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Sample records for controls coagulation onset

  1. Quality Control and Assurance for Coagulation Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭黎明

    2006-01-01

    @@ The coagulation laboratory aids the clinician in assessing not only the bleeding patient but also the thrombotic patient. The techniques of coagulation laboratory are used to evaluate not only the coagulation system but also the anti-coagulation system, fibrinolytic system,platelet and vascular endothelial function. Enzymes, inhibitors, plasma factors and co-factors, cellular release products, and cell receptors can be measured in coagulation laboratory.

  2. Fuzzy Based Auto-coagulation Control Through Photometric Dispersion Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白桦; 李圭白

    2004-01-01

    The main role of water treatment plants is to supply high-quality safe drinking water. Coagulation is one of the most important stages of surface water treatment. The photometric dispersion analyzer(PDA) is a new optical method for flocculation monitoring, and is feasible to realize coagulation feedback control. The on line modification of the coagulation control system' s set point( or optimum dosing coagulant) has influenced the application of this technology in water treatment plant for a long time. A fuzzy control system incorporating the photometric dispersion analyzer was utilized in this coagulation control system. Proposed is a fuzzy logic inference control system by using Takagi and Sugeno' s fuzzy if-then rule for the self-correction of set point on line. Programmed is the dosing rate fuzzy control system in SIEMENS small-scale programmable logic controller. A 400 L/min middle-scale water treatment plant was utilized to simulate the reaction. With the changes of raw water quality, the set point was modified correctly in time, as well as coagulant dosing rate, and residual turbility before filtration was eligible and stable. Results show that this fuzzy inference and control system performs well on the coagulation control system through PDA.

  3. Are Global Coagulation and Platelet Parameters Useful Markers for Predicting Late-Onset Neonatal Sepsis?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qi; Duan, Hongmei; Yu, Jialin; Yao, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is difficult because of the nonspecific nature of the clinical presentation. Inflammation and coagulation can activate each other. Coagulation activation can occur in the early phase of sepsis. The main purposes of this study were to investigate the value of platelet parameters and coagulation parameters in predicting neonatal sepsis. The study included 650 patients: 490, Group I (330 proven and 160 clinical sepsis cases), and 160, Group II (control group). Platelet count (PLT), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), thrombocytocrit, prothrombin time (PT), and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were measured. The parameters were determined before diagnosis of sepsis. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were analyzed to determine the optimal thresholds. The optimum cutoff value, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for each potential marker. The MPV, PDW, PT, and CRP values were found to be increased while PLT decreased significantly in sepsis patients. ROC curve analysis showed that PT and PLT were better than PDW and MPV for the diagnosis of sepsis. Further, combining PT (17.85 s) and CRP (8.5 mg/L) can enhance the diagnostic accuracy of sepsis, with a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 77.9, 83.1, 58.2, and 92.6%, respectively. PT has a potential to be an additional indicator for neonatal sepsis, the combined use of PT and other markers such as CRP should be considered in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.

  4. Onset of Coagulation Function Recovery Is Delayed in Severely Injured Trauma Patients with Venous Thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, Belinda H; Connelly, Christopher R; Fair, Kelly A; Holcomb, John B; Fox, Erin E; Wade, Charles E; Bulger, Eileen M; Schreiber, Martin A

    2017-07-01

    Altered coagulation function after trauma can contribute to development of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Severe trauma impairs coagulation function, but the trajectory for recovery is not known. We hypothesized that enhanced, early recovery of coagulation function increases VTE risk in severely injured trauma patients. Secondary analysis was performed on data from the Pragmatic Randomized Optimal Platelet and Plasma Ratio (PROPPR) trial, excluding patients who died within 24 hours or were on pre-injury anticoagulants. Patient characteristics, adverse outcomes, and parameters of platelet function and coagulation (thromboelastography) were compared from admission to 72 hours between VTE (n = 83) and non-VTE (n = 475) patients. A p value < 0.05 indicates significance. Despite similar patient demographics, VTE patients exhibited hypercoagulable thromboelastography parameters and enhanced platelet function at admission (p < 0.05). Both groups exhibited hypocoagulable thromboelastography parameters, platelet dysfunction, and suppressed clot lysis (low clot lysis at 30 minutes) 2 hours after admission (p < 0.05). The VTE patients exhibited delayed coagulation recovery (a significant change compared with 2 hours) of K-value (48 vs 24 hours), α-angle (no recovery), maximum amplitude (24 vs 12 hours), and clot lysis at 30 minutes (48 vs 12 hours). Platelet function recovery mediated by arachidonic acid (72 vs 4 hours), ADP (72 vs 12 hours), and collagen (48 vs 12 hours) was delayed in VTE patients. The VTE patients had lower mortality (4% vs 13%; p < 0.05), but fewer hospital-free days (0 days [interquartile range 0 to 8 days] vs 10 days [interquartile range 0 to 20 days]; p < 0.05) and higher complication rates (p < 0.05). Recovery from platelet dysfunction and coagulopathy after severe trauma were delayed in VTE patients. Suppressed clot lysis and compensatory mechanisms associated with altered coagulation that can potentiate VTE formation require additional

  5. Development of a control system for in-line coagulation in an ultrafiltration process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, Bastiaan; Betlem, Ben H. L.; Roffel, Brian

    2007-01-01

    A control system for the in-line coagulation applied in an ultrafiltration process was developed. The dosing strategy aims to apply a minimal coagulant dose while maintaining desirable process performance by regulating the initial filtration resistance. This is achieved by a feedback controller. It

  6. PARTICLE ELECTROSTATIC COAGULATION AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN DUST CONTROL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾强; 刘炳江

    1995-01-01

    Fine particulates instead of others create particulate pollution and they are easier to escape from almost all conventional collectors of low-or medium-efficiency. It is of practical significance to take full advantages of particle coagulation by electrostatic forces to upgrade the collentors' performance. This paper investigates the main mechanisms of coagulation, an possiboie trostatic forces existing in the collectors and their effects on the particle coagulation. To make particle kinetic coagulation electrostaticaUy enhanced be a step of the conventional collectors' operations,certain conditions should be created through some modifications of the collectors. Based on that, the authors suggest that a precharger electro-cyclone technique be applied to improve the performance of common cyclones still widely used in many places. And a preliminary semi-industrial test has been carried out at Jiawang Power Station, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, and the results show that the modified cyclone increases its efficiency from about 800% to. 92-94%.

  7. Pre-chlorination contact time and the removal and control of Microcystis aeroginosa in coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsongpon, T.; Leungprasert, S.; Yoshimura, C.

    2017-05-01

    The use of pre-oxidation is known to improve algae removal by coagulation and control the growth of algae. The contact time between oxidants and algae in pre-oxidation stage has been found as important parameter. This study investigated the effect of pre-chlorination contact time on the control and removal of cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa by coagulation. The results showed that when the alum dose was sufficient, increasing contact time showed an improvement in algae removal by coagulation in case of high chlorine dose. The algae removal ratio at high chlorine dose, 3 mg L-1 increased when contact time increased and it decreased after 30 minutes of contact time. In contrast, the result from chlorine dose, 2 mg L-1, showed an unclear trend when contact time increased. Adding 2 mg L-1 of pre-chlorination with 10 minutes of contact time was enough to control the regrowth of M. aeruginosa. In addition, dissolve organic carbon (DOC) and UV absorbance at 254 nm, which particulary indicates aromatic compounds, tended to increase when the contact time increased. The increased of DOC and UV 254 indicated the release of intracellular organic matter (IOM) from M. aeruginosa. High level of DOC, 0.68 mg L-1 in this study showed negative effect on M. aeruginosa removal by coagulation and could not be removed by coagulation process.

  8. Coagulation of humic waters for diffused pollution control and the influence of coagulant type on DOC fractions removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiderscheidt, Elisangela; Leiviskä, Tiina; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the suitability of organic coagulants for treatment of typically humic peat extraction runoff water by comparing their performance with that of ferric sulphate (FS). The influence of coagulant type on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fractions removed was analysed in detail using LC-OCD-OND (size exclusion liquid chromatography coupled with organic carbon and organic nitrogen detection) fractionation techniques. In general, lower coagulant dosage was needed under acidic (pH 4.5) than neutral (pH 6.5) conditions. Chitosan (Chit) and poly (diallyldimethyl) ammonium chloride (pDMAC) required significantly lower dosage (40-55%) than FS for acceptable purification, while a tannin-based coagulant (Tan2) required substantially higher dosage (55-75%) independent of water pH. FS demonstrated the best removal of DOC (polymers demonstrated satisfactory overall performance, achieving purification rates mostly inside the requirements set by Finnish environmental authorities.

  9. Application of an expert system using neural network to control the coagulant dosing in water treatment plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hang ZHANG; Dayong LUO

    2004-01-01

    The coagulation process is one of the most important stages m water treatment plant, which involves many comlex physical and chemical phenomena. Moreover, coagulant dosing rate is non-linearly correlated to raw water characteristics such as turbidity, conductivity, PH, temperature, etc. As such, coagulation reaction is hard or even impossible to control satisfactorily by conventional methods. Based on neural network and rule models, an expert system for determining the optimum chemical dosage rate is developed and used m a water treatment work, and the results of actual runs show that in the condition of satisfying the demand of drinking water quality, the usage of coagulant is lowered.

