量等项目优于控释尿素处理;在大豆农艺性状及产量相关因素方面,控释尿素及控释复合肥未表现出显著优势.与常规肥相比,施用控释肥可以增加土壤中微生物数量、提高供肥能力,从而提高肥料利用率,减少化肥对环境的污染.

  13. 不同类型玉米控释肥的应用效果研究%Study on Application Effect of Different Types of Controlled-Release Fertilizer on Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友平; 李宗新; 张书良; 郭建军; 高春华; 张慧; 朱金英

    2014-01-01

    Based on the equal amount of phosphorus and potassium , Ludan 818 was used to study the in-fluence of controlled-release fertilizer on maize yield , soil nutrient contents and fertilizer use efficiency in the application mode of full and 80%nitrogen.The results showed that the application of controlled -release fer-tilizer improved the dry matter accumulation , maize yield and fertilizer use efficiency .It could increase the yield by 17.61%~24.39%and 0.59%~6.38%respectively compared with the CK and conventional fertili-zation .The maize yield was the highest when the controlled -release fertilizer A was full used .But in compre-hensive consider, it was optimum to use the controlled -release fertilizer A at 80%amount (192 kg/hm2).%以鲁单818为供试品种,在磷钾量相等、氮量分别为全量和80%模式下,研究了控释肥对玉米产量、土壤养分含量以及肥料利用效率的影响。结果表明,控释肥处理有助于玉米物质积累,提高玉米的产量和肥料利用率,比CK增产17.61%~24.39%,比习惯施肥增产0.59%~6.38%;全量A控释肥的产量最高,但综合衡量,本试验条件下,以控释肥A 80%施氮量即192 kg/hm2水平最为合理。

  14. Effects of Bag-controlled Slow Release Fertilizer on the Yield and Quality of Crimson Seedless%袋控缓释肥对克瑞森葡萄产量和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙占育; 郭春会; 刘小菊

    2011-01-01

    采用4个不同施肥处理,通过田间试验,研究了袋控缓释肥时克瑞森葡萄产量和品质的影响.结果表明:袋控缓释肥可提高克瑞森葡萄的产量和品质,产量达到37 257.4 kg.hm-2,比不施肥提高了51.2%,可溶性固形物含量达22.23%,高于其他处理;袋控缓释肥处理提高了叶片N、P、K含量、叶绿素含量及光合速率.袋控缓释肥简单易行,省工节肥,减少污染,有效解决了葡萄施肥中养分的平衡供应问题,是一种理想的施肥方式.%Field trial was conducted to study the effect of the bag-controlled slow release fertilizer on the yield and quality of Crimson seedless by the four treatments. The results showed that bag-controlled slow release fertilizer could improve the yield and quality of Crimson seedless. The yield was 37 257. 4 kg ? Hm~2 by applying the paper-bag-controlled slow release fertilizer, increased by 51. 2% compared with CK. Sugar content reached to 22. 23%, which was better than other treatments. The contents of N, P, K and chlorophyll and photosynthetic rate of the leaves were relatively increased by the bag-controlled slow release fertilizer. It is an ideal way of fertilization that could simply save labor and fertilizer and reduce pollution, which could effective solve the supply of nutrient balance of grape of fertilization.

  15. Reducing the dose of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist on starting ovarian stimulation: effect on ovarian response and in-vitro fertilization outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgendy, M; Afnan, M; Holder, R; Lashen, H; Afifi, Y; Lenton, W; Sharif, K

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if lowering the dose of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) on starting ovarian stimulation could be beneficial in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) programmes. A total of 64 normally ovulating patients entering an IVF programme were randomized to receive GnRHa (nafarelin acetate/Synarel) as an intranasal spray commencing in the midluteal phase, either at a dosage of 200 microg three times daily until the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration, or to be reduced to 200 microg twice daily as ovarian stimulation was initiated. Patients in both groups were below 35 years with a body mass index below 30. All patients received three ampoules of Metrodin HP per day. Blood samples were taken on the day of HCG administration to measure luteinizing hormone (LH), oestradiol, and progesterone. LH and oestradiol were found to be significantly higher in the lower Synarel dose group. Our results show that reducing the GnRHa dose during ovarian stimulation in IVF might be beneficial in terms of significantly more oocytes recovered, and significantly greater number of embryos available for transfer and freezing, with no incidence of premature luteinization.

