WorldWideScience

Sample records for controls coagulation onset

  1. Onset of Coagulation Function Recovery Is Delayed in Severely Injured Trauma Patients with Venous Thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, Belinda H; Connelly, Christopher R; Fair, Kelly A; Holcomb, John B; Fox, Erin E; Wade, Charles E; Bulger, Eileen M; Schreiber, Martin A

    2017-07-01

    Altered coagulation function after trauma can contribute to development of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Severe trauma impairs coagulation function, but the trajectory for recovery is not known. We hypothesized that enhanced, early recovery of coagulation function increases VTE risk in severely injured trauma patients. Secondary analysis was performed on data from the Pragmatic Randomized Optimal Platelet and Plasma Ratio (PROPPR) trial, excluding patients who died within 24 hours or were on pre-injury anticoagulants. Patient characteristics, adverse outcomes, and parameters of platelet function and coagulation (thromboelastography) were compared from admission to 72 hours between VTE (n = 83) and non-VTE (n = 475) patients. A p value value (48 vs 24 hours), α-angle (no recovery), maximum amplitude (24 vs 12 hours), and clot lysis at 30 minutes (48 vs 12 hours). Platelet function recovery mediated by arachidonic acid (72 vs 4 hours), ADP (72 vs 12 hours), and collagen (48 vs 12 hours) was delayed in VTE patients. The VTE patients had lower mortality (4% vs 13%; p < 0.05), but fewer hospital-free days (0 days [interquartile range 0 to 8 days] vs 10 days [interquartile range 0 to 20 days]; p < 0.05) and higher complication rates (p < 0.05). Recovery from platelet dysfunction and coagulopathy after severe trauma were delayed in VTE patients. Suppressed clot lysis and compensatory mechanisms associated with altered coagulation that can potentiate VTE formation require additional investigation. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Quality control in the development of coagulation factor concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snape, T J

    1987-01-01

    Limitation of process change is a major factor contributing to assurance of quality in pharmaceutical manufacturing. This is particularly true in the manufacture of coagulation factor concentrates, for which presumptive testing for poorly defined product characteristics is an integral feature of finished product quality control. The development of new or modified preparations requires that this comfortable position be abandoned, and that the effect on finished product characteristics of changes to individual process steps (and components) be assessed. The degree of confidence in the safety and efficacy of the new product will be determined by, amongst other things, the complexity of the process alteration and the extent to which the results of finished product tests can be considered predictive. The introduction of a heat-treatment step for inactivation of potential viral contaminants in coagulation factor concentrates presents a significant challenge in both respects, quite independent of any consideration of assessment of the effectiveness of the viral inactivation step. These interactions are illustrated by some of the problems encountered with terminal dry heat-treatment (72 h. at 80 degrees C) of factor VIII and prothrombin complex concentrates manufactured by the Blood Products Laboratory.

  3. Optoacoustic temperature determination and automatic coagulation control in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlott, Kerstin; Koinzer, Stefan; Ptaszynski, Lars; Luft, Susanne; Baade, Alex; Bever, Marco; Roider, Johann; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2011-03-01

    Retinal laser photocoagulation is an established treatment method for many retinal diseases like macula edema or diabetic retinopathy. The selection of the laser parameters is so far based on post treatment evaluation of the lesion size and strength. Due to local pigment variations in the fundus and individual transmission the same laser parameters often lead to an overtreatment. Optoacoustic allows a non invasive monitoring of the retinal temperature increase during retinal laser irradiation by measuring the temperature dependent pressure amplitudes, which are induced by short probe laser pulses. A 75 ns/ 523 nm Nd:YLF was used as a probe laser at a repetition rate of 1 kHz, and a cw / 532 nm treatment laser for heating. A contact lens was modified with a ring-shaped ultrasonic transducer to detect the pressure waves at the cornea. Temperatures were collected for irradiations leading to soft or invisible lesions. Based on this data the threshold for denaturation was found. By analyzing the initial temperature increase, the further temperature development during irradiation could be predicted. An algorithm was found to calculate the irradiation time, which is needed for a soft lesion formation, from the temperature curve. By this it was possible to provide a real-time dosimetry by automatically switching off the treatment laser after the calculated irradiation time. Automatically controlled coagulations appear softer and more uniformly.

  4. Study on Coagulant Dosing Control System of Micro Vortex Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengping, Hu; Qi, Fan; Wenjie, Hu; Xizhen, He; Hongling, Dai

    2018-03-01

    In view of the characteristics of nonlinearity, large time delay and multi disturbance in the process of coagulant dosing in water treatment, it is difficult to control the dosage of coagulant. According to the four indexes of raw water quality parameters (raw water flow, turbidity, pH value) and turbidity of sedimentation tank, the micro vortex coagulation dosing control model is constructed based on BP neural network and GA. The forecast results of BP neural network model are ideal, and after the optimization of GA, the prediction accuracy of the model is partly improved. The prediction error of the optimized network is ±0.5 mg/L, and has a better performance than non-optimized network.

  5. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormoen, Garth W; Khader, Ayesha; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J T

    2013-01-01

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation factor levels and TF particle concentration. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 4:6 with PBS. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 8:2 with factor VII-depleted plasma, 7:3 with factor IX- or factor X-depleted plasmas, or 2:8 with factor II-, V- or VIII-depleted plasmas. Addition of coagulation factors VII, X, IX, V and II to depleted plasmas shortened clotting and enzyme initiation times, and increased enzyme generation rates in a concentration-dependent manner. Only additions of factors IX and X from low-normal to high-normal levels shortened clotting times and increased enzyme generation rates. Our results demonstrate that coagulation kinetics for TF particles are controlled by factor IX and X levels within the normal physiological range. We hypothesize that individual patient factor IX and X levels may be prognostic for susceptibility to circulating TF-induced thrombosis. (paper)

  6. Development of the medical apparatus for Doppler-controlled treatment of hemorrhoids using laser coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Gryaznov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article authors present the concept of the surgical manipulator delivering laser radiation to the target area. For the implementation of Doppler-controlled treatment of hemorrhoids by laser coagulation, an important circumstance is the necessity to realize by means of the dopplerograph the possibility of controlling the efficiency of coagulation of the pathological vessel immediately after the impact, which will create the prerequisites for the formation of a program cycle with the inclusion of control elements by feedback. In this regard, the structure of the laser medical apparatus is developed, which allows determining the location, size and flow of arterial and venous vessels, performing laser coagulation of pathologically damaged sites under constant Doppler control. The developed adaptive power management system includes several functional units for the processing of the data from ultrasound scanner and the Doppler. Medical apparatus for minimally invasive treatment of hemorrhoids based on the laser coagulator and ultrasound Doppler will allow performing surgeries in automated and half-automated modes. The suggested medical apparatus helps to determine pathological vessels, choose the required radiation mode and provides vessel obliteration. Successful realization of constructive combination of real-time diagnostics and surgical manipulation with a laser can result in a unique minimally invasive solution to treat hemorrhoids that currently doesn’t have analogues.

  7. Particle counter as a tool to control pre-hydrolyzed coagulant dosing and rapid filtration efficiency in a conventional treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumińska, Jolanta; Kłos, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Filtration efficiency in a conventional water treatment system was analyzed in the context of pre-hydrolyzed coagulant overdosing. Two commercial coagulants of different aluminum speciation were tested. A study was carried out at a water treatment plant supplied with raw water of variable quality. The lack of stability of water quality caused many problems with maintaining the optimal coagulant dose. The achieved results show that the type of coagulant had a very strong influence on the effectiveness of filtration resulting from the application of an improper coagulant dose. The overdosing of high basicity coagulant (PAC85) caused a significant increase of fine particles in the outflow from the sedimentation tanks, which could not be retained in the filter bed due to high surface charge and the small size of hydrolysis products. When using a coagulant of lower basicity (PAC70), it was much easier to control the dose of coagulant and to adjust it to the changing water quality.

  8. Control of the onset of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livadas, Sarantis; Chrousos, George P

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism of puberty initiation remains an enigma, despite extensive research in the field. Pulsatile pituitary gonadotropin secretion under the guidance of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) constitutes a sine qua non for pubertal onset. In turn, the secretion of GnRH in the human hypothalamus is regulated by kisspeptin and its receptor as well as by permissive or opposing signals mediated by neurokinin B and dynorphin acting on their respective receptors. These three supra-GnRH regulators compose the Kisspeptin, Neurokinin B and Dynorhin neurons (KNDy) system, a key player in pubertal onset and progression. The recent discovery that makorin ring finger protein 3 is also involved in puberty initiation provided further insights into the regulation of the KNDy pathway. In fact, the inhibitory (γ-amino butyric acid, neuropeptide Y, and RFamide-related peptide-3) and stimulatory signals (glutamate) acting upstream of KNDy called into question the role of makorin ring finger protein 3 as the gatekeeper of puberty. Meanwhile, the findings that 'neuroestradiol' produced locally and endocrine disruptors from the environment may influence GnRH secretion is intriguing. Finally, epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in pubertal onset through recently discovered mechanisms. The exact molecular machinery underlying puberty initiation in humans is under intensive investigation. In this review, we summarize research evidence in the field, while emphasizing the areas of uncertainty and underlining the impact of current information on the evolving theory regarding this fascinating phenomenon.

  9. Fouling control in a lab-scale MBR system: Comparison of several commercially applied coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkotsis, P K; Batsari, E L; Peleka, E N; Tolkou, A K; Zouboulis, A I

    2017-12-01

    The Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) integrate the biological degradation of pollutants with membrane filtration-separation during wastewater treatment. Membrane fouling, which is considered as the main process drawback, stems from the interaction between the membrane material and the (organic or inorganic) foulants, leading to membrane's efficiency deterioration. It is widely recognized that the mixed liquor colloidal and Soluble Microbial Products (SMP) are in principal responsible for this undesirable situation. As a result, the appropriate pretreatment of wastewater feed is often considered as necessary procedure and the coagulation/flocculation (C/F) process is regarded as a relevant viable option for wastewater treatment by MBRs in order to improve the effective removal of suspended solids (SS), of colloidal particles, of natural organic matter (NOM), as well as of other soluble materials. The objective of this study is the application of coagulation/flocculation for fouling control of MBR systems by using several commercially available chemical coagulant/flocculant agents. For this purpose, an appropriate lab-scale continuous-flow, fully automatic MBR system has been assembled and various (inorganic) coagulants (i.e. FeCl 3 ∙6H 2 O, Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ·5H 2 O, FeClSO 4 , PFS 0.3 , PAC A9-M, PAC-A16, Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ·18H 2 O, FO4350SSH, NaAlO 2 ) have been examined. Filterability tests and SMP concentration measurements were also conducted in order to investigate the reversible, as well as the irreversible fouling, respectively. Based upon the obtained results and after selecting the most efficient coagulants (FeCl 3 ·6H 2 O, Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ·5H 2 O, FeClSO 4 , PAC-A9, PAC-A16), an attempt was subsequently performed to correlate the major fouling indices (i.e. TMP, TTF, SMP concentration) in order to improve the overall process operability by this fouling control method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Internal Quality Control Practices in Coagulation Laboratories: recommendations based on a patterns-of-practice survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, A; Aslan, B; Raby, A; Moffat, K A; Selby, R; Padmore, R

    2015-12-01

    Internal quality control (IQC) procedures are crucial for ensuring accurate patient test results. The IQMH Centre for Proficiency Testing conducted a web-based survey to gather information on the current IQC practices in coagulation testing. A questionnaire was distributed to 174 Ontario laboratories licensed to perform prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). All laboratories reported using two levels of commercial QC (CQC); 12% incorporate pooled patient plasma into their IQC program; >68% run CQC at the beginning of each shift; 56% following maintenance, with reagent changes, during a shift, or with every repeat sample; 6% only run CQC at the beginning of the day and 25% when the instruments have been idle for a defined period of time. IQC run frequency was determined by manufacturer recommendations (71%) but also influenced by the stability of test (27%), clinical impact of an incorrect test result (25%), and sample's batch number (10%). IQC was monitored using preset limits based on standard deviation (66%), precision goals (46%), or allowable performance limits (36%). 95% use multirules. Failure actions include repeating the IQC (90%) and reporting patient results; if repeat passes, 42% perform repeat analysis of all patient samples from last acceptable IQC. Variability exists in coagulation IQC practices among Ontario clinical laboratories. The recommendations presented here would be useful in encouraging standardized IQC practices. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Combined effects of coagulation and adsorption on ultrafiltration membrane fouling control and subsequent disinfection in drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jiajian; Liang, Heng; Cheng, Xiaoxiang; Yang, Haiyan; Xu, Daliang; Gan, Zhendong; Luo, Xinsheng; Zhu, Xuewu; Li, Guibai

    2018-06-02

    This study investigated the combined effects of coagulation and powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption on ultrafiltration (UF) membrane fouling control and subsequent disinfection efficiency through filtration performance, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy, and disinfectant curve. The fouling behavior of UF membrane was comprehensively analyzed especially in terms of pollutant removal and fouling reversibility to understand the mechanism of fouling accumulation and disinfectant dose reduction. Pre-coagulation with or without adsorption both achieved remarkable effect of fouling mitigation and disinfection dose reduction. The two pretreatments were effective in total fouling control and pre-coagulation combined with PAC adsorption even decreased hydraulically irreversible fouling notably. Besides, pre-coagulation decreased residual disinfectant decline due to the removal of hydrophobic components of natural organic matters (NOM). Pre-coagulation combined with adsorption had a synergistic effect on further disinfectant decline rate reduction and decreased total disinfectant consumption due to additional removal of hydrophilic NOM by PAC adsorption. The disinfectant demand was further reduced after membrane. These results show that membrane fouling and disinfectant dose can be reduced in UF coupled with pretreatment, which could lead to the avoidance of excessive operation cost disinfectant dose for drinking water supply.

  12. Neuroendocrine control of the onset of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Tony M

    2015-07-01

    This chapter is based on the Geoffrey Harris Memorial Lecture presented at the 8th International Congress of Neuroendocrinology, which was held in Sydney, August 2014. It provides the development of our understanding of the neuroendocrine control of puberty since Harris proposed in his 1955 monograph (Harris, 1955) that "a major factor responsible for puberty is an increased rate of release of pituitary gonadotrophin" and posited "that a neural (hypothalamic) stimulus, via the hypophysial portal vessels, may be involved." Emphasis is placed on the neurobiological mechanisms governing puberty in highly evolved primates, although an attempt is made to reverse translate a model for the timing of puberty in man and monkey to non-primate species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in Coagulation and Fibrinolytic Indices in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Undergoing Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET treatment always attain a low cumulative pregnancy rate disaccording with the satisfactory number of oocytes. Objective. We aim to evaluate the status of coagulation and fibrinolytic system in PCOS patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH process. Method. Of the 97 women, 30 patients with PCOS composed the study group; 67 women of child-bearing age with normal endocrine function composed the control group. All participants underwent GnRH agonist standard long protocol, and plasma HCY, FVIII, FX, and D-dimer levels as well as hormone parameters were measured at day of full downregulation, hCG priming, and embryos transfer. Results. On day of full downregulation, FX levels were significantly higher in PCOS group (P<0.01. On hCG priming day, FX and estrogen levels in PCOS group were higher than in the control group and FVIII levels were significantly lower on day of embryos transfer whereas FX and E2 levels were significantly higher in PCOS group. Conclusion. Hypercoagulable state during peri-implantation phase would probably lead to poor microcirculation of endometrium and be one of the most important disadvantages of successful implantation and subsequent clinical pregnancy.

  14. In-line coagulation prior to UF of treated domestic wastewater - foulants removal, fouling control and phosphorus removal

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Xing; Plume, Stephan; Ernst, Mathias; Croue, Jean-Philippe; Jekel, Martin R.

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigated fouling control and phosphorus removal by applying in-line coagulation prior to ultrafiltration (UF) of treated domestic wastewater. Experiments were conducted in both lab- and pilot-scale under close to neutral pH condition. Lab-scale foulant removal tests showed that increasing the dosage of FeCl3, AlCl3 and polymeric aluminum chloride (PACl) can improve biopolymer removal. Specifically, PACl reduced preferentially the proteinaceous fraction of biopolymer while the other two coagulants showed no significant preference. The filterability of water samples was improved after coagulation, which is contributed to biopolymer removal and the formation of larger particles. Pilot UF experiments demonstrated that in-line coagulation improved the performance of UF to a large extent. Within 0.037-0.148mmol Me3+/L dosage range, adding more FeCl3 and AlCl3 slowed down the development of trans-membrane pressure (TMP) correspondingly, while changing PACl dosage showed little effect on the variation of TMP increase rate. Further investigations indicated that PACl related precipitates contributed to more irreversible fouling than that which the monomeric coagulants made. Fouling control is thus considered as a co-effect determined by foulant removal efficiency, fouling layer structure and the adherence of hydrolysis products/precipitates onto the membrane. With respect to phosphorus removal, dosing FeCl3 and AlCl3 achieved higher removal efficiency than using PACl. Based on lab- and pilot-scale results, dosing FeCl3 and AlCl3 at a relative dosage of over 2.5mol Me3+ per mol total phosphorus (TP) in feedwater is necessarily required to keep the TP concentration under 50μg/L in UF permeate. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  15. In-line coagulation prior to UF of treated domestic wastewater - foulants removal, fouling control and phosphorus removal

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Xing

    2012-06-01

    The present work investigated fouling control and phosphorus removal by applying in-line coagulation prior to ultrafiltration (UF) of treated domestic wastewater. Experiments were conducted in both lab- and pilot-scale under close to neutral pH condition. Lab-scale foulant removal tests showed that increasing the dosage of FeCl3, AlCl3 and polymeric aluminum chloride (PACl) can improve biopolymer removal. Specifically, PACl reduced preferentially the proteinaceous fraction of biopolymer while the other two coagulants showed no significant preference. The filterability of water samples was improved after coagulation, which is contributed to biopolymer removal and the formation of larger particles. Pilot UF experiments demonstrated that in-line coagulation improved the performance of UF to a large extent. Within 0.037-0.148mmol Me3+/L dosage range, adding more FeCl3 and AlCl3 slowed down the development of trans-membrane pressure (TMP) correspondingly, while changing PACl dosage showed little effect on the variation of TMP increase rate. Further investigations indicated that PACl related precipitates contributed to more irreversible fouling than that which the monomeric coagulants made. Fouling control is thus considered as a co-effect determined by foulant removal efficiency, fouling layer structure and the adherence of hydrolysis products/precipitates onto the membrane. With respect to phosphorus removal, dosing FeCl3 and AlCl3 achieved higher removal efficiency than using PACl. Based on lab- and pilot-scale results, dosing FeCl3 and AlCl3 at a relative dosage of over 2.5mol Me3+ per mol total phosphorus (TP) in feedwater is necessarily required to keep the TP concentration under 50μg/L in UF permeate. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Coagulation profile in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy: A randomized, controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Decker Christensen

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the impact of Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin (LMWH on the coagulation system in patients undergoing minimal invasive lung cancer surgery is sparse. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of LMWH on the coagulation system in patients undergoing Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS lobectomy for primary lung cancer.Sixty-three patients diagnosed with primary lung cancer undergoing VATS lobectomy were randomized to either subcutaneous injection with dalteparin (Fragmin® 5000 IE once daily or no intervention. Coagulation was assessed pre-, peri-, and the first two days postoperatively by standard coagulation blood test, thromboelastometry (ROTEM® and thrombin generation.Patients undergoing potential curative surgery for lung cancer were not hypercoagulable preoperatively. There was no statistically significant difference in the majority of the assessed coagulation parameters after LMWH, except that the no intervention group had a higher peak thrombin and a shorter INTEM clotting time on the first postoperative day and a lower fibrinogen level on the second postoperative day. A lower level of fibrin d-dimer in the LMWH group was found on the 1. and 2.postoperative day, although not statistical significant. No differences were found between the two groups in the amount of bleeding or number of thromboembolic events.Use of LMWH administered once daily as thromboprophylaxis did not alter the coagulation profile per se. As the present study primarily evaluated biochemical endpoints, further studies using clinical endpoints are needed in regards of an optimized thromboprophylaxis approach.

  17. Correction of subclinical coagulation disorders before percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy. A randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veelo, Denise P.; Vlaar, Alexander P.; Dongelmans, Dave A.; Binnekade, Jan M.; Levi, Marcel; Paulus, Frederique; Berends, Fenny; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. There is evidence that percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy (PDT) can be safely performed in patients with severe coagulation disorders if these are carefully corrected immediately before the procedure. However, it is currently unclear whether PDT can be performed safely in patients in

  18. A simple method for estimation of coagulation efficiency in mixed aerosols. [environmental pollution control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmick, R. L.; Boyd, A.; Wolochow, H.

    1975-01-01

    Aerosols of KBr and AgNO3 were mixed, exposed to light in a glass tube and collected in the dark. About 15% of the collected material was reduced to silver upon development. Thus, two aerosols of particles that react to form a photo-reducible compound can be used to measure coagulation efficiency.

  19. COAGULATION ACTIVITY IN LIVER DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sheikh Sajjadieh Mohammad Reza

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients with advanced hepatic failure may present with the entire spectrum of coagulation factor deficiencies. This study was designed to determine laboratory abnormalities in coagulation in chronic liver disease and the association of these abnormalities with the extent of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Coagulation markers were assayed in 60 participants: 20 patients with chronic hepatitis, 20 patients with cirrhosis, and 20 healthy individuals (control. Plasma levels of anti-thrombin III were determined by a chromogenic substrate method, and plasma concentrations of fibrinogen were analyzed by the Rutberg method. Commercially available assays were used for laboratory coagulation tests. The levels of coagualation activity markers in patients with chronic liver disease were significantly different in comparison to those in healthy participants. These results indicate the utility of measuring markers for coagulation activity in determining which cirrhosis patients are more susceptible to disseminated intravascular coagulation.

  20. Superiority of ferric chloride as coagulant over alum and ferrous sulphate at controlled pH and cost comparison of these coagulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irfan, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted by author as a member of Specialty Chemical Division of Sitara Chemical Industries which is the largest chlor -alkali manufacturing industry in Pakistan. Sitara is also producing FeCl/sub 3/ as a byproduct to consume its additional quantity of chlorine produced during electrolysis of brine solution for caustic soda preparation. Most of the industries are using Alum along with other polymers for treatment of effluent waste water. Treatment system is based on sand bed filters. For coagulation of unwanted materials present in the water, Alum is being used with Anionic Polymer (Accofloc-A2125) as flocculent. But the ferric chloride is not only functions as a reactants to remove water impurities but it also functions as a both coagulant and a Flocculent. This study was conducted for finding best alternative chemicals to improve treated water quality. For this purpose Ferric Chloride (FeCl/sub 3/) is used as best alternative of alum for better removal of turbidity, heavy metals and micro organisms to eradicate above said problems and for better removal of turbidity, heavy metals and micro, organisms to eradicate health problems. As per lab scale results quality of treated water with Ferric Chloride (FeCl/sub 3/) proved better than that of Alum. The main objective of this research is to investigate the efficiency of coagulation and flocculation processes for removing suspended solids, colour and COD which present in significant quantity. Three types of coagulants were examined using standard jar test apparatus, i.e., aluminum sulphate (alum), ferric chloride (FeCl/sub 3/) and ferrous sulphate (FeSO/sub 4/). The effects of agitation speed, settling time, pH, coagulant dosages and temperature were examined. At 300 rpm of rapid mixing and 50 rpm of slow mixing and 60 minutes settling time, higher removals of suspended solids (over 95%), colour (90%) and COD (43%) were achieved at pH 4 and 12. FeCl/sub 3/ was found to be superior compared with other

  1. Delay in onset of metabolic alkalosis during regional citrate anti-coagulation in continous renal replacement therapy with calcium-free replacement solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    See Kay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional citrate anti-coagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy chelates calcium to produce the anti- coagulation effect. We hypothesise that a calcium-free replacement solution will require less citrate and produce fewer metabolic side effects. Fifty patients, in a Medical Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary teaching hospital (25 in each group, received continuous venovenous hemofiltration using either calcium-containing or calcium-free replacement solutions. Both groups had no significant differences in filter life, metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypocalcemia, and hypercalcemia. However, patients using calcium-containing solution developed metabolic alkalosis earlier, compared to patients using calcium-free solution (mean 24.6 hours,CI 0.8-48.4 vs. 37.2 hours, CI 9.4-65, P = 0.020. When calcium-containing replacement solution was used, more citrate was required (mean 280ml/h, CI 227.2-332.8 vs. 265ml/h, CI 203.4-326.6, P = 0.069, but less calcium was infused (mean 21.2 ml/h, CI 1.2-21.2 vs 51.6ml/h, CI 26.8-76.4, P ≤ 0.0001.

  2. Successful Control of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation by Recombinant Thrombomodulin during Arsenic Trioxide Treatment in Relapsed Patient with Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohiro Shindo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC frequently occurs in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL. With the induction of therapy in APL using all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, DIC can be controlled in most cases as ATRA usually shows immediate improvement of the APL. However, arsenic trioxide (ATO which has been used for the treatment of relapse in APL patients has shown to take time to suppress APL cells, therefore the control of DIC in APL with ATO treatment is a major problem. Recently, the recombinant soluble thrombomodulin fragment has received a lot of attention as the novel drug for the treatment of DIC with high efficacy. Here, we present a relapsed patient with APL in whom DIC was successfully and safely controlled by rTM during treatment with ATO.

  3. Melatonin for chronic sleep onset insomnia in children: A Randomized placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.G.; Nagtegaal, J.E.; Heijden, J.A.M. van der; Coenen, A.M.L.; Kerkhof, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    To establish the efficacy of melatonin treatment in childhood sleep onset insomnia, 40 elementary school children, 6 to 12 years of age, who suffered more than 1 year from chronic sleep onset insomnia, were studied in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The children were randomly assigned to

  4. Eye Movement Control in Scene Viewing and Reading: Evidence from the Stimulus Onset Delay Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Steven G.; Nuthmann, Antje; Henderson, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used the stimulus onset delay paradigm to investigate eye movement control in reading and in scene viewing in a within-participants design. Short onset delays (0, 25, 50, 200, and 350 ms) were chosen to simulate the type of natural processing difficulty encountered in reading and scene viewing. Fixation duration increased…

  5. Phenotype and natural history of elderly onset inflammatory bowel disease: a multicentre, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañosa, M; Calafat, M; de Francisco, R; García, C; Casanova, M J; Huelín, P; Calvo, M; Tosca, J; Fernández-Salazar, L; Arajol, C; Zabana, Y; Bastida, G; Hinojosa, J; Márquez, L; Barreiro-de-Acosta, M; Calvet, X; Monfort, D; Gómez-Garcia, M R; Rodríguez, E; Huguet, J M; Rojas-Feria, M; Hervias, D; Atienza, R; Busquets, D; Zapata, E; Dueñas, C; Charro, M; Martínez-Cerezo, F J; Plaza, R; Vázquez, J M; Gisbert, J P; Cañete, F; Cabré, E; Domènech, E

    2018-03-01

    Onset during old age has been reported in upto 10% of total cases of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To evaluate phenotypic characteristics and the use of therapeutic resources in patients with elderly onset IBD. Case-control study including all those patients diagnosed with IBD over the age of 60 years since 2000 who were followed-up for >12 months, identified from the IBD databases. Elderly onset cases were compared with IBD patients aged 18 to 40 years at diagnosis, matched by year of diagnosis, gender and type of IBD (adult-onset). One thousand three hundred and seventy-four elderly onset and 1374 adult-onset cases were included (62% ulcerative colitis (UC), 38% Crohn's disease (CD)). Among UC patients, elderly onset cases had a lower proportion of extensive disease (33% vs 39%; P < 0.0001). In CD, elderly onset cases showed an increased rate of stenosing pattern (24% vs 13%; P < 0.0001) and exclusive colonic location (28% vs 16%; P < 0.0001), whereas penetrating pattern (12% vs 19%; P < 0.0001) was significantly less frequent. Regarding the use of therapeutic resources, there was a significantly lower use of corticosteroids (P < 0.0001), immunosuppressants (P < 0.0001) and anti-TNFs agents (P < 0.0001) in elderly onset cases. Regarding surgery, we found a significantly higher surgery rate among elderly onset UC cases (8.3% vs 5.1%; P < 0.009). Finally, elderly onset cases were characterised by a higher rate of hospitalisations (66% vs 49%; P < 0.0001) and neoplasms (14% vs 0.5%; P < 0.0001). Elderly onset IBD shows specific characteristics and they are managed differently, with a lower use of immunosuppressants and a higher rate of surgery in UC. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 2b Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Recombinant Human Soluble Thrombomodulin, ART-123, in Patients With Sepsis and Suspected Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Ramesh, Mayakonda K.; Ernest, David; Larosa, Steven P.; Pachl, Jan; Aikawa, Naoki; Hoste, Eric; Levy, Howard; Hirman, Joe; Levi, Marcel; Daga, Mradul; Kutsogiannis, Demetrios J.; Crowther, Mark; Bernard, Gordon R.; Devriendt, Jacques; Puigserver, Joan Vidal; Blanzaco, Daniel U.; Esmon, Charles T.; Parrillo, Joseph E.; Guzzi, Louis; Henderson, Seton J.; Pothirat, Chaicharn; Mehta, Parthiv; Fareed, Jawed; Talwar, Deepak; Tsuruta, Kazuhisa; Gorelick, Kenneth J.; Osawa, Yutaka; Kaul, Inder

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the safety and efficacy of recombinant thrombomodulin (ART-123) in patients with suspected sepsis-associated disseminated intravascular coagulation. Design: Phase 2b, international, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group, screening trial.

  7. Obesity: locus of control, body image, weight loss, and age-at-onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wineman, N M

    1980-01-01

    In a retrospective investigation designed to measure locus of control, body image, and weight loss in Overeaters Anonymous members who had childhood, adolescence, or adulthood onset of obesity, 116 subjects were grouped according to age at onset of obesity and the year they joined OA. A convenience, volunteer sample of OA members completed a demographic data questionnaire, Rotter's Social Reaction. Inventory, and Secord and Jourard's Body Cathexis Scale. Significant overweight percentage differences were not found when the three age-at-onset groups were compared. Significant differences emerged, however, for adolescent-onset group persons who were categorized as "old" members; they had a larger weight loss and were more satisfied with their body image. A positive linear relationship between greater perception of internal control and a good body image was found in the entire adulthood-onset group. Weight loss and good body image of the oldest adolescent-onset group probably was the outcome of their association with a self-help group i.e., OA. Assessment of developmental issues related to the time of initial weight gain may indicate which treatment regime would be most effective.

  8. Exogenous and endogenous control of attention: the effect of visual onsets and offsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeuwes, J

    1991-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate the relation between exogenous and endogenous control of visual attention. Subjects searched for a target letter among three nontarget letters that were positioned on an imaginary circle around a fixation point. At different cue-display intervals, a centrally located arrowhead cue reliably indicated the location of the target letter. At different SOAs, a peripheral line segment near one of the letters was either abruptly switched on (Experiment 1) or abruptly switched off (Experiment 2). Presenting the central arrowhead after display onset prevents attention from being focused in advance on the critical location. In this unfocused attentional state, both onset and offset transients attracted attention. When the central arrowhead was available in advance, the focusing of attention prior to display onset precluded attention attraction to the location of the onset or offset transient. Contrary to an offset transient, an onset transient presented at the attended location disrupted performance, indicating that an onset within the spotlight of attention attracts attention. The results are reconciled by means of the zoom-lens theory of attention, suggesting that outside the focus of attention, abrupt transients are not capable of attracting attention. Since the size of the zoom lens is under voluntary control, it can be argued that transients do not fulfill the intentionality criterion of automaticity.

  9. Melatonin for chronic whiplash syndrome with delayed melatonin onset randomised, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringen, S. van; Jansen, T.; Smits, M.G.; Nagtegaal, J.E.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess the influence of melatonin in patients with chronic whiplash syndrome and delayed melatonin onset. Design: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. One-week baseline was followed by a 4-week treatment period with either melatonin or placebo. In the

  10. Trauma and Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yılmaz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bleeding and coagulation disorders related to trauma are pathological processes which are frequently seen and increase mortality. For the purpose, trauma patients should be protected from hypoperfusion, hypothermia, acidosis and hemodilution which may aggravate the increase in physiological responses to trauma as anticoagulation and fibrinolysis. Performing damage control surgery and resuscitation and transfusion of adequate blood and blood products in terms of amount and content as stated in protocols may increase the rate of survival. Medical treatments augmenting fibrin formation (fibrinogen, desmopressin, factor VIIa or preventing fibrin degradation (tranexamic acid have been proposed in selected cases but the efficacy of these agents in trauma patients are not proven. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9:71-6

  11. Decision making and executive function in male adolescents with early-onset or adolescence-onset conduct disorder and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Graeme; van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Stollery, Sarah J; Aitken, Michael R F; Savage, Justin; Moore, Simon C; Goodyer, Ian M

    2009-07-15

    Although conduct disorder (CD) is associated with an increased susceptibility to substance use disorders, little is known about decision-making processes or reward mechanisms in CD. This study investigated decision making under varying motivational conditions in CD. Performances on the Risky Choice Task (RCT) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were assessed in 156 adolescents (84 control subjects, 34 with adolescence-onset CD, and 38 with early-onset CD). The RCT was performed twice, once under normal motivational conditions and once under conditions of increased motivation and psychosocial stress. Increased motivation and stress led to more cautious decision making and changes in framing effects on the RCT in all groups, although such effects were least pronounced in the early-onset CD group. Participants from both CD subgroups selected the risky choice more frequently than control subjects. Under normal motivational conditions, early-onset CD participants chose the risky choice more frequently in trials occurring after small gains, relative to control subjects and adolescence-onset CD participants. Following adjustment for IQ differences, the groups did not differ significantly in terms of WCST performance. Differences in decision making between control subjects and individuals with CD suggest that the balance between sensitivity to reward and punishment is shifted in this disorder, particularly the early-onset form. Our data on modulation of decision making according to previous outcomes suggest altered reward mechanisms in early-onset CD. The WCST data suggest that impairments in global executive function do not underlie altered decision making in CD.

  12. Vitamin D and new-onset atrial fibrillation: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Ling; Yang, Jun; Yang, Jian; Wang, Hui-Bo; Yang, Chao-Jun; Yang, Ying

    2017-11-14

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, which affects 1.5% to 2% of the general population. More than six million Europeans suffer from AF. To research vitamin D levels in the prevention of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF), we conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We focused on the vitamin D levels in the prevention of new-onset AF. The outcomes assessed were vitamin D levels, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and left atrium diameter. Six RCTs ultimately met the inclusion criteria in the meta-analysis. The outcomes of Vitamin D levels (MD = -4.27, 95% CI = -5.20 to-3.34, P = 0.30) in the new-onset AF showed no significant difference. The left atrium diameter (MD = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.48 to 2.60, P new-onset AF and LVEF (MD = -0.92, 95% CI = -1.59 to -0.26, P new-onset AF. Copyright © 2017 Hellenic Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Earlier adolescent substance use onset predicts stronger connectivity between reward and cognitive control brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Weissman

    2015-12-01

    Discussion: The regions that demonstrated significant positive linear relationships between the number of adolescent years using substances and connectivity with NAcc are nodes in the right frontoparietal network, which is central to cognitive control. The coupling of reward and cognitive control networks may be a mechanism through which earlier onset of substance use is related to brain function over time, a trajectory that may be implicated in subsequent substance use disorders.

  14. Relationship between the Onset Age of Bilingualism and Development of Cognitive Control among Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Bdaiwi Jasim Al-Shujairi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of studies suggests that bilingual persons are better than monolinguals on a variety of cognitive measures. Thus, the present study investigates the relationship between the onset age of bilingual and the development of cognitive control among Nigerians. 10 bilingual students studying at University Putra Malaysia have been selected to participate in this study.  They are divided into two groups: 5 early and 5 late bilinguals. The data are collected using online English proficiency test and E-prime software as instruments. Both groups are examined for English proficiency and performance on a flanker task. The result demonstrates that early bilinguals are more proficient in English than late bilinguals. Moreover, early bilingual performs better than late bilingual on flanker task. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that being early active bilinguals tend to have greater advantages in cognitive control and higher language proficiency. Keywords: onset age, bilingualism, and cognitive control

  15. Theories of blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddel, James P; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Miaskowski, Christine; Lillicrap, David P

    2007-01-01

    Although the concept of the coagulation cascade represented a significant advance in the understanding of coagulation and served for many years as a useful model, more recent clinical and experimental observations demonstrate that the cascade/waterfall hypothesis does not fully and completely reflect the events of hemostasis in vivo. The goal of this article is to review the evolution of the theories of coagulation and their proposed models to serve as a tool when reviewing the research and practice literature that was published in the context of these different theories over time.

  16. Dust coagulation in ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokshi, Arati; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Hollenbach, David

    1989-01-01

    Coagulation is an important mechanism in the growth of interstellar and interplanetary dust particles. The microphysics of the coagulation process was theoretically analyzed as a function of the physical properties of the coagulating grains, i.e., their size, relative velocities, temperature, elastic properties, and the van der Waal interaction. Numerical calculations of collisions between linear chains provide the wave energy in individual particles and the spectrum of the mechanical vibrations set up in colliding particles. Sticking probabilities are then calculated using simple estimates for elastic deformation energies and for the attenuation of the wave energy due to absorption and scattering processes.

  17. A pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis-Pre-clinical trials of controlling the voice onset and offset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Ahmadi

    Full Text Available Despite emergent progress in many fields of bionics, a functional Bionic Voice prosthesis for laryngectomy patients (larynx amputees has not yet been achieved, leading to a lifetime of vocal disability for these patients. This study introduces a novel framework of Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses as an electronic adaptation of the Pneumatic Artificial Larynx (PAL device. The PAL is a non-invasive mechanical voice source, driven exclusively by respiration with an exceptionally high voice quality, comparable to the existing gold standard of Tracheoesophageal (TE voice prosthesis. Following PAL design closely as the reference, Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses seem to have a strong potential to substitute the existing gold standard by generating a similar voice quality while remaining non-invasive and non-surgical. This paper designs the first Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis and evaluates its onset and offset control against the PAL device through pre-clinical trials on one laryngectomy patient. The evaluation on a database of more than five hours of continuous/isolated speech recordings shows a close match between the onset/offset control of the Pneumatic Bionic Voice and the PAL with an accuracy of 98.45 ±0.54%. When implemented in real-time, the Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis controller has an average onset/offset delay of 10 milliseconds compared to the PAL. Hence it addresses a major disadvantage of previous electronic voice prostheses, including myoelectric Bionic Voice, in meeting the short time-frames of controlling the onset/offset of the voice in continuous speech.

  18. A pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis-Pre-clinical trials of controlling the voice onset and offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Farzaneh; Noorian, Farzad; Novakovic, Daniel; van Schaik, André

    2018-01-01

    Despite emergent progress in many fields of bionics, a functional Bionic Voice prosthesis for laryngectomy patients (larynx amputees) has not yet been achieved, leading to a lifetime of vocal disability for these patients. This study introduces a novel framework of Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses as an electronic adaptation of the Pneumatic Artificial Larynx (PAL) device. The PAL is a non-invasive mechanical voice source, driven exclusively by respiration with an exceptionally high voice quality, comparable to the existing gold standard of Tracheoesophageal (TE) voice prosthesis. Following PAL design closely as the reference, Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses seem to have a strong potential to substitute the existing gold standard by generating a similar voice quality while remaining non-invasive and non-surgical. This paper designs the first Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis and evaluates its onset and offset control against the PAL device through pre-clinical trials on one laryngectomy patient. The evaluation on a database of more than five hours of continuous/isolated speech recordings shows a close match between the onset/offset control of the Pneumatic Bionic Voice and the PAL with an accuracy of 98.45 ±0.54%. When implemented in real-time, the Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis controller has an average onset/offset delay of 10 milliseconds compared to the PAL. Hence it addresses a major disadvantage of previous electronic voice prostheses, including myoelectric Bionic Voice, in meeting the short time-frames of controlling the onset/offset of the voice in continuous speech.

  19. A pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis—Pre-clinical trials of controlling the voice onset and offset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorian, Farzad; Novakovic, Daniel; van Schaik, André

    2018-01-01

    Despite emergent progress in many fields of bionics, a functional Bionic Voice prosthesis for laryngectomy patients (larynx amputees) has not yet been achieved, leading to a lifetime of vocal disability for these patients. This study introduces a novel framework of Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses as an electronic adaptation of the Pneumatic Artificial Larynx (PAL) device. The PAL is a non-invasive mechanical voice source, driven exclusively by respiration with an exceptionally high voice quality, comparable to the existing gold standard of Tracheoesophageal (TE) voice prosthesis. Following PAL design closely as the reference, Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses seem to have a strong potential to substitute the existing gold standard by generating a similar voice quality while remaining non-invasive and non-surgical. This paper designs the first Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis and evaluates its onset and offset control against the PAL device through pre-clinical trials on one laryngectomy patient. The evaluation on a database of more than five hours of continuous/isolated speech recordings shows a close match between the onset/offset control of the Pneumatic Bionic Voice and the PAL with an accuracy of 98.45 ±0.54%. When implemented in real-time, the Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis controller has an average onset/offset delay of 10 milliseconds compared to the PAL. Hence it addresses a major disadvantage of previous electronic voice prostheses, including myoelectric Bionic Voice, in meeting the short time-frames of controlling the onset/offset of the voice in continuous speech. PMID:29466455

  20. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jr, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 141. Thachil J, Toh CH. Current concepts in the management of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Thromb Res . 2012;129 ...

  1. Coagulation and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poll, T.

    2001-01-01

    Severe infection induces both activation of the coagulation system and multiple other inflammatory mediator cascades. This concise review summarizes the current knowledge of mechanisms that are considered to contribute to the procoagulant response to sepsis. Furthermore, evidence is discussed that

  2. Coagulation and Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Hoirisch-Clapauch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking coagulation and some psychiatric disorders.

  3. Cyanobacterium removal and control of algal organic matter (AOM) release by UV/H2O2 pre-oxidation enhanced Fe(II) coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Peili; Zhou, Yanping; Zhang, Xufeng; Zhang, Yi; Dai, Ruihua

    2017-12-11

    Harmful algal blooms in source water are a worldwide issue for drinking water production and safety. UV/H 2 O 2 , a pre-oxidation process, was firstly applied to enhance Fe(II) coagulation for the removal of Microcystis aeruginosa [M. aeruginosa, 2.0 (±0.5) × 10 6  cell/mL] in bench scale. It significantly improved both algae cells removal and algal organic matter (AOM) control, compared with UV irradiation alone (254 nm UVC, 5.4 mJ/cm 2 ). About 94.7% of algae cells were removed after 5 min UV/H 2 O 2 pre-treatment with H 2 O 2 dose 375 μmol/L, FeSO 4 coagulation (dose 125 μmol/L). It was also certified that low residue Fe level and AOM control was simultaneously achieved due to low dose of Fe(II) to settle down the cells as well as the AOM. The result of L 9 (3) 4 orthogonal experiment demonstrated that H 2 O 2 and FeSO 4 dose was significantly influenced the algae removal. UV/H 2 O 2 induced an increase of intracellular reactive oxidant species (ROS) and a decrease in zeta potential, which might contribute to the algae removal. The total microcystins (MCs) concentration was 1.5 μg/L after UV/H 2 O 2 pre-oxidation, however, it could be removed simultaneously with the algae cells and AOM. This study suggested a novel application of UV/H 2 O 2 -Fe(II) process to promote algae removal and simultaneously control AOM release in source waters, which is a green and promising technology without secondary pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Disclosing a disability: Do strategy type and onset controllability make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Brent J; Volpone, Sabrina D; Wessel, Jennifer L; Alonso, Natalya M

    2017-09-01

    In hiring contexts, individuals with concealable disabilities make decisions about how they should disclose their disability to overcome observers' biases. Previous research has investigated the effectiveness of binary disclosure decisions-that is, to disclose or conceal a disability-but we know little about how, why, or under what conditions different types of disclosure strategies impact observers' hiring intentions. In this article, we examine disability onset controllability (i.e., whether the applicant is seen as responsible for their disability onset) as a boundary condition for how disclosure strategy type influences the affective reactions (i.e., pity, admiration) that underlie observers' hiring intentions. Across 2 experiments, we found that when applicants are seen as responsible for their disability, strategies that de-emphasize the disability (rather than embrace it) lower observers' hiring intentions by elevating their pity reactions. Thus, the effectiveness of different types of disability disclosure strategies differs as a function of onset controllability. We discuss implications for theory and practice for individuals with disabilities and organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Welfare cost of childhood- and adolescent-onset epilepsy: A controlled national study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Pickering, Line; Christensen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Epilepsy is associated with a significant burden to patients and society. We calculated the factual excess in direct and indirect costs associated with childhood- and adolescent-onset epilepsy. METHODS: Using records from the Danish National Patient Registry (1998-2002), we identified...... 3123 and 5018 patients with epilepsy aged 0-5years and 6-20years at the time of diagnosis, respectively. The two age groups of patients with epilepsy were matched to 6246 and 10,036 control persons without epilepsy, respectively, by gender, age, and geography. The controls were randomly chosen from...... consequences for the individual person with epilepsy and for society....

  6. Alcohol intake and early-onset basal cell carcinoma in a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Ferrucci, L M; Cartmel, B; Molinaro, A M; Leffell, D J; Bale, A E; Mayne, S T

    2014-12-01

    Previous epidemiological studies of overall alcohol intake and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are inconsistent, with some evidence for differences by type of alcoholic beverage. While alcohol may enhance the carcinogenicity of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, this has not been evaluated in existing epidemiological studies. To evaluate alcohol intake in relation to early-onset BCC, and explore potential interactions with UV exposure. Basal cell carcinoma cases (n = 380) and controls with benign skin conditions (n = 390) under 40 years of age were identified through Yale Dermatopathology. Participants provided information on lifetime alcohol intake, including type of beverage, during an in-person interview. Self-reported data on indoor tanning and outdoor sunbathing were used to categorize UV exposure. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using unconditional multivariate logistic regression in the full sample and in women only. There was no statistically significant association between lifetime alcohol intake and early-onset BCC overall [above median intake vs. no regular alcohol intake (OR 1·10, 95% CI 0·69-1·73)] or in women only (OR 1·21, 95% CI 0·73-2·01). Similarly, intake of red wine, white wine, beer or spirits and mixed drinks was not associated with early-onset BCC. In exploratory analyses, we saw limited evidence for an interaction (P(interaction) = 0·003), with highest risk for high alcohol and high UV exposures, especially in women, but subgroup risk estimates had wide and overlapping CIs. Overall, we did not observe any clear association between lifetime alcohol intake and early-onset BCC. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  7. Control of upper airway muscle activity in younger versus older men during sleep onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Robert B; White, David P; Pierce, Robert J; Malhotra, Atul; Edwards, Jill K; Dunai, Judy; Kleverlaan, Darci; Trinder, John

    2003-01-01

    Pharyngeal dilator muscles are clearly important in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSA). We have previously shown that the activity of both the genioglossus (GGEMG) and tensor palatini (TPEMG) are decreased at sleep onset, and that this decrement in muscle activity is greater in the apnoea patient than in healthy controls. We have also previously shown this decrement to be greater in older men when compared with younger ones. In order to explore the mechanisms responsible for this decrement in muscle activity nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was applied to reduce negative pressure mediated muscle activation. We then investigated the effect of sleep onset (transition from predominantly α to predominantly θ EEG activity) on ventilation, upper airway muscle activation and upper airway resistance (UAR) in middle-aged and younger healthy men. We found that both GGEMG and TPEMG were reduced by the application of nasal CPAP during wakefulness, but that CPAP did not alter the decrement in activity in either muscle seen in the first two breaths following an α to θ transition. However, CPAP prevented both the rise in UAR at sleep onset that occurred on the control night, and the recruitment in GGEMG seen in the third to fifth breaths following the α to θ transition. Further, GGEMG was higher in the middle-aged men than in the younger men during wakefulness and was decreased more in the middle-aged men with the application of nasal CPAP. No differences were seen in TPEMG between the two age groups. These data suggest that the initial sleep onset reduction in upper airway muscle activity is due to loss of a ‘wakefulness’ stimulus, rather than to loss of responsiveness to negative pressure. In addition, it suggests that in older men, higher wakeful muscle activity is due to an anatomically more collapsible upper airway with more negative pressure driven muscle activation. Sleep onset per se does not appear to have a greater

  8. Urine metabolomics in neonates with late-onset sepsis in a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafidis, Kosmas; Chatziioannou, Anastasia Chrysovalantou; Thomaidou, Agathi; Gika, Helen; Mikros, Emmanouel; Benaki, Dimitra; Diamanti, Elisavet; Agakidis, Charalampos; Raikos, Nikolaos; Drossou, Vasiliki; Theodoridis, Georgios

    2017-04-01

    Although late-onset sepsis (LOS) is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, biomarkers evaluated in LOS lack high diagnostic accuracy. In this prospective, case-control, pilot study, we aimed to determine the metabolic profile of neonates with LOS. Urine samples were collected at the day of initial LOS evaluation, the 3rd and 10th day, thereafter, from 16 septic neonates (9 confirmed and 7 possible LOS cases) and 16 non-septic ones (controls) at respective time points. Urine metabolic profiles were assessed using non-targeted nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Multivariate statistical models with data from either analytical approach showed clear separation between the metabolic profiles of septic neonates (both possible and confirmed) and the controls. Metabolic changes appeared to be related to disease progression. Overall, neonates with confirmed or possible LOS exhibited comparable metabolic profiles indicating similar metabolic alternations upon the onset of clinical manifestations. This methodology therefore enabled the discrimination of neonates with LOS from non-septic individuals, providing potential for further research toward the discovery of LOS-related biomarkers.

  9. Earlier adolescent substance use onset predicts stronger connectivity between reward and cognitive control brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, David G; Schriber, Roberta A; Fassbender, Catherine; Atherton, Olivia; Krafft, Cynthia; Robins, Richard W; Hastings, Paul D; Guyer, Amanda E

    2015-12-01

    Early adolescent onset of substance use is a robust predictor of future substance use disorders. We examined the relation between age of substance use initiation and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the core reward processing (nucleus accumbens; NAcc) to cognitive control (prefrontal cortex; PFC) brain networks. Adolescents in a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin youth reported their substance use annually from ages 10 to 16 years. At age 16, 69 adolescents participated in a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Seed-based correlational analyses were conducted using regions of interest in bilateral NAcc. The earlier that adolescents initiated substance use, the stronger the connectivity between bilateral NAcc and right dorsolateral PFC, right dorsomedial PFC, right pre-supplementary motor area, right inferior parietal lobule, and left medial temporal gyrus. The regions that demonstrated significant positive linear relationships between the number of adolescent years using substances and connectivity with NAcc are nodes in the right frontoparietal network, which is central to cognitive control. The coupling of reward and cognitive control networks may be a mechanism through which earlier onset of substance use is related to brain function over time, a trajectory that may be implicated in subsequent substance use disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Social outcomes of young adults with childhood-onset epilepsy: A case-sibling-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Christine B; Barry, Frances; Vickrey, Barbara G; Caplan, Rochelle; Berg, Anne T

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to compare long-term social outcomes in young adults with childhood-onset epilepsy (cases) with neurologically normal sibling controls. Long-term social outcomes were assessed at the 15-year follow-up of the Connecticut Study of Epilepsy, a community-based prospective cohort study of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Young adults with childhood-onset epilepsy with complicated (abnormal neurologic exam findings, abnormal brain imaging with lesion referable to epilepsy, intellectual disability (ID; IQ < 60) or informative history of neurologic insults to which the occurrence of epilepsy might be attributed), and uncomplicated epilepsy presentations were compared to healthy sibling controls. Age, gender, and matched-pair adjusted generalized linear models stratified by complicated epilepsy and 5-year seizure-free status estimated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals [CIs] for each outcome. The 15-year follow-up included 361 individuals with epilepsy (59% of initial cases; N = 291 uncomplicated and N = 70 complicated epilepsy; mean age 22 years [standard deviation, SD 3.5]; mean epilepsy onset 6.2 years [SD 3.9]) and 173 controls. Social outcomes for cases with uncomplicated epilepsy with ≥5 years terminal remission were comparable to controls; cases with uncomplicated epilepsy <5 years seizure-free were more likely to be less productive (school/employment < 20 h/week) (aOR 3.63, 95% CI 1.83-7.20) and not to have a driver's license (aOR 6.25, 95% CI 2.85-13.72). Complicated cases with epilepsy <5 years seizure-free had worse outcomes across multiple domains; including not graduating high school (aOR 24.97, 95% CI 7.49-83.30), being un- or underemployed (<20 h/week) (aOR 11.06, 95% CI 4.44-27.57), being less productively engaged (aOR 15.71, 95% CI 6.88-35.88), and not living independently (aOR 10.24, 95% CI 3.98-26.36). Complicated cases without ID (N = 36) had worse outcomes with respect to productive engagement (aOR 6.02; 95% CI 2

  11. Ultrasound control of magnet growing rod distraction in early onset scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Cervera, T; Lirola Criado, J F; Farrington Rueda, D M

    2016-01-01

    The growing rod technique is currently one of the most common procedures used in the management of early onset scoliosis. However, in order to preserve spine growth and control the deformity it requires frequent surgeries to distract the rods. Magnetically driven growing rods have recently been introduced with same treatment goal, but without the inconvenience of repeated surgical distractions. One of the limitations of this technical advance is an increase in radiation exposure due to the increase in distraction frequency compared to conventional growing rods. An improvement of the original technique is presented, proposing a solution to the inconvenience of multiple radiation exposure using ultrasound technology to control the distraction process of magnetically driven growing rods. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Blood coagulation factor VIII

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Factor VIII (FVIII) functions as a co-factor in the blood coagulation cascade for the proteolytic activation of factor X by factor IXa. Deficiency of FVIII causes hemophilia A, the most commonly inherited bleeding disorder. This review highlights current knowledge on selected aspects of FVIII in which both the scientist and the ...

  13. Thromboelastometry versus standard coagulation tests versus restrictive protocol to guide blood transfusion prior to central venous catheterization in cirrhosis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Leonardo Lima; Pessoa, Camila Menezes Souza; Neto, Ary Serpa; do Prado, Rogerio Ruscitto; Silva, Eliezer; de Almeida, Marcio Dias; Correa, Thiago Domingos

    2017-02-27

    Liver failure patients have traditionally been empirically transfused prior to invasive procedures. Blood transfusion is associated with immunologic and nonimmunologic reactions, increased risk of adverse outcomes and high costs. Scientific evidence supporting empirical transfusion is lacking, and the best approach for blood transfusion prior to invasive procedures in cirrhotic patients has not been established so far. The aim of this study is to compare three transfusion strategies (routine coagulation test-guided - ordinary or restrictive, or thromboelastometry-guided) prior to central venous catheterization in critically ill patients with cirrhosis. Design and setting: a double-blinded, parallel-group, single-center, randomized controlled clinical trial in a tertiary private hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. adults (aged 18 years or older) admitted to the intensive care unit with cirrhosis and an indication for central venous line insertion. Patients will be randomly assigned to three groups for blood transfusion strategy prior to central venous catheterization: standard coagulation tests-based, thromboelastometry-based, or restrictive. The primary efficacy endpoint will be the proportion of patients transfused with any blood product prior to central venous catheterization. The primary safety endpoint will be the incidence of major bleeding. Secondary endpoints will be the proportion of transfusion of fresh frozen plasma, platelets and cryoprecipitate; infused volume of blood products; hemoglobin and hematocrit before and after the procedure; intensive care unit and hospital length of stay; 28-day and hospital mortality; incidence of minor bleeding; transfusion-related adverse reactions; and cost analysis. This study will evaluate three strategies to guide blood transfusion prior to central venous line placement in severely ill patients with cirrhosis. We hypothesized that thromboelastometry-based and/or restrictive protocols are safe and would significantly

  14. Intrauterine growth restriction and placental gene expression in severe preeclampsia, comparing early-onset and late-onset forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Jaana; Skarp, Sini; Savolainen, Eeva-Riitta; Ryynänen, Markku; Järvenpää, Jouko

    2017-10-26

    To evaluate placental gene expression in severe early- or late-onset preeclampsia with intrauterine growth restriction compared to controls. Chorionic villus sampling was conducted after cesarean section from the placentas of five women with early- or late-onset severe preeclampsia and five controls for each preeclampsia group. Microarray analysis was performed to identify gene expression differences between the groups. Pathway analysis showed over-representation of gene ontology (GO) biological process terms related to inflammatory and immune response pathways, platelet development, vascular development, female pregnancy and reproduction in early-onset preeclampsia. Pathways related to immunity, complement and coagulation cascade were overrepresented in the hypergeometric test for the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Ten genes (ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G, IL2RB, KRBOX1, LRRC15, METTL7B, MPP5, RFLNB and SLC20A) had a ≥±1 fold expression difference in severe early-onset preeclampsia group compared to early controls. There were 362 genes that had a ≥±1 fold expression difference in severe early-onset preeclampsia group compared to late-onset preeclampsia group including ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G and IL2RB. There are significant differences in placental gene expression between severe early- and late-onset preeclampsia when both are associated with intrauterine growth restriction. ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G and IL2RB might contribute to the development of early form of severe preeclampsia.

  15. A randomized controlled trial of two primary school intervention strategies to prevent early onset tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, Carla L; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Kellam, Sheppard G; Anthony, James C

    2002-03-01

    In this article, we examine the impact of two universal, grade 1 preventive interventions on the onset of tobacco smoking as assessed in early adolescence. The classroom-centered (CC) intervention was designed to reduce the risk for tobacco smoking by enhancing teachers' behavior management skills in first grade and, thereby, reducing child attention problems and aggressive and shy behavior-known risk behaviors for later substance use. The family-school partnership (FSP) intervention targeted these early risk behaviors via improvements in parent-teacher communication and parents' child behavior management strategies. A cohort of 678 urban, predominately African-American, public school students were randomly assigned to one of three Grade 1 classrooms at entrance to primary school (age 6). One classroom featured the CC intervention, a second the FSP intervention, and the third served as a control classroom. Six years later, 81% of the students completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews. Relative to controls, a modest attenuation in the risk of smoking initiation was found for students who had been assigned to either the CC or FSP intervention classrooms (26% versus 33%) (adjusted relative risk for CC/control contrast=0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.96; adjusted relative risk for FSP/control contrast=0.69, 95% CI, 0.50-0.97). Results lend support to targeting the early antecedent risk behaviors for tobacco smoking.

  16. Overview of the coagulation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Palta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation is a dynamic process and the understanding of the blood coagulation system has evolved over the recent years in anaesthetic practice. Although the traditional classification of the coagulation system into extrinsic and intrinsic pathway is still valid, the newer insights into coagulation provide more authentic description of the same. Normal coagulation pathway represents a balance between the pro coagulant pathway that is responsible for clot formation and the mechanisms that inhibit the same beyond the injury site. Imbalance of the coagulation system may occur in the perioperative period or during critical illness, which may be secondary to numerous factors leading to a tendency of either thrombosis or bleeding. A systematic search of literature on PubMed with MeSH terms ′coagulation system, haemostasis and anaesthesia revealed twenty eight related clinical trials and review articles in last 10 years. Since the balance of the coagulation system may tilt towards bleeding and thrombosis in many situations, it is mandatory for the clinicians to understand physiologic basis of haemostasis in order to diagnose and manage the abnormalities of the coagulation process and to interpret the diagnostic tests done for the same.

  17. Overview of the coagulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Sanjeev; Saroa, Richa; Palta, Anshu

    2014-09-01

    Coagulation is a dynamic process and the understanding of the blood coagulation system has evolved over the recent years in anaesthetic practice. Although the traditional classification of the coagulation system into extrinsic and intrinsic pathway is still valid, the newer insights into coagulation provide more authentic description of the same. Normal coagulation pathway represents a balance between the pro coagulant pathway that is responsible for clot formation and the mechanisms that inhibit the same beyond the injury site. Imbalance of the coagulation system may occur in the perioperative period or during critical illness, which may be secondary to numerous factors leading to a tendency of either thrombosis or bleeding. A systematic search of literature on PubMed with MeSH terms 'coagulation system, haemostasis and anaesthesia revealed twenty eight related clinical trials and review articles in last 10 years. Since the balance of the coagulation system may tilt towards bleeding and thrombosis in many situations, it is mandatory for the clinicians to understand physiologic basis of haemostasis in order to diagnose and manage the abnormalities of the coagulation process and to interpret the diagnostic tests done for the same.

  18. Investigational drugs for coagulation disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Mancuso, Maria Elisa

    2013-08-01

    The current standard treatment in persons with hemophilia (PWH) is prophylaxis, given intravenously twice or thrice weekly, which is associated with a non negligible burden on patients' quality of life. Therefore the main attempts aiming to improve the management of PWH are targeted towards the development of a new generation of coagulation factors endowed with properties facilitating prophylaxis and/or a better control of bleeding. This article summarizes the main results obtained so far in the development of new antihemophilic products, and emphasizes the formidable requirements imposed upon by regulatory agencies to get marketing authorization for new drugs, which make progress in this field difficult. Published literature on new molecules for replacement treatment in hemophilia A and B has been retrieved by using PubMed search and all ongoing clinical trials have been looked for online. New molecules are usually engineered to have a longer plasma half-life but also in some instances a higher potency. The prolongation of half-life may be obtained by using sustained release delivery vehicles, by chemical modification or by creating fusion proteins. Factors VIII, IX and VII have been variably modified in order to obtain improved coagulation products and results from Phase I/II studies are encouraging, particularly for factor IX. However, Phase III studies that should provide evidence on efficacy and effectiveness more cogent for clinical use are still ongoing and results are not yet available.

  19. Determinants of Long-Term Durable Glycemic Control in New-Onset Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Jin Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLong-term durable glycemic control is a difficult goal in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. We evaluated the factors associated with durable glycemic control in a real clinical setting.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 194 new-onset, drug-naïve patients with T2DM who were diagnosed between January 2011 and March 2013, and were followed up for >2 years. Glycemic durability was defined as the maintenance of optimal glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] <7.0% for 2 years without substitution or adding other glucose-lowering agents. Clinical factors and glycemic markers associated with glycemic durability were compared between two groups: a durability group and a non-durability group.ResultsPatients in the durability group had a higher baseline body mass index (26.1 kg/m2 vs. 24.9 kg/m2 and lower HbA1c (8.6% vs. 9.7% than the non-durability group. The initial choice of glucose-lowering agents was similar in both groups, except for insulin and sulfonylureas, which were more frequently prescribed in the non-durability group. In multiple logistic regression analyses, higher levels of education, physical activity, and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β were associated with glycemic durability. Notably, lower HbA1c (<7.0% at baseline and first follow-up were significantly associated with glycemic durability (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 7.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.51 to 22.3 (adjusted OR, 9.27; 95% CI, 1.62 to 53.1, respectively, after adjusting for confounding variables including the types of glucose-lowering agents.ConclusionEarly achievement of HbA1c level within the glycemic target was a determinant of long-term glycemic durability in new-onset T2DM, as were higher levels of education, physical activity, and HOMA-β.

  20. Surface and atmospheric controls on the onset of moist convection over land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gentine, P.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Andrea, D' F.; Ek, M.