  10. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormoen, Garth W.; Khader, Ayesha; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2013-06-01

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation factor levels and TF particle concentration. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 4:6 with PBS. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 8:2 with factor VII-depleted plasma, 7:3 with factor IX- or factor X-depleted plasmas, or 2:8 with factor II-, V- or VIII-depleted plasmas. Addition of coagulation factors VII, X, IX, V and II to depleted plasmas shortened clotting and enzyme initiation times, and increased enzyme generation rates in a concentration-dependent manner. Only additions of factors IX and X from low-normal to high-normal levels shortened clotting times and increased enzyme generation rates. Our results demonstrate that coagulation kinetics for TF particles are controlled by factor IX and X levels within the normal physiological range. We hypothesize that individual patient factor IX and X levels may be prognostic for susceptibility to circulating TF-induced thrombosis.

  11. Impact of Albumin on Coagulation Competence and Hemorrhage During Major Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Højskov, Michael; Johansson, Pär I; Kridina, Irina; Kistorp, Thomas; Salling, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Henning B; Ruhnau, Birgitte; Pedersen, Tom; Secher, Niels H

    2016-03-01

    For patients exposed to a massive blood loss during surgery, maintained coagulation competence is important. It is less obvious whether coagulation competence influences bleeding during elective surgery where patients are exposed to infusion of a crystalloid or a colloid. This randomized controlled trial evaluates whether administration of 5% human albumin (HA) or lactated Ringer solution (LR) affects coagulation competence and in turn blood loss during cystectomy due to bladder cancer. Forty patients undergoing radical cystectomy were included to receive either 5% HA (n = 20) or LR (n = 20). Nineteen patients were analyzed in the HA group and 20 patients in the lactated Ringer group. Blinded determination of the blood loss was similar in the 2 groups of patients: 1658 (800-3300) mL with the use of HA and 1472 (700-4330) mL in the lactated Ringer group (P = 0.45). Yet, by thrombelastography (TEG) evaluated coagulation competence, albumin affected clot growth (TEG-angle 69 ± 5 vs 74° ± 3°, P blood loss (P = 0.042) while administration of albumin was related to the changes in TEG-MA (P = 0.029), aPPT (P blood loss as compared to infusion of LR. Also the use of HA did not affect the need for blood transfusion, the incidence of postoperative complications, or the hospital in-stay. Yet, albumin decreases coagulation competence during major surgery and the blood loss is related to TEG-MA rather than to plasma coagulation variables.

  12. Resolution of Inflammation: What Controls Its Onset?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Michelle A; Sousa, Lirlândia P; Pinho, Vanessa; Perretti, Mauro; Teixeira, Mauro M

    2016-01-01

    An effective resolution program may be able to prevent the progression from non-resolving acute inflammation to persistent chronic inflammation. It has now become evident that coordinated resolution programs initiate shortly after inflammatory responses begin. In this context, several mechanisms provide the fine-tuning of inflammation and create a favorable environment for the resolution phase to take place and for homeostasis to return. In this review, we focus on the events required for an effective transition from the proinflammatory phase to the onset and establishment of resolution. We suggest that several mediators that promote the inflammatory phase of inflammation can simultaneously initiate a program for active resolution. Indeed, several events enact a decrease in the local chemokine concentration, a reduction which is essential to inhibit further infiltration of neutrophils into the tissue. Interestingly, although neutrophils are cells that characteristically participate in the active phase of inflammation, they also contribute to the onset of resolution. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms that initiate resolution may be instrumental to develop pro-resolution strategies to treat complex chronic inflammatory diseases, in humans. The efforts to develop strategies based on resolution of inflammation have shaped a new area of pharmacology referred to as "resolution pharmacology."

  13. Resolution of Inflammation: What Controls Its Onset?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Michelle A.; Sousa, Lirlândia P.; Pinho, Vanessa; Perretti, Mauro; Teixeira, Mauro M.

    2016-01-01

    An effective resolution program may be able to prevent the progression from non-resolving acute inflammation to persistent chronic inflammation. It has now become evident that coordinated resolution programs initiate shortly after inflammatory responses begin. In this context, several mechanisms provide the fine-tuning of inflammation and create a favorable environment for the resolution phase to take place and for homeostasis to return. In this review, we focus on the events required for an effective transition from the proinflammatory phase to the onset and establishment of resolution. We suggest that several mediators that promote the inflammatory phase of inflammation can simultaneously initiate a program for active resolution. Indeed, several events enact a decrease in the local chemokine concentration, a reduction which is essential to inhibit further infiltration of neutrophils into the tissue. Interestingly, although neutrophils are cells that characteristically participate in the active phase of inflammation, they also contribute to the onset of resolution. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms that initiate resolution may be instrumental to develop pro-resolution strategies to treat complex chronic inflammatory diseases, in humans. The efforts to develop strategies based on resolution of inflammation have shaped a new area of pharmacology referred to as “resolution pharmacology.” PMID:27199985

  14. Solar wind control of the local time of substorm onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grocott, Adrian; Case, Nathan; Laundal, Karl; Laurens, Hannah; Milan, Steve

    2017-04-01

    We use solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field data, along with satellite global auroral imagery, to investigate what controls the magnetic local time (MLT) of substorm onset. We find that substorm onsets occur over a wide range of MLTs (18 - 4 hrs), with a typical MLT (mode) of 23 hrs. In agreement with previous studies, IMF BY , acts to move the onset to an earlier/later local time in the northern hemisphere and a later/earlier local time in the southern hemisphere, depending on the sign of BY , consistent with a twist of the conjugate magnetic field line. This effect explains a small fraction of the observed MLT variation (˜ 1 hr), but cannot account for the tendency of onset to be often displaced to earlier ( 23 hrs) MLTs in both hemispheres. We also inspect the relationship between solar wind V Y and onset MLT, which also has a small, but measurable effect on the local time of substorm onset. This effect acts in the same sense in the northern and southern hemispheres, moving onset to earlier times for positive V Y and later times for negative V Y . We find that a function relating both BY and V Y to onset MLT produces a better fit than a function based on either parameter alone.

  15. Acute Onset of Vancomycin Anaphylaxis With Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in an Orthopedic Patient Despite Prior Repeated Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Brock; Roboubi, Babak; Henshaw, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic that exhibits bactericidal activity against gram-positive cocci. It is commonly recommended for surgical prophylaxis in cases of suspected bacterial resistance or penicillin allergy. There are 2 main types of hypersensitivity reactions associated with vancomycin. Red man syndrome is an anaphylactoid reaction caused by direct release of histamine. The second is an anaphylactic reaction, which is an immunoglobulin E-mediated response. We present the case of a 55-year-old woman with a history of metastatic giant cell tumor of the right proximal tibia. She had undergone multiple surgeries for this and other nonorthopedic conditions. The patient received vancomycin for the majority of these procedures and extended courses of vancomycin on 2 separate occasions. In the present case, the patient was taken to the operating room for a prosthetic infection, and vancomycin was given after cultures were taken. The patient immediately developed signs consistent with anaphylaxis and disseminated intravascular coagulation. This was treated acutely with hemodynamic resuscitation, replacement of blood components, steroids, and repeated boluses of epinephrine. She recovered and was taken back to the operating room during that same admission without incident. The patient has since been treated with systemic daptomycin and a tobramycin cement spacer without further incident.

  16. Control of the Coagulation Process in a Paper-mill Wastewater Treatment Process Using a Fuzzy Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, J.-Q.; Huang, M.-Z.; Ma, Y.-W.; Guo, W. J.; Y. Wang; Zhang, H.-P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an integrated neural-fuzzy process controller was developed to study the coagulation of wastewater treatment in a paper mill. In order to improve the fuzzy neural network performance, the self-learning ability embedded in the fuzzy neural network model was emphasized for improving the rule extraction performance. It proves the fuzzy neural network more effective in modeling the coagulation performance than artificial neural networks (ANN). For comparing between the fuzzy neural...

  17. An Unusual Case of Adult-Onset Still’s Disease with Hemophagocytic Syndrome, Necrotic Leukoencephalopathy and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaie Namas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Case. A 34-year-old African-American female with a history of adult-onset Still’s disease presented to an outside hospital with oligoarthritis. She experienced a generalized tonic-clonic seizure en route via ambulance, was intubated upon arrival, and transferred to the intensive care unit for treatment of suspected pneumonia and sepsis. She subsequently developed generalized cutaneous desquamation that progressed despite the cessation of antibiotics and other potential offending drugs which required transfer to our hospital’s burn unit. She was suspected to have reactive hemophagocytic syndrome based on her clinical presentation of fever, rash, polyarthritis, elevated liver enzymes, coagulopathy, splenomegaly, normocytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperferritinemia, and hemophagocytosis visualized in bone marrow biopsy specimen. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated necrotic demyelination of the deep white matter and corona radiata. The patient developed multiorgan dysfunction and DIC without any other attributable etiology. Despite aggressive broad spectrum therapy and high dose of steroids she progressively deteriorated and eventually expired. Conclusion. Previous publications have highlighted the prevalence of necrotic leukoencephalopathy in children with familial hemophagocytic syndrome. Our patient demonstrated some uncommon features complicating her HLH including DIC and necrotic leukoencephalopathy, which are very rare entities in AOSD.