  16. Intensive perioperative glucose control does not improve outcomes of patients submitted to open-heart surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Pei Chen Chan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between different target levels of glucose and the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: We designed a prospective study in a university hospital where 109 consecutive patients were enrolled during a six-month period. All patients were scheduled for open-heart surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups. One group consisted of 55 patients and had a target glucose level of 80-130 mg/dl, while the other contained 54 patients and had a target glucose level of 160-200 mg/dl. These parameters were controlled during surgery and for 36 hours after surgery in the intensive care unit. Primary outcomes were clinical outcomes, including time of mechanical ventilation, length of stay in the intensive care unit, infection, hypoglycemia, renal or neurological dysfunction, blood transfusion and length of stay in the hospital. The secondary outcome was a combined end-point (mortality at 30 days, infection or length of stay in the intensive care unit of more than 3 days. A p-value of 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: In 109 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, both protocols of glycemic control in an intraoperative setting and in the intensive care unit were found to be safe, easily achieved and not to differentially affect clinical outcomes.

  17. 作物控效肥效果初步评价%Preliminary Evaluation on Effect of Crops Controlled-Release Fertilizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任仕伟; 罗微

    2012-01-01

    采用水浸泡法对5种包膜控效肥(不包括对照)试样的养分溶出率进行了比较测定,测得各种肥料的初期溶出率、微分溶出率分别为,自行研制控效CAF1:1.14、1.78;CAF4:1.59、1.84;CAF5:1.37、1.76;国外肥料FB:1.01、1.24;FZ:1.24、1.27,自行研制的肥料的初期溶出率平均值为1.37,微分溶出率为1.79;国外肥料为1.13、1.25,自行研制的肥料的初期溶出率与微分溶出率分别高于国外肥料,但都达到了国际标准(初期溶出率小于15%、微分溶出率在0.25%~2.5%之间)。同时用土壤淋溶法对自制的2种控效肥和1种进口肥进行了N溶出量的测定,结果表明:控效肥土壤淋溶出量与对照比较为显著,6d内CAF1、CAF5溶出N总量分别为对照的33.3%、36.1%,同时将两种方法所得出的结果进行了综合分析,对控效效果作出初步评价,为作物合理施肥提供参考。%Five kinds of controlled-release fertilizers (except for the CK),coated by organic polymer,were used in this study.The soluble properties of fertilizers were tested and compared in water.The preliminary solubility and differential solubility,are respectively:CAF1:1.14,1.78; CAF4:1.59,1.84; CAF5:1.37,1.76; FB:1.01,1.24; FZ:1.24,1.27.Among the five kinds of controlled-release fertilizers,CAF1,CAF4 and CAF5 were prepared by ourselves,while FB and FZ were imported fertilizers.The average of preliminary solubility of CAF1,CAF4 and CAF5 is 1.37,differential solubility is 1.79.However,the average of preliminary solubility is 1.25.Compared with the latter,the preliminary solubility of the former exceeds 0.26,and the differential solubility exceeds 0.54,but they all reach the international standards——-the preliminary solubility less than 15%,differential solubility is 0.25% to 2.5%.Meanwhile,we determinated the quantity of N release of CAF1,CAF5 and FB by soil dissolution rate method.The total quantity of N release in six days of CAF1 was

  18. Study of Applying Coated Controlled Blend Bulk Fertilizers on Apple%控释BB肥在苹果上的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琛; 王丽霞; 赵海永; 邵蕾

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of controlled release fertilizers blended with common fertilizers on yield,quality,and economic benefit of apple in order to provide scientific evidence and technical advice for applying controlled release fertilizers on apple. The result showed that the available nutrient in soil of SF treatment decreased gradually in a growing season. The controlled release fertilizers blended with common fertilizers solved the problem of nutrient's slow release in a short time after being applied and met with the nutrient requirement of plant in a growing season. The application rate of CRF1 was the same as that of SF,but the yield,quality and economic benefit of CRF1 were better than that of SF. The application rate of CRF2 and CRF3 was lower than that of SF, but the yield, quality and economic benefit of CRF2 and CRF3 weren't lower. Considering prompting the palate of fruit,decreasing the application and increasing the economic benefit,the CRF3 was the optimal treatment.%通过田间试验,探讨了施用包膜肥料与普通肥料的控释BB肥对土壤养分和苹果产量、品质、经济效益的影响,以期为控释肥在苹果上合理施用提供依据和技术指导.结果表明,普通肥料由于其速溶性,施肥后土壤速效养分变化曲线在一个生长期内表现为逐渐下降趋势;将控释肥与普通肥料掺混后,既解决了控释肥施用前期养分释放缓慢的问题,又满足了作物整个生长期内养分的需求.施肥量相同的SF与CRF1处理相比较,CRF1处理的苹果产量、品质、经济效益显著高于SF处理;即使减少肥料的施用量,CRF2、CRF3处理的苹果产量、品质、经济效益仍不低于SF处理.从提高果实的口感、减少肥料的投入、增加经济效益的角度考虑,本试验的最佳施肥处理为减氮控释肥CRF3处理.