    2013-01-01

    The onset of moist convection over land is investigated using a conceptual approach with a slab boundary layer model. We here determine the essential factors for the onset of boundary layer clouds over land, and study their relative importance. They are: 1) the ratio of the temperature to the

  1. Modulations of the executive control network by stimulus onset asynchrony in a Stroop task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Manipulating task difficulty is a useful way of elucidating the functional recruitment of the brain’s executive control network. In a Stroop task, pre-exposing the irrelevant word using varying stimulus onset asynchronies (‘negative’ SOAs) modulates the amount of behavioural interference and facilitation, suggesting disparate mechanisms of cognitive processing in each SOA. The current study employed a Stroop task with three SOAs (−400, -200, 0 ms), using functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate for the first time the neural effects of SOA manipulation. Of specific interest were 1) how SOA affects the neural representation of interference and facilitation; 2) response priming effects in negative SOAs; and 3) attentional effects of blocked SOA presentation. Results The results revealed three regions of the executive control network that were sensitive to SOA during Stroop interference; the 0 ms SOA elicited the greatest activation of these areas but experienced relatively smaller behavioural interference, suggesting that the enhanced recruitment led to more efficient conflict processing. Response priming effects were localized to the right inferior frontal gyrus, which is consistent with the idea that this region performed response inhibition in incongruent conditions to overcome the incorrectly-primed response, as well as more general action updating and response preparation. Finally, the right superior parietal lobe was sensitive to blocked SOA presentation and was most active for the 0 ms SOA, suggesting that this region is involved in attentional control. Conclusions SOA exerted both trial-specific and block-wide effects on executive processing, providing a unique paradigm for functional investigations of the cognitive control network. PMID:23902451

  2. Reducing Eating Disorder Onset in a Very High Risk Sample with Significant Comorbid Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. Barr; Kass, Andrea E.; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki; Sinton, Meghan; Aspen, Vandana; Schecthman, Kenneth; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Eating disorders (EDs) are serious problems among college-age women and may be preventable. An indicated on-line eating disorder (ED) intervention, designed to reduce ED and comorbid pathology, was evaluated. Method 206 women (M age = 20 ± 1.8 years; 51% White/Caucasian, 11% African American, 10% Hispanic, 21% Asian/Asian American, 7% other) at very high risk for ED onset (i.e., with high weight/shape concerns plus a history of being teased, current or lifetime depression, and/or non-clinical levels of compensatory behaviors) were randomized to a 10-week, Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention or wait-list control. Assessments included the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE to assess ED onset), EDE-Questionnaire, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. Results ED attitudes and behaviors improved more in the intervention than control group (p = 0.02, d = 0.31); although ED onset rate was 27% lower, this difference was not significant (p = 0.28, NNT = 15). In the subgroup with highest shape concerns, ED onset rate was significantly lower in the intervention than control group (20% versus 42%, p = 0.025, NNT = 5). For the 27 individuals with depression at baseline, depressive symptomatology improved more in the intervention than control group (p = 0.016, d = 0.96); although ED onset rate was lower in the intervention than control group, this difference was not significant (25% versus 57%, NNT = 4). Conclusions An inexpensive, easily disseminated intervention might reduce ED onset among those at highest risk. Low adoption rates need to be addressed in future research. PMID:26795936

  3. Reducing eating disorder onset in a very high risk sample with significant comorbid depression: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C Barr; Kass, Andrea E; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki; Sinton, Meghan; Aspen, Vandana; Schecthman, Kenneth; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E

    2016-05-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are serious problems among college-age women and may be preventable. An indicated online eating disorder (ED) intervention, designed to reduce ED and comorbid pathology, was evaluated. 206 women (M age = 20 ± 1.8 years; 51% White/Caucasian, 11% African American, 10% Hispanic, 21% Asian/Asian American, 7% other) at very high risk for ED onset (i.e., with high weight/shape concerns plus a history of being teased, current or lifetime depression, and/or nonclinical levels of compensatory behaviors) were randomized to a 10-week, Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention or waitlist control. Assessments included the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE, to assess ED onset), EDE-Questionnaire, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. ED attitudes and behaviors improved more in the intervention than control group (p = .02, d = 0.31); although ED onset rate was 27% lower, this difference was not significant (p = .28, NNT = 15). In the subgroup with highest shape concerns, ED onset rate was significantly lower in the intervention than control group (20% vs. 42%, p = .025, NNT = 5). For the 27 individuals with depression at baseline, depressive symptomatology improved more in the intervention than control group (p = .016, d = 0.96); although ED onset rate was lower in the intervention than control group, this difference was not significant (25% vs. 57%, NNT = 4). An inexpensive, easily disseminated intervention might reduce ED onset among those at highest risk. Low adoption rates need to be addressed in future research. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Nusinersen versus Sham Control in Later-Onset Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, Eugenio; Darras, Basil T; Chiriboga, Claudia A; Day, John W; Campbell, Craig; Connolly, Anne M; Iannaccone, Susan T; Kirschner, Janbernd; Kuntz, Nancy L; Saito, Kayoko; Shieh, Perry B; Tulinius, Már; Mazzone, Elena S; Montes, Jacqueline; Bishop, Kathie M; Yang, Qingqing; Foster, Richard; Gheuens, Sarah; Bennett, C Frank; Farwell, Wildon; Schneider, Eugene; De Vivo, Darryl C; Finkel, Richard S

    2018-02-15

    Nusinersen is an antisense oligonucleotide drug that modulates pre-messenger RNA splicing of the survival motor neuron 2 ( SMN2) gene. It has been developed for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, sham-controlled, phase 3 trial of nusinersen in 126 children with SMA who had symptom onset after 6 months of age. The children were randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, to undergo intrathecal administration of nusinersen at a dose of 12 mg (nusinersen group) or a sham procedure (control group) on days 1, 29, 85, and 274. The primary end point was the least-squares mean change from baseline in the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale-Expanded (HFMSE) score at 15 months of treatment; HFMSE scores range from 0 to 66, with higher scores indicating better motor function. Secondary end points included the percentage of children with a clinically meaningful increase from baseline in the HFMSE score (≥3 points), an outcome that indicates improvement in at least two motor skills. In the prespecified interim analysis, there was a least-squares mean increase from baseline to month 15 in the HFMSE score in the nusinersen group (by 4.0 points) and a least-squares mean decrease in the control group (by -1.9 points), with a significant between-group difference favoring nusinersen (least-squares mean difference in change, 5.9 points; 95% confidence interval, 3.7 to 8.1; PCHERISH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02292537 .).

  5. Comparison of the effects of spinal epidural and general anesthesia on coagulation and fibrinolysis in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized controlled trial: VSJ Competition, 2nd place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryas, Suleyman; Donmez, Turgut; Erdem, Vuslat Muslu; Erdem, Duygu Ayfer; Hatipoglu, Engin; Ferahman, Sina; Sunamak, Oguzhan; Zengin, Lale Yoldas; Kocakusak, Ahmet

    2017-09-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is usually performed under general anesthesia. Recently, laparoscopic cholecystectomy under regional anesthesia has become popular, but this creates a serious risk of thromboembolism because of pneumoperitoneum, anesthesia technique, operative positioning, and patient-specific risk factors. This randomized controlled trial compares the effects of two different anesthesia techniques in laparoscopic cholecystectomy on coagulation and fibrinolysis. This randomized prospective study included 60 low-risk patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) who underwent elective LC without thrombo-emboli prophylaxis. The patients were randomly divided into two groups according to the anesthesia technique: the general anesthesia (group 1, n = 30) and spinal epidural anesthesia (group 2, n = 30) groups. Measurement of the prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and blood levels of D-dimer (DD) and fibrinogen (F) were recorded preoperatively (pre), at the first hour (post 1) and 24 h (post 24) after the surgery. These results were compared both between and within the groups. The mean age was 51.5 ±16.7 years (range: 19-79 years). Pneumoperitoneum time was similar between group 1 (33.8 ±7.8) and group 2 (34.8 ±10.4). The TT levels significantly declined postoperatively in both groups. The levels of PT, aPTT, INR, D-dimer and fibrinogen dramatically increased postoperatively in both groups. While there was not any DVT, there was a significant decline in TT. There was a dramatic rise in the PT, INR, D-dimer, fibrin degradation products (FDP), and fibrinogen following LC. This may be attributed to the effects of pneumoperitoneum and anesthesia techniques on portal vein flow.

  6. Effect of tranexamic acid on coagulation and fibrinolysis in women with postpartum haemorrhage (WOMAN-ETAC): protocol and statistical analysis plan for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakur, Haleema; Fawole, Bukola; Kuti, Modupe; Olayemi, Oladapo; Bello, Adenike; Ogunbode, Olayinka; Kotila, Taiwo; Aimakhu, Chris O; Huque, Sumaya; Gregg, Meghann; Roberts, Ian

    2016-12-16

    Background : Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death. Tranexamic acid has the potential to reduce bleeding and a large randomized controlled trial of its effect on maternal health outcomes in women with PPH (The WOMAN trial) is ongoing. We will examine the effect of tranexamic acid on fibrinolysis and coagulation in a subset of WOMAN trial participants. Methods . Adult women with clinically diagnosed primary PPH after vaginal or caesarean delivery are eligible for inclusion in the WOMAN trial. In a sub-group of trial participants, blood samples will be collected at baseline and 30 minutes after the first dose of tranexamic acid or matching placebo.  Our primary objective is to evaluate the effect of tranexamic acid on fibrinolysis. Fibrinolysis will be assessed by measuring D-dimers and by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). Secondary outcomes are international normalized ratio (INR), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen, haemoglobin and platelets. We aim to include about 180 women from the University College Hospital, Ibadan in Nigeria. Discussion:  This sub-study of WOMAN trial participants should provide information on the mechanism of action of tranexamic acid in women with postpartum haemorrhage. We present the trial protocol and statistical analysis plan. The trial protocol was registered prior to the start of patient recruitment. The statistical analysis plan was completed before un-blinding. Trial registration: The trial was registered: ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier NCT00872469 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00872469; ISRCTN registry, Identifier ISRCTN76912190 http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN76912190 (Registration date: 22/03/2012).

  7. Imaging the onset kinetics of the swarming transition using light-controlled bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yi; Tai, Yishu; Zhang, Kechun; Cheng, Xiang

    Active fluids are a novel class of nonequilibrium soft materials, which are composed of a large number of self-propelled particles. These particles collectively form coherent structures at high densities, as illustrated vividly by the striking patterns of flocking birds, schooling fishes and swarming bacteria. Although the disorder-swarming transition of active fluids has been extensively studied, its very nature is still under heated debate. Here, using an engineered E. coli strain, whose locomotion can be reversibly controlled by light, we experimentally study the onset of the swarming transition of active fluids and explore its kinetic pathway. Particularly, we trigger bacterial swarming using a blue light and image the emergence of the collective structure in concentrated bacterial suspensions. We find a discontinuous jump in the order parameter of the transition and observe a hysteresis in the formation of swarming, which indicate the discontinuous nature. We further investigate the microscopic dynamics in the context of nucleation-and-growth processes and measure the incubation time and the size distribution of nuclei. Our study sheds light on the phase transition of active fluids and the emergent properties of many-body nonequilibrium systems.

  8. coagulation factors level in fresh frozen plasma in rwanda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-02

    Feb 2, 2014 ... Setting: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology in ... a major role in blood coagulation process. ... storage conditions and quality control prior to clinical ... instrumentation Laboratory Company USA made in.

  9. Cognitive Control in Bilingual Children Disentangling the Effects of Second-Language Proficiency and Onset Age of Acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struys, E.; Mohades, G.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2015-01-01

    Studies comparing the cognitive control of bilingual and monolingual speakers are inconclusive about the nature and underlying mechanisms of differences in language-related processing. In the present study, in order to disentangle the impact of second-language onset age of acquisition and

  10. Abrupt onsets capture attention independent of top-down control settings 11: Additivity is no evidence for filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreij, D.; Theeuwes, J.; Olivers, C.N.L.

    2010-01-01

    Is attentional capture contingent on top-down control settings or involuntarily driven by salient stimuli? Supporting the stimulus-driven attentional capture view, Schreij, Owens, and Theeuwes (2008) found that an onset distractor caused a response delay, in spite of participants' having adopted an

  11. Effects of melatonin and bright light treatment in childhood chronic sleep onset insomnia with late melatonin onset: A randomised controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, A.; Meijer, A.M.; Smits, M.G.; van der Heijden, K.B.; Oort, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Chronic sleep onset insomnia with late melatonin onset is prevalent in childhood, and has negative daytime consequences. Melatonin treatment is known to be effective in treating these sleep problems. Bright light therapy might be an alternative treatment, with potential advantages

  12. EFFECTS OF ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES ON COAGULATING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. Sadeghipour Roudsari.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty young, healthy, nonsmoking women (mean age approximately 28 years taking low-dose oral contraceptive pills were recruited for the study of the effects of these pills on coagulating factors. Twenty subjects were taking LD pill (Ethinyl estradiol 0.03 mg, levonorgestrel 0.15 mg and 10 others were taking Cilest (Ethinyl estradiol 0.035 mg, Norgestimate 0.25 mg for six months. The control subjects did not receive any oral contraceptives or other medications. Our results showed that:"n1. There is no significant difference between the effects of LD and Cilest (with a different progestin content on coagulating factors."n2. No significant changes were observed between both LD users and controls in PT, APTT, and fibrinogen levels."n3. No significant changes were observed between both Cilest users and controls in PT, APTT, and fibrinogen levels."n

  13. Effect of biological and coagulation pre-treatments to control organic and biofouling potential components of ultrafiltration membrane in the treatment of lake water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Kajol, Annaduzzaman; Suja, Fatihah; Md Zain, Shahrom

    2017-03-01

    Biological aerated filter (BAF), sand filtration (SF), alum and Moringa oleifera coagulation were investigated as a pre-treatment for reducing the organic and biofouling potential component of an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane in the treatment of lake water. The carbohydrate content was mainly responsible for reversible fouling of the UF membrane compared to protein or dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. All pre-treatment could effectively reduce these contents and led to improve the UF filterability. Both BAF and SF markedly led to improvement in flux than coagulation processes, and alum gave greater flux than M. oleifera. This was attributed to the effective removal and/or breakdown of high molecular weight (MW) organics by biofilters. BAF led to greater improvement in flux than SF, due to greater breakdown of high MW organics, and this was also confirmed by the attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Coagulation processes were ineffective in removing biofouling potential components, whereas both biofilters were very effective as shown by the reduction of low MW organics, biodegradable dissolved organic carbon and assimilable organic carbon contents. This study demonstrated the potential of biological pre-treatments for reducing organic and biofouling potential component and thus improving flux for the UF of lake water treatment.

  14. Morbidity and mortality of childhood- and adolescent-onset epilepsy: A controlled national study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Pickering, Line; Christensen, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    aged 0-5years and 5018 patients aged 6-20years diagnosed in 1998-2002 were identified and compared with, respectively, 6246 and 10,036 persons matched for age, gender, and place of living with randomly chosen citizens from the Danish Civil Registration System Statistics. In the NPR, all morbidities......persons who were young at the onset...

  15. White Matter Lesions, Carotid and Coronary Atherosclerosis in Late-Onset Depression and Healthy Controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devantier, Torben Albert; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Poulsen, Mikael Kjær

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) are more common in individuals with late-onset or late-life depression. It has been proposed that carotid atherosclerosis may predispose to WMLs by inducing cerebral hypoperfusion. This hemodynamic effect of carotid atherosclerosis could be importa...

  16. Early-onset baldness and the risk of aggressive prostate cancer: findings from a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Nathan P; MacInnis, Robert J; English, Dallas R; Bolton, Damien; Davis, Ian D; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Millar, Jeremy L; Severi, Gianluca; Hopper, John L; Giles, Graham G

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the associations between androgenetic alopecia at a young age and subsequent development of aggressive prostate cancer (PC). Using a case-control design with self-administered questionnaire, we evaluated the association between aggressive PC and very early-onset balding at age 20, and early-onset balding at age 40 years in 1,941 men. Cases were men with high-grade and/or advanced stage cancer and controls were clinic based men who had undergone biopsy and were found to be histologically cancer negative. Additionally, for cases we assessed whether early-onset balding was associated with earlier onset of disease. Men with very early-onset balding at age 20 years were at increased risk for subsequent aggressive PC [odds ratio (OR) 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.12] after adjustment for age at baseline, family history of PC, smoking status, alcohol intake, body shape, timing of growth spurt and ejaculatory frequency. Additionally, these men were diagnosed with PC approximately 16 months earlier than cases without the exposure. The effect was present particularly for men with advanced stage pT3+ disease (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.14-2.47) while men with organ-confined high-grade (8-10) PC did not exhibit the same relationship. No significant associations were observed for men who were balding at age 40 years, given no balding at age 20. Men with androgenetic alopecia at age 20 years are at increased risk of advanced stage PC. This small subset of men are potentially candidates for earlier screening and urological follow-up.

  17. Effects of Melatonin and Bright Light Treatment in Childhood Chronic Sleep Onset Insomnia With Late Melatonin Onset: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maanen, Annette; Meijer, Anne Marie; Smits, Marcel G; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B; Oort, Frans J

    2017-02-01

    Chronic sleep onset insomnia with late melatonin onset is prevalent in childhood, and has negative daytime consequences. Melatonin treatment is known to be effective in treating these sleep problems. Bright light therapy might be an alternative treatment, with potential advantages over melatonin treatment. In this study, we compare the effects of melatonin and bright light treatment with a placebo condition in children with chronic sleep onset insomnia and late melatonin onset. Eighty-four children (mean age 10.0 years, 61% boys) first entered a baseline week, after which they received melatonin (N = 26), light (N = 30), or placebo pills (N = 28) for 3 to 4 weeks. Sleep was measured daily with sleep diaries and actigraphy. Before and after treatment children completed a questionnaire on chronic sleep reduction, and Dim Light Melatonin Onset (DLMO) was measured. Results were analyzed with linear mixed model analyses. Melatonin treatment and light therapy decreased sleep latency (sleep diary) and advanced sleep onset (sleep diary and actigraphy), although for sleep onset the effects of melatonin were stronger. In addition, melatonin treatment advanced DLMO and had positive effects on sleep latency and sleep efficiency (actigraphy data), and sleep time (sleep diary and actigraphy data). However, wake after sleep onset (actigraphy) increased with melatonin treatment. No effects on chronic sleep reduction were found. We found positive effects of both melatonin and light treatment on various sleep outcomes, but more and stronger effects were found for melatonin treatment. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Dim light melatonin onset in alcohol-dependent men and women compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Deirdre A; Hairston, Ilana S; Arnedt, J Todd; Hoffmann, Robert F; Armitage, Roseanne; Brower, Kirk J

    2012-02-01

    Sleep disturbances in alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals may persist despite abstinence from alcohol and can influence the course of the disorder. Although the mechanisms of sleep disturbances of AD are not well understood and some evidence suggests dysregulation of circadian rhythms, dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) has not previously been assessed in AD versus healthy control (HC) individuals in a sample that varied by sex and race. The authors assessed 52 AD participants (mean ± SD age: 36.0 ± 11.0 yrs of age, 10 women) who were 3-12 wks since their last drink (abstinence: 57.9 ± 19.3 d) and 19 age- and sex-matched HCs (34.4 ± 10.6 yrs, 5 women). Following a 23:00-06:00 h at-home sleep schedule for at least 5 d and screening/baseline nights in the sleep laboratory, participants underwent a 3-h extension of wakefulness (02:00 h bedtime) during which salivary melatonin samples were collected every 30 min beginning at 19:30 h. The time of DLMO was the primary measure of circadian physiology and was assessed with two commonly used methodologies. There was a slower rate of rise and lower maximal amplitude of the melatonin rhythm in the AD group. DLMO varied by the method used to derive it. Using 3 pg/mL as threshold, no significant differences were found between the AD and HC groups. Using 2 standard deviations above the mean of the first three samples, the DLMO in AD occurred significantly later, 21:02 ± 00:41 h, than in HC, 20:44 ± 00:21 h (t = -2.4, p = .02). Although melatonin in the AD group appears to have a slower rate of rise, using well-established criteria to assess the salivary DLMO did not reveal differences between AD and HC participants. Only when capturing melatonin when it is already rising was DLMO found to be significantly delayed by a mean 18 min in AD participants. Future circadian analyses on alcoholics should account for these methodological caveats.

  19. School Bonds and the Onset of Substance Use among Korean Youth: An Examination of Social Control Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonsun Han

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between school bonds and the onset of substance use among adolescents in South Korea. Based on Hirschi’s social control theory, this study tested the roles of teacher attachment, educational aspiration, extracurricular activities, and rule internalization—four elements of social bonds within the school setting—in delayed initiation of alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. Discrete-time logistic regression was used to analyze five waves of the Korea Youth Panel Survey (N = 3449 at baseline, a nationally representative sample of Korean youth. Stronger teacher attachment, higher educational aspiration, and higher rule internalization were correlated with delayed onset of alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. On the other hand, participation in school extracurricular activities was positively associated with the onset of alcohol drinking, but not statistically significantly linked with the onset of cigarette smoking. These findings suggest that early prevention strategies for youth substance use should specifically target school-related factors that represent social bonds developed among youth.

  20. The effect of sleep onset on upper airway muscle activity in patients with sleep apnoea versus controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Robert B; Trinder, John; White, David P; Malhotra, Atul; Raneri, Jill; Schory, Karen; Kleverlaan, Darci; Pierce, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    Pharyngeal dilator muscles are important in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSA). We have previously shown that during wakefulness, the activity of both the genioglossus (GGEMG) and tensor palatini (TPEMG) is greater in patients with OSA compared with controls. Further, EMG activity decreases at sleep onset, and the decrement is greater in apnoea patients than in healthy controls. In addition, it is known that the prevalence of OSA is greater in middle-aged compared with younger men. Thus, we had two goals in this study. First we compared upper airway muscle activity between young and middle-aged healthy men compared with men with OSA. We also explored the mechanisms responsible for the decrement in muscle activity at sleep onset in these groups. We investigated muscle activity, ventilation , and upper airway resistance (UAR) during wakefulness and sleep onset (transition from α to θ EEG activity) in all three groups. Measurements were obtained during basal breathing (BB) and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was applied to reduce negative pressure-mediated muscle activation). We found that during wakefulness there was a gradation of GGEMG and UAR (younger < older < OSA) and that muscle activity was reduced by the application of nasal CPAP (to a greater degree in the OSA patients). Although CPAP eliminated differences in UAR during wakefulness and sleep, GGEMG remained greater in the OSA patients. During sleep onset, a greater initial fall in GGEMG was seen in the OSA patients followed by subsequent muscle recruitment in the third to fifth breaths following the α to θ transition. On the CPAP night, and GGEMG still fell further in the OSA patients compared with control subjects. CPAP prevented the rise in UAR at sleep onset along with the associated recruitment in GGEMG. Differences in TPEMG among the groups were not significant. These data suggest that the middle-aged men had upper airway function midway between that of

  1. Blood coagulation factors as inflammatory mediators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, Saskia H. H. F.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2005-01-01

    After the first observations about blood coagulation by Hippocrates, it took until the early 1900s before the classic theory of blood coagulation was presented. As more and more other coagulation factors were discovered, the four-factor coagulation scheme became more complex, but better understood,

  2. Bio-responsive polymer hydrogels homeostatically regulate blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitz, Manfred F; Freudenberg, Uwe; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Fischer, Marion; Beyrich, Theresa; Werner, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Bio-responsive polymer architectures can empower medical therapies by engaging molecular feedback-response mechanisms resembling the homeostatic adaptation of living tissues to varying environmental constraints. Here we show that a blood coagulation-responsive hydrogel system can deliver heparin in amounts triggered by the environmental levels of thrombin, the key enzyme of the coagulation cascade, which--in turn--becomes inactivated due to released heparin. The bio-responsive hydrogel quantitatively quenches blood coagulation over several hours in the presence of pro-coagulant stimuli and during repeated incubation with fresh, non-anticoagulated blood. These features enable the introduced material to provide sustainable, autoregulated anticoagulation, addressing a key challenge of many medical therapies. Beyond that, the explored concept may facilitate the development of materials that allow the effective and controlled application of drugs and biomolecules.

  3. Inhibitory control and the onset of combustible cigarette, e-cigarette, and hookah use in early adolescence: The moderating role of socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Nathaniel R; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the moderating influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the associations between inhibitory control and the onset of combustible cigarette, electronic (e-) cigarette, and hookah use in early adolescence. A total of 407 adolescents self-reported nicotine use, inhibitory control, and SES. The hypothesis that inhibitory control would be significantly associated with nicotine use onset (i.e., combustible cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and hookah) only under the condition of low SES was tested. Direct associations were found for inhibitory control on "ever use" of all three nicotine use variables. A moderating effect was also found whereby low inhibitory control was significantly associated with nicotine use onset when participants were from low, but not high, SES families. Findings illustrate one contextual condition under which inhibitory control is associated with early onset of nicotine use.

  4. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzieff, V.; Alonso, I.; Vázquez, A.

    2004-01-01

    It is estimated that 20-25% of cases of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) relate to an underlying neoplasia primarily hematologic. It is estimated that about 5% of patients with solid tumors have CID clinic, although the incidence of subclinical alterations is much higher. The CID is not limited to the activation of the coagulation cascade, which leads to bleeding micro thrombosis and consumption of coagulation factors. Solid tumors are frequently associated adenocarcinomas producers mucin (especially gastric), usually in the context of a disseminated disease. The mucin may act as a promoter of the cascade, but probably it is a multi-event. High levels of TNF to produced by the tumor mass and chemotherapy-induced cell lysis have Also linked. Although the bleeding is usually oriented diagnosis, the most frequent cause of death is thrombosis. There are no specific tests for diagnosis. Elevated levels of D-dimer and products oriented fibrinogen degradation diagnosis. No reduction fibrinogen and almost always, one thrombocytopenia consumption. Treatment is complex and there is no consensus on many points. To recover the lost factors for consumption, it is recommended to use fresh frozen plasma and / or washed red blood cells. the heparin anticoagulation low dose is indicated since the disease causal can not be controlled quickly, but should not be initiated if there thrombocytopenia 50.000.El under profuse bleeding can require the use of tranexamic acid or EACA. Acute DIC, the case of our patient, is rare and very serious

  5. Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water by Adsorption and Coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Removal of arsenic from drinking water has been an important issue worldwide, which has attracted greater attentions in recent years especially for supplying safe drinking water in developing countries. Although many kinds of treatment approaches that are available or applicable both in principle and practice, such as adsorption, coagulation, membrane filtration, ion exchange, biological process, electrocoagulation and so on, the first 2 approaches (i.e., adsorption and coagulation) are most promising due to the low-cost, high-efficiency, simplicity of treating systems, and thus can be practically used in developing countries. In this study, a literature survey on water quality in Bangladesh was performed to understand the ranges of arsenic concentration and pH of groundwater in Bangladesh. A series of tests were then organized and performed to investigate the effects of arsenic concentration, arsenic forms, pH, chemical compositions of the materials used for adsorption and coagulation, particle size distribution and treatment time on quality of treated water. The experimental results obtained in the study illustrated that both adsorption and coagulation can be used to effectively reduce the concentrations of either arsenic (V) or arsenic (III) from the contaminated water. Coagulation of arsenic with a magnesium-based material developed in this study can be very effective to remove arsenic, especially arsenic (V), from contaminated water with a concentration of 10 ppm to an undetectable level of 0.002 ppm by ICP analyses. Compared to arsenic (III), arsenic (V) is easier to be removed. The materials used for adsorption and coagulation in this study can remove arsenic (V) up to 9 mg/g and 6 mg/g, and arsenic (III) up to 4 mg/g and 3 mg/g, respectively, depending on test conditions and compositions of the materials being used. The control of pH during treatment can be a challenging technical issue for developing both adsorbent and coagulant. Keywords: Water Treatment

  6. Molecular Features and Methylation Status in Early Onset (≤40 Years Colorectal Cancer: A Population Based, Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Magnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is usually considered a disease of the elderly. However, a small fraction of patients develops colorectal cancer earlier. The aim of our study was to define the frequency of known hereditary colorectal syndromes and to characterise genetic and epigenetic features of early nonhereditary tumors. Thirty-three patients ≤40 years with diagnosis of colorectal cancer and 41 patients with disease at >60 years of age were investigated for MSI, Mismatch Repair proteins expression, KRAS and BRAF mutations, hypermethylation, and LINE-1 hypomethylation. Detection of germline mutations was performed in Mismatch Repair, APC and MUTYH genes. Early onset colorectal cancer showed a high incidence of hereditary forms (18%. KRAS mutations were detected in 36% of early nonhereditary tumors. Early onset colorectal cancer disclosed an average number of methylated genes significantly lower when compared to the controls (p=0.02. Finally both of the two groups were highly methylated in ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes and were similar for LINE-1 hypomethylation. The genetic make-up of carcinomas differs from young to elderly patients. Early onset tumors showed more frequently a constitutional defective of Mismatch Repair System and a minor number of methylated genes. Hypermethylation of ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes suggests possible markers in the earlier diagnosis of colorectal tumorigenesis.

  7. Characterization of the onset of embryonic control and early development in the bovine embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, F.L.

    1988-01-01

    Bovine embryos were used to determine if morphological and molecular features of early development are similar to in vivo recovered bovine embryos and to determine at what level early bovine development is regulated. Radiolabeling of IVP embryos and in vivo recovered embryos with 35 S-methionine for SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveals that these embryos are equivalent. Few differences in protein profiles are observed between 1- and early 4-cell embryos. A change in protein profiles begins at the mid 4-cell stage and continues into the 8-cell stage. Few differences in protein profiles are observed between 1- and early 4-cell embryos. A change in protein profiles begins at the mid 4-cell stage and continues into the 8-cell stage. Few differences in protein profiles are observed between late 8-cells and morulae. This transition is α-amanitin sensitive therefore due to de novo embryonic transcription. Embryonic transcription is partially responsible for terminating the post-transcriptionally regulated period of early bovine development. Argentophillic nucleolar organizing regions (Ag-NORs) indicate onset of nucleolar activation. Ag-NORs were absent in 2- and 4-cell IVP embryos and rarely occurred in 8-cell IVP embryos cultured in vitro. IVP 1- and 2-cell embryos cultured to blastocysts in sheep oviducts demonstrated Ag-NORs. Thus the lack of nucleolar activation of IVP embryos cultured in vitro is culture induced between the 2- and 8-cell stage

  8. A randomized controlled trial of coenzyme Q10 for fatigue in the late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Margaret M; Cooke, Marie; Lewis-Peel, Helen J; Lea, Rodney A; Moyle, Wendy

    2015-12-01

    To determine if coenzyme Q(10) alleviates fatigue in the late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis. Parallel-group, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Coenzyme Q(10) has been shown to boost muscle energy metabolism in post-polio subjects but it does not promote muscle strength, endurance or function in polio survivors with post-poliomyelitis syndrome. However, the collective increased energy metabolism might contribute to a reduction in post-polio fatigue. Polio survivors from the Australian post-polio networks in Queensland and New South Wales who attribute a moderate to high level of fatigue to their diagnosed late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis. Those with fatigue-associated comorbidities of diabetes, anaemia, hypothyroidism and fibromyalgia were excluded. Participants were assigned (1:1), with stratification of those who use energy-saving mobility aids, to receive 100 mg coenzyme Q(10) or matching placebo daily for 60 days. Participants and investigators were blinded to group allocation. Fatigue was assessed by the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue as the primary outcome and the Fatigue Severity Scale as secondary outcome. Of 103 participants, 54 were assigned to receive coenzyme Q(10) and 49 to receive the placebo. The difference in the mean score reductions between the two groups was not statistically significant for either fatigue measure. Oral supplementation with coenzyme Q(10) was safe and well-tolerated. A daily dose of 100 mg coenzyme Q(10) for 60 days does not alleviate the fatigue of the late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis. The registration number for the clinical trial is ACTRN 12612000552886. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Review of levetiracetam, with a focus on the extended release formulation, as adjuvant therapy in controlling partial-onset seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol M Ulloa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Carol M Ulloa, Allen Towfigh, Joseph SafdiehDepartment of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Levetiracetam is a second-generation antiepileptic drug (AED with a unique chemical structure and mechanism of action. The extended release formulation of levetiracetam (Keppra XR™; UCB Pharma was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial-onset seizures in patients 16 years of age and older with epilepsy. This approval is based on a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter, multinational trial. Levetiracetam XR allows for once-daily dosing, which may increase compliance and, given the relatively constant plasma concentrations, may minimize concentration-related adverse effects. Levetiracetam’s mode of action is not fully elucidated, but it has been found to target high-voltage, N-type calcium channels as well as the synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A. Levetiracetam has nearly ideal pharmacokinetics. It is rapidly and almost completely absorbed after oral ingestion, is ‹10% protein-bound, demonstrates linear kinetics, is minimally metabolized through a pathway independent of the cytochrome P450 system, has no significant drug–drug interactions, and has a wide therapeutic index. The most common reported adverse events with levetiracetam XR were somnolence, irritability, dizziness, nausea, influenza, and nasopharyngitis. Levetiracetam XR provides an efficacious and well-tolerated treatment option for adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial-onset seizures.Keywords: levetiracetam, partial-onset seizures, antiepileptic drugs

  10. The interplay between platelets and coagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeterings, C.

    2009-01-01

    Platelet activation and blood coagulation are two processes often studied separately, but which cannot be seen independently from each other. Platelets play a pivotal role in coagulation, not only by providing negatively charged phospholipids, but also in localizing the coagulation process from a

  11. Coagulants modulate the hypocholesterolemic effect of tofu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2006-02-02

    Feb 2, 2006 ... The recent increase in soymilk and tofu (coagulated soymilk) consumption especially in western countries is due to the recognition of the health benefits of soy foods. The amount and the type of coagulated biomolecules (such as isoflavones) vary with the type of coagulant, and this will inevitable alter their ...

  12. Using Coagulation Process in Optimizing Natural Organic Matter Removal from Low Turbidity Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mesdaghinia

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of coagulation process  for efficient removal of Natural Organic Matters (NOM has gained a lot of focus over the last years to meet the requirements of enhanced coagulation. NOM comprises both particulate and soluble components which the latter usually comprises the main portion. Removal of soluble NOM from low turbidity waters by coagulation is not a successful process unless enough attention is paid to stages of formation and development of both micro and macro-flocs. This study, which presents experimental results from pilot scale research studies aimed at optimizing coagulation process applied to synthetic raw waters supplemented by adding commercial humic acid with low turbidity levels, explains how pH and turbidity can be controlled to maximize soluble NOM removal. The removal of NOM at various coagulant doses and coagulation pHs has been assessed through raw and treated (coagulated-settled water measurements of total organic carbon (TOC. For low turbidity waters, essential floc nucleation sites can be provided by creating synthetic turbidities, for example by adding clay. Adjusting the initial pH at 5.5 or adding clay before coagulant addition allows the formation of micro-flocs as well as formation of the insoluble flocs at low coagulant doses.

  13. Postprandial triglycerides and blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, A

    2001-01-01

    Most of our lifetime we spend in the postprandial state. Postprandial triglyceridemia may represent a procoagulant state involving disturbances of both blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, in particular due to elevation of the plasma levels of activated factor VII (VIIa) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1). Therefore, disturbances of the hemostatic system might, at least partly, account for by the link between hypertriglyceridemia and coronary heart disease (CHD). Factor VIIa is the first enzyme of the blood coagulation system and serves a priming function for triggering of the clotting cascade. The coagulant activity of factor VII (VIIc, total activity of factor VII in plasma) was identified as an independent predictor of myocardial infarction in initially healthy middle-aged men, and particularly of fatal coronary events, and both serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations correlated positively with the VIIc level. Addition of fat to diet has been consistently shown to cause a rapid conversion of the factor VII zymogen into its active form (VIIa) whereas the concentration of total protein is unaffected. Postprandial activation of factor VII is dependent on lipolytic activity and it is mainly supported by large triglyceride-rich lipoprotein of the VLDL class. Studies in vivo with specific coagulation factor-deficient patients indicate that factor IX is essential for the postprandial activation of factor VII. The basal generation of thrombin seems to be unaffected by increased plasma levels of VIIa. However, since VIIa-tissue factor complex is responsible for the initiation of the coagulation cascade, increased generation of VIIa in the postprandial state would increase the potential for thrombin production in the event of plaque rupture. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the major physiological inhibitor of the plasminogen activators in the circulation and thereby the principal inhibitor of the fibrinolytic system. Postprandial

  14. The immediate and late effects of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine) on murine coagulation gene transcription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salloum-Asfar, Salam; Boelen, Anita; Reitsma, Pieter H.; van Vlijmen, Bart J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is associated with changes in coagulation. The aim of our study was to gain more insight into the role of thyroid hormone in coagulation control. C57Black/6J mice received a low-iodine diet and drinking water supplemented with perchlorate to suppress endogenous triiodothyronine

  15. Niacin therapy and the risk of new-onset diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, Christina; Taylor, Allen J; Nguyen, Peter; McCoy, Cody; Zhao, Xue-Qiao; Preiss, David

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that niacin treatment raises glucose levels in patients with diabetes and may increase the risk of developing diabetes. We undertook a meta-analysis of published and unpublished data from randomised trials to confirm whether an association exists between niacin and new-onset diabetes. We searched Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from 1975 to 2014, for randomised controlled trials of niacin primarily designed to assess its effects on cardiovascular endpoints and cardiovascular surrogate markers. We included trials with ≥50 non-diabetic participants and average follow-up of ≥24 weeks. Published data were tabulated and unpublished data sought from investigators. We calculated risk ratios (RR) for new-onset diabetes with random-effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity between trials was assessed using the I(2) statistic. In 11 trials with 26 340 non-diabetic participants, 1371 (725/13 121 assigned niacin; 646/13 219 assigned control) were diagnosed with diabetes during a weighted mean follow-up of 3.6 years. Niacin therapy was associated with a RR of 1.34 (95% CIs 1.21 to 1.49) for new-onset diabetes, with limited heterogeneity between trials (I(2)=0.0%, p=0.87). This equates to one additional case of diabetes per 43 (95% CI 30 to 70) initially non-diabetic individuals who are treated with niacin for 5 years. Results were consistent regardless of whether participants received background statin therapy (p for interaction=0.88) or combined therapy with laropiprant (p for interaction=0.52). Niacin therapy is associated with a moderately increased risk of developing diabetes regardless of background statin or combination laropiprant therapy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. WATER PURIFICATION BY COAGULATION UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ULTRASONIC FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikulina Vera Borisovna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors carried out experiments on the in-fluence of ultrasound on the subsidence of suspended materials. The efficiency of coagulation process in wa-ter purification in ultrasound field is estimated. The influence of ultrasound on the water with suspended materials before introducing coagulant was a condition of the experiment. The magnetostriction method for obtaining ultrasound oscillations with the help of ultra-sound generator of batch production was applied. The samples were chosen and the coagulation process was controlled using standard procedures. The experimental data was obtained which estimate the efficiency in-crease in the subsidence of suspended materials de-pending on the duration of ultrasound processing. Dur-ing one minute of ultrasound processing the following results were obtained: the subsidence efficiency in-creased by 25.83 % in case of coagulant share Al2O3 2.5 mg/l; the subsidence efficiency increased by 23.70 % in case of coagulant share Al2O3 5.0 mg/l.

  17. Gut microbiota diversity and T1DM onset: Preliminary data of a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Traversi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type-1 diabetes incidence is increasing during the last decades. Recently, a role of microbiota alteration is proposed as pre-diabetic and diabetic risk factor. A bicentric case-control study is in progress in Northern Italy. Here preliminary results are shown. The microbiome clusterization showed a division between cases and controls even if fingerprint profiles are heterogenic. Methanobrevibacter smithii is highly present only in few patients. The diversity index and the microorganism sequenced in cases and controls, seems to be quite dissimilar. The conclusive results could show a significant predictive value for the bio-indicators evaluated. Keywords: Type 1 diabetes mellitus, Microbiota, Children, Methanobrevibacter smithii, qRT-PCR

  18. ATP13A2 variants in early-onset Parkinson's disease patients and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djarmati, Ana; Hagenah, Johann; Reetz, Kathrin

    2009-01-01

    Four genes responsible for recessively inherited forms of Parkinson's disease (PD) have been identified, including the recently discovered ATP13A2 (PARK9) gene. Our objective was to investigate the role of this gene in a large cohort of PD patients and controls. We extensively screened all 29 exo...

  19. Onset of action and seizure control in Lennox-Gaustaut syndrome: focus on rufinamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P Saneto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Russell P Saneto1, Gail D Anderson21Division of Pediatric Neurology, Seattle Children’s Hospital/University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; 2Department of Pharmacy, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USAAbstract: Lennox-Gaustaut syndrome is an electroclinical epilepsy syndrome characterized by the triad of electroencephalogram showing diffuse slow spike-and-wave discharges and paroxysmal fast activity, multiple intractable seizure types, and cognitive impairment. The intractability to seizure medications and cognitive impairment gives rise to eventual institutionalized patient care. Only a small subset of seizure medications has been shown to be helpful in seizure control. Most patients take up to 3 medications at high therapeutic dosing and are susceptible to medication-induced side effects. The lack of medication efficacy in seizure control has led one meta-analysis to conclude that there is no single medication that is highly efficacious in controlling seizures in this syndrome. On this background, a new and structurally novel seizure medication, rufinamide, has been found to be beneficial in the treatment of seizures in this syndrome. In a multicenter, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study, rufinamide was found to reduce seizures by over 30%. More importantly, it reduced the frequency of the seizure type that induces most of the morbidity of this syndrome, the drop seizure, by over 40%. There were few side effects, the medication was well tolerated, and in the open labeled extension study, tolerance was not found. In this review, we describe the main electroclinical features of Lennox-Gaustaut syndrome and summarize the few controlled studies that have contributed to its rational treatment. Currently, there is no single agent or combination of agents that effectively treat the multiple seizure types and co-morbidities in this syndrome. Our focus will be on the role of the new medication rufinamide in

  20. Parental high concern and adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa. A case-control study to investigate direction of causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoebridge, P; Gowers, S G

    2000-02-01

    Robust evidence that anorexia nervosa is preceded rather than accompanied by high-concern (overprotective) parenting is limited. To look for evidence of parental high concern occurring before any onset of disorder. Forty consecutive referrals of adolescent girls with DSM-III-R anorexia nervosa were compared with matched controls using obstetric records and maternal interviews. Index mothers reported higher rates of: near-exclusive child care (P = 0.02), infant sleep difficulties (P = 0.018), severe distress at first regular separation (P = 0.048), high maternal trait anxiety levels (P = 0.008) and later age for first sleeping away from home (P = 0.009). More index families had experienced a severe obstetric loss prior to their daughter's birth (P = 0.066). This study lends evidence to the clinical contention that high-concern parenting in infancy is associated with the later development of anorexia nervosa. This may derive, in part, from aspects of unresolved grief.

  1. Bubble CPAP versus ventilator CPAP in preterm neonates with early onset respiratory distress--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagare, Amit; Kadam, Sandeep; Vaidya, Umesh; Pandit, Anand; Patole, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP) is a low cost nasal CPAP delivery system with potential benefits to developing nations. To compare the efficacy and safety of BCPAP with ventilator-derived CPAP (VCPAP) in preterm neonates with respiratory distress. In a randomized controlled trial, preterm neonates with Silverman-Anderson score ≥ 4 and oxygen requirement >30% within first 6 h of life were randomly allocated to BCPAP or VCPAP. Proportion of neonates with success or failure was compared. In all, 47 of 57 (82.5%) neonates from BCPAP group and 36 of 57 (63.2%) neonates from the VCPAP group completed CPAP successfully (p = 0.03). Neonates who failed CPAP had higher Silverman-Anderson score (p neonates with early onset respiratory distress, with comparable safety.

  2. JNK Controls the Onset of Mitosis in Planarian Stem Cells and Triggers Apoptotic Cell Death Required for Regeneration and Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuedo-Castillo, María; Crespo, Xenia; Seebeck, Florian; Bartscherer, Kerstin; Salò, Emili; Adell, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Regeneration of lost tissues depends on the precise interpretation of molecular signals that control and coordinate the onset of proliferation, cellular differentiation and cell death. However, the nature of those molecular signals and the mechanisms that integrate the cellular responses remain largely unknown. The planarian flatworm is a unique model in which regeneration and tissue renewal can be comprehensively studied in vivo. The presence of a population of adult pluripotent stem cells combined with the ability to decode signaling after wounding enable planarians to regenerate a complete, correctly proportioned animal within a few days after any kind of amputation, and to adapt their size to nutritional changes without compromising functionality. Here, we demonstrate that the stress-activated c-jun–NH2–kinase (JNK) links wound-induced apoptosis to the stem cell response during planarian regeneration. We show that JNK modulates the expression of wound-related genes, triggers apoptosis and attenuates the onset of mitosis in stem cells specifically after tissue loss. Furthermore, in pre-existing body regions, JNK activity is required to establish a positive balance between cell death and stem cell proliferation to enable tissue renewal, remodeling and the maintenance of proportionality. During homeostatic degrowth, JNK RNAi blocks apoptosis, resulting in impaired organ remodeling and rescaling. Our findings indicate that JNK-dependent apoptotic cell death is crucial to coordinate tissue renewal and remodeling required to regenerate and to maintain a correctly proportioned animal. Hence, JNK might act as a hub, translating wound signals into apoptotic cell death, controlled stem cell proliferation and differentiation, all of which are required to coordinate regeneration and tissue renewal. PMID:24922054

  3. Error-enhancing robot therapy to induce motor control improvement in childhood onset primary dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casellato Claudia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robot-generated deviating forces during multijoint reaching movements have been applied to investigate motor control and to tune neuromotor adaptation. Can the application of force to limbs improve motor learning? In this framework, the response to altered dynamic environments of children affected by primary dystonia has never been studied. Methods As preliminary pilot study, eleven children with primary dystonia and eleven age-matched healthy control subjects were asked to perform upper limb movements, triangle-reaching (three directions and circle-writing, using a haptic robot interacting with ad-hoc developed task-specific visual interfaces. Three dynamic conditions were provided, null additive external force (A, constant disturbing force (B and deactivation of the additive external force again (C. The path length for each trial was computed, from the recorded position data and interaction events. Results The results show that the disturbing force affects significantly the movement outcomes in healthy but not in dystonic subjects, already compromised in the reference condition: the external alteration uncalibrates the healthy sensorimotor system, while the dystonic one is already strongly uncalibrated. The lack of systematic compensation for perturbation effects during B condition is reflected into the absence of after-effects in C condition, which would be the evidence that CNS generates a prediction of the perturbing forces using an internal model of the environment. The most promising finding is that in dystonic population the altered dynamic exposure seems to induce a subsequent improvement, i.e. a beneficial after-effect in terms of optimal path control, compared with the correspondent reference movement outcome. Conclusions The short-time error-enhancing training in dystonia could represent an effective approach for motor performance improvement, since the exposure to controlled dynamic alterations induces a refining

  4. Using multivariate machine learning methods and structural MRI to classify childhood onset schizophrenia and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna eGreenstein

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multivariate machine learning methods can be used to classify groups of schizophrenia patients and controls using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. However, machine learning methods to date have not been extended beyond classification and contemporaneously applied in a meaningful way to clinical measures. We hypothesized that brain measures would classify groups, and that increased likelihood of being classified as a patient using regional brain measures would be positively related to illness severity, developmental delays and genetic risk. Methods: Using 74 anatomic brain MRI sub regions and Random Forest, we classified 98 COS patients and 99 age, sex, and ethnicity-matched healthy controls. We also used Random Forest to determine the likelihood of being classified as a schizophrenia patient based on MRI measures. We then explored relationships between brain-based probability of illness and symptoms, premorbid development, and presence of copy number variation associated with schizophrenia. Results: Brain regions jointly classified COS and control groups with 73.7% accuracy. Greater brain-based probability of illness was associated with worse functioning (p= 0.0004 and fewer developmental delays (p=0.02. Presence of copy number variation (CNV was associated with lower probability of being classified as schizophrenia (p=0.001. The regions that were most important in classifying groups included left temporal lobes, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal regions, and left medial parietal lobes. Conclusions: Schizophrenia and control groups can be well classified using Random Forest and anatomic brain measures, and brain-based probability of illness has a positive relationship with illness severity and a negative relationship with developmental delays/problems and CNV-based risk.

  5. Optimization of coagulation-flocculation process for colour removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response surface methodology (RSM) using face-centered central composite design (FCCD) was used to optimize the four variables. Increase in the colour removal efficiency was higher in acidic solution pH. Accurate control of coagulant dosages gave optimum destabilization of charged particles and re-stabilization ...

  6. Coagulation Status in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben Marie; Johansen, Maria Egede; Mogensen, Ulla B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammatory diseases other than hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) have been associated with prothrombotic/hypercoagulable status. OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible association between the chronic inflammatory skin disease HS and prothrombotic/hypercoagulable state. METHODS: We.......3432). CONCLUSION: We did not find an association between HS and prothrombotic/hypercoagulable status. Thus, thrombocytes may not be activated in HS. Furthermore, INR may not be affected in HS, suggesting that intrinsic and vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors appear unaffected....

  7. Onset and relapse of psychiatric disorders following early breast cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandubert, Catherine; Carrière, Isabelle; Escot, Chantal; Soulier, Maryvonne; Hermès, Aziz; Boulet, Patrick; Ritchie, Karen; Chaudieu, Isabelle

    2009-10-01

    Our objective is to evaluate the mental status of primary early breast cancer survivors according to DSM-IV criteria, distinguishing new psychiatric diagnosis, which started after the cancer diagnosis from relapse. A comparative study of 144 breast cancer survivors and 125 women without previous history of cancer was carried out. Neuropsychiatric symptomatology was assessed retrospectively using standardized psychiatric examinations (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Watson's Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Inventory) over three successive periods, 'before cancer' (from childhood to 3 years before the interview), 'around the cancer event' (the last 3 years including the time of diagnosis and treatment), and 'currently' (the last 2 weeks). Increased rates of anxiety and mood disorders were observed following a diagnosis of breast cancer compared with controls (generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD); 10.4 vs 1.6% and 19.4 vs 8.8%, respectively). The cancer disease promoted the development of dysthymia (n=4 new cases/6 two-year prevalent cases) and PTSD (7/7) and the re-emergence of MDD (n=21 relapses/28 three-year prevalent cases) and GAD (10/15). No improvement in serious mood disorders such as MDD (16.0 vs 7.2%) and dysthymia (4.2 vs 0%) was reported at the time of interview, more than 1.75 years (median time) after the cancer surgery, the prevalence being 2-4 times greater in breast cancer survivors than in controls. Despite significant advances in treatment, a diagnosis of breast cancer is highly associated with various forms of psychopathology, regardless of psychiatric history, with symptoms persisting after treatment. These results may assist clinicians in planning mental healthcare for women with breast cancer.

  8. Longitudinal development of the gut microbiome and metabolome in preterm neonates with late onset sepsis and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Christopher J; Embleton, Nicholas D; Marrs, Emma C L; Smith, Daniel P; Fofanova, Tatiana; Nelson, Andrew; Skeath, Tom; Perry, John D; Petrosino, Joseph F; Berrington, Janet E; Cummings, Stephen P

    2017-07-12

    Late onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. While studies have implicated gut bacteria in the aetiology of the disease, functional analysis and mechanistic insights are generally lacking. We performed temporal bacterial (n = 613) and metabolomic (n = 63) profiling on extensively sampled stool from 7 infants with LOS and 28 matched healthy (no LOS or NEC) controls. The bacteria isolated in diagnostic blood culture usually corresponded to the dominant bacterial genera in the gut microbiome. Longitudinal changes were monitored based on preterm gut community types (PGCTs), where control infants had an increased number of PGCTs compared to LOS infants (P = 0.011). PGCT 6, characterised by Bifidobacteria dominance, was only present in control infants. Metabolite profiles differed between LOS and control infants at diagnosis and 7 days later, but not 7 days prior to diagnosis. Bifidobacteria was positively correlated with control metabolites, including raffinose, sucrose, and acetic acid. Using multi-omic analysis, we show that the gut microbiome is involved in the pathogenesis of LOS. While the causative agent of LOS varies, it is usually abundant in the gut. Bifidobacteria dominance was associated with control infants, and the presence of this organism may directly protect, or act as a marker for protection, against gut epithelial translocation. While the metabolomic data is preliminary, the findings support that gut development and protection in preterm infants is associated with increased in prebiotic oligosaccharides (e.g. raffinose) and the growth of beneficial bacteria (e.g. Bifidobacterium).

  9. Hip pain onset in relation to cumulative workplace and leisure time mechanical load: a population based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, D P; Hunt, I M; Birrell, F N; Silman, A J; Macfarlane, G J

    2003-04-01

    In an unselected community sample of adults, to assess the role and importance of exposure to mechanical factors both at work and leisure in the aetiology of hip pain. A population based prevalence case-control study. Cases and controls were identified from a population survey of 3847 subjects registered with two general practices in Cheshire, United Kingdom. All subjects received a postal questionnaire which inquired about hip pain during the past month. An occupational history was obtained, including exposure to each of seven physical demands. Information was also obtained on history of participation in eight common sporting activities. 88% of those invited to participate returned a completed questionnaire. The 352 subjects with hip pain were designated as cases, and the remaining 3002 subjects as controls. In people ever employed, hip pain was significantly associated with high cumulative workplace exposure (before onset) of walking long distances over rough ground, lifting/moving heavy weights, sitting for prolonged periods, walking long distances, frequent jumping between different levels, and standing for prolonged periods. Odds ratios (ORs) in the higher exposure categories ranged from 1.46 to 2.65. Cumulative exposure to three sporting activities was significantly associated with hip pain: track and field sports, jogging, and walking, with odds ratios varying between 1.57 to 1.94. On multivariate analysis three factors were independent predictors of hip pain onset: cumulative exposure of sitting for prolonged periods (higher exposure v not exposed: OR=1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13 to 2.92), lifting weights >50 lb (23 kg) (OR=1.74, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.86) (both relating to the workplace), and walking as a leisure activity (OR=1.97, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.94). The population attributable risk associated with each of these activities was 21%, 13%, and 16%, respectively Cumulative exposure to some workplace and sporting "mechanical" risk factors for hip

  10. Effect of THI on milk coagulation properties of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Beux

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of temperature-humidity index (THI on the milk coagulation properties of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle from northeast part of Italy. A total of 592 individual milk samples from six dairy herds were evaluated. The milk coagulation properties traits analysed were milk rennet coagulation time and curd firmness, as well as the fat, protein, and casein contents, pH, milk aptitude to coagulate (IAC, and the somatic cell count. The THI was determined during the periods of sample collection. The THI results showed that values of up to 75 did not significantly change the IAC values; however, when the THI values were above 75, the IAC decreased significantly. The control of THI can be used to guarantee appropriate milk coagulation properties.

  11. Changes in autumn vegetation dormancy onset date and the climate controls across temperate ecosystems in China from 1982 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Guan, Huade; Shen, Miaogen; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Lei

    2015-02-01

    Vegetation phenology is a sensitive indicator of the dynamic response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. In this study, the spatiotemporal pattern of vegetation dormancy onset date (DOD) and its climate controls over temperate China were examined by analysing the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index and concurrent climate data from 1982 to 2010. Results show that preseason (May through October) air temperature is the primary climatic control of the DOD spatial pattern across temperate China, whereas preseason cumulative precipitation is dominantly associated with the DOD spatial pattern in relatively cold regions. Temporally, the average DOD over China's temperate ecosystems has delayed by 0.13 days per year during the past three decades. However, the delay trends are not continuous throughout the 29-year period. The DOD experienced the largest delay during the 1980s, but the delay trend slowed down or even reversed during the 1990s and 2000s. Our results also show that interannual variations in DOD are most significantly related with preseason mean temperature in most ecosystems, except for the desert ecosystem for which the variations in DOD are mainly regulated by preseason cumulative precipitation. Moreover, temperature also determines the spatial pattern of temperature sensitivity of DOD, which became significantly lower as temperature increased. On the other hand, the temperature sensitivity of DOD increases with increasing precipitation, especially in relatively dry areas (e.g. temperate grassland). This finding stresses the importance of hydrological control on the response of autumn phenology to changes in temperature, which must be accounted in current temperature-driven phenological models. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The Test-Retest Reliability OfTthe Onset Of Core And Vasti Eectromyographic Activity While Ascending And Descending Stairs In Healthy Controls Aand patellofemoral Pain Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Ali Sanjari

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Backgroundentity.It is hypothesized to result from abnormal patellar tracking caused by altered motorcontrol. Deficit in neuromotor control of the core may be a remote contributing factor to thedevelopment of PFP. Application of reliable EMG measures would be helpful to handle thistheory. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of thecore and vasti EMG onsets, while ascending/descending stairs.: Patellofemoral pain (PFP is a common affliction and complex clinicalMethodsand Core EMG onsets during stair stepping were assessed two times a day. Intraclass correlationcoefficients (ICCs and standard errors of measurement (SEMs were calculated.: Ten males with PFP and ten healthy controls participated in this study. VastiResultsonsets of control cases (ICC 3,1 ≥ 0.70 except Quadratus Lumborum (QL which showeda moderate reliability (ICC for ascending=0.59 and for descending = 0.61. In controls,Vasti in both tasks showed the highest absolute reliability. During ascending, highreliability (ICC ≥ 0.70 in PFP group was demonstrated for all EMG onsets except Gluteusmaximus (GMAX and QL which showed a moderate reliability (ICC = 0.69 and 0.63 respectively.In this group while descending stairs, all EMG onsets showed high relativereliability (ICC ≥ 0.70. Moderate to high absolute reliability was obtained for onset timeswhile ascending/descending stairs in PFP group.: During both ascending/descending, high reliability was found for all EMGConclusionreliability.: Most EMG onsets during stair scending/descending had moderate to high

  13. Melatonin Improves Health Status and Sleep in Children With Idiopathic Chronic Sleep-Onset Insomnia: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.G.; Stel, H.F. van; Heijden, K.B. van der; Meijer, A.M.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Kerkhof, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of melatonin treatment on health status and sleep in children with idiopathic sleep-onset insomnia. Method: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in a Dutch sleep center, involving 62 children, 6 to 12 years of age, who suffered more

  14. Initiator Systems Effect on Particle Coagulation and Particle Size Distribution in One-Step Emulsion Polymerization of Styrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baijun Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Particle coagulation is a facile approach to produce large-scale polymer latex particles. This approach has been widely used in academic and industrial research owing to its higher polymerization rate and one-step polymerization process. Our work was motivated to control the extent (or time of particle coagulation. Depending on reaction parameters, particle coagulation is also able to produce narrowly dispersed latex particles. In this study, a series of experiments were performed to investigate the role of the initiator system in determining particle coagulation and particle size distribution. Under the optimal initiation conditions, such as cationic initiator systems or higher reaction temperature, the time of particle coagulation would be advanced to particle nucleation period, leading to the narrowly dispersed polymer latex particles. By using a combination of the Smoluchowski equation and the electrostatic stability theory, the relationship between the particle size distribution and particle coagulation was established: the earlier the particle coagulation, the narrower the particle size distribution, while the larger the extent of particle coagulation, the larger the average particle size. Combined with the results of previous studies, a systematic method controlling the particle size distribution in the presence of particle coagulation was developed.

  15. Investigation of coagulation activity of natural coagulants from seeds of different leguminose species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćiban Marina B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of seeds of plants: Phaseolus vulgaris, Robinia pseudoacacia Ceratonia siliqua and Amorpha fruticosa, to act as natural coagulants was tested using synthetic turbid water. This water was prepared by adding kaolin into tap water, just before the test. Active components were extracted from ground seeds with distilled water. The coagulation ability of this extract was assessed by the use of standard jar test measurements in water with various initial turbidity. Investigation of these natural coagulants was confirmed their positive coagulation activity. Of all plants that have been examined, the seed extract from Ceratonia siliqua appeared to be one of the most effective coagulants for water treatment. A dose of 20 mg/l of this coagulant resulted in 100% coagulation activity for clarification of water with 17.5 NTU initial turbidity.

  16. Genetic variants in the cell cycle control pathways contribute to early onset colorectal cancer in Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyun; Etzel, Carol J; Amos, Christopher I; Zhang, Qing; Viscofsky, Nancy; Lindor, Noralane M; Lynch, Patrick M; Frazier, Marsha L

    2009-11-01

    Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome of familial malignancies resulting from germ line mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Our goal was to take a pathway-based approach to investigate the influence of polymorphisms in cell cycle-related genes on age of onset for Lynch syndrome using a tree model. We evaluated polymorphisms in a panel of cell cycle-related genes (AURKA, CDKN2A, TP53, E2F2, CCND1, TP73, MDM2, IGF1, and CDKN2B) in 220 MMR gene mutation carriers from 129 families. We applied a novel statistical approach, tree modeling (Classification and Regression Tree), to the analysis of data on patients with Lynch syndrome to identify individuals with a higher probability of developing colorectal cancer at an early age and explore the gene-gene interactions between polymorphisms in cell cycle genes. We found that the subgroup with CDKN2A C580T wild-type genotype, IGF1 CA-repeats >or=19, E2F2 variant genotype, AURKA wild-type genotype, and CCND1 variant genotype had the youngest age of onset, with a 45-year median onset age, while the subgroup with CDKN2A C580T wild-type genotype, IGF1 CA-repeats >or=19, E2F2 wild-type genotype, and AURKA variant genotype had the latest median age of onset, which was 70 years. Furthermore, we found evidence of a possible gene-gene interaction between E2F2 and AURKA genes related to CRC age of onset. Polymorphisms in these cell cycle-related genes work together to modify the age at the onset of CRC in patients with Lynch syndrome. These studies provide an important part of the foundation for development of a model for stratifying age of onset risk among those with Lynch syndrome.

  17. Review of Coagulation Technology for Removal of Arsenic: Case of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Sancha, Ana María

    2006-01-01

    Coagulation technology has been used since 1970 in northern Chile for removing arsenic from drinking-water. This experience suggests that coagulation is an effective technology for the removal of arsenic. It is currently possible to reduce arsenic from 400 μg/L to 10 μg/L at a rate of 500 L/sec, assuming pH, oxidizing and coagulation agents are strictly controlled. The Chilean experience with the removal of arsenic demonstrates that the water matrix dictates the selection of the arsenic-remov...

  18. Randomised controlled trial of the onset of analgesic efficacy of dexketoprofen and diclofenac in lower limb injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, P; Kapadia, Y; Herington, J

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the time of onset and difference in analgesic efficacy of oral dexketoprofen compared with oral diclofenac in patients with acute lower limb injury. Design: A prospective, double blind, randomised controlled trial. Interventions: Patients who fitted the study criteria were given either 25 mg oral dexketoprofen trometamol or 50 mg sodium diclofenac immediately after triage; baseline and 15 minute pain scores were then recorded for one hour. Results: 122 patients were studied (diclofenac = 57 and dexketoprofen = 65). There were no significant differences in age, sex, type of injury, or baseline pain scores between the two groups. The differences in group mean pain scores between diclofenac and dexketoprofen at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes were; 0.53 (95% confidence intervals -0.03 to 1.09), 0.70 (0.16 to 1.24), 0.89 (0.32 to 1.47), and 0.83 (0.21 to 1.45). Odds ratios for a decrease in pain score of at least 1 from baseline (on the 11 point scale) when given dexketoprofen rather than diclofenac at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes were; 2.66 (1.19 to 5.98), 3.52 (1.60 to 7.73), 4.48 (1.72 to 11.65), and 5.54 (1.90 to 16.15). Corresponding odds ratios for a decrease in pain score of ⩾2 were; 6.88 (1.48 to 32.0), 3.79 (1.59 to 9.01), 5.19 (2.29 to 11.78), and 5.87 (2.68 to 12.88). Conclusions: Dexketoprofen trometamol is an effective and rapidly acting analgesic for the treatment of acute musculoskeletal injuries. PMID:14623834

  19. Objective measures of sleep and dim light melatonin onset in adolescents and young adults with delayed sleep phase disorder compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxvig, Ingvild W; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Pallesen, Ståle; Vedaa, Oystein; Nordhus, Inger H; Sørensen, Eli; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2013-08-01

    Delayed sleep phase disorder is characterized by a delay in the timing of the major sleep period relative to conventional norms. The sleep period itself has traditionally been described as normal. Nevertheless, it is possible that sleep regulatory mechanism disturbances associated with the disorder may affect sleep duration and/or architecture. Polysomnographic data that may shed light on the issue are scarce. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine polysomnographic measures of sleep in adolescents and young adults with delayed sleep phase disorder, and to compare findings to that of healthy controls. A second aim was to estimate dim light melatonin onset as a marker of circadian rhythm and to investigate the phase angle relationship (time interval) between dim light melatonin onset and the sleep period. Data from 54 adolescents and young adults were analysed, 35 diagnosed with delayed sleep phase disorder and 19 healthy controls. Results show delayed timing of sleep in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder, but once sleep was initiated no group differences in sleep parameters were observed. Dim light melatonin onset was delayed in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder, but no difference in phase angle was observed between the groups. In conclusion, both sleep and dim light melatonin onset were delayed in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder. The sleep period appeared to occur at the same circadian phase in both groups, and once sleep was initiated no differences in sleep parameters were observed. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  20. Process of coagulating asphalts, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, J A; Pfersch, G

    1931-03-28

    The present invention has for its object a process of deasphaltizing and deparaffining applicable to mixtures of hydrocarbons such as crude mineral oils and tars obtained under the influence of heat from shales, lignites, peats, and similar products, to natural bitumens and those obtained by extraction with organic solvents and also all those derived from the substances, the process in question having the following characteristics: the coagulation or the precipitation of the asphaltic material, the resinous material, and the asphaltic and resinous material, which is found in the colloidal state or any other state in the substances given above, is obtained by the addition of a small amount of solvent and of acids or mixtures of acids.

  1. Onset of action of a lozenge containing flurbiprofen 8.75 mg: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a new method for measuring onset of analgesic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachtel, Bernard; Aspley, Sue; Shephard, Adrian; Shea, Timothy; Smith, Gary; Sanner, Kathleen; Savino, Laurie; Rezuke, Jeanne; Schachtel, Emily

    2014-02-01

    A new onset-of-action model was utilized to distinguish the pharmacologic activity of flurbiprofen 8.75mg delivered in a lozenge from the demulcent effect of the lozenge base. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients with sore throat rated pain on a Sore Throat Pain Intensity Scale before taking one flurbiprofen or placebo lozenge and at frequent (2-minute) intervals over the first hour after treatment. Further ratings of the Sore Throat Pain Intensity Scale and other patient-reported outcomes (difficulty swallowing, swollen throat, pain relief) were obtained at varying intervals over 6 hours. Onset of pharmacologic activity was defined as the median time of first perceived pain reduction if a patient reported clinically meaningful (at least moderate) relief. The conventional method of comparing mean treatment responses at each time point was also implemented. Demulcent action was detected at the first 2-minute assessment. By the new method, 102 flurbiprofen-treated patients were identified as first perceiving pain relief at 12 minutes, compared with >120 minutes by 102 patients using placebo (Pflurbiprofen 8.75 mg was first significantly differentiated from placebo at 26 minutes (Pflurbiprofen lozenge was demonstrated for 3.5-4hours on the 4 patient-reported outcomes (all Pflurbiprofen 8.75-mg lozenge provides early relief of sore throat. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Condutivity effect in electro-coagulation-flotation applied to physico-chemical wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Cuba Terán; Mário Luiz Rodrigues Foco

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on the effect of conductivity on the simultaneous applicability of water electrolysis , chemical coagulation and flotation fundamentals in the treatment of wastewater with large amounts of suspended matter, characterizing electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) . Results from experiments carried out in a pilot study implanted and operated in the Laboratory of Environment Control (LCA), at the State University of Campinas in Limeira are presented. ECF was developed in an electro...