  18. Targeting Two Coagulation Cascade Proteases with a Bivalent Aptamer Yields a Potent and Antidote-Controllable Anticoagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Erin E; Bompiani, Kristin M; Woodruff, Rebecca S; Sullenger, Bruce A

    2016-02-01

    Potent and rapid-onset anticoagulation is required for several clinical settings, including cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. In addition, because anticoagulation is associated with increased bleeding following surgery, the ability to rapidly reverse such robust anticoagulation is also important. Previously, we observed that no single aptamer was as potent as heparin for anticoagulating blood. However, we discovered that combinations of two aptamers were as potent as heparin. Herein, we sought to combine two individual anticoagulant aptamers into a single bivalent RNA molecule in an effort to generate a single molecule that retained the potent anticoagulant activity of the combination of individual aptamers. We created four bivalent aptamers that can inhibit Factor X/Xa and prothrombin/thrombin and anticoagulate plasma, as well as the combination of individual aptamers. Detailed characterization of the shortest bivalent aptamer indicates that each aptamer retains full binding and functional activity when presented in the bivalent context. Finally, reversal of this bivalent aptamer with a single antidote was explored, and anticoagulant activity could be rapidly turned off in a dose-dependent manner. These studies demonstrate that bivalent anticoagulant aptamers represent a novel and potent approach to actively and reversibly control coagulation.

  19. Development of a multi-objective coagulation system for long-term fouling control in dead-end ultrafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondervan, Edwin; Blankert, Bastiaan; Betlem, Ben H.L.; Roffel, Brian

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-objective control system has been developed and experimentally tested. The multi-objective control system can be effectively used to control short-term fouling as well as long-term fouling. In an earlier study it was found that coagulant dosing in ultrafiltration can be used e

  20. Development of a multi-objective coagulation system for long-term fouling control in dead-end ultrafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondervan, Edwin; Blankert, Bastiaan; Betlem, Ben H. L.; Roffel, Brian

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-objective control system has been developed and experimentally tested. The multi-objective control system can be effectively used to control short-term fouling as well as long-term fouling. In an earlier Study it was found that coagulant dosing in ultrafiltration can be used e

  1. Transglutaminase-mediated semen coagulation controls sperm storage in the malaria mosquito.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Rogers

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Insect seminal fluid proteins are powerful modulators of many aspects of female physiology and behaviour including longevity, egg production, sperm storage, and remating. The crucial role of these proteins in reproduction makes them promising targets for developing tools aimed at reducing the population sizes of vectors of disease. In the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, seminal secretions produced by the male accessory glands (MAGs are transferred to females in the form of a coagulated mass called the mating plug. The potential of seminal fluid proteins as tools for mosquito control demands that we improve our limited understanding of the composition and function of the plug. Here, we show that the plug is a key determinant of An. gambiae reproductive success. We uncover the composition of the plug and demonstrate it is formed through the cross-linking of seminal proteins mediated by a MAG-specific transglutaminase (TGase, a mechanism remarkably similar to mammalian semen coagulation. Interfering with TGase expression in males inhibits plug formation and transfer, and prevents females from storing sperm with obvious consequences for fertility. Moreover, we show that the MAG-specific TGase is restricted to the anopheline lineage, where it functions to promote sperm storage rather than as a mechanical barrier to re-insemination. Taken together, these data represent a major advance in our understanding of the factors shaping Anopheles reproductive biology.

  2. Improvement of multi-parameter-based feed-forward coagulant dosing control systems with feed-back functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Ratnaweera, H

    2016-01-01

    Coagulant dosing control in drinking and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is often limited to flow proportional concepts. The advanced multi-parameter-based dosing control systems have significantly reduced coagulant consumption and improved outlet qualities. Due to the long retention time in separation stages, these models are mostly based on feed-forward (FF) models. This paper demonstrates the improvement of such models with feed-back (FB) concepts with simplifications, making it possible to use even in systems with long separation stages. Full-scale case studies from a drinking water treatment plant and a WWTP are presented. The model qualities were improved by the dosage adjustment of the FB model, ranging from 66% to 197% of the FF model. Hence, the outlet qualities became more stable and coagulant consumption was further reduced in the range of 3.7%-15.5%.

  3. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    OpenAIRE

    Tormoen, Garth W.; Khader, Ayesha; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation f...

  4. Evaluation of the hemostatic and coagulation effects of AUTO CUT and DRY CUT using a computer-controlled cutting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyrach, Mara N I; Tolba, Rene H; Voigtländer, Matthias; Neugebauer, Alexander; Enderle, Markus D

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate a newly developed computer-controlled cutting system for the generation of standardized resections and to systematically compare the hemostatic properties and tissue effect of 2 cutting modes, namely, AUTO CUT and DRY CUT used in urologic procedures. An isolated perfused kidney model was used to assess blood loss and coagulation depth after resection of tissue specimens of standardized geometry, size, and cutting velocity with a resection loop. Three different effect settings (E1, E3, and E6; 200 W) of the electrosurgical modes AUTO CUT and DRY CUT were compared. Blood loss was determined semiquantitatively by weighing a swab before and after placing it onto the resection area. The coagulation depth was estimated microscopically on cross sections. The computer-controlled cutting system creates resections of standardized geometry and size with a high reproducibility. An effect level-dependent increase in hemostasis and coagulation depth could be demonstrated with the cutting modes DRY CUT and AUTO CUT using this computer-controlled cutting system. The hemostatic effect with DRY CUT is significantly more pronounced than with AUTO CUT (E1, E3: P computer-controlled cutting system creating reproducible resections in combination with the isolated perfused kidney model offers the possibility to systematically investigate bleeding rate and coagulation depth. The stronger hemostatic properties of the DRY CUT mode are more favorable for urologic interventions requiring a higher hemostatic effect than the AUTO CUT mode. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Levels of prolactin in relation to coagulation factors and risk of venous thrombosis. Results of a large population-based case-control study (MEGA-study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuijver, D.J.; Debeij, J.; Zaane, B. van; Dekkers, O.M.; Smit, J.W.A.; Buller, H.R.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Gerdes, V.E.; Cannegieter, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The pituitary hormone prolactin is thought to influence coagulation. We aimed to study the relation between prolactin levels, coagulation factors and risk of venous thrombosis (VT). We used data from a large population based case-control study into aetiology of first VT (MEGA-study). Prolactin level

  6. Combining Coagulation/MIEX with Biological Activated Carbon Treatment to Control Organic Fouling in the Microfiltration of Secondary Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

    2016-07-30

    Coagulation, magnetic ion exchange resin (MIEX) and biological activated carbon (BAC) were examined at lab scale as standalone, and sequential pre-treatments for controlling the organic fouling of a microfiltration membrane by biologically treated secondary effluent (BTSE) using a multi-cycle approach. MIEX gave slightly greater enhancement in flux than coagulation due to greater removal of high molecular weight (MW) humic substances, although it was unable to remove high MW biopolymers. BAC treatment was considerably more effective for improving the flux than coagulation or MIEX. This was due to the biodegradation of biopolymers and/or their adsorption by the biofilm, and adsorption of humic substances by the activated carbon, as indicated by size exclusion chromatography. Coagulation or MIEX followed by BAC treatment further reduced the problematic foulants and significantly improved the flux performance. The unified membrane fouling index showed that the reduction of membrane fouling by standalone BAC treatment was 42%. This improved to 65%, 70%, and 93% for alum, ferric chloride and MIEX pre-treatment, respectively, when followed by BAC treatment. This study showed the potential of sequential MIEX and BAC pre-treatment for controlling organic fouling and thus enhancing the performance of microfiltration in the reclamation of BTSE.

  7. Changes in Coagulation and Fibrinolytic Indices in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Undergoing Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET treatment always attain a low cumulative pregnancy rate disaccording with the satisfactory number of oocytes. Objective. We aim to evaluate the status of coagulation and fibrinolytic system in PCOS patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH process. Method. Of the 97 women, 30 patients with PCOS composed the study group; 67 women of child-bearing age with normal endocrine function composed the control group. All participants underwent GnRH agonist standard long protocol, and plasma HCY, FVIII, FX, and D-dimer levels as well as hormone parameters were measured at day of full downregulation, hCG priming, and embryos transfer. Results. On day of full downregulation, FX levels were significantly higher in PCOS group (P<0.01. On hCG priming day, FX and estrogen levels in PCOS group were higher than in the control group and FVIII levels were significantly lower on day of embryos transfer whereas FX and E2 levels were significantly higher in PCOS group. Conclusion. Hypercoagulable state during peri-implantation phase would probably lead to poor microcirculation of endometrium and be one of the most important disadvantages of successful implantation and subsequent clinical pregnancy.