  19. Comparison of Nutrient Release Characteristics from Coated Controlled/Slow-release Fertilizers%包膜缓/控肥氮释放特性比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆乐峰; 王殿武; 李晓欣; 张芮华

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed at comparing the characteristics of nutrient release from coated controlled/slow-release fertilizers, so as to provide theoretical reference for improving the farming practice and fertilizer application, reducing pollution in Baiyangdian Lake and the surrounding area. [Method] Soil column leaching method was used to study NH4-N and NO3-N leaching characteristics from five kinds of nitrogen fertilizers including three coated controlled/slow-release fertilizers. [Result] Resin and sulfur coated controlled/slow-release urea decreased NH4-N concentration obviously, controlled NO3-N release in early term of experiment, while increased the content of NH4-N + NO3-N in middlelate periods. Compared with that of common urea, the NH4-N of resin and sulfur coated controlled/slow-release urea decreased by 98.5%,98.7% in early period, 96.5%, 97.4% in middle period, and 59.1%, 81.75% in last period. [Conclusion] Resin and sulfur coated controlled/slow-release urea significantly reduced the NH4-N concentration, effectively controlled the NO3-N release in early stage and increased the supply of NO3-N in last period.%[目的]比较包膜缓/控肥氮释放特性,为改善白洋淀及周边地区农业耕作施肥习惯和减轻白洋淀污染状况提供理论依据.[方法]采用"土柱淋溶法"室内模拟试验,研究了 5种肥料在白洋淀地区土壤中铵态氮和硝态氮释放淋溶情况.[结果]树脂包衣和硫包衣尿素在试验前期淋溶液中铵态氮含量较普通尿素分别减少了98.5%和98.7%,在试验中期分别减少了96.5%和97.4%,在试验后期分别减少了38.7%和76.7%;而硝态氮含量在试验前期较普通尿素分别减少了59.1%和81.7%,在试验中期分别增加了414.7%和40.7%,在试验后期分别增加了1 702.8%和642.3%.[结论]树脂包衣和硫包农尿素明显减少了易挥发的铵态氮含量,有效控制了作物易吸收利用的硝态氮在前期的释放,并增加了在中后期易吸收氮的供应.

  20. 包膜缓/控肥氮释放特性比较研究%Comparison of Nutrient Release Characteristics from Coated controlled/slow-release Fertilizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆乐峰; 王殿武; 李晓欣; 张芮华

    2011-01-01

    [目的]比较包膜缓/控肥氮释放特性,为改善白洋淀及周边地区农业耕作施肥习惯和减轻白洋淀污染状况提供理论依据.[方法]采用“土柱淋溶法”室内模拟试验,研究了5种肥料在白洋淀地区土壤中铵态氮和硝态氮释放淋溶情况.[结果]树脂包衣和硫包衣尿素在试验前期淋溶液中铵态氮含量较普通尿素分别减少了98.5%和98.7%,在试验中期分别减少了96.5%和97.4%,在试验后期分别减少了38.7%和76.7%;而硝态氮含量在试验前期较普通尿素分别减少了59.1%和81.8%,在试验中期分别增加了414.7%和40.7%,在试验后期分别增加了1 702.8%和642.3%.[结论]树脂包衣和硫包衣尿素明显减少了易挥发的铵态氮含量,有效控制了作物易吸收利用的硝态氯在前期的释放,并增加了在中后期易吸收氮的供应.%[Objective ] The study aimed at comparing the characteristics of nutrient release from coated controlled/slow-release fertilizers, so as to provide theoretical reference for improving the farming practice and fertilizer application, reducing pollution in Baiyangdian Lake and the . Surrounding area. [ Method] Soil column leaching method was used to study NH4-N and NO3-N leaching characteristics from five kinds of ni trogen fertilizers including three coated controlled/slow-release fertilizers. [ Result ] Resin and sulfur coated controlled/slow-release urea de creased NH4-N concentration obviously, controlled NO3-N release in early term of experiment, while increased the content of NH4-N + NO3-N in middle-late periods. Compared with that of common urea, the NH4-N of resin and sulfur coated controlled/slow-release urea decreased by 98.5% , 98.7% in early period, 96.5% , 97.4% in middle period, and 59. 1% , 81.8% in last period. [Conclusion] Resin and sulfur coa ted controlled/slow-release urea significantly reduced the NH4-N concentration, effectively controlled the NO3-N release in early

  1. Determination of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Release Rates of Slow- and Controlled-Release Fertilizers: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiex, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    A previously validated method for the determination of nitrogen release patterns of slow- and controlled-release fertilizers (SRFs and CRFs, respectively) was submitted to the Expert Review Panel (ERP) for Fertilizers for consideration of First Action Official Method(SM) status. The ERP evaluated the single-laboratory validation results and recommended the method for First Action Official Method status and provided recommendations for achieving Final Action. The 180 day soil incubation-column leaching technique was demonstrated to be a robust and reliable method for characterizing N release patterns from SRFs and CRFs. The method was reproducible, and the results were only slightly affected by variations in environmental factors such as microbial activity, soil moisture, temperature, and texture. The release of P and K were also studied, but at fewer replications than for N. Optimization experiments on the accelerated 74 h extraction method indicated that temperature was the only factor found to substantially influence nutrient-release rates from the materials studied, and an optimized extraction profile was established as follows: 2 h at 25°C, 2 h at 50°C, 20 h at 55°C, and 50 h at 60°C.