  3. Maternal and neonatal risk factors for early-onset group B streptococcal disease: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Kadri HM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hanan M Al-Kadri,1 Samira S Bamuhair,2 Sameera M Al Johani,3 Namsha A Al-Buriki,1 Hani M Tamim4 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Department of Basic Medical Sciences, 3Microbiology Division, 4Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Objectives: To identify the prominent maternal and neonatal risk factors associated with early-onset group B streptococcus (EOGBS disease in neonates and to determine their importance by comparing them with a control group. Setting: Neonatal unit at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Patients: Cases were infants <7 days of age with invasive group B streptococcus (GBS disease diagnosed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2009. Controls were healthy infants born in the same hospital during the same period having the same birth weight and gestational age category. Main outcome measures: Maternal risk factors for developing EOGBS disease, feto–maternal and neonatal clinical data, their morbidities, mortalities, and length of hospital stay. Results: A total of 99 cases and 200 controls were included. The majority of cases presented in the first 72 hours of life (62/99 [63.9%], of which 87/99 (89.7% had at least one clinical risk factor for the development of EOGBS disease. Mothers of neonates with EOGBS disease were more likely to have GBS bacteriuria (odds ratio [OR] 10.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24–93.42, infection in the peripartum period (OR 8.92, CI 2.87–27.68, and temperature ≥38°C (OR 7.10, CI 2.50–20.17. GBS disease was associated with premature rupture of membranes and fetal tachycardia (P<0.01 for both. Neonates with EOGBS disease were more likely to have respiratory distress disease and convulsions, require tube feeding, and have longer hospital stays compared with the controls (P<0.01 for all. Stepwise multiple logistic

  4. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on recovery from delayed onset muscle soreness: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynders, Corey A; Weltman, Judy Y; Rynders, Sara D; Patrie, James; McKnight, John; Katch, Frank I; Hertel, Jay; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of a proprietary herbal/botanical supplement (StemSport, Stemtech, San Clemente, CA.) suggested to increase circulating stem cells, decrease inflammation, and attenuate exercise induced muscle damage on recovery from delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Sixteen subjects (male = 7, female = 9; age 23.8 ± 10 years; height 171.9 ± 10 cm, mass 72.2 ± 15 kg) were randomized in a crossover, double-blind, placebo controlled trial to receive a placebo or StemSport supplement (6150 mg/day) for 14 days. DOMS was induced on day 7 for both placebo and active conditions in the non-dominant elbow flexor group with repeated eccentric repetitions. Muscle swelling (biceps girth), elbow flexor isometric strength (hand held dynamometer), muscle pain/tenderness (visual analog scale), range of motion (active elbow flexion and extension), and inflammation (hsCRP, IL6, and TNF-α) were measured at baseline and at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 168 h (1 week) post eccentric exercise. The crossover washout period was ≥14 days. No significant condition-by-time interactions between placebo and StemSport supplementation were observed with regard to measures of pain (p = 0.59), tenderness (p = 0.71), isometric strength (p = 0.32), elbow flexion (p = 0.45), muscle swelling (p = 0.90), or inflammation (p > 0.90). Decrements in elbow extension range of motion 48 h post-exercise were less after StemSport supplementation (Δ elbow extension 48 h post; StemSport, -2.0 deg; placebo, -10 deg; p = 0.003). These data suggest that compared to placebo, StemSport supplementation does not improve outcome measures related to muscle recovery after acute upper-arm induced DOMS.

  5. Activation of the coagulation cascade in patients with scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Jeong; Park, Chi-Young; Park, Sang-Gon; Yoon, Na-Ra; Kim, Dong-Min; Chung, Choon-Hae

    2017-09-01

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the levels of coagulation factors and presence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in patients with scrub typhus. We included patients confirmed to have scrub typhus at the Chosun University Hospital between September 2004 and December 2009. The DIC scores were evaluated in 365 patients and 36 healthy controls. The median concentrations of fibrinogen, d-dimer, and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) were compared between patients and healthy controls (pscrub typhus had longer prothrombin time and lower platelet counts than the controls. Major bleeding was observed in 18/365 patients with scrub typhus. Fifty-one (14.0%) patients presented with severe complications of scrub typhus. Overt DIC and thrombocytopenia (scrub typhus had overt DIC, as defined by the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis DIC score (DIC1) and the DIC-scoring template with a fibrinogen/C-reactive protein-ratio (DIC2), respectively. Three (16.7%) and 10 (55.6%) patients with bleeding had overt DIC, as defined by the DIC1 and DIC2, respectively. Seven (13.7%) and 26 (51%) patients with severe illness had overt DIC, as defined by DIC1 and DIC2, respectively. In conclusion, activation of the coagulation system is an important feature of scrub typhus and is correlated with severe disease, including bleeding. This is the first study to report a relationship between DIC and scrub typhus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of tranexamic acid on coagulation and fibrinolysis in women with postpartum haemorrhage (WOMAN-ETAC: protocol and statistical analysis plan for a randomized controlled trial [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleema Shakur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH is a leading cause of maternal death. Tranexamic acid has the potential to reduce bleeding and a large randomized controlled trial of its effect on maternal health outcomes in women with PPH (The WOMAN trial is ongoing. We will examine the effect of tranexamic acid on fibrinolysis and coagulation in a subset of WOMAN trial participants.   Methods. Adult women with clinically diagnosed primary PPH after vaginal or caesarean delivery are eligible for inclusion in the WOMAN trial. In a sub-group of trial participants, blood samples will be collected at baseline and 30 minutes after the first dose of tranexamic acid or matching placebo.  Our primary objective is to evaluate the effect of tranexamic acid on fibrinolysis. Fibrinolysis will be assessed by measuring D-dimers and by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM. Secondary outcomes are international normalized ratio (INR, prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, fibrinogen, haemoglobin and platelets. We aim to include about 180 women from the University College Hospital, Ibadan in Nigeria.   Discussion:  This sub-study of WOMAN trial participants should provide information on the mechanism of action of tranexamic acid in women with postpartum haemorrhage. We present the trial protocol and statistical analysis plan. The trial protocol was registered prior to the start of patient recruitment. The statistical analysis plan was completed before un-blinding.     Trial registration: The trial was registered: ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier NCT00872469 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00872469; ISRCTN registry, Identifier   ISRCTN76912190 http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN76912190 (Registration date: 22/03/2012.

  7. Late onset postoperative pulmonary fistula following a pulmonary segmentectomy using electrocautery or a harmonic scalpel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Keigo; Hata, Yoshinobu; Sasamoto, Shuichi; Tamaki, Kazuyoshi; Fukumori, Kazuhiko; Otsuka, Hajime; Hasegawa, Chiyoko; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to retrospectively examine the postoperative pulmonary fistula as a complication after the use of either electrocautery or a harmonic scalpel without stapling devices. The subjects of this study consisted of 28 patients who received a segmentectomy for a pulmonary malignant tumor, 25 cases of lung cancer and 3 of metastatic lung tumor. The electrocautery was used in 17 patients (EC group) and the harmonic scalpel in 11 (HS group). The levels of postoperative air leakage and postoperative complications were examined among the two groups retrospectively. The histological findings of the cut surface of the segmentectomy by electrocautery and harmonic scalpel were also examined. Hemostasis and air leakage both were well controlled during the operation, and the postoperative drainage period was short. No major postoperative complications occurred, and all patients began walking in the early postoperative days. However, 1 to 3 postoperative months after discharge, 8 patients showed late onset of a pulmonary fistula, 3 of the 17 (18%) in the EC group and 5 of the 11 (45%) in the HS group. The histological findings of the cut surface of the segmentectomy showed that most of the layer of coagulation necrosis by the harmonic scalpel measured 2 mm thick, and it was denser than that cut from electrocautery. The lumen of the bronchus markedly decreased in size, but it remained, as it also did under the effects of electrocautery. In the months following the operation, the incidence of the late onset of a pulmonary fistula was higher when the harmonic scalpel was used. It was believed that the small bronchial stump could not tolerate the airway pressure because the thick coagulation necrosis delayed healing of the postoperative wound. It was necessary to ligate the stump of a small bronchus, even though the stump had been temporally closed by coagulation necrosis with the electrocautery or harmonic scalpel during the operation.

  8. Surface Potential and Particle Size Effect on the Rate of Perikinetic Coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina-Bolivar, J. A.; Galisteo-Gonzalez, F.; Cabrerizo-Vilchez, M.; Hidalgo-alvarez, R.

    1998-01-01

    The diffusion-controlled rapid coagulation rate of monodisperse polystyrene particles in aqueous solutions has been measured with a low angle scattering apparatus (nephelometer). We have refined this technique by using a narrow scattering flow cell and a pneumatic addicting-mixing device to introduce the salt solution and the latex sample in the cell. Coagulation rate constants were determined from analysis of the scattered light intensity dependence with time at an angle of 4.5 degree centigrade ± 1 degree centigrade. Experiments were designed to check the effects of particle size, surface potential and counterion valency on rapid coagulation constant. The particle ranged in diameter from 151 nm to 530 nm. The results are compared with the predictions of Smoluchowski's theory. Experiments to obtain the stability diagrams and the critical coagulation concentration of latexes have been performed. (Author) 31 refs

  9. MRI evaluation and follow-up of bone necrosis after meningococcal infection and disseminated intravascular coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damry, N.; Schurmans, T.; Perlmutter, N.

    1993-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a serious complication of meningococcal septicaemia. It often results in infarction of various tissues namely the skin, adrenal glands, kidneys, brain and, much less commonly, bones. We describe a patient who presented bone lesions after meningococcal septicaemia. In addition to plain radiography and scintigraphy the lesions were evaluated with MRI and have proved to be extensive and still progressive, approxximately 18 months after the onset of the disease. (orig.)

  10. 凝血检验、血常规的影响因素及控制变异方法分析%The analysis of coagulation tests, blood routine test inlfuence factors and the variation control method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄祥丽; 代治国

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨凝血检验及血常规分析的影响因素及控制变异方法。方法选取2015年1~5月本院招募的健康成年志愿者60名,行凝血常规和血常规检测,对检测结果进行统计分析。结果压脉带使用3分钟时的活化部分凝血活酶时间(activated partial thromboplastin time,APTT)、凝血酶时间(thrombin time,TT)和凝血酶原时间(prothrombin time,PT)分别为(24.60±1.85)秒、(16.54±4.18)秒和(9.80±2.96)秒,均明显低于压脉带即刻时水平,差异有显著性(P<0.05)。压脉带使用3分钟时的红细胞(red blood cell,RBC)和血红蛋白(hemoglobin,HGB)分别为(5.28±0.64)×1012/L和(155.97±6.75)g/L,均明显高于压脉带即刻时水平,白细胞(white blood cell,WBC)和血小板(blood platelet,PLT)分别为(4.26±0.28)×109/L和(172.16±8.95)×109/L。离心前后放置2小时APTT分别为(37.18±2.68)秒和(30.05±3.19)秒,差异有显著性(P<0.05),而血浆纤维蛋白原(plasma fibrinogen,FIB)、TT和PT差异无显著性(P>0.05);离心前后放置4小时APTT、TT和PT差异有显著性(P<0.05)。标本放置24小时后RBC和PLT分别为(4.17±0.30)×1012/L和(165.29±5.58)×109/L,明显低于其他放置时间点,而WBC为(5.32±0.26)×109/L,高于其他放置时间点,差异有显著性(P<0.05)。结论标本采集和标本放置时间及方式对凝血检验及血常规分析有影响,重视控制变异方法,能极大提高检测数据可靠性。%Objective To investigate coagulation tests, blood routine test influence factors and the variation control method.Method60 healthy adult volunteers had been recruited in our hospital from January 2015 to May 2015, for blood coagulation and blood routine examination, the results were statistically analyzed.ResultPressure pulse belt used 3 minutes of activated partial thromboplastin time

  11. Predictors of glycemic control in the first year of diagnosis of childhood onset type 1 diabetes: A systematic review of quantitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarello Paes, Veena; Charalampopoulos, Dimitrios; Edge, Julie; Taylor-Robinson, David; Stephenson, Terence; Amin, Rakesh

    2018-02-01

    Early glycemic control is associated with reduced future vascular complications risk in type 1 diabetes (T1D). The aim of this study was to systematically review evidence on the predictors of glycemic control within 12 months of diagnosis of childhood onset T1D. Inclusion criteria for the electronic search were: interventional and observational studies that assessed and quantified an association between the predictor and glycemic control within 12 months of diagnosis of childhood onset T1D. A total of 17 915 articles were identified from 6 databases and 20 studies were finally included in the analysis. Harvest plots and narrative synthesis were used to summarize data from intervention (n = 0), prospective/retrospective cohort (n = 15), and cross-sectional (n = 5) studies. Significant predictors of poorer glycemic control 0 to 3 months after diagnosis were older age and female gender. Non-white ethnicity, diabetes autoantibody positivity, measures of deprivation, and non-private health insurance were potential predictors. Predictors of poorer glycemic control 4 to 12 months after diagnosis were: older age, non-white ethnicity, a single parent family, high hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels at diagnosis, longer T1D duration, and non-intensive insulin therapy. Potential predictors included: family with health issues, clinical factors, and comorbidities at diagnosis. Most significant predictors of poor glycemic control within 12 months of diagnosis of childhood onset T1D are non-modifiable. These factors need to be recognized and addressed through individualized and multidisciplinary diabetes care. Further research is required to confirm the association of potential predictors with early glycemic control. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A Novel Therapy for Chronic Sleep-Onset Insomnia: A Retrospective, Nonrandomized Controlled Study of Auto-Adjusting, Dual-Level, Positive Airway Pressure Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Barry; Ulibarri, Victor A; McIver, Natalia D; Nadorff, Michael R

    2016-09-29

    Evidence indicates that behavioral or drug therapy may not target underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms for chronic insomnia, possibly due to previously unrecognized high rates (30%-90%) of sleep apnea in chronic insomnia patients. Although treatment studies with positive airway pressure (PAP) demonstrate decreased severity of chronic sleep maintenance insomnia in patients with co-occurring sleep apnea, sleep-onset insomnia has not shown similar results. We hypothesized advanced PAP technology would be associated with decreased sleep-onset insomnia severity in a sample of predominantly psychiatric patients with comorbid sleep apnea. We reviewed charts of 74 severe sleep-onset insomnia patients seen from March 2011 to August 2015, all meeting American Academy of Sleep Medicine Work Group criteria for a chronic insomnia disorder and all affirming behavioral and psychological origins for insomnia (averaging 10 of 18 indicators/patient), as well as averaging 2 or more psychiatric symptoms or conditions: depression (65.2%), anxiety (41.9%), traumatic exposure (35.1%), claustrophobia (29.7%), panic attacks (28.4%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (20.3%). All patients failed continuous or bilevel PAP and were manually titrated with auto-adjusting PAP modes (auto-bilevel and adaptive-servo ventilation). At 1-year follow-up, patients were compared through nonrandom assignment on the basis of a PAP compliance metric of > 20 h/wk (56 PAP users) versus insomnia severity (Hedges' g = 1.72) and sleep-onset insomnia (g = 2.07) compared to partial users (g = 1.04 and 0.91, respectively). Both global and sleep-onset insomnia severity decreased below moderate levels in PAP users compared to partial users whose outcomes persisted at moderately severe levels. In a nonrandomized controlled retrospective study, advanced PAP technology (both auto-bilevel and adaptive servo-ventilation) were associated with large decreases in insomnia severity for sleep-onset insomnia patients who

  13. Removal of silver nanoparticles by coagulation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Qian; Li, Yan; Tang, Ting; Yuan, Zhihua; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This study investigated the removal of AgNP suspensions by four regular coagulants. • The optimal removal efficiencies for the four coagulants were achieved at pH 7.5. • The removal efficiency of AgNPs was affected by the natural water characteristics. • TEM and XRD showed that AgNPs or silver-containing NPs were adsorbed onto the flocs. -- Abstract: Commercial use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) will lead to a potential route for human exposure via potable water. Coagulation followed by sedimentation, as a conventional technique in the drinking water treatment facilities, may become an important barrier to prevent human from AgNP exposures. This study investigated the removal of AgNP suspensions by four regular coagulants. In the aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride coagulation systems, the water parameters slightly affected the AgNP removal. However, in the poly aluminum chloride and polyferric sulfate coagulation systems, the optimal removal efficiencies were achieved at pH 7.5, while higher or lower of pH could reduce the AgNP removal. Besides, the increasing natural organic matter (NOM) would reduce the AgNP removal, while Ca 2+ and suspended solids concentrations would also affect the AgNP removal. In addition, results from the transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed AgNPs or silver-containing nanoparticles were adsorbed onto the flocs. Finally, natural water samples were used to validate AgNP removal by coagulation. This study suggests that in the case of release of AgNPs into the source water, the traditional water treatment process, coagulation/sedimentation, can remove AgNPs and minimize the silver ion concentration under the well-optimized conditions

  14. Emergent self-similarity of cluster coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkin, Dmtiri O.

    A wide variety of nonequilibrium processes, such as coagulation of colloidal particles, aggregation of bacteria into colonies, coalescence of rain drops, bond formation between polymerization sites, and formation of planetesimals, fall under the rubric of cluster coagulation. We predict emergence of self-similar behavior in such systems when they are 'forced' by an external source of the smallest particles. The corresponding self-similar coagulation spectra prove to be power laws. Starting from the classical Smoluchowski coagulation equation, we identify the conditions required for emergence of self-similarity and show that the power-law exponent value for a particular coagulation mechanism depends on the homogeneity index of the corresponding coagulation kernel only. Next, we consider the current wave of mergers of large American banks as an 'unorthodox' application of coagulation theory. We predict that the bank size distribution has propensity to become a power law, and verify our prediction in a statistical study of the available economical data. We conclude this chapter by discussing economically significant phenomenon of capital condensation and predicting emergence of power-law distributions in other economical and social data. Finally, we turn to apparent semblance between cluster coagulation and turbulence and conclude that it is not accidental: both of these processes are instances of nonlinear cascades. This class of processes also includes river network formation models, certain force-chain models in granular mechanics, fragmentation due to collisional cascades, percolation, and growing random networks. We characterize a particular cascade by three indicies and show that the resulting power-law spectrum exponent depends on the indicies values only. The ensuing algebraic formula is remarkable for its simplicity.

  15. Monitoring soft tissue coagulation by optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihachev, A.; Lihacova, I.; Heinrichs, H.; Spigulis, J.; Trebst, T.; Wehner, M.

    2017-12-01

    Laser tissue welding (LTW) or laser tissue soldering (LTS) is investigated since many years for treatment of incisions, wound closure and anastomosis of vessels [1, 2]. Depending on the process, a certain temperature in the range between 65 °C to 85 °C must be reached and held for a few seconds. Care has to be taken not to overheat the tissue, otherwise necrosis or tissue carbonization may occur and will impair wound healing. Usually the temperature is monitored during the process to control the laser power [3]. This requires either bulky equipment or expensive and fragile infrared fibers to feed the temperature signal to an infrared detector. Alternatively, changes in tissue morphology can be directly observed by analysis of spectral reflectance. We investigate spectral changes in the range between 400 nm to 900 nm wavelength. Characteristic spectral changes occur when the temperature of tissue samples increase above 70 °C which is a typical setpoint value for temperature control of coagulation. We conclude that simple spectroscopy in the visible range can provide valuable information during LTS and LTW and probably replace the delicate measurement of temperature. A major advantage is that optical measurements can be performed using standard optical fibers and can be easily integrated into a surgical tool.

  16. Optical coherence tomography-guided laser microsurgery for blood coagulation with continuous-wave laser diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Yu; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Wang, Zu-Yi; Chi, Chun-Kai; Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chan, Ming-Che; Lee, Ya-Ju

    2015-11-16

    Blood coagulation is the clotting and subsequent dissolution of the clot following repair to the damaged tissue. However, inducing blood coagulation is difficult for some patients with homeostasis dysfunction or during surgery. In this study, we proposed a method to develop an integrated system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser microsurgery for blood coagulation. Also, an algorithm for positioning of the treatment location from OCT images was developed. With OCT scanning, 2D/3D OCT images and angiography of tissue can be obtained simultaneously, enabling to noninvasively reconstruct the morphological and microvascular structures for real-time monitoring of changes in biological tissues during laser microsurgery. Instead of high-cost pulsed lasers, continuous-wave laser diodes (CW-LDs) with the central wavelengths of 450 nm and 532 nm are used for blood coagulation, corresponding to higher absorption coefficients of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. Experimental results showed that the location of laser exposure can be accurately controlled with the proposed approach of imaging-based feedback positioning. Moreover, blood coagulation can be efficiently induced by CW-LDs and the coagulation process can be monitored in real-time with OCT. This technology enables to potentially provide accurate positioning for laser microsurgery and control the laser exposure to avoid extra damage by real-time OCT imaging.

  17. SYSTEM OF PRECISE DOSING OF COAGULANT IN THE PULVERIZING AERATOR POWERED BY WIND USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Osuch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods used to support land restoration lakes is the method of pulverizing aeration. Use of aerators powered exclusively by wind improves the condition of reservoirs, while not compromising the environment. The pulverizing aeration process drive is windy on the water aeration zone near bottom, while removing harmful gases anaerobic metabolism. Aerators of this type due to the unique method of operation also enable dosing of inactivation coagulants with oxygenated water to the depths of the lake. Mileage coagulant dosing can be made dependent on the speed of the wind, which has an impact on the performance of his work, because with the increase of wind speed dispensing valve coagulants should be stronger open. One of the methods for assessing the state of lakes is to measure water transparency. The softer visibility, the most likely state of the water is better. Dosage of coagulant so you can make the transparency of the water. Similarly, with increasing transparency water dispensing valve should be more covered up. Control of the drain valve dispenser coagulant can be simultaneously dependent on two factors. The study was designed method of control drain valve dispenser coagulant using fuzzy inference.

  18. Clinical efficacy, onset time and safety of bright light therapy in acute bipolar depression as an adjunctive therapy: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian-Hang; Dang, Wei-Min; Ma, Yan-Tao; Hu, Chang-Qing; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Guo-Yi; Wang, Gang; Shi, Chuan; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Bin; Zhou, Shu-Zhe; Feng, Lei; Geng, Shu-Xia; Tong, Yu-Zhen; Tang, Guan-Wen; He, Zhong-Kai; Zhen, Long; Yu, Xin

    2018-02-01

    Bright light therapy (BLT) is an effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder and non- seasonal depression. The efficacy of BLT in treating patients with bipolar disorder is still unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the efficacy, onset time and clinical safety of BLT in treating patients with acute bipolar depression as an adjunctive therapy (trial registration at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02009371). This was a multi-center, single blind, randomized clinical trial. Seventy-four participants were randomized in one of two treatment conditions: BLT and control (dim red light therapy, dRLT). Sixty-three participants completed the study (33 BLT, 30 dRLT). Light therapy lasted for two weeks, one hour every morning. All participants were required to complete several scales assessments at baseline, and at the end of weeks 1 and 2. The primary outcome measures were the clinical efficacy of BLT which was assessed by the reduction rate of HAMD-17 scores, and the onset time of BLT which was assessed by the reduction rate of QIDS-SR16 scores. The secondary outcome measures were rates of switch into hypomania or mania and adverse events. 1) Clinical efficacy: BLT showed a greater ameliorative effect on bipolar depression than the control, with response rates of 78.19% vs. 43.33% respectively (p < 0.01). 2) Onset day: Median onset day was 4.33 days in BLT group. 3) BLT-emergent hypomania: No participants experienced symptoms of hypomania. 4) Side effects: No serious adverse events were reported. BLT can be considered as an effective and safe adjunctive treatment for patients with acute bipolar depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Infrared coagulation versus rubber band ligation in early stage hemorrhoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P J

    2003-10-01

    The ideal therapy for early stages of hemorrhoids is always debated. Some are more effective but are more painful, others are less painful but their efficacy is also lower. Thus, comfort or efficacy is a major concern. In the present randomized study, a comparison is made between infrared coagulation and rubber band ligation in terms of effectiveness and discomfort. One hundred patients with second degree bleeding piles were randomized prospectively to either rubber band ligation (N = 54) or infrared coagulation (N = 46). Parameters measured included postoperative discomfort and pain, time to return to work, relief in incidence of bleeding, and recurrence rate. The mean age was 38 years (range 19-68 years). The mean duration of disease was 17.5 months (range 12 to 34 months). The number of male patients was double that of females. Postoperative pain during the first week was more intense in the band ligation group (2-5 vs 0-3 on a visual analogue scale). Post-defecation pain was more intense with band ligation and so was rectal tenesmus (P = 0.0059). The patients in the infrared coagulation group resumed their duties earlier (2 vs 4 days, P = 0.03), but also had a higher recurrence or failure rate (P = 0.03). Thus, we conclude that band ligation, although more effective in controlling symptoms and obliterating hemorrhoids, is associated with more pain and discomfort to the patient. As infrared coagulation can be conveniently repeated in case of recurrence, it could be considered to be a suitable alternative office procedure for the treatment of early stage hemorrhoids.

  20. Infrared coagulation versus rubber band ligation in early stage hemorrhoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Gupta

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The ideal therapy for early stages of hemorrhoids is always debated. Some are more effective but are more painful, others are less painful but their efficacy is also lower. Thus, comfort or efficacy is a major concern. In the present randomized study, a comparison is made between infrared coagulation and rubber band ligation in terms of effectiveness and discomfort. One hundred patients with second degree bleeding piles were randomized prospectively to either rubber band ligation (N = 54 or infrared coagulation (N = 46. Parameters measured included postoperative discomfort and pain, time to return to work, relief in incidence of bleeding, and recurrence rate. The mean age was 38 years (range 19-68 years. The mean duration of disease was 17.5 months (range 12 to 34 months. The number of male patients was double that of females. Postoperative pain during the first week was more intense in the band ligation group (2-5 vs 0-3 on a visual analogue scale. Post-defecation pain was more intense with band ligation and so was rectal tenesmus (P = 0.0059. The patients in the infrared coagulation group resumed their duties earlier (2 vs 4 days, P = 0.03, but also had a higher recurrence or failure rate (P = 0.03. Thus, we conclude that band ligation, although more effective in controlling symptoms and obliterating hemorrhoids, is associated with more pain and discomfort to the patient. As infrared coagulation can be conveniently repeated in case of recurrence, it could be considered to be a suitable alternative office procedure for the treatment of early stage hemorrhoids.

  1. [Coagulation factor VII levels in uremic patients and theirs influence factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jun; Xia, Ling-Hui; Wei, Wen-Ning; Song, Shan-Jun

    2004-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate coagulation factor VII level in uremic patients with chronic renal failure and to explore theirs influence factors. The plasma levels of coagulation factor VII were detected in 30 uremic patients with chronic renal failure before and after hemodialysis for 1 month, the factor VII activity (FVII:C) was determined by one-stage coagulation method, while activated factor VII (FVIIa) was measured by one-stage coagulation method using recombinant soluble tissue factor, and factor VII antigen was detected by ELISA. The results showed that: (1) The FVIIa, FVII:C and FVIIAg levels in chronic uremic patients before hemodialysis were 4.00 +/- 0.86 microg/L, (148.5 +/- 40.4)% and (99.8 +/- 21.1)% respectively, which were significantly increased, as compared with healthy controls [2.77 +/- 1.02 microg/L, (113.1 +/- 33.0)% and (73.7 +/- 18.3)% respectively, P factor VII was positively correlated with levels of blood uria nitrogen and serum creatinine before hemodialysis but not after hemodialysis. It is concluded that the enhanced levels of coagulation factor VII in chronic uremic patients suggested abnormal activated state, herperactivity and elevated production of factor VII which correlated with renal functional injury. The abnormality of factor VII in uremia may be aggravated by hemodialysis. Coagulation factor (FVII) may be a risk factor for cardiovascular events in uremic patients who especially had been accepted long-term hemodialysis.

  2. Hemorrhoidectomy: pedicle ligation vs pedicle coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, B.S.; Balaoch, I.B.; Sohu, K.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the outcome of pedicle ligation vs pedicle coagulation haemorrhoidectomy. Methodology: This comparative prospective study was carried out at Department of Surgery, Ghulam Muhammad Maher Medcial College Hospital, Sukkur, Pakistan from January 2011 to January 2013 and included 300 patients of hemorrhoids. After routine workup, patients were randomly divided into two equal groups with one group receiving pedicle ligation and other pedicle coagulation for hemorrhoidectomy. Postoperatively they were followed for a period of 8 weeks for complications including pain, urinary retention, bleeding and anal stricture. Pain was recorded up to 10th postoperative day on the basis of visual analogue scale. Results: Mean age was 45 years and male to female ratio was 1.7:1. Mean operative time in pedicle ligation group was 15 min (range 14-20 min) and 17 min (15-25 min) in pedicle coagulation group. In Pedicle ligation group, pain was worst in 35 patients, moderate in 85 and mild in 30 patients; on the other hand in pedicle coagulation group, just 09 patients experienced worst pain. Urinary retention was observed in 44 patients in pedicle ligation group and 19 in pedicle coagulation group. Five patients in pedicle ligation group developed bleeding after their discharge from hospital; 7 patients in pedicle coagulation group reported secondary bleeding. Anal stricture was a rare complication and was found equally common in both the groups. Conclusion: Conventional hemorrhoidectomy with pedicle coagulation is an effective treatment modality for hemorrhoids and is associated with less chance of postoperative anal pain and urinary retention. (author)

  3. Association of schizophrenia onset age and white matter integrity with treatment effect of D-cycloserine: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Kazuo; Uezato, Akihito; Itasaka, Michio; Atsuta, Hidenori; Narushima, Kenji; Yamamoto, Naoki; Kurumaji, Akeo; Tomita, Makoto; Oshima, Kazunari; Shoda, Kosaku; Tamaru, Mai; Nakataki, Masahito; Okazaki, Mitsutoshi; Ishiwata, Sayuri; Ishiwata, Yasuyoshi; Yasuhara, Masato; Arima, Kunimasa; Ohmori, Tetsuro; Nishikawa, Toru

    2017-07-12

    It has been reported that drugs which promote the N-Methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptor function by stimulating the glycine modulatory site in the receptor improve negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia patients being treated with antipsychotic drugs. We performed a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study involving 41 schizophrenia patients in which D-cycloserine 50 mg/day was added-on, and the influence of the onset age and association with white matter integrity on MR diffusion tensor imaging were investigated for the first time. The patients were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), and other scales. D-cycloserine did not improve positive or negative symptoms or cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. The investigation in consideration of the onset age suggests that D-cycloserine may aggravate negative symptoms of early-onset schizophrenia. The better treatment effect of D-cycloserine on BACS was observed when the white matter integrity of the sagittal stratum/ cingulum/fornix stria terminalis/genu of corpus callosum/external capsule was higher, and the better treatment effect on PANSS general psychopathology (PANSS-G) was observed when the white matter integrity of the splenium of corpus callosum was higher. In contrast, the better treatment effect of D-cycloserine on PANSS-G and SANS-IV were observed when the white matter integrity of the posterior thalamic radiation (left) was lower. It was suggested that response to D-cycloserine is influenced by the onset age and white matter integrity. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (number UMIN000000468 ). Registered 18 August 2006.

  4. Magnetic particle imaging of blood coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, Kenya, E-mail: murase@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Song, Ruixiao; Hiratsuka, Samu [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Division of Medical Technology and Science, Faculty of Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-06-23

    We investigated the feasibility of visualizing blood coagulation using a system for magnetic particle imaging (MPI). A magnetic field-free line is generated using two opposing neodymium magnets and transverse images are reconstructed from the third-harmonic signals received by a gradiometer coil, using the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization algorithm. Our MPI system was used to image the blood coagulation induced by adding CaCl{sub 2} to whole sheep blood mixed with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The “MPI value” was defined as the pixel value of the transverse image reconstructed from the third-harmonic signals. MPI values were significantly smaller for coagulated blood samples than those without coagulation. We confirmed the rationale of these results by calculating the third-harmonic signals for the measured viscosities of samples, with an assumption that the magnetization and particle size distribution of MNPs obey the Langevin equation and log-normal distribution, respectively. We concluded that MPI can be useful for visualizing blood coagulation.

  5. Coagulation management in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robba, Chiara; Bertuetti, Rita; Rasulo, Frank; Bertuccio, Alessando; Matta, Basil

    2017-10-01

    Management of coagulation in neurosurgical procedures is challenging. In this contest, it is imperative to avoid further intracranial bleeding. Perioperative bleeding can be associated with a number of factors, including anticoagulant drugs and coagulation status but is also linked to the characteristic and the site of the intracranial disorder. The aim of this review will be to focus primarily on the new evidence regarding the management of coagulation in patients undergoing craniotomy for neurosurgical procedures. Antihemostatic and anticoagulant drugs have shown to be associated with perioperative bleeding. On the other hand, an increased risk of venous thromboembolism and hypercoagulative state after elective and emergency neurosurgery, in particular after brain tumor surgery, has been described in several patients. To balance the risk between thrombosis and bleeding, it is important to be familiar with the perioperative changes in coagulation and with the recent management guidelines for anticoagulated patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures, in particular for those taking new direct anticoagulants. We have considered the current clinical trials and literature regarding both safety and efficacy of deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis in the neurosurgical population. These were mainly trials concerning both elective surgical and intensive care patients with a poor grade intracranial bleed or multiple traumas with an associated severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Coagulation management remains a major issue in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures. However, in this field of research, literature quality is poor and further studies are necessary to identify the best strategies to minimize risks in this group of patients.

  6. Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) removal efficiency by a combination of coagulation and ultrafiltration to minimize SWRO membrane fouling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sheng; Lee, Shang-Tse; Sinha, Shahnawaz; Leiknes, TorOve; Amy, Gary L.; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of coagulation on the transformation between colloidal and particulate transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in seawater; and the effectiveness of a combined pretreatment consisting of coagulation and UF on minimizing TEP fouling of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes. Coagulation with ferric chloride at pH 5 substantially transformed colloidal TEP (0.1–0.4) into particulate TEP (>0.4) leading to a better membrane fouling control. Both 50 and 100 kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) UF membranes removed most of particulate and colloidal TEP without the assistance of coagulation, but coagulation is still necessary for better UF fouling control. The improvement of combined SWRO pretreatment with coagulation and 50 kDa UF membranes was not that much significant compared to UF pretreatment with 50 KDa alone. Therefore, the minimal coagulant dosage for seawater containing TEP should be based on the UF fouling control requirements rather than removal efficiency. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  7. Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) removal efficiency by a combination of coagulation and ultrafiltration to minimize SWRO membrane fouling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sheng

    2016-07-02

    This study investigated the impact of coagulation on the transformation between colloidal and particulate transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in seawater; and the effectiveness of a combined pretreatment consisting of coagulation and UF on minimizing TEP fouling of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes. Coagulation with ferric chloride at pH 5 substantially transformed colloidal TEP (0.1–0.4) into particulate TEP (>0.4) leading to a better membrane fouling control. Both 50 and 100 kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) UF membranes removed most of particulate and colloidal TEP without the assistance of coagulation, but coagulation is still necessary for better UF fouling control. The improvement of combined SWRO pretreatment with coagulation and 50 kDa UF membranes was not that much significant compared to UF pretreatment with 50 KDa alone. Therefore, the minimal coagulant dosage for seawater containing TEP should be based on the UF fouling control requirements rather than removal efficiency. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  8. Genetic and pharmacological modifications of thrombin formation in apolipoprotein e-deficient mice determine atherosclerosis severity and atherothrombosis onset in a neutrophil-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian I Borissoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Variations in the blood coagulation activity, determined genetically or by medication, may alter atherosclerotic plaque progression, by influencing pleiotropic effects of coagulation proteases. Published experimental studies have yielded contradictory findings on the role of hypercoagulability in atherogenesis. We therefore sought to address this matter by extensively investigating the in vivo significance of genetic alterations and pharmacologic inhibition of thrombin formation for the onset and progression of atherosclerosis, and plaque phenotype determination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated transgenic atherosclerosis-prone mice with diminished coagulant or hypercoagulable phenotype and employed two distinct models of atherosclerosis. Gene-targeted 50% reduction in prothrombin (FII(-/WT:ApoE(-/- was remarkably effective in limiting disease compared to control ApoE(-/- mice, associated with significant qualitative benefits, including diminished leukocyte infiltration, altered collagen and vascular smooth muscle cell content. Genetically-imposed hypercoagulability in TM(Pro/Pro:ApoE(-/- mice resulted in severe atherosclerosis, plaque vulnerability and spontaneous atherothrombosis. Hypercoagulability was associated with a pronounced neutrophilia, neutrophil hyper-reactivity, markedly increased oxidative stress, neutrophil intraplaque infiltration and apoptosis. Administration of either the synthetic specific thrombin inhibitor Dabigatran etexilate, or recombinant activated protein C (APC, counteracted the pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic phenotype of pro-thrombotic TM(Pro/Pro:ApoE(-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide new evidence highlighting the importance of neutrophils in the coagulation-inflammation interplay during atherogenesis. Our findings reveal that thrombin-mediated proteolysis is an unexpectedly powerful determinant of atherosclerosis in multiple distinct settings. These studies suggest that

  9. The high prevalence of impulse control behaviors in patients with early-onset Parkinson's disease: A cross-sectional multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, L; Martínez Castrillo, J C; García Ruiz, P; Gasca-Salas, C; Macías Macías, Y; Pérez Fernández, E; Ybot, I; Lopez Valdés, E; Kurtis, M M; Posada Rodriguez, I J; Mata, M; Ruiz Huete, C; Eimil, M; Borrue, C; Del Val, J; López-Manzanares, L; Rojo Sebastian, A; Marasescu, R

    2016-09-15

    In Parkinson's disease patients, impulse control disorders (ICDs) have been associated with younger age and early disease onset, yet the prevalence of ICDs in early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) patients has yet to be studied. Thus, we set out to compare the prevalence of impulse control behaviors (ICBs) in a cohort of EOPD patients with that in age and gender matched healthy controls (HCs), as well as to analyze the association of these symptoms with the use of dopaminergic drugs and other clinical or demographic factors. A cross-sectional, multicenter study was carried out on patients recruited from outpatient Movement Disorder Clinics, assessing ICBs using the short form of the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease (QUIP). In addition, depression and quality of life (QoL) were measured, along with other demographic and clinical variables. Of the 87 EOPD patients, 49 (58.3%) displayed an ICB, as did 28 of the 87 HCs (32.9%; p=0.001). Most of the EOPD patients that displayed an ICB (91.8%) were medicated with a dopamine agonist (DA) and accordingly, DA treatment was associated with a 7-fold increased risk of developing an ICB. Patients with ICBs had a higher depression score and a worse QoL. ICBs are much more prevalent in EOPD patients than in HCs and they are associated with DA intake, depression and a worse QoL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants: coagulation perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Amir A; Kenet, Gili; Papadakis, Emmanuel; Brenner, Benjamin

    2011-10-01

    It has long been considered that a severe coagulation deficiency in premature newborns could be a major contributing factor in the occurrence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). High-grade IVH has also been shown to coincide with severe derangement of coagulation in extremely low birth weight infants. This review focuses on the relevance of the physiologically developing immature hemostatic system to IVH, and the potential benefit of agents affecting hemostasis for IVH therapy or prevention in preterm infants. The findings of small, open-label interventional studies on the effect of ethamsylate, vitamin K, fresh frozen plasma, recombinant activated factor VII, and prothrombin complex concentrate on the premature coagulation system will be reviewed. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  11. Infrared coagulation: a new treatment for hemorrhoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leicester, R.J.; Nicholls, R.J.; Mann, C.V.

    1981-01-01

    Many methods, which have effectively reduced the number of patients requiring hospital admission, have been described for the outpatient treatment of hemorrhoids. However, complications have been reported, and the methods are often associated with unpleasant side effects. In 1977 Neiger et al. described a new method that used infrared coagulation, which produced minimal side effects. The authors have conducted a prospective, randomized trial to evaluate infrared coagulation compared with more traditional methods of treatment. The authors' results show that it may be more effective than injection sclerotherapy in treating non-prolapsing hemorrhoids and that it compares favorably with rubber band ligation in most prolapsing hemorrhoids. No complications occurred, and significantly fewer patients experienced pain after infrared coagulation

  12. An updated concept of coagulation with clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romney, Gregory; Glick, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Over the past century, a series of models have been put forth to explain the coagulation mechanism. The coagulation cascade/waterfall model has gained the most widespread acceptance. This model, however, has problems when it is used in different clinical scenarios. A more recently proposed cell-based model better describes the coagulation process in vivo and provides oral health care professionals (OHCPs) with a better understanding of the clinical implications of providing dental care to patients with potentially increased bleeding tendencies. The authors conducted a literature search using the PubMed database. They searched for key words including "coagulation," "hemostasis," "bleeding," "coagulation factors," "models," "prothrombin time," "activated partial thromboplastin time," "international normalized ratio," "anticoagulation therapy" and "hemophilia" separately and in combination. The coagulation cascade/waterfall model is insufficient to explain coagulation in vivo, predict a patient's bleeding tendency, or correlate clinical outcomes with specific laboratory screening tests such as prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and international normalized ratio. However, the cell-based model of coagulation that reflects the in vivo process of coagulation provides insight into the clinical ramifications of treating dental patients with specific coagulation factor deficiencies. Understanding the in vivo coagulation process will help OHCPs better predict a patient's bleeding tendency. In addition, applying the theoretical concept of the cell-based model of coagulation to commonly used laboratory screening tests for coagulation and bleeding will result in safer and more appropriate dental care.

  13. The investigation of coagulation activity of natural coagulants extracted from different strains of common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćiban Marina B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation and flocculation by adding chemicals are the methods that are usually used for removal of water turbidity. This study is concerned with the coagulation activity of extracts of various strains of bean. The aim was to ascertain if bean varieties influence coagulation activity. Active components were extracted from 1 g of ground sample with 100 ml distilled water. Contents of dry matter and nitrogen were specified in the solid samples, and the content of soluble nitrogen was determined in the extracts. These data were used to calculate the efficiency of extraction of nitrogen-containing compounds. The coagulation activity was assessed by jar test using synthetic turbid water, of the initial pH 9 and turbidity 35 NTU. The jar test was carried out by adding different amounts of extracts to model water, and stirring the content. After sedimentation for 1 h, residual turbidity was determined by turbidimeter and coagulation activity was calculated. The increment of organic matter concentration after the coagulation was also determined. These experiments confirmed that extracts of all investigated strains of bean could be used successfully as natural coagulants.

  14. Arsenic removal in water by means of coagulation-flocculation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, M. F.; Carro P, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic and arsenical compounds are considered as carcinogenic and risky for humans according to epidemiological evidence related with the ingestion of arsenical water during a long period. In many places the only source of drinking water contains arsenic and, therefore, removal strategies have to be investigated. This work shows experimental results of coagulation-flocculation processes implemented to evaluate the efficiency in the removal of arsenic from drinking water. The main objectives include the evaluation of the relevant aspect that controls the removal efficiency. Experimental tests were performed with coagulant concentrations from 5 to 500 mg/L, solid particle concentrations from 0 to 6000 mg/L, and initial arsenic concentrations from 0.5 to 5 mg/L. These variables were simultaneously varied in more than 100 experiments. The efficiency in remediation ranged from 0% to 95%. Removal efficiency near 95% was obtained when using ferric chloride as coagulant, and was close to 80% when using aluminium sulfate as coagulant in arsenate solutions. The remediation efficiency decreased significantly when the ferric chloride concentration was higher than 50 mg/L in relation to the obtained results for aluminum sulfate for different type and concentration of soil particles. The highest removal efficiency were obtained at ph between 3 and 5 in oxidized solutions. Obtained results simulated by means of multiple linear regression analysis (R>0.90) allow determining that the main parameters that control the removal of arsenic from drinking water are coagulant concentration, ph, and solid particles concentration. Conversely, particle mineralogy and coagulant type have less significant effect on the removal by means of coagulation-flocculation mechanisms. Obtained results are relevant for the removal of As in water treatment plants as well as for the development of small scale filters. The samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X

  15. Vitamin K: from coagulation to calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paakkari, Ilari

    Vitamin K is not only essential for the synthesis of coagulation factors in the liver, but it also strengthens the bones and prevents calcification of the arteries. These effects are mediated through the same mechanism, i.e. carboxylation of Gla target proteins. The discovery of novel Gla proteins that are not associated with blood coagulation or calcium metabolism indicates that vitamin K has additional effects in the pancreas and the central nervous system, for example. As dietary supplements, vitamin K1 of plant origin and vitamins K2 of bacterial origin may exert different effects.

  16. THE RATIONALIZATION OF THE PARAMETERS OF MILK PROTEINS’ THERMO ACID COAGULATION BY BERRY COAGULANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena GREK

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results related to the influence of berry coagulant amount, its proactive acidity and duration of thermo acid coagulation on the process of milk proteins’ sedimentation. In the present work, the regression equations and response surface analysis were used to design and optimize an industrial bioprocess. Increase in the berry coagulant amount to 11 % and reduction of active acidity to 2.4 units were determined. pH up to 3 minutes is characterized by the highest processes of destabilization. Moreover, it improves the organoleptic properties and has the biggest impact on the yield of protein-berry clot (to 25 % and active acidity.

  17. Novel approaches to the management of disseminated intravascular coagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; de Jonge, E.; van der Poll, T.; ten Cate, H.

    2000-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by systemic intravascular activation of coagulation, leading to widespread deposition of fibrin in the circulation. We addressed the issue of whether there is evidence that this fibrin deposition contributes to multiple organ

  18. Identification of a Sgo2-Dependent but Mad2-Independent Pathway Controlling Anaphase Onset in Fission Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Meadows

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The onset of anaphase is triggered by activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C following silencing of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC. APC/C triggers ubiquitination of Securin and Cyclin B, which leads to loss of sister chromatid cohesion and inactivation of Cyclin B/Cdk1, respectively. This promotes relocalization of Aurora B kinase and other components of the chromosome passenger complex (CPC from centromeres to the spindle midzone. In fission yeast, this is mediated by Clp1 phosphatase-dependent interaction of CPC with Klp9/MKLP2 (kinesin-6. When this interaction is disrupted, kinetochores bi-orient normally, but APC/C activation is delayed via a mechanism that requires Sgo2 and some (Bub1, Mph1/Mps1, and Mad3, but not all (Mad1 and Mad2, components of the SAC and the first, but not second, lysine, glutamic acid, glutamine (KEN box in Mad3. These data indicate that interaction of CPC with Klp9 terminates a Sgo2-dependent, but Mad2-independent, APC/C-inhibitory pathway that is distinct from the canonical SAC.

  19. Effect of Internal Heat Source on the Onset of Double-Diffusive Convection in a Rotating Nanofluid Layer with Feedback Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Khalid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A linear stability analysis has been carried out to examine the effect of internal heat source on the onset of Rayleigh–Bénard convection in a rotating nanofluid layer with double diffusive coefficients, namely, Soret and Dufour, in the presence of feedback control. The system is heated from below and the model used for the nanofluid layer incorporates the effects of thermophoresis and Brownian motion. Three types of bounding systems of the model have been considered which are as follows: both the lower and upper bounding surfaces are free, the lower is rigid and the upper is free, and both of them are rigid. The eigenvalue equations of the perturbed state were obtained from a normal mode analysis and solved using the Galerkin method. It is found that the effect of internal heat source and Soret parameter destabilizes the nanofluid layer system while increasing the Coriolis force, feedback control, and Dufour parameter helps to postpone the onset of convection. Elevating the modified density ratio hastens the instability in the system and there is no significant effect of modified particle density in a nanofluid system.

  20. Genetic variants of 17q21 are associated with childhood-onset asthma and related phenotypes in a northeastern Han Chinese population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X; Yu, C; Ren, Z; Deng, Y; Song, J; Zhang, H; Zhou, H

    2014-05-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) suggested that variants on chromosome 17q21 were associated with childhood-onset asthma in white populations. Two replication studies had been conducted in southern Han Chinese population in 2009 and 2012. However, these two Chinese replication results were inconsistent. To further confirm the role of 17q21 common variants, an association study of 17q21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the risk of childhood-onset asthma was performed in a Han population from northeastern China. In this study, rs3894194, rs12603332 and rs11650680 were genotyped in 435 asthmatic children and 601 healthy controls by using a SNaPshot method. Our data showed that the allelic frequency of rs12603332 and rs11650680 showed significant differences between asthmatic cases and healthy controls, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.36 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-1.65, P=0.002] and an OR of 1.36 (95% CI 1.07-1.74, P=0.01). Genotype distribution analysis also showed the significant associations of the above two loci with childhood asthma under dominant, recessive and additive model (dominant OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.04-2.36, P=0.032; recessive OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.09-1.83, P=0.009; additive OR=1.97, 95% CI 1.24-3.14, P=0.004; recessive OR=1.50, 95% CI 1.13-1.98, P=0.005). Besides, linear regression analysis showed that rs3894194 and rs12603332 were also significantly associated with asthma phenotypes such as log10 -transformed immunoglobulin E (IgE) level (IU/ml) and log10 -transformed eosinophil percentage (dominant, P=0.04; additive, P=0.01; recessive, P=0.04; recessive, P=0.03; additive, P=0.02). Collectively, our findings suggest that orosomucoid 1-like 3 (ORMDL3) locus on chromosome 17q21 is a risk factor for childhood-onset asthma in northeastern Han Chinese population. Further studies will be needed to elucidate the pathogenesis that ORMDL3 locus predisposes to childhood-onset asthma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of Coagulation Profiles in Dogs with Septic Shock

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZ, Zeki; YALÇIN, Ebru

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the this study was to observe possible changes in coagulation profiles in dogs with septic shock. A total of 30 dogs (control group n=10, test group n=20) were used as materials in this study. Although different diseases leading to septic shock were diagnosed in dogs in the test group, dogs were selected on the basis of septic shock criteria such as fever or hypothermia, hypotension, leukopenia or leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia. In addition to the results of rutine clinical and...

  2. Blood coagulation abnormalities in multibacillary leprosy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Débora Santos da; Teixeira, Lisandra Antonia Castro; Beghini, Daniela Gois; Ferreira, André Teixeira da Silva; Pinho, Márcia de Berredo Moreira; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco; Ribeiro, Marli Rambaldi; Freire, Monica Di Calafiori; Hacker, Mariana Andrea; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Tovar, Ana Maria Freire; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Perales, Jonas; Bozza, Fernando Augusto; Esquenazi, Danuza; Monteiro, Robson Queiroz; Lara, Flavio Alves

    2018-03-01

    Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae infection. In 2016, more than 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world, representing the most frequent cause of infectious irreversible deformities and disabilities. In the present work, we demonstrate a consistent procoagulant profile on 40 reactional and non-reactional multibacillary leprosy patients. A retrospective analysis in search of signs of coagulation abnormalities among 638 leprosy patients identified 35 leprosy patients (5.48%) which displayed a characteristic lipid-like clot formed between blood clot and serum during serum harvesting, herein named 'leprosum clot'. Most of these patients (n = 16, 45.7%) belonged to the lepromatous leprosy pole of the disease. In addition, formation of the leprosum clot was directly correlated with increased plasma levels of soluble tissue factor and von Willebrand factor. High performance thin layer chromatography demonstrated a high content of neutral lipids in the leprosum clot, and proteomic analysis demonstrated that the leprosum clot presented in these patients is highly enriched in fibrin. Remarkably, differential 2D-proteomics analysis between leprosum clots and control clots identified two proteins present only in leprosy patients clots: complement component 3 and 4 and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family heavy chain-related protein (IHRP). In agreement with those observations we demonstrated that M. leprae induces hepatocytes release of IHRP in vitro. We demonstrated that leprosy MB patients develop a procoagulant status due to high levels of plasmatic fibrinogen, anti-cardiolipin antibodies, von Willebrand factor and soluble tissue factor. We propose that some of these components, fibrinogen for example, presents potential as predictive biomarkers of leprosy reactions, generating tools for earlier diagnosis and treatment of these events.

  3. Blood coagulation abnormalities in multibacillary leprosy patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Santos da Silva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae infection. In 2016, more than 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world, representing the most frequent cause of infectious irreversible deformities and disabilities.In the present work, we demonstrate a consistent procoagulant profile on 40 reactional and non-reactional multibacillary leprosy patients. A retrospective analysis in search of signs of coagulation abnormalities among 638 leprosy patients identified 35 leprosy patients (5.48% which displayed a characteristic lipid-like clot formed between blood clot and serum during serum harvesting, herein named 'leprosum clot'. Most of these patients (n = 16, 45.7% belonged to the lepromatous leprosy pole of the disease. In addition, formation of the leprosum clot was directly correlated with increased plasma levels of soluble tissue factor and von Willebrand factor. High performance thin layer chromatography demonstrated a high content of neutral lipids in the leprosum clot, and proteomic analysis demonstrated that the leprosum clot presented in these patients is highly enriched in fibrin. Remarkably, differential 2D-proteomics analysis between leprosum clots and control clots identified two proteins present only in leprosy patients clots: complement component 3 and 4 and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family heavy chain-related protein (IHRP. In agreement with those observations we demonstrated that M. leprae induces hepatocytes release of IHRP in vitro.We demonstrated that leprosy MB patients develop a procoagulant status due to high levels of plasmatic fibrinogen, anti-cardiolipin antibodies, von Willebrand factor and soluble tissue factor. We propose that some of these components, fibrinogen for example, presents potential as predictive biomarkers of leprosy reactions, generating tools for earlier diagnosis and treatment of these events.

  4. Coagulation activity in liver disease | Reza | Internet Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients with advanced hepatic failure may present with the entire spectrum of coagulation factor deficiencies. This study was designed to determine laboratory abnormalities in coagulation in chronic liver disease and the association of these abnormalities with the extent of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Coagulation ...

  5. Quinine-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, R L; Hickton, C M; Sizeland, P; Hannah, A; Bailey, R R

    Recurrent disseminated intravascular coagulation occurred in 3 women after ingestion of quinine tablets for cramp. All had circulating quinine-dependent antibodies to platelets and in 2 there was initial evidence of antibody consumption, with low titres that rose steeply over the next few days and remained high for many months.

  6. Brownian coagulation at high particle concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trzeciak, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    The process of Brownian coagulation, whereby particles are brought together by thermal motion and grow by collisions, is one of the most fundamental processes influencing the final properties of particulate matter in a variety of technically important systems. It is of importance in colloids,

  7. Coagulation-flocculation studies of wastewaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leentvaar, J.

    1982-01-01

    Although coagulation-flocculation processes have been practiced world-wide for almost a century in water treatment, several problems both in the theoretical and in the applied field have not been resolved yet. Especially interpretation of practical results with respect to governing

  8. 21 CFR 864.5400 - Coagulation instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coagulation instrument. 864.5400 Section 864.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices § 864...

  9. Quantifying interspecific coagulation efficiency of phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J.L.S.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    . nordenskjoeldii. Mutual coagulation between Skeletonema costatum and the non-sticky cel:ls of Ditylum brightwellii also proceeded with hall the efficiency of S. costatum alone. The latex beads were suitable to be used as 'standard particles' to quantify the ability of phytoplankton to prime aggregation...

  10. Comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation were applied to the exit effluent of a textile factory located at Douala (Cameroon).The investigations were focused on the operational (pH, conductivity) and pollution parameters (COD, total phosphorus, turbidity). The electrolytic treatment was carried out with 0.4 A ...

  11. ON THE COAGULATION AND SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF PRESSURE CONFINED CORES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xu; Zhou Tingtao; Lin, D. N. C.

    2013-01-01

    Observations of the Pipe Nebula have led to the discovery of dense starless cores. The mass of most cores is too small for their self-gravity to hold them together. Instead, they are thought to be pressure confined. The observed dense cores' mass function (CMF) matches well with the initial mass function of stars in young clusters. Similar CMFs are observed in other star forming regions such as the Aquila Nebula, albeit with some dispersion. The shape of these CMF provides important clues to the competing physical processes which lead to star formation and its feedback on the interstellar media. In this paper, we investigate the dynamical origin of the mass function of starless cores which are confined by a warm, less dense medium. In order to follow the evolution of the CMF, we construct a numerical method to consider the coagulation between the cold cores and their ablation due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability induced by their relative motion through the warm medium. We are able to reproduce the observed CMF among the starless cores in the Pipe Nebula. Our results indicate that in environment similar to the Pipe Nebula: (1) before the onset of their gravitational collapse, the mass distribution of the progenitor cores is similar to that of the young stars, (2) the observed CMF is a robust consequence of dynamical equilibrium between the coagulation and ablation of cores, and (3) a break in the slope of the CMF is due to the enhancement of collisional cross section and suppression of ablation for cores with masses larger than the cores' Bonnor-Ebert mass.

  12. TRAITEMENT DES EAUX USEES PAR COAGULATION-FLOCULATION EN UTILISANT LE SULFATE D’ALUMINIUM COMME COAGULANT

    OpenAIRE

    Nora SEGHAIRI; Leila MIMECHE; Adel BOUZID; Yassir AYACHI

    2017-01-01

    Domestic wastewater treatment by coagulation-flocculation is widely used internationally. This treatment reduces color and turbidity, indicating organic and inorganic contaminants, but at acceptable levels for treated waste water discharged into the receiving environment. The objective of this study is to optimize the treatment of wastewater by coagulation-flocculation using aluminum sulphate as a coagulant. Various reaction parameters are taken into account, such as the coagulant dose,...

  13. Enhanced coagulation for improving coagulation performance and reducing residual aluminum combining polyaluminum chloride with diatomite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenchao; Wu, Chunde

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of using enhanced coagulation, which combined polyaluminum chloride (PAC) with diatomite for improving coagulation performance and reducing the residual aluminum (Al), was discussed. The effects of PAC and diatomite dosage on the coagulation performance and residual Al were mainly investigated. Results demonstrated that the removal efficiencies of turbidity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV254 were significantly improved by the enhanced coagulation, compared with PAC coagulation alone. Meaningfully, the five forms of residual Al (total Al (TAl), total dissolved Al (TDAl), dissolved organic Al (DOAl), dissolved monomeric Al (DMAl), and dissolved organic monomeric Al (DOMAl)) all had different degrees of reduction in the presence of diatomite and achieved the lowest concentrations (0.185, 0.06, 0.053, 0.014, and 0 mg L(-1), respectively) at a PAC dose of 15 mg L(-1) and diatomite dose of 40 mg L(-1). In addition, when PAC was used as coagulant, the majority of residual Al existed in dissolved form (about 31.14-70.16%), and the content of DOMAl was small in the DMAl.

  14. Late-onset hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Dudek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, the number of men over the age of 50 years exceeds 6 million. It is estimated that about 2-6% of this population develops symptoms of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH. In men, testosterone deficiency increases slightly with age. LOH is a clinically and biochemically defined disease of older men with serum testosterone level below the reference parameters of younger healthy men and with symptoms of testosterone deficiency, manifested by pronounced disturbances of quality of life and harmful effects on multiple organ systems. Testosterone replacement therapy may give several benefits regarding body composition, metabolic control, and psychological and sexual parameters.

  15. DNA Replication Control During Drosophila Development: Insights into the Onset of S Phase, Replication Initiation, and Fork Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Brian L.; Orr-Weaver, Terry L.

    2017-01-01

    Proper control of DNA replication is critical to ensure genomic integrity during cell proliferation. In addition, differential regulation of the DNA replication program during development can change gene copy number to influence cell size and gene expression. Drosophila melanogaster serves as a powerful organism to study the developmental control of DNA replication in various cell cycle contexts in a variety of differentiated cell and tissue types. Additionally, Drosophila has provided several developmentally regulated replication models to dissect the molecular mechanisms that underlie replication-based copy number changes in the genome, which include differential underreplication and gene amplification. Here, we review key findings and our current understanding of the developmental control of DNA replication in the contexts of the archetypal replication program as well as of underreplication and differential gene amplification. We focus on the use of these latter two replication systems to delineate many of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the developmental control of replication initiation and fork elongation. PMID:28874453

  16. Comparative efficacy of the Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy versus Supportive Psychotherapy for early onset chronic depression: design and rationale of a multisite randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Effective treatment strategies for chronic depression are urgently needed since it is not only a common and particularly disabling disorder, but is also considered treatment resistant by most clinicians. There are only a few studies on chronic depression indicating that traditional psycho- and pharmacological interventions are not as effective as in acute, episodic depression. Current medications are no more effective than those introduced 50 years ago whereas the only psychotherapy developed specifically for the subgroup of chronic depression, the Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP), faired well in one large trial. However, CBASP has never been directly compared to a non-specific control treatment. Methods/Design The present article describes the study protocol of a multisite parallel-group randomized controlled trial in Germany. The purpose of the study is to estimate the efficacy of CBASP compared to supportive psychotherapy in 268 non-medicated early-onset chronically depressed outpatients. The intervention includes 20 weeks of acute treatment with 24 individual sessions followed by 28 weeks of continuation treatment with another 8 sessions. Depressive symptoms are evaluated 20 weeks after randomisation by means of the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression (HRSD). Secondary endpoints are depressive symptoms after 12 and 48 weeks, and remission after 12, 20, and 48 weeks. Primary outcome will be analysed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlled for pre-treatment scores and site. Analyses of continuous secondary variables will be performed using linear mixed models. For remission rates, chi-squared tests and logistic regression will be applied. Discussion The study evaluates the comparative effects of a disorder-specific psychotherapy and a well designed non-specific psychological approach in the acute and continuation treatment phase in a large sample of early-onset chronically depressed patients. Trial

  17. The hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio vs. dissolved organics removal by coagulation – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamel Ghernaout

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio as a function of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic contents removal by coagulation process. It is well established that coagulation process could bring a reduction in dissolved organic carbon of around 30–60% by increasing the coagulant dose and optimising reaction pH, in which large organic molecules with hydrophobic property was removed preferentially. Furthermore, the literature affirmed that the greater removal of UV-absorbing substances indicates that alum coagulation preferentially removed the hydrophobic fraction of the total organic carbon. For the hydrophobic fraction, it needs to be removed entirely without its transformation into hydrophilic fractions by coagulation process avoiding pre-chlorination/pre-oxidation due to the risk of organic molecules fragmentation. Determining the exact numerical values of the hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio for raw water and treated water at different stages of the treatment processes in a water treatment plant, as for the DCO/DBO5 ratio in the case of wastewater treatment, would help on more focusing on OM control and removal.

  18. Atopy and new-onset asthma in young Danish farmers and CD14, TLR2, and TLR4 genetic polymorphisms: a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, L A M; Bongers, S I M; Ruven, H J T

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence exists that exposure to high levels of microbial agents such as endotoxin in the farm environment decreases the risk of atopic sensitization. Genetic variation in innate immunity genes may modulate the response to microbial agents and thus influence susceptibility to asthma...... and atopy. OBJECTIVE: To study potential associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CD14, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and TLR4 genes, and atopy and new-onset asthma in young farmers. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted within a cohort of 1901 young Danish farmers. We....../-651 promoter polymorphisms are associated with atopy prevalence among young adults exposed to farm environments. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov...

  19. Enzymatic lipid oxidation by eosinophils propagates coagulation, hemostasis, and thrombotic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uderhardt, Stefan; Ackermann, Jochen A.; Fillep, Tobias; Hammond, Victoria J.; Willeit, Johann; Stark, Konstantin; Rossaint, Jan; Schubert, Irene; Mielenz, Dirk; Dietel, Barbara; Raaz-Schrauder, Dorette; Ay, Cihan; Thaler, Johannes; Heim, Christian; Collins, Peter W.; Schabbauer, Gernot; Mackman, Nigel; Voehringer, David; Nadler, Jerry L.; Lee, James J.; Massberg, Steffen; Rauh, Manfred; O’Donnell, Valerie B.

    2017-01-01

    Blood coagulation is essential for physiological hemostasis but simultaneously contributes to thrombotic disease. However, molecular and cellular events controlling initiation and propagation of coagulation are still incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate an unexpected role of eosinophils during plasmatic coagulation, hemostasis, and thrombosis. Using a large-scale epidemiological approach, we identified eosinophil cationic protein as an independent and predictive risk factor for thrombotic events in humans. Concurrent experiments showed that eosinophils contributed to intravascular thrombosis by exhibiting a strong endogenous thrombin-generation capacity that relied on the enzymatic generation and active provision of a procoagulant phospholipid surface enriched in 12/15-lipoxygenase–derived hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid–phosphatidylethanolamines. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized role of eosinophils and enzymatic lipid oxidation as regulatory elements that facilitate both hemostasis and thrombosis in response to vascular injury, thus identifying promising new targets for the treatment of thrombotic disease. PMID:28566277

  20. Magnetic Resonance Mediated Radio Frequency Coagulation for Vascular Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming

    Purpose. Magnetic Resonance Mediated Radiofrequency Coagulation employs the RF heating effect of MRI scanning to coagulate biomaterials for repair of vascular defects. Coagulation of a protein biomaterial by MR-induced RF heating is a novel means to effect repair of defects such as aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations. Our novel method is to coagulate a thermosetting material (such as egg white, which can be used for investigating heat coagulation behavior and MR relaxation properties) delivered endovascularly by catheter and coagulated by RF-induced heating of an intracatheter resonant wire antenna in the scanner. Methods. Experiments were performed on a Siemens 1.5 T MRI scanner and a Bruker 14T NMR spectrometer. Egg white was brought to equilibrium at seven temperatures (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 37 °C) in sequence. Measurement of the water spin-lattice relaxation time Ti, spin-spin relaxation time T2, spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame T1p, or full width at half maximum of the MT spectrum were performed at each temperature. Relaxation parameters of raw egg white and egg white after coagulation at 70 °C were measured in the scanner at 20 °C to determine optimum inversion time, echo time and offset frequency for good image contrast between coagulated and uncoagulated protein. Finally, coagulation of egg white within a glass aneurysm phantom by RF heating in the scanner was performed to demonstrate the MR coagulation methodology and the ability to achieve image contrast between coagulated and uncoagulated biomaterial. Results. Water T2, T1p and MT gave the most definitive indication of the change from uncoagulated at low temperature to fully coagulated at 60 °C, while water T1 showed only the expected gradual increase with temperature, and no response to coagulation. MT weighted imaging is expected to be the optimum method to establish the coagulation condition of the biomaterial.