  8. In-line coagulation prior to UF of treated domestic wastewater - foulants removal, fouling control and phosphorus removal

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Xing

    2012-06-01

    The present work investigated fouling control and phosphorus removal by applying in-line coagulation prior to ultrafiltration (UF) of treated domestic wastewater. Experiments were conducted in both lab- and pilot-scale under close to neutral pH condition. Lab-scale foulant removal tests showed that increasing the dosage of FeCl3, AlCl3 and polymeric aluminum chloride (PACl) can improve biopolymer removal. Specifically, PACl reduced preferentially the proteinaceous fraction of biopolymer while the other two coagulants showed no significant preference. The filterability of water samples was improved after coagulation, which is contributed to biopolymer removal and the formation of larger particles. Pilot UF experiments demonstrated that in-line coagulation improved the performance of UF to a large extent. Within 0.037-0.148mmol Me3+/L dosage range, adding more FeCl3 and AlCl3 slowed down the development of trans-membrane pressure (TMP) correspondingly, while changing PACl dosage showed little effect on the variation of TMP increase rate. Further investigations indicated that PACl related precipitates contributed to more irreversible fouling than that which the monomeric coagulants made. Fouling control is thus considered as a co-effect determined by foulant removal efficiency, fouling layer structure and the adherence of hydrolysis products/precipitates onto the membrane. With respect to phosphorus removal, dosing FeCl3 and AlCl3 achieved higher removal efficiency than using PACl. Based on lab- and pilot-scale results, dosing FeCl3 and AlCl3 at a relative dosage of over 2.5mol Me3+ per mol total phosphorus (TP) in feedwater is necessarily required to keep the TP concentration under 50μg/L in UF permeate. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  9. [The effects of Arnica Montana on blood coagulation. Randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, L; Drouin, J; Desjardins, L; Leroux, D; Audet, D

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of this study, which took the form of a two-period cross-over clinical trial, was to determine whether a homeopathic substance, Arnica Montana, significantly decreased bleeding time (Simplate II) and to describe its impact on various blood coagulation tests. It was not shown that this substance had a significant impact on various parameters of blood coagulation in healthy volunteers in the period immediately following administration [corrected].

  10. Cancer and blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccio, C; Medico, E

    2006-05-01

    In human patients, blood coagulation disorders often associate with cancer, even in its early stages. Recently, in vitro and in vivo experimental models have shown that oncogene expression, or inactivation of tumour suppressor genes, upregulate genes that control blood coagulation. These studies suggest that activation of blood clotting, leading to peritumoral fibrin deposition, is instrumental in cancer development. Fibrin can indeed build up a provisional matrix, supporting the invasive growth of neoplastic tissues and blood vessels. Interference with blood coagulation can thus be considered as part of a multifaceted therapeutic approach to cancer.

  11. A simple method for estimation of coagulation efficiency in mixed aerosols. [environmental pollution control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmick, R. L.; Boyd, A.; Wolochow, H.

    1975-01-01

    Aerosols of KBr and AgNO3 were mixed, exposed to light in a glass tube and collected in the dark. About 15% of the collected material was reduced to silver upon development. Thus, two aerosols of particles that react to form a photo-reducible compound can be used to measure coagulation efficiency.

  12. Control of buffet onset by plasma-based actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnyakov, O. I.; Polivanov, P. A.; Budovskiy, A. D.; Sidorenko, A. A.; Maslov, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    The paper is devoted to the experimental investigations of the influence of electrical discharges which produces local area of unsteady energy deposition and density variations on transonic flow, namely, buffet onset. Experiments are carried out in T-112 wind tunnel in TsAGI using model of rectangular wing with chord of 200 mm and span 599 mm. The profile of the wing is supercritical airfoil P184-15SR with max thickness 15% of chord length. Experiments were carried out in the range of Mach number 0.73÷0.78 for several angles of attack of the model. The flow around the model was studied by schlieren visualization, surface pressure distribution measurements and Pitot measurements in the wake of the wing using wake rake located downstream of the model. The experimentally data obtained show that excitation of plasma actuator based on spark discharge effectively influence on mean flow and characteristics of shock wave oscillations. It was found that control efficiency depends on frequency of discharge.

  13. Delay in onset of metabolic alkalosis during regional citrate anti-coagulation in continous renal replacement therapy with calcium-free replacement solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    See Kay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional citrate anti-coagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy chelates calcium to produce the anti- coagulation effect. We hypothesise that a calcium-free replacement solution will require less citrate and produce fewer metabolic side effects. Fifty patients, in a Medical Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary teaching hospital (25 in each group, received continuous venovenous hemofiltration using either calcium-containing or calcium-free replacement solutions. Both groups had no significant differences in filter life, metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypocalcemia, and hypercalcemia. However, patients using calcium-containing solution developed metabolic alkalosis earlier, compared to patients using calcium-free solution (mean 24.6 hours,CI 0.8-48.4 vs. 37.2 hours, CI 9.4-65, P = 0.020. When calcium-containing replacement solution was used, more citrate was required (mean 280ml/h, CI 227.2-332.8 vs. 265ml/h, CI 203.4-326.6, P = 0.069, but less calcium was infused (mean 21.2 ml/h, CI 1.2-21.2 vs 51.6ml/h, CI 26.8-76.4, P ≤ 0.0001.

  14. COAGULATION ACTIVITY IN LIVER DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sheikh Sajjadieh Mohammad Reza

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients with advanced hepatic failure may present with the entire spectrum of coagulation factor deficiencies. This study was designed to determine laboratory abnormalities in coagulation in chronic liver disease and the association of these abnormalities with the extent of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Coagulation markers were assayed in 60 participants: 20 patients with chronic hepatitis, 20 patients with cirrhosis, and 20 healthy individuals (control. Plasma levels of anti-thrombin III were determined by a chromogenic substrate method, and plasma concentrations of fibrinogen were analyzed by the Rutberg method. Commercially available assays were used for laboratory coagulation tests. The levels of coagualation activity markers in patients with chronic liver disease were significantly different in comparison to those in healthy participants. These results indicate the utility of measuring markers for coagulation activity in determining which cirrhosis patients are more susceptible to disseminated intravascular coagulation.

  15. Effect of the colloids gelatin and HES 130/0.4 on blood coagulation in cardiac surgery patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimenai, D M; Bastianen, G W; Daane, C R; Megens-Bastiaanse, C M; van der Meer, N J M; Scohy, T V; Gerritse, B M

    2013-11-01

    The choice of the prime solution for cardiopulmonary bypass can play an important role in limiting the effect on blood coagulation, but it is still unclear what the effect of colloids on blood coagulation is. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of synthetic colloids on blood loss and blood coagulation in patients after on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedures. Sixty elective, on-pump CABG patients were randomly assigned to receive the prime solutions lactated Ringer's solution combined with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (HES, 6% Volulyte, Fresenius Kabi Nederland BV, Zeist, the Netherlands) (HES group) or gelatin (Gelofusin(®), B Braun Melsung AG, Melsungen, Germany) (Gelo group). Blood loss was assessed using post-operative chest tube output; secondary endpoints were number of blood component transfusions, routine coagulation test values and rotation thromboelastometry values (Rotem(®) delta, Pentapharm GmbH, Munich, Germany). Total post-operative chest tube output was 500 ± 420 ml in the HES group versus 465 ± 390 ml in the Gelo group (p = 0.48). No significant differences were observed in any of the routine coagulation tests values, thromboelastometry parameters or number of blood component transfusions between the groups. In this randomized, controlled trial of adults after on-pump CABG procedures, there was no significant difference in blood loss or blood coagulation between the HES group and the Gelo group.

  16. SC response characteristics of two kinds of coagulant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨万东; 宋爽; 史惠祥

    2002-01-01

    Automatic coagulant dosage control with streaming current (SC) technique is introduced in this paper. Aluminum and ferric coagulants are widely used in surface water treatment. The SC response characteristics of P-AlCl3 aluminum coagulant and P-FeCl3 ferric coagulant were investigated in this work. Bench-scale water treatment results were obtained from jar tests including rapid mixing, flocculation and undisturbed sedimentation. Results showed that aluminum coagulant is more sensitive than ferric coagulant to SC response.

  17. SC response characteristics of two kinds of coagulant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨万东; 宋爽; 史惠祥

    2002-01-01

    Automatic coagulant dosage control with streaming current (SC) technique is in troduced inthis paper. Aluminum and ferric coagulants are widely used in surface water treatment. The SC response characteristics of P-AiCI3 aluminum coagulant and P-FeCI3 ferric coagulant were investigated in this work. Bench-scale water treatment results were obtained from jar tests including rapid mixing,flocculation and undisturbed sedimentation. Results showed that aluminum coagulant is more sensitive than ferric coagulant to SC response.

  18. Fouling of microfiltration membranes by organic polymer coagulants and flocculants: controlling factors and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sen; Liu, Charles; Li, Qilin

    2011-01-01

    Organic polymers are commonly used as coagulants or flocculants in pretreatment for microfiltration (MF). These high molecular weight compounds are potential membrane foulants when carried over to the MF filters. This study examined fouling of three MF membranes of different materials by three commonly used water treatment polymers: poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride (pDADMAC), polyacrylamide (PAM), and poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide (PACA) with a wide range of molecular weights. The effects of polymer molecular characteristics, membrane surface properties, solution condition and polymer concentration on membrane fouling were investigated. Results showed severe fouling of microfiltration membranes at very low polymer concentrations, suggesting that residual polymers carried over from the coagulation/flocculation basin can contribute significantly to membrane fouling. The interactions between polymers and membranes depended strongly on the molecular size and charge of the polymer. High molecular weight, positively charged polymers caused the greatest fouling. Blockage of membrane pore openings was identified as the main fouling mechanism with no detectable internal fouling in spite of the small molecular size of the polymers relative to the membrane pore size. Solution conditions (e.g., pH and calcium concentration) that led to larger polymer molecular or aggregate sizes resulted in greater fouling.