  2. 我国缓/控释肥料的应用效应研究进展%Research Advances on the Use Efficiency of Slow/Controlled Release Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古慧娟; 石元亮; 于阁杰; 王晶

    2011-01-01

    世界缓/控释肥的消耗最逐年增长,越来越多的学者对缓/控释肥的应用效应进行了研究.在前人研究的基础上,从肥料效应、作物效应、环境效应、生物学效应四个方面对缓/控释肥的应用效应作一综述,并提出我国缓/控释肥所存在的问题及展望.%The consumption of the slow/controlled release fertilizer in the world is increasing year after year, and more and more scientists have studied the use efficiency of the slow/controlled release fertilizer. Based on many results of studies, the use efficiency of the slow/controlled release fertilizer were summarized in the paper from four aspects which are fertilizer, crop and environment and biology. The problems of the slow/controlled release fertilizer and further directions were also brought forward.

  3. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten

    2014-01-01

    resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization...

  4. Brief Talk on Technique Progress of Slow-controlled-release Fertilizer in China Based on Corporate Patent Application%从企业专利申请浅谈我国缓/控释肥料的技术发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余爱丽

    2011-01-01

    From the definition,classification of slow/controlled-release fertilizer,based on situation of the patent application by corporations,the technique progress of slow-controlled-release fertilizer are introduced,furthermore,from the angle of corporate patent applications,the development trend of slow controlled release fertilizer at present are analysised briefly.%从缓/控释肥料的定义、分类,根据缓/控释肥料在我国的企业专利申请状况,简单地介绍了我国缓/控释肥料的技术发展;另外从企业专利申请的角度,对目前我国缓/控释肥料的发展趋势进行了简要的分析。

  5. The effect of dressing controlled release fertilizer on sugarcane yield and benefit in difference growth period%不同生育期追施控释肥料对甘蔗产量及效益的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周柳强; 黄金生; 黄美福; 谢如林; 谭宏伟

    2012-01-01

    Based on the contrast of the sugarcane conventional fertilization (base fertilizer, tillering fertilizer, elongation fertilizer) period, reducing fertilization times of 1-2, the equal fertilization amount, the test results of the two different location show: in tillering to elongation period dressing one-time controlled release fertilizer can keep a certain amount of productive tiller, which is also beneficial to elongation and improving diameter, high sugarcane yield, low labor cost, and worthy to be applied and popularized.%以甘蔗常规施肥(基肥、分蘖肥、伸长肥)为对照,减少1-2次施肥次数,施肥总量不变,两个不同地点的试验结果表明,在分蘖至伸长期间追施一次控释肥料,既可保持一定量的有效茎数,又对甘蔗茎的伸长、增粗有利,并可获得较好的产量,人工费用低,值得推广应用。

  6. Psychosocial aspects of fertility behavior: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, H P

    1981-06-01

    Selected aspects of decision making in fertility behavior are reviewed. Attention is directed to assessing motivational determinants, the value of children, the concept of "wantedness," delayed childbearing, and adolescent fertility. A woman's decision to use or not to use a birth control method is heavily influenced by partner interaction. The perception of the partner's attitudes and degree of control in the couple relationship are likely to affect the type of method used, the consistency of contraceptive practice, and the resolution of eventual pregnancies. The present generation in many countries is the 1st to be involved in the conscious process of deciding when and how many children to have and to discontinue contraception. The psychosocial model of fertility behaviour emphasizes the subjective assessment of the environment by the individual and the importance of the 2 partners in a couple influencing each other's perceptions and choice behavior. A key feature of successful couple planning behavior is their joint ability to anticipate future outcomes, plan ahead, and develop contingency alternatives. The history of attempts to explain and delineate motivational determinants of fertility behavior is long and filled with testimonials regarding the complexity of the task. It has been well documented in cross-national studies and commentaries that the pleasures which parents experience in raising their children are highly valued. The gradual transition in the perceived economic value of children probably reflects changing parental attitudes accompanying the secular decline in fertility rates. Reducing the number of unwanted pregnancies has been and continues to be one of the major objectives of international planned parenthood and responsible parenthood movements. No published evidence exists, however, that the unexpected, unplanned, or even unwanted pregnancy is always "bad" or that a planned pregnancy more often produces a psychologically healthy child. To date

  7. Role Stress Revisited: Job Structuring Antecedents, Work Outcomes, and Moderating Effects of Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung

    2014-01-01

    A previous study examined role stress in relation to work outcomes; in this study, we added job structuring antecedents to a model of role stress and examined the moderating effects of locus of control. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the plausibility of our conceptual model, which specified hypothesized linkages among…

  8. Role Stress Revisited: Job Structuring Antecedents, Work Outcomes, and Moderating Effects of Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung

    2014-01-01

    A previous study examined role stress in relation to work outcomes; in this study, we added job structuring antecedents to a model of role stress and examined the moderating effects of locus of control. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the plausibility of our conceptual model, which specified hypothesized linkages among teachers'…

  9. Midline fascial plication under continuous digital transrectal control: which factors determine anatomic outcome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milani, A.L.; Withagen, M.I.J.; Schweitzer, K.J.; Janszen, E.W.; Vierhout, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to report anatomic and functional outcome of midline fascial plication under continuous digital transrectal control and to identify predictors of anatomic failure. METHODS: Prospective observational cohort. Anatomic success defined as POP-Q stage

  10. Role Stress Revisited: Job Structuring Antecedents, Work Outcomes, and Moderating Effects of Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung

    2014-01-01

    A previous study examined role stress in relation to work outcomes; in this study, we added job structuring antecedents to a model of role stress and examined the moderating effects of locus of control. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the plausibility of our conceptual model, which specified hypothesized linkages among teachers'…

  11. Live Birth Pregnancy Outcome after First In Vitro Fertilization Treatment in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Isolated High Positive IgA Anti-β2glycoprotein I Antibodies: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Hristina; Seip, Marit; Koycheva, Stanislava

    2017-01-01

    IgA anti-β2glycoprotein I antibodies (IgA-anti-β2GPI) seems to be the most prevalent isotype in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) with a significant association to thrombotic events. Both SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) can be associated with implantation failure, fetal loss and obstetric complications. Recent reports highlight the clinical value of IgA-anti-β2GPI determination in supporting in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment and IVF pregnancy outcomes. We report a 36-year-old female diagnosed with SLE, endometriosis and unexplained infertility. Conventional APS markers were consistently negative: anti-cardiolipin (aCL) and anti-β2GPI: IgG/IgM. She was then tested with reports of repeatedly high IgA-anti-β2GPI and tested positive from 2014 after IgA (aCL; anti-β2GPI) were established in our APS diagnostic panel. She underwent successful first IVF procedure with a 30 week live birth pregnancy outcome. During the follow up no lupus flare, thrombosis or ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome were registered. Serum IgA anti-β2GPI and anti-dsDNA levels declined statistically significant during the second and third trimester. Titres of IgA-anti-β2GPI remained lower postpartum as well. This case highlights the clinical importance of IgA-anti-β2GPI testing for family planning, assisted reproduction and pregnancy in women with SLE and/or APS.

  12. 精子DNA碎片与体外受精结局的关系%Relationship between Sperm DNA Fragmentation and the Outcomes of in vitro Fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泯燕; 黄国宁; 王亚平; 高洋

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨精子DNA碎片与体外受精(in vitro fertilization,IVF)结局的关系.方法:采用染色质扩散实验(sperm chromatin dispersion,SCD)对242例接受IVF的男方进行精子DNA碎片率(DNA fragmentation index,DFI)检测,按照WHO标准进行精液常规分析,将精子DFI、精液常规参数和IVF受精率、卵裂率、可移植胚胎率、优质胚胎率进行Spearman相关分析,将精子DFI、精液常规参数对生化妊娠、临床妊娠的影响进行Logistic回归分析.结果:精子DFI与精子前向活动率呈负相关(r=-0.355,P<0.001);密度梯度法处理前、后精子DFI均与IVF受精率呈负相关(r=-0.223,P<0.001)(r=-0.136,P<0.05):精子DFI、精液常规参数与卵裂率、可移植胚胎率、优质胚胎率无相关性:精子DFI与生化妊娠、临床妊娠结局无相关性.结论:精子DFI影响精子活力与IVF受精率,精子DFI检测对预测IVF受精率有一定的临床意义.