  1. Evaluation of the process of coagulation/flocculation of produced water using Moringa oleifera Lam. as natural coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, C.R.; Pereira, D.F.; Sousa, S.C S N.; Silva, G.F. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: claudia@ufs.br; Cavalcanti, E.B. [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), SE (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia e Pesquisa

    2010-07-15

    In the lifetime of an oil well, there comes a moment when a lot of water begins to be produced along with oil, either by the conditions of the reservoir, or as a result of water injection in the secondary recovery of the well. An important step in such process involves the treatment of the produced water by means of coagulation techniques. Therefore, the use of environmentally correct coagulants is presented as a viable alternative and has demonstrated advantages over the use of chemical coagulants. The plant of the genus Moringa, whose species is oleifera Lam, stands out as one of the most promising natural coagulants. The present study investigated the evaluation of the coagulation/flocculation of produced water, using seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. as coagulant. The results were very significant, demonstrating that Moringa oleifera Lam. can be used as a natural coagulant in this type of treatment. (author)

  2. Ventricular metastasis resulting in disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Ian D

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC complicates up to 7% of malignancies, the commonest solid organ association being adenocarcinoma. Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC has rarely been associated with DIC. Case presentation A 74-year-old woman with TCC bladder and DIC was found to have a cardiac lesion suspicious for metastatic disease. The DIC improved with infusion of plasma and administration of Vitamin K, however the cardiac lesion was deemed inoperable and chemotherapy inappropriate; given the patients functional status. We postulate that direct activation of the coagulation cascade by the intraventricular metastasis probably triggered the coagulopathy in this patient. Conclusion Cardiac metastases should be considered in cancer patients with otherwise unexplained DIC. This may influence treatment choices.

  3. Effect of perioperative crystalloid or colloid fluid therapy on hemorrhage, coagulation competence, and outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Secher, Niels H.; Pedersen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Background: A meta-analysis concerning perioperative coagulation competence, hemorrhage, and outcome was conducted including the use of hydroxyethyl starches (HESs), dextran, or albumin versus administration of a crystalloid as control to assess the efficacy and safety of colloids and crystalloids...

  4. Coagulation of sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, C A; Johnston, M G; Nelson, W

    1988-06-01

    We have determined the most suitable method for the automated analysis of the clotting parameters in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph as defined by the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Times (APTT; measure of intrinsic coagulation pathway) and the Prothrombin Times (PT; measure of extrinsic coagulation pathway). As opposed to optical density systems, the use of a Fibro-System Fibrometer was found to provide the most consistent assessment of coagulation with the endpoint being the time to fibrin strand formation. We measured APTT in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph of 59.78 +/- 7.69 seconds and 51.03 +/- 10.49 seconds respectively. These values were more prolonged than those obtained from sheep blood plasma but only in the case of intestinal lymph were the differences significant (p less than 0.025). Human blood APTT values were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.05) and sheep intestinal (p less than 0.001) and prefemoral lymph (p less than 0.01). PT values were found to be 21.56 +/- 1.14 seconds in intestinal and 22.00 +/- 1.88 seconds in prefemoral lymph. These values were also significantly greater than those obtained from sheep blood (both p less than 0.001). Human blood PTs were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.001) and intestinal and prefemoral lymph (both p less than 0.001). Measurement of APTT and PT values in intestinal lymph and PT determinations in prefemoral lymph were not affected by storage in the refrigerator or freezer. There was some indication that APTT values in prefemoral samples were susceptible to storage artifacts; however, the differences in coagulation times were not significant.

  5. Exact combinatorial approach to finite coagulating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczak, Agata; Chmiel, Anna; Fronczak, Piotr

    2018-02-01

    This paper outlines an exact combinatorial approach to finite coagulating systems. In this approach, cluster sizes and time are discrete and the binary aggregation alone governs the time evolution of the systems. By considering the growth histories of all possible clusters, an exact expression is derived for the probability of a coagulating system with an arbitrary kernel being found in a given cluster configuration when monodisperse initial conditions are applied. Then this probability is used to calculate the time-dependent distribution for the number of clusters of a given size, the average number of such clusters, and that average's standard deviation. The correctness of our general expressions is proved based on the (analytical and numerical) results obtained for systems with the constant kernel. In addition, the results obtained are compared with the results arising from the solutions to the mean-field Smoluchowski coagulation equation, indicating its weak points. The paper closes with a brief discussion on the extensibility to other systems of the approach presented herein, emphasizing the issue of arbitrary initial conditions.

  6. Application of Fe(II)/peroxymonosulfate for improving ultrafiltration membrane performance in surface water treatment: Comparison with coagulation and ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoxiang; Liang, Heng; Ding, An; Zhu, Xuewu; Tang, Xiaobin; Gan, Zhendong; Xing, Jiajian; Wu, Daoji; Li, Guibai

    2017-11-01

    Coagulation and ozonation have been widely used as pretreatments for ultrafiltration (UF) membrane in drinking water treatment. While beneficial, coagulation or ozonation alone is unable to both efficiently control membrane fouling and product water quality in many cases. Thus, in this study an emerging alternative of ferrous iron/peroxymonosulfate (Fe(II)/PMS), which can act as both an oxidant and a coagulant was employed prior to UF for treatment of natural surface water, and compared with conventional coagulation and ozonation. The results showed that the Fe(II)/PMS-UF system exhibited the best performance for dissolved organic carbon removal, likely due to the dual functions of coagulation and oxidation in the single process. The fluorescent and UV-absorbing organic components were more susceptible to ozonation than Fe(II)/PMS treatment. Fe(II)/PMS and ozonation pretreatments significantly increased the removal efficiency of atrazine, p-chloronitrobenzene and sulfamethazine by 12-76% and 50-94%, respectively, whereas coagulation exerted a minor influence. The Fe(II)/PMS pretreatment also showed the best performance for the reduction of both reversible and irreversible membrane fouling, and the performance was hardly affected by membrane pore size and surface hydrophobicity. In addition, the characterization of hydraulic irreversible organic foulants confirmed its effectiveness. These results demonstrate the potential advantages of applying Fe(II)/PMS as a pretreatment for UF to simultaneously control membrane fouling and improve the permeate quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Voice Onset Time for the Word-Initial Voiceless Consonant /t/ in Japanese Spasmodic Dysphonia-A Comparison With Normal Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Saori; Nishizawa, Noriko; Mizoguchi, Kenji; Hatakeyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuda, Satoshi

    2015-07-01

    Voice onset time (VOT) for word-initial voiceless consonants in adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) and abductor spasmodic dysphonia (ABSD) patients were measured to determine (1) which acoustic measures differed from the controls and (2) whether acoustic measures were related to the pause or silence between the test word and the preceding word. Forty-eight patients with ADSD and nine patients with ABSD, as well as 20 matched normal controls read a story in which the word "taiyo" (the sun) was repeated three times, each differentiated by the position of the word in the sentence. The target of measurement was the VOT for the word-initial voiceless consonant /t/. When the target syllable appeared in a sentence following a comma, or at the beginning of a sentence following a period, the ABSD patients' VOTs were significantly longer than those of the ADSD patients and controls. Abnormal prolongation of the VOTs was related to the pause or silence between the test word and the preceding word. VOTs in spasmodic dysphonia (SD) may vary according to the SD subtype or speaking conditions. VOT measurement was suggested to be a useful method for quantifying voice symptoms in SD. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Imaging of blood plasma coagulation at supported lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faxälv, Lars; Hume, Jasmin; Kasemo, Bengt; Svedhem, Sofia

    2011-12-15

    The blood coagulation system relies on lipid membrane constituents to act as regulators of the coagulation process upon vascular trauma, and in particular the 2D configuration of the lipid membranes is known to efficiently catalyze enzymatic activity of blood coagulation factors. This work demonstrates a new application of a recently developed methodology to study blood coagulation at lipid membrane interfaces with the use of imaging technology. Lipid membranes with varied net charges were formed on silica supports by systematically using different combinations of lipids where neutral phosphocholine (PC) lipids were mixed with phospholipids having either positively charged ethylphosphocholine (EPC), or negatively charged phosphatidylserine (PS) headgroups. Coagulation imaging demonstrated that negatively charged SiO(2) and membrane surfaces exposing PS (obtained from liposomes containing 30% of PS) had coagulation times which were significantly shorter than those for plain PC membranes and EPC exposing membrane surfaces (obtained from liposomes containing 30% of EPC). Coagulation times decreased non-linearly with increasing negative surface charge for lipid membranes. A threshold value for shorter coagulation times was observed below a PS content of ∼6%. We conclude that the lipid membranes on solid support studied with the imaging setup as presented in this study offers a flexible and non-expensive solution for coagulation studies at biological membranes. It will be interesting to extend the present study towards examining coagulation on more complex lipid-based model systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Randomized control trial to assess the efficacy of metacognitive training compared with a psycho-educational group in people with a recent-onset psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, S; López-Carrilero, R; Barrigón, M L; Pousa, E; Barajas, A; Lorente-Rovira, E; González-Higueras, F; Grasa, E; Ruiz-Delgado, I; Cid, J; Birulés, I; Esteban-Pinos, I; Casañas, R; Luengo, A; Torres-Hernández, P; Corripio, I; Montes-Gámez, M; Beltran, M; De Apraiz, A; Domínguez-Sánchez, L; Sánchez, E; Llacer, B; Pélaez, T; Bogas, J L; Moritz, S

    2017-07-01

    Aims were to assess the efficacy of metacognitive training (MCT) in people with a recent onset of psychosis in terms of symptoms as a primary outcome and metacognitive variables as a secondary outcome. A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial was performed. A total of 126 patients were randomized to an MCT or a psycho-educational intervention with cognitive-behavioral elements. The sample was composed of people with a recent onset of psychosis, recruited from nine public centers in Spain. The treatment consisted of eight weekly sessions for both groups. Patients were assessed at three time-points: baseline, post-treatment, and at 6 months follow-up. The evaluator was blinded to the condition of the patient. Symptoms were assessed with the PANSS and metacognition was assessed with a battery of questionnaires of cognitive biases and social cognition. Both MCT and psycho-educational groups had improved symptoms post-treatment and at follow-up, with greater improvements in the MCT group. The MCT group was superior to the psycho-educational group on the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) total (p = 0.026) and self-certainty (p = 0.035) and dependence self-subscale of irrational beliefs, comparing baseline and post-treatment. Moreover, comparing baseline and follow-up, the MCT group was better than the psycho-educational group in self-reflectiveness on the BCIS (p = 0.047), total BCIS (p = 0.045), and intolerance to frustration (p = 0.014). Jumping to Conclusions (JTC) improved more in the MCT group than the psycho-educational group (p = 0.021). Regarding the comparison within each group, Theory of Mind (ToM), Personalizing Bias, and other subscales of irrational beliefs improved in the MCT group but not the psycho-educational group (p tolerance to frustration. It seems that MCT could be useful to improve symptoms, ToM, and personalizing bias.

  10. The progressive onset of cholinergic and adrenergic control of heart rate during development in the green iguana, Iguana iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Marina R; Leite, Cleo A C; Abe, Augusto S; Crossley, Dane A; Taylor, Edwin W

    2015-10-01

    The autonomic control of heart rate was studied throughout development in embryos of the green iguana, Iguana iguana by applying receptor agonists and antagonists of the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems. Acetylcholine (Ach) slowed or stopped the heart and atropine antagonized the response to Ach indicating the presence of muscarinic cholinoceptors on the heart of early embryos. However, atropine injections had no impact on heart rate until immediately before hatching, when it increased heart rate by 15%. This cholinergic tonus increased to 34% in hatchlings and dropped to 24% in adult iguanas. Although epinephrine was without effect, injection of propranolol slowed the heart throughout development, indicating the presence of β-adrenergic receptors on the heart of early embryos, possibly stimulated by high levels of circulating catecholamines. The calculated excitatory tonus varied between 33% and 68% until immediately before hatching when it fell to 25% and 29%, a level retained in hatchlings and adults. Hypoxia caused a bradycardia in early embryos that was unaffected by injection of atropine indicating that hypoxia has a direct effect upon the heart. In later embryos and hatchlings hypoxia caused a tachycardia that was unaffected by injection of atropine. Subsequent injection of propranolol reduced heart rate both uncovering a hypoxic bradycardia in late embryos and abolishing tachycardia in hatchlings. Hypercapnia was without effect on heart rate in late stage embryos and in hatchlings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Memory Loss and the Onset of Alzheimer's Disease Could Be Under the Control of Extracellular Heat Shock Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arispe, Nelson; De Maio, Antonio

    2018-04-17

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major contemporary and escalating malady in which amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are the most likely causative agent. Aβ peptides spontaneously tend to aggregate in extracellular fluids following a progression from a monomeric state, through intermediate forms, ending in amyloid fibers and plaques. It is generally accepted now that the neurotoxic agents leading to cellular death, memory loss, and other AD characteristics are the Aβ intermediate aggregated states. However, Aβ peptides are continuously produced, released into the extracellular space, and rapidly cleared from healthy brains. Coincidentally, members of the heat shock proteins (hsp) family are present in the extracellular medium of healthy cells and body fluids, opening the possibility that hsps and Aβ could meet and interact in the extracellular milieu of the brain. In this perspective and reflection article, we place our investigation showing that the presence of Hsp70s mitigate the formation of low molecular weight Aβ peptide oligomers resulting in a reduction of cellular toxicity, in context of the current understanding of the disease. We propose that it may be an inverse relationship between the presence of Hsp70, the stage of Aβ oligomers, neurotoxicity, and the incidence of AD, particularly since the expression and circulating levels of hsp decrease with aging. Combining these observations, we propose that changes in the dynamics of Hsp70s and Aβ concentrations in the circulating brain fluids during aging defines the control of the formation of Aβ toxic aggregates, thus determining the conditions for neuron degeneration and the incidence of AD.

  12. Natural coagulation inhibitors and active protein c resistance in preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Demir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The etiology of preeclampsia is not fully established. A few studies have shown a relationship between natural coagulation inhibitors and preeclampsia. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of natural coagulation inhibitors and active protein C resistance (APC-R in preeclampsia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 70 women with preeclampsia recruited consecutively and 70 healthy pregnant and 70 nonpregnant women as controls. Plasma protein C (PC, free protein S (fPS, antithrombin III (ATIII and APC-R were evaluated. RESULTS: ATIII values were found to be significantly lower in preeclamptic patients than in the control groups (p< 0.001. Nevertheless, there was no significant difference between the healthy pregnant and nonpregnant women groups (p=0.141. The fPS values of the preeclamptic and healthy pregnant groups were lower than that of the nonpregnant group (p< 0.001, and the fPS value of the preeclamptic pregnant women was lower than that of healthy pregnant women (p<0.001. The PC value of the preeclamptic pregnant women was lower than that of the control groups (p< 0.001. The PC value of the healthy pregnant women was lower than that of the nonpregnant women (p< 0.001. The mean APC activity values were lower in the preeclamptic patients than that of the control groups (p< 0.001, p< 0.001. The APC-R positivity rates of the preeclamptic groups were higher than that of the control groups (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that ATIII, fPS, PC values and APC resistance were lower and APC-R positivity was higher in preeclamptic women than in normal pregnant and nonpregnant women.

  13. Laryngopharyngeal reflux and herpes simplex virus type 2 are possible risk factors for adult-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (prospective case-control study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formánek, M; Jančatová, D; Komínek, P; Matoušek, P; Zeleník, K

    2017-06-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) causes recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). Although HPV prevalence is high, the incidence of papillomatosis is low. Thus, factors other than HPV infection probably contribute to RRP. This study investigated whether patients with papillomatosis are more often infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 and chlamydia trachomatis (ChT) and whether laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) occurs in this group of patients more often. Prospective case-control study. Department of Otorhinolaryngology of University Hospital. The study included 20 patients with adult-onset RRP and 20 adult patients with vocal cord cyst and no pathology of laryngeal mucosa (control group). Immunohistochemical analysis of pepsin, HPV, herpes simplex virus type 2 and ChT was performed in biopsy specimens of laryngeal papillomas and of healthy laryngeal mucosa (control group) obtained from medial part of removed vocal cord cyst during microlaryngoscopy procedures. Pathologic LPR (pepsin in tissue) was diagnosed in 8/20 (40.0%) patients with papillomatosis and in 0/20 control patients (P = .003). Herpes simplex virus type 2 was present in 9/20 (45.0%) patients with papillomatosis and in 0/20 control patients (P = .001). Five specimens were positive for both pepsin and herpes simplex virus type 2. No samples were positive for ChT. There were no significant differences between groups for age, body mass index, diabetes mellitus and gastrooesophageal reflux disease. Tobacco exposure was not more frequent in RRP group either (P = .01). Results show that LPR and herpes simplex virus type 2 are significantly more often present in patients with RRP. LPR and herpes simplex virus type 2 might activate latent HPV infection and thereby be possible risk factors for RRP. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Differential impact of statin on new-onset diabetes in different age groups: a population-based case-control study in women from an asian country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statins reduce cardiovascular risks but increase the risk of new-onset diabetes (NOD. The aim of this study is to determine what effect, if any, statins have on the risk of NOD events in a population-based case-control study. An evaluation of the relationship between age and statin-exposure on NOD risks was further examined in a female Asian population. METHOD: In a nationwide case-controlled study, the authors assessed 1065 female NOD patients and 10650 controls with matching ages, genders and physician visit dates. The impact of statin-exposure on NOD was examined through multiple logistic regression models. Subgroup analysis for exploring the risk of NOD and statin-exposure in different age groups was performed. RESULTS: Statin-exposure was statistically significantly associated with increased new-onset diabetes risks using multivariate analysis. Interaction effect between age and statin-exposure on NOD risk was noted. For atorvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 8.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57-24.90. For rosuvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 40-54 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.8; 95% CI, 2.27-96.15. For simvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 15.8; 95% CI, 5.77-43.26. For pravastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.0; 95% CI, 1.56-125.18. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study found that statin use is associated with an increased risk of NOD in women. The risk of statin-related NOD was more evident for women aged 40-64 years compared to women aged 65 or more, and was cumulative-dose dependent. The use of statins should always be determined by weighing the clinical benefits and potential risks for NOD, and the patients should be continuously monitored for adverse effects.

  15. Coagulation performance of a novel poly-ferric-acetate (PFC) coagulant in phosphate-kaolin synthetic water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Yanxin; Lu, Jinpeng; Dong, Xiongzi; Yao, Chengli [Hefei Normal University, Hefei (China); Hao, Jianwen [Anhui Vocational and Technical College, Hefei (China)

    2017-10-15

    The process of coagulation-flocculation is increasingly applied in wastewater treatment. And the polymerized inorganic coagulants are widely used among these coagulation-flocculation processes. However, conventional coagulants using sulfates or chlorides as counter anion may give rise to corrosion. The purpose of this study was to synthesize PFC coagulants in which acetate is used as counter anion. The influences on the preparation of PFC were optimized. The synthesis was done at the optimum conditions, such as temperature of 60 .deg. C, the Fe/CH{sub 3}COOH molar ratio of 1 : 4.0 and reaction time of 6 h, respectively. The prepared PFC coagulants were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PFC was found to mainly form complexation polymeric species and present more cluster and lamellar structure. A series of jar tests were carried out to study the coagulation performance of PFC and PFS in phosphate-kaolin synthetic water treatment. Results showed that the coagulation performance of PFC was more efficient than PFS's in terms of the phosphorus removal efficiency and the residual turbidity. Due to using acetate as counter anion to iron, PFC is less harmful to the processes of water treatment and equipment than that of the conventional coagulants applied chlorides or sulfates. Therefore, PFC is a promising coagulant in the process of corrosion sensitive applications and the process of wastewater containing phosphorus treatment.

  16. Coagulation defects in experimental hepatic injury in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbaldiston, G W; Hoffman, M W

    1971-04-01

    Alteration in activity of blood coagulation factors in dogs with acute hepatic injury caused by oral carbon tetrachloride dosing was studied. Coagulation Factors II, VII and IX were dramatically reduced within 48 hours but recovered to normal in the next five days. Because surgery is rarely performed on dogs with hepatic necrosis, the use of fresh whole blood tranfusion to improve the coagulation defect in hepatic injury was also studied. Transfusion was found to have only a temporary beneficial effect.

  17. Coagulation and Adsorption Treatment of Printing Ink Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Klančnik, Maja

    2014-01-01

    The intention of the study was to improve the efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC) and colour removal from the wastewater samples polluted with flexographic printing ink following coagulation treatments with further adsorption onto activated carbons and ground orange peel. The treatment efficiencies were compared to those of further flocculation treatments and of coagulation and adsorption processes individually. Coagulation was a relatively effective single-treatment method, removing 99...

  18. Coagulation and flocculation of dissolved organic substances with organic polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Kvinnesland, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Coagulation of natural organic matter (NOM) in water is a well-established process, enabling or enhancing the removal of these substances by different particle separation processes. The dominating coagulating agents used are, however, inorganic salts of iron (Fe3+) and aluminium (Al3+). The primary use of organic polymers is as flocculating agents for already coagulated aggregates. However, in recent years the use of cationic organic polymers have received increasing attent...

  19. Efficacy and safety of extended-release oxcarbazepine (Oxtellar XR™) as adjunctive therapy in patients with refractory partial-onset seizures: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, JA; Baroldi, P; Brittain, ST; Johnson, JK

    2014-01-01

    associated with any new safety signals. Conclusions Adjunctive once-daily SPN-804 improved seizure control in patients with inadequately controlled partial-onset seizures. Adverse event occurrence and discontinuations due to adverse events suggest improved tolerability vs previously published data with immediate-release OXC. PMID:24359313

  20. Cutting and coagulation during intraoral soft tissue surgery using Er: YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onisor, I; Pecie, R; Chaskelis, I; Krejci, I

    2013-06-01

    To find the optimal techniques and parameters that enables Er:YAG laser to be used successfully for small intraoral soft tissue interventions, in respect to its cutting and coagulation abilities. In vitro pre-tests: 4 different Er:YAG laser units and one CO2 unit as the control were used for incision and coagulation on porcine lower jaws and optimal parameters were established for each type of intervention and each laser unit: energy, frequency, type, pulse duration and distance. 3 different types of intervention using Er:YAG units are presented: crown lengthening, gingivoplasty and maxillary labial frenectomy with parameters found in the in vitro pre-tests. The results showed a great decrease of the EMG activity of masseter and anterior temporalis muscles. Moreover, the height and width of the chewing cycles in the frontal plane increased after therapy. Er:YAG is able to provide good cutting and coagulation effects on soft tissues. Specific parameters have to be defined for each laser unit in order to obtain the desired effect. Reduced or absent water spray, defocused light beam, local anaesthesia and the most effective use of long pulses are methods to obtain optimal coagulation and bleeding control.

  1. Blood coagulation parameters and platelet indices: changes in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies and predictive values for preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Han

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is an obstetric disorder with high morbidity and mortality rates but without clear pathogeny. The dysfunction of the blood coagulation-fibrinolysis system is a salient characteristic of PE that varies in severity, and necessitates different treatments. Therefore, it is necessary to find suitable predictors for the onset and severity of PE.We aimed to evaluate blood coagulation parameters and platelet indices as potential predictors for the onset and severity of PE.Blood samples from 3 groups of subjects, normal pregnant women (n = 79, mild preeclampsia (mPE (n = 53 and severe preeclampsia (sPE (n = 42, were collected during early and late pregnancy. The levels of coagulative parameters and platelet indices were measured and compared among the groups. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curves of these indices were generated, and the area under the curve (AUC was calculated. The predictive values of the selected potential parameters were examined in binary regression analysis.During late pregnancy in the normal pregnancy group, the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, prothrombin time (PT, thrombin time (TT and platelet count decreased, while the fibrinogen level and mean platelet volume (MPV increased compared to early pregnancy (p<0.05. However, the PE patients presented with increased APTT, TT, MPV and D-dimer (DD during the third trimester. In the analysis of subjects with and without PE, TT showed the largest AUC (0.743 and high predictive value. In PE patients with different severities, MPV showed the largest AUC (0.671 and ideal predictive efficiency.Normal pregnancy causes a maternal physiological hypercoagulable state in late pregnancy. PE may trigger complex disorders in the endogenous coagulative pathways and consume platelets and FIB, subsequently activating thrombopoiesis and fibrinolysis. Thrombin time and MPV may serve as early monitoring markers for the onset and severity of PE

  2. Tissue regenerating functions of coagulation factor XIII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soendergaard, C; Kvist, P H; Seidelin, J B

    2013-01-01

    The protransglutaminase factor XIII (FXIII) has recently gained interest within the field of tissue regeneration, as it has been found that FXIII significantly influences wound healing by exerting a multitude of functions. It supports haemostasis by enhancing platelet adhesion to damaged......-receptor 2 and the αVβ3 integrin is important for angiogenesis supporting formation of granulation tissue. Chronic inflammatory conditions involving bleeding and activation of the coagulation cascade have been shown to lead to reduced FXIII levels in plasma. Of particular importance for this review...

  3. Contact activation of blood-plasma coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golas, Avantika

    Surface engineering of biomaterials with improved hemocompatibility is an imperative, given the widespread global need for cardiovascular devices. Research summarized in this dissertation focuses on contact activation of FXII in buffer and blood plasma frequently referred to as autoactivation. The extant theory of contact activation imparts FXII autoactivation ability to negatively charged, hydrophilic surfaces. According to this theory, contact activation of plasma involves assembly of proteins comprising an "activation complex" on activating surfaces mediated by specific chemical interactions between complex proteins and the surface. This work has made key discoveries that significantly improve our core understanding of contact activation and unravel the existing paradigm of plasma coagulation. It is shown herein that contact activation of blood factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) in neat-buffer solution exhibits a parabolic profile when scaled as a function of silanized-glass-particle activator surface energy (measured as advancing water adhesion tension t°a=g° Iv costheta in dyne/cm, where g°Iv is water interfacial tension in dyne/cm and theta is the advancing contact angle). Nearly equal activation is observed at the extremes of activator water-wetting properties --36 moderated by adsorption of plasma proteins unrelated to coagulation through an "adsorption-dilution" effect that blocks FXII contact with hydrophobic activator surfaces. The adsorption-dilution effect explains the apparent specificity for hydrophilic activators pursued by earlier investigators. Finally a comparison of FXII autoactivation in buffer, serum, protein cocktail, and plasma solutions is shown herein. Activation of blood plasma coagulation in vitro by contact with material surfaces is demonstrably dependent on plasma-volume-to-activator-surface-area ratio. However, activation of factor XII dissolved in buffer, protein cocktail, heat-denatured serum, and FXI deficient plasma does not

  4. Rituximab for childhood-onset, complicated, frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome or steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Kazumoto; Sako, Mayumi; Nozu, Kandai; Mori, Rintaro; Tuchida, Nao; Kamei, Koichi; Miura, Kenichiro; Aya, Kunihiko; Nakanishi, Koichi; Ohtomo, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Shori; Tanaka, Ryojiro; Kaito, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hidefumi; Ishikura, Kenji; Ito, Shuichi; Ohashi, Yasuo

    2014-10-04

    Rituximab could be an effective treatment for childhood-onset, complicated, frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS) and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS). We investigated the efficacy and safety of rituximab in patients with high disease activity. We did a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial at nine centres in Japan. We screened patients aged 2 years or older experiencing a relapse of FRNS or SDNS, which had originally been diagnosed as nephrotic syndrome when aged 1-18 years. Patients with complicated FRNS or SDNS who met all other criteria were eligible for inclusion after remission of the relapse at screening. We used a computer-generated sequence to randomly assign patients (1:1) to receive rituximab (375 mg/m(2)) or placebo once weekly for 4 weeks, with age, institution, treatment history, and the intervals between the previous three relapses as adjustment factors. Patients, guardians, caregivers, physicians, and individuals assessing outcomes were masked to assignments. All patients received standard steroid treatment for the relapse at screening and stopped taking immunosuppressive agents by 169 days after randomisation. Patients were followed up for 1 year. The primary endpoint was the relapse-free period. Safety endpoints were frequency and severity of adverse events. Patients who received their assigned intervention were included in analyses. This trial is registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network clinical trials registry, number UMIN000001405. Patients were centrally registered between Nov 13, 2008, and May 19, 2010. Of 52 patients who underwent randomisation, 48 received the assigned intervention (24 were given rituximab and 24 placebo). The median relapse-free period was significantly longer in the rituximab group (267 days, 95% CI 223-374) than in the placebo group (101 days, 70-155; hazard ratio: 0·27, 0·14-0·53; p<0·0001). Ten patients (42%) in the rituximab group and six (25

  5. Microwave tissue coagulation: effects of power and treatment time on coagulation size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seung Pyung; Kim, Young Hwan; Park, Dong Man; Kim, Jeong Seok; Park, Seo Young; Cha, Soon Joo; Hur, Gham

    1999-01-01

    To determine the effects of power and coagulation time on lesion size of ex-vivo bovine liver using microwaves. Six bovine livers were divided into two groups (first group : 30W output, second group : 60W output) and microwave coagulation was performed for 30, 60, and 120 sec. Thermal injury site was then observed by means of sonography, and the maximal transverse diameter of the echo-change portion after microwave coagulation was measured. On the section of specimen, maximal transverse diameters of the thermal injury site were measured by gross inspection and compared with the result of sonographic measurement. Maximal transverse diameters of hyperechoic lesions of the first group, as seen on sonography, were 8.3mm, 12.2mm, and 15.6mm, and the maximal transverse diameters of thermal injury sites on gross specimens were 9.1mm, 12.0mm, and 15.1mm, respectively. Maximal transverse diameters of hyperechoic lesions of the second group, as seen on sonography, were 12.1mm, 17.4mm, and 21.2mm and maximal transverse diameters of thermal injury sites on gross specimens were 13.2mm, 16.0mm, and 20.0mm, respectively. Statistically maximal transverse diameters of hyperechoic lesions, as seen on sonography, correlated closely with the gross findings of maximal transverse diameters of thermal injury sites (P < .05). Maximal transverse diameters of thermal injury sites were significantly increased as the output of the microwave coagulator and the duration of coagulation time increased (P < .05)

  6. The effects of transport by car on coagulation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Merve; Erdogan, Serpil; Akturk, Onur; Erel, Ozcan

    2017-10-26

    This research investigated the effects of the transport of blood samples between centers/laboratories by car on coagulation tests. Five tubes of blood samples were taken from 20 healthy volunteers. The samples consisted of a baseline (control) group, centrifuged and noncentrifuged transported samples; centrifuged and noncentrifuged untransported samples. The groups of centrifuged and noncentrifuged samples were transported by car for 2 h. The centrifuged and noncentrifuged untransported samples were incubated in the laboratory until the transported samples arrived. Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) tests were conducted for all samples. Significant differences between the baseline group and the centrifuged and noncentrifuged transported samples and the noncentrifuged untransported samples were found for APTT levels (pcar.

  7. Benign intracranial hypertension associated to blood coagulation derangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niglio Alferio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benign Intracranial Hypertension (BIH may be caused, at least in part, by intracranial sinus thrombosis. Thrombosis is normally due to derangements in blood coagulation cascade which may predispose to abnormal clotting activation or deficiency in natural inhibitors' control. The aim of the study is to examine the strength of the association between risk factors for thrombosis and BIH. Patients and methods The incidence of prothrombotic abnormalities among a randomly investigated cohort of 17 patients with BIH, was compared with 51 healthy subjects matched for sex, age, body mass index, height and social background. Results The number of subjects with protein C deficiency was significantly higher in patients than in controls (3 vs 1, p Increased plasma levels of prothrombin fragment 1+2, fibrinopeptide A (FPA, and PAI-1 were demonstrated in patients group (5.7 ± 1.15 nM vs 0.45 ± 0.35 nM; 8.7 ± 2.5 ng/mL vs 2.2 ± 1.25 ng/mL; 45.7 ± 12.5 ng/mL vs 8.5 ± 6.7 ng/mL, respectively; p Discussion In agreement with other authors our data suggest a state of hypercoagulability in BIH associated with gene polymorphisms. Our findings also showed that mutations in cardiovascular genes significantly discriminate subjects with a BIH history. The association between coagulation and gene derangements, usually regarded to as cryptogenic, may suggest a possible pathogenetic mechanism in BIH. So, a prothrombotic tendency may exist that would, at least in part, explain some cases of BIH. Although based on a small population, these findings raise the exciting possibility of using these haemostatic factors as markers for selecting high-risk subjects in BIH disease.

  8. New treatment strategies for disseminated intravascular coagulation based on current understanding of the pathophysiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, Marcel; de Jonge, Evert; van der Poll, Tom

    2004-01-01

    A variety of clinical conditions may cause systemic activation of coagulation, ranging from insignificant laboratory changes to severe disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). DIC consists of a widespread, systemic activation of coagulation, resulting in diffuse fibrin deposition in small and

  9. Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Depression in Emerging Adults with Early-Onset, Long-Duration Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Metabolic Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bächle

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the prevalence of and association between symptoms of eating disorders and depression in female and male emerging adults with early-onset, long-duration type 1 diabetes and investigated how these symptoms are associated with metabolic control.In a nationwide population-based survey, 211 type 1 diabetes patients aged 18-21 years completed standardized questionnaires, including the SCOFF questionnaire for eating disorder symptoms and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 for symptoms of depression and severity of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between eating disorder and depressive symptoms and their associations with HbA1c.A total of 30.2% of the women and 9.5% of the men were screening positive for eating disorders. The mean PHQ-9 score (standard deviation was 5.3 (4.4 among women and 3.9 (3.6 among men. Screening positive for an eating disorder was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women (βwomen 3.8, p<0.001. However, neither eating disorder symptoms nor severity of depressive symptoms were associated with HbA1c among women, while HbA1c increased with the severity of depressive symptoms among men (βmen 0.14, p=0.006.Because of the high prevalence of eating disorder and depressive symptoms, their interrelationship, and their associations with metabolic control, particularly among men, regular mental health screening is recommended for young adults with type 1 diabetes.

  10. Cost analysis of magnetically controlled growing rods compared with traditional growing rods for early-onset scoliosis in the US: an integrated health care delivery system perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly, David W; Ackerman, Stacey J; Schneider, Karen; Pawelek, Jeff B; Akbarnia, Behrooz A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Traditional growing rod (TGR) for early-onset scoliosis (EOS) is effective but requires repeated invasive surgical lengthenings under general anesthesia. Magnetically controlled growing rod (MCGR) is lengthened noninvasively using a hand-held magnetic external remote controller in a physician office; however, the MCGR implant is expensive, and the cumulative cost savings have not been well studied. We compared direct medical costs of MCGR and TGR for EOS from the US integrated health care delivery system perspective. We hypothesized that over time, the MCGR implant cost will be offset by eliminating repeated TGR surgical lengthenings. Methods For both TGR and MCGR, the economic model estimated the cumulative costs for initial implantation, lengthenings, revisions due to device failure, surgical-site infections, device exchanges (at 3.8 years), and final fusion, over a 6-year episode of care. Model parameters were estimated from published literature, a multicenter EOS database of US institutions, and interviews. Costs were discounted at 3.0% annually and represent 2015 US dollars. Results Of 1,000 simulated patients over 6 years, MCGR was associated with an estimated 270 fewer deep surgical-site infections and 197 fewer revisions due to device failure compared with TGR. MCGR was projected to cost an additional $61 per patient over the 6-year episode of care compared with TGR. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the results were sensitive to changes in the percentage of MCGR dual rod use, months between TGR lengthenings, percentage of hospital inpatient (vs outpatient) TGR lengthenings, and MCGR implant cost. Conclusion Cost neutrality of MCGR to TGR was achieved over the 6-year episode of care by eliminating repeated TGR surgical lengthenings. To our knowledge, this is the first cost analysis comparing MCGR to TGR – from the US provider perspective – which demonstrates the efficient provision of care with MCGR. PMID:27695352

  11. Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Depression in Emerging Adults with Early-Onset, Long-Duration Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Metabolic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bächle, Christina; Lange, Karin; Stahl-Pehe, Anna; Castillo, Katty; Scheuing, Nicole; Holl, Reinhard W; Giani, Guido; Rosenbauer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the prevalence of and association between symptoms of eating disorders and depression in female and male emerging adults with early-onset, long-duration type 1 diabetes and investigated how these symptoms are associated with metabolic control. In a nationwide population-based survey, 211 type 1 diabetes patients aged 18-21 years completed standardized questionnaires, including the SCOFF questionnaire for eating disorder symptoms and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for symptoms of depression and severity of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score). Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between eating disorder and depressive symptoms and their associations with HbA1c. A total of 30.2% of the women and 9.5% of the men were screening positive for eating disorders. The mean PHQ-9 score (standard deviation) was 5.3 (4.4) among women and 3.9 (3.6) among men. Screening positive for an eating disorder was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women (βwomen 3.8, peating disorder symptoms nor severity of depressive symptoms were associated with HbA1c among women, while HbA1c increased with the severity of depressive symptoms among men (βmen 0.14, p=0.006). Because of the high prevalence of eating disorder and depressive symptoms, their interrelationship, and their associations with metabolic control, particularly among men, regular mental health screening is recommended for young adults with type 1 diabetes.

  12. Coagulation disorders in the patients with deep vein thrombosis of lower extremity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Dragan J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE Venous thromboembolism is a relevant social and health care problem for its high incidence, pulmonary embolism-related mortality and long-term sequelae which may be disabling (post-thrombotic syndrome and ulceration. PROCEDURES The aim of our work was to establish the presence of coagulation disorders (hypercoagulable states in the patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT of the leg. Prospectively we have analyzed a group of 30 patients with echosono-graphicaly verified DVT of the leg who were admitted to the department of vascular surgery from August 1st 2000 to July 31st 2001.The following parameters were monitored: prothrombin time (PT partial thromboplastin time (PTT, fibrinogen (Fib, alpha 2 antiplasmin (A-2 AP, D-dimer (DD, antithrombin III (AT III and factor VII. FINDINGS Activation of the coagulation process was registered. The values of monitored coagulation parameters are shown in table 1. Plasma levels of monitored parameters in the patients with DVT of the leg were significantly higher than in the control subjects. CONCLUSION In patients with a DVT a hypercoagulable state is common finding. Some parameters of coagulation activity such as D-dimer might be of great interest in the diagnostic strategy of DVT.

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of aggregate morphology for simultaneous coagulation and sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Hans-Joachim; Tejwani, Saurabh; Artelt, Christian; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    A model for simulation of the three-dimensional morphology of nano-structured aggregates formed by concurrent coagulation and sintering is presented. Diffusion controlled cluster-cluster aggregation is assumed to be the prevailing coagulation mechanism which is implemented using a Monte-Carlo algorithm. Sintering is modeled as a successive overlapping of spherical primary particles, which are allowed to grow as to preserve overall mass. Simulations are characterized by individual ratios τ of characteristic collision to fusion time. A number of resulting aggregate-structures is displayed and reveals structure formation by coagulation and sintering for different values of τ. These aggregates are described qualitatively and quantitatively by their mass fractal dimension D f and radius of gyration. The fractal dimension increases from 1.86 for pure aggregation to ∼ 2.75 for equal characteristic time scales. As sintering turns out to be more and more relevant, increasingly compact aggregates start to form and the radius of gyration decreases significantly. The simulation results clearly reveal a strong dependence of the fractal dimension on the kinetics of the concurrent coagulation and sintering processes. Considering appropriate values of D f in aerosol process simulations may therefore be important in many cases

  14. Estrogen and early-onset Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.C. Slooter (Arjen); J.B. Bronzova (Juliana); A. Hofman (Albert); C. van Broeckhoven (Christine); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractEstrogen use may be protective for Alzheimer's disease with late onset. However, the effects on early onset Alzheimer's disease are unclear. This issue was studied in a population based setting. For each female patient, a female control was matched on age (within 5 years) and place of

  15. Natural organic matters removal efficiency by coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapingi, Mohd Sharizal Mohd; Pishal, Munirah; Murshed, Mohamad Fared

    2017-10-01

    The presence of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) in surface water results in unwanted characteristics in terms of color, odor, and taste. NOM content reaction with free chlorine in treated water lowers the water quality further. Chlorine is added for disinfection and produces undesirable disinfection by-products (DPBs). DBPs in drinking water are carcinogenic to consumers and may promote cancerous cell development in the human body. This study was performed to compare the coagulant efficiency of aluminum sulfate (Alum) and ferric chloride (FeCl3) on NOM removal (as in UV254 absorbance) and turbidity removal under three pH conditions (pH 6, pH 7, and sample actual pH). The three sampling points for these studies were Jalan Baru River, Kerian River, and Redac Pond. Additional sampling points, such as Lubuk Buntar and a tubewell located in the Civil Engineering School, were included to observe differences in characteristics. DOC, UV absorbance, and full wavelength were tested, after which samples treated with alum were also tested to further analyze the NOM content. Based on UV254 absorbance and DOC data, specific UV value was calculated to obtain vital synopsis of the characteristics of NOM content, as well as coagulation efficiency.

  16. Temperature effects on flocculation, using different coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, C S B; Fradin, E; Gregory, J

    2004-01-01

    Temperature is known to affect flocculation and filter performance. Jar tests have been conducted in the laboratory, using a photometric dispersion analyser (PDA) to assess the effects of temperature on floc formation, breakage and reformation. Alum, ferric sulphate and three polyaluminium chloride (PACI) coagulants have been investigated for temperatures ranging between 6 and 29 degrees C for a suspension of kaolin clay in London tap water. Results confirm that floc formation is slower at lower temperatures for all coagulants. A commercial PACl product, PAX XL 19, produces the largest flocs for all temperatures; and alum the smallest. Increasing the shear rate results in floc breakage in all cases and the flocs never reform to their original size. This effect is most notable for temperatures around 15 degrees C. Breakage, in terms of floc size reduction, is greater for higher temperatures, suggesting a weaker floc. Recovery after increased shear is greater at lower temperatures implying that floc break-up is more reversible for lower temperatures.

  17. Poor weight control, alcoholic beverage consumption and sudden sleep onset at the wheel among Italian truck drivers: A preliminary pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Gian Luca Rosso; Cristina Montomoli; Stefano M. Candura

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of obesity, alcoholic beverage consumption, unhealthy alcohol use and sudden sleep onset at the wheel among Italian truck drivers. In addition to prevalence rates, this study also aimed at investigating potential predictors for sudden-onset sleepiness and obesity. Material and Methods: A sample of truck drivers was extracted from the database of the High Risk Professional Driver Study. Data concerning demographics, anthropome...

  18. C-reactive protein in patients with acute coronary syndrome: association with coronary markers, lipid profile and markers of coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, T.A.; Afzal, M.N.

    2010-01-01

    To determine levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and its association with coronary markers, lipid profile and markers of coagulation in patients of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The study was conducted at Shifa college of Medicine and Shifa international hospital for a period of one year (November 2005-December 2006). Patients and Methods: Sixty nine age matched controls and 133 consecutive patients of ACS were included in the study. CRP were measured by immunoturbidometric method, MB fraction of creatine kinase (CK-MB) and Troponin-1 by micro-particle enzyme immunoassay, lipid levels by Colorimetric Enzymatic methods, platelets by celldyn and coagulation markers were measured by CA-50 Sysmax. At admission mean CRP levels, cardiac biomarkers, lipid profile and coagulation markers were significantly increased in patients of ACS versus controls. Within the patients of ACS the mean levels of CRP, CK-MB, Trop I, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (Am) were significantly raised in patients with ST - elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non STEMI (NSTEMI) versus patients of unstable angina (VA). Association between CRP levels and coronary markers, coagulation markers and lipid profile was found to be non significant. The CRP levels were increased in patients with ACS as compared to controls. The CRP levels were insignificantly correlated with coronary markers (CK-MB, Trop I), coagulation markers (platelet count, PT, Am), and lipid profile (cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL cholesterol) in patients with ACS. (author)

  19. Effects of Puff-Adder Venom on Coagulation, Fibrinolysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro and in vivo haematological effects of puffadder (Bitis arietans) venom in the baboon (Papio ursinus) with regard to its effect on coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation were studied. There is a delay in the intrinsic coagulation mechanism with fibrinolysis and in vitro fibrinogenolysis. Normal human ...

  20. Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, May Devan; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Stewart, Tom

    2010-02-01

    The formation of silica scale is a problem for thermoelectric power generating facilities, and this study investigated the potential for removal of silica by means of chemical coagulation from source water before it is subjected to mineral concentration in cooling towers. In Phase I, a screening of many typical as well as novel coagulants was carried out using concentrated cooling tower water, with and without flocculation aids, at concentrations typical for water purification with limited results. In Phase II, it was decided that treatment of source or make up water was more appropriate, and that higher dosing with coagulants delivered promising results. In fact, the less exotic coagulants proved to be more efficacious for reasons not yet fully determined. Some analysis was made of the molecular nature of the precipitated floc, which may aid in process improvements. In Phase III, more detailed study of process conditions for aluminum chloride coagulation was undertaken. Lime-soda water softening and the precipitation of magnesium hydroxide were shown to be too limited in terms of effectiveness, speed, and energy consumption to be considered further for the present application. In Phase IV, sodium aluminate emerged as an effective coagulant for silica, and the most attractive of those tested to date because of its availability, ease of use, and low requirement for additional chemicals. Some process optimization was performed for coagulant concentration and operational pH. It is concluded that silica coagulation with simple aluminum-based agents is effective, simple, and compatible with other industrial processes.

  1. Evaluation of Moringa oleifera seed as coagulation aid for treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the potentials of Moringa oleifera seed powder as a coagulation aid for removal of suspended particles in fish culture effluent. The standard jar test was used to investigate the dosage and mixing intensity required to optimize the use of the coagulant in removing of suspended ...

  2. Critical assessment of chitosan as coagulant to remove cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lürling, Miquel; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa; Magalhães, Leonardo de; Miranda, Marcela; Mucci, Maíra; Oosterhout, Frank van; Huszar, Vera L.M.; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi

    2017-01-01

    Removal of cyanobacteria from the water column using a coagulant and a ballast compound is a promising technique to mitigate nuisance. As coagulant the organic, biodegradable polymer chitosan has been promoted. Results in this study show that elevated pH, as may be common during cyanobacterial

  3. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in meningococcal sepsis. Case 7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeerleder, S.; Zürcher Zenklusen, R.; Hack, C. E.; Wuillemin, W. A.

    2003-01-01

    We report on a man (age: 49 years), who died from severe meningococcal sepsis with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and extended skin necrosis. We discuss in detail the pathophysiology of the activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis during sepsis.

  4. Polyferric sulphate: preparation, characterisation and application in coagulation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, A I; Moussas, P A; Vasilakou, F

    2008-07-15

    The process of coagulation is a core environmental protection technology, which is mainly used in the water or wastewater treatment facilities. Research is now focused on the development of inorganic pre-polymerised coagulants. A characteristic example is PFS (polyferric sulphate), a relatively new pre-polymerised inorganic coagulant with high cationic charge. In this paper, the role of major parameters, including temperature, types of chemical reagents, ratio r=[OH]/[Fe], rate of base addition in the preparation stages of PFS were investigated. Furthermore, the prepared PFS was characterised based on typical properties, such as the percentage of the polymerised iron present in the compound, z-potential, pH, etc. Moreover, dynamics of coagulation process were examined by means of the Photometric Dispersion Analyzer (PDA). Finally, the coagulation efficiency of PFS in treating kaolin suspension and biologically pre-treated wastewater was evaluated in comparison with the respective conventional coagulant agent. The results indicate that certain parameters, such as the r value, the rate of base addition and the duration and temperature of the polymerisation stage, significantly affected the properties of the PFS. Additionally, the prepared PFS polymerised coagulants exhibit a significantly better coagulation performance than the respective non-polymerised one, i.e. ferric sulphate.

  5. Critical assessment of chitosan as coagulant to remove cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lurling, Miguel; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa; Magalhães, de Leonardo; Miranda, Marcela; Mucci, Maíra; Oosterhout, van F.; Huszar, Vera L.M.; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi

    2017-01-01

    Removal of cyanobacteria from the water column using a coagulant and a ballast compound is a promising technique to mitigate nuisance. As coagulant the organic, biodegradable polymer chitosan has been promoted. Results in this study show that elevated pH, as may be common during cyanobacterial

  6. Coagulation profile in open and video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Decker; Vad, Henrik; Pedersen, Søren

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lung cancer patients are perceived to have a relatively high risk of venous thromboembolic events due to an activation of the coagulation system. In terms of activation of the coagulation system, the difference between video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and open lobectomies...... for primary lung cancer has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to compare the impact on the coagulation system in patients undergoing curative surgery for primary lung cancer by either VATS or open lobectomies. METHODS: In total, 62 patients diagnosed with primary lung cancer were allocated...... to either VATS (n = 32) or open lobectomies (n = 30). All patients received subcutaneous injections with dalteparin (Fragmin®) 5000 IE once daily. The coagulation was assessed pre- and intraoperatively, and the first 2 days postoperatively by standard coagulation blood tests, thromboelastometry (ROTEM...

  7. Interplay between coagulation and vascular inflammation in sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkenbaugh, Erica; Pawlinski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is the most common inherited hematologic disorder that leads to the irreversible damage of multiple organs. Although sickling of red blood cells and vaso-occlusion are central to the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease the importance of hemolytic anemia and vasculopathy has been recently recognized. Hypercoagulation state is another prominent feature of sickle cell disease and is mediated by activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways. Growing evidence demonstrates that coagulation may not only contribute to the thrombotic complications, but also to vascular inflammation associated with this disease. This article summarizes the role of vascular inflammation and coagulation activation, discusses potential mechanisms responsible for activation of coagulation and reviews recent data demonstrating the crosstalk between coagulation and vascular inflammation in sickle cell disease. PMID:23593937

  8. Coagulant recovery and reuse for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, James; Jarvis, Peter; Smith, Andrea D; Judd, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Coagulant recovery and reuse from waterworks sludge has the potential to significantly reduce waste disposal and chemicals usage for water treatment. Drinking water regulations demand purification of recovered coagulant before they can be safely reused, due to the risk of disinfection by-product precursors being recovered from waterworks sludge alongside coagulant metals. While several full-scale separation technologies have proven effective for coagulant purification, none have matched virgin coagulant treatment performance. This study examines the individual and successive separation performance of several novel and existing ferric coagulant recovery purification technologies to attain virgin coagulant purity levels. The new suggested approach of alkali extraction of dissolved organic compounds (DOC) from waterworks sludge prior to acidic solubilisation of ferric coagulants provided the same 14:1 selectivity ratio (874 mg/L Fe vs. 61 mg/L DOC) to the more established size separation using ultrafiltration (1285 mg/L Fe vs. 91 mg/L DOC). Cation exchange Donnan membranes were also examined: while highly selective (2555 mg/L Fe vs. 29 mg/L DOC, 88:1 selectivity), the low pH of the recovered ferric solution impaired subsequent treatment performance. The application of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to ultrafiltration or alkali pre-treated sludge, dosed at 80 mg/mg DOC, reduced recovered ferric DOC contamination to water quality parameters. Several PAC-polished recovered coagulants provided the same or improved DOC and turbidity removal as virgin coagulant, as well as demonstrating the potential to reduce disinfection byproducts and regulated metals to levels comparable to that attained from virgin material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimum coagulant forecasting by modeling jar test experiments using ANNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghiri, Sadaf; Daghighi, Amin; Moharramzadeh, Sina

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the proper utilization of water treatment plants and optimizing their use is of particular importance. Coagulation and flocculation in water treatment are the common ways through which the use of coagulants leads to instability of particles and the formation of larger and heavier particles, resulting in improvement of sedimentation and filtration processes. Determination of the optimum dose of such a coagulant is of particular significance. A high dose, in addition to adding costs, can cause the sediment to remain in the filtrate, a dangerous condition according to the standards, while a sub-adequate dose of coagulants can result in the reducing the required quality and acceptable performance of the coagulation process. Although jar tests are used for testing coagulants, such experiments face many constraints with respect to evaluating the results produced by sudden changes in input water because of their significant costs, long time requirements, and complex relationships among the many factors (turbidity, temperature, pH, alkalinity, etc.) that can influence the efficiency of coagulant and test results. Modeling can be used to overcome these limitations; in this research study, an artificial neural network (ANN) multi-layer perceptron (MLP) with one hidden layer has been used for modeling the jar test to determine the dosage level of used coagulant in water treatment processes. The data contained in this research have been obtained from the drinking water treatment plant located in Ardabil province in Iran. To evaluate the performance of the model, the mean squared error (MSE) and correlation coefficient (R2) parameters have been used. The obtained values are within an acceptable range that demonstrates the high accuracy of the models with respect to the estimation of water-quality characteristics and the optimal dosages of coagulants; so using these models will allow operators to not only reduce costs and time taken to perform experimental jar tests

  10. In Vitro impairment of whole blood coagulation and platelet function by hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Görlinger Klaus

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch (HH has been recommended for first line treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Its effects on coagulation are unclear. We studied in vitro effects of HH dilution on whole blood coagulation and platelet function. Furthermore 7.2% hypertonic saline, 6% hydroxyethylstarch (as ingredients of HH, and 0.9% saline solution (as control were tested in comparable dilutions to estimate specific component effects of HH on coagulation. Methods The study was designed as experimental non-randomized comparative in vitro study. Following institutional review board approval and informed consent blood samples were taken from 10 healthy volunteers and diluted in vitro with either HH (HyperHaes®, Fresenius Kabi, Germany, hypertonic saline (HT, 7.2% NaCl, hydroxyethylstarch (HS, HAES6%, Fresenius Kabi, Germany or NaCl 0.9% (ISO in a proportion of 5%, 10%, 20% and 40%. Coagulation was studied in whole blood by rotation thrombelastometry (ROTEM after thromboplastin activation without (ExTEM and with inhibition of thrombocyte function by cytochalasin D (FibTEM, the latter was performed to determine fibrin polymerisation alone. Values are expressed as maximal clot firmness (MCF, [mm] and clotting time (CT, [s]. Platelet aggregation was determined by impedance aggregrometry (Multiplate after activation with thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 (TRAP and quantified by the area under the aggregation curve (AUC [aggregation units (AU/min]. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to evaluate HyperHaes induced cell shape changes of thrombocytes. Statistics: 2-way ANOVA for repeated measurements, Bonferroni post hoc test, p Results Dilution impaired whole blood coagulation and thrombocyte aggregation in all dilutions in a dose dependent fashion. In contrast to dilution with ISO and HS, respectively, dilution with HH as well as HT almost abolished coagulation (MCFExTEM from 57.3 ± 4.9 mm (native to 1.7 ± 2.2 mm (HH 40

  11. The immediate and late effects of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine) on murine coagulation gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum-Asfar, Salam; Boelen, Anita; Reitsma, Pieter H; van Vlijmen, Bart J M

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is associated with changes in coagulation. The aim of our study was to gain more insight into the role of thyroid hormone in coagulation control. C57Black/6J mice received a low-iodine diet and drinking water supplemented with perchlorate to suppress endogenous triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) production. Under these conditions, the impact of exogenous T3 on plasma coagulation, and hepatic and vessel-wall-associated coagulation gene transcription was studied in a short- (4 hours) and long-term (14 days) setting. Comparing euthyroid conditions (normal mice), with hypothyroidism (conditions of a shortage of thyroid hormone) and those with replacement by incremental doses of T3, dosages of 0 and 0.5 μg T3/mouse/day were selected to study the impact of T3 on coagulation gene transcription. Under these conditions, a single injection of T3 injection increased strongly hepatic transcript levels of the well-characterized T3-responsive genes deiodinase type 1 (Dio1) and Spot14 within 4 hours. This coincided with significantly reduced mRNA levels of Fgg, Serpinc1, Proc, Proz, and Serpin10, and the reduction of the latter three persisted upon daily treatment with T3 for 14 days. Prolonged T3 treatment induced a significant down-regulation in factor (F) 2, F9 and F10 transcript levels, while F11 and F12 levels increased. Activity levels in plasma largely paralleled these mRNA changes. Thbd transcript levels in the lung (vessel-wall-associated coagulation) were significantly up-regulated after a single T3 injection, and persisted upon prolonged T3 exposure. Two-week T3 administration also resulted in increased Vwf and Tfpi mRNA levels, whereas Tf levels decreased. These data showed that T3 has specific effects on coagulation, with Fgg, Serpinc1, Proc, Proz, Serpin10 and Thbd responding rapidly, making these likely direct thyroid hormone receptor targets. F2, F9, F10, F11, F12, Vwf, Tf and Tfpi are late responding genes and probably indirectly

  12. Response of Coagulation Indices to Two Types of Exercise of Eccentric and Isometric in Male Bodybuilding Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Azimpour

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: Although activation of blood coagulation system in response to physical activity has been identified to some extent, but the contribution of eccentric activity in comparison with isometric activity as resistance exercise, is not clear yet. Therefore, this research was carried out with the purpose of investigating the effect of one session of eccentric and isometric resistance exercise on some coagulation factors in male bodybuilders. Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 28 volunteers were randomly selected from male bodybuilders and divided into two experimental groups and one control group. One of the experimental groups performed eccentric exercise [controlled return (extension of the elbow flexion movement involving an eccentric contraction] and another group performed isometric exercises (holding barbell while flexing elbows at 45 degrees. In order to assess coagulation indices, blood sampling was performed 15 minutes before and immediately after the exercise. Results: Thromboplastin and prothrombin times did not significantly change immediately after the exercise, but the number of platelets significantly increased in both isometric and eccentric types of exercise immediately after the exercise. Conclusion: The results of isometric and eccentric acute resistance exercise showed that the exercise had no negative impact on blood coagulation factors, and increased coagulation system activity reflects the increased number of platelets. The difference between the results of researches carried out in this direction can be resulted from the difference between the exercise protocols, methods and measurement time, and level of preparedness of the participants in the research.

  13. Coagulation system changes associated with susceptibility to infection in trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Elaine; Davenport, Ross; De'Ath, Henry; De-Ath, Henry; Manson, Joanna; Brockamp, Thomas; Brohi, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Infection following trauma is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and is common following severe hemorrhage. There is a strong interaction between the coagulation and immunity. The objective of this study was to establish if there was an association between changes in coagulation status after hemorrhage and the subsequent incidence of infection. Prospective cohort study of adult injured patients presenting to a major trauma center during a 2-year period. Blood was drawn at 24 hours following admission and analyzed using functional thromboelastography testing and laboratory defined tests of coagulation and blood count. Patients were followed up for infectious episodes while in the hospital using Center for Disease Control definitions. A total of 158 patients were recruited; 71 (45%) developed infection and were older (44 years vs. 32 years, p = 0.01) and more severely injured (Injury Severity Score [ISS], 25 vs.10; p < 0.01). White blood cell counts at 24 hours were normal, and there was no difference between groups (both 9.6 × 10/(9)L). Protein C was lower in those with infection (70.2 IU/dL vs. 83.3 IU/dL, p = 0.02), with a dose-dependent increase in infection as levels of protein C decreased. Plasmin activation at 24 hours was also strongly associated with infection plasmin-antiplasmin (infection vs. no infection, 6,156 μg/L vs. 3,324 μg/L, p = 0.03). The infection cohort had overall 12% lower procoagulant levels (varied between factor VIII 6.4% and factor II 16.2%). There is a strong association between the status of the coagulation system after 24 hours and the development of infection following trauma. Improved early coagulation management may decrease infection rates in this patient group. Prognostic prospective study, level III.

  14. Histopathological investigation of radiation necrosis. Coagulation necrosis in the irradiated and non-irradiated brain tumors and in the normal brain tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, N [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Brain Research Inst.

    1977-01-01

    Eighty four irradiated tumors (including 59 gliomas) and the surrounding brain tissue were analyzed. In 'normal' brain tissue, typical coagulation necrosis attributable to irradiation was observed in the cerebral white matter, presenting a whitish-yellow color but no remarkable changes in volume. Histologically there was complete desintegration of myelin and axon. Vascular changes included hyalinous thickening, concentric cleavage, fibrinoid degeneration, adventitial fibrosis and edema of small arteries, fibrin thrombi or occlusion of arterioles and capillaries, and telangiectasia of small veins and venules. While other tumors showed hyalinous or fibrous scar tissue and decrease in volume, the gliomas maintained their original volume without residual tumor cells. Massive coagulation necrosis was occasionally found even in full volume, non-irradiated gliomas (controls), although the changes were fewer and not so varied as in typical radiation necrosis. With small dosages, it was difficult to judge whether the necrosis was caused by irradiation or occurred spontaneously. Coagulation necrosis in tumor tissue was found in 25 of 59 cases (42%) of irradiated gliomas, but in only 2 of 49 cases (4%) of the nonirradiated gliomas. In 49 cases no coagulation necrosis of the surrounding tissue was found. Although histopathological judgement is difficult, it is suggested that there is a significant correlation between coagulation necrosis and irradiation. Discussion of the relationship between coagulation necrosis and NSD (nominal standard dose) led to the conclusion that coagulation necrosis will not be caused by irradiation of less than 1400 rets in NSD.

  15. Peculiarities of coagulation hemostasis disorders in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakovlieva V.H.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The violation of blood coagulation properties is observed in many diseases of the respiratory system, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. It is known that in a stable COPD phase release of proinflammatory cytokines in blood is observed, it leads to disturbance of hemostasis parameters toward hypercoagulation. The aim of our study was to determine possibility of coagulation disorders formation in patients with COPD in a stable phase of pathological process at different stages of disease course and identify relationship between coagulation parameters levels and degree of violation of ventilation lung function. Materials and methods. We examined 30 patients with COPD in a stable disease phase, included in the main group (FEV1 =49,5±15,5% of the due, there were 27 men (90.0%, 3 (30.0% women, mean age was 61,8±7,9 years, level of pack /years index - 34,2±15,3. The control group consisted of 10 healthy subjects matched with the patients of the main group by age and sex. All patients were divided into 2 subgroups. Subgroup 1 included 16 patients with moderate COPD, that is the level of FEV1>50% (61,8±7,4% of predicted, and subgroup 2 - 14 COPD patients with severe COPD, that is the level of FEV1 <50% (35,3±8,2% of predicted. Patients received standard treatment according to the disease stage. Main indicators of coagulation levels: prothrombin index (PI, prothrombin ratio (PR, international normalized ratio (INR, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, thrombin time (TT and antithrombin III (AT III were identified in all patients. Results. The levels of PI, PR and INR in the subgroup 1 differed significantly from those of in the subgroup 2, control group (p<0,05 and pointed at hypercoagulation, whereas in the subgroup 2 all indicators were absolutely identical with control group. Correlation link between the level of INR levels and FEV1 (r=-0,73; p<0.01 in patients of the main group was determined. Levels of APTT, TT and AT

  16. Coagulation parameters following equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M E; Holz, C L; Kopec, A K; Dau, J J; Luyendyk, J P; Soboll Hussey, G

    2018-04-15

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is the cause of respiratory disease, abortion storms, and outbreaks of herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM). Infection of the spinal cord is characterised by multifocal regions of virally infected vascular endothelium, associated with vasculitis, thrombosis and haemorrhage that result in ischaemia and organ dysfunction. However, the mechanism of thrombosis in affected horses is unknown. To evaluate tissue factor (TF) procoagulant activity and thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) levels in horses following infection with EHV-1. In vitro and in vivo studies following experimental EHV-1 infection. Horses were infected with EHV-1 and levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-associated TF activity; plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-derived microvesicle (MV)-associated TF activity and TAT complexes in plasma were examined. EHV-1 infection increased PBMC TF procoagulant activity in vitro and in vivo. In infected horses, this increase was observed during the acute infection and was most marked at the onset and end of viraemia. However, no significant differences were observed between the horses that showed signs of EHM and the horses that did not develop EHM. Significant changes in MV-associated TF procoagulant activity and TAT complexes were not observed in infected horses. A small number of horses typically exhibit clinical EHM following experimental infection. The results indicate that EHV-1 infection increases PBMC-associated TF procoagulant activity in vivo and in vitro. Additional in vivo studies are needed to better understand the role of TF-dependent coagulation during EHM pathogenesis in horses. © 2018 EVJ Ltd.

  17. Treatment of Textile Wastewaterby Adsorption and Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The composite of wastewater treatment was carried out using activated charcoal as adsorbent to remove COD, BOD, color in which various parameters like adsorbent dose, contact duration, temperature and agitator speed were considered. The adsorbent behavior can be explained on the basis of Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Maximum removal (87.6, 81.0 and 90.0% of COD, BOD and color respectively was found at adsorbent dosage of 11 g/L. Also, the textile mill wastewater was treated with different doses of coagulants like alum, ferric sulphate and ferrous sulphate at constant contact duration (4 hours and room temperature (300 K. Percentage reduction (maximum corresponds to 80.2, 74.0 and 84.9% was obtained for removal of COD, BOD and color respectively.

  18. Removal of Dye in Wastewater by Adsorption-Coagulation Combined System with Hibiscus sabdariffa as the Coagulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong Ho Nicholas Jian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional process to treat dye wastewater is the physicochemical treatment such as coagulation, flocculation and adsorption process. A new approach has been demonstrated to treat Congo red dye wastewater, which is the adsorption-coagulation hybrid process. Natural coagulant extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa seeds is used as the coagulant while activated carbon is used as the adsorbent in this case study. The objective of this experiment is to study the significant factors that will affect the efficiency of dye removal. Then, the optimum conditions for the hybrid process is determined using Respond Surface Methodology (RSM. The variables are pH, initial dye concentration, coagulant dosage and adsorbent dosage while the response of experiment is the dye removal percentage. A three-level and four-variable Box-Behnken design (BBD is used for the RSM. A total of 27 sets of experimental results is required to determine the optimum conditions. Jar test is used to conduct the experiment with the addition of coagulant and adsorbent simultaneously. Based on the regression model analysis and ANOVA, the highly significant factors that contribute to the dye removal efficiency through adsorption-coagulation hybrid process are pH of solution and initial dye concentration. The RSM results shows that the optimised process parameters for adsorption-coagulation hybrid process with Hibiscus sabdariffa seeds as the coagulant and activated carbon as the adsorbent are pH 2, initial dye concentration of 385 ppm, coagulant dosage of 209 mg/L and adsorbent dosage of 150 mg/L. The dye removal reaches up to 96.67% under optimum parameters.