  19. Successful Control of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation by Recombinant Thrombomodulin during Arsenic Trioxide Treatment in Relapsed Patient with Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohiro Shindo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC frequently occurs in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL. With the induction of therapy in APL using all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, DIC can be controlled in most cases as ATRA usually shows immediate improvement of the APL. However, arsenic trioxide (ATO which has been used for the treatment of relapse in APL patients has shown to take time to suppress APL cells, therefore the control of DIC in APL with ATO treatment is a major problem. Recently, the recombinant soluble thrombomodulin fragment has received a lot of attention as the novel drug for the treatment of DIC with high efficacy. Here, we present a relapsed patient with APL in whom DIC was successfully and safely controlled by rTM during treatment with ATO.

  20. Laser-tissue interaction of a continuous-wave 2-μm, 3-μm cascade oscillation fiber laser: sharp incision with controlled coagulation layer thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Tsunenori; Sumiyoshi, Tetsumi; Naruse, Kyota; Ishihara, Miya; Sato, Shunichi; Kikuchi, Makoto; Kasamatsu, Tadashi; Sekita, Hitoshi; Obara, Minoru

    2000-06-01

    We studied coagulation layer controlled incision with newly developed continuous wave 2 micrometer, 3 micrometer cascade oscillation fiber laser in vitro. Since this laser device simultaneously oscillates 2 micrometer and 3 micrometer radiation, we could change tissue interaction by arranging power ratio of 2 micrometer to 3 micrometer radiation. About one watt of total irradiation power with various power ratios was focused to extracted fresh porcine myocardium or anesthetized rabbit on an automatic moving stage to obtain line incision. Macro photograph and microscopic histology were used to observe tissue interaction phenomenon. The incised specimen showed that precise cutting groove with thin coagulation layer was attained by a 3 micrometer based radiation, meanwhile addition of 2 micrometer radiation to 3 micrometer radiation made coagulation layer thicker. A heat conduction simulator using finite-element method was used to qualitatively explain obtained coagulation layer thickness. This precise incision with controllable side coagulation layer may effective to control bleeding during incision, for instance, for skin, liver, and kidney incisions. Pure continuous wave radiation of 2 micrometer and 3 micrometer may eliminate stress wave induced tissue damage which is frequently found in Ho:YAG and/or Er:YAG tissue interactions. Moreover, sapphire fiber might offer flexible power delivery to this new laser to establish endoscopic application and/or to improved beam handling.

  1. Melatonin for chronic sleep onset insomnia in children: A Randomized placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.G.; Nagtegaal, J.E.; Heijden, J.A.M. van der; Coenen, A.M.L.; Kerkhof, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    To establish the efficacy of melatonin treatment in childhood sleep onset insomnia, 40 elementary school children, 6 to 12 years of age, who suffered more than 1 year from chronic sleep onset insomnia, were studied in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The children were randomly assigned to

  2. Arabidopsis onset of leaf death mutants identify a regulatory pathway controlling leaf senescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Hai-Chun; Sturre, Marcel J.G.; Hille, Jacques; Dijkwel, Paul P.

    2002-01-01

    The onset of leaf senescence is controlled by leaf age and ethylene can promote leaf senescence within a specific age window. We exploited the interaction between leaf age and ethylene and isolated mutants with altered leaf senescence that are named as onset of leaf death (old) mutants. Early leaf

  3. Melatonin for chronic sleep onset insomnia in children: A Randomized placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.G.; Nagtegaal, J.E.; Heijden, J.A.M. van der; Coenen, A.M.L.; Kerkhof, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    To establish the efficacy of melatonin treatment in childhood sleep onset insomnia, 40 elementary school children, 6 to 12 years of age, who suffered more than 1 year from chronic sleep onset insomnia, were studied in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The children were randomly assigned to r

  4. Principles of dielectric blood coagulometry as a comprehensive coagulation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Brun, Marc-Aurèle; Machida, Kenzo; Nagasawa, Masayuki

    2015-10-06

    Dielectric blood coagulometry (DBCM) is intended to support hemostasis management by providing comprehensive information on blood coagulation from automated, time-dependent measurements of whole blood dielectric spectra. We discuss the relationship between the series of blood coagulation reactions, especially the aggregation and deformation of erythrocytes, and the dielectric response with the help of clot structure electron microscope observations. Dielectric response to the spontaneous coagulation after recalcification presented three distinct phases that correspond to (P1) rouleau formation before the onset of clotting, (P2) erythrocyte aggregation and reconstitution of aggregates accompanying early fibrin formation, and (P3) erythrocyte shape transformation and/or structure changes within aggregates after the stable fibrin network is formed and platelet contraction occurs. Disappearance of the second phase was observed upon addition of tissue factor and ellagic acid for activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, respectively, which is attributable to accelerated thrombin generation. A series of control experiments revealed that the amplitude and/or quickness of dielectric response reflect platelet function, fibrin polymerization, fibrinolysis activity, and heparin activity. Therefore, DBCM sensitively measures blood coagulation via erythrocytes aggregation and shape changes and their impact on the dielectric permittivity, making possible the development of the battery of assays needed for comprehensive coagulation testing.

  5. Calculation of the rate of coagulation of hydrophobic colloids in the non-steady state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebersen, G.J.; Wiersema, P.H.

    1974-01-01

    In accurate coagulation measurements, the observed coagulation rate should be extrapolated to time zero to find the rate of formation of doublets from singlet particles. In the theoretical calculation of coagulation rates, generally a steady state is assumed. At the onset of coagulation, however, a

  6. Calculation of the rate of coagulation of hydrophobic colloids in the non-steady state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebersen, G.J.; Wiersema, P.H.

    1974-01-01

    In accurate coagulation measurements, the observed coagulation rate should be extrapolated to time zero to find the rate of formation of doublets from singlet particles. In the theoretical calculation of coagulation rates, generally a steady state is assumed. At the onset of coagulation, however, a

  7. Quality control lockout function on Medtronic ACT Plus coagulation timer system can be bypassed for same-patient samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    If Medtronic's ACT Plus automated coagulation timer system (an activated clotting time analyzer) is used on a single patient, its quality control (QC) lockout function may not activate--that is, the device may not lock the user out from performing sample analysis when QC has not been performed within the required time frame. The unit will indicate that QC is due by beeping three times and providing an onscreen message, but it will still analyze the sample and provide the user with results. These results may be inaccurate, and if they are used to make anticoagulation therapy decisions, they may lead to incorrect and potentially dangerous heparin therapy. Users should be made aware of this behavior (which is not described in the device's user manual) and should be instructed to verify that required QC checks have been performed before analyzing each sample.

  8. What controls early or late onset of tropical North Atlantic hurricane season?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Heng; Li, Tim; Liu, Jia; Peng, Melinda

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of first hurricane in early summer signifies the onset of an active Atlantic hurricane season. The interannual variation of this hurricane onset date is examined for the period 1979-2013. It is found that the onset date has a marked interannual variation. The standard deviation of the interannual variation of the onset day is 17.5 days, with the climatological mean onset happening on July 23. A diagnosis of tropical cyclone (TC) genesis potential index (GPI) indicates that the major difference between an early and a late onset group lies in the maximum potential intensity (MPI). A further diagnosis of the MPI shows that it is primarily controlled by the local SST anomaly (SSTA). Besides the SSTA, vertical shear and mid-tropospheric relative humidity anomalies also contribute significantly to the GPI difference between the early and late onset groups. It is found that the anomalous warm (cold) SST over the tropical Atlantic, while uncorrelated with the Niño3 index, persists from the preceding winter to concurrent summer in the early (late) onset group. The net surface heat flux anomaly always tends to damp the SSTA, which suggests that ocean dynamics may play a role in maintaining the SSTA in the tropical Atlantic. The SSTA pattern with a maximum center in northeastern tropical Atlantic appears responsible for generating the observed wind and moisture anomalies over the main TC development region. A further study is needed to understand the initiation mechanism of the SSTA in the Atlantic.

  9. Spatial coagulation with bounded coagulation rate

    OpenAIRE

    Bailleul, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    We prove that the spatial coagulation equation with bounded coagulation rate is well-posed for all times in a given class of kernels if the convection term of the underlying particle dynamics has divergence bounded below by a positive constant. Multiple coagulations, fragmentation and scattering are also considered.