  13. In vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection for couples with unexplained infertility after failed direct intraperitoneal insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, S; Minoura, H; Shibahara, T; Shen, X; Futamura, N; Toyoda, N

    2000-10-01

    The objective was to determine the optimal insemination technique in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) after failed direct intraperitoneal insemination (DIPI) and the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in such cases. In case-control studies, 53 couples with unexplained infertility who underwent IVF after four failed DIPI cycles were compared with 75 couples with tubal or endometriosis infertility as controls. Thirty couples with unexplained infertility after failing to conceive with DIPI and conventional IVF who underwent ICSI and 58 couples with male-factor infertility as controls also were compared. Fertilization cleavage, embryo quality, implantation, and pregnancy were compared after IVF and after ICSI. There was a significant difference in fertilization rates after IVF between cases of unexplained infertility after failing to conceive with DIPI (40.4%) and patients with tubal or endometriosis infertility (67.9%). There also was a significant difference in total fertilization failure rates between the two groups (30.4% and 3.9%, respectively). There was a slight but significant difference in numbers of fertilized oocytes after ICSI between patients with low fertilization rate undergoing IVF after failing to conceive DIPI (85.8%) and patients with male factor (90.4%). Total fertilization failure was not observed in these cases. Couples with unexplained infertility after failing to conceive with DIPI show a failed fertilization or a low fertilization rate after IVF. However, they demonstrated a good chance of becoming pregnant after subsequent ICSI, even with statistically significant difference in fertilization rate as compared with male-factor cases.

  14. Design and experiment of automatic mixing apparatus for liquid fertilizer based on fuzzy control%基于模糊控制的肥液自动混合装置设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李加念; 洪添胜; 冯瑞珏; 倪慧娜

    2013-01-01

      为提高混肥精度,该文在基于脉宽调制的文丘里变量施肥装置的基础上,对其结构进行了改进,并利用电导电极设计了一个电导率测量仪用以实时反馈肥液浓度,使之构成一个闭环控制的自动混肥装置。该装置采用粗细2级调节的控制策略,首先根据检测的入口水压调用对应的函数关系,自动调节电磁阀 PWM(pulse width modulation)控制的占空比进行混肥;然后以电导率测量仪实时反馈混肥浓度,并采用模糊控制算法进一步细调PWM的占空比,使混肥浓度尽量逼近目标浓度。试验结果表明,电导率测量仪的有效测量范围为0~12.64 mS/cm,它所测量的电导率与肥液浓度呈显著的线性关系,其决定系数 R2为0.997。对混肥装置进行了实测验证,结果表明混肥时的最大浓度误差为0.04%,控制装置达到稳态的响应时间为7.8~10.4 s,能满足实际应用的要求。%Fertigation is an irrigation technology of integration of water and fertilizer, and has been widely used in micro-irrigation systems, because of uniform fertilization, high utilization of water and fertilizer, and effectively reducing the pollution of soil and environment. The venturi fertilizer injector has become one of the main means and important equipment to achieve fertigation due to its simple structure, economy, and practicability, but the liquid fertilizer concentration could not be easily adjusted automatically. In order to realize variable rate fertilization with a venturi fertilizer injector, a variable fertilizer apparatus based on PWM (pulse width modulation) technology has been developed, but the apparatus belongs to open-loop control from the perspective of automatic control, and its accuracy and stability is difficult to guarantee. Therefore, a closed-loop control automatic fertilizer-mixing device was developed to improve the liquid fertilizer concentration mixing accuracy and

  15. Bioremediation of residual fertilizer nitrate: I. Laboratory demonstration of an on-farm in situ pollution control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwuegbu, B U; Prasher, S O; Ahmad, D

    2001-01-01

    This exploratory laboratory study was undertaken to develop and test an in situ bioremediation system intended to point the way toward a possible field application. The proposed method uses a water table management (WTM) system to deliver nutrients or other amendments to subsoil microorganisms for biostimulation and subsequent biodegradation of pollutants in the saturated and unsaturated zones of the soil. The study was carried out on packed soil columns and bioremediation of residual fertilizer nitrate was attempted. Different levels of organic carbon supplement (glucose C) were introduced into these columns via subirrigation in order to supplement the readily available organic carbon levels in the soil. The study was carried out in two experimental setups. The first setup investigated (i) the effect of addition of a high (970 mg L(-1)) and a low (120 mg L(-1)) glucose C level and (ii) the efficacy of using the subirrigation system as a method for nutrient delivery in bioremediation of leached nitrate. This setup was monitored with time, depth, and with reference to the nitrate residue in the soil solution. Leached nitrate was denitrified to less than 10 mg L(-1) nitrate N at both glucose levels. The second setup investigated the effect of a range of low levels of glucose C on nitrate decontamination, soil pH, and total microbial count in order to find out an optimal glucose C level that reduced the most nitrate and maintained the pH homeostasis of soil.