  19. Use of risk stratification to target therapies in patients with recent onset arthritis; design of a prospective randomized multicenter controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claessen Susanne JJ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early and intensive treatment is important to inducing remission and preventing joint damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. While intensive combination therapy (Disease Modifying Anti-rheumatic Drugs and/or biologicals is the most effective, rheumatologists in daily clinical practice prefer to start with monotherapy methotrexate and bridging corticosteroids. Intensive treatment should be started as soon as the first symptoms manifest, but at this early stage, ACR criteria may not be fulfilled, and there is a danger of over-treatment. We will therefore determine which induction therapy is most effective in the very early stage of persistent arthritis. To overcome over-treatment and under-treatment, the intensity of induction therapy will be based on a prediction model that predicts patients' propensity for persistent arthritis. Methods A multicenter stratified randomized single-blind controlled trial is currently being performed in patients 18 years or older with recent-onset arthritis. Eight hundred ten patients are being stratified according to the likelihood of their developing persistent arthritis. In patients with a high probability of persistent arthritis, we will study combination Disease Modifying Antirheumatic Drug therapy compared to monotherapy methotrexate. In patients with an intermediate probability of persistent arthritis, we will study Disease Modifying Antirheumatic Drug of various intensities. In patients with a low probability, we will study non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, hydroxychloroquine and a single dose of corticosteroids. If disease activity is not sufficiently reduced, treatment will be adjusted according to a step-up protocol. If remission is achieved for at least six months, medication will be tapered off. Patients will be followed up every three months over two years. Discussion This is the first rheumatological study to base treatment in early arthritis on a prediction rule

  20. Toward onset prevention of cognitive decline in adults with Down syndrome (the TOP-COG study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sally-Ann; Caslake, Muriel; Evans, Jonathan; Hassiotis, Angela; Jahoda, Andrew; McConnachie, Alex; Morrison, Jill; Ring, Howard; Starr, John; Stiles, Ciara; Sullivan, Frank

    2014-06-03

    Early-onset dementia is common in Down syndrome adults, who have trisomy 21. The amyloid precursor protein gene is on chromosome 21, and so is over-expressed in Down syndrome, leading to amyloid β (Aβ) over-production, a major upstream pathway leading to Alzheimer disease (AD). Statins (microsomal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors), have pleiotropic effects including potentially increasing brain amyloid clearance, making them plausible agents to reduce AD risk. Animal models, human observational studies, and small scale trials support this rationale, however, there are no AD primary prevention trials in Down syndrome adults. In this study we study aim to inform the design of a full-scale primary prevention trial. TOP-COG is a feasibility and pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT), with a nested qualitative study, conducted in the general community. About 60 Down syndrome adults, aged ≥50 will be included. The intervention is oral simvastatin 40 mg at night for 12 months, versus placebo. The primary endpoint is recruitment and retention rates. Secondary endpoints are (1) tolerability and safety; (2) detection of the most sensitive neurocognitive instruments; (3) perceptions of Down syndrome adults and caregivers on whether to participate, and assessment experiences; (4) distributions of cognitive decline, adaptive behavior, general health/quality of life, service use, caregiver strain, and sample size implications; (5) whether Aβ42/Aβ40 is a cognitive decline biomarker. We will describe percentages recruited from each source, the number of contacts to achieve this, plus recruitment rate by general population size. We will calculate summary statistics with 90% confidence limits where appropriate, for each study outcome as a whole, by treatment group and in relation to baseline age, cognitive function, cholesterol and other characteristics. Changes over time will be summarized graphically. The sample size for a definitive

  1. Treatment of waste water by coagulation and flocculation using biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruganandam, L.; Saravana Kumar, M. P.; Jena, Amarjit; Gulla, Sudiv; Godhwani, Bhagesh

    2017-11-01

    The present study deals with the determination of physical and chemical parameters in the treatment process of waste water by flocculation and coagulation processes using natural coagulants and assessing their feasibility for water treatment by comparing the performance with each other and with a synthetic coagulant. Initial studies were done on the synthetic waste water to determine the optimal pH and dosage, the activity of natural coagulant, followed by the real effluent from tannery waste. The raw tannery effluent was bluish-black in colour, mildly basic in nature, with high COD 4000mg/l and turbidity in the range 700NTU, was diluted and dosed with organic coagulants, AloeVera, MoringaOleifera and Cactus (O.ficus-indica). The study observed that coagulant Moringa Oleifera of 15 mg/L dose at 6 pH gave the best reduction efficiencies for major physicochemical parameters followed by Aloe Vera and Cactus under identical conditions. The study reveals that the untreated tannery effluents can be treated with environmental confirmative naturally occurring coagulants.

  2. Multiple response optimization of the coagulation process for upgrading the quality of effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Hu, Yi; Lu, Yong-Ze; Zeng, Raymond J.; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    2016-05-01

    To meet the high quality standard of receiving water, the coagulation process using polyferric chloride (PFC) was used to further improve the water quality of effluent from wastewater treatment plants. Uniform design (UD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted to assess the effects of the main influence factors: coagulant dosage, pH and basicity, on the removal of total organic carbon (TOC), NH4+-N and PO43--P. A desirability function approach was used to effectively optimize the coagulation process for the comprehensive removal of TOC, NH4+-N and PO43--P to upgrade the effluent quality in practical application. The optimized operating conditions were: dosage 28 mg/L, pH 8.5 and basicity 0.001. The corresponding removal efficiencies for TOC, NH4+-N and PO43--P were 77.2%, 94.6% and 20.8%, respectively. More importantly, the effluent quality could upgrade to surface water Class V of China through coagulation under optimal region. In addition, grey relational analysis (GRA) prioritized these three factors as: pH > basicity > dosage (for TOC), basicity > dosage > pH (for NH4+-N), pH > dosage > basicity (for PO43--P), which would help identify the most important factor to control the treatment efficiency of various effluent quality indexes by PFC coagulation.

  3. Evaluation of the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrates from municipal wastewater reclamation by coagulation and granular activated carbon adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying-Xue; Yang, Zhe; Ye, Tao; Shi, Na; Tian, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis (mWRRO) contains elevated concentrations of contaminants which pose potential risks to aquatic environment. The treatment of ROC from an mWRRO using granular activated carbon (GAC) combined pretreatment of coagulation was optimized and evaluated. Among the three coagulants tested, ferric chloride (FeCl3) presented relatively higher DOC removal efficiency than polyaluminium chloride and lime at the same dosage and coagulation conditions. The removal efficiency of DOC, genotoxicity, and antiestrogenic activity concentration of the ROC could achieve 16.9, 18.9, and 39.7 %, respectively, by FeCl3 coagulation (with FeCl3 dosage of 180.22 mg/L), which can hardly reduce UV254 and genotoxicity normalized by DOC of the DOM with MW activity were completely eliminated by the GAC adsorption. The results suggest that GAC adsorption combined pretreatment of FeCl3 coagulation as an efficient method to control organics, genotoxicity, and antiestrogenic activity in the ROC from mWRRO system.

  4. Assessing the application and downstream effects of pulsed mode ultrasound as a pre-treatment for alum coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Juboori, Raed A; Aravinthan, Vasantha; Yusaf, Talal; Bowtell, Leslie

    2016-07-01

    The application of pulsed mode ultrasound (PMU) as a pre-treatment for alum coagulation was investigated at various alum dosages and pH levels. The effects of the treatments on turbidity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal and residual Al were evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to optimize the operating conditions of the applied treatments. The results showed that PMU pre-treatment increased turbidity and DOC removal percentages from maximum of 96.6% and 43% to 98.8% and 52%, respectively. It also helped decrease the minimum residual Al from 0.100 to 0.094 ppm. The multiple response optimization was carried out using the desirability function. A desirability value of >0.97 estimated respective turbidity removal, DOC removal and Al residual of 89.24%, 45.66% and ∼ 0.1 ppm for coagulation (control) and 90.61%, >55% and ∼ 0 for coagulation preceded by PMU. These figures were validated via confirmatory experiments. PMU pre-treatment increased total coliform removal from 80% to >98% and decreased trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) from 250 to 200 ppb CH3Cl. Additionally, PMU application prior to coagulation improved the settleability of sludge due to the degassing effects. The results of this study confirms that PMU pre-treatment can significantly improve coagulation performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Adult onset tic disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Chouinard, S.; Ford, B.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Tic disorders presenting during adulthood have infrequently been described in the medical literature. Most reports depict adult onset secondary tic disorders caused by trauma, encephalitis, and other acquired conditions. Only rare reports describe idiopathic adult onset tic disorders, and most of these cases represent recurrent childhood tic disorders.
OBJECTIVE—To describe a large series of patients with tic disorders presenting during adulthood, to compare cl...

  6. Associations between positive end-expiratory pressure and outcome of patients without ARDS at onset of ventilation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serpa Neto, Ary; Filho, Roberto Rabello; Cherpanath, Thomas; Determann, Rogier; Dongelmans, Dave A.; Paulus, Frederique; Tuinman, Pieter Roel; Pelosi, Paolo; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to compare ventilation at different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) with regard to clinical important outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU) patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) at onset of ventilation. Meta-analysis of

  7. Ziprasidone vs olanzapine in recent-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: results of an 8-week double-blind randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootens, K.P.; Veelen, N.M. van; Peuskens, J.; Sabbe, B.G.C.; Thys, E.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verkes, R.J.; Kahn, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Head-to-head comparisons of antipsychotics have predominantly included patients with chronic conditions. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of ziprasidone and olanzapine in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia. METHODS: The study was an

  8. Ziprasidone Vs Olanzapine in Recent-Onset Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder : Results of an 8-Week Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootens, K. P.; van Veelen, N. M. J.; Peuskens, J.; Sabbe, B. G. C.; Thys, E.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Verkes, R. J.; Kahn, R. S.

    Introduction: Head-to-head comparisons of antipsychotics have predominantly included patients with chronic conditions. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of ziprasidone and olanzapine in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia. Methods: The study was an

  9. Distribution functions and moments in the theory of coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pich, J.

    1990-04-01

    Different distribution functions and their moments used in the Theory of coagulation are summarized and analysed. Relations between the moments of these distribution functions are derived and the physical meaning of individual moments is briefly discussed. The time evolution of the moment of order zero (total number concentration) during the coagulation process is analysed for the general kernel of the Smoluchowski equation. On this basis the time evolution of certain physically important quantities related to this moment such as mean particle size, surface and volume as well as surface concentration is described. Equations for the half time of coagulation for the general collision frequency factor are derived. (orig.) [de

  10. Implementation of a microcontroller-based semi-automatic coagulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K; Kirumira, A; Elkateeb, A

    2001-01-01

    The coagulator is an instrument used in hospitals to detect clot formation as a function of time. Generally, these coagulators are very expensive and therefore not affordable by a doctors' office and small clinics. The objective of this project is to design and implement a low cost semi-automatic coagulator (SAC) prototype. The SAC is capable of assaying up to 12 samples and can perform the following tests: prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and PT/APTT combination. The prototype has been tested successfully.

  11. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, prospective trial to evaluate the effect of vildagliptin in new-onset diabetes mellitus after kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hörl Walter H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT, a frequent and serious complication after transplantation, is associated with decreased graft and patient survival. Currently, it is diagnosed and treated primarily according to existing guidelines for type II diabetes. To date, only a few trials have studied antidiabetic drugs in patients with NODAT. Vildagliptin is a novel dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitor that improves pancreatic islet function by enhancing both α- and β-cell responsiveness to increased blood glucose. Experimental data show potential protective effects of DPP-4 inhibitors on islet function after exogenous stress stimuli including immunosuppressants. Therefore, the therapy of NODAT with this class of compounds seems attractive. At present, vildagliptin is used to treat type II diabetes as monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic drugs, since that it efficiently decreases glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c values. Additionally, vildagliptin has been shown to be safe in patients with moderately impaired kidney function. This study will evaluate the safety and efficacy of vildagliptin monotherapy in renal transplant recipients with recently diagnosed NODAT. Methods/Design This study is a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, prospective phase II trial. Using the results of routinely performed oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT in stable renal transplant patients at our center, we will recruit patients without a history of diabetes and a 2 h glucose value surpassing 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l. They are randomized to receive either 50 mg vildagliptin or placebo once daily. A total of 32 patients with newly diagnosed NODAT will be included. The primary endpoint is the difference in the 2 h glucose value between baseline and the repeated OGTT performed 3 months after treatment start, compared between the vildagliptin- and the placebo-group. Secondary endpoints include changes in HbA1c and

  12. Traditional growing rod versus magnetically controlled growing rod for treatment of early onset scoliosis: Cost analysis from implantation till skeletal maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carlos King Ho; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Cheung, Prudence Wing Hang; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen; Cheung, Kenneth Man Chee

    2017-01-01

    To compare the yearly cost involved per patient in the use of magnetically controlled growing rod (MCGR) and traditional growing rods (TGRs) in the treatment of early onset scoliosis (EOS) and to assess the overall cost burden of MCGR with reference to patient and health-care infrastructure. For a hypothetical case of a 5-year-old girl with a diagnosis of EOS, a decision-tree model using TreeAge Software was developed to simulate annual health state transitions and compare the 8-year accumulative direct, indirect, and total cost among the four groups: (1) dual MCGRs with exchange every 2 years, (2) dual MCGRs with exchange every 3 years, (3) TGR with surgical distraction every year, and (4) TGR with surgical distraction every 6 months. Base-case values and ranges of clinical parameters reflecting complication rate after each type of surgical distraction were determined from a review of literature and expert opinion. Government gazette and expert opinion provided cost estimation of growing rods, surgeries, surgical complications, and routine follow-up. Microsimulation of 1000 individuals was conducted to test the variation in total direct costs (in 2016 Hong Kong dollars (HKD)) between individuals, and estimated the standard deviations of total direct costs for each group. Over the projected treatment period, indirect costs incurred by patients and family were higher for the MCGR as compared to the TGR. However, the total costs incurred by MCGR groups (group 1: HKD164k; group 2: HKD138k) were lower than those incurred by TGR groups (group 3: HKD191k; group 4: HKD290k). Although the accumulative costs of three groups (TGR with distraction every year and MCGR replacing every 2 and 3 years) were approaching each other in the first 2 years after initial implantation, at year 3 the accumulative cost of MCGR exchange every 2 years was HKD36k more than the yearly TGR surgery due to the cost of implant exchange. The cost incurred by both the MCGR groups was less than that

  13. Understanding Tobacco Use Onset Among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan E; Colby, Suzanne M; Lu, Bo; Ferketich, Amy K

    2016-04-01

    Compared to the majority of non-Hispanic white ("white") cigarette smokers, many African American smokers demonstrate a later age of initiation. The goal of the present study was to examine African American late-onset smoking (ie, regular smoking beginning at age 18 or later) and determine whether late-onset (vs. early-onset) smoking is protective in terms of quit rates and health outcomes. We used data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) because the wide age range of participants (20-75 at baseline) allowed the examination of smoking cessation and mortality incidence across the lifespan. Consistent with previous research, results indicated a later average age of smoking onset among African Americans, compared to whites. Disentangling effects of race from age-of-onset, we found that the cessation rate among late-onset African American smokers was 33%, whereas rates for early-onset African American smokers and early- and late-onset white smokers ranged from 52% to 57%. Finally, results showed that among white, low-socioeconomic status (SES) smokers, the hazard rate for mortality was greater among early- versus late-onset smokers; in contrast, among African American smokers (both low- and high-SES) hazard rates for mortality did not significantly differ among early- versus late-onset smokers. Although late (vs. early) smoking onset may be protective for whites, the present results suggest that late-onset may not be similarly protective for African Americans. Tobacco programs and regulatory policies focused on prevention should expand their perspective to include later ages of initiation, in order to avoid widening tobacco-related health disparities. This study indicates that late-onset smoking is not only the norm among African American adult smokers, but that late- versus early-onset smoking (ie, delaying onset) does not appear to afford any benefits for African Americans in terms of cessation or mortality. These results

  14. Effect of nano-scale curvature on the intrinsic blood coagulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Takashi; Saha, Krishnendu; Subramani, Chandramouleeswaran; Nandwana, Vikas; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2014-01-01

    The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation ‘silent’ surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature shows denaturation and concomitant coagulation. PMID:25341004

  15. Coagulation Profile in Patients with Different Etiologies for Cushing Syndrome: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amit; Lodish, Maya; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Belyavskaya, Elena; Feelders, Richard A; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies reported a higher prevalence of venous-thromboembolic events among patients with Cushing disease (CD) compared to those with ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome (CS) from adrenal sources. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the coagulation profile of patients with CS from different etiologies. A prospective observational study was conducted at a clinical research center. The study included adult patients admitted for evaluation of suspected CS (n=85), that were divided into 3 groups: CD (n=22), ACTH-independent CS from an adrenal tumor/hyperplasia (adrenal CS, n=21), and a control group consisting of subjects with negative screening for CS (rule-out CS, n=42). Coagulation profiles were drawn before and 8.5±4.3 months after surgery (trans-sphenoidal or adrenalectomy, n=18), and included fibrinogen, Factor VIII (FVIII), von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF:Ag), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), antithrombin III (ATIII), Protein C (PC), Protein S (PS), α2-antiplasmin (α2AP), and aPTT measurements. Patients with CD had higher baseline mean cortisol levels, ATIII activity and vWF:Ag levels compared with adrenal CS. Differences in ATIII activity and vWF:Ag levels remained even after controlling for BMI, and ATIII after also controlling for 24-h urinary free cortisol collections. Our study showed for the first time the differences in coagulation profiles between various etiologies of CS. We assume that the higher cortisol burden among CD patients may explain the differences found in the coagulation profile as well as the higher risk for VTE compared with primary adrenal CS patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Origin of serpin-mediated regulation of coagulation and blood pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjie Wang

    Full Text Available Vertebrates evolved an endothelium-lined hemostatic system and a pump-driven pressurized circulation with a finely-balanced coagulation cascade and elaborate blood pressure control over the past 500 million years. Genome analyses have identified principal components of the ancestral coagulation system, however, how this complex trait was originally regulated is largely unknown. Likewise, little is known about the roots of blood pressure control in vertebrates. Here we studied three members of the serpin superfamily that interfere with procoagulant activity and blood pressure of lampreys, a group of basal vertebrates. Angiotensinogen from these jawless fish was found to fulfill a dual role by operating as a highly selective thrombin inhibitor that is activated by heparin-related glycosaminoglycans, and concurrently by serving as source of effector peptides that activate type 1 angiotensin receptors. Lampreys, uniquely among vertebrates, thus use angiotensinogen for interference with both coagulation and osmo- and pressure regulation. Heparin cofactor II from lampreys, in contrast to its paralogue angiotensinogen, is preferentially activated by dermatan sulfate, suggesting that these two serpins affect different facets of thrombin's multiple roles. Lampreys also express a lineage-specific serpin with anti-factor Xa activity, which demonstrates that another important procoagulant enzyme is under inhibitory control. Comparative genomics suggests that orthologues of these three serpins were key components of the ancestral hemostatic system. It appears that, early in vertebrate evolution, coagulation and osmo- and pressure regulation crosstalked through antiproteolytically active angiotensinogen, a feature that was lost during vertebrate radiation, though in gnathostomes interplay between these traits is effective.

  17. Assessment of the correlations between gait speed in post-stroke patients and the time from stroke onset, the level of motor control in the paretic lower limb, proprioception, visual field impairment and functional independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drużbicki Mariusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gait recovery is one of the main objectives in the rehabilitation of post-stroke patients. The study aim was to assess the correlations between gait speed in post-stroke hemiparetic patients and the level of motor control in the paretic lower limb, the time from stroke onset, the subjects’ age as well as the impairment of proprioception and visual field.

  18. Potential Use of Polyaluminium Chloride and Tobacco Leaf as Coagulant and Coagulant Aid in Post-Treatment of Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurfarahim Rusdizal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to treat stabilized leachate by applying polyaluminium chloride (PAC and tobacco leaf extract as a coagulant and coagulant aid. Experimental results indicated that the tobacco leaves were positively charged. The removal rate of the chemical oxygen demand, using 1500 mg/L PAC as a sole coagulant, was approximately 63% and increased to 91% when 1000 mg/L PAC was mixed with 1000 mg/L tobacco leaf. Additionally, 1500 mg/L PAC with 250 - 1000 mg/L tobacco leaf and 54% ammoniacal nitrogen was removed, compared with only 46% reduction using 1500 mg/L with only 46% reduction.

  19. Does whole blood coagulation analysis reflect developmental haemostasis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hanne Berg; Andreasen, Jo Bønding; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    .05), but there was no sign of developmental changes in whole blood coagulation assessment when applying ROTEM, apart from clotting time in the EXTEM assay (P reach statistical significance. Citrate-anticoagulated blood showed...

  20. Coagulation profile in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Decker; Vad, Henrik; Pedersen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    -, and the first two days postoperatively by standard coagulation blood test, thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) and thrombin generation. Results: Patients undergoing potential curative surgery for lung cancer were not hypercoagulable preoperatively. There was no statistically significant difference in the majority......Background: Knowledge about the impact of Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin (LMWH) on the coagulation system in patients undergoing minimal invasive lung cancer surgery is sparse. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of LMWH on the coagulation system in patients undergoing Video......-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) lobectomy for primary lung cancer. Methods: Sixty-three patients diagnosed with primary lung cancer undergoing VATS lobectomy were randomized to either subcutaneous injection with dalteparin (Fragmin®) 5000 IE once daily or no intervention. Coagulation was assessed pre-, peri...

  1. Performance of Solanum incunum Linnaeus as natural coagulant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2- concentrations for the treated water conforms to the Tanzanian Standards and WHO guidelines for drinking ... that S. incunum is promising as coagulant and disinfectant product for water purification. Key words: .... light greenish blue-grey.

  2. Coagulation Factor Tests: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Coagulation Factor Assay; 156–7 p. ...

  3. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of disseminated intravascular coagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Toh, C. H.; Thachil, J.; Watson, H. G.

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) should encompass both clinical and laboratory information. The International Society for Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) DIC scoring system provides objective measurement of DIC. Where DIC is present the scoring system correlates with

  4. Effects of coagulating enzyme types (commercial calf rennet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of coagulating enzyme types (commercial calf rennet, Aspergillus niger var. awamori as recombinant chymosin and rhizomucor miehei as microbial rennet) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of white pickled cheese.

  5. Effects of coagulating enzyme types (commercial calf rennet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aysegul

    2013-09-11

    clotting enzyme in traditional cheese-making world- wide (Fox, 1987 ... Following pre-brining, the cheeses were packaged in plastic cups (1 kg) containing ..... study the differential degradation of αs-casein by various coagulants.

  6. Hyperglycemia stimulates coagulation, whereas hyperinsulinemia impairs fibrinolysis in healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegenga, Michiel E.; van der Crabben, Saskia N.; Levi, Marcel; de Vos, Alex F.; Tanck, Michael W.; Sauerwein, Hans P.; van der Poll, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance syndromes are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular and thrombotic complications. A disturbed balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis has been implicated in the pathogenesis hereof. To determine the selective effects of hyperglycemia and

  7. A Monte Carlo methods for identification and sensitivity analysis of coagulation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikhansky, Alexander; Kraft, Markus

    2004-01-01

    A stochastic simulation algorithm is presented to calculate parametric derivatives of solutions of a population balance equation. The dispersed system is approximated by an N-particle stochastic weighted ensemble. The derivatives are accounted for through infinitesimal deviation of the statistical weights that are recalculated at each coagulation. Thus, all the parametric derivatives can be calculated along one trajectory of the process, given N sufficiently large. We use an operator-splitting technique to account for surface growth of the particles. The obtained solution is in good agreement with the available analytical solutions. As soon as the parametric derivatives are known the gradient-based methods can be applied to the control and identification of the coagulation process. The extension of the proposed technique to a multi-dimensional case is straightforward

  8. Effects of conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene on lipid and coagulation variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, Sven O; Pan, Kaijie; Thompson, John R

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effects of conjugated estrogens (CE)/bazedoxifene (BZA) on lipid and coagulation variables in a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled phase 3 study of nonhysterectomized postmenopausal women. METHODS: The Selective estrogens, Menopause......, And Response to Therapy (SMART)-5 trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of CE/BZA in postmenopausal women (N = 1,843) with menopausal symptoms. Lipid (N = 1,843) and coagulation (N = 590) variables were assessed in women receiving daily CE 0.45 mg/BZA 20 mg, CE 0.625 mg/BZA 20 mg, BZA 20 mg, CE 0.45 mg...... reassurance that CE/BZA does not adversely affect lipid metabolism or hemostatic balance. In accordance, the incidences of venous thromboembolic events and cardiovascular events in postmenopausal women are similar to those observed with placebo....

  9. The prospects of application of natural antioxidants in correction of blood coagulation in patients with breast cancer during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syimonova, L.Yi.; Byilogurova, L.V.; Gertman, V.Z.; Pushkar, S.M.; Muzikant, P.M.; Nesterenko, G.Yi.

    2008-01-01

    As an accompanying therapy of the patients with BC Bipolan produced positive effect on coagulation homeostasis. By the end of the course of treatment the indices of homeostasis normalized in the experimental group of the patients; manifestations of DIC syndrome and thromboembolic complications were controlled

  10. Effect of elevated levels of coagulation factors on the risk of venous thrombosis in long-distance travelers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Saskia; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria; Rosendaal, Frits R.

    2009-01-01

    Risk of venous thrombosis is increased after long-distance travel. Identifying high-risk groups may provide a basis for targeted prevention. We assessed the effect of increased levels of coagulation factors and combinations of risk factors in travelers in a large case-control study. We calculated

  11. Perfusion-CT guided intravenous thrombolysis in patients with unknown-onset stroke: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrik; Ntaios, George; Reichhart, Marc; Schindler, Christian; Bogousslavsky, Julien; Maeder, Philip; Meuli, Reto; Wintermark, Max

    2012-06-01

    Patients with unknown stroke onset are generally excluded from acute recanalisation treatments. We designed a pilot study to assess feasibility of a trial of perfusion computed tomography (PCT)-guided thrombolysis in patients with ischemic tissue at risk of infarction and unknown stroke onset. Patients with a supratentorial stroke of unknown onset in the middle cerebral artery territory and significant volume of at-risk tissue on PCT were randomized to intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase (0.9 mg/kg) or placebo. Feasibility endpoints were randomization and blinded treatment of patients within 2 h after hospital arrival, and the correct application (estimation) of the perfusion imaging criteria. At baseline, there was a trend towards older age [69.5 (57-78) vs. 49 (44-78) years] in the thrombolysis group (n = 6) compared to placebo (n = 6). Regarding feasibility, hospital arrival to treatment delay was above the allowed 2 h in three patients (25%). There were two protocol violations (17%) regarding PCT, both underestimating the predicted infarct in patients randomized in the placebo group. No symptomatic hemorrhage or death occurred during the first 7 days. Three of the four (75%) and one of the five (20%) patients were recanalized in the thrombolysis and placebo group respectively. The volume of non-infarcted at-risk tissue was 84 (44-206) cm(3) in the treatment arm and 29 (8-105) cm(3) in the placebo arm. This pilot study shows that a randomized PCT-guided thrombolysis trial in patients with stroke of unknown onset may be feasible if issues such as treatment delays and reliable identification of tissue at risk of infarction tissue are resolved. Safety and efficiency of such an approach need to be established.

  12. Perfusion-CT guided intravenous thrombolysis in patients with unknown-onset stroke: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot feasibility trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Patrik; Ntaios, George; Reichhart, Marc; Schindler, Christian; Bogousslavsky, Julien; Maeder, Philip; Meuli, Reto; Wintermark, Max

    2012-01-01

    Patients with unknown stroke onset are generally excluded from acute recanalisation treatments. We designed a pilot study to assess feasibility of a trial of perfusion computed tomography (PCT)-guided thrombolysis in patients with ischemic tissue at risk of infarction and unknown stroke onset. Patients with a supratentorial stroke of unknown onset in the middle cerebral artery territory and significant volume of at-risk tissue on PCT were randomized to intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase (0.9 mg/kg) or placebo. Feasibility endpoints were randomization and blinded treatment of patients within 2 h after hospital arrival, and the correct application (estimation) of the perfusion imaging criteria. At baseline, there was a trend towards older age [69.5 (57-78) vs. 49 (44-78) years] in the thrombolysis group (n = 6) compared to placebo (n = 6). Regarding feasibility, hospital arrival to treatment delay was above the allowed 2 h in three patients (25%). There were two protocol violations (17%) regarding PCT, both underestimating the predicted infarct in patients randomized in the placebo group. No symptomatic hemorrhage or death occurred during the first 7 days. Three of the four (75%) and one of the five (20%) patients were recanalized in the thrombolysis and placebo group respectively. The volume of non-infarcted at-risk tissue was 84 (44-206) cm 3 in the treatment arm and 29 (8-105) cm 3 in the placebo arm. This pilot study shows that a randomized PCT-guided thrombolysis trial in patients with stroke of unknown onset may be feasible if issues such as treatment delays and reliable identification of tissue at risk of infarction tissue are resolved. Safety and efficiency of such an approach need to be established. (orig.)

  13. Coagulation parameters and platelet function analysis in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, A; Yılmaz, H; Temel, Y; Demirpence, M; Simsek, N; Karademirci, İ; Bozkurt, U; Yasar, E

    2016-01-01

    Acromegaly is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The data about the evaluation of coagulation and fibrinolysis in acromegalic patients are very limited and to our knowledge, platelet function analysis has never been investigated. So, we aimed to investigate the levels of protein C, protein S, fibrinogen, antithrombin 3 and platelet function analysis in patients with acromegaly. Thirty-nine patients with active acromegaly and 35 healthy subjects were included in the study. Plasma glucose and lipid profile, fibrinogen levels, GH and IGF-1 levels and protein C, protein S and antithrombin III activities were measured in all study subjects. Also, platelet function analysis was evaluated with collagen/ADP and collagen-epinephrine-closure times. Demographic characteristics of the patient and the control were similar. As expected, fasting blood glucose levels and serum GH and IGF-1 levels were significantly higher in the patient group compared with the control group (pglc: 0.002, pGH: 0.006, pIGF-1: 0.001, respectively). But lipid parameters were similar between the two groups. While serum fibrinogen and antithrombin III levels were found to be significantly higher in acromegaly group (p fibrinogen: 0.005 and pantithrombin III: 0.001), protein S and protein C activity values were significantly lower in the patient group (p protein S: 0.001, p protein C: 0.001). Also significantly enhanced platelet function (measured by collagen/ADP- and collagen/epinephrine-closure times) was demonstrated in acromegaly (p col-ADP: 0.002, p col-epinephrine: 0.002). The results did not change, when we excluded six patients with type 2 diabetes in the acromegaly group. There was a negative correlation between serum GH levels and protein S (r: -0.25, p: 0.04)) and protein C (r: -0.26, p: 0.04) values. Likewise, there was a negative correlation between IGF-1 levels and protein C values (r: -0.39, p: 0.002), protein S values (r: -0.39, p: 0.001), collagen

  14. Effects on coagulation factor production following primary hepatomitogen-induced direct hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Kohei; Ohashi, Kazuo; Taminishi, Sanae; Takagi, Soichi; Utoh, Rie; Yoshioka, Akira; Shima, Midori; Okano, Teruo

    2009-11-14

    To investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in coagulation factor expression and/or function during direct hyperplasia (DH)-mediated liver regeneration. Direct hyperplasia-mediated liver regeneration was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by administering 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP), a representative hepatomitogen. Mice were weighed and sacrificed at various time points [Day 0 (D0: prior to injection), 3 h, D1, D2, D3, and D10] after TCPOBOP administration to obtain liver and blood samples. Using the RNA samples extracted from the liver, a comprehensive analysis was performed on the hepatic gene expression profiling of coagulation-related factors by real-time RT-PCR (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIIIbeta, plasminogen, antithrombin, protein C, protein S, ADAMTS13, and VWF). The corresponding plasma levels of coagulation factors (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, and VWF) were also analyzed and compared with their mRNA levels. Gavage administration of TCPOBOP (3 mg/kg body weight) resulted in a marked and gradual increase in the weight of the mouse livers relative to the total body weight to 220% by D10 relative to the D0 (control) ratios. At the peak of liver regeneration (D1 and D2), the gene expression levels for most of the coagulation-related factors (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V, VII, VIII, IX, XI, XII, XIIIbeta, plasminogen, antithrombin, protein C, ADAMTS13, VWF) were found to be down-regulated in a time-dependent manner, and gradually recovered by D10 to the basal levels. Only mRNA levels of factor X and protein S failed to show any decrease during the regenerative phase. As for the plasma levels, 5 clotting factors (prothrombin, factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) demonstrated a significant decrease (Pfactors, factor IX and factor XI showed the most dramatic decline in their activities by about 50% at D2 compared to the basal levels, and these reductions in

  15. Reducing surface water total and methyl mercury concentrations and bioavailability using a coagulation-wetland system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, T. E.; Fleck, J.; Henneberry, Y. K.; Stumpner, E. B.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Bachand, P.; Randall, P.

    2013-12-01

    With the recent passage of laws regulating concentrations and loads of mercury (Hg) in surface waters, there is a need to develop management practices that will reduce the export of Hg from both point and non-point sources. Coagulation with metal based salts to remove particles and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from solution is a practice commonly employed by drinking water utilities. Because dissolved Hg is associated with particles and DOM, it follows that Hg should also be removed during the coagulation process and end up associated with the organo-metal precipitate, termed flocculate (floc). The effectiveness of iron- and aluminum-based coagulants for removing both inorganic and methyl mercury (IHg and MeHg, respectively) from solution was demonstrated in laboratory studies conducted on agricultural drainage waters of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta: dissolved concentrations of MeHg decreased by 80% while IHg decreased by 97% following coagulation. To test the field application of this technology, samples were collected from the inflows and outflows of wetland treatment cells constructed in the central Delta of California. This replicated field experiment includes three replicates each of three inflow waters treatments: (1) iron sulfate addition, (2) polyaluminum chloride addition, and (3) untreated controls. Water entering and exiting the nine treatment cells was sampled approximately monthly over a 1-year period for total Hg and MeHg in both the dissolved and particulate aqueous phases. Initial results confirm that coagulant addition is removing Hg (total and methyl, particulate and dissolved) from solution and sequestering it in the floc. Seasonal effects on DOM concentration and other factors appear to effect whether passage through the wetland cells alters surface water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and Hg concentrations. Related studies will examine whether the presence of the floc affects the production and fate of MeHg within the wetland cells. If

  16. A cluster-randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of delaying onset of adolescent substance abuse on cognitive development and addiction following a selective, personality-targeted intervention programme: the Co-Venture trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Mâsse, Benoit; Pihl, Robert O; Stewart, Sherry H; Séguin, Jean R; Conrod, Patricia J

    2017-10-01

    Substance use and binge drinking during early adolescence are associated with neurocognitive abnormalities, mental health problems and an increased risk for future addiction. The trial aims to evaluate the protective effects of an evidence-based substance use prevention programme on the onset of alcohol and drug use in adolescence, as well as on cognitive, mental health and addiction outcomes over 5 years. Thirty-eight high schools will be recruited, with a final sample of 31 schools assigned to intervention or control conditions (3826 youth). Brief personality-targeted interventions will be delivered to high-risk youth attending intervention schools during the first year of the trial. Control school participants will receive no intervention above what is offered to them in the regular curriculum by their respective schools. Public/private French and English high schools in Montreal (Canada). All grade 7 students (12-13 years old) will be invited to participate. High-risk youth will be identified as those scoring one standard deviation or more above the school mean on one of the four personality subscales of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (40-45% youth). Self-reported substance use and mental health symptoms and cognitive functioning measured annually throughout 5 years. Primary outcomes are the onset of substance use disorders at 4 years post-intervention (year 5). Secondary intermediate outcomes are the onset of alcohol and substance use 2 years post-intervention and neuropsychological functions; namely, the protective effects of substance use prevention on cognitive functions generally, and executive functions and reward sensitivity specifically. This longitudinal, cluster-randomized controlled trial will investigate the impact of a brief personality-targeted intervention program on reducing the onset of addiction 4 years-post intervention. Results will tease apart the developmental sequences of uptake and growth in substance use and cognitive

  17. Thyroid storm with multiple organ failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and stroke with a normal serum FT3 level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Yuko; Akiyama, Hisanao; Yoshimoto, Tatsuji; Urao, Yasuko; Ryuzaki, Munekazu; Handa, Michiko

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare disorder with a sudden onset, rapid progression and high mortality. We experienced a case of thyroid storm which had a devastating course, including multiple organ failure (MOF), severe hypoglycemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and stroke. It was difficult to make a diagnosis of thyroid storm in the present patient, because she did not have a history of thyroid disease and her serum FT3 level was normal. Clinicians should be aware that thyroid storm can occur even when there is an almost normal level of thyroid hormones, and that intensive anticoagulation is required for patients with atrial fibrillation to prevent stroke after thyroid storm.

  18. Should anti-inhibitor coagulant complex and tranexamic acid be used concomitantly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, L A; Holme, P A

    2015-11-01

    Inhibitor development in haemophilia patients is challenging especially when undergoing surgical procedures. The development of an inhibitor precludes using factor VIII (FVIII) therapy thereby requiring a bypassing agent (BPA) for surgical bleeding prophylaxis if the FVIII inhibitor titre >5 BU. Concomitant use of anti-inhibitor coagulant complex (AICC) and tranexamic acid has been reported in the literature as a beneficial treatment for this population. Anti-inhibitor coagulant complex is known to cause an increase in thrombin generation and tranexamic acid inhibits fibrinolysis. Hence, the combined used of AICC and tranexamic acid has been limited due to safety concerns over possibilities of increased risk of thrombotic events and disseminated intravascular coagulation. However, the rationale for concomitant therapy is to obtain a potential synergistic effect and to increase clot stability. We conducted a literature review of past studies and individual case reports of concomitant use of AICC and tranexamic acid, which was extensively used during dental procedures. Evidence also exists for concomitant use of the combined therapy in orthopaedic procedures, control of gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis and cerebral haemorrhages. Some patients who received the combined therapy had failed monotherapy with a single BPA prior to combined therapy. There were no reports of thrombotic complications related to the concomitant therapy and haemostasis was achieved in all cases. Anti-inhibitor coagulant complex and tranexamic acid therapy was found to be safe, well-tolerated and effective therapy in haemophilia patients with inhibitors. Additional randomized controlled studies should be performed to confirm these findings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. In vitro investigation of the effects of exogenous sugammadex on coagulation in orthopedic surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Il Ok; Kim, Young Sung; Chang, Hae Wone; Kim, Heezoo; Lim, Byung Gun; Lee, Mido

    2018-05-24

    Previous studies have shown that sugammadex resulted in the prolongation of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time. In this study, we aimed to investigate the in vitro effects of exogenous sugammadex on the coagulation variables of whole blood in healthy patients who underwent orthopedic surgery. The effects of sugammadex on coagulations were assessed using thromboelastography (TEG) in kaolin-activated citrated blood samples taken from 14 healthy patients who underwent orthopedic surgery. The in vitro effects of three different concentrations of sugammadex (42, 193, and 301 μg mL - 1 ) on the TEG profiles were compared with those of the control (0 μg mL - 1 ). Previous studies indicated that these exogenous concentrations correspond to the approximate maximum plasma concentrations achieved after the administration of 4, 16, and 32 mg kg - 1 sugammadex to healthy subjects. Increased sugammadex concentrations were significantly associated with reduced coagulation, as evidenced by increases in reaction time (r), coagulation time, and time to maximum rate of thrombus generation (TMRTG), and decreases in the angle, maximum amplitude, and maximum rate of thrombus generation. Compared with the control, the median percentage change (interquartile range) in the TEG values of the samples treated with the highest exogenous sugammadex concentration was the greatest for r, 53% (26, 67.3%), and TMRTG, 48% (26, 59%). This in vitro study suggests that supratherapeutic doses of exogenous sugammadex might be associated with moderate hypocoagulation in the whole blood of healthy subjects. identifier:  UMIN000029081 , registered 11 September 2017.

  20. Blood coagulation parameters and activity indices in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Arshinov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess coagulation parameters and activity indices in pts with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Material and methods . 86 pts with SLE (83 female and 3 male were examined. 12 of them had antiphospholipid syndrome. Mean age was 35,9±1,5 years (from 18 to 58 years, mean disease duration was 9,8+1,4 years. Control group consisted of 60 healthy volunteers with mean age 37,1+4,1 years. SLE activity assessment was performed with SLAM, SLEDAI and ECLAM indices. Results. SLE pts showed 5-fold (p<0,01 increase of spontaneous platelets aggregation and more than 3-fold increase of factor von Willebrand antigen (FWA concentration. Platelet activation in pts was accompanied by decrease of platelet aggregation with collagen (on 27%, p<0,01. Characteristic sign of coagulation hemostasis activation was significant increase of soluble fibrin-monomer complexes (SFMC concentration on 81 % (p<0,01 so as increase D-dimers level in 53,3% of pts. Fibrinogen concentration was increased on 29%, spontaneous fibrinolysis parameters were decreased on 20%, antithrombin (AT 111 - on 21% in comparison with control. Direct correlation between activity indiccs and SFMC(ECLAM, r=0,5, fibrinogen concentration (SLAM, r=0,34, D- dimers level (ECLAM, r=0,5, spontaneous platelet aggregation (ECLAM, r=0,5 so as inverse correlation with AT III activity (SLEDAI, r-0,73 was revealed. Conclusion. Changes of hemostasis parameters in SLE may serve as predictors of thrombotic disorders development and indication to drug correction of blood coagulation disorders. Direct correlation between blood coagulation system activity and indices of SLE activity.

  1. Planetesimal formation by sweep-up coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windmark, Fredrik; Birnstiel, Til; Ormel, Chris W.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.

    2013-07-01

    The formation of planetesimals is often accredited to collisional sticking of dust grains in the protoplanetary disk. The exact process is however unknown, as collisions between larger aggregates tend to lead to fragmentation or bouncing rather than sticking. These growth barriers tend to halt the dust growth already at millimeters or centimeters in size, which is far below the kilometer-sizes that are needed for gravity to aid in the accretion. To study how far dust coagulation can proceed, we have developed a new collision model based on the latest laboratory experiments, and have used it together with a dust-size evolution code capable of resolving all grain interactions in the protoplanetary disk. We find that for the general dust population, bouncing and fragmenting collisions prevent the growth above millimeter-sizes. However, a small number of lucky particles can grow larger than the rest by only interacting at low, sticky velocities. As they grow, they become increasingly resilient to fragmentation caused by the small grains. In this way, two populations are formed: One which remains small due to the collisional barriers, and one that continues to grow by sweeping up the smaller grains around them.

  2. A Pontential Agriculture Waste Material as Coagulant Aid: Cassava Peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, N.; Abd-Rahim, N.-S.; Tuan-Besar, S.-N.-F.; Mohd-Asharuddin, S.; Kumar, V.

    2018-02-01

    All A large amount of cassava peel waste is generated annually by small and medium scale industries. This has led to a new policy of complete utilization of raw materials so that there will be little or no residue left that could pose pollution problems. Conversion of these by-products into a material that poses an ability to remove toxic pollutant would increase the market value and ultimately benefits the producers. This study investigated the characteristics of cassava peel as a coagulant aid material and optimization process using the cassava peel was explored through coagulation and flocculation. This research had highlighted that the Cassava peels contain sugars in the form of polysaccharides such as starch and holocellulose. The FTIR results revealed that amino acids containing abundant of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups which has significant capabilities in removing pollutants. Whereas analysis by XRF spectrometry indicated that the CP samples contain Fe2O3 and Al2O3 which might contribute to its coagulation ability. The optimum condition allowed Cassava peel and alum removed high turbidity up to 90. This natural coagulant from cassava peel is found to be an alternative coagulant aid to reduce the usage of chemical coagulants

  3. Colloids removal from water resources using natural coagulant: Acacia auriculiformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M.; Roslan, A.; Kamarulzaman, M. F. H.; Erat, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    All waters, especially surface waters contain dissolved, suspended particles and/or inorganic matter, as well as several biological organisms, such as bacteria, algae or viruses. This material must be removed because it can affect the water quality that can cause turbidity and colour. The objective of this study is to develop water treatment process from Seri Alam (Johor, Malaysia) lake water resources by using natural coagulant Acacia auriculiformis pods through a jar test experiment. Jar test is designed to show the effectiveness of the water treatment. This process is a laboratory procedure that will simulate coagulation/flocculation with several parameters selected namely contact time, coagulant dosage and agitation speed. The most optimum percentage of colloids removal for each parameter is determined at 0.2 g, 90 min and 80 rpm. FESEM (Field-emission Scanning Electron Microscope) observed the small structures of final floc particles for optimum parameter in this study to show that the colloids coagulated the coagulant. All result showed that the Acacia auriculiformis pods can be a very efficient coagulant in removing colloids from water.

  4. Role of stress areas, stress severity, and stressful life events on the onset of depressive disorder: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueboonthavatchai, Peeraphon

    2009-09-01

    Although the stress and stressful life events are known as the precipitation of depressive disorder, the areas of stress and types of stressful life events found in depression are varied by different socio-cultural context. Identify the stress areas, stress severity, and types of stressful life events associated with the onset of depressive disorder in Thai depressed patients. Ninety depressed and ninety non-depressed subjects, aged above 18 years old, from the Department of Psychiatry, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, were recruited into the present study between July 2007 and January 2008. All subjects completed a demographic data form, and a 1-Year Life Stress Event Questionnaire. The association between the number of stressful life events, stress areas, stress severity, types of stressful life events, and the onset of depressive disorder were analyzed by independent t-test and chi-square test. Logistic regression was performed to identify the predictors of depressive disorder. Most of the subjects were young and middle-aged women, living in Bangkok and the central region. The depressed subjects experienced more stressful life events than the non-depressed subjects (5.81 +/- 3.19 vs. 3.24 +/- 2.80 events in one year) (p stress areas (health-related, family-related, financial, occupational, and social stress), and overall stress were associated with the onset of depressive disorder (p stress in all areas were at the higher risk of depressive disorder than those with the mild stress (p stress was the stress area highest associated with the depressive disorder (OR = 5.93, 95% CI = 2.33-16.92, p stressful life events associated with the onset of depressive disorder were the medical hospitalization, medical illness leading to missing work or disturbed daily routine, change in sleeping habits, absence of recreation, arguments with spouse, sexual difficulties with spouse, family financial problems, job loss, and trouble with boss (p stress was the significant

  5. Enhanced WWTP effluent organic matter removal in hybrid ozonation-coagulation (HOC) process catalyzed by Al-based coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Jin, Pengkang, E-mail: pkjin@hotmail.com [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Hou, Rui [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Yang, Lei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800 (Australia); Wang, Xiaochang C., E-mail: xcwang@xauat.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • A novel HOC process was firstly put forward to apply in wastewater reclamation. • Interactions between ozone and Al-based coagulants was found in the HOC process. • Ozonation can be catalyzed and enhanced by Al-based coagulants in the HOC process. • HOC process showed better organics removal than pre-ozonation-coagulation process. - Abstract: A novel hybrid ozonation-coagulation (HOC) process was developed for application in wastewater reclamation. In this process, ozonation and coagulation occurred simultaneously within a single unit. Compared with the conventional pre-ozonation-coagulation process, the HOC process exhibited much better performance in removing dissolved organic matters. In particular, the maximal organic matters removal efficiency was obtained at the ozone dosage of 1 mgO{sub 3}/mg DOC at each pH value (pH 5, 7 and 9). In order to interpret the mechanism of the HOC process, ozone decomposition was monitored. The results indicated that ozone decomposed much faster in the HOC process. Moreover, by using the reagent of O{sub 3}-resistant hydroxyl radical (·OH) probe compound, para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis, it was observed that the HOC process generated higher content of ·OH compared with pre-ozonation process. This indicates that the ·OH oxidation reaction as the key step can be catalyzed and enhanced by Al-based coagulants and their hydrolyzed products in this developed process. Thus, based on the catalytic effects of Al-based coagulants on ozonation, the HOC process provides a promising alternative to the conventional technology for wastewater reclamation in terms of higher efficiency.

  6. Experimental dosing of wetlands with coagulants removes mercury from surface water and decreases mercury bioaccumulation in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Fleck, Jacob A.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Horwarth, William R.; Bachand, Sandra M.; Herzog, Mark; Hartman, Christopher; Bachand, Philip A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury pollution is widespread globally, and strategies for managing mercury contamination in aquatic environments are necessary. We tested whether coagulation with metal-based salts could remove mercury from wetland surface waters and decrease mercury bioaccumulation in fish. In a complete randomized block design, we constructed nine experimental wetlands in California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, stocked them with mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and then continuously applied agricultural drainage water that was either untreated (control), or treated with polyaluminum chloride or ferric sulfate coagulants. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in surface waters were decreased by 62% and 63% in polyaluminum chloride treated wetlands and 50% and 76% in ferric sulfate treated wetlands compared to control wetlands. Specifically, following coagulation, mercury was transferred from the filtered fraction of water into the particulate fraction of water which then settled within the wetland. Mosquitofish mercury concentrations were decreased by 35% in ferric sulfate treated wetlands compared to control wetlands. There was no reduction in mosquitofish mercury concentrations within the polyaluminum chloride treated wetlands, which may have been caused by production of bioavailable methylmercury within those wetlands. Coagulation may be an effective management strategy for reducing mercury contamination within wetlands, but further studies should explore potential effects on wetland ecosystems.

  7. Experimental dosing of wetlands with coagulants removes mercury from surface water and decreases mercury bioaccumulation in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Kraus, Tamara E C; Fleck, Jacob A; Krabbenhoft, David P; Horwath, William R; Bachand, Sandra M; Herzog, Mark P; Hartman, C Alex; Bachand, Philip A M

    2015-05-19

    Mercury pollution is widespread globally, and strategies for managing mercury contamination in aquatic environments are necessary. We tested whether coagulation with metal-based salts could remove mercury from wetland surface waters and decrease mercury bioaccumulation in fish. In a complete randomized block design, we constructed nine experimental wetlands in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, stocked them with mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and then continuously applied agricultural drainage water that was either untreated (control), or treated with polyaluminum chloride or ferric sulfate coagulants. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in surface waters were decreased by 62% and 63% in polyaluminum chloride treated wetlands and 50% and 76% in ferric sulfate treated wetlands compared to control wetlands. Specifically, following coagulation, mercury was transferred from the filtered fraction of water into the particulate fraction of water which then settled within the wetland. Mosquitofish mercury concentrations were decreased by 35% in ferric sulfate treated wetlands compared to control wetlands. There was no reduction in mosquitofish mercury concentrations within the polyaluminum chloride treated wetlands, which may have been caused by production of bioavailable methylmercury within those wetlands. Coagulation may be an effective management strategy for reducing mercury contamination within wetlands, but further studies should explore potential effects on wetland ecosystems.

  8. Attention capture by contour onsets and offsets: no special role for onsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, D G; Humphreys, G W

    1995-07-01

    In five experiments, we investigated the power of targets defined by the onset or offset of one of an object's parts (contour onsets and offsets) either to guide or to capture visual attention. In Experiment 1, search for a single contour onset target was compared with search for a single contour offset target against a static background of distractors; no difference was found between the efficiency with which each could be detected. In Experiment 2, onsets and offsets were compared for automatic attention capture, when both occurred simultaneously. Unlike in previous studies, the effects of overall luminance change, new-object creation, and number of onset and offset items were controlled. It was found that contour onset and offset items captured attention equally well. However, display size effects on both target types were also apparent. Such effects may have been due to competition for selection between multiple onset and offset stimuli. In Experiments 3 and 4, single onset and offset stimuli were presented simultaneously and pitted directly against one another among a background of static distractors. In Experiment 3, we examined "guided search," for a target that was formed either from an onset or from an offset among static items. In Experiment 4, the onsets and offsets were uncorrelated with the target location. Similar results occurred in both experiments: target onsets and offsets were detected more efficiently than static stimuli which needed serial search; there remained effects of display size on performance; but there was still no advantage for onsets. In Experiment 5, we examined automatic attention capture by single onset and offset stimuli presented individually among static distractors. Again, there was no advantage for onset over offset targets and a display size effect was also present. These results suggest that, both in isolation and in competition, onsets that do not form new objects neither guide nor gain automatic attention more efficiently

  9. Enhanced algae removal by Ti-based coagulant: comparison with conventional Al- and Fe-based coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Zhao, Yanxia; Gao, Baoyu; Zhao, Qian

    2018-05-01

    The water eutrophication caused by cyanobacteria seasonally proliferates, which is a hot potato to be resolved for water treatment plants. This study firstly investigated coagulation performance of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl 4 ) for Microcystis aeruginosa synthetic water treatment. Results show complete algal cell removal by TiCl 4 coagulation without damage to cell membrane integrity even under harsh conditions; 60 mg/L TiCl 4 was effective in removing the microcystins up to 85%. Furthermore, besides having stronger UV 254 removal capability and the higher removal of fluorescent substances over Al- and Fe-based coagulants, TiCl 4 coagulant required more compact coagulation and sedimentation tanks due to its significantly improved floc growth and sedimentation speed. Meanwhile, its' short hydraulic retention time avoided algal cell breakage and subsequent algal organic matter release. Microcystin concentrations were kept at a low level during sludge storage period, indicating that the TiCl 4 flocs could prevent algal cells from natural lysis. To facilitate water recycling without secondary contamination, the algae-containing sludge after TiCl 4 coagulation ought to be disposed within 12 days at 20 °C and 8 days at 35 °C.

  10. Measurements of fireball onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Brett; Barnat, Edward V.; Baalrud, Scott D.; Hopkins, Matthew M.; Yee, Benjamin T.

    2018-04-01

    Laser-based measurements of the characteristic features of fireball onset and stabilization in response to a stepped voltage applied to an anode immersed in a low pressure (100 mTorr) helium afterglow are reported. These include spatial and temporal evolution of metastable species, electron density, and electric field magnitude as measured by planar laser induced fluorescence, laser-collision induced fluorescence, and laser-induced fluorescence-dip spectroscopy, respectively. These measurements are found to be in qualitative agreement with recent particle-in-cell simulations and theoretical models [Scheiner et al., Phys. Plasmas 24, 113520 (2017)]. The measurements validate the simulations and models in which fireball onset was predicted to follow from the trapping of electrons born from electron impact ionization within a potential well created by a buildup of ions in the sheath. The experimental measurements also demonstrate transient features following the onset that were not present in previous simulations. New simulation results are presented which demonstrate that these features are associated with the abruptness of the voltage step used to initiate fireball onset. An abrupt step in the anode bias causes rapid displacement of ions and an associated plasma potential response following the sheath and fireball expansion.

  11. Segregation by onset asynchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, P J B; Walton, L; Mitchell, G; Plenderleith, Y; Phillips, W A

    2008-08-05

    We describe a simple psychophysical paradigm for studying figure-ground segregation by onset asynchrony. Two pseudorandom arrays of Gabor patches are displayed, to left and right of fixation. Within one array, a subset of elements form a figure, such as a randomly curving path, that can only be reliably detected when their onset is not synchronized with that of the background elements. Several findings are reported. First, for most participants, segregation required an onset asynchrony of 20-40 ms. Second, detection was no better when the figure was presented first, and thus by itself, than when the background elements were presented first, even though in the latter case the figure could not be detected in either of the two successive displays alone. Third, asynchrony segregated subsets of randomly oriented elements equally well. Fourth, asynchronous onsets aligned with the path could be discriminated from those lying on the path but not aligned with it. Fifth, both transient and sustained neural activity contribute to detection. We argue that these findings are compatible with neural signaling by synchronized rate codes. Finally, schizophrenic disorganization is associated with reduced sensitivity. Thus, in addition to bearing upon basic theoretical issues, this paradigm may have clinical utility.

  12. Coagulation diagram using the Moringa oleifera Lam and the aluminium sulphate, aiming the removal of color and turbidity of water - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i3.12268

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Cardoso Valverde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work suggests the study of the coagulation diagram as a tool to verify the efficiency in removing color and turbidity of the water, using the Moringa oleifera Lam and the association of this biopolymer with the aluminium sulphate as coagulating agents. The assays were carried out in Jar Test, by varying the concentrations of coagulants and pH of coagulation. After the assays of coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation, samples were collected for the evaluation of the process efficiency. Best results were obtained at dose of 50 ppm of Moringa oleifera Lam. When associating the coagulants, the addition of the aluminium sulphate provided an increase in the efficiency of coagulation/flocculation, whose parameters of control used were color and turbidity. It was verified that the study of the coagulation diagram is useful, since it enables developing the assays in the optimal range, as a function of the raw water characteristics. The use of the Moringa oleifera Lam can be considered as an alternative technique to the conventional treatment.  

  13. Moringa oleifera Seed Derivatives as Potential Bio-Coagulant for Microalgae Chlorella sp. Harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizah Endut; Azizah Endut; Siti Hajar Abdul Hamid; Fathurrahman Lananan; Helena Khatoon

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae is an economical and potential raw material of biomass energy, which offer a wide range of commercial potential to produce valuable substances for applications in aquaculture feed, pharmaceutical purposes and bio fuels production. However, lack of an economical, efficient and convenient method to harvest microalgae is a bottleneck to boost their full-scale application. Hence, this study was performed to investigate the potentialities of Moringa oleifera seed derivatives as an environmentally bio-coagulant to harvest microalgae Chlorella sp. biomass from the water column, which acts as a binder to coagulate particulate impurities to form larger aggregates. Results shown M. oleifera to have better biomass recovery of 122.51 % as compared to 37.08 % of alum at similar dosages of 10 mgL"-"1. In addition, it was found that the zeta potential values of mixed microalgae-coagulant suspension shows positive correlation on the flocculation parameters. For biomass recovery, the correlation for M. oleifera protein powder showed the R"2-value of 0.9565 whereas the control chemical flocculant, alum with the R"2-value of 0.7920. It was evidence that M. oleifera has a great potential in efficient and economical for environmentally microalgae harvesting and the adaptation of biological harvesting technology especially for the purpose of aquaculture feed in Malaysia. (author)

  14. Feasibility of treating emulsified oily and salty wastewaters through coagulation and bio-regenerated GAC filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Giuseppe; Panzica, Michele; Fino, Debora; Cappello, Simone; Yakimov, Michail M; Luciano, Antonella

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal by coagulation and packed-columns of both fresh and bioregenerated granular activated carbon (GAC) is reported as a feasible treatment for saline and oily wastewaters (slops) generated from marine oil tankers cleaning. The use of Ferric chloride (FeCl 3 ), Aluminium sulphate (Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ) and Polyaluminum chloride (Al 2 (OH 3 )Cl 3 ) was evaluated in the pre-treatment by coagulation of a real slop, after a de-oiling phase in a tank skimmer Comparison of coagulation process indicated that Polyaluminum chloride and Aluminium sulphate operate equally well (20-30% of COD removal) when applied at their optimal dose (40 and 90 mg/l respectively) but the latter should be preferred in order to significantly control the sludge production. The results from the column filtration tests indicated the feasibility of using the selected GAC (Filtrasorb 400 -Calgon Carbon Corporation) to achieve the respect of the discharge limits in the slops treatment with a carbon usage rate in the range 0.1-0.3 kg/m 3 of treated effluent. Moreover, biological regeneration through Alcalinovorax borkumensis SK2 was proved to be a cost-effective procedure since the reuse of spent GAC through such regeneration process for further treatment could still achieve approximately 90% of the initial sorption capacity, reducing then costs for the use of new sorbents and also the need for waste disposal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of chitosan and coagulation factors on the wound repair phenotype of bioengineered blood clots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoemann, Caroline D; Marchand, Catherine; Rivard, Georges-Etienne; El-Gabalawy, Hani; Poubelle, Patrice E

    2017-11-01

    Controlling the blood clot phenotype in a surgically prepared wound is an evolving concept in scaffold-guided tissue engineering. Here, we investigated the effect of added chitosan (80% or 95% Degree of Deacetylation, DDA) or coagulation factors (recombinant human Factor VIIa, Tissue Factor, thrombin) on inflammatory factors released by blood clots. We tested the hypothesis that 80% DDA chitosan specifically enhances leukotriene B 4 (LTB 4 ) production. Human or rabbit whole blood was combined with isotonic chitosan solutions, coagulation factors, or lipopolysaccharide, cultured in vitro at 37°C, and after 4hours the serum was assayed for LTB 4 or inflammatory factors. Only 80% DDA chitosan clots produced around 15-fold more LTB 4 over other clots including 95% DDA chitosan clots. All serum contained high levels of PDGF-BB and CXCL8. Normal clots produced very low type I cytokines compared to lipopolysaccharide clots, with even lower IL-6 and IL-12 and more CCL3/CCL4 produced by chitosan clots. Coagulation factors had no detectable effect on clot phenotype. Conclusion In blood clots from healthy individuals, 80% DDA chitosan has a unique influence of inducing more LTB 4 , a potent neutrophil chemoattractant, with similar production of PDGF-BB and CXCL8, and lower type I cytokines, compared to whole blood clots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A single-dose of oral nattokinase potentiates thrombolysis and anti-coagulation profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Yuko; Nirengi, Shinsuke; Homma, Toshiyuki; Esaki, Kazuki; Ohta, Mitsuhiro; Clark, Joseph F; Hamaoka, Takafumi

    2015-06-25

    Our aim was to determine the quantitative effects of a single-dose of Nattokinase (NK) administration on coagulation/fibrinolysis parameters comprehensively in healthy male subjects. A double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over NK intervention study was carried out in 12 healthy young males. Following the baseline blood draw, each subject was randomized to receive either a single-dose of 2,000 FU NK (NSK-SD, Japan Bio Science Laboratory Co., Ltd) or placebo with subsequent cross-over of the groups. Subjects donated blood samples at 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours following administration for analysis of coagulation/fibrinolysis parameters. As a result, D-dimer concentrations at 6, and 8 hours, and blood fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products at 4 hours after NK administration elevated significantly (p < 0.05, respectively). Factor VIII activity declined at 4 and 6 hours (p < 0.05, respectively), blood antithrombin concentration was higher at 2 and 4 hours (p < 0.05, respectively), and the activated partial thromboplastin time prolonged significantly at 2 and 4 hours following NK administration (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). All the changes, however, were within the normal range. In conclusion, thus, a single-dose of NK administration appears enhancing fibrinolysis and anti-coagulation via several different pathways simultaneously.

  17. Use of electrocautery for coagulation and wound complications in Caesarean sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Cristiane M; Amaral, Eliana

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the safety of electrocautery for coagulation during Caesarean sections. A randomized, controlled, clinical pilot study was performed at a university maternity hospital. After admission for delivery and decision to perform a C-section, volunteers were randomized to either the intervention group (use of electrocautery for coagulation) or nonintervention group. The women were examined at the time of postpartum discharge (day 3), at days 7 to 10, and again at days 30 to 40 for signs of infection, hematoma, seroma, or dehiscence. Data were analyzed using an intention-to-treat analysis, and risk ratios were calculated. No significant differences were found between the two groups. Only 2.8% of patients in the intervention group developed surgical wound complications during hospitalization. However, 7 to 10 days following discharge, these rates reached 23.0% and 15.4% in the intervention and nonintervention groups, respectively (RR = 1.50, 95% CI = 0.84-2.60). Further studies should confirm whether the use of electrocautery for coagulation does not increase the risk of surgical wound complications in patients undergoing Caesarean sections.

  18. Drinking water treatment using a submerged internal-circulation membrane coagulation reactor coupled with permanganate oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongguo; Liu, Dan; Qian, Yu; Wu, Yue; He, Peiran; Liang, Shuang; Fu, Xiaozheng; Li, Jiding; Ye, Changqing

    2017-06-01

    A submerged internal circulating membrane coagulation reactor (MCR) was used to treat surface water to produce drinking water. Polyaluminum chloride (PACl) was used as coagulant, and a hydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) submerged hollow fiber microfiltration membrane was employed. The influences of trans-membrane pressure (TMP), zeta potential (ZP) of the suspended particles in raw water, and KMnO 4 dosing on water flux and the removal of turbidity and organic matter were systematically investigated. Continuous bench-scale experiments showed that the permeate quality of the MCR satisfied the requirement for a centralized water supply, according to the Standards for Drinking Water Quality of China (GB 5749-2006), as evaluated by turbidity (<1 NTU) and total organic carbon (TOC) (<5mg/L) measurements. Besides water flux, the removal of turbidity, TOC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the raw water also increased with increasing TMP in the range of 0.01-0.05MPa. High ZP induced by PACl, such as 5-9mV, led to an increase in the number of fine and total particles in the MCR, and consequently caused serious membrane fouling and high permeate turbidity. However, the removal of TOC and DOC increased with increasing ZP. A slightly positive ZP, such as 1-2mV, corresponding to charge neutralization coagulation, was favorable for membrane fouling control. Moreover, dosing with KMnO 4 could further improve the removal of turbidity and DOC, thereby mitigating membrane fouling. The results are helpful for the application of the MCR in producing drinking water and also beneficial to the research and application of other coagulation and membrane separation hybrid processes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Poor weight control, alcoholic beverage consumption and sudden sleep onset at the wheel among Italian truck drivers: A preliminary pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luca Rosso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of obesity, alcoholic beverage consumption, unhealthy alcohol use and sudden sleep onset at the wheel among Italian truck drivers. In addition to prevalence rates, this study also aimed at investigating potential predictors for sudden-onset sleepiness and obesity. Material and Methods: A sample of truck drivers was extracted from the database of the High Risk Professional Driver Study. Data concerning demographics, anthropometry, medical information and working conditions were collected using anonymous questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association of the reported body mass index (BMI, alcohol consumption and sudden sleep onset with working conditions and general lifestyle factors. Results: Three hundred and thirty-five questionnaires were collected. According to their BMI, 45% of the participants were overweight and 21.4% of them were obese. Twenty-four point two percent declared they drank alcoholic beverages during working hours or work breaks and 21.3% of the drivers had an Alcohol Use Disorders Identyfication Test Consumption (AUDIT C score ≥ 5 (the threshold value for unhealthy alcohol use. Forty-one point six percent of the interviewees experienced one episode of sudden sleep onset at the wheel per month (5.5% per week and 0.9% daily. Predictive factors for obesity were: length of service (odds ratio (OR = 1.09, confidence interval (95% CI: 1.04–1.15, p 55 years old (OR = 5.22, 95% CI: 1.29–21.1, p = 0.020, driving more than 50 000 km per year (OR = 2.89, 95% CI: 1.37–6.11, p = 0.006 and the Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire (CFQ score > 11 (adjusted OR = 2.97, 95% CI: 1.22–7.21, p = 0.016. Conclusions: This study strongly emphasizes the need for intervention in order to reduce and prevent important risk factors for the sake of road safety and truck drivers’ health.