  10. Partitionable-space enhanced coagulation (PEC) reactor and its working mechanism: a new prospective chemical technology for phosphorus pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Zheng, Ping; Abbas, Ghulam; Chen, Xiaoguang

    2014-02-01

    Phosphorus pollution control and phosphorus recycling, simultaneously, are focus of attention in the wastewater treatment. In this work, a novel reactor named partitionable-space enhanced coagulation (PEC) was invented for phosphorus control. The working performance and process mechanism of PEC reactor were investigated. The results showed that the PEC technology was highly efficient and cost-effective. The volumetric removal rate (VRR) reached up to 2.86 ± 0.04 kg P/(m(3) d) with a phosphorus removal rate of over 97%. The precipitant consumption was reduced to 2.60-2.76 kg Fe(II)/kg P with low operational cost of $ 0.632-0.673/kg P. The peak phosphorus content in precipitate was up to 30.44% by P2O5, which reveal the benefit of the recycling phosphorus resource. The excellent performance of PEC technology was mainly attributed to the partitionable-space and 'flocculation filter'. The partition limited the trans-regional back-mixing of reagents along the reactor, which promoted the precipitation reaction. The 'flocculation filter' retained the microflocs, enhancing the flocculation process.

  11. Improved Control Of cheese Manufacture Through continuous Vat Monitoring Of Coagulation Parameters Using The Hot Wire Method

    OpenAIRE

    LeFevre, Michael John

    1995-01-01

    The hot wire method, with pH and temperature sensors, was evaluated to determine its usefulness and application for cheese production automation. Coagulation of milk substrate was measured with the hot wire instrument and by four other methods: Formagraph, Brookfield®, vixcometer, Omnispec™ bioactivity monitor, and Sommer and Matsen rolling bottle method. The hot wire, using the time at maximum slope, detected coagulation before methods that measure resistance to shear, and after methods that...

  12. 1:4 matched case-control study on influential factor of early onset neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z; Ye, G-Y

    2013-09-01

    Bacteria, funghi, viruses and protozoa can lead to neonatal sepsis. Neonatal sepsis is the leading cause of infectious disease onset and death in many neonates. To explore the major risk factors of early-onset neonatal sepsis and provide a scientific basis for strategies of early-onset neonatal sepsis prevention. A 1:4 matched case-control study was adopted and 147 cases of early-onset neonatal sepsis were enrolled. Conditional logistic regression model was used to analyze the univariate and multivariate data to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Univariate analysis shows that the impact factors on the occurrence of early-onset neonatal sepsis include the following: Maternal age > 35, mother having fixed occupation, mother of urban residence, abnormal fetal position, fetal times, parity, caesarean section, premature rupture of membranes, amniotic fluid volume abnormalities, pregnancy-induced hypertension, placental abnormalities, fetal distress, newborn gender, low birth weight infants, neonatal Apgar scoring at one and five minutes, neonatal jaundice, wet lung, anemia, IVH, and premature infant. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that maternal age > 35 (OR = 4.835, OR 95% CI = 1.170-19.981), cesarean section (OR = 0.103, OR 95% CI = 0.041-0.258), premature rupture of membranes (OR = 0.207, OR 95% CI = 0.078-0.547), premature infants (OR = 0.059, OR 95% CI = 0.010-0.329) and newborn jaundice (OR = 0.092, OR 95% CI = 0.021-0.404) were the factors of early-onset neonatal sepsis. Early-onset neonatal sepsis could be affected by multi-factors, and targeted prevention may reduce the incidence of early-onset neonatal sepsis rates.

  13. Melatonin for chronic whiplash syndrome with delayed melatonin onset randomised, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringen, S. van; Jansen, T.; Smits, M.G.; Nagtegaal, J.E.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess the influence of melatonin in patients with chronic whiplash syndrome and delayed melatonin onset. Design: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. One-week baseline was followed by a 4-week treatment period with either melatonin or placebo. In the ba

  14. Endoscopic ablation of Barrett's esophagus using the second generation argon plasma coagulation: a prospective randomized controlled trail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhang; Lei Dong; Jia Liu; Xiaolan Lu; Jun Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the efficacy and safety of the second generation argon plasma coagulation(VIO APC) in the ablation of Barrett's Esophagus. Methods:A total of 35 patients with uncomplicated Barrett's esophagus entered into a prospective, randomized, unblinded study comparing the treatment VIO APC combined with a proton pump inhibiter with a proton pump inhibiter administered alone. VIO APC was performed at a power setting of 40W, and argon gas flow at 1.5-2.0 L/min, and "forced" mode. Ablative treatment was repeated until either no Barrett's epithelium remained or a maximum of 5 treatment sessions occurred. Results:In the ablation group, macroscopic complete ablation was achieved in 14 of 18 patients, and complete ablation confirmed by histology in 12 of 18 patients (P<0.01). Buried glands were observed in 2 patients who had achieved macroscopic ablation. The Barrett's mucosa averaged a reduction of 65%(range 50-75%) in the remaining 4 patients. In the control group, only 2 patients had partial regression, median 30%(range 20-40%).In the ablation group, post-treatment 4 patients had transient retrosternal pain, and 3 patients had mild epigastric discomfort. One patient had a small hemorrhage during the procedure, which ceased after norepinephrine and thrombosin were administered through the endoscope biopsy channel. No adverse events were observed in the control group. During 11.8(4-15) months follow-up, patients who had achieved the complete ablation have no evidence of relapse of Barrett's esophagus. Conclusion:VIO APC with a relatively low power setting can effectively ablate the Barrett's mucosa. No severe adverse events were observed. Long-term follow-up is needed to assess cancer prevention and the durability of the neo-squamous epithelium.

  15. Relationship between the Onset Age of Bilingualism and Development of Cognitive Control among Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Bdaiwi Jasim Al-Shujairi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of studies suggests that bilingual persons are better than monolinguals on a variety of cognitive measures. Thus, the present study investigates the relationship between the onset age of bilingual and the development of cognitive control among Nigerians. 10 bilingual students studying at University Putra Malaysia have been selected to participate in this study.  They are divided into two groups: 5 early and 5 late bilinguals. The data are collected using online English proficiency test and E-prime software as instruments. Both groups are examined for English proficiency and performance on a flanker task. The result demonstrates that early bilinguals are more proficient in English than late bilinguals. Moreover, early bilingual performs better than late bilingual on flanker task. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that being early active bilinguals tend to have greater advantages in cognitive control and higher language proficiency. Keywords: onset age, bilingualism, and cognitive control

  16. Controlling the onset of turbulence by streamwise traveling waves. Part 1: Receptivity analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Moarref, Rashad

    2010-01-01

    We examine the efficacy of streamwise traveling waves generated by a zero-net-mass-flux surface blowing and suction for controlling the onset of turbulence in a channel flow. For small amplitude actuation, we utilize weakly nonlinear analysis to determine base flow modifications and to assess the resulting net power balance. Receptivity analysis of the velocity fluctuations around this base flow is then employed to design the traveling waves. Our simulation-free approach reveals that, relative to the flow with no control, the downstream traveling waves with properly designed speed and frequency can significantly reduce receptivity which makes them well-suited for controlling the onset of turbulence. In contrast, the velocity fluctuations around the upstream traveling waves exhibit larger receptivity to disturbances. Our theoretical predictions, obtained by perturbation analysis (in the wave amplitude) of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations with spatially periodic coefficients, are verified using full-scale...

  17. Control of humanoid robot via motion-onset visual evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Li, Mengfan; Zhao, Jing

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates controlling humanoid robot behavior via motion-onset specific N200 potentials. In this study, N200 potentials are induced by moving a blue bar through robot images intuitively representing robot behaviors to be controlled with mind. We present the individual impact of each subject on N200 potentials and discuss how to deal with individuality to obtain a high accuracy. The study results document the off-line average accuracy of 93% for hitting targets across over five subjects, so we use this major component of the motion-onset visual evoked potential (mVEP) to code people's mental activities and to perform two types of on-line operation tasks: navigating a humanoid robot in an office environment with an obstacle and picking-up an object. We discuss the factors that affect the on-line control success rate and the total time for completing an on-line operation task.

  18. SELECTIVE DECONTAMINATION OF THE DIGESTIVE-TRACT CONTRIBUTES TO THE CONTROL OF DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION IN SEVERE LIVER IMPAIRMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANSAENE, HKF; STOUTENBEEK, CP; FABERNIJHOLT, R; VANSAENE, JJM

    1992-01-01

    A premature neonate with severe Coxsackie B1 hepatitis acquired in utero developed disseminated intravascular coagulation a few days after birth. The neonate did not respond to conventional treatment. Eradication of aerobic gram-negative bacilli (Enterobacteriaceae) from the gut with oral nonabsorba

  19. SELECTIVE DECONTAMINATION OF THE DIGESTIVE-TRACT CONTRIBUTES TO THE CONTROL OF DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION IN SEVERE LIVER IMPAIRMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANSAENE, HKF; STOUTENBEEK, CP; FABERNIJHOLT, R; VANSAENE, JJM

    A premature neonate with severe Coxsackie B1 hepatitis acquired in utero developed disseminated intravascular coagulation a few days after birth. The neonate did not respond to conventional treatment. Eradication of aerobic gram-negative bacilli (Enterobacteriaceae) from the gut with oral

  20. Coagulation for the clinician

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on the surface of many cell types that are not normally in contact with the circulation (Fig. ...... The special stationary cylindrical cup holds the blood (0.36 ml) and is oscillated through .... coagulation process. The battery of traditional coagulation.