  16. Effects of bag-controlled fertilization on contents of soil nutrients and soil enzymes activities of sugarcane land%袋控施肥对甘蔗地土壤养分含量和酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪帆; 林德喜; 袁照年; 张华

    2016-01-01

    为了提高肥料利用率和节约劳动力,通过2年田间试验探讨了袋控施肥对甘蔗产量、蔗地土壤养分含量和土壤酶活性的影响。结果表明:在总养分一致、两季甘蔗只施1次肥料条件下,3种复混肥(复混肥A、B分别为60%包膜、30%包膜缓释肥与尿素和氯化钾的混合肥,复混肥F为常规复合肥)均为袋控施用处理蔗茎产量高于常规施用处理,其中以 CB2处理(2孔复混肥B袋控处理)蔗茎平均产量最高(114�44 t/hm2)。蔗茎产量和土壤有效磷、速效钾含量,以及脲酶、蔗糖酶活性在宿根年均表现为复混肥A、B处理高于复混肥F处理,且在相同的施肥量下以2孔袋控施肥最佳。复混肥B处理宿根年土壤碱解氮含量最少,均低于70 mg/kg。3种复混肥处理磷酸酶活性均表现为常规施肥处理高于袋控施肥处理。可见,袋控施肥的蔗茎产量高于常规施肥,复混肥A、B的袋控施肥处理能保证养分稳定释放,并在一定程度上提高甘蔗产量、土壤养分含量和酶活性,其中以复混肥B的2孔袋控施肥处理效果最好。%Field experiments were carried out for two years to investigate the effects of bag controlled fertilization on sugarcane yield, soil nutrient content and soil enzymes activities for improving fertilizer use efficiency and saving labor. Three kinds of compound fertilizers were tested. Compound fertilizer A and B were 60% and 30% of coated fertilizer mixed with urea and potassium chloride respectively, and fertilizer F was the conventional compound fertilizer. Fertilizers A, B and F were packed in bags with 2 holes or 4 holes. Treatments with bag controlled fertilizers A, B and F had higher sugar⁃cane yield than the treatments with conventional fertilization ( no bag). The treatment CB2 (fertilizer B packed in a 2⁃hole bag) showed the highest yield of 114�44 t/hm2 . Cane yield, soil a⁃vailable phosphorus

  17. A matched case-control study comparing udder health, production and fertility parameters in dairy farms before and after the eradication of Bovine Virus Diarrhoea in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, A; Deiss, R; Rotzer, M; Wanda, S; Thomann, B; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Meylan, M

    2017-09-01

    An obligatory eradication programme for Bovine Virus Diarrhoea (BVD) was implemented in Switzerland in 2008. Between 2008 and 2012, all bovines were tested for antigen or antibodies against BVDV. By the year 2012, eradication was completed in the majority of farms. A decrease of the prevalence of persistently infected (PI) newborn calves was observed from 1.4% in 2008 to animal health, production and fertility in Swiss dairy herds which had completed the eradication programme. A matched case-control study was carried out using data from two periods, before (Period 1) and after (Period 2) the active phase of eradication. Case farms had at least two PI animals detected before or during the eradication; controls were BVD-free and matched for region, herd size and use of alpine pasture. A total of 110 farmers (55 pairs) were recruited. During a phone interview, a questionnaire about farm characteristics, animal health and appreciation of the BVD eradication programme was filled in. Breeding data and milk test day records were also analyzed. Parameters were first compared between (i) case and control herds before eradication, and (ii) Period 1 and Period 2 for case herds only. Milk yield (MY), bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC), prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM), and non-return rate (NRR) showed a p-value<0.25 in at least one of the univariable comparisons and were thus further analyzed with a multilevel mixed-effects model to account for repeated measures over time. In order to assess whether changes in health status over time were due to BVD eradication, an interaction variable between period and group (case-control) was created (IA). Except for MY, the IA was significant for all parameters modelled. Despite an overall p-value of 0.27, case herds tended to have a higher MY after eradication (β=0.53, p=0.050). For BMSCC and SCM, case herds had higher values than controls in both periods; udder health was significantly improved in control herds and it remained

  18. Correlation of Endometrial Glycodelin Expression and Pregnancy Outcome in Cases with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treated with Clomiphene Citrate Plus Metformin: A Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Uysal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between clomiphene citrate (CC plus metformin treatment and endometrial glycodelin expression and to then correlate this relationship with pregnancy outcomes. Material and Methods. A total of 30 patients diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria constituted our study group. All had been admitted to the gynecology outpatient clinic between June 1, 2011, and January 1, 2012, for infertility treatment. Our control group consisted of 20 patients admitted for routine Pap smear control. They had no history of infertility and were not using contraceptives and they were actively attempting pregnancy. Midluteal progesterone measurement and pipelle endometrial biopsies were performed with both groups. For PCOS patients, metformin treatment was initiated right after the biopsy and CC was added in the second menstrual cycle. Pipelle endometrial biopsies were repeated. Histological dating and immunohistochemistry for glycodelin were performed by a single pathologist who was blinded to the patients’ clinical data. Result(s. The posttreatment ovulation rate in the study group was 93.3%. No pregnancies were achieved in either group when glycodelin expression was not present, even in the presence of ovulation. When glycodelin expression was high in PCOS group, the pregnancy rate was 60% and all pregnancies ended in live births. In weak expression group, however, three out of four pregnancies ended as early pregnancy losses. Conclusion(s. Endometrial glycodelin expression is an important predictor of pregnancy outcomes in both PCOS and fertile groups.