  20. Factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation, and deficiencies in coagulation inhibitors associated with Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal vein thrombosis: results of a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, H. L.; Meinardi, J. R.; Vleggaar, F. P.; van Uum, S. H.; Haagsma, E. B.; van der Meer, F. J.; van Hattum, J.; Chamuleau, R. A.; Adang, R. P.; Vandenbroucke, J. P.; van Hoek, B.; Rosendaal, F. R.

    2000-01-01

    In a collaborative multicenter case-control study, we investigated the effect of factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation, and inherited deficiencies of protein C, protein S, and antithrombin on the risk of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) and portal vein thrombosis (PVT). We compared 43 BCS

  1. Factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation, and deficiencies in coagulation inhibitors associated with Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal vein thrombosis : results of a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, HLA; Meinardi, [No Value; Vleggaar, FP; van Uum, SHM; Haagsma, EB; van der Meer, FJM; van Hattum, J; Chamuleau, RAFM; Adang, RP; Vandenbroucke, JP; van Hoek, B; Rosendaal, FR

    2000-01-01

    In a collaborative multicenter case-control study, we investigated the effect of factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation, and inherited deficiencies of protein C, protein S, and antithrombin on the risk of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) and portal vein thrombosis (PVT), We compared 43 BCS

  2. A quantitative comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for boron removal from boron-containing solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem; Boncukcuoglu, Recep; Kocakerim, M. Muhtar

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a quantitative comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation approaches based on boron removal. Electrocoagulation process delivers the coagulant in situ as the sacrificial anode corrodes, due to a fixed current density, while the simultaneous evolution of hydrogen at the cathode allows for pollutant removal by flotation. By comparison, conventional chemical coagulation typically adds a salt of the coagulant, with settling providing the primary pollutant removal path. Chemical coagulation was carried out via jar tests using aluminum chloride. Comparison was done with the same amount of coagulant between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation processes. Boron removal obtained was higher with electrocoagulation process. In addition, it was seen that chemical coagulation has any effect for boron removal from boron-containing solution. At optimum conditions (e.g. pH 8.0 and aluminum dose of 7.45 g/L), boron removal efficiencies for electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation were 94.0% and 24.0%, respectively

  3. A quantitative comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for boron removal from boron-containing solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)], E-mail: aerdemy@atauni.edu.tr; Boncukcuoglu, Recep [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kocakerim, M. Muhtar [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2007-10-22

    This paper provides a quantitative comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation approaches based on boron removal. Electrocoagulation process delivers the coagulant in situ as the sacrificial anode corrodes, due to a fixed current density, while the simultaneous evolution of hydrogen at the cathode allows for pollutant removal by flotation. By comparison, conventional chemical coagulation typically adds a salt of the coagulant, with settling providing the primary pollutant removal path. Chemical coagulation was carried out via jar tests using aluminum chloride. Comparison was done with the same amount of coagulant between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation processes. Boron removal obtained was higher with electrocoagulation process. In addition, it was seen that chemical coagulation has any effect for boron removal from boron-containing solution. At optimum conditions (e.g. pH 8.0 and aluminum dose of 7.45 g/L), boron removal efficiencies for electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation were 94.0% and 24.0%, respectively.

  4. Effect of nano-scale curvature on the intrinsic blood coagulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Takashi; Saha, Krishnendu; Subramani, Chandramouleeswaran; Nandwana, Vikas; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2014-11-01

    The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation `silent' surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature show denaturation and concomitant coagulation.The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation `silent' surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature show denaturation and concomitant coagulation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Physical properties and scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of silica NPs, intrinsic coagulation activity after 3 h. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04128c

  5. Miglustat in late-onset Tay-Sachs disease: a 12-month, randomized, controlled clinical study with 24 months of extended treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Barbara E; Pastores, Gregory M; Gianutsos, John; Luzy, Cécile; Kolodny, Edwin H

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of miglustat in patients with GM2 gangliosidosis. A randomized, multicenter, open-label, 12-month study involving patients aged 18 years or older, randomized 2:1 to miglustat (200 mg TID) or "no miglustat treatment." This study was followed by 24 months of extended treatment during which all patients received miglustat. Primary efficacy endpoints were change in eight measures of isometric muscle strength in the limbs and isometric grip strength, evaluated at baseline, and months 12 and 36. Secondary efficacy endpoints included gait, balance, disability, and other neurological assessments. Safety evaluations included adverse event reporting. Thirty patients (67% male, age range 18-56 years) with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease were enrolled; 20 were randomized to miglustat and 10 to "no miglustat treatment." Muscle and grip strength generally decreased over the study period. No differences were observed between the two groups in any efficacy measure, either during the 12-month randomized phase or the full 36 months. The most common treatment-related adverse events were decrease in weight and diarrhea. Miglustat treatment was not shown to lead to measurable benefits in this cohort of patients with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease. The observed safety profile was consistent with that of the approved dose (100 mg TID) in type 1 Gaucher disease.

  6. Cerebellar pathology in childhood-onset vs. adult-onset essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Kuo, Sheng-Han; Tate, William J; Kelly, Geoffrey C; Faust, Phyllis L

    2017-10-17

    Although the incidence of ET increases with advancing age, the disease may begin at any age, including childhood. The question arises as to whether childhood-onset ET cases manifest the same sets of pathological changes in the cerebellum as those whose onset is during adult life. We quantified a broad range of postmortem features (Purkinje cell [PC] counts, PC axonal torpedoes, a host of associated axonal changes [PC axonal recurrent collateral count, PC thickened axonal profile count, PC axonal branching count], heterotopic PCs, and basket cell rating) in 60 ET cases (11 childhood-onset and 49 adult-onset) and 30 controls. Compared to controls, childhood-onset ET cases had lower PC counts, higher torpedo counts, higher heterotopic PC counts, higher basket cell plexus rating, and marginally higher PC axonal recurrent collateral counts. The median PC thickened axonal profile count and median PC axonal branching count were two to five times higher in childhood-onset ET than controls, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Childhood-onset and adult-onset ET had similar PC counts, torpedo counts, heterotopic PC counts, basket cell plexus rating, PC axonal recurrent collateral counts, PC thickened axonal profile count and PC axonal branching count. In conclusion, we found that childhood-onset and adult-onset ET shared similar pathological changes in the cerebellum. The data suggest that pathological changes we have observed in the cerebellum in ET are a part of the pathophysiological cascade of events in both forms of the disease and that both groups seem to reach the same pathological endpoints at a similar age of death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Adjuvant low-frequency rTMS in treating auditory hallucinations in recent-onset schizophrenia: a randomized controlled study investigating the effect of high-frequency priming stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Prasenjit; Sinha, Vinod Kumar; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been found to be effective in reducing frequency and duration of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). Priming stimulation, which involves high-frequency rTMS stimulation followed by low-frequency rTMS, has been shown to markedly enhance the neural response to the low-frequency stimulation train. However, this technique has not been investigated in recent onset schizophrenia patients. The aim of this randomized controlled study was to investigate whether the effects of rTMS on AVH can be enhanced with priming rTMS in recent onset schizophrenia patients. Forty recent onset schizophrenia patients completed the study. Patients were randomized over two groups: one receiving low-frequency rTMS preceded by priming and another receiving low-frequency rTMS without priming. Both treatments were directed at the left temporo-parietal region. The severity of AVH and other psychotic symptoms were assessed with the auditory hallucination subscale (AHRS) of the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI). We found that all the scores of these ratings significantly reduced over time (i.e. baseline through 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks) in both the treatment groups. We found no difference between the two groups on all measures, except for significantly greater improvement on loudness of AVH in the group with priming stimulation during the follow-ups (F = 2.72; p low-frequency rTMS alone and high-frequency priming of low-frequency rTMS do not elicit significant differences in treatment of overall psychopathology, particularly AVH when given in recent onset schizophrenia patients. Add on priming however, seems to be particularly better in faster reduction in loudness of AVH.

  8. Vegetable coagulants as alternative for treatment of wastewater in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servando López-León

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses the various properties of natural coagulants, water, the chemical substance essential for life and the ideal solvent for a large number of compounds, it is commonly used with domestic, commercial and industrial purposes. After its use, it presents sewage to be retired before use it once again. To remove pollutant, water is subject to different physical, chemical and biological processes. Here, the clarification process uses aluminum and iron materials to remove the solids present; these materials are reported as health hazardous and toxic. In Mexico, regulatory frame work stablish that treated wastewater should do not exceed 0.2 mg/L of aluminum even though has been reported an increased risk of Alzheimer's in populations when water exceeds 0.1 mg/L. Natural coagulants have showed coagulation properties when are used in the clarification process, proven its advantages over traditional ones; such as low cost, good coagulant properties and safe health and non-toxic properties. Here, we enlist some vegetable species as alternatives to the traditional based on aluminum and iron. Additionally, these species are known to have origins on Mexico or being present extensively in the territory, making possible to think about them as alternative coagulants in the clarification process of the wastewater treatment process.

  9. Late-Onset Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2017-01-01

    Late-onset asthma is common, associated with poor outcome, underdiagnosed and undertreated, possibly due to the modifying effect of ageing on disease expression. Although the diagnostic work-up in elderly individuals suspected of having asthma follows the same steps as in younger individuals (case......, to objectively confirm asthma. If necessary, a trial of oral or inhaled corticosteroid might be necessary. Asthma can be diagnosed when increased airflow variability is identified in a symptomatic patient, and if the patient does not have a history of exposure, primarily smoking, known to cause chronic...... obstructive pulmonary disease, the diagnosis is asthma even if the patient does not have fully reversible airflow obstruction. Pharmacological therapy in patients with late-onset asthma follows international guidelines, including treatment with the lowest effective dose of inhaled corticosteroid to minimize...

  10. IMPROVEMENT OF COAGULATION PROCESS FOR THE PRUT RIVER WATER TREATMENT USING ALUMINUM SULPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Postolachi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of presented research was to optimize the treatment process of the Prut River water. In order to realize the proposed goal, there were studied the following factors which can improve the process of coagulation: (i the influence of stirring speed during coagulation and (ii the influence of the concentration of the coagulant solution added in the process of coagulation. The optimal conditions of coagulation were established using the Jar-test method. Application of the recommended procedure contribute to the reduction of the coagulant dose, the contact time, the aluminum concentration in water and the expenses for water treatment.

  11. Comparison of Moringa stenopetala seed extract as a clean coagulant with Alum and Moringa stenopetala-Alum hybrid coagulant to remove direct dye from Textile Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Arash; Gholibegloo, Elham; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Golchinpoor, Najmeh; Khazaei, Mohammad; Kamani, Hossein; Hosseini, Sara Sadat; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the efficiency of Moringa stenopetala seed extract was compared with alum and M. stenopetala-alum hybrid coagulant to remove Direct Red 23 azo dye from textile wastewater. The effects of parameters such as pH, coagulant dose, type of salt used for the extraction of coagulant and initial dye concentration on dye removal efficiency were investigated. Moreover, the existing functional groups on the structure of M. stenopetala coagulant (MSC) were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the morphology of sludge produced by MSC, alum, and hybrid coagulant was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Ninhydrin test was also used to determine the quantity of primary amines in the MSC and Moringa oleifera coagulant (MOC). According to the results, with increasing the coagulant dose and decreasing the initial dye concentration, dye removal efficiency has increased. The maximum dye removal of 98.5, 98.2, and 98.3 % were obtained by using 240, 120, and 80 mg/L MSC, alum and hybrid coagulant at pH 7, respectively. The results also showed MSC was much more effective than MOC for dye removal. The volume of sludge produced by MSC was one fourth and half of those produced by alum and hybrid coagulant, respectively. Based on the results, hybrid coagulant was the most efficient coagulant for direct dye removal from colored wastewater.

  12. Efficacy and speed of onset of pain relief of fast-dissolving paracetamol on postsurgical dental pain: two randomized, single-dose, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yong; Collaku, Agron; Brown, Jean; Buchanan, William L; Reed, Kenneth; Cooper, Stephen A; Otto, James

    2013-09-01

    Paracetamol (APAP), also known as acetaminophen, is the most commonly used over-the-counter analgesic for the treatment of mild-to-moderate pain. However, the speed of onset of pain relief is limited mainly to the standard, immediate-release formulation. Efficacy and speed of onset of pain relief are critical in acute pain situations such as postsurgical dental pain, because reducing pain can improve clinical outcome and reduce the risk of transition from acute pain to more chronic pain. Efficacy and rapid onset also reduce the risk of excessive dosing with the analgesic. We sought to investigate the dose-response efficacy and speed of onset of pain relief of a fast-dissolving APAP formulation compared with lower doses of APAP and placebo in dental patients after impacted third molar extraction. Two single-center, single-dose, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group studies (Study I and Study II) were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and speed of onset of pain relief of different doses of a fast-dissolving APAP tablet (FD-APAP), standard APAP, and placebo in patients with postsurgical dental pain following third molar extraction. In Study I, a single dose of FD-APAP 1000 mg, FD-APAP 500 mg, or placebo was given to 300 patients; in Study II, a single dose of FD-APAP 1000 mg, standard APAP 650 mg, or placebo was given to 401 patients. All 701 patients from both studies were included in the analysis and safety assessment. FD-APAP 1000 mg demonstrated significantly greater effect compared with FD-APAP 500 mg, APAP 650 mg, and placebo for all efficacy measurements, including sum of pain relief and pain intensity difference, total pain relief, sum of pain intensity difference, pain intensity difference, and pain relief score during 6 hours after the dose. Onset of confirmed first perceptible relief in subjects treated with FD-APAP 1000 mg was 15 minutes, which was 32% and 25% significantly shorter than onset of pain relief of FD

  13. Removal Natural Organic Matter (NOM in Peat Water from Wetland Area by Coagulation-Ultrafiltration Hybrid Process with Pretreatment Two-Stage Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Mahmud

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary problem encountered in the application of membrane technology was membrane fouling. During this time, hybrid process by coagulation-ultrafiltration in drinking water treatment that has been conducted by some research, using by one-stage coagulation. The goal of this research was to investigate the effect of two-stage coagulation as a pretreatment towards performance of the coagulation-ultrafiltration hybrid process for removal NOM in the peat water. Coagulation process, either with the one-stage or two-stage coagulation was very good in removing charge hydrophilic fraction, i.e. more than 98%. NOM fractions of the peat water, from the most easily removed by the two-stage coagulation and one-stage coagulation process was charged hydrophilic>strongly hydrophobic>weakly hydrophobic>neutral hydrophilic. The two-stage coagulation process could removed UV254 and colors with a little better than the one-stage coagulation at the optimum coagulant dose. Neutral hydrophilic fraction of peat water NOM was the most influential fraction of UF membrane fouling. The two-stage coagulation process better in removing the neutral hidrophilic fraction, while removing of the charged hydrophilic, strongly hydrophobic and weakly hydrophobic similar to the one-stage coagulation. Hybrid process by pretreatment with two-stage coagulation, beside can increased removal efficiency of UV254 and color, also can reduced fouling rate of the ultrafiltration membraneIt must not exceed 250 words, contains a brief summary of the text, covering the whole manuscript without being too elaborate on every section. Avoid any abbreviation, unless it is a common knowledge or has been previously stated.

  14. Removal Natural Organic Matter (NOM in Peat Water from Wetland Area by Coagulation-Ultrafiltration Hybrid Process with Pretreatment Two-Stage Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Mahmud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary problem encountered in the application of membrane technology was membrane fouling. During this time, hybrid process by coagulation-ultrafiltration in drinking water treatment that has been conducted by some research, using by one-stage coagulation. The goal of this research was to investigate the effect of two-stage coagulation as a pretreatment towards performance of the coagulation-ultrafiltration hybrid process for removal NOM in the peat water. Coagulation process, either with the one-stage or two-stage coagulation was very good in removing charge hydrophilic fraction, i.e. more than 98%. NOM fractions of the peat water, from the most easily removed by the two-stage coagulation and one-stage coagulation process was charged hydrophilic>strongly hydrophobic>weakly hydrophobic>neutral hydrophilic. The two-stage coagulation process could removed UV254 and colors with a little better than the one-stage coagulation at the optimum coagulant dose. Neutral hydrophilic fraction of peat water NOM was the most influential fraction of UF membrane fouling. The two-stage coagulation process better in removing the neutral hidrophilic fraction, while removing of the charged hydrophilic, strongly hydrophobic and weakly hydrophobic similar to the one-stage coagulation. Hybrid process by pretreatment with two-stage coagulation, beside can increased removal efficiency of UV254 and color, also can reduced fouling rate of the ultrafiltration membraneIt must not exceed 250 words, contains a brief summary of the text, covering the whole manuscript without being too elaborate on every section. Avoid any abbreviation, unless it is a common knowledge or has been previously stated.

  15. Exact results for the Boltzmann equation and Smoluchowski's coagulation equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    Almost no analytical solutions have been found for realistic intermolecular forces, largely due to the complicated structure of the collision term which calls for the construction of simplified models, in which as many physical properties are maintained as possible. In the first three chapters of this thesis such model Boltzmann equations are studied. Only spatially homogeneous gases with isotropic distribution functions are considered. Chapter I considers transition kernels, chapter II persistent scattering models and chapter III very hard particles. The second part of this dissertation deals with Smoluchowski's coagulation equation for the size distribution function in a coagulating system, with chapters devoted to the following topics: kinetics of gelation and universality, coagulation equations with gelation and exactly soluble models of nucleation. (Auth./C.F.)

  16. Comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for heavy metal removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbal, F.; Camci, S. [Ondokuz Mayis University, Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, Kurupelit, Samsun (Turkey)

    2010-10-15

    Copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) removal from metal plating wastewater by electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was investigated. Chemical coagulation was performed using either aluminum sulfate or ferric chloride, whereas electrocoagulation was done in an electrolytic cell using aluminum or iron electrodes. By chemical coagulation, Cu-, Cr-, and Ni-removal of 99.9 % was achieved with aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride dosages of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg L{sup -1}, respectively. Removal of metals by electrocoagulation was affected by the electrode material, wastewater pH, current density, number of electrodes, and electrocoagulation time. Electrocoagulation with iron electrodes at a current density of 10 mA cm{sup -2}, electrocoagulation time of 20 min, and pH 3.0 resulted in 99.9 % Cu-, 99.9 % Cr-, and 98 % Ni-removal. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Exploration by radioactive fibrinogen of intrarenal coagulation phenomena. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Jacques.

    1974-01-01

    The participation of fibrin deposits in kidney pathology was studied by the use of a radioactive tracer involved in the coagulation phenomenon: iodine 131-labelled fibrinogen. The isotopic exploration consists of a fibrinogen kinetics study combined with external counting over the kidney regions. The different stages of the procedure are described: separation, purification and labelling of fibrinogen; characteristics of the radioactive fibrinogen used; practical details of the examination itself; data analysis method. A chapter devoted to verifications and discussions of the procedure is followed by a report on the exploration of intrarenal coagulation phenomena in 30 kidney disease patients. In conclusion, the study of fibrinogen kinetics is considered as the most suitable method to detect local or slight intravascular coagulation phenomena. The sensitivity of the isotopic exploration is very satisfactory. The main criticism directed against this method is that the exploration is general and therefore blind [fr

  18. Very early-onset schizophrenia with secondary onset tic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Shilpa A Telgote; Shreyas Shrikant Pendharkar; Amol D Kelkar; Sachin Bhojane

    2017-01-01

    Very early-onset schizophrenia (defined as an onset of psychosis before 13 years of age) is a rare and severe form of the disorder which is clinically and neurobiologically continuous with the adult-onset disorder. It is rarely reported

  19. Very Early-onset Schizophrenia with Secondary Onset Tic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telgote, Shilpa A; Pendharkar, Shreyas Shrikant; Kelkar, Amol D; Bhojane, Sachin

    2017-01-01

    Very early-onset schizophrenia (defined as an onset of psychosis before 13 years of age) is a rare and severe form of the disorder which is clinically and neurobiologically continuous with the adult-onset disorder. It is rarely reported tic disorder.

  20. TRAITEMENT DES EAUX USEES PAR COAGULATION-FLOCULATION EN UTILISANT LE SULFATE D’ALUMINIUM COMME COAGULANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora SEGHAIRI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Domestic wastewater treatment by coagulation-flocculation is widely used internationally. This treatment reduces color and turbidity, indicating organic and inorganic contaminants, but at acceptable levels for treated waste water discharged into the receiving environment. The objective of this study is to optimize the treatment of wastewater by coagulation-flocculation using aluminum sulphate as a coagulant. Various reaction parameters are taken into account, such as the coagulant dose, the pH of the solutions, the conductivity, the BOD5, the nitrates, the ammonium and the phosphates. We found from the different results obtained the optimal dose of aluminum sulphate is 400 mg/l with a reduction of 96.31%, 82.44% 90.95% and 78.74% respectively for phosphates, nitrates, ammonium and BOD5. It is recognized that pH influences the abatement rates of pollution contained in wastewater. For each water, there is a pH range for which coagulation- flocculation takes place rapidly. For our study, the optimum pH for removal of BOD5 and ammonium is between 6 and 7.

  1. Changes of coagulation and fibrinolysis in middle-old aged patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xi; Xie Ying; Zhang Weijun; Zhao Ruixiang; Peng Xinjie; Zhang Wen; Zhang Yan; Cheng Xiuqin; Wang Longhua; Guo Yonghe; Zhou Yujie; Wen Shaojun; Liu Jielin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the changes of coagulation and fibrinolysis function in the middle-old aged patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Methods: The levels of D-Dimer and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were detected in 92 middle-aged patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF group) and 60 patients with sinus rhythm (control group) by immune turbidimetry and enzyme linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA). Univariate analysis was used to determine the differences between two groups, and covariance analysis was used to determine the factors which might affect coagulation and fibrinolysis indexes. Results: 1)The plasma levels of D-Dimer [(0.16±0.10) mg·L -1 ] and t-PA [(42.58± 30.28) μg·L -1 ] and PAI-1 [(86.03 ± 21.43) μg·L -1 ] in AF group were significantly higher than those in the control group [(0.10 ± 0.08) mg·L -1 , (26.02±13.84) μg·L -1 , (64.94±24.35) μg·L -1 ] (P<0.05 or P <0.001). The ratio of PAI-1/t-PA in AF group was higher than that in control group slightly. 2) After adjustment of the factors which included sex, age and plasma creatinine, uric acid, blood sugar, triglyceride and cholesterol, the levels of D-Dimer (P=0.047), t-PA (P=0.264) and PAI-1 (P=0.001) in AF group were higher than those in the control group. Conclusion: The middle-old aged patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation lose their balance of coagulation and fibrinolysis in the state of hypercoagulated and hypofibrinolysis. (authors)

  2. The effect of a new impregnated gauze containing bentonite and halloysite minerals on blood coagulation and wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Mehrosadat; Totonchi, Alireza; Okhovat, Mohammad Ali; Motazedian, Motahareh; Rezaei, Peyman; Atefi, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, a wide variety of research has been carried out in the field of novel technologies to stop severe bleeding. In several studies, coagulation properties of minerals such as zeolite, bentonite and halloysite have been proven. In this study, the effect of a new impregnated sterile gauze containing bentonite and halloysite minerals was studied on blood coagulation and wound healing rate in male Wistar rats. Initially, impregnated sterile gauze was prepared from the mixture of bentonite and halloysite minerals and petroleum jelly (Vaseline). Then, the effect of gauze was studied on the blood coagulation time and wound healing process in 40 Wistar rats. SPSS software was used for data analysis and P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. The coagulation time of 81.10 ± 2.532 s in the control group and 33.00 ± 1.214 s in the study group (bentonite-halloysite treated) were reported (P halloysite impregnated sterile gauze significantly decreases the clotting time and increase the wound healing rate.

  3. Pulsed electric field extraction enhanced anti-coagulant effect of fungal polysaccharide from Jew's ear (Auricularia auricula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changtian; Mao, Xinxin; Xu, Baojun

    2013-01-01

    As a Chinese herbal medicine, Jew's ear has been known for its anti-coagulant effects. Hence it is worthwhile developing an effective technique to extract active components. To find the optimal extraction condition and to identify the best strain to yield fungal polysaccharide with anti-coagulant activity. Three strains of Jew's ear from Jilin Province, named as 988, DY 18 and FS 02, and three extraction techniques, namely, high intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF), microwave-assisted extraction method (MAEM) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction method (UAEM), were applied to optimise the extraction conditions. The crude extracts and polysaccharides were further determined for anti-coagulant activities. All extracts prolonged blood clotting time as compared to reagent control. The HIPEF exhibited the most remarkable effect among the three extraction techniques. The anti-coagulant activities of extracts were enhanced with increasing electric field strength when the field strength reached 24 kV/cm. Current results suggest that the HIPEF technique will be an effective method in the manufacture of bioactive natural polysaccharide. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Coagulation-flocculation studies of laboratory wastewater using different combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, M. T.; Khan, R. A.; Khokar, A.; Iqbal, K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted on the wastewater of PCSIR Laboratories complex Lahore. Both single as well as blended form was used in order to achieve maximum results and to reduce the cost. These experiments were conducted in Hudson Jars of one liter capacity using the coagulation technique for the removal of total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity. The pH range was 6-8 and 4-10 for treatment. Four coagulants were used such as FeCl 3 , AlCl 3 . Alum and FeSO 4 , to remove the turbidity in single and blended form. Results of single coagulant are FeCl 3 from 39.7 to 11.51 NTU; AlCl 3 from 47.48 to 11.8 NTU. Alum 43 to 25.3NTU.FeSO 4 showed increasing trend in turbidity 53 to 120 NTU. The blended set of coagulants AlCl 3 +Alum turbidity from 45 to 18.55 NTU. The AlCl 3 and FeCl 3 showed almost similar results but after overnight settling results were excellent and alum showed also good results. The turbidity was removed from 54 to 27 NTU, 48 to 22 NTU, 44 to 17 NTU, and after overnight settling 33 to 4 NTU. The results of blended coagulants FeCl 3 +AlCl 3 after one, two and three hours settling were also studied and found best and blend AlCl3+Alum showed also similar trend and the blend of Alum+FeCl 3 after overnight settling was excellent. The same coagulants and its blended form were used for TSS removal and results are 278 to 7 mg/L, in blended form AlCl 3 +Alum show similar results but Alum + FeCl 3 showed excellent results. The TSS and turbidity removal was 87%, 97.5%. (author)

  5. Arsenic removal in water by means of coagulation-flocculation processes; Remocion de arsenico en agua mediante procesos de coagulacion-floculacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, M. F.; Carro P, M. E., E-mail: ffrancis@efn.uncor.edu [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Departamento de Construcciones Civiles, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-10-01

    Arsenic and arsenical compounds are considered as carcinogenic and risky for humans according to epidemiological evidence related with the ingestion of arsenical water during a long period. In many places the only source of drinking water contains arsenic and, therefore, removal strategies have to be investigated. This work shows experimental results of coagulation-flocculation processes implemented to evaluate the efficiency in the removal of arsenic from drinking water. The main objectives include the evaluation of the relevant aspect that controls the removal efficiency. Experimental tests were performed with coagulant concentrations from 5 to 500 mg/L, solid particle concentrations from 0 to 6000 mg/L, and initial arsenic concentrations from 0.5 to 5 mg/L. These variables were simultaneously varied in more than 100 experiments. The efficiency in remediation ranged from 0% to 95%. Removal efficiency near 95% was obtained when using ferric chloride as coagulant, and was close to 80% when using aluminium sulfate as coagulant in arsenate solutions. The remediation efficiency decreased significantly when the ferric chloride concentration was higher than 50 mg/L in relation to the obtained results for aluminum sulfate for different type and concentration of soil particles. The highest removal efficiency were obtained at ph between 3 and 5 in oxidized solutions. Obtained results simulated by means of multiple linear regression analysis (R>0.90) allow determining that the main parameters that control the removal of arsenic from drinking water are coagulant concentration, ph, and solid particles concentration. Conversely, particle mineralogy and coagulant type have less significant effect on the removal by means of coagulation-flocculation mechanisms. Obtained results are relevant for the removal of As in water treatment plants as well as for the development of small scale filters. The samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X

  6. Ambient hemolysis and activation of coagulation is different between HeartMate II and HeartWare left ventricular assist devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birschmann, Ingvild; Dittrich, Marcus; Eller, Thomas; Wiegmann, Bettina; Reininger, Armin J; Budde, Ulrich; Strüber, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Thromboembolic and bleeding events in patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) are still a major cause of complications. Therefore, the balance between anti-coagulant and pro-coagulant factors needs to be tightly controlled. The principle hypothesis of this study is that different pump designs may have an effect on hemolysis and activation of the coagulation system. Referring to this, the HeartMate II (HMII; Thoratec Corp, Pleasanton, CA) and the HeartWare HVAD (HeartWare International Inc, Framingham, MA) were investigated. For 20 patients with LVAD support (n = 10 each), plasma coagulation, full blood count, and clinical chemistry parameters were measured. Platelet function was monitored using platelet aggregometry, platelet function analyzer-100 system ( Siemens, Marburg, Germany), vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation assay, immature platelet fraction, platelet-derived microparticles, and von Willebrand diagnostic. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome could be detected in all patients. Signs of hemolysis, as measured by lactate dehydrogenase levels (mean, 470 U/liter HMII, 250 U/liter HVAD; p < 0.001), were more pronounced in the HMII patients. In contrast, D-dimer analysis indicated a significantly higher activation of the coagulation system in HVAD patients (mean, 0.94 mg/liter HMII, 2.01 mg/liter HVAD; p < 0.01). The efficacy of anti-platelet therapy using clopidogrel was not sufficient in more than 50% of the patients. Our results support the finding that all patients with rotary blood pumps suffered from von Willebrand syndrome. In addition, a distinct footprint of effects on hemolysis and the coagulation system can be attributed to different devices. As a consequence, the individual status of the coagulation system needs to be controlled in long-term patients. © 2013 Published by International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation on behalf of International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.

  7. The mechanism and properties of acid-coagulated milk gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanokphat Phadungath

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Acid-coagulated milk products such as fresh acid-coagulated cheese varieties and yogurt areimportant dairy food products. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms involved in gel formation, physical properties of acid gels, and the effects of processing variables such as heat treatment and gelation temperature on the important physical properties of acid milk gels. This paper reviews the modern concepts of possible mechanisms involved in the formation of particle milk gel aggregation, along with recent developments including the use of techniques such as dynamic low amplitude oscillatory rheology to observe the gel formation process, and confocal laser scanning microscopy to monitor gel microstructure.

  8. Reincarnation of ancient links between coagulation and complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, E M

    2015-06-01

    Throughout evolution, organisms have developed means to contain wounds by simultaneously limiting bleeding and eliminating pathogens and damaged host cells via the recruitment of innate defense mechanisms. Disease emerges when there is unchecked activation of innate immune and/or coagulation responses. A key component of innate immunity is the complement system. Concurrent excess activation of coagulation and complement - two major blood-borne proteolytic pathways - is evident in numerous diseases, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, venous thromboembolic disease, thrombotic microangiopathies, arthritis, cancer, and infectious diseases. Delineating the cross-talk between these two cascades will uncover novel therapeutic insights. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  9. Risk of first cervical HPV infection and pre-cancerous lesions after onset of sexual activity: analysis of women in the control arm of the randomized, controlled PATRICIA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellsagué, Xavier; Paavonen, Jorma; Jaisamrarn, Unnop; Wheeler, Cosette M; Skinner, S Rachel; Lehtinen, Matti; Naud, Paulo; Chow, Song-Nan; Del Rosario-Raymundo, Maria Rowena; Teixeira, Julio C; Palmroth, Johanna; de Carvalho, Newton S; Germar, Maria Julieta V; Peters, Klaus; Garland, Suzanne M; Szarewski, Anne; Poppe, Willy A J; Romanowski, Barbara; Schwarz, Tino F; Tjalma, Wiebren A A; Bosch, F Xavier; Bozonnat, Marie-Cecile; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary; Rosillon, Dominique; Baril, Laurence

    2014-10-30

    More information is needed about time between sexual initiation and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and development of cervical precancer. The objectives were to investigate the time between first sexual activity and detection of first cervical HPV infection or development of first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and associated factors in women from the double-blind, multinational, 4-year PATRICIA trial. PATRICIA enroled women aged 15-25 years with no more than 6 lifetime sexual partners. Women were randomized 1:1 to the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine or to control, but only women from the control arm who began sexual intercourse during the study or within 6 months before enrolment, and had no HPV infection detected before the recorded date of their first sexual intercourse, were included in the present analysis. The time between onset of sexual activity and detection of the first cervical HPV infection or development of the first CIN lesion was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and univariate and multivariable Cox proportional-hazards models. A total of 9337 women were enroled in the control arm of PATRICIA of whom 982 fulfilled the required inclusion criteria for analysis. A cumulative total of 28%, 44%, and 62% of the subjects had HPV infection within 12, 24, and 48 months, respectively. The overall incidence rate was 27.08 per 100 person-years. The most common oncogenic types associated with 6-month persistent infection were HPV-16 (incidence rate: 2.74 per 100 person-years), HPV-51 (2.70), HPV-52 (1.66), HPV-66 (1.14), and HPV-18 (1.09). Increased infection risk was associated with more lifetime sexual partners, being single, Chlamydia trachomatis history, and duration of hormone use. CIN1+ and CIN2+ lesions were most commonly associated with HPV-16, with an overall incidence rate of 1.87 and 1.07 per 100 person-years, respectively. Previous cervical HPV infection was most strongly associated with CIN development. More than 25% of women were

  10. The Coagulant Type Influence on Removal Efficiency of 5- and 6-Ring Pahs During Water Coagulation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowacka Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results on investigation of the removal efficiency of selected 5- and 6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[j]fluoranthene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene from water during coagulation and sedimentation process. Two pre-hydrolyzed aluminum coagulants: PAX XL 19H and FLOKOR 105V were chosen for research. Process was carried out at optimum process parameters: rapid-mixing - 3 min at the rotational speed of 200 rpm, slow mixing - 10 min at 30 rpm, sedimentation - 60 min. The removal effectiveness was dependant on coagulant type and its composition. Better results in the removal of 5-and 6-ring PAHs were obtained after application of FLOKOR 105V (lower aluminum content than after using PAX XL 19H.

  11. Late onset globoid cell leukodystrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Grewal, R P; Petronas, N; Barton, N W

    1991-01-01

    A 29 year old male with onset of globoid cell leukodystrophy at age 14 is described. This is the first case of enzymatically confirmed globoid cell leukodystrophy with onset of symptoms after the age of ten. This patient is unique because of the late onset and slow progression and extends the clinical spectrum of globoid cell leukodystrophy.

  12. Late onset globoid cell leukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, R P; Petronas, N; Barton, N W

    1991-11-01

    A 29 year old male with onset of globoid cell leukodystrophy at age 14 is described. This is the first case of enzymatically confirmed globoid cell leukodystrophy with onset of symptoms after the age of ten. This patient is unique because of the late onset and slow progression and extends the clinical spectrum of globoid cell leukodystrophy.

  13. Adult-onset tic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eapen, [No Value; Lees, AJ; Lakke, JPWF; Trimble, MR; Robertson, MM

    We report on 8 patients with adult-onset motor tics and vocalisations. Three had compulsive tendencies in childhood and 3 had a family history of tics or obsessive-compulsive behaviour. In comparison with DSM-classified, younger-onset Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, adult-onset tic disorders are

  14. Treatment of sugar beet thick juice spent wash by chemical and natural coagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antov Mirjana G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of treatment of wastewater from bioethanol production by aluminium sulfate and natural coagulant extracted from common bean seed was studied. The highest coagulation activity at pH 6.5 is reached with analum dose of 1 g/l, but only a little lower coagulation activities were obtained by the dose of 0.05 and 0.10 g/l, which is more favorable for economic and environmental reasons. When natural coagulant from common bean was applied the highest coagulation activity, 14.3%, at pH 6.5 is reached with a dose of 0.5 ml/l. However, when common bean natural coagulant was used simultaneously with alum, the highest turbidity removal resulting in 24% coagulation activity was achieved and this was more efficient than when alum or natural coagulant were used.

  15. Early markers of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis activation in Argentine hemorrhagic fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, M. V.; Marta, R. F.; Sturk, A.; Maiztegui, J. I.; Hack, C. E.; Cate, J. W.; Molinas, F. C.

    1995-01-01

    Junin virus, an arenaviridae, is the etiological agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever. In addition to thrombocytopenia, patients present several alterations in both the blood coagulation and the fibrinolytic system, but diffuse intravascular coagulation could not be demonstrated. To investigate

  16. Networks of enzymatically oxidized membrane lipids support calcium-dependent coagulation factor binding to maintain hemostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauder, S.N.; Allen-Redpath, K.; Slatter, D.A.; Aldrovandi, M.; O'Connor, A.; Farewell, D.; Percy, C.L.; Molhoek, J.E.; Rannikko, S.; Tyrrell, V.J.; Ferla, S.; Milne, G.L.; Poole, A.W.; Thomas, C.P.; Obaji, S.; Taylor, P.R.; Jones, S.A.; Groot, P.G. de; Urbanus, R.T.; Horkko, S.; Uderhardt, S.; Ackermann, J.; Jenkins, P.V.; Brancale, A.; Kronke, G.; Collins, P.W.; O'Donnell, V.B.

    2017-01-01

    Blood coagulation functions as part of the innate immune system by preventing bacterial invasion, and it is critical to stopping blood loss (hemostasis). Coagulation involves the external membrane surface of activated platelets and leukocytes. Using lipidomic, genetic, biochemical, and mathematical

  17. Therapeutic intervention in disseminated intravascular coagulation: have we made any progress in the last millennium?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, Marcel; de Jonge, Evert; van der Poll, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by systemic intravascular activation of coagulation, leading to widespread deposition of fibrin in the circulation. Recent knowledge on important pathogenetic mechanisms that may lead to DIC has resulted in novel preventive and

  18. Late onset endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz AlHadlaq

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report an extremely rare presentation of late-onset endophthalmitis in a young adult patient with an unexposed Ahmed tube implant. The implant was inserted 11 years prior to presentation. There was no history of trauma or any obvious exposure on clinical examination and the tube plate was filled with purulent material. After aqueous and vitreous tap, the patient underwent intracameral, intravitreal subconjunctival antibiotic injections and was started on systemic antibiotics with good response. Endophthalmitis associated with tube drainage device can present as late as 11 years and even without an unexposed tube.

  19. Controlled deposition of size-selected MnO nanoparticle thin films for water splitting applications: reduction of onset potential with particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojasteh, Malak; Haghighat, Shima; Dawlaty, Jahan M.; Kresin, Vitaly V.

    2018-05-01

    Emulating water oxidation catalyzed by the oxomanganese clusters in the photosynthetic apparatus of plants has been a long-standing scientific challenge. The use of manganese oxide films has been explored, but while they may be catalytically active on the surface, their poor conductivity hinders their overall performance. We have approached this problem by using manganese oxide nanoparticles with sizes of 4, 6 and 8 nm, produced in a sputter-gas-aggregation source and soft-landed onto conducting electrodes. The mass loading of these catalytic particles was kept constant and corresponded to 45%–80% of a monolayer coverage. Measurements of the water oxidation threshold revealed that the onset potential decreases significantly with decreasing particle size. The final stoichiometry of the catalytically active nanoparticles, after exposure to air, was identified as predominantly MnO. The ability of such a sub-monolayer film to lower the reaction threshold implies that the key role is played by intrinsic size effects, i.e., by changes in the electronic properties and surface fields of the nanoparticles with decreasing size. We anticipate that this work will serve to bridge the knowledge gap between bulk thick film electrocatalysts and natural photosynthetic molecular-cluster complexes.

  20. Improvement of extraction method of coagulation active components from Moringa oleifera seed

    OpenAIRE

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Baes, Aloysius U.; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    1999-01-01

    A new method for the extraction of the active coagulation component from Moringa oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the ordinary water extraction method (MOC–DW). In the new method, 1.0 mol l-1 solution of sodium chloride (MOC–SC) and other salts were used for extraction of the active coagulation component. Batch coagulation experiments were conducted using 500 ml of low turbid water (50 NTU). Coagulation efficiencies were evaluated based on the dosage required to remove kaolinite...

  1. Platelet aggregation, secretion, and coagulation changes in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukyilmaz, Gonul; Soyer, Ozge U; Buyuktiryaki, Betul; Alioglu, Bulent; Dallar, Yildiz

    2014-10-01

    The chronic inflammation in asthma evolves by cells including eosinophils, mast cells and lymphocytes. Despite their principal function in hemostasis, platelets contribute to pathogenesis of asthma that activation of platelets occurs following antigen provocation and during asthma attack. Our aim was to evaluate the platelet functions and other hemostatic features of children with asthma, both during symptom-free period and asthma attack. We enrolled patients with asthma attack (n = 33), mild intermittent asthma (n = 18), mild persistent asthma (n = 15) and healthy children (n = 20). Demographic characteristics and disease-related features were noted. Platelet aggregation and secretion tests (expressed as ATP release) were performed by lumiaggregometer method by stimulation with collagen, epinephrine, ADP, thrombin, ristocetin and arachidonic acid. Plasma levels of D-dimer, factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) were assessed. There were no differences in platelet aggregation induced by agonists between study groups. ATP release from platelets of patients with asthma exacerbation induced by ADP was lower compared with mild intermittent asthma (P asthma attack than mild intermittent (P = 0.039) and mild persistent asthma (P = 0.011) and controls (P = 0.018). vWF measurements were higher in children with asthma attack than other study groups (P = 0.001). However, FVIII was increased in patients with severe asthma attack. Asthma is a disease in which many immune cells play a role, one of which is the platelet. Distinctions in platelet secretion profiles and plasma levels of vWF and FVIII provide evidence that coagulation mechanisms might be critical for asthma pathogenesis.

  2. Characterization of coagulation factor synthesis in nine human primary cell types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dashty, Monireh; Akbarkhanzadeh, Vishtaseb; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Spek, C. Arnold; Sijbrands, Eric J.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Rezaee, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    The coagulation/fibrinolysis system is essential for wound healing after vascular injury. According to the standard paradigm, the synthesis of most coagulation factors is restricted to liver, platelets and endothelium. We challenged this interpretation by measuring coagulation factors in nine human

  3. Demonstration of the Coagulation and Diffusion of Homemade Slime Prepared under Acidic Conditions without Borate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isokawa, Naho; Fueda, Kazuki; Miyagawa, Korin; Kanno, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) precipitates in many kinds of aqueous salt solutions. While sodium sulfate, a coagulant for PVA fiber, precipitates PVA to yield a white rigid gel, coagulation of PVA with aluminum sulfate, a coagulant for water treatment, yields a slime-like viscoelastic fluid. One type of homemade slime is prepared under basic…

  4. Coagulation profile of children with sickle cell anemia in steady state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sickle cell anemia is associated with a hypercoagulable state that may lead to alterations in a coagulation profile. Measurements of coagulation factors are known to have some predictive value for clinical outcome. Objectives: To determine the coagulation profile of children with SCA in steady state and crisis ...

  5. Early onset type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, A; Thomsen, R W; Nielsen, J S

    2018-01-01

    was more frequent and meeting physical activity recommendations less likely in persons with early-onset type 2 DM. CONCLUSIONS: We found a clear age-gradient, with increasing prevalence of clinical and behavioural risk factors the younger the onset age of type 2 DM. Younger persons with early-onset type 2......AIM: To examine the association between early onset of type 2 diabetes (DM) and clinical and behavioural risk factors for later diabetes complications. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5115 persons with incident type 2 DM enrolled during 2010-2015 in the Danish Centre for Strategic...... Research in Type 2 Diabetes-cohort. We compared risk factors at time of diagnosis among those diagnosed at ≤45 years (early-onset) with diagnosis age 46-55, 56-65 (average-onset = reference), 66-75, and >75 years (late-onset). Prevalence ratios (PRs) were computed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Poor...

  6. Comparison of coagulation activity tests in vitro for selected biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oeveren, W; Haan, J; Lagerman, P; Schoen, T

    Testing of coagulation induced by external communicating medical devices is an International Standardisation Organization (ISO) requirement for products exposed to human blood. Four categories of tests are indicated by ISO 10993/4: a clotting test (partial thromboplastin time; PTT), thrombin

  7. Bladder perforation owing to a unipolar coagulating device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakter, J; Budnick, L D

    1981-09-15

    A report on a patient who sustained a burn and perforation of the urinary bladder from visible sparks emanating from a unipolar coagulating device during the couse of laparoscopic sterilization is presented. It is the first report of urinary bladder burns using a unipolar coagulating device. A 24-year-old woman, gravida 10, para 3, abortus 7, underwent a laparoscopic sterilization with a unipolar coagulating device. As the physician was finishing the coagulation, a spark from the device caused a 1-2 cm burn with a central area of perforation into the urinary bladder. Conservative treatment was recommended, and consisted of Foley catheterization and drainage for 5 days. Initial urine culture revealed Klebsiella species, and oral ampicillin was prescribed. Hematuria was noted throughout the patient's hospitalization, and blood clots were present in the urine on Day 2 postoperation. The patient had no abdominal or flank pain, was afebrile, and had a stable hemoglobin level during the hospital stay. Cystography was performed on Day 5 postoperatively and demonstrated no perforation. Foley catheter was removed. Patient was discharged 2 days later and remains in good health 3 months postoperatively.

  8. Treatment of melanoidin wastewater by anaerobic digestion and coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimi, Milton M; Zhang, Yongjun; Götz, Gesine; Geißen, Sven-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Melanoidins are dark-coloured recalcitrant pollutants found in many industrial wastewaters including coffee-manufacturing effluent, molasses distillery wastewater (MDWW) and other wastewater with molasses as the raw material. The wastewaters are mostly treated with anaerobic digestion after some dilution to minimize the inhibition effect. However, the dark colour and recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon (DOC) mainly caused by melanoidin are not effectively removed. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of colour and remnant DOC by different coagulants from anaerobically digested MDWW. From the six coagulants tested, ferric chloride had the highest melanoidin (48%), colour (92.7%) and DOC (63.3%) removal at pH 5 and a dosage of 1.6 g/l. Both polymer and inorganic salt coagulants tested had optimal colour, melanoidin and DOC removal at acidic pH. The molecular size distribution of synthetic melanoidins by liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection indicated a preferential removal of high-molecular-weight melanoidins over low weight melanoidins by the coagulation. Further studies should focus on how to improve biodegradability of the treated effluent for it to be reused as dilution water for anaerobic digestion.

  9. Effects of a polymeric organic coagulant for industrial mineral oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The removal of chemical oxidation demand (COD), soap oil and grease (SOG), total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity from the MOW were used as the response variables for the coagulation flotation process. This was done with a standard dissolved air flotation jar test. The results show that the actual COD, SOG, TSS ...

  10. The Inflammatory Actions of Coagulant and Fibrinolytic Proteases in Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schuliga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aside from their role in hemostasis, coagulant and fibrinolytic proteases are important mediators of inflammation in diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer. The blood circulating zymogens of these proteases enter damaged tissue as a consequence of vascular leak or rupture to become activated and contribute to extravascular coagulation or fibrinolysis. The coagulants, factor Xa (FXa, factor VIIa (FVIIa, tissue factor, and thrombin, also evoke cell-mediated actions on structural cells (e.g., fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells or inflammatory cells (e.g., macrophages via the proteolytic activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs. Plasmin, the principle enzymatic mediator of fibrinolysis, also forms toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4 activating fibrin degradation products (FDPs and can release latent-matrix bound growth factors such as transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β. Furthermore, the proteases that convert plasminogen into plasmin (e.g., urokinase plasminogen activator evoke plasmin-independent proinflammatory actions involving coreceptor activation. Selectively targeting the receptor-mediated actions of hemostatic proteases is a strategy that may be used to treat inflammatory disease without the bleeding complications of conventional anticoagulant therapies. The mechanisms by which proteases of the coagulant and fibrinolytic systems contribute to extravascular inflammation in disease will be considered in this review.

  11. Reduction of Turbidity of Water Using Locally Available Natural Coagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrafuzzaman, Md.; Fakhruddin, A. N. M.; Hossain, Md. Alamgir

    2011-01-01

    Turbidity imparts a great problem in water treatment. Moringa oleifera, Cicer arietinum, and Dolichos lablab were used as locally available natural coagulants in this study to reduce turbidity of synthetic water. The tests were carried out, using artificial turbid water with conventional jar test apparatus. Optimum mixing intensity and duration were determined. After dosing water-soluble extracts of Moringa oleifera, Cicer arietinum, and Dolichos lablab reduced turbidity to 5.9, 3.9, and 11.1 nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU), respectively, from 100 NTU and 5, 3.3, and 9.5, NTU, respectively, after dosing and filtration. Natural coagulants worked better with high, turbid, water compare to medium, or low, turbid, water. Highest turbidity reduction efficiency (95.89%) was found with Cicer arietinum. About 89 to 96% total coliform reduction were also found with natural coagulant treatment of turbid water. Using locally available natural coagulants, suitable, easier, and environment friendly options for water treatment were observed. PMID:23724307

  12. Coagulation / flocculation process in the removal of trace metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempts were made in this study to examine the effectiveness of polymer addition to coagulation process during treatment of a beverage industrial wastewater to remove some of its trace metals content such as lead, cadmium, total iron, total chromium, nickel and zinc. Experiments were conducted using the standard Jar ...

  13. Valproic acid modulates platelet and coagulation function ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bambakidis, Ted; Dekker, Simone E; Halaweish, Ihab

    2017-01-01

    of coagulopathy, it remains unknown whether this is a direct effect of the drug, or the establishment of an overall prosurvival phenotype. We thus conducted an ex-vivo experiment to determine if VPA has an effect on coagulation and platelet function. Ten swine were subjected to traumatic brain injury (TBI...

  14. Performance Evaluation of the Sysmex CS-5100 Automated Coagulation Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liming; Chen, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Coagulation testing is widely applied clinically, and laboratories increasingly demand automated coagulation analyzers with short turn-around times and high-throughput. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Sysmex CS-5100 automated coagulation analyzer for routine use in a clinical laboratory. The prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen (Fbg), and D-dimer were compared between the Sysmex CS-5100 and Sysmex CA-7000 analyzers, and the imprecision, comparison, throughput, STAT function, and performance for abnormal samples were measured in each. The within-run and between-run coefficients of variation (CV) for the PT, APTT, INR, and D-dimer analyses showed excellent results both in the normal and pathologic ranges. The correlation coefficients between the Sysmex CS-5100 and Sysmex CA-7000 were highly correlated. The throughput of the Sysmex CS-5100 was faster than that of the Sysmex CA-7000. There was no interference at all by total bilirubin concentrations and triglyceride concentrations in the Sysmex CS-5100 analyzer. We demonstrated that the Sysmex CS-5100 performs with satisfactory imprecision and is well suited for coagulation analysis in laboratories processing large sample numbers and icteric and lipemic samples.

  15. Dust Coagulation in Infalling Protostellar Envelopes I. Compact Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorke, H.; Lin, D.; Suttner, G.

    1999-01-01

    Dust plays a key role in the optical, thermodynamic and gas dynamical behavior of collapsing molecular cores. Because of relative velocities of the individual dust grains, coagulation and shattering can modify the grain size distribution and -- due to corresponding changes in the medium's opacity significantly -- influence the evolution during early phases of star formation.

  16. Evaluation of the effect of advanced coagulation process to optimize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the effect of advanced coagulation process to optimize the removal of natural organic matter in water (Case study: drinking water of Mashhad's ... and in addition to giving taste, color and odor to the water, they can intervene in the oxidization and removal of heavy metals such as arsenic, iron and manganese.

  17. Cosmetic wastewater treatment by coagulation and advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumczyk, Jeremi; Bogacki, Jan; Marcinowski, Piotr; Kowalik, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the treatment process of three cosmetic wastewater types has been investigated. Coagulation allowed to achieve chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 74.6%, 37.7% and 74.0% for samples A (Al2(SO4)3), B (Brentafloc F3) and C (PAX 16), respectively. The Fenton process proved to be effective as well - COD removal was equal to 75.1%, 44.7% and 68.1%, respectively. Coagulation with FeCl3 and the subsequent photo-Fenton process resulted in the best values of final COD removal equal to 92.4%, 62.8% and 90.2%. In case of the Fenton process, after coagulation these values were equal to 74.9%, 50.1% and 84.8%, while in case of the H2O2/UV process, the obtained COD removal was 83.8%, 36.2% and 80.9%. High value of COD removal in the Fenton process carried out for A and C wastewater samples was caused by a significant contribution of the final neutralization/coagulation. Very small effect of the oxidation reaction in the Fenton process in case of sample A resulting from the presence of antioxidants, 'OH radical scavengers' in the wastewater.

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF FLOCCULATION PROCESS BY MICROBIAL COAGULANT IN RIVER WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatin Nabilah Murad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing process of coagulation and flocculation are using chemicals that known as cationic coagulant such as alum, ferric sulfate, calcium oxide, and organic polymers.  Thus, this study concentrates on optimizing of flocculation process by microbial coagulant in river water. Turbidity and suspended solids are the main constraints of river water quality in Malaysia. Hence, a study is proposed to produce microbial coagulants isolated locally for river water treatment. The chosen microbe used as the bioflocculant producer is Aspergillus niger. The parameters to optimization in the flocculation process were pH, bioflocculant dosage and effluent concentration. The research was done in the jar test process and the process parameters for maximum turbidity removal was validated. The highest flocculating activity was obtained on day seven of cultivation in the supernatant. The optimum pH and bioflocculant dosage for an optimize sedimentation process were between 4-5 and 2-3 mL for 0.3 g/L of effluent concentration respectively. The model was validated by using a river water sample from Sg. Pusu and the result showed that the model was acceptable to evaluate the bioflocculation process.

  19. Application of Moringa peregrina seed extract as a natural coagulant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hamed.B

    aqueous effluents from various manufacturing processes such as petroleum and ... rubber, plastics, paper, oil refineries and phenol-producing industries. ... coagulation, phenolic contaminants can damage ... al., 2008), enzymatic treatments (Mao et al., 2006), .... important not only for process economy but also for lower.

  20. Coagulation changes following traumatic brain injury and shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In these studies, we have shown that coagulation and innate immunity pathways respond to trauma within minutes. Furthermore, the appearance of dysfunction of platelets as well as activation of the endothelium is rapidly manifested. Interestingly, many of these changes were attenuated by treatment...

  1. Production and characterization of water treatment coagulant from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Base on high cost in coagulant for treating both domestic and industrial water in the recent time. There is need to identify cheaper and efficient methods of removing contaminant as the demand for clean water increases. A study was carried out to investigate the use of locally sourced Kaolinite clay from Okefomo ...

  2. Coagulation and Adsorption Treatment of Printing Ink Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klančnik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The intention of the study was to improve the efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC and colour removal from the wastewater samples polluted with flexographic printing ink following coagulation treatments with further adsorption onto activated carbons and ground orange peel. The treatment efficiencies were compared to those of further flocculation treatments and of coagulation and adsorption processes individually. Coagulation was a relatively effective single-treatment method, removing 99.7% of the colour and 86.9% of the organic substances (TOC from the printing ink wastewater samples. Further flocculation did not further eliminate organic pollutants, whereas subsequent adsorption with 7 g/l of granular activated carbon further reduced organic substances by 35.1%, and adsorption with 7 g/l of powdered activated carbon further reduced organic substances by 59.3%. Orange peel was an inappropriate adsorbent for wastewater samples with low amounts of pollution, such as water that had been treated by coagulation. However, in highly polluted printing ink wastewater samples, the adsorption treatment with ground orange peel achieved efficiencies comparable to those of the granular activated carbon treatments.

  3. Blood coagulation in hemophilia A and hemophilia C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cawthern, K. M.; van 't Veer, C.; Lock, J. B.; DiLorenzo, M. E.; Branda, R. F.; Mann, K. G.

    1998-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF)-induced coagulation was compared in contact pathway suppressed human blood from normal, factor VIII-deficient, and factor XI-deficient donors. The progress of the reaction was analyzed in quenched samples by immunoassay and immunoblotting for fibrinopeptide A (FPA),

  4. Multiple roles of the coagulation protease cascade during virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniak, Silvio; Mackman, Nigel

    2014-04-24

    The coagulation cascade is activated during viral infections. This response may be part of the host defense system to limit spread of the pathogen. However, excessive activation of the coagulation cascade can be deleterious. In fact, inhibition of the tissue factor/factor VIIa complex reduced mortality in a monkey model of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Other studies showed that incorporation of tissue factor into the envelope of herpes simplex virus increases infection of endothelial cells and mice. Furthermore, binding of factor X to adenovirus serotype 5 enhances infection of hepatocytes but also increases the activation of the innate immune response to the virus. Coagulation proteases activate protease-activated receptors (PARs). Interestingly, we and others found that PAR1 and PAR2 modulate the immune response to viral infection. For instance, PAR1 positively regulates TLR3-dependent expression of the antiviral protein interferon β, whereas PAR2 negatively regulates expression during coxsackievirus group B infection. These studies indicate that the coagulation cascade plays multiple roles during viral infections.

  5. The coagulation system in endocrine disorders: a narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, A.; Gerdes, V. E. A.; Ageno, W.; Büller, H. R.

    2007-01-01

    Endocrine disorders can influence the haemostatic balance. Abnormal coagulation test results have been observed in patients with abnormal hormone levels. Also unprovoked bleeding or thrombotic events have been associated with endocrine disease. The aim of the present review is to summarise the

  6. Evaluation of Chitin as Natural Coagulant in Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Saritha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of synthetic coagulants is not regarded as suitable due to health and economic considerations. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of alum as coagulant in conjunction with chitin as coagulant aid on the removal of turbidity, hardness and Escherichia coli from water. A conventional jar test apparatus was employed for the tests. The experiment was conducted at three different pH conditions of 6, 7 and 8. The dosages chosen were 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2mg/l. The results showed that turbidity decrease provided also a primary Escherichia coli reduction. Hardness removal efficiency was observed to be 93% at pH 7 with 1mg/l concentration by alum whereas chitin was stable at all the pH ranges showing highest removal at 1 and 1.5mg/l with pH 7. At low concentration chitin showed marginally better performance on hardness. In conclusion, using natural coagulants results in considerable savings in chemicals and sludge handling cost may be achieved.

  7. The effects of continuous venovenous hemofiltration on coagulation activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Catherine S. C.; de Pont, Anne-Cornélie J. M.; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Bakhtiari, Kamran; Roem, Dorina; Zeerleder, Sacha; Wolbink, Gertjan; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Levi, Marcel; de Jonge, Evert

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The mechanism of coagulation activation during continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) has not yet been elucidated. Insight into the mechanism(s) of hemostatic activation within the extracorporeal circuit could result in a more rational approach to anticoagulation. The aim of the

  8. optimization of coagulation-flocculation process for colour removal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA, ANAMBRA STATE. ... The ability of organic polymer rich coagulants for colour removal from acid dye was studied. ... Response surface methodology (RSM) using face-centered ...... successfully applied for modeling and optimizing the.

  9. Whole blood coagulation time, haematocrit, haemoglobin and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine the values of whole blood coagulation time (WBCT), haematocrit (HM), haemaglobin (HB) and total protein (TP) of one hundred and eighteen apparently healthy turkeys reared under an extensive management system in Zaria. The mean values for WBCT, HM, HB and TP were 1.12 ...

  10. Coagulation and fibrinolysis in hyperparathyroidism secondary to vitamin D deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, Laura P. B.; Wijnberge, Marije; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Poland, Dennis C. W.; Brandjes, Dees P. M.; Fliers, Eric; Gerdes, Victor E. A.

    2018-01-01

    Abnormal coagulation tests have been observed in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) suggesting a prothrombotic effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Vitamin D deficiency (VIDD) is the most frequent cause of secondary HPT. Aim of our study was to investigate the influence of HPT secondary

  11. Aversion substance(s) of the rat coagulating glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawienowski, Anthony M.; Berry, Iver J.; Kennelly, James J.

    1982-01-01

    The aversive substance(s) present in adult male urine were not found in castrate rat urine. Removal of the coagulating glands also resulted in a loss of the aversion compounds. The aversion substances were restored to the urine after androgen treatment of the castrate rats.

  12. Effect of cyanobacterial peptides and proteins on coagulation of kaolinite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, Kateřina; Barešová, Magdalena; Čermáková, Lenka; Načeradská, Jana; Pivokonský, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2016), s. 83-89 ISSN 1805-0174 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : cellular organic matter * coagulation * complex formation * Microcystis aeruginosa * water treatment Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology http://www.ejes.cz/index.php/ejes/article/view/271/123

  13. Multiple coagulation defects and the Cohen syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichtemeier, T L; Tomlinson, G E; Kamen, B A; Waber, L J; Wilson, G N

    1994-04-01

    A 13-year-old male presented with new onset seizures, sagittal sinus thrombosis with cerebral hemorrhage, and extensive venous thrombosis of the lower limbs. Laboratory investigation demonstrated combined deficiency of protein C, protein S, and antithrombin III. He and his 17-year-old sister had a mental retardation-multiple anomaly syndrome associated with microcephaly, unusual facies, and lax connective tissue. Their dysmorphology included elongated faces with narrow forehead, arched eyebrows, large mouth with down-turned corners, malformed teeth, and furrowed tongue. Both had Marfanoid habitus with lax joints, pectus excavatum, kyphoscoliosis, and flat narrow feet. The most likely diagnosis for these siblings is the autosomal recessive Cohen syndrome of mental retardation, congenital hypotonia with Marfanoid habitus, microcephaly, pleasant affect, micrognathia, and open mouth with prominent incisors. The sagittal sinus thrombosis, left frontal intracranial hemorrhage, carotid aneurysm, tortuous descending aorta, and deep venous thrombosis suffered by the male sibling adds the Cohen syndrome to genetic vasculopathies that may be associated with stroke.

  14. Evidence for a genetic etiology of early-onset delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J; Iacono, W G; McGue, M

    2000-11-01

    Age at onset of antisocial behavior discriminates persistent and transitory offenders. The authors proposed that early-onset delinquency has an underlying genetic influence that manifests in problems related to inhibition, whereas late-onset delinquency is more environmentally mediated. To test these notions, they selected 36 early starters, 86 late starters, and 25 nondelinquent controls from a large sample of 11-year-old twins and compared them on several measures related to inhibition and a peer group measure. As expected, early starters had more psychological, behavioral, and emotional problems related to inhibition than late starters and controls. A longitudinal analysis indicated an increase an antisocial behavior among peers of late starters shortly before their delinquency onset. Family history data and a twin analysis provided evidence of greater genetic influence on early-onset than late-onset delinquency.

  15. Effect of urokinase thrombolysis on the cardiac function, coagulation, and fibrinolytic system in patients with AMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Bin Kuang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of urokinase thrombolysis on the cardiac function, coagulation, and fibrinolytic system in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Methods: A total of 39 patients with AMI who were admitted in our hospital from March, 2016 to November, 2016 were included in the study and served as the observation group. The peripheral venous blood before and after thrombolysis was collected. The plasma NTproBNP level, related coagulation factors, and fibrinolysis indicators were detected. The cardiac function before treatment was evaluated. A total of 30 healthy individuals who came for physical examinations were served as the control group for contrastive analysis. Results: The plasma NT-proBNP, Fg, and D-D levels before thrombolysis in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group, while PT, APTT, and TT in the observation group were significantly shortened. The plasma NT-proBNP and D-D levels 2-48 h after thrombolysis in the observation group were significantly elevated first and reduced later and reached the peak 4 h after treatment, while PT, APTT, and TT were significantly extended first and shortened later. The plasma Fg level was significantly reduced first and elevated later and reached the minimum 4 h after treatment. During the treatment process, in the observation group, 2 had mucocutaneous hemorrhage, 3 had nasal hemorrhage, and 1 had gingival bleeding, but no gastrointestinal bleeding or cerebral hemorrhage occurred. Conclusions: The thrombolytic therapy can effectively reduce the coagulation activity in patients with AMI, strengthen the fibrinolysis activity, and improve the cardiac function.