  1. Coagulation Factors Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Coagulation Factors Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... else I should know? How is it used? Coagulation factor testing is performed to determine if a ...

  2. Neurological soft signs in juvenile patients with Asperger syndrome, early-onset psychosis, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral, María; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Rapado, Marta; Leiva, Marta; Moreno, Carmen; Giráldez, Marisa; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2010-11-01

    The study of neurological soft signs (NSS) in patients with Asperger syndrome may help us to elucidate the neurological basis of this disorder and to clarify its relationship with other neurodevelopmental disorders. The goal of this study was to compare the prevalence of NSS in a sample of patients with Asperger syndrome, early-onset psychosis and healthy controls. NSS were assessed by means of the Neurological Evaluation Scale in a sample of 29 patients with Asperger syndrome (mean age = 12.86 ± 2.58 years), 30 patients with first-episode early-onset psychoses (mean age 14.17 ± 1.02 years) and 30 healthy controls (mean age 12.33 ± 2.69 years). Significant group differences were found between Asperger syndrome patients and healthy controls both in all the Neurological Evaluation Scale subscales and in the Neurological Evaluation Scale total score. There were no significant differences between both groups of patients in any of the Neurological Evaluation Scale scores. NSS are more prevalent in Asperger syndrome than in healthy controls. The NSS profile was not disorder-specific in our samples of patients with Asperger syndrome and early-onset psychoses. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. ATP13A2 variants in early-onset Parkinson's disease patients and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djarmati, Ana; Hagenah, Johann; Reetz, Kathrin

    2009-01-01

    Four genes responsible for recessively inherited forms of Parkinson's disease (PD) have been identified, including the recently discovered ATP13A2 (PARK9) gene. Our objective was to investigate the role of this gene in a large cohort of PD patients and controls. We extensively screened all 29 exons...... of the ATP13A2 coding region in 112 patients with early-onset PD (EOPD; origin and of 55 controls. We identified four carriers (3.6%) of novel single heterozygous ATP13A2 missense changes that were absent in controls. Interestingly, the carrier of one of these variants...

  4. Hydroxyethyl starch reduces coagulation competence and increases blood loss during major surgery: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Johansson, Pär I; Højskov, Michael; Kridina, Irina; Kistorp, Thomas; Thind, Peter; Nielsen, Henning B; Ruhnau, Birgitte; Pedersen, Tom; Secher, Niels H

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated whether administration of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 affects coagulation competence and influences the perioperative blood loss. Artificial colloids substitute blood volume during surgery; with the administration of HES 130/0.4 (Voluven, Fresenius Kabi, Uppsala, Sweden) only a minor effect on coagulation competence is expected. Eighty patients were scanned for enrollment in the study, and 40 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two patients withdrew their consent to participate in the study, and 5 patients were excluded. Thus, 16 patients were randomized to receive lactated Ringer's solution and 17 to receive HES 130/0.4. Among the patients receiving HES 130/0.4, thrombelastography indicated reduced clot strength (P Administration of HES 130/0.4 reduced clot strength and perioperative hemorrhage increased by more than 50%, while administration of lactated Ringer's solution provoked an approximately 2.5 times greater positive volume balance at the end of surgery.

  5. Disclosing a disability: Do strategy type and onset controllability make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Brent J; Volpone, Sabrina D; Wessel, Jennifer L; Alonso, Natalya M

    2017-09-01

    In hiring contexts, individuals with concealable disabilities make decisions about how they should disclose their disability to overcome observers' biases. Previous research has investigated the effectiveness of binary disclosure decisions-that is, to disclose or conceal a disability-but we know little about how, why, or under what conditions different types of disclosure strategies impact observers' hiring intentions. In this article, we examine disability onset controllability (i.e., whether the applicant is seen as responsible for their disability onset) as a boundary condition for how disclosure strategy type influences the affective reactions (i.e., pity, admiration) that underlie observers' hiring intentions. Across 2 experiments, we found that when applicants are seen as responsible for their disability, strategies that de-emphasize the disability (rather than embrace it) lower observers' hiring intentions by elevating their pity reactions. Thus, the effectiveness of different types of disability disclosure strategies differs as a function of onset controllability. We discuss implications for theory and practice for individuals with disabilities and organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Control of bleeding by silk ligation and diathermy coagulation during tonsillectomy: A comparison of efficacy of the two techniques in the first 24 hours after surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Khurshid; Ahmad, Rafiq; Khan, Muneeb

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the relative efficacy of silk ligation and diathermy coagulation techniques in controlling bleeding during tonsillectomy in the first 24 hours. Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the Department of ENT, Khalifa Gul Nawaz Teaching Hospital, Bannu and this department related consultants’ private clinics from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014. The study included 180 cases. All patients included were having history of recurrent, acute tonsillitis, with more than 6–7 episodes in one year, five episodes per year for two years, or three episodes per year for three years. All the surgeries were performed by dissection method. Haemostasis during the procedure was secured by either ligation with silk 1 or using diathermy. The results were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 for windows. Results: A total of180 cases were included in the study. The ages of the patients ranged from 5 to 40 years with the mean age of 15.56 years and a std.deviation of +/- 8.24. The male to female ratio was 1.25:1. The number of hemorrhages occurring was greater in the ‘diathermy coagulation’ group as compared to the ‘silk ligation’ group. However, the observed difference was statistically insignificant (p >.05). Conclusion: Primary haemorrhage occurring during tonsillectomy is a serious threat and control of bleeding during the procedure should therefore be meticulous. Both suture ligation and coagulation diathermy for control of bleeders during the procedure by dissection method are equally effective. PMID:26430438

  7. White Matter Lesions, Carotid and Coronary Atherosclerosis in Late-Onset Depression and Healthy Controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devantier, Torben Albert; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Poulsen, Mikael Kjær

    2016-01-01

    for the formation of WMLs in depression. METHODS: The case-control study included 29 patients with late-onset major depressive disorder and 27 controls matched for sex, age, and tobacco use. WML volume, carotid intima-media thickness, and coronary plaque volume were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging.......051). In both patients and controls, WML volume was associated with carotid but not with coronary atherosclerosis. In adjusted multiple linear regression, a 0.1mm increase in averaged carotid intima-media thickness was associated with a 52% (95% CI: 8.4-112, p = 0.032) increase in WML volume. The association...... between carotid intima-media thickness and WML volume was, however, similar in patients and controls. CONCLUSIONS: In older persons aged between 50 and 70 years, WMLs do not seem to be a part of generalized atherosclerotic disease, but seem to be dependent on atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries...

  8. Course of intelligence deficits in early onset, first episode schizophrenia: a controlled, 5-year longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt Moellegaard; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2010-01-01

    ) from their first psychotic episode to 5 years of post onset with that of healthy controls (N = 35) and patients who at baseline had been diagnosed with other non-affective psychoses (N = 8). The same version of a Wechsler Intelligence Scale was administered at both baseline and follow-up assessments...... FSIQ change was observed between patients with EOS and patients with other non-affective psychoses, although this result must be interpreted with caution due to the small sample sizes. The results suggest abnormally slow acquisition of new intellectual information and skills in EOS patients during...

  9. Coagulation behavior of polyaluminum chloride:Effects of pH and coagulant dosage☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Wei; Zhongguo Zhang; Dan Liu; Yue Wu; Jun Wang; Qunhui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Coagulation mechanisms of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) at various dosages were studied using a conventional jar test at different final and initial pH values during treating kaolin suspension. The optimal final pH and dosages for PACl were obtained based on residual turbidity and zeta potential of flocs. The coagulation zones at various PACl dosages and solution pH values were developed and compared with those of alum. It is found that the optimal mechanism under acidic condition is charge neutralization, while alkaline condition wil facilitate the coagulation of PACl. Both charge neutralization coagulation and sweep coagulation can achieve high coagulation efficiency under the alkaline condition ranging from final pH 7.0 to 10.0. Stabilization, charge neutralization destabilization, restabilization and sweep zones occur successively with increasing PACl dosages with the final pH values fixed at 7.0 and 8.0, but restabilization zone disappears at final pH 10.0. When the final pH is not controlled and consequently decreases with increasing PACl dosage, no typical sweep zone can be observed and the coagulant efficiency decreases at high PACl dosage. It seems that the final pH is more meaningful than the initial pH for coagulation. Charge neutralization coagulation efficiency is dominated by zeta potential of flocs and PACl precipitates. The charge neutralization and sweep coagulation zones of PACl are broader in the ranges of coagulant dosage and pH than those of alum. The results are helpful for us to treat water and wastewa-ter using PACl and to understand the coagulation process of PACl.