  19. 掺混型缓/控释肥对杂交晚稻产量的影响%Effect of slow/controlled-release fertilizer on yield of late hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉军; 邹应斌; 张夫道

    2009-01-01

    Field experiment was trialed to study effect of slow/controlled-release fertilizer on yield of late hybrid rice and CK1 was no fertilizer and CK2 was same amount of NPK. The results showed that yields of slow/controlled-release fertilizer treatments were higher than NPK treatment Compared to NPK treatment, in Changsha normal fertility paddy soil, the effect was best for 35%polyethylene alcohol mixing for adhesive (CF2) felted fertilizer+65% wasted foam (PS) mixed and coated fertilizer (for short CF2 + PS) that increased yield by 27. 68% , and the second was 35% kaolin-polyesterfelted fertilizer + 65% PS coated fertilizer and yield increased by 24. 70%. In Ningxiang low fertility paddy soil, the effect was best for 35% kaolin-polyesterfelted fertilizer +65% PS coated fertilizer and yield increased by 37. 25% , effect of increasing yield for treatments in Ningxiang were better than that of treatments in Changsha. The lower fertility of soil and the higher of increasing rate of fertilizer. Compared to NPK treatment, yield was higher when amount of blend slow release fertilizer decreased by 20%. According to crop grow period, the effects of blending slow release fertilizer with different nutrient release period in some percentage were better.%采用田间小区试验,以不施肥(CK1)和施用等量NPK化肥(CK2)为对照,研究掺混型缓/控释肥对水稻产量的影响.结果表明,各缓释肥处理的产量均高于等量NPK处理.其中,在长沙点中肥力水稻土上,35%聚乙烯醇混聚物(CF2)胶结复混肥+65%废弃泡沫塑料(PS)混聚物包膜复混肥(简称CF2+PS)效果最好,比等量NPK处理增产27.68%,其次是35%高岭土-聚酯胶结肥+65%PS包膜肥,比等量NPK处理增产24.70%;在宁乡点低肥力水稻土上,35%高岭土-聚酯胶结肥+65%PS包膜肥处理效果最好,比等量NPK处理增产37.25%;宁乡试验点各施肥处理的增产效果均高于长沙点,说明土壤肥力越低,肥料的增产率越高;减少20%掺

  20. Effects of Controlled-release N Fertilizers on Maize and Cabbage Growth%控释氮肥对玉米和大白菜生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘安勋; 廖宗文

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the controlled-release character of controlled-release N fertilizer. [ Method] Effects of con-trolled-release N fertilizers on the growth of maize and Chinese' cabbage and soil N content were studied through a field experiment. [Result] All controlled-release N fertilizers were basal applied,which were better than conventional fertilizer used,and the same as more 10% N used. And corn biological yield were 8.8% and 5.2% higher respectively. Controlled-release effect of PK were better than that of MFSU-Xin. PK and MFSU-Xin could significantly increase relative fertilizer efficiency by 89.2% and 53. 2% respectively. [Conclusion] Controlled-release N fertilizer increased soil N and it could provide more N to future crop.%[目的]为了研究控释氮肥的控释性能.[方法]通过田间试验,研究2种控释氮肥在玉米和大白菜上的施用效果和对土壤氮素养分的影响.[结果]控释肥一次施入肥效明显地优于常规施肥,与多追施10%氯效果相近,玉米生物产量分别比常规施氮增加8.8%和5.2%,PK包膜尿素的控释效果比MFSU-Xin包膜尿素好.控释肥可明显提高氮肥的利用率,PK和MFSU-Xin控释肥利用率分别比常施肥提高89.2%和53.2%.[结论]控释肥可以增加土壤后效,为下季作物提供较多氮素.

  1. Effect of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on Growth and Yield of Tef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    toshiba

    over inorganic fertilizers mainly because these materials decompose, and hence release .... Nitrogen and P fertilizers were applied in the form of Urea and DAP .... vermicompost plus 50% N and P fertilizers, where as the control treatment (no.

  2. The influence of highly purified HMG on pregnancy outcome in vitro fertilization%高纯度尿促性腺激素对IVF-ET妊娠结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF-ET)超促排卵周期中应用高纯度尿促性腺激素(HP-HMG,贺美奇)对妊娠结局的影响.方法:回顾性分析117个IVF-ET周期,根据超促排卵周期中是否使用HP-HMG将其分为两组,A组(n=63)应用果纳芬(r-FSH,重组卵泡刺激素),B组(n=54)加用贺美奇,比较两组妊娠率、流产率、着床率、持续妊娠率和持续着床率.结果:两组鲜胚移植周期妊娠率、流产率、着床率、持续妊娠率和持续着床率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组冻胚移