  16. Coagulation and oxidative stress plasmatic levels in a type 2 diabetes population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillari, Giovanni; Fabbro, Elisabetta; Pasca, Samantha; Bigotto, Enrico

    2009-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a metabolic disorder characterized by relative insulin deficiency, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. DM2 improperly managed can cause severe complications such as renal failure, blindness or arterial disease. In addition to serious complications due to DM2, in the past 20 years, several studies have demonstrated the association between DM2, insulin resistance and prothrombotic risk. In our study, we wanted to evaluate the correlation between coagulation factor levels, oxidative plasmatic levels and DM2. We considered 20 DM2 patients (65% women and 35% men), 40-65 years of age, who had a BMI between 25 and 40 kg/m2 and followed a diet with or without oral antidiabetic treatment and 20 controls, blood donors, 15 men (75%) and five women (25%), who had a BMI between 25 and 40 kg/m2 and their age was between 40 and 65 years. Plasmatic levels of oxidative stress markers (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, nitrotyrosine, oxidized low-density lipoprotein) and coagulation markers (factors VII, VIII, IX, XI, XII, antithrombin III and fibrinogen) of both populations were analyzed following statistic criteria. The analyzed data of this study related to oxidative stress and coagulation factors proved that the differences observed between diabetic patients and controls were not statistically significant (P statistically significant (P < 0.01). In patients with DM2, factor VIII increased from 79 to 103%, factor IX from 88 to 103%, factor XII from 87 to 105% and finally, antithrombin III from 81 to 103%. Different results between literature and our study could be due to fact that the patients considered were in the early stage of diabetes when endothelial damage is absent and vascular complications are not clinically expressed. In this study, it is still shown that DM2 is a multifactor disease and its physiopathologic mechanisms are not completely known today.

  17. Rapid onset aggressive vertebral haemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicholas K; Doorenbosch, Xenia; Christie, John G

    2011-03-01

    Vertebral haemangiomas are generally benign asymptomatic vascular tumours seen commonly in the adult population. Presentations in paediatric populations are extremely rare, which can result in rapid onset of neurological symptoms. We present a highly unusual case of an aggressive paediatric vertebral haemangioma causing significant cord compression. A 13-year-old boy presented with only 2 weeks duration of progressive gait disturbance, truncal ataxia and loss of bladder control. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine revealed a large vascular epidural mass extending between T6 and T8 vertebral bodies. Associated displacement and compression of the spinal cord was present. A highly vascular bony lesion was found during surgery. Histopathology identified this tumour to be a vertebral haemangioma. We present an extremely unusual acute presentation of a paediatric vertebral haemangioma. This study highlights the need for early diagnosis, MRI for investigation and urgent surgical management. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  18. Blood coagulation and the risk of atherothrombosis: a complex relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Voort Danielle

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The principles of Virchov's triad appear to be operational in atherothrombosis or arterial thrombosis: local flow changes and particularly vacular wall damage are the main pathophysiological elements. Furthermore, alterations in arterial blood composition are also involved although the specific role and importance of blood coagulation is an ongoing matter of debate. In this review we provide support for the hypothesis that activated blood coagulation is an essential determinant of the risk of atherothrombotic complications. We distinguish two phases in atherosclerosis: In the first phase, atherosclerosis develops under influence of "classical" risk factors, i.e. both genetic and acquired forces. While fibrinogen/fibrin molecules participate in early plaque lesions, increased activity of systemic coagulation is of no major influence on the risk of arterial thrombosis, except in rare cases where a number of specific procoagulant forces collide. Despite the presence of tissue factor – factor VII complex it is unlikely that all fibrin in the atherosclerotic plaque is the direct result from local clotting activity. The dominant effect of coagulation in this phase is anticoagulant, i.e. thrombin enhances protein C activation through its binding to endothelial thrombomodulin. The second phase is characterized by advancing atherosclerosis, with greater impact of inflammation as indicated by an elevated level of plasma C-reactive protein, the result of increased production influenced by interleukin-6. Inflammation overwhelms protective anticoagulant forces, which in itself may have become less efficient due to down regulation of thrombomodulin and endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR expression. In this phase, the inflammatory drive leads to recurrent induction of tissue factor and assembly of catalytic complexes on aggregated cells and on microparticles, maintaining a certain level of thrombin production and fibrin formation. In advanced

  19. Early-Onset Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konijnenberg, Elles; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Kate, Mara Ten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early-onset dementia (EOD) is a rare condition, with an often atypical clinical presentation, and it may therefore be challenging to diagnose. Specialized memory clinics vary in the type of patients seen, diagnostic procedures applied, and the pharmacological treatment given. The aim...... of this study was to investigate quality-of-care indicators in subjects with EOD from 3 tertiary memory clinics in 3 European countries. METHODS: We included 1325 newly diagnosed EOD patients, ages 65 years or younger, between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2013, from the Danish Dementia Registry...... (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen), the Swedish Dementia Registry ("SveDem", Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm), and the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (VU University Medical Center). RESULTS: The frequency of EOD among all dementia patients was significantly lower in Copenhagen (410, 20%) and Stockholm (284, 21...

  20. Coagulation sensors based on magnetostrictive delay lines for biomedical and chemical engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliaritsi, E.; Zoumpoulakis, L.; Simitzis, J.; Vassiliou, P.; Hristoforou, E.

    2006-01-01

    Coagulation sensors based on the magnetostrictive delay line technique are presented in this paper. They are based on magnetostrictive ribbons and are used for measuring the coagulation, curing or solidification time of different liquids. Experimental results indicate that the presented sensing elements can determine the blood coagulation with remarkable repeatability, thus allowing their use as blood coagulation sensors. Additionally, results indicate that they can also measure curing time of resins, solidification of fluids and coagulation of chemical substances, therefore allowing their implementation in chemical engineering applications

  1. Treatment of sugar beet thick juice spent wash by chemical and natural coagulants

    OpenAIRE

    Antov Mirjana G.; Klašnja Mile T.; Šćiban Marina B.

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of treatment of wastewater from bioethanol production by aluminium sulfate and natural coagulant extracted from common bean seed was studied. The highest coagulation activity at pH 6.5 is reached with analum dose of 1 g/l, but only a little lower coagulation activities were obtained by the dose of 0.05 and 0.10 g/l, which is more favorable for economic and environmental reasons. When natural coagulant from common bean was applied the highest coagulation activity, 14.3%, at pH ...

  2. A role of Yueju in fast-onset antidepressant action on major depressive disorder and serum BDNF expression: a randomly double-blind, fluoxetine-adjunct, placebo-controlled, pilot clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ruyan Wu,1,* Dandan Zhu,1,* Youchun Xia,2,* Haosen Wang,2 Weiwei Tao,1 Wenda Xue,1 Baomei Xia,1 Li Ren,1 Xin Zhou,1 Guochun Li,3 Gang Chen1 1Center for Translational Systems Biology and Neuroscience, Key Laboratory of Integrative Biomedicine of Brain Diseases, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2The Fourth People’s Hospital of Taizhou, Taizhou, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Basic Chinese Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: Conventional antidepressants, including fluoxetine, have a major disadvantage in delayed onset of efficacy. Yueju, an herbal medicine used to treat mood disorders was recently found to exhibit rapid antidepressant effects. The present study was conducted to evaluate the role of Yueju in rapidly acting on major depressive disorder (MDD.Methods: Participants were MDD patients with scores of 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-24 ≥20 and without history of antidepressant use. They randomly received daily oral doses of Yueju (23 g/day plus fluoxetine (20 mg/day (experimental group or placebo plus fluoxetine (control group for 7 days. HDRS-24 was used as the primary outcome measurement at baseline, and on days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Concentrations of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were assessed at baseline and on days 1 and 7.Results: In all, 18 participants met the criteria for data analysis. Compared to baseline level, only experimental group showed significant decrease of HDRS-24 score from day 3 to day 7 (P<0.05. Experimental group also showed significant improvement compared with control group from day 3 to day 7 (P<0.05. No correlation between treatment outcomes with serum BDNF levels was observed. However, experimental group showed significant correlation for serum BDNF level on day 1 with day 7 (r=0.721, P=0.028, whereas the control

  3. Sediment accretion and carbon storage in constructed wetlands receiving water treated with metal-based coagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpner, Elizabeth; Kraus, Tamara; Liang, Yan; Bachand, Sandra M.; Horwath, William R.; Bachand, Philip A.M.

    2018-01-01

    In many regions of the world, subsidence of organic rich soils threatens levee stability and freshwater supply, and continued oxidative loss of organic matter contributes to greenhouse gas production. To counter subsidence in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of northern California, we examined the feasibility of using constructed wetlands receiving drainage water treated with metal-based coagulants to accrete mineral material along with wetland biomass, while also sequestering carbon in wetland sediment. Nine field-scale wetlands were constructed which received local drainage water that was either untreated (control), or treated with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) or iron sulfate (FeSO4) coagulants. After 23 months of flooding and coagulant treatment, sediment samples were collected near the inlet, middle, and outlet of each wetland to determine vertical accretion rates, bulk density, sediment composition, and carbon sequestration rates. Wetlands treated with PAC had the highest and most spatially consistent vertical accretion rates (~6 cm year-1), while the FeSO4 wetlands had similarly high accretion rates near the inlet but rates similar to the untreated wetland (~1.5 cm year-1) at the middle and outlet sites. The composition of the newly accreted sediment in the PAC and FeSO4 treatments was high in the added metal (aluminum and iron, respectively), but the percent metal by weight was similar to native soils of California. As has been observed in other constructed wetlands, the newly accreted sediment material had lower bulk densities than the native soil material (0.04-0.10 g cm-3 versus 0.2-0.3 g cm-3), suggesting these materials will consolidate over time. Finally, this technology accelerated carbon burial, with rates in PAC treated wetland (0.63 kg C m-2 yr-1) over 2-fold greater than the untreated control (0.28 kg C m-2 yr-1). This study demonstrates the feasibility of using constructed wetlands treated with coagulants to reverse subsidence by accreting the

  4. Treatment of sugar beet extraction juice stillage by natural coagulants extracted from common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Jelena M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Distillery wastewaters have a great pollution potential, and pollution caused by them is one of the most critical environmental issues. This study is concerned with the coagulation efficiency of a new, environmental friendly, natural coagulant extracted from common bean seeds in the primary treatment of distillery wastewater in the bioethanol production from sugar beet juice. Active coagulation components were extracted from ground seeds of common bean with 0.5 mol/L NaCl. The obtained raw extract was used as a coagulant. The coagulation efficiency was measured by jar test at different pH values of wastewater, and a decrease in organic matter content was determined. The experiments confirmed that natural coagulant from common bean could be successfully used for the treatment of extraction juice distillery wastewater. The highest coagulation efficiencies were achieved at the pH 5.2 with a coagulant dose of 30 mL/L, and at the pH 8.5 with a coagulant dose of 5 mL/L, and they were 64.71% and 68.75% respectively. These encouraging results indicate that natural coagulant from common bean seeds is a potential alternative to conventional chemical coagulant/flocculant agents for treatment of wastewaters.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43005

  5. [Role and clinical significance of coagulation and inflammatory factors in moderate and severe ovarian endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Q; Ding, S J; Zhu, T H; Li, T T; Huang, X F; Zhang, X M

    2018-03-25

    Objective: To determine the levels of coagulation and inflammatory factors in women with moderate and severe ovarian endometriosis so as to investigate the possible role of coagulation and inflammatory factors in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Methods: From June 2015 and June 2017, clinical data of 366 patients with pathologically diagnosed moderate and severe ovarian endometriosis (case group) and 244 patients with pathologically diagnosed benign ovarian cysts (control group) in Women's Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine were retrospectively analyzed. The levels of coagulation indicators, inflammatory factors and serum tumor markers were measured. Then, the values of these indicators in diagnosis of endometriosis were analyzed. Results: (1) The levels of plasma prothrombin time (PT) and thrombin time (TT) in patients with ovarian endometriosis [median: 12.8 s (range: 12.4-13.2 s) and 15.5 s (range: 15.1-15.9 s), respectively] were significantly shorter than those with benign ovarian cysts [median: 13.0 s (range: 12.5-13.4 s) and 15.7 s (range: 15.3-16.1 s), respectively; all P endometriosis were significantly higher than those with benign ovarian cysts [median: 2.8 g/L (range: 2.6-3.2 g/L) and 0.6 mg/L (range: 0.4-1.2 mg/L), respectively; P =0.000]. Moreover, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio [PLR; median: 2.3 (range: 1.8-3.1) and 144 (range: 113-179), respectively] in patients with ovarian endometriosis were significantly higher than those with benign ovarian cysts [median: 2.1 (range: 1.6-2.8) and 128 (range: 104-165), respectively; P endometriosis, the levels of PT were significantly shorter in stage Ⅳ endometriosis than that in stage Ⅲ endometriosis ( P endometriosis were significantly higher than those in patients with stage Ⅲ endometriosis ( P endometriosis, and the detection of coagulation and inflammatory factors may be have important clinical significance for the

  6. HLA antigens in juvenile onset diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, T; Toyota, T; Ouchi, E

    1980-11-01

    To study association between juvenile onset diabetes (JOD) and major histocompatibility gene complex, 40 patients with childhood onset diabetes and 120 healthy subjects were typed for HLA. Bw54 was present in 33 percent of the patients with JOD, while it appeared in 8 percent of the controls. Expressed as a relative risk, the antigen Bw54 confers a susceptibility to the development of JOD which is 5.3 times that in the controls. JOD shows a little high degree of association with A9 (78%). However, the A9-antigen is common in the Japanese and appears in 58 percent. Though less striking, the decreased frequency of B12 was 3 percent of JOD, less than 15 percent of the controls (p less than 0.05). There was no association between Bw54 and JOD with family history of diabetes.

  7. MILK COAGULATION PROPERTIES OF CATTLE BREEDS REARED IN ALPINE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Visentin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to apply mid-infrared spectroscopy prediction models developed for milk coagulation properties (MCP to a spectral dataset of 123,240 records collected over a 2-year period in the Alpine area, and to investigate sources of variation of the predicted MCP. Mixed linear models included fixed effects of breed, month and year of sampling, days in milk, parity, and the interactions between the main effects. Random effects were herd nested within breed, cow nested within breed, and the residual. All fixed effects were significant (P<0.05 in explaining the variation of MCP. In particular, milk clotting characteristics varied significantly among breeds, and local Alpine Grey breed exhibited the most favourable processing characteristics. Milk coagulation properties varied across lactation and were at their worst after the peak.

  8. Change of particle size distribution during Brownian coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.W.

    1984-01-01

    Change in particle size distribution due to Brownian coagulation in the continuum regime has been stuied analytically. A simple analytic solution for the size distribution of an initially lognormal distribution is obtained based on the assumption that the size distribution during the coagulation process attains or can, at least, be represented by a time dependent lognormal function. The results are found to be in a form that corrects Smoluchowski's solution for both polydispersity and size-dependent kernel. It is further shown that regardless of whether the initial distribution is narrow or broad, the spread of the distribution is characterized by approaching a fixed value of the geometric standard deviation. This result has been compared with the self-preserving distribution obtained by similarity theory. (Author)

  9. Rheological behavior of raw natural rubber coagulated by microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tests of the strain sweep, frequency sweep and stress relaxation for raw natural rubber coagulated by microorganisms (NR-m and raw natural rubber coagulated by acid (NR-a were carried out with the use of a rubber process analyzer (RPA. The results showed that the storage torque, complex viscosity of NR-m were higher than those of NR-a while the loss factor was lower. The effect of temperature on viscosity of raw NR was studied following the Arrhenious-Frenkel-Eyring model. The viscous flow behavior of NR-m was poorer than those of NR-a. Furthermore, stress relaxation measurements of raw NR showed a longer period of relaxation for NR-m.

  10. Impact of Rodenticides on the Coagulation Properties of Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam A. Ibrahim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the impact of the rodenticides (strychnine, bromadiolone, and brodifacoum on milk pH, rennet coagulation time (RCT, and coagulum strength. Sub-lethal amounts of strychnine and bromadiolone produced an unnaturally large change in milk pH, compared to brodifacoum and brodifacoum on milk coagulation properties. All three studied rodenticides significantly affected RCT and coagulum strength. The presence of sub-lethal amounts of each individual rodenticide increased RCT by an overall mean of 17% (p < 0.001. Rodenticide contamination decreased coagulum strength by an overall mean of 26% (p < 0.05. Our results suggest that such changes could be noticeable at the farm, thus, potentially averting the mixture of contaminated milk with the tanker supply, and preventing downstream distribution to consumers.

  11. Weighted Flow Algorithms (WFA) for stochastic particle coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVille, R.E.L.; Riemer, N.; West, M.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic particle-resolved methods are a useful way to compute the time evolution of the multi-dimensional size distribution of atmospheric aerosol particles. An effective approach to improve the efficiency of such models is the use of weighted computational particles. Here we introduce particle weighting functions that are power laws in particle size to the recently-developed particle-resolved model PartMC-MOSAIC and present the mathematical formalism of these Weighted Flow Algorithms (WFA) for particle coagulation and growth. We apply this to an urban plume scenario that simulates a particle population undergoing emission of different particle types, dilution, coagulation and aerosol chemistry along a Lagrangian trajectory. We quantify the performance of the Weighted Flow Algorithm for number and mass-based quantities of relevance for atmospheric sciences applications.

  12. Impact of Silver Nanoparticles on Haemolysis, Platelet Function and Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Laloy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs are increasingly used in biomedical applications because of their large antimicrobial spectrum. Data in the literature on the ability of Ag NPs to perform their desired function without eliciting undesirable effects on blood elements are very limited and contradictory. We studied the impact of Ag NPs on erythrocyte integrity, platelet function and blood coagulation. Erythrocyte integrity was assessed by spectrophotometric measurement of haemoglobin release. Platelet adhesion and aggregation was determined by light transmission aggregometry and scanning electron microscopy. The calibrated thrombin generation test was used to study the impact on coagulation cascade. We demonstrated that Ag NPs induced haemolysis. They also increase platelet adhesion without having any impact on platelet aggregation. Finally, they also had procoagulant potential. Bringing all data from these tests together, the no observed effect concentration is 5 μg/mL.

  13. Weighted Flow Algorithms (WFA) for stochastic particle coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVille, R. E. L.; Riemer, N.; West, M.

    2011-09-01

    Stochastic particle-resolved methods are a useful way to compute the time evolution of the multi-dimensional size distribution of atmospheric aerosol particles. An effective approach to improve the efficiency of such models is the use of weighted computational particles. Here we introduce particle weighting functions that are power laws in particle size to the recently-developed particle-resolved model PartMC-MOSAIC and present the mathematical formalism of these Weighted Flow Algorithms (WFA) for particle coagulation and growth. We apply this to an urban plume scenario that simulates a particle population undergoing emission of different particle types, dilution, coagulation and aerosol chemistry along a Lagrangian trajectory. We quantify the performance of the Weighted Flow Algorithm for number and mass-based quantities of relevance for atmospheric sciences applications.

  14. Evaluation of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in the Craniocerebral Traumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Altinel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injury is one of the most important cause of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC. It occurs because of blood loss and hemodilution due to fluid resuscitation. The incidence of trauma associated DIC is mainly higher in the craniocerebral traumas. Even though craniocerebral trauma related DIC is well defined, the pathophysiology has been poorly characterized in the literature. Due to the fact that brain tissue is highly significant for procoagulant molecules, craniocerebral traumas are closely related to DIC. In the current study, 30 patients admitted to emergency room have been considered on the first and fifth day of admission to the hospital for the coagulation tests to evaluate DIC in both two groups. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 488-495

  15. [The pathogenesis of subclinical laminitis in dairy cattle: studies of the hoof status, rumen status and blood coagulation factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandejsky, F; Stanek, C; Schuh, M

    1994-02-01

    In 50 dairy cows of the breed "Braunvieh" (36 heifers, 14 cows) of one herd the claw score was recorded over a period of 2 months before parturition until 6 months after parturition. The claw scores were correlated with the clinical findings, the ruminal function and the blood coagulation factors calcium-thromboplastin (TPZ), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), thrombin time (TZ) and antithrombin III (AT III) evaluated one day and one week after calving. The claw score increased from the first to the second examination, remaining on the same level in the postpartal period. No correlation between the claw scores and the ruminal function was evident. In comparison with a control group, TPZ and PTT were found higher one day and one week after parturition in the experimental group. Blood coagulation factors and claw scores were found uncorrelated.

  16. Markers of inflammation and activation of coagulation are associated with anaemia in antiretroviral-treated HIV disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; Weitz, Jeffrey I; Collins, Gary

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and the presence and type of anaemia among HIV-positive individuals. DESIGN: A cross-sectional...... study. METHODS: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated adults participating in an international HIV trial with haemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) measurements at entry were categorized by presence of anaemia (haemoglobin ≤14 g/dl in men and ≤12 g/dl in women) and, for those...... with anaemia, by type [microcytic (MCV 100 fl)]. We analysed the association between inflammation (IL-6 and hsCRP) and coagulation (D-dimer) and haemoglobin, controlling for demographics (age, race and sex), BMI, HIV plasma RNA levels, CD4⁺ T-cell counts (nadir...

  17. [Neuroendocrine mechanisms of puberty onset].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teinturier, C

    2002-10-01

    An increase in pulsatile release of GnRH is essential for the onset of puberty. However, the mechanism controlling the pubertal increase in GnRH release is still unclear. The GnRH neurosecretory system is already active during the neonatal period but subsequently enters a dormant state by central inhibition in the juvenile period. When this central inhibition is removed or diminished, an increase in GnRH release occurs with increase in synthesis and release of gonadotropins and gonadal steroids, followed by the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics. Recent studies suggest that disinhibition of GnRH neurons from GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) appears to be a critical factor in female rhesus monkey. After central inhibition is removed, increases in stimulatory input from glutamatergic neurons as well as new stimulatory input from norepinephrine and NPY neurons and inhibitory input from beta endorphin neurons appear to control pulsatile GnRH release as well as gonadal steroids. Nonetheless, the most important question still remains: what determines the timing to remove central inhibition? Because many genes are turned on or turned off to establish a complex series of events occurring during puberty, the timing of puberty must be regulated by a master gene or genes, as a part of developmental events.

  18. Effects of gastric bypass followed by a randomized study of physical training on markers of coagulation activation, fibrin clot properties, and fibrinolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolberg, Charlotte Røn; Mundbjerg, Lene Hymøller; Funch-Jensen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    disease risk markers within coagulation activation, fibrin clot properties, and fibrinolysis. Setting: Bariatric center, Hospital of Southwest Jutland, Denmark. Methods: Sixty obese patients underwent RYGB and 6 months after RYGB were randomized to 26 weeks of physical training or a control group...

  19. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Zhi Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information about the potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods: Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results: Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian and four other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins. Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions: To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet

  20. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Moss, Jonathan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information about the potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian) and four other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins). Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet function are

  1. Treatment of the oily produced water (OPW using coagulant mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hosny

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of the oily produced water (OPW before injection into oil reservoirs is necessary to reduce formation damage. This can be done using chemo-physical process to minimize the oil droplets in water. In this respect, this work aims to extract natural polymer (chitosan from shrimp shells and mix it with coagulants (chitosan/carboxy methyl cellulose and chitosan/aluminum sulfate to adsorb oil from OPW. Adsorption experiments were carried out in batch mode firstly to choose the best coagulants in water treatment, also to investigate the effects of pH on the adsorption uptake, adsorbent dosage, coagulant mixture doses and contact time. It was found that the oil removal by chitosan reached 96.35% and 59% at pH = 4 and pH = 9, respectively. The ability of chitosan to remove oil was increased after adding different coagulants CMC/or aluminum sulfate at average mixing time between 30 and 60 min. It was also found that the highest removal efficiency of chitosan/CMC is 99% at (90% chitosan: 10% CMC and chitosan/Al2(SO43 is 85% at (80% chitosan: 20% Al2(SO43. The SEM photographs of chitosan, chitosan/CMC and chitosan/Al2(SO43 mixture as oil removal showed that chitosan/Al2(SO43 lies between chitosan alone and chitosan/CMC mixture. Generally chitosan/CMC characterized significantly by its high ability to adsorb petroleum oil and suspended solids from OPW, additionally, reduces the economic cost of water treatment.

  2. Blood viscosity during coagulation at different shear rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranucci, Marco; Laddomada, Tommaso; Ranucci, Matteo; Baryshnikova, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract During the coagulation process, blood changes from a liquid to a solid gel phase. These changes are reflected by changes in blood viscosity; however, blood viscosity at different shear rates (SR) has not been previously explored during the coagulation process. In this study, we investigated the viscosity changes of whole blood in 10 subjects with a normal coagulation profile, using a cone‐on‐plate viscosimeter. For each subject, three consecutive measurements were performed, at a SR of 20, 40, 80 sec−1. On the basis of the time‐dependent changes in blood viscosity, we identified the gel point (GP), the time‐to‐gel point (TGP), the maximum clot viscosity (MCV), and the clot lysis half‐time (CLH). The TGP significantly (P = 0.0023) shortened for increasing SR, and was significantly associated with the activated partial thromboplastin time at a SR of 20 sec−1 (P = 0.038) and 80 sec−1 (P = 0.019). The MCV was significantly lower at a SR of 80 sec−1 versus 40 sec−1 (P = 0.027) and the CLH significantly (P = 0.048) increased for increasing SR. These results demonstrate that measurement of blood viscosity during the coagulation process offers a number of potentially useful parameters. In particular, the association between the TGP and the activated partial thromboplastin time is an expression of the clotting time (intrinsic and common pathway), and its shortening for increasing SR may be interpreted the well‐known activating effects of SR on platelet activation and thrombin generation. Further studies focused on the TGP under conditions of hypo‐ or hypercoagulability are required to confirm its role in the clinical practice. PMID:24994896

  3. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Moss, Jonathan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-09-01

    Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information of potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John's wort, and valerian) and 4 other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q 10 , glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins). Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John's wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet function are difficult to predict, it is prudent to advise their

  4. Pulsed cold plasma-induced blood coagulation and its pilot application in stanching bleeding during rat hepatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keping, YAN; Qikang, JIN; Chao, ZHENG; Guanlei, DENG; Shengyong, YIN; Zhen, LIU

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents plasma-induced blood coagulation and its pilot application in rat hepatectomy by using a home-made pulsed cold plasma jet. Experiments were conducted on blood coagulation in vitro, the influence of plasma on tissue in vivo, and the pilot application of rat hepatectomy. Experimental results show that the cold plasma can lead to rapid blood coagulation. Compared with the control sample, the plasma-induced agglomerated layer of blood is thicker and denser, and is mostly composed of broken platelets. When the surface of the liver was treated by plasma, the influence of the plasma can penetrate into the liver to a depth of about 500 μm. During the rat hepatectomy, cold plasma was proved to be effective for stanching bleeding on incision. No obvious bleeding was found in the abdominal cavities of all six rats 48 h after the hepatectomy. This implies that cold plasma can be an effective modality to control bleeding during surgical operation.

  5. The Association between Childhood Maltreatment Experiences and the Onset of Maltreatment Perpetration in Young Adulthood Controlling for Proximal and Distal Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Vered; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett; Kohl, Patricia L.

    2015-01-01

    The evidence for association between child maltreatment victimization and later maltreatment perpetration is both scant and mixed. The objective of the present study was to assess the association between childhood maltreatment experiences and later perpetration of maltreatment in young adulthood controlling for proximal young adult functioning, prior youth risk behaviors, and childhood poverty. The study included 6935 low-income children with (n=4470) or without (n=2465) maltreatment reports prior to age 18 followed from ages 1.5 through11 years through early adulthood (ages 18-26). Administrative data from multiple regional and statewide agencies captured reports of maltreatment, family poverty and characteristics, system contact for health, behavioral risks and mental health in adolescence, and concurrent adult functioning (crime, mental health and poverty). After controlling for proximal adult functioning, repeated instances of neglect or mixed type maltreatment remained associated with young adult perpetration. Females and subjects with adolescent history of runaway, violent behaviors or non-violent delinquency also had higher risk. Greater caregiver education remained associated with reduced risk. The study concludes that prevention of recurrent neglect and mixed forms of maltreatment may reduce risk of maltreatment for future generations. Intervening to increase parental education and decrease adolescent risk behaviors may offer additional benefit. PMID:25682732

  6. Chronic sleep deprivation markedly reduces coagulation factor VII expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, Mirko; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Frigato, Elena; Branchini, Alessio; Cavallari, Nicola; Baba, Kenkichi; Contreras-Alcantara, Susana; Ehlen, J. Christopher; Bernardi, Francesco; Paul, Ketema N.; Tosini, Gianluca

    2010-01-01

    Chronic sleep loss, a common feature of human life in industrialized countries, is associated to cardiovascular disorders. Variations in functional parameters of coagulation might contribute to explain this relationship. By exploiting the mouse model and a specifically designed protocol, we demonstrated that seven days of partial sleep deprivation significantly decreases (−30.5%) the thrombin generation potential in plasma evaluated upon extrinsic (TF/FVIIa pathway) but not intrinsic activation of coagulation. This variation was consistent with a decrease (−49.8%) in the plasma activity levels of factor VII (FVII), the crucial physiologicalal trigger of coagulation, which was even more pronounced at the liver mRNA level (−85.7%). The recovery in normal sleep conditions for three days completely restored thrombin generation and FVII activity in plasma. For the first time, we demonstrate that chronic sleep deprivation on its own reduces, in a reversible manner, the FVII expression levels, thus influencing the TF/FVIIa activation pathway efficiency. PMID:20418241

  7. Coagulation of dielectric dust grains due to variable asymmetric charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manweiler, Jerry W.; Armstrong, Thomas P.; Cravens, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    Observational evidence of electrical forces acting significantly on small solids is present for both the modern solar system in Saturn's rings and the ancient solar system in chondritic meteorites. It is likely that grain-grain coagulation rates are affected by the distribution of charges on small grains. Plasma particle impacts and photoelectric effects can provide the charges. It appears that some charging is inevitable and that plasma grain interactions need to be evaluated to determine the size of the effect on coagulation rates. We apply the results of our previous charging work to models of the protoplanetary nebula. It is expected that the protoplanetary nebula is weakly ionized except in certain instances and locations such as: solar flares in the interior, ultraviolet radiation at the outer boundary, and during enhanced luminosity of the star. Since the grains we study are non-conducting and show strong dipole moments in flowing plasma, we modify the geometric cross sections to include the effects of flowing plasma on non-conducting grains with plasma mediated shielding. This paper provides results showing how plasma flow affects the processes involved in charging the grains--total charge and charge distribution. We calculate the modifications to the cross sections and subsequent changes in the coagulation rates

  8. Effect of Centrifuge Temperature on Routine Coagulation Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, Hayrullah; Özdemir, Fatma; Köse, Elif

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cooled and standard centrifuges on the results of coagulation tests to examine the effects of centrifugation temperature. Equal-volume blood samples from each patient were collected at the same time intervals and subjected to standard (25°C) and cooled centrifugation (2-4°C). Subsequently, the prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, and D-dimer values were determined in runs with the same lot numbers in the same coagulation device using the Dia-PT R (PT and INR), Dia-PTT-liquid (aPTT), Dia-FIB (fibrinogen), and Dia-D-dimer kits, respectively. The study enrolled 771 participants. The PT was significantly (p centrifuges were as follows: PT 10.30 versus 10.50 s; PT (INR) 1.04 versus 1.09 s; APTT 28.90 versus 29.40 s; fibrinogen 321.5 versus 322.1 mg/dL; and D-dimer 179.5 versus 168.7 µg FEU/mL. There were significant differences (p centrifuges. Centrifuge temperature can have a significant effect on the results of coagulation tests. However, broad and specific disease-based studies are needed. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. The Mast Cell, Contact, and Coagulation System Connection in Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Guilarte

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis is the most severe form of allergic reaction, resulting from the effect of mediators and chemotactic substances released by activated cells. Mast cells and basophils are considered key players in IgE-mediated human anaphylaxis. Beyond IgE-mediated activation of mast cells/basophils, further mechanisms are involved in the occurrence of anaphylaxis. New insights into the potential relevance of pathways other than mast cell and basophil degranulation have been unraveled, such as the activation of the contact and the coagulation systems. Mast cell heparin released upon activation provides negatively charged surfaces for factor XII (FXII binding and auto-activation. Activated FXII, the initiating serine protease in both the contact and the intrinsic coagulation system, activates factor XI and prekallikrein, respectively. FXII-mediated bradykinin (BK formation has been proven in the human plasma of anaphylactic patients as well as in experimental models of anaphylaxis. Moreover, the severity of anaphylaxis is correlated with the increase in plasma heparin, BK formation and the intensity of contact system activation. FXII also activates plasminogen in the fibrinolysis system. Mast cell tryptase has been shown to participate in fibrinolysis through plasmin activation and by facilitating the degradation of fibrinogen. Some usual clinical manifestations in anaphylaxis, such as angioedema or hypotension, or other less common, such as metrorrhagia, may be explained by the direct effect of the activation of the coagulation and contact system driven by mast cell mediators.

  10. Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD(5) removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater.

  11. Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater. PMID:22768233

  12. Microwave coagulation therapy and drug injection to treat splenic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoming; Sun, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jie; Dong, Lei; Mu, Nannan; Liu, Xiaohong; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xiaofei; Liang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares the efficacy of 915- and 2450-MHz contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)-guided percutaneous microwave coagulation with that of CEUS-guided thrombin injection for the treatment of trauma-induced spleen hemorrhage. In a canine splenic artery hemorrhage model with two levels of arterial diameter (A, microwaves and drug injection. Therapy efficacy was measured by comparing bleeding rate, hemostatic time, bleeding index, bleeding volume, and pathology. The most efficient technique was CEUS-guided 915-MHz percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy in terms of action time and total blood loss. The success rate of the 915-MHz microwave group was higher than that of the 2450-MHz microwave and the drug injection groups (except A level, P microwave group than those in the 2450-MHz microwave and drug injection groups (P microwave group, but pathologic changes of light injury could be seen in the other groups. The present study provides evidence that microwave coagulation therapy is more efficient than thrombin injection for the treatment of splenic hemorrhage. Furthermore, treatment with 915-MHz microwaves stops bleeding more rapidly and generates a wider cauterization zone than does treatment with 2450-MHz microwaves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhancement of sedimentation and coagulation with static magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Marcin; Dębowski, Marcin; Hajduk, Anna; Rusanowska, Paulina

    2017-11-01

    The static magnetic field can be an alternative method for wastewater treatment. It has been proved that this physical factor, accelerates the biochemical processes, catalyzes advanced oxidation, intensifies anaerobic and aerobic processes or reduces swelling of activated sludge. There are also reports proving the positive impact of the static magnetic field on the coagulation and sedimentation, as well as the conditioning and dewatering of sludge. In order to be applied in larger scale the published results should be verified and confirmed. In the studies, the enhancement of sedimentation by the static magnetic field was observed. The best sedimentation was noted in the experiment, where magnetizers were placed on activated sludge bioreactor and secondary settling tank. No effect of the static magnetic field on coagulation with the utilization of PIX 113 was observed. However, the static magnetic field enhanced coagulation with the utilization of PAX-XL9. The results suggest that increased sedimentation of colloids and activated sludge, can in practice mean a reduction in the size of the necessary equipment for sedimentation with an unchanged efficiency of the process.

  14. Numerical Simulation of the Coagulation Dynamics of Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bodnár

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of platelet activation and blood coagulation is quite complex and not yet completely understood. Recently, a phenomenological meaningful model of blood coagulation and clot formation in flowing blood that extends existing models to integrate biochemical, physiological and rheological factors, has been developed. The aim of this paper is to present results from a computational study of a simplified version of this coupled fluid-biochemistry model. A generalized Newtonian model with shear-thinning viscosity has been adopted to describe the flow of blood. To simulate the biochemical changes and transport of various enzymes, proteins and platelets involved in the coagulation process, a set of coupled advection–diffusion–reaction equations is used. Three-dimensional numerical simulations are carried out for the whole model in a straight vessel with circular cross-section, using a finite volume semi-discretization in space, on structured grids, and a multistage scheme for time integration. Clot formation and growth are investigated in the vicinity of an injured region of the vessel wall. These are preliminary results aimed at showing the validation of the model and of the numerical code.

  15. Removal of arsenic from contaminated water using coagulation enhanced microfiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchek, K.; Velicogna, D.; Dumouchel, A.; Wong, W.P.; Brown, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    Results of an innovative arsenic removal process were presented. The process is based on a combination of coagulation and microfiltration processes. Coagulation-Enhanced Microfiltration (CEMF) may eventually become a full-scale commercial technology. This study focused on the process with respect to groundwater treatment because of the importance of arsenic contamination in drinking water. Most experiments were bench-scale using tap water spiked with arsenic. Ferric chloride, which is commonly used in arsenic removal processes was also added. In addition, some tests were conducted on actual arsenic-contaminated water from the effluent treatment plant of a former mining site in Ontario. Results indicate a high arsenic removal efficiency in both spiked and actual water solutions. The microfiltration significantly reduced the level of arsenic in the treatment. This paper described the characteristics of membrane separation. It also presented information regarding chemically enhanced membrane filtration and coagulation-enhanced microfiltration. Bench-scale tests were conducted with both tubular membranes and with immersed capillary membranes. The effect of iron to arsenic ratios on the effectiveness of the system was also tested. It was recommended that future research should include a field study of the process on a pilot-scale to optimize process parameters and to accurately determine the cost of the process. 16 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

  16. The effectiveness of manual-guided, problem-solving-based self-learning programme for family caregivers of people with recent-onset psychosis: A randomised controlled trial with 6-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wai Tong; Yip, Annie L K; Liu, Justina Y W; McMaster, Terry W

    2016-07-01

    Family intervention for psychotic disorders is an integral part of psychiatric treatment with positive effects on patients' mental state and relapse rate. However, the effect of such family-based intervention on caregivers' psychological distress and well-being, especially in non-Western countries, has received comparatively much less attention. To test the effects of guided problem-solving-based manual-guided self-learning programme for family caregivers of adults with recent-onset psychosis over a 6-month period of follow-up, when compared with those in usual family support service. A single-centre randomised controlled trial, which was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02391649), with a repeated-measures, two-arm (parallel-group) design. One main psychiatric outpatient clinic in the New Territories of Hong Kong. A random sample of 116 family caregiverss of adult outpatients with recent-onset psychosis. Following pre-test measurement, caregivers were assigned randomly to one of two study groups: a 5-month self-help, problem-solving-based manual-guided self-learning (or bibliotherapy) programme (in addition to usual care), or usual family support service only. Varieties of patient and caregiver health outcomes were assessed and compared at baseline and at 1-week and 6-month post-intervention. One hundred and eleven (96%) caregivers completed the 6-month follow-up (two post-tests); 55 of them (95%) completed ≥4 modules and attended ≥2 review sessions (i.e., 75% of the intervention). The family participants' mean age was about 38 years and over 64% of them were female and patient's parent or spouse. Multivariate analyses of variance indicated that the manual-guided self-learning group reported significantly greater improvements than the usual care group in family burden [F(1,110)=6.21, p=0.006] and caregiving experience [F(1,110)=6.88, p=0.0004], and patients' psychotic symptoms [F(1,110)=6.25, p=0.0003], functioning [F(1,110)=7.01, p=0.0005] and number of

  17. OPTIMISATION OF HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA AS A NATURAL COAGULANT TO TREAT CONGO RED IN WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUN Y. YONG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of coagulation is commonly practiced in water and wastewater treatment to reduce level of dissolved chemical, turbidity and so on with the usage of coagulant. Aluminium sulphate (alum is the most commonly used coagulant, however, recent studies show that residual aluminium in drinking water and sludge may induce Alzheimer’s disease and environmental issues. Natural coagulant which is environmental friendly and non-toxic is developed as an alternative to overcome these issues. In this work, Hibiscus Sabdariffa was studied as natural coagulant to treat dye wastewater containing Congo red. The seeds were extracted with different solvent such as distilled water, 0.5 M NaCl and 0.05 M NaOH to extract the coagulation agent. The working parameters were optimised using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. 0.5 M NaCl was found to have highest colour removal of 95.1 % among the solvents. In addition, Hibiscus Sabdariffa seed was found to be an effective coagulant that has 91.2 % colour removal at the optimal working condition of pH 2, 190 mg/L coagulant dosage at 400 ppm of dye concentration. It was also been identified that the performance of natural coagulant is comparable with conventional coagulant, aluminium sulphate with colour removal of 91.2 % and 92.3 % respectively.

  18. Condutivity effect in electro-coagulation-flotation applied to physico-chemical wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Cuba Terán

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the effect of conductivity on the simultaneous applicability of water electrolysis , chemical coagulation and flotation fundamentals in the treatment of wastewater with large amounts of suspended matter, characterizing electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF . Results from experiments carried out in a pilot study implanted and operated in the Laboratory of Environment Control (LCA, at the State University of Campinas in Limeira are presented. ECF was developed in an electrolytic reactor where water passed through aluminum electrodes connected to a power supply. Electrochemical reactions promoted Al3+ ions emission from anode, neutralizing repulsive pollutant forces, forming flakes. An evolution of micro hydrogen bubbles occurred, carrying the flakes to the top of the solution, causing flotation and polluter removal. System monitoring aimed at reaching optimal operation conditions regarding time of liquid permanence in the reactor, influence of the NaC1 addition on the increase of affluent conductivity, and influence of polarity inversion over cathodic passivation. Results from carwash wastewater treatment reported 86% efficiency rate for color, 90,15% for turbidity and 85,43% for oil and axle-grease removal.

  19. Behavior of aerosols undergoing Brownian coagulation, Brownian diffusion and gravitational settling in a closed chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Kikuo; Kousaka, Yasuo; Yoshida, Tetsuo

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of aerosols undergoing Brownian coagulation. Brownian diffusion and gravitational settling in a closed chamber was studied by solving the basic equation, the so-called population balance equation, numerically for a polydisperse aerosol system and analytically for a monodisperse system, and then the results were examined by experiment. In solving the basic equation, two dimensionless parameters, which are determined by the initial properties of an aerosol and the chamber dimension and also characterize the relative effects of Brownian coagulation and Brownian diffusion to gravitational settling, were introduced in order to generalize the behavior under arbitrary conditions. The calculated results, the time-dependent changes in particle number concentration and particle size distribution for a polydisperse system, were presented graphically by using the above two parameters. And further using these parameters, the domains of the three controlling factors were mapped to show the extent of each effect of these factors under various conditions for a monodisperse system. Some of the calculated results were compared with the experimental results obtained by the ultramicroscopic size analysis previously developed by the authors. (auth.)

  20. Coagulation measurement from whole blood using vibrating optical fiber in a disposable cartridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaraş, Yusuf Samet; Gündüz, Ali Bars; Sağlam, Gökhan; Ölçer, Selim; Civitçi, Fehmi; Baris, İbrahim; Yaralioğlu, Göksenin; Urey, Hakan

    2017-11-01

    In clinics, blood coagulation time measurements are performed using mechanical measurements with blood plasma. Such measurements are challenging to do in a lab-on-a-chip (LoC) system using a small volume of whole blood. Existing LoC systems use indirect measurement principles employing optical or electrochemical methods. We developed an LoC system using mechanical measurements with a small volume of whole blood without requiring sample preparation. The measurement is performed in a microfluidic channel where two fibers are placed inline with a small gap in between. The first fiber operates near its mechanical resonance using remote magnetic actuation and immersed in the sample. The second fiber is a pick-up fiber acting as an optical sensor. The microfluidic channel is engineered innovatively such that the blood does not block the gap between the vibrating fiber and the pick-up fiber, resulting in high signal-to-noise ratio optical output. The control plasma test results matched well with the plasma manufacturer's datasheet. Activated-partial-thromboplastin-time tests were successfully performed also with human whole blood samples, and the method is proven to be effective. Simplicity of the cartridge design and cost of readily available materials enable a low-cost point-of-care device for blood coagulation measurements. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  1. Effect of Sugammadex on Postoperative Bleeding and Coagulation Parameters After Septoplasty: A Randomized Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taş, Nilay; Korkmaz, Hakan; Yağan, Özgür; Korkmaz, Mukadder

    2015-01-01

    Backround Sugammadex is a reversal agent with well known advantages but it’s effects on haemostasis and bleeding have been a topic of interest. Septoplasty is a common surgical procedure with postoperative respiratory complications and bleeding. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of sugammadex on postoperative coagulation parameters and bleeding after septoplasty procedure. Material/Methods In this randomized controlled study, fifty patients were grouped into two groups; neostigmine (Group N) vs. sugammadex (Group S). For the evaluation of PT, aPTT and INR, blood samples were taken for at the postoperative 120th minutes and alteration of these values with respect to preoperative values were documented. Postoperative bleeding was measured by evaluating the amount of blood absorbed on the nasal tip dressing during 3 hours postoperatively. Results Postoperative bleeding amount was significantly higher in the Group S compared to Group N (p=0.013). No significant difference was observed between two groups according to coagulation parameters (PT; p=0.953, aPTT; p=0.734, INR; p=0.612). Conclusions Sugammadex was associated with higher amount of postoperative bleeding than neostigmine in septoplasty patients. In surgical procedures having high risk of bleeding the safety of sugammadex need to be verified. PMID:26271275

  2. Preliminary clinical evaluation of a noninvasive device for the measurement of coagulability in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Yaffa; Werber, Moshe M; Fine, Ilya; Kemelman, Polina

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of the noninvasive assessment of blood 'coagulability' (the tendency to coagulate) has been tested by using a novel device, the Thrombo-Monitor. It monitors, by using the principles of near infra-red (NIR) dynamic light scattering, the tendency of blood to create clots. The Thrombo-Monitor observes the very initial changes of blood viscosity, which occurs due to the temporarily induced stasis of capillary blood of the finger. One hundred and fifteen patients aged >65 years (matched by age and sex) participated in the study. Patients were initially divided into four groups based on the patient's medical therapy. The study groups were: warfarin, enoxaparin, aspirin and/or clopidogrel, and a control group. The medications were given according to the patient's comorbidities (eg, atrial fibrillation [AF], status post pulmonary embolism [S/p PE], status post cerebrovascular accident [S/p CVA]). The Thrombo-Monitor Index (TMI) is a noninvasive index, derived on the basis of laboratory test results of international normalized ratio (INR) and prothrombin time (PT) values. For the group of patients who were treated only with warfarin, TMI was adjusted by using the jackknife statistical approach to create maximum correlation and linearity with INR and PT values that ranged from 1.1 to 5.0. For all warfarin patients (N = 35) the TMI was found to have a good correlation with INR and PT values (R(2) = 0.64, P index is significantly correlated with INR and PT values.

  3. A detailed aerosol mixing state model for investigating interactions between mixing state, semivolatile partitioning, and coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A new method for describing externally mixed particles, the Detailed Aerosol Mixing State (DAMS representation, is presented in this study. This novel method classifies aerosols by both composition and size, using a user-specified mixing criterion to define boundaries between compositional populations. Interactions between aerosol mixing state, semivolatile partitioning, and coagulation are investigated with a Lagrangian box model that incorporates the DAMS approach. Model results predict that mixing state affects the amount and types of semivolatile organics that partition to available aerosol phases, causing external mixtures to produce a more size-varying composition than internal mixtures. Both coagulation and condensation contribute to the mixing of emitted particles, producing a collection of multiple compositionally distinct aerosol populations that exists somewhere between the extremes of a strictly external or internal mixture. The selection of mixing criteria has a significant impact on the size and type of individual populations that compose the modeled aerosol mixture. Computational demands for external mixture modeling are significant and can be controlled by limiting the number of aerosol populations used in the model.

  4. Results based on 124 cases of breast cancer and 97 controls from Taiwan suggest that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP309) in the MDM2 gene promoter is associated with earlier onset and increased risk of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ying-Fang; Leu, Jyh-Der; Chen, Su-Mei; Lin, I-Feng; Lee, Yi-Jang

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that the single nucleotide polymorphism 309 (SNP309, T -> G) in the promoter region of the MDM2 gene is important for tumor development; however, with regards to breast cancer, inconsistent associations have been reported worldwide. It is speculated that these conflicting results may have arisen due to different patient subgroups and ethnicities studied. For the first time, this study explores the effect of the MDM2 SNP309 genotype on Taiwanese breast cancer patients. Genomic DNA was obtained from the whole blood of 124 breast cancer patients and 97 cancer-free healthy women living in Taiwan. MDM2 SNP309 genotyping was carried out by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay. The multivariate logistic regression and the Kaplan-Meier method were used for analyzing the risk association and significance of age at diagnosis among different MDM2 SNP309 genotypes, respectively. Compared to the TT genotype, an increased risk association with breast cancer was apparent for the GG genotype (OR = 3.05, 95% CI = 1.04 to 8.95), and for the TG genotype (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 0.90 to 5.00) after adjusting for age, cardiovascular disease/diabetes, oral contraceptive usage, and body mass index, which exhibits significant difference between cases and controls. Furthermore, the average ages at diagnosis for breast cancer patients were 53.6, 52 and 47 years for those harboring TT, TG and GG genotypes, respectively. A significant difference in median age of onset for breast cancer between GG and TT+TG genotypes was obtained by the log-rank test (p = 0.0067). Findings based on the current sample size suggest that the MDM2 SNP309 GG genotype may be associated with both the risk of breast cancer and an earlier age of onset in Taiwanese women

  5. Argon plasma coagulation and hyperbaric oxygen therapy in chronic radiation proctopathy, effectiveness and impact on tissue toxicity Argón plasma y oxígeno hiperbárico para el control de la rectorragia crónica secundaria a la proctopatía por radiación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Álvaro-Villegas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: chronic radiation proctopathy (CRP is associated with recurrent rectal bleeding and transfusional requirements. Argon plasma coagulation (APC and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HOT have been shown to be effective in the control of CRP. No prospective comparisons have been reported between these treatments. Aim: the aim was to evaluate the effectiveness, safety and impact on tissue toxicity of APC compared to HOT in patients with CRP. Material and methods: a prospective study for evaluating treatment response was conducted. Patients with cervical cancer and CRP with rectal bleeding were recruited. They had not received previous treatment. Collected data included: demographics, previous radiation dosage, duration and severity of rectal bleeding. Hemoglobin, transfusional requirements, and tissue toxicity (SOMA LENT questionnaire at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 months follow up were recorded. Results: thirty-one patients were included, 14 in the APC group and 17 in the HOT group. No response was noted in 13 and 18% of patients in the APC and HOT group respectively (p = NS. At the 1 and 2 months follow-up, the APC group showed a significantly better response in terms of transfusional requirements (0.6 vs. 3.4 and 0.7 vs. 2.5 and tissue toxicity score (5.3 vs. 8.6 and 3.8 vs. 7.248. After 3 months, both groups showed further improvement in all parameters without significant differences between them. Conclusions: APC and HOT were effective, safe and decreased the tissue toxicity scores in patients with CRP. However, response rate was higher and faster in the APC group.Introducción: la proctopatía por radiación (PPR se asocia con rectorragía recurrente y requerimientos de trasfusiones. La coagulación con argón plasma (APC y la terapia con oxígeno hiperbárico (HOT han sido efectivas en el control de la PPR. No hay estudios prospectivos comparativos entre ambas técnicas. Objetivo: el objetivo del estudio es evaluar la efectividad

  6. Contextual risks linking parents' adolescent marijuana use to offspring onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C R; Tiberio, Stacey S; Capaldi, Deborah M

    2015-09-01

    We studied the extent to which parent marijuana use in adolescence is associated with marijuana use onset in offspring through contextual family and peer risks. Fathers assessed (n=93) since childhood, their 146 offspring (n=83 girls), and offspring's mothers (n=85) participated in a longitudinal study. Using discrete-time survival analysis, fathers' (prospectively measured) and mothers' (retrospective) adolescent marijuana use was used to predict offspring marijuana use onset through age 19 years. Parental monitoring, child exposure to marijuana use, peer deviance, peer marijuana use, and perceptions of parent disapproval of child use were measured before or concurrent with onset. Parents' adolescent marijuana use was significantly associated with less monitoring, offspring alcohol use, the peer behaviors, exposure to adult marijuana use, and perceptions of less parent disapproval. Male gender and the two peer behaviors were positively associated with children's marijuana use onset, controlling for their alcohol use. Parents' adolescent marijuana use had a significant indirect effect on child onset through children's deviant peer affiliations and a composite contextual risk score. Parents' histories of marijuana use may contribute indirectly to children's marijuana use onset through their influence on the social environments children encounter; specifically, those characterized by more liberal use norms, exposure to marijuana use and deviant and marijuana-using peers, and less adult supervision. Given that alcohol use onset was controlled, findings suggest that the contextual factors identified here confer unique risk for child marijuana use onset. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Emotional Modulation of Cognition in Recent Onset Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dieleman (Sieds)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The current thesis describes a number of important findings on the interaction between emotion and cognition in male recent onset schizophrenia patients. In healthy controls a general effect of emotional expressions on sustained attention is that it

  8. Interactions of PLGA nanoparticles with blood components: protein adsorption, coagulation, activation of the complement system and hemolysis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaguera, Cristina; Calderó, Gabriela; Mitjans, Montserrat; Vinardell, Maria Pilar; Solans, Conxita; Vauthier, Christine

    2015-04-14

    The intravenous administration of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles has been widely reported as a promising alternative for delivery of drugs to specific cells. However, studies on their interaction with diverse blood components using different techniques are still lacking. Therefore, in the present work, the interaction of PLGA nanoparticles with blood components was described using different complementary techniques. The influence of different encapsulated compounds/functionalizing agents on these interactions was also reported. It is worth noting that all these techniques can be simply performed, without the need for highly sophisticated apparatus or skills. Moreover, their transference to industries and application of quality control could be easily performed. Serum albumin was adsorbed onto all types of tested nanoparticles. The saturation concentration was dependent on the nanoparticle size. In contrast, fibrinogen aggregation was dependent on nanoparticle surface charge. The complement activation was also influenced by the nanoparticle functionalization; the presence of a functionalizing agent increased complement activation, while the addition of an encapsulated compound only caused a slight increase. None of the nanoparticles influenced the coagulation cascade at low concentrations. However, at high concentrations, cationized nanoparticles did activate the coagulation cascade. Interactions of nanoparticles with erythrocytes did not reveal any hemolysis. Interactions of PLGA nanoparticles with blood proteins depended both on the nanoparticle properties and the protein studied. Independent of their loading/surface functionalization, PLGA nanoparticles did not influence the coagulation cascade and did not induce hemolysis of erythrocytes; they could be defined as safe concerning induction of embolization and cell lysis.

  9. Self-production of tissue factor-coagulation factor VII complex by ovarian cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yokota, N; Koizume, S; Miyagi, E; Hirahara, F; Nakamura, Y; Kikuchi, K; Ruf, W; Sakuma, Y; Tsuchiya, E; Miyagi, Y

    2009-01-01

    Background: Thromboembolic events are a major complication in ovarian cancer patients. Tissue factor (TF) is frequently overexpressed in ovarian cancer tissue and correlates with intravascular thrombosis. TF binds to coagulation factor VII (fVII), changing it to its active form, fVIIa. This leads to activation of the extrinsic coagulation cascade. fVII is produced by the liver and believed to be supplied from blood plasma at the site of coagulation. However, we recently showed that ovarian ca...

  10. Modelling of the Blood Coagulation Cascade in an In Vitro Flow System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Marianne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Efendiev, Messoud A.

    2010-01-01

    We derive a mathematical model of a part of the blood coagulation cascade set up in a perfusion experiment. Our purpose is to simulate the influence of blood flow and diffusion on the blood coagulation pathway. The resulting model consists of a system of partial differential equations taking...... and flow equations, which guarantee non negative concentrations at all times. The criteria is applied to the model of the blood coagulation cascade....

  11. Treatment of sugar beet extraction juice stillage by natural coagulants extracted from common bean

    OpenAIRE

    Prodanović Jelena M.; Šćiban Marina B.; Antov Mirjana G.; Kukić Dragana V.; Vasić Vesna M.

    2015-01-01

    Distillery wastewaters have a great pollution potential, and pollution caused by them is one of the most critical environmental issues. This study is concerned with the coagulation efficiency of a new, environmental friendly, natural coagulant extracted from common bean seeds in the primary treatment of distillery wastewater in the bioethanol production from sugar beet juice. Active coagulation components were extracted from ground seeds of common bean with...

  12. Comparative thermometric coagulation studies of plasmas from normal outbred Swiss Webster mice and persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, V C; Wyatt, C R; Damian, R T

    1979-06-01

    The functional capabilities of a thermometric clot-timer have been demonstrated in a comparative study of human and mouse plasma coagulation. The influence of some variables on coagulation times of mouse and human plasmas were examined in activated partial thromboplastin time, one-stage prothrombin time, and Russell's viper venom time assays. Mouse plasma coagulation times were generally shorter and more reproducible than those of human plasma. Optimal assay conditions are also described.

  13. Influence of ionizing radiation and 12-crown-4 on coagulation system components of rat blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratenko, R.Yi.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of 12-crown-4 and ionizing radiation on some components of blood coagulation system: Ca 2+ contents and prostaglandin concentrations in the blood serum, and erythrocyte contents in the blood plasma are studied. The influence of 12-crown-4 and ionizing radiation increases the coagulational properties of erythrocytes. The synergism of ionizing irradiation and 12-crown-4 influence blood coagulation process points out at the occurrence of radiomimetic properties of the latter

  14. Theory of Mind differences in older patients with early-onset and late-onset paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets-Janssen, M M J; Meesters, P D; Comijs, H C; Eikelenboom, P; Smit, J H; de Haan, L; Beekman, A T F; Stek, M L

    2013-11-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is considered an essential element of social cognition. In younger schizophrenia patients, ToM impairments have extensively been demonstrated. It is not clear whether similar impairments can be found in older schizophrenia patients and if these impairments differ between older patients with early-onset and late-onset schizophrenia. Theory of Mind abilities were assessed using the Hinting Task in 15 older patients (age 60 years and older) with early-onset paranoid schizophrenia, 15 older patients with late-onset paranoid schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls. ANCOVA was performed to test differences between groups. Analyses were adjusted for level of education. Effect sizes, partial eta squared (ε(2) ), were computed as an indication of the clinical relevance of the findings. Patients with early-onset schizophrenia scored significantly lower on the Hinting Task (mean 16.1; SD 4.3) compared with patients with late-onset schizophrenia (mean 18.6; SD 1.5) and with healthy controls (mean 19.0; SD 1.4). The effect size of this difference was large (ε(2)  = 0.2). These results suggest that ToM functioning may be a protective factor modulating the age at onset of psychosis. Further studies into the relationship between social cognition and onset age of psychosis are warranted. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Circadian Variation Of Stroke Onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamath vasantha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal variations in various physiological and biochemical functions and certain pathological events like myocardial infarction and stroke have been documented. We studied prospectively one hundred and seven patients of acute onset stroke confirmed by computed tomography for the exact time of onset, risk factors and type of stroke. Patients who were unclear of time of onset and with a diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis or sub-arachnoid hemorrhage were excluded. Infarction was detected in 71 patients and hemorrhage in 33 patients. Men out numbered women (1:6:1. Hypertension was more frequent in hemorrhage in the morning time (5 AM-12 noon and more infarction between 12-6 pm. However there was no relation between the time of onset of stroke and various risk-factors of stroke.

  16. Changes of plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels during peri-operative period in patients undergoing laser photo-coagulation of greater saphenous varicosities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Taihan; Wang Chunxi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-α during peri-operative period in patients undergoing laser photocoagulation of greater saphenous varicosities. Methods: Plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels were determined with RIA before operation and 1, 3, 7, 14 days post-operatively in 110 patients with greater saphenous vein varicosity undergoing different forms of treatment (intravascular laser photo-coagulation 43, photo-coagulation combined with venous valve repair 35, high ligation and segmental stripping 32). Skin trophic disturbances were present in 56 of the 110 patients. Plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels were also measured in 33 controls. Results: The plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels in patients with skin trophic disturbances were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), while levels in patients without skin lesions were not much changed. The plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels were increased at first and dropped later to approaching pre-operative value by d14 in all the 110 patients after operation, however, the amount of increase was least and the normalization was also soonest in the simple photo-coagulation group, the reverse was true for the conventional operation group. Conclusion: Laser photo-coagulation is least stressful among the three types of operation and magnitude of changes of plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels correctly reflects the intensity of stress. (authors)

  17. Removal of natural organic matter in drinking water treatment by coagulation: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpää, Mika; Ncibi, Mohamed Chaker; Matilainen, Anu; Vepsäläinen, Mikko

    2018-01-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is a complex matrix of organic substances produced in (or channeled to) aquatic ecosystems via various biological, geological and hydrological cycles. Such variability is posing a serious challenge to most water treatment technologies, especially the ones designed to treat drinking water supplies. Lately, in addition to the fluctuating composition of NOM, a substantial increase of its concentration in fresh waters, and also municipal wastewater effluents, has been reported worldwide, which justifies the urgent need to develop highly efficient and versatile water treatment processes. Coagulation is among the most applied processes for water and wastewater treatment. The application of coagulation to remove NOM from drinking water supplies has received a great deal of attention from researchers around the world because it was efficient and helped avoiding the formation of disinfection by products (DBPs). Nonetheless, with the increased fluctuation of NOM in water (concentration and composition), the efficiency of conventional coagulation was substantially reduced, hence the need to develop enhanced coagulation processes by optimizing the operating conditions (mainly the amount coagulants and pH), developing more efficient inorganic or organic coagulants, as well as coupling coagulation with other water treatment technologies. In the present review, recent research studies dealing with the application of coagulation for NOM removal from drinking water supplies are presented and compared. In addition, integration schemes combining coagulation and other water treatment processes are presented, including membrane filtration, oxidation, adsorption and others processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coagulation mechanism of salt solution-extracted active component in Moringa oleifera seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, T; Baes, A U; Nishijima, W; Okada, M

    2001-03-01

    This study focuses on the coagulation mechanism by the purified coagulant solution (MOC-SC-PC) with the coagulation active component extracted from M. oleifera seeds using salt solution. The addition of MOC-SC-PC tap water formed insoluble matters. This formation was responsible for kaolin coagulation. On the other hand, insoluble matters were not formed when the MOC-SC-PC was added into distilled water. The formation was affected by Ca2+ or other bivalent cations which may connect each molecule of the active coagulation component in MOC-SC-PC and form a net-like structure. The coagulation mechanism of MOC-SC-PC seemed to be an enmeshment of Kaolin by the insoluble matters with the net-like structure. In case of Ca2+ ion (bivalent cations), at least 0.2 mM was necessary for coagulation at 0.3 mgC l-1 dose of MOC-SC-PC. Other coagulation mechanisms like compression of double layer, interparticle bridging or charge neutralization were not responsible for the coagulation by MOC-SC-PC.

  19. Coagulation mechanism of salt solution-extracted active component in Moringa oleifera seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Baes, Aloysius U.; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2001-01-01

    This study focuses on the coagulation mechanism by the purified coagulant solution (MOC-SC-PC) with the coagulation active component extracted from M. oleifera seeds using salt solution. The addition of MOC-SC-PC into tap water formed insoluble matters. The formation was responsible for kaolin coagulation. On the other hand, insoluble matters were not formed when the MOC-SC-PC was added into distilled water. The formation was affected by Ca2+ or other bivalent cations which may connect each m...

  20. Application of Moringa Oleifera Seed Powder for Iron (III) Coagulation on Local Water Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Prasetyaningtyas, Fadillah Utami; Rumhayati, Barlah; Masruri, Masruri

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to know the effect of the use of powder moringa seed to coagulant mass and coagulation process, and its effectiveness to increase the quality of pure water. This research uses factorial research design and statistic test MANOVA. To analyse water quality, the researcher uses Fe parameter.  A graphic of coagulant mass and time for each parameter is used to analyse the data. Based on the research result, the uses of moringa seed as coagulant in each 300 mL mineral water gives ...

  1. Psychiatric morbidity develops after onset of pediatric multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangsberg Boesen, Magnus; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Uldall, Peter Vilhelm

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) affects life at a stage vital for social and educational achievements and psychiatric co-morbidity is common after MS onset. Few studies have examined psychiatric morbidity before MS onset. METHODS: In this nationwide study, detailed case...... with psychiatric morbidity as exposure and MS as outcome, and a matched cohort study with MS as exposure and psychiatric co-morbidity as outcome. Hazard ratios (HR) including 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox regression. RESULTS: We identified 212 children with MS and 1060 controls....... No association between psychiatric morbidity and the rate of MS was found before MS onset. After MS onset, children with MS had two times higher hazard for psychiatric co-morbidity compared with children without MS (HR=2.0; 95% CI=1.3-3.1; pPsychiatric morbidity seems to commence after MS...

  2. Different Profile of Serum Leptin between Early Onset and Late Onset Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Salimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study was designed to clarify the role of leptin and adiponectin in preeclampsia (PE pathogenesis and different subtypes of preeclampsia. Method. This case control study was performed in 45 PE patients and 45 healthy controls matched for age, BMI, and ethnicity. Serum leptin and adiponectin levels were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results. Maternal serum leptin and adiponectin were significantly higher in PE women than controls. Serum leptin was elevated in early onset preeclampsia (EOPE and late onset preeclampsia (LOPE compared to controls. Among PE patients, serum leptin was higher in EOPE than LOPE women. However, serum adiponectin was not different between EOPE and LOPE women. The serum leptin was significantly higher in severe PE than mild PE. The serum adiponectin was significantly elevated in severe PE compared to controls. Significant positive correlation was observed between leptin and adiponectin and also between leptin and BMI in controls. Moreover significant positive correlation was observed between adiponectin and BMI in PE patients and controls. Conclusion. The present study showed that serum leptin level may play a significant role as a biomarker to differentiate early and late onset PE and also its relation to BMI and severity of disease.

  3. Comparison of the Performance of Corn Starch Coagulant Aid Accompany with Alum, Polyaluminum Chloride and Ferric Chloride Coagulants in Turbidity Removal from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mosleh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most important process in water treatment plant is coagulation and flocculation. Regular chemical coagulant which used in Iran are aluminum sulfate (Alum and ferric chloride. Chemical coagulants have hazardous effect on human health and their cost is high for developing country. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the comparison of chemical coagulants accompany with corn starch as a coagulant aid, for the turbidity removal from water. Methods: This study was accomplished in pilot-scale with synthetic turbid water using clay. In this research, initial turbidity of 250 and 500 NTU was experimented. Chemical coagulant dose during the experiment was 1, 2 and 5 ppm and natural coagulant dose was 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 ppm. Results: The results showed that maximum removal efficiency of turbidity in initial turbidity of 250 NTU belonged to poly aluminum chloride with 5 ppm dosage and corn starch with 0.7 ppm dosage which removed and reduced the initial turbidity to 98.48% and 3.73 NTU, respectively. Moreover, in initial turbidity of 500 NTU the maximum removal efficiency was 98.52% which belonged to ferric chloride and corn starch (5 and 0.7 ppm respectively and reduced the initial turbidity to 7.4 NTU. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that using natural coagulant aid reduce the chemical coagulant consumption, and also does not have significant effect on pH range and reduce the health risks. While huge amount of required polyelectrolytes for water treatment plant imported to the country and the production of corn starch in our country is high, it is hope that the results of this project can be used in industrial scale.

  4. Analysis of the Factors Associated with Abnormal Coagulation and Prognosis
in Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua LI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis is frequently encountered among cancer patients. Such tumors are associated with high risk of invasion, metastases, and negative final outcomes. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC accounts for approximately 80% to 85% of all lung malignancies. This study aims to investigate the prognostic value of blood coagulation tests for NSCLC and provide a reference to patients on the prevention and treatment of thrombophilia. Methods Data were collected from 604 cases of hospitalized patients with histologically confirmed NSCLC from January 2009 to December 2012 at the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University. Data included the related indexes of coagulation function in patients before treatment [(i.e., prothrombin time (PT, prothrombin time activity (PTA, international normalized ratio (INR, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, fibrinogen (Fib, D-dimer, and platelet count], as well as sex, age, pathological type, TNM stage, and lymph node status. Fifty control subjects without cancer were included in the analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted by using SPSS 13.0 software. Results The plasma level of all coagulation tests including D-dimer, Fib, PT, APTT, INR, and platelet counts revealed statistically significant differences between the patient and control group (P<0.001 for all variables; P=0.001,5 and P=0.004,5 for Fib and platelet counts, respectively. The squamous subtype exhibited high plasma Fib levels (P<0.001 compared with adenocarcinoma cell lung cancer patients. Fib and PLT levels increased (P<0.001 and P=0.014, respectively, and aPTT decreased (P<0.001 in patients at stages III and IV compared with those in patients at stages I and II. aPTT decreased significantly (P<0.001, and Fib and D-dimer levels increased (P<0.001 and P=0.048, respectively in N1-3 patients with NSCLC compared with those of N0 patients. Prolonged PT and INR, high plasma Fib levels, and

  5. Effects of argon plasma coagulation on human stomach tissue: An ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Eun Jeong; Ahn, Ji Yong; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Park, Young Soo; Na, Hee Kyong; Jung, Kee Wook; Kim, Do Hoon; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2017-05-01

    Argon plasma coagulation (APC) is a safe alternative treatment for gastrointestinal neoplasms and precancerous lesions. However, the extent of thermal damage after APC is difficult to predict. We investigated the effects of APC on human stomach tissue. Argon plasma coagulation was performed on 10 freshly resected human stomachs that were obtained after total gastrectomy. The effects on tissue were compared across power settings (40, 60, and 80 W), durations (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 s), and between injection (submucosal injection of normal saline) and control (without injection) groups. Success was defined as complete mucosal necrosis without damaging the muscularis propria. Without submucosal injection, the incidence of damaging the muscularis propria increased as the power and duration increased. Tissue damage in the injection group was mostly confined to the submucosa, even when using the high-power setting. In the injection group, ablations at 40 W for 20 s, 60 W for 15 s, and 80 W for 15 or 20 s produced success rates ≥80%. In the control group, ablations at 60 W for 10 s, and 80 W for 5, or 10 s produced success rates ≥80%. The optimal energy levels to achieve complete mucosal and submucosal necrosis without damaging the muscularis propria were 800-1600 and 600-800 J in the injection and control groups, respectively. Application of APC produces good results with a low risk of perforation. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Bloodcurdling movies and measures of coagulation: Fear Factor crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Banne; Scheres, Luuk J J; Lijfering, Willem M; Rosendaal, Frits R

    2015-12-16

    To assess whether, as has been hypothesised since medieval times, acute fear can curdle blood. Crossover trial. Main meeting room of Leiden University's Department of Clinical Epidemiology, the Netherlands, converted to a makeshift cinema. 24 healthy volunteers aged ≤30 years recruited among students, alumni, and employees of the Leiden University Medical Center: 14 were assigned to watch a frightening (horror) movie followed by a non-threatening (educational) movie and 10 to watch the movies in reverse order. The movies were viewed more than a week apart at the same time of day and both lasted approximately 90 minutes. The primary outcome measures were markers, or "fear factors" of coagulation activity: blood coagulant factor VIII, D-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, and prothrombin fragments 1+2. The secondary outcome was participant reported fear experienced during each movie using a visual analogue fear scale. All participants completed the study. The horror movie was perceived to be more frightening than the educational movie on a visual analogue fear scale (mean difference 5.4, 95% confidence interval 4.7 to 6.1). The difference in factor VIII levels before and after watching the movies was higher for the horror movie than for the educational movie (mean difference of differences 11.1 IU/dL (111 IU/L), 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 21.0 IU/dL). The effect of either movie on levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes, D-dimer, and prothrombin fragments 1+2 did not differ. Frightening (in this case, horror) movies are associated with an increase of blood coagulant factor VIII without actual thrombin formation in young and healthy adults. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02601053. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Coagulation abnormalities in patients with chronic liver disease in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, S.A.; Ghani, M.H.; Ghori, M.A.; Ahmed, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the coagulation abnormalities and relationship between abnormal clotting tests and the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GI) among chronic liver disease (CLD) patients admitted at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Methods: Adult CLD patients admitted at Liaquat University Hospital Jamshoro, during Nov 2004 - Oct 2005, were included in the study. The patients blood were tested for coagulation abnormalities including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), platelet count and plasma fibrinogen. Association was seen between the abnormal clotting tests and the gastrointestinal bleeding by calculating relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval. Results: PT was prolonged in 88% and aPTT was raised in 71% cases of CLD. Both PT and aPTT were prolonged in 67% CLD cases. Approximately 37% CLD cases had decreased platelet count and 15% cases had decreased serum fibrinogen level. Relative risk of GI bleeding with abnormal clotting tests in CLD cases were weakly positive for PT (RR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.49-2.10), negative for aPTT (RR=0.83; 95% CI, 0.47-1.45), strongly positive for decreased platelet counts (RR = 1.96; 95% CI, 1.08-3.56) and also for decreased fibrinogen level (RR = 1.47; 95% CI, 0.64-3.35). Conclusion: Coagulation abnormalities were profound in CLD. Decrease platelet counts and fibrinogen levels were related with GI bleeding but PT and aPTT were not significantly related with GI bleeding in patients with chronic liver disease. Nevertheless, these parameters (PT and aPTT) were still used as prognostic markers. (author)

  8. Coagulation of Agglomerates Consisting of Polydisperse Primary Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudeli, E; Eggersdorfer, M L; Pratsinis, S E

    2016-09-13

    The ballistic agglomeration of polydisperse particles is investigated by an event-driven (ED) method and compared to the coagulation of spherical particles and agglomerates consisting of monodisperse primary particles (PPs). It is shown for the first time to our knowledge that increasing the width or polydispersity of the PP size distribution initially accelerates the coagulation rate of their agglomerates but delays the attainment of their asymptotic fractal-like structure and self-preserving size distribution (SPSD) without altering them, provided that sufficiently large numbers of PPs are employed. For example, the standard asymptotic mass fractal dimension, Df, of 1.91 is attained when clusters are formed containing, on average, about 15 monodisperse PPs, consistent with fractal theory and the literature. In contrast, when polydisperse PPs with a geometric standard deviation of 3 are employed, about 500 PPs are needed to attain that Df. Even though the same asymptotic Df and mass-mobility exponent, Dfm, are attained regardless of PP polydispersity, the asymptotic prefactors or lacunarities of Df and Dfm increase with PP polydispersity. For monodisperse PPs, the average agglomerate radius of gyration, rg, becomes larger than the mobility radius, rm, when agglomerates consist of more than 15 PPs. Increasing PP polydispersity increases that number of PPs similarly to the above for the attainment of the asymptotic Df or Dfm. The agglomeration kinetics are quantified by the overall collision frequency function. When the SPSD is attained, the collision frequency is independent of PP polydispersity. Accounting for the SPSD polydispersity in the overall agglomerate collision frequency is in good agreement with that frequency from detailed ED simulations once the SPSD is reached. Most importantly, the coagulation of agglomerates is described well by a monodisperse model for agglomerate and PP sizes, whereas the detailed agglomerate size distribution can be obtained by

  9. Rare coagulation disorders: fibrinogen, factor VII and factor XIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moerloose, P; Schved, J-F; Nugent, D

    2016-07-01

    Rare coagulation disorders (RCDs) include the inherited deficiencies of fibrinogen, factor (F) II, FV, combined FV and VIII, FVII, FX, combined FVII and X, FXI, FXIII and combined congenital deficiency of vitamin K-dependent factors (VKCFDs). Despite their rarity, a deep comprehension of all these disorders is essential to really understand haemostasis. Indeed, even if they share some common features each RCD has some particularity which makes it unique. In this review, we focus on three disorders: fibrinogen, FVII and FXIII. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Structural and functional studies on human coagulation factor V

    OpenAIRE

    Neut Kolfschoten, Marijn van der

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this research was to obtain a better insight into the structure and functioning of clotting factor V (FV), a protein that plays an important role in the regulation of clotting. Congenital defects in FV can greatly disturb the coagulation system, and can lead to symptoms ranging from para-haemophilia to thrombosis. One example of a congenital defect in FV I is the R506Q mutation (an aminoacid change at position 506 in the aminoacid chain of FV). This deviating FV molecule (also know...

  11. Numerical simulations of a reduced model for blood coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Jevgenija; Fasano, Antonio; Sequeira, Adélia

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the three-dimensional numerical resolution of a complex mathematical model for the blood coagulation process is presented. The model was illustrated in Fasano et al. (Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 51:1-14, 2012), Pavlova et al. (Theor Biol 380:367-379, 2015). It incorporates the action of the biochemical and cellular components of blood as well as the effects of the flow. The model is characterized by a reduction in the biochemical network and considers the impact of the blood slip at the vessel wall. Numerical results showing the capacity of the model to predict different perturbations in the hemostatic system are discussed.

  12. Endobronchial Electrocautery and Argon Plasma Coagulation: A Practical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Tremblay

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review covers the technical and practical aspects of endobronchial electrocautery, including argon plasma coagulation, which have great potential for widespread use by pulmonologists around the world. The various electrocautery modes, power settings and electrode probes are described in detail, and the authors' clinical and technical approach is demonstrated with a narrative description and brief case presentations. Malignant airway obstruction, hemoptysis, web-like stenosis, stent related granulation tissue and early lung carcinomas are the most common indications for treatment. Advantages of electrocautery, such as low cost, rapid effect, safety and ease of use, are contrasted to other endobronchial therapeutic modalities. Published experience with electrocautery is reviewed.

  13. The effects of chemical coagulants on the decolorization of dyes by electrocoagulation using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Erick B.; Hung, Yung-Tse; Mulamba, Oliver

    2017-09-01

    This study assessed the efficiency of electrocoagulation (ECF) coupled with an addition of chemical coagulant to decolorize textile dye. Tests were conducted using Box Behnken methodology to vary six parameters: dye type, weight, coagulant type, dose, initial pH and current density. The combination of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was able to decolorize dye up to 99.42 % in 30 min of treatment time which is remarkably shorter in comparison with using conventional chemical coagulation. High color removal was found to be contingent upon the dye type and current density, along with the interactions between the current density and the coagulant dose. The addition of chemical coagulants did enhanced treatment efficiency.

  14. Heritability of young- and old-onset ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluher, A; Devan, W J; Holliday, E G; Nalls, M; Parolo, S; Bione, S; Giese, A K; Boncoraglio, G B; Maguire, J M; Müller-Nurasyid, M; Gieger, C; Meschia, J F; Rosand, J; Rolfs, A; Kittner, S J; Mitchell, B D; O'Connell, J R; Cheng, Y C

    2015-11-01

    Although the genetic contribution to stroke risk is well known, it remains unclear if young-onset stroke has a stronger genetic contribution than old-onset stroke. This study aims to compare the heritability of ischaemic stroke risk between young and old, using common genetic variants from whole-genome array data in population-based samples. This analysis included 4050 ischaemic stroke cases and 5765 controls from six study populations of European ancestry; 47% of cases were young-onset stroke (age stroke risk in these unrelated individuals, the pairwise genetic relatedness was estimated between individuals based on their whole-genome array data using a mixed linear model. Heritability was estimated separately for young-onset stroke and old-onset stroke (age ≥ 55 years). Heritabilities for young-onset stroke and old-onset stroke were estimated at 42% (±8%, P genetic contribution to the risk of stroke may be higher in young-onset ischaemic stroke, although the difference was not statistically significant. © 2015 EAN.

  15. Novel sublingual low-dose zolpidem tablet reduces latency to sleep onset following spontaneous middle-of-the-night awakening in insomnia in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, outpatient study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Thomas; Krystal, Andrew; Steinberg, Frank J; Singh, Nikhilesh N; Moline, Margaret

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate efficacy and safety of 3.5-mg zolpidem tartrate sublingual tablets (ZST) on latency to sleep onset after middle-of-the-night (MOTN) awakenings in patients with insomnia characterized by difficulty returning to sleep after MOTN awakenings. Multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group. Outpatient. There were 295 adults (median age 43 y; 68.1% female) with primary insomnia and difficulty returning to sleep after MOTN awakenings (three or more MOTN awakenings/wk during screening). After a 2-wk, single-blind placebo eligibility period, participants were randomized 1:1 to as-needed MOTN dosing with 3.5 mg ZST or placebo for 28 nights. An interactive voice response system determined if the study drug could be taken and recorded sleep/wake efficacy measures. ZST significantly (P Zolpidem Tartrate Tablet in Adult Patients with Insomnia" http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00466193?spons=%22Transcept+Pharmaceuticals%22&spons_ex=Y&rank=2

  16. Antihypertensive medication postpones the onset of glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwitz, Anna; Klemp, Marc; Jeppesen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the impact of antihypertensive medication on the onset of glaucoma. Data from the complete Danish population between 40 and 95 years of age were used in the period from 1996 to 2012, covering >2.6 million individuals. The National Danish Registry of Medicinal Products...... Statistics was used to identify all claimed prescriptions for glaucoma medication and antihypertensive drugs. We first investigated basic correlations in the data and found that patients treated with antihypertensive medication, at any time during the study period, had a significantly higher overall relative...... risk (RR) of glaucoma, even when controlling for age and sex (with a RR of 1.31 and Pglaucoma. To investigate the causal effect of antihypertensive treatment on the onset of treatment for glaucoma, we used...

  17. Non-fasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) increased by high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Marckmann, P; Sandström, B

    1994-01-01

    :Bt/FVII:Am (a measure of FVII activation) increased from fasting levels on both diets, but most markedly on the high-fat diet. In contrast, FVII:Am (a measure of FVII protein) tended to decrease from fasting levels on both diets. FVII:C rose from fasting levels on the high-fat diet, but not on the low-fat diet....... The findings suggest that high-fat diets increase non-fasting FVII:C, and consequently may be associated with increased risk of thrombosis. Udgivelsesdato: 1994-Jun......Preliminary observations have suggested that non-fasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) may be related to the dietary fat content. To confirm this, we performed a randomised cross-over study. Seventeen young volunteers were served 2 controlled isoenergetic diets differing in fat content (20...

  18. Onset of relief of dyspnoea with budesonide/formoterol or salbutamol following methacholine-induced severe bronchoconstriction in adults with asthma: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bantje Theo A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The long-acting β2-agonist (LABA formoterol has an onset of effect comparable to that of salbutamol. Consequently, the combination of formoterol and budesonide in one inhaler, approved for maintenance use, can potentially be used for reliever therapy. This study compared the onset of relief from induced bronchospasm with a single dose of budesonide/formoterol versus standard salbutamol therapy in patients with asthma. Methods In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 32 patients with asthma underwent a methacholine provocation test leading to a fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 of ≥30% at enrolment (Visit 1 and three subsequent study visits (Visits 2–4. Immediately after each provocation at Visits 2–4, patients received one of three test treatments: one inhalation of budesonide/formoterol 160/4.5 μg (via Turbuhaler®, two inhalations of salbutamol 100 μg (via a pressurised metered-dose inhaler [pMDI] or placebo. All patients received each of the test treatments in a randomised order, after separate methacholine provocations. The effect of treatment on FEV1 and breathlessness (using the Borg scale was measured at 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes after test treatment. Results Following methacholine provocation, Borg score increased from a baseline value of below 0.5 to 3.03, 3.31 and 3.50 before treatment with budesonide/formoterol, salbutamol and placebo, respectively. Budesonide/formoterol and salbutamol reversed methacholine-induced dyspnoea (breathlessness rapidly. At 1 minute after inhalation, statistically significant decreases in Borg score were observed for budesonide/formoterol and salbutamol (p = 0.0233 and p 1 (both active treatments p Conclusion Single doses of budesonide/formoterol and salbutamol both provided rapid relief of dyspnoea and reversal of severe airway obstruction in patients with asthma with experimentally induced bronchoconstriction. The

  19. Assessment of coagulation function and ultrasound features after reteplase and recombinant streptokinase thrombolysis of lower extremity deep venous thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess coagulation function and ultrasound features after reteplase and recombinant streptokinase thrombolysis of lower extremity deep venous thrombosis. Methods: A total of 78 cases of patients with lower extremity deep venous thrombosis who were treated in our hospital were selected as research subjects and divided into observation group 39 cases and control group 39 cases according to different treatment regimens. Control group received recombinant streptokinase thrombolysis, observation group received reteplase thrombolysis, and then the effect of the two thrombolytic ways was evaluated by color Doppler ultrasonography and circulating blood test. Results: Ultrasound showed that complete recanalization rate of thrombus of observation group after treatment was higher than that of control group; plasma PT, APTT and TT values of observation group after thrombolysis were higher than those of control group, FIB, D-D, NO, ET, E-selectin, P-selectin, Hcy, CRP, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-毩 values were lower than those of control group, and WBC, Nc and Mc cell number were less than those of control group. Conclusion: Reteplase for thrombolysis of lower extremity deep venous thrombosis has more distinguished effect on dissolving thrombus as well as optimizing body’s coagulation, inflammatory system state and other aspects, and is a more ideal thrombolytic drug.

  20. Use of non-Conventional Material to Remove Cu+2 ions from Aqueous Solutions using Chemical Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Yousif Abdul. Ahad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation - flocculation are basic chemical engineering method in the treatment of metal-bearing industrial wastewater because it removes colloidal particles, some soluble compounds and very fine solid suspensions initially present in the wastewater by destabilization and formation of flocs. This research was conducted to study the feasibility of using natural coagulant such as okra and mallow and chemical coagulant such as alum for removing Cu and increase the removal efficiency and reduce the turbidity of treated water. Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR was carried out for okra and mallow before and after coagulant to determine their type of functional groups. Carbonyl and hydroxyl functional groups on the surface of okra and mallow were the major groups responsible for coagulation process. By using alum (conventional coagulants, okra and mallow (as a primary coagulant or in combination with the other two primary coagulants and by the jar testing, the optimum pH-value and dose of the coagulants were determined. The results indicated that the optimal pH values were 6.7, 8 and 6 for alum, okra and mallow, respectively. Mathematical modeling show significant results (sig.<0.05 for the % Cu removal (dependent variable with respect to coagulant dose (independent variable for the okra as a primary coagulant, alum with okra and alum with mallow as binary coagulants and alum, okra and mallow as ternary coagulants .

  1. Thyroid storm complicated by bicytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokushima, Yoshinori; Sakanishi, Yuta; Nagae, Kou; Tokushima, Midori; Tago, Masaki; Tomonaga, Motosuke; Yoshioka, Tsuneaki; Hyakutake, Masaki; Sugioka, Takashi; Yamashita, Shu-ichi

    2014-07-24

    Male, 23. Thyroid storm. Delirium • diarrhea • fever • hypertension • hyperventilation • tachycardia • weight loss. -. -. Endocrinology and Metabolic. Unusual clinical course. The clinical presentation of thyroid storm includes fever, tachycardia, hypertension, and neurological abnormalities. It is a serious condition with a high mortality rate. Furthermore, some other complications affect the clinical course of thyroid storm. Although it is reported that prognosis is poor when thyroid storm is complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome (DIC) and leukopenia, reports of such cases are rare. A 23-year-old man presented with delirium, high pyrexia, diarrhea, and weight loss of 18 kg over 2 months. According to the criteria of Burch and Wartofsky, he was diagnosed with thyroid storm on the basis of his symptom-complex and laboratory data that confirmed the presence of hyperthyroidism. Investigations also found leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation, all of which are very rare complications of thyroid storm. We successfully treated him with combined therapy including anti-thyroid medication, despite leukopenia. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential in ensuring a good outcome for patients with this rare combination of medical problems.

  2. Effect of flomoxef on blood coagulation and alcohol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, K; Matsubara, T

    1991-01-01

    The effect of flomoxef, a newly developed oxacephem antibiotic with an N-hydroxyethyltetrazolethiol (HTT) side chain, on blood coagulation and alcohol metabolism was compared with that of a series of cephalosporin antibiotics with N-methyltetrazolethiol (NMTT), thiadiazolethiol (TDT) or methylthiadiazolethiol (MTDT) side chains in position 3' of the cephalosporin nucleus known to cause hypoprothrombinemia and bleeding in patients who are malnourished, debilitated and/or of high age. A disulfiram-like effect caused by inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase was observed for NMTT-containing antibiotics. Studies were carried out on healthy volunteers and on rats. Eight-day treatment with 2 g flomoxef i.v. once or twice daily in five and six healthy male volunteers, respectively, did not cause any significant changes in prothrombin time (PT), coagulation factors II, VII, IX or X, in hepaplastin values or fibrinogen levels, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), platelet counts, bleeding time, or collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Inhibition of vitamin K epoxide reductase was observed in rats treated with flomoxef, yet to a much lesser extent than observed for cephalosporins with NMTT, TDT or MTDT side chains. This defect was quickly normalized by vitamin K injection. There were no differences between oxacephem (1-O) and cephem (1-S) compounds with respect to effects on blood clotting and platelet aggregation. Flomoxef and its side chain HTT showed no influence on alcohol metbolism.

  3. Intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants and coagulation--ambivalent perspectives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Amir A; Brenner, Benjamin; Kenet, Gili

    2013-01-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a major complication of preterm birth, and large hemorrhages may yield significant future disability. During the last few decades, the survival of preterm infants has increased dramatically. Nevertheless, morbidity is still a major problem especially for very young and extremely low birth weight infants. As both, mortality and incidence of morbidities known to influence outcome, show a weekly decline with increasing gestational age, prematurity and low birth weight have been identified as major risk factors for IVH occurrence. This stems probably from the increased vulnerability of the premature germinal matrix as well as the physiologically impaired hemostasis, demonstrated in neonates. The hypothesis that a severe coagulation deficiency in the premature newborn could be a major contributing factor for IVH has been suggested, and small open label interventional studies targeting the premature coagulation system have been conducted with ethamsylate, vitamin K, fresh frozen plasma, recombinant activated factor VII and prothrombin complex concentrate. Nevertheless, potential venous origin of hemorrhages, which may be related to thrombophilic risk factors, has also been discussed. The following manuscript will focus upon IVH pathogenesis and address potential therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dosimetry for photo-coagulation by the use of autofluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzinski, T.

    1989-01-01

    A basic problem when using lasers in medicine is that of dosimetry. The definition of the terms dose, effective value etc. will be dealt with in Chapter 2. This chapter is intended to give an insight into the problems of basic dosimetry and its technical realization within the field of photocoagulation, an established method used to treat the retina, or some skin diseases. Until now the coagulation process was assessed to be completed when the irradiated area became blanched. However in terms of dosimetry, it must be possible to predict or at least to monitor the biological effect using well-defined parameters for the laser or in achieving an objective measure for a feedback loop. In the case of coagulation, a prediction in this form is not possible. There are two ways of pro- ceeding further see Fig. 1. One can either determine the physical effect, i.e. temperature, by some kind of sensors, or even better, use some biological effect as a direct measure of the effective dose applied.

  5. [Influence of Gentiana lutea L extract on blood coagulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakuridze, A D; Nikolaev, S M; Tsagarenshvili, N T; Kurdiani, N G; Mikaia, G A

    2009-01-01

    The dry extract from the terrestrial parts of Gentiana Lutea was received in accordance to the developed by us general technological scheme. Study of the pharmacological influence of obtained extract on the coagulating properties of blood revealed that after its per os instillation into experimental animals the time of the formation of active thromboplastin reliably increases, while the time of thrombin and fibrinous cluster formation is shortened in comparison with those indices in the animals, that did not receive phyto-preparation, at the same time morphological appearance of the peripheral blood remains unchanged. Dry extract of terrestrial parts of Gentiana Lutea prepared in accordance to the technology recommended by us, together with widely known pharmacological effects, is characterized with new activity - influence on haemostasis. Obtained preliminary data concerning influence of the extract on coagulation of the blood request further deep studies of its mechanism. Revealed new activity of the terrestrial parts of Gentiana Lutea and the studies of the mechanism of its activity will serve in future as a basis for the recommendation of its use in new nosology. Terrestrial parts of Gentiana lutea L. are proposed as an alternative of the underground parts of the plant. Alongside with that, it is expedient to continue the studies devoted to the development of the haemostatic remedies of plant origin with systemic and local action (sponges, films, skin glues) from terrestrial parts of Gentiana lutea L.

  6. The influence of hydraulic conditions on coagulation process effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambor Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the impact that small changes in the hydraulic installation between the flocculation chamber and the sedimentation tanks have on coagulation process effectiveness. This study has shown significant improvements in the parameters of the treated water. The research was conducted in two treatment systems: reference and test, in order to compare the changes that were introduced in the time period between January and May 2016. The hydraulic conditions between the flocculation chamber and the sedimentation tank were changed in the test system, leaving the reference system unchanged for comparative purposes. The height-wise positioning of the sedimentation tank relative to the flocculation chamber resulted in a formation of a cascade at the flocculation chamber drain at a height of 0.60m. Air was therefore introduced into the water, forming an air-water mixture, which disturbed the flow between the devices. It was found that floc transported by the pipeline was broken down, which hampered sedimentation in the sedimentation tank. This was confirmed by the analysis of chosen parameters from treated water. After changes in the hydraulic system, changes in water turbidity were noticed, indicating an increase in post-coagulation suspension separation effectiveness. Consequently, an increase in organic carbon removal was found relative to the reference system. This change influenced changes in UV254 absorbance to a much lesser extent.

  7. The influence of hydraulic conditions on coagulation process effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambor, Aleksandra; Ferenc, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the impact that small changes in the hydraulic installation between the flocculation chamber and the sedimentation tanks have on coagulation process effectiveness. This study has shown significant improvements in the parameters of the treated water. The research was conducted in two treatment systems: reference and test, in order to compare the changes that were introduced in the time period between January and May 2016. The hydraulic conditions between the flocculation chamber and the sedimentation tank were changed in the test system, leaving the reference system unchanged for comparative purposes. The height-wise positioning of the sedimentation tank relative to the flocculation chamber resulted in a formation of a cascade at the flocculation chamber drain at a height of 0.60m. Air was therefore introduced into the water, forming an air-water mixture, which disturbed the flow between the devices. It was found that floc transported by the pipeline was broken down, which hampered sedimentation in the sedimentation tank. This was confirmed by the analysis of chosen parameters from treated water. After changes in the hydraulic system, changes in water turbidity were noticed, indicating an increase in post-coagulation suspension separation effectiveness. Consequently, an increase in organic carbon removal was found relative to the reference system. This change influenced changes in UV254 absorbance to a much lesser extent.

  8. PROJECT OF COAGULANT DISPENSER IN PULVERIZATION AERATOR WITH WIND DRIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Osuch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are one of most important freshwater ecosystems, playing significant role in functioning of nature and human economy. Swarzędzkie Lake is good example of ecosystem, which in last half-century was exposed to the influence of strong anthropopressure. Direct inflow of sewage with large number of biogens coming to the lake with water of inflows caused distinct disturbance of its functioning. In autumn 2011 restoration begined on Swarzędzkie Lake for reduction of lake trophy and improvement of water quality. For achieving better and quicker effect, simultaneously combination of some methods was applied, among others method of oxygenation of over-bottom water with help of pulverization aerator and method of precise inactivation of phosphorus in water depths. Characterization and analysis of improved coagulant dispenser applying active substance only during work of pulverization aerator is the aim of this thesis. Principle of dispenser work, its structure and location in pulverization aerator were explained. It was stated, that introduction to water a factor initiating process of phosphorus inactivation causes significant reduction of mineral phosphorus in water and size of coagulant dose correlates with intensity of work of pulverization aerator with wind drive.

  9. Selective binding behavior of humic acid removal by aluminum coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Pengkang; Song, Jina; Yang, Lei; Jin, Xin; Wang, Xiaochang C

    2018-02-01

    The reactivity characteristics of humic acid (HA) with aluminium coagulants at different pH values was investigated. It revealed that the linear complexation reaction occurred between aluminum and humic acid at pH aluminum existed in the form of free aluminum and remained unreacted in the presence of HA until the concentration reached to trigger Al(OH) 3(s) formation. Differentiating the change of functional groups of HA by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectra analysis, it elucidated that there was a selective complexation between HA and Al with lower Al dosage at pH 5, which was probably due to coordination of the activated functional groups onto aluminium. While almost all components were removed proportionally by sweep adsorption without selectivity at pH 7, as well as that with higher Al dosage at pH 5. This study provided a promising pathway to analyse the mechanism of the interaction between HA and metal coagulants in future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Challenges in Radiofrequency Pasteurization of Shell Eggs: Coagulation Rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Soon Kiat; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Jones, David; Negahban, Mehrdad; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan

    2016-10-01

    A total of 50 different configurations of simple radiofrequency (RF) heating at 27.12 MHz of a shell egg were simulated using a finite element model with the purpose of pasteurizing the egg. Temperature-dependent thermal and dielectric properties of the yolk, albumen, and shell were measured, fitted, and introduced into the model. A regression equation that relates the top electrode voltage to the gap between the electrodes and vertical position of the egg was developed. Simulation and experimental results had good agreement in terms of temperature deviation (root mean squared error ranged from 0.35 °C to 0.48 °C) and both results demonstrated the development of a "coagulation ring" around the air cell. The focused heating near the air cell of the egg prevented pasteurization of the egg due to its impact on quality (coagulation). Analysis of the electric field patterns offered a perspective on how nonuniform RF heating could occur in heterogeneous food products. The results can be used to guide development of RF heating for heterogeneous food products and further development of RF pasteurization of eggs. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Effects of ultrasound pretreatment on the characteristic evolutions of drinking water treatment sludge and its impact on coagulation property of sludge recycling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Yang, Yanling; Li, Xing

    2015-11-01

    Large amounts of drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) are produced during the flocculation or flotation process. The recycling of DWTS is important for reducing and reclaiming the waste residues from drinking water treatment. To improve the coagulation step of the DWTS recycling process, power ultrasound was used as a pretreatment to disintegrate the DWTS and degrade or inactivate the constituents that are difficult to remove by coagulation. The effects of ultrasound pretreatment on the characteristics of DWTS, including the extent of disintegration, variation in DWTS floc characteristics, and DWTS dewaterability, were investigated. The capacity of the recycling process to remove particulates and organic matter from low-turbidity surface water compared to a control treatment process without DWTS was subsequently evaluated. The coagulation mechanism was further investigated by analyzing the formation, breakage, and re-growth of re-coagulated flocs. Our results indicated that under the low energy density applied (0.03-0.033 W/mL) for less than 15 min at a frequency of 160 kHz, the level of organic solubilization was less elevated, which was evidenced by the lower release of proteins and polysaccharides and lower fluorescence intensities of humic- and protein-like substances. The applied ultrasound conditions had an adverse effect on the dewaterability of the DWTS. Ultrasound pretreatment had no significant impact on the pH or surface charge of the DWTS flocs, whereas particle size decreased slightly and the specific surface area was moderately increased. The pollution removal capacity decreased somewhat for the recycled sonicated DWTS treatment, which was primarily ascribed to organic solubilization rather than variability in the floc characteristics of sonicated DWTS. The main coagulation mechanism was floc sweeping and physical adsorption. The breakage process of the flocs formed by the recycling process displayed distinct irreversibility, and the flocs were

  12. Effects of long-term androgen replacement therapy on the physical and mental statuses of aging males with late-onset hypogonadism: a multicenter randomized controlled trial in Japan (EARTH Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Konaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgen replacement therapy (ART efficacy on late-onset hypogonadism (LOH has been widely investigated in Western countries; however, it remains controversial whether ART can improve health and prolong active lifestyles. We prospectively assessed long-term ART effects on the physical and mental statuses of aging men with LOH in Japan. The primary endpoint was health-related quality of life assessed by questionnaires. Secondary endpoints included glycemic control, lipid parameters, blood pressure, waist circumference, body composition, muscular strength, International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS, International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5 scores, and serum prostate-specific antigen levels. Of the 1637 eligible volunteers, 334 patients > 40 years with LOH were randomly assigned to either the ART (n = 169 or control groups (n = 165. Fifty-two weeks after the initial treatment, ART significantly affected the role physical subdomain of the short form-36 health survey (SF-36 scale (P = 0.0318. ART was also associated with significant decreases in waist circumstance (P = 0.002 and serum triglyceride (TG (P = 0.013 and with significant increases in whole-body and leg muscle mass volumes (P = 0.071 and 0.0108, respectively, serum hemoglobin (P < 0.001, IPSS voiding subscore (P = 0.0418, and the second question on IIEF-5 (P = 0.0049. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of severe adverse events. In conclusion, in patients with LOH, long-term ART exerted beneficial effects on Role Physical subdomain of the SF-36 scale, serum TG, waist circumstance, muscle mass volume, voiding subscore of IPSS, and the second question of IIEF-5. We hope our study will contribute to the future development of this area.

  13. Effects of long-term androgen replacement therapy on the physical and mental statuses of aging males with late-onset hypogonadism: a multicenter, randomized controlled trial in Japan (EARTH Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konaka, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Kazuhiro; Orikasa, Hideki; Iwamoto, Teruaki; Takamura, Toshinari; Takeda, Yoshiyu; Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Iijima, Masashi; Koh, Eitetsu; Namiki, Mikio

    2016-01-01

    Androgen replacement therapy (ART) efficacy on late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) has been widely investigated in Western countries; however, it remains controversial whether ART can improve health and prolong active lifestyles. We prospectively assessed long-term ART effects on the physical and mental statuses of aging men with LOH in Japan. The primary endpoint was health-related quality of life assessed by questionnaires. Secondary endpoints included glycemic control, lipid parameters, blood pressure, waist circumference, body composition, muscular strength, International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS), International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) scores, and serum prostate-specific antigen levels. Of the 1637 eligible volunteers, 334 patients > 40 years with LOH were randomly assigned to either the ART (n = 169) or control groups (n = 165). Fifty-two weeks after the initial treatment, ART significantly affected the role physical subdomain of the short form-36 health survey (SF-36) scale (P = 0.0318). ART was also associated with significant decreases in waist circumstance (P = 0.002) and serum triglyceride (TG) (P = 0.013) and with significant increases in whole-body and leg muscle mass volumes (P = 0.071 and 0.0108, respectively), serum hemoglobin (P < 0.001), IPSS voiding subscore (P = 0.0418), and the second question on IIEF-5 (P = 0.0049). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of severe adverse events. In conclusion, in patients with LOH, long-term ART exerted beneficial effects on Role Physical subdomain of the SF-36 scale, serum TG, waist circumstance, muscle mass volume, voiding subscore of IPSS, and the second question of IIEF-5. We hope our study will contribute to the future development of this area. PMID:25761833

  14. Dose finding of melatonin for chronic idiopathic childhood sleep onset insomnia: an RCT

    OpenAIRE

    van Geijlswijk, Ingeborg M.; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Egberts, A. C. G.; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.; Smits, Marcel G.

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE: Pharmacokinetics of melatonin in children might differ from that in adults. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to establish a dose-response relationship for melatonin in advancing dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), sleep onset (SO), and reducing sleep onset latency (SOL) in children between 6 and 12 years with chronic sleep onset insomnia (CSOI). METHODS: The method used for this study is the randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Children with CSOI (n = 72) received either mel...

  15. Ceramic Membrane combined with Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) or Coagulation for Treatment of Impaired Quality Waters

    KAUST Repository

    Hamad, Juma Z.

    2013-08-29

    Ceramic membranes (CM) are robust membranes attributed with high production, long life span and stability against critical conditions. While capital costs are high, these are partially offset by lower operation and maintenance costs compared to polymeric membranes. Like any other low-pressure membrane (LPM), CM faces problems of fouling, low removal of organic matter and poor removal of trace organic compounds (TOrCs). Current pretreatment approaches that are mainly based on coagulation and adsorption can remove some organic matter but with a low removal of the biopolymers component which is responsible for fouling. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) accompanied with a LPM maintains good removal of TOrCs. However, enhanced removal of TOrCs to higher level is required. Submicron powdered activated carbon (SPAC), obtained after crushing commercial activated carbon into very fine particle, and novel activated carbon (KCU 6) which is characterized with larger pores and high surface area were employed. A pre-coating approach, which provides intimated contact between PAC and contaminants, was adopted for wastewater and (high DOC) surface water treatment. For seawater, in-line coagulation with iron III chloride was adopted. Both SPAC and KCU 6 showed good removal of biopolymers at a dose of 30 mg/L with > 85 % and 90 %, respectively. A dose of 40 mg/L of SPAC and 30 mg/L KCU 6 pre-coats were successful used in controlling membrane fouling. SPAC is suggested to remove biopolymers by physical means and adsorption while KCU 6 removed biopolymers through adsorption. Both KCU 6 and SPAC attained high removal of TOrCs whereas KCU 6 showed outstanding performance. Out of 29 TOrCs investigated, KCU 6 showed > 87 % TOrCs rejection for 28 compounds. In seawater pretreatment, transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) were found to be an important foulant. TEP promoted both reversible and irreversible fouling. TEP are highly electronegative while alumina CM is positively charged which

  16. Preterm birth in Caucasians is associated with coagulation and inflammation pathway gene variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digna R Velez

    Full Text Available Spontaneous preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation-PTB occurs in approximately 12% of pregnancies in the United States, and is the largest contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality. PTB is a complex disease, potentially induced by several etiologic factors from multiple pathophysiologic pathways. To dissect the genetic risk factors of PTB a large-scale high-throughput candidate gene association study was performed examining 1536 SNP in 130 candidate genes from hypothesized PTB pathways. Maternal and fetal DNA from 370 US Caucasian birth-events (172 cases and 198 controls was examined. Single locus, haplotype, and multi-locus association analyses were performed separately on maternal and fetal data. For maternal data the strongest associations were found in genes in the complement-coagulation pathway related to decidual hemorrhage in PTB. In this pathway 3 of 6 genes examined had SNPs significantly associated with PTB. These include factor V (FV that was previously associated with PTB, factor VII (FVII, and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA. The single strongest effect was observed in tPA marker rs879293 with a significant allelic (p = 2.30x10(-3 and genotypic association (p = 2.0x10(-6 with PTB. The odds ratio (OR for this SNP was 2.80 [CI 1.77-4.44] for a recessive model. Given that 6 of 8 markers in tPA were statistically significant, sliding window haplotype analyses were performed and revealed an associating 4 marker haplotype in tPA (p = 6.00x10(-3. The single strongest effect in fetal DNA was observed in the inflammatory pathway at rs17121510 in the interleukin-10 receptor antagonist (IL-10RA gene for allele (p = 0.01 and genotype (p = 3.34x10(-4. The OR for the IL-10RA genotypic additive model was 1.92 [CI 1.15-3.19] (p = 2.00x10(-3. Finally, exploratory multi-locus analyses in the complement and coagulation pathway were performed and revealed a potentially significant interaction between a marker in FV (rs2187952 and FVII (rs3211719 (p

  17. Correlation between thromboelastography and traditional coagulation test parameters in hospitalized dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubanick JV

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Jean V Rubanick, Medora B Pashmakova, Micah A Bishop, James W Barr Department of Veterinary Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA Abstract: A hospital-based, prospective cross-sectional study was used to compare kaolin-activated thromboelastography (TEG parameters with traditional coagulation tests in 29 hospitalized dogs. Cases were included if the attending clinician requested coagulation testing. Blood was obtained from each dog and coagulation (prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, antithrombin activity, d-dimer concentration, and fibrinogen concentration and TEG analyses were performed. Hematocrit (Hct was also measured. Traditional coagulation results were evaluated for correlation with those from kaolin-activated TEG. Spearman’s correlation was used to calculate correlation coefficients. Fibrinogen was positively correlated with maximum amplitude (Pearson r=0.72, P<0.001 and global clot strength (Pearson r=0.72, P<0.001. There was no correlation between any of the remaining coagulation variables, TEG parameters, or Hct. Results of kaolin-activated TEG and traditional coagulation tests are not interchangeable means of monitoring coagulation derangements in this intensive care unit patient population. Determination of a true outcome measure is necessary to establish TEG’s clinical relevance to veterinary medicine. Keywords: TEG, thromboelastography, coagulation, hemostasis

  18. Inherited coagulation factor VII and X deficiencies associated with severe bleeding diathesis: Molecular genetics and pathophysiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borensztajn, K.; Spek, C. A.

    2005-01-01

    The rare inherited coagulation disorders are a fascinating group of diseases that have provided us with important insights into the structure and functions of their respective deficient proteins. Factor (F)VII deficiency is the commonest of these inherited disorders of coagulation, whereas FX

  19. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    Ever since the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII:C) was identified as a risk indicator of cardiac death, a large number of studies have measured FVII protein concentrations in plasma. FVII protein concentrations are either measured immunologically with an ELISA method (FVII...

  20. Identification of QTL on chromosome 18 associated with non-coagulating milk in Swedish Red cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duchemin, Sandrine I.; Glantz, Maria; Koning, De Dirk Jan; Paulsson, Marie; Fikse, Willem F.

    2016-01-01

    Non-coagulating (NC) milk, defined as milk not coagulating within 40 min after rennet-addition, can have a negative influence on cheese production. Its prevalence is estimated at 18% in the Swedish Red (SR) cow population. Our study aimed at identifying genomic regions and causal variants

  1. Arsenic removal by coagulation using ferric chloride and chitosan from water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Hesami

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Chitosan as natural coagulant aid improved arsenic removal efficiency by coagulation process using FeCl 3 . This method can be used for regions with drinking water contaminated with initial arsenic concentration less than 1 000 μg/l.

  2. A review of studies of the activation of the blood coagulation mechanism in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Cate, H.; Schenk, B. E.; Biemond, B. J.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; van der Poll, T.; Buller, H. R.; ten Cate, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews our recent studies of blood coagulation activation in the chimpanzee which were carried out employing sensitive immunoassays that measure activation markers of blood coagulation in plasma. Infused factor VIIa activated both factors IX and X in vivo; this reaction depended on the

  3. Coagulation competence and fluid recruitment after moderate blood loss in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaar, Morten; Mørkeberg, Jakob; Pott, Frank C

    2014-01-01

    The coagulation system is activated by a reduction of the central blood volume during orthostatic stress and lower body negative pressure suggesting that also a blood loss enhances coagulation. During bleeding, however, the central blood volume is supported by fluid recruitment to the circulation...

  4. Chitosan as coagulant on cyanobacteria in lake restoration management may cause rapid cell lysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes Teixeira Mucci, Maira; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa; Magalhães, de Leonardo; Miranda, Marcela; Oosterhout, van Frank; Guedes, Iamê Alves; Huszar, Vera L.M.; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi; Lürling, Miquel

    2017-01-01

    Combining coagulant and ballast to remove cyanobacteria from the water column is a promising restoration technique to mitigate cyanobacterial nuisance in surface waters. The organic, biodegradable polymer chitosan has been promoted as a coagulant and is viewed as non-toxic. In this study, we show

  5. Chitosan as coagulant on cyanobacteria in lake restoration management may cause rapid cell lysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mucci, Maira; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa; de Magalhaes, Leonardo; Miranda, Marcela; van Oosterhout, Frank; Guedes, Iame Alves; Huszar, Vera L. M.; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi; Lürling, Miquel

    2017-01-01

    Combining coagulant and ballast to remove cyanobacteria from the water column is a promising restoration technique to mitigate cyanobacterial nuisance in surface waters. The organic, biodegradable polymer chitosan has been promoted as a coagulant and is viewed as non-toxic. In this study, we show

  6. Application of Moringa Oleifera Seed Powder For Iron (III Coagulation on Local Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadillah Utami Prasetyaningtyas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know the effect of the use of powder moringa seed to coagulant mass and coagulation process, and its effectiveness to increase the quality of pure water. This research uses factorial research design and statistic test MANOVA. To analyse water quality, the researcher uses Fe parameter.  A graphic of coagulant mass and time for each parameter is used to analyse the data. Based on the research result, the uses of moringa seed as coagulant in each 300 mL mineral water gives a possitives result to the river water sample using 100 mg coagulant mass and sedimentations time for 60 minutes, well water sample using 500 mg coagulant mass and sedimentations time for 60 minutes, tap water sample using 300 mg  coagulant mass and sedimentations time for 90 minutes. The effective coagulant that increase the water quality on well water is 98,32% of moringa seed powder, on river water is 96,64%  and for tap water is 25,62%.

  7. PILOT PLANT STUDY ON NATURAL WATER COAGULANTS AS COAGULAN AIDS FOR WATER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B BINA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Natural plant coagulants have an important role to play in provision of portable water to rural communities in the developing world. The plant material that their coagulation properties have been confirmed in previous lab scale studies and can be found widely in Iran was selected as coagulant aids. Pilot plant study was done to evaluate the efficiency of natural material such as Starch/Gum Tragacanth, Fenugreek and Yeast as coagulant aids in conjunction with comercial alum. Methods: The pilot was placed in Isfahan Water Treatment Plant (IWTP and efficiency of these materials in removal of turbidity from raw water enters the IWTP was evaluated. The results indicated while these materials were used as coagulant aids in concentration of 1-5 mg/l conjunction with alum are able to reduced the turbidity and final residuals turbidity meets the standards limits. Results: The coagulation efficiency of these material were found to be effected by certain physico-chemical factors, namely, concentration of suspended solids, divalent cation metal and time of agitation. The relative importance of these variable was evaluated. The results of COD test proved that the natural coagulant aids in the optimum doses produce no any significant organic residual. Discussion: Economical considerations showed that using of these material as coagulant aids can cause reduction in alum consumption and in some cases are more econmical than synthetic polyelectrolyte.

  8. A new inorganic-organic composite coagulant, consisting of polyferric sulphate (PFS) and polyacrylamide (PAA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussas, P A; Zouboulis, A I

    2009-08-01

    Currently, research is focused on the synthesis of new composite coagulants, which are constituted of both inorganic and organic materials. In this paper, the development of relevant reagents was investigated, by combining the inorganic pre-polymerised iron-based coagulant Polyferric Sulphate (PFS) with an organic, non-ionic polymer (Polyacrylamide, PAA) under different PAA/Fe (mg/l) and OH/Fe molar ratios. Moreover, the new reagents were characterised in terms of typical properties, stability and morphological analysis (XRD, FTIR, SEM). Their coagulation performance, when treating low or high turbid kaolin-humic acid suspensions, was also investigated, whereas the applied coagulation mechanisms were discussed by using the Photometric Dispersion Analysis (PDA) analysis. The results show that the new coagulation reagents present improved properties, including increased effective polymer species concentration, and they exhibit very good stability. The respective tests using PDA confirmed that the predominant coagulation mechanism of PFS-PAA is the bridge formation mechanism. Coagulation experiments in low or high turbid kaolin-humic acid suspensions reveal that the novel composite reagent PFS-PAA exhibits better coagulation performance, when compared with simple PFS, in terms of zeta-potential reduction, turbidity and organic matter removal and residual iron concentration.

  9. Potential of Hibiscus Sabdariffa and Jatropha Curcas as Natural Coagulants in the Treatment of Pharmaceutical Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibartie Sheena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical wastewater is one of the most difficult wastewater to treat due to the presence of pharmaceutical compounds resulting in high concentration of organic matter, high turbidity and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD. Chemical-based coagulation is a common method used to treat wastewater. However, the issue that has been raised with the use of chemical coagulants is their presence in water after treatment that can cause risks to the human health such as Alzheimer and cancer. Natural coagulants can be used as a safe alternative to these chemicals instead. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to study the effect of H. Sabdariffa and J. Curcas as natural coagulants, separately and as a combination, on the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater. Jar test experiment were carried out where beakers of 0.5L wastewater were mixed with the coagulants. The pH of the wastewater was varied from 2 to 12 while the coagulant dosage was varied from 40 to 200 mg/L. It was found that H. Sabdariffa works best at pH 4 and at a coagulant dosage of 190 mg/L with a highest turbidity removal of 35.8% and a decrease of COD by 29%. J. Curcas was found to perform best at pH 3 and with a coagulant dosage of 200 mg/L with a highest turbidity removal of 51% and a decrease of COD by 32%. When J. Curcas and H. Sabdariffa were used in combination, the optimum composition was found to be 80% J. Curcas and 20% H. Sabdariffa by weight with a maximum turbidity removal of 46.8% and a decrease in COD by 46%. In comparison between the two natural coagulants, J. Curcas is found to be a better and more suited coagulative agent for the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater. The same experiment was carried with alum at pH 6 and coagulant dosage of 750 mg/L and a turbidity removal of 48% and a decrease in COD by 38% were recorded. In comparison with alum, J. Curcas was a better coagulant in treating the pharmaceutical wastewater. This shows that natural coagulants can be

  10. Efficacy of argon plasma coagulation for locoregional relapse after chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Yoshinori; Domon, Kaoru; Otsuka, Takafumi

    2011-01-01

    Salvage therapy for residual or relapsed esophageal cancer after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has not yet been established. We retrospectively evaluated relapse-free survival (RFS) after local recurrence following CRT and local control rate in patients who underwent argon plasma coagulation (APC). We reviewed the records of 14 patients who underwent APC after CRT for esophageal cancer at our department between 2001 and 2010 and analyzed overall survival (OS), 5-year survival rate, local control rate after APC and RFS-defined as the period between the end of CRT and the time when an iodine-negative area was found. Median OS and median RFS (mRFS) were 33 months and 6 months, respectively. The 5-year survival rate was 16.2%, and the local control rate after APC was 71.4% (10/14). RFS was significantly longer in the T1 group than in the T2/T3 group (p=0.03); the local control rate after APC did not significantly differ between groups. The high-dose (HD) radiation group had a significantly longer RFS and a tendency toward a higher local control rate after APC than did the standard-dose (SD) radiation group. APC was safe and resulted in a high rate of local control, regardless of T factor. HD radiation was associated with longer RFS and greater efficacy of APC treatment for local recurrence. (author)

  11. Diffusion mediated coagulation and fragmentation based study of domain formation in lipid bilayer membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Laxminarsimha V., E-mail: laxman@iitk.ac.in [Mechanics and Applied Mathematics Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Roy, Subhradeep [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics (MC 0219), Virginia Tech, 495 Old Turner Street, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Das, Sovan Lal [Mechanics and Applied Mathematics Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2017-01-15

    We estimate the equilibrium size distribution of cholesterol rich micro-domains on a lipid bilayer by solving Smoluchowski equation for coagulation and fragmentation. Towards this aim, we first derive the coagulation kernels based on the diffusion behaviour of domains moving in a two dimensional membrane sheet, as this represents the reality better. We incorporate three different diffusion scenarios of domain diffusion into our coagulation kernel. Subsequently, we investigate the influence of the parameters in our model on the coagulation and fragmentation behaviour. The observed behaviours of the coagulation and fragmentation kernels are also manifested in the equilibrium domain size distribution and its first moment. Finally, considering the liquid domains diffusing in a supported lipid bilayer, we fit the equilibrium domain size distribution to a benchmark solution.

  12. Development of a magnetic coagulant based on Moringa oleifera seed extract for water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Tássia R T; Silva, Marcela F; Nishi, Leticia; Vieira, Angélica M S; Fagundes-Klen, Márcia R; Andrade, Murilo B; Vieira, Marcelo F; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2016-04-01

    In this work, to evaluate the effectiveness of the coagulation/flocculation using a natural coagulant, using Moringa oleifera Lam functionalized with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, producing flakes that are attracted by an external magnetic field, thereby allowing a fast settling and separation of the clarified liquid, is proposed. The removal efficiency of the parameters, apparent color, turbidity, and compounds with UV254nm absorption, was evaluated. The magnetic functionalized M. oleifera Lam coagulant could effectively remove 90 % of turbidity, 85 % of apparent color, and 50 % for the compounds with absorption at UV254nm, in surface waters under the influence of an external magnetic field within 30 min. It was found that the coagulation/flocculation treatment using magnetic functionalized M. oleifera Lam coagulant was able to reduce the values of the physico-chemical parameters evaluated with reduced settling time.

  13. Evaluating the Efficiency of Tragacanth Coagulant Aid in Removing Colloidal Materials and Suspended Solids Creating Turbidity from Karun River Water

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Farhadi; Afshin Takdastan; Roghayeh Baghbany

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Colloidal materials and suspended solids cause turbidity in water. To remove turbidity, clarification method is used that includes processes of coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation. Due to the long duration of coagulation process, coagulant aids are applied. Despite the favorable efficiency of synthetic polyelectrolytes as a coagulant aid, due to their harmful effects on human health, in this process, natural organic polymers are used instead. Materials and Methods: I...

  14. Correlates and prevalence of hypogonadism in patients with early- and late-onset type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Zhang, M; Liu, X; Cui, W; Rampersad, S; Li, F; Lin, Z; Yang, P; Li, H; Sheng, C; Cheng, X; Qu, S

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to compare the prevalence of hypogonadism between male patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and late-onset type 2 diabetes. A total of 122 male patients with early-onset T2DM (diagnosis age ≤40 years) and 100 male patients with late-onset T2DM (diagnosis age >40 years) were recruited from our in-patient department between 1 January 2013 and 28 December 2015. Serum FSH, LH, testosterone, lipid profile, uric acid, HbA1c, and beta-cell function were determined in blood samples. The diagnosis of hypogonadism was based on the levels of LH, FSH, and total testosterone. The mean onset age was 29.86 ± 6.31 and 54.47 ± 9.97 years old in the early-onset group and late-onset group, respectively. Compared with late-onset T2DM, those with early-onset T2DM had a higher proportion of new-onset diabetes, were more likely to be obese, and had worse glycemic control, lipid control, and lower sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). The prevalence of hypogonadism was much higher in the early-onset group than in the late-onset group (48.0% vs. 26.7%, p hypogonadism in the early-onset group and late-onset group were 44.3% and 25.0%, respectively (p hypogonadism was higher in the patients with early-onset T2DM than that of late-onset T2DM. This prevalence might be attributable to greater obesity, worse lipid control, and lower SHBG levels in those patients. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  15. Evaluation of Impact of Coagulant Type on Operation Parameters in Direct Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Torabian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous advantages have been reported on PAC (poly aluminum chloride used as a coagulant over other coagulants such as alum and ferric chloride used in conventional water treatment process with medium and high turbidity levels. These include lower amounts of PACL required specially in removing turbidity, larger floc grain formation, reduced floc sedimentation time, lower sludge production, and relaxation of the need for pH adjustment by lime, among others. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of different coagulants such as ferric chloride and PACL on direct filtration and to identify the most effective material based on both turbidity and particle removal efficiencies. A perfectly experimental pilot system, including raw water preparation, coagulation, flocculation, distribution measurement, and filtration units, was designed and used. Raw water turbidity level in the experimental pilot was below 10 NTU. The effects of various parameters such as coagulant type, filtration rate, and coagulant dosage on the performance of the filter were investigated. The results obtained from several filtration cycles under different conditions indicated that average effluent turbidity level, effluent particle numbers, effluent turbidity variation graph, and effluent particle graph were lower throughout the filtration cycle when PACL was used compared to when ferric chloride was used as the coagulant. Increasing filtration rate led to increased turbidity and particle number. Addition of 2 mg/l of PACL (poor coagulation and flocculation scenario was compared with addition of 5 mg/l of ferric chloride (strong coagulation and flocculation scenario. The results indicated that higher average values of turbidity removal but lower turbidity and particle removal efficiencies obtained in the case of the poor coagulation and flocculation scenario.

  16. Tissue Factor Coagulant Activity is Regulated by the Plasma Membrane Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanjie; Böing, Anita N; Hau, Chi M; Hajji, Najat; Ruf, Wolfram; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2018-06-01

     Tissue factor (TF) can be present in a non-coagulant and coagulant form. Whether the coagulant activity is affected by the plasma membrane microenvironment is unexplored.  This article studies the presence and coagulant activity of human TF in plasma membrane micro-domains.  Plasma membranes were isolated from human MIA PaCa2 cells, MDA-MB-231 cells and human vascular smooth muscle cells by Percoll gradient ultracentrifugation after cell disruption. Plasma membranes were fractionated by OptiPrep gradient ultracentrifugation, and the presence of TF, flotillin, caveolin, clathrin, protein disulphide isomerase (PDI), TF pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and phosphatidylserine (PS) were determined.  Plasma membranes contain two detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) compartments differing in density and biochemical composition. High-density DRMs (DRM-H) have a density ( ρ ) of 1.15 to 1.20 g/mL and contain clathrin, whereas low-density DRMs (DRM-L) have a density between 1.09 and 1.13 g/mL and do not contain clathrin. Both DRMs contain TF, flotillin and caveolin. PDI is detectable in DRM-H, TFPI is not detectable in either DMR-H or DRM-L and PS is detectable in DRM-L. The DRM-H-associated TF (> 95% of the TF antigen) lacks detectable coagulant activity, whereas the DRM-L-associated TF triggers coagulation. This coagulant activity is inhibited by lactadherin and thus PS-dependent, but seemed insensitive to 16F16, an inhibitor of PDI.  Non-coagulant and coagulant TF are present within different types of DRMs in the plasma membrane, and the composition of these DRMs may affect the TF coagulant activity. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  17. Predicting risk of cancer during HIV infection: the role of inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Álvaro H; Silverberg, Michael J; Wentworth, Deborah; Grulich, Andrew E; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Mitsuyasu, Ronald; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Sabin, Caroline A; Neaton, James D; Lundgren, Jens D

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection. A prospective cohort. HIV-infected patients on continuous antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the control arms of three randomized trials (N=5023) were included in an analysis of predictors of cancer (any type, infection-related or infection-unrelated). Hazard ratios for IL-6, CRP and D-dimer levels (log2-transformed) were calculated using Cox models stratified by trial and adjusted for demographics and CD4+ cell counts and adjusted also for all biomarkers simultaneously. To assess the possibility that biomarker levels were elevated at entry due to undiagnosed cancer, analyses were repeated excluding early cancer events (i.e. diagnosed during first 2 years of follow-up). During approximately 24,000 person-years of follow-up (PYFU), 172 patients developed cancer (70 infection-related; 102 infection-unrelated). The risk of developing cancer was associated with higher levels (per doubling) of IL-6 (hazard ratio 1.38, Passociated with cancer risk when all biomarkers were considered simultaneously. Results for infection-related and infection-unrelated cancers were similar to results for any cancer. Hazard ratios excluding 69 early cancer events were 1.31 (P=0.007), 1.14 (P=0.02) and 1.07 (P=0.49) for IL-6, CRP and D-dimer, respectively. Activated inflammation and coagulation pathways are associated with increased cancer risk during HIV infection. This association was stronger for IL-6 and persisted after excluding early cancer. Trials of interventions may be warranted to assess whether cancer risk can be reduced by lowering IL-6 levels in HIV-positive individuals.

  18. Haematology and coagulation profiles in cats with congenital portosystemic shunts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzounos, Caitlin E; Tivers, Michael S; Adamantos, Sophie E; English, Kate; Rees, Alan L; Lipscomb, Vicky J

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were, first, to report the haematological parameters and coagulation times for cats with a congenital portosystemic shunt (CPSS) and the influence of surgical shunt attenuation on these parameters; and, second, to identify any association between prolongation in coagulation profiles and incidence of perioperative haemorrhage. Methods This was a retrospective clinical study using client-owned cats with a CPSS. Signalment, shunt type (extra- or intrahepatic), degree of shunt attenuation (complete or partial), haematological parameters, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) test results, and occurrence of any perioperative clinical bleeding complications were recorded for cats undergoing surgical treatment of a CPSS at the Royal Veterinary College, UK, between 1994 and 2011. Results Forty-two cats were included. Thirty-six (85.7%) had an extrahepatic CPSS and six (14.3%) had an intrahepatic CPSS. Preoperatively, mean cell volume (MCV) and mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) were below the reference interval (RI) in 32 (76.2%) and 31 (73.8%) cats, respectively. Red blood cell count and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were above the RI in 10 (23.8%) and eight (19.1%) cats, respectively. Postoperatively, there were significant increases in haematocrit ( P = 0.044), MCV ( P = 0.008) and MCH ( P = 0.002). Despite the significant increase in MCV postoperatively, the median MCV postoperatively was below the RI, indicating persistence of microcytosis. Preoperatively, PT was above the upper RI in 14 cats (87.5%), and aPTT was above the upper RI in 11 cats (68.8%). No cat demonstrated a perioperative clinical bleeding complication. Conclusions and relevance Cats with a CPSS are likely to present with a microcytosis, but rarely present with anaemia, leukocytosis or thrombocytopenia. Surgical attenuation of the CPSS results in a significant increase in the HCT and MCV. Coagulation profiles in cats with a

  19. Argon plasma coagulation for rectal bleeding after prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Stephen; Wallner, Kent; Dominitz, Jason A.; Han, Ben; True, Lawrence; Sutlief, Steven; Billingsley, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To better define the efficacy and safety of argon plasma coagulation (APC), specifically for brachytherapy-related proctitis, we reviewed the clinical course of 7 patients treated for persistent rectal bleeding. Approximately 2-10% of prostate cancer patients treated with 125 I or 103 Pd brachytherapy will develop radiation proctitis. The optimum treatment for patients with persistent bleeding is unclear from the paucity of available data. Prior reports lack specific dosimetric information, and patients with widely divergent forms of radiation were grouped together in the analyses. Methods and Materials: Seven patients were treated with APC at the Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System and the University of Washington from 1997 to 1999 for persistent rectal bleeding due to prostate brachytherapy-related proctitis. Four patients received supplemental external beam radiation, delivered by a four-field technique. A single gastroenterologist at the Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System treated 6 of the 7 patients. If the degree of proctitis was limited, all sites of active bleeding were coagulated in symptomatic patients. An argon plasma coagulator electrosurgical system was used to administer treatments every 4-8 weeks as needed. The argon gas flow was set at 1.6 L/min, with an electrical power setting of 40-45 W. Results: The rectal V100 (the total rectal volume, including the lumen, receiving the prescription dose or greater) for the 7 patients ranged from 0.13 to 4.61 cc. Rectal bleeding was first noticed 3-18 months after implantation. APC (range 1-3 sessions) was performed 9-22 months after implantation. Five patients had complete resolution of their bleeding, usually within days of completing APC. Two patients had only partial relief from bleeding, but declined additional APC therapy. No patient developed clinically evident progressive rectal wall abnormalities after APC, (post-APC follow-up range 4-13 months). Conclusions: Most

  20. Effect of Dan seven soft capsule adjuvant therapy on serum inflammatory factors, coagulation function and blood rheology indexes in patients with acute hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hua Gui

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of Dan seven soft capsule on the treatment of acute hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease and the influence of serum inflammatory factors, coagulation function and blood rheology indexes. Methods: A total of 112 cases of patients with acute hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease, according to the random data table were divided into the control group (n=57 and observation group (n=55, the patients in the control group received routine treatment combined with edaravone, on the basis of the treatment of the control group, the observation group was treated with Dan seven soft capsule. The serum levels of inflammatory factors, coagulation function and blood rheology indexes were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, there were no significant difference in the inflammatory factors (hs-CRP, TNF-α and IL-6, blood coagulation function (FIB, PT and APTT and hemorheology (high cut whole blood viscosity, low cut whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity levels between the control group and observation group. Compared with the levels of the same group before treatment, two groups of hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, FIB, high cut whole blood viscosity, low cut whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity level after treatment were significantly decreased, and levels in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group; Compared with the group before treatment, the levels of PT and APTT in the two groups were significantly increased, and the observation group was significantly higher than the control group. Conclusion: Dan seven soft capsule in the treatment of acute hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease can effectively reduce the level of serum inflammatory factors, improve coagulation function and blood rheology index, it has an important clinical value.