  10. Urine metabolomics in neonates with late-onset sepsis in a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafidis, Kosmas; Chatziioannou, Anastasia Chrysovalantou; Thomaidou, Agathi; Gika, Helen; Mikros, Emmanouel; Benaki, Dimitra; Diamanti, Elisavet; Agakidis, Charalampos; Raikos, Nikolaos; Drossou, Vasiliki; Theodoridis, Georgios

    2017-04-01

    Although late-onset sepsis (LOS) is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, biomarkers evaluated in LOS lack high diagnostic accuracy. In this prospective, case-control, pilot study, we aimed to determine the metabolic profile of neonates with LOS. Urine samples were collected at the day of initial LOS evaluation, the 3rd and 10th day, thereafter, from 16 septic neonates (9 confirmed and 7 possible LOS cases) and 16 non-septic ones (controls) at respective time points. Urine metabolic profiles were assessed using non-targeted nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Multivariate statistical models with data from either analytical approach showed clear separation between the metabolic profiles of septic neonates (both possible and confirmed) and the controls. Metabolic changes appeared to be related to disease progression. Overall, neonates with confirmed or possible LOS exhibited comparable metabolic profiles indicating similar metabolic alternations upon the onset of clinical manifestations. This methodology therefore enabled the discrimination of neonates with LOS from non-septic individuals, providing potential for further research toward the discovery of LOS-related biomarkers.

  11. Urine metabolomics in neonates with late-onset sepsis in a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafidis, Kosmas; Chatziioannou, Anastasia Chrysovalantou; Thomaidou, Agathi; Gika, Helen; Mikros, Emmanouel; Benaki, Dimitra; Diamanti, Elisavet; Agakidis, Charalampos; Raikos, Nikolaos; Drossou, Vasiliki; Theodoridis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Although late-onset sepsis (LOS) is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, biomarkers evaluated in LOS lack high diagnostic accuracy. In this prospective, case-control, pilot study, we aimed to determine the metabolic profile of neonates with LOS. Urine samples were collected at the day of initial LOS evaluation, the 3rd and 10th day, thereafter, from 16 septic neonates (9 confirmed and 7 possible LOS cases) and 16 non-septic ones (controls) at respective time points. Urine metabolic profiles were assessed using non-targeted nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Multivariate statistical models with data from either analytical approach showed clear separation between the metabolic profiles of septic neonates (both possible and confirmed) and the controls. Metabolic changes appeared to be related to disease progression. Overall, neonates with confirmed or possible LOS exhibited comparable metabolic profiles indicating similar metabolic alternations upon the onset of clinical manifestations. This methodology therefore enabled the discrimination of neonates with LOS from non-septic individuals, providing potential for further research toward the discovery of LOS-related biomarkers. PMID:28374757

  12. Familial liability, obstetric complications and childhood development abnormalities in early onset schizophrenia: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucarelli Elisabetta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic and environmental risk factors and gene-environment interactions are linked to higher likelihood of developing schizophrenia in accordance with the neurodevelopmental model of disease; little is known about risk factors and early development in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS and very early-onset schizophrenia (VEOS. Methods We present a case-control study of a sample of 21 patients with EOS/VEOS and a control group of 21 patients with migraine, recruited from the Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Neurologic and Psychiatric Science, University of Bari, Italy. The aim was to assess the statistical association between VEOS/EOS and family history for psychiatric disorders, obstetric complications and childhood developmental abnormalities using 2 × 2 tables and a Chi Squared or Fisher test. Results The results show a statistical association between EOS/VEOS and schizophrenia and related disorders (P = 0.02 and personality disorders (P = 0.003 in relatives, and between EOS/VEOS and developmental abnormalities of early relational skills (P = 0.008 and learning (P = 0.04; there is not a statistically relevant difference between cases and controls (P > 0.05 for any obstetric complications (pre, peri and postpartum. Conclusions This study confirms the significant role of familial liability but not of obstetric complications in the pathogenesis of VEOS/EOS; the association between childhood developmental abnormalities and EOS/VEOS supports the neurodevelopmental model of disease.

  13. Social outcomes of young adults with childhood-onset epilepsy: A case-sibling-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Christine B; Barry, Frances; Vickrey, Barbara G; Caplan, Rochelle; Berg, Anne T

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to compare long-term social outcomes in young adults with childhood-onset epilepsy (cases) with neurologically normal sibling controls. Long-term social outcomes were assessed at the 15-year follow-up of the Connecticut Study of Epilepsy, a community-based prospective cohort study of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Young adults with childhood-onset epilepsy with complicated (abnormal neurologic exam findings, abnormal brain imaging with lesion referable to epilepsy, intellectual disability (ID; IQ < 60) or informative history of neurologic insults to which the occurrence of epilepsy might be attributed), and uncomplicated epilepsy presentations were compared to healthy sibling controls. Age, gender, and matched-pair adjusted generalized linear models stratified by complicated epilepsy and 5-year seizure-free status estimated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals [CIs] for each outcome. The 15-year follow-up included 361 individuals with epilepsy (59% of initial cases; N = 291 uncomplicated and N = 70 complicated epilepsy; mean age 22 years [standard deviation, SD 3.5]; mean epilepsy onset 6.2 years [SD 3.9]) and 173 controls. Social outcomes for cases with uncomplicated epilepsy with ≥5 years terminal remission were comparable to controls; cases with uncomplicated epilepsy <5 years seizure-free were more likely to be less productive (school/employment < 20 h/week) (aOR 3.63, 95% CI 1.83-7.20) and not to have a driver's license (aOR 6.25, 95% CI 2.85-13.72). Complicated cases with epilepsy <5 years seizure-free had worse outcomes across multiple domains; including not graduating high school (aOR 24.97, 95% CI 7.49-83.30), being un- or underemployed (<20 h/week) (aOR 11.06, 95% CI 4.44-27.57), being less productively engaged (aOR 15.71, 95% CI 6.88-35.88), and not living independently (aOR 10.24, 95% CI 3.98-26.36). Complicated cases without ID (N = 36) had worse outcomes with respect to productive engagement (aOR 6.02; 95% CI 2

  14. Personality traits in recent-onset-of-psychosis patients compared to a control sample by gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla-Llewellyn-Jones, Julia; Cano-Domínguez, Pablo; de-Luis-Matilla, Antonia; Espina-Eizaguirre, Alberto; Moreno-Küstner, Berta; Ochoa, Susana

    2017-08-31

    Personality traits in recent onset of psychosis (ROP) patients are an under-researched area. Our aim was to examine clinical and clinically significant personality traits in ROP patients compared with a healthy control sample by gender. Data were obtained from 94 ROP patients and a control sample matched in gender and age. The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory and a sociodemographic scale were used. T for independent samples, U-Mann-Whitney and Fisher tests were applied to make comparisons. All personality traits were significantly higher in ROP than control participants in the general sample, except histrionic, narcissistic, and compulsive traits which were higher in controls. Clinically significant schizoid, avoidant, dependent and antisocial personality traits were more common in the ROP than the control participants. However, histrionic clinically significant trait was more common in the control sample. In relation to the males and female samples, more significant differences were found in the male sample in comparison to their control counterparts than in the female sample. These results highlight the importance of the study of clinical personality traits in patients with ROP and the importance of viewing these differences in relation to gender because of the possible therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrasound control of magnet growing rod distraction in early onset scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Cervera, T; Lirola Criado, J F; Farrington Rueda, D M

    2016-01-01

    The growing rod technique is currently one of the most common procedures used in the management of early onset scoliosis. However, in order to preserve spine growth and control the deformity it requires frequent surgeries to distract the rods. Magnetically driven growing rods have recently been introduced with same treatment goal, but without the inconvenience of repeated surgical distractions. One of the limitations of this technical advance is an increase in radiation exposure due to the increase in distraction frequency compared to conventional growing rods. An improvement of the original technique is presented, proposing a solution to the inconvenience of multiple radiation exposure using ultrasound technology to control the distraction process of magnetically driven growing rods.

  16. Case-control study of severe pre-eclampsia of early onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M P; Redman, C W

    1983-08-27

    Twenty four women with severe pre-eclampsia diagnosed before 34 weeks' gestation were compared with 48 randomly selected controls matched for age and parity. Subjects were studied in the puerperium using a questionnaire, clinical examination, and review of case records. A history of infertility, headaches (particularly migraine), pre-eclampsia in a previous pregnancy, or a raised serum alpha-fetoprotein concentration at the time of screening for neural tube defect in the index pregnancy were all identified as significant risk factors in the pre-eclamptic women. Maternal age, a history of chronic hypertension or renal disease, or excessive maternal weight were not significantly associated with pre-eclampsia. Almost all the infants of pre-eclamptic women showed retarded growth: 18 were below the 10th centile and only one weighed more than the 25th centile. Four babies died. These observations indicate that pre-eclampsia of early onset may differ from the late onset disease not only in its very high perinatal morbidity and mortality but in its distinctive maternal risk factors.

  17. Morbidity and mortality of childhood- and adolescent-onset epilepsy: A controlled national study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Pickering, Line; Christensen, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    in the following 30years were grouped into major WHO disease classes. Key findings: Patients with epilepsy had significantly higher rates of comorbidities including almost all health-related comorbidities compared with controls. Mortality rates were elevated: the hazard ratio (5%; 95% CI) was 14.46 (11.8; 17.7, p......Purpose: Epilepsy is associated with significant morbidities and mortality. We aimed to evaluate the 30-year morbidities and mortality in a national group of patients after a first diagnosis of epilepsy. Methods: From the Danish National Patient Registry (NPR), in total, 3123 patients with epilepsy......epilepsy, respectively. Significance: Epilepsy is associated with significant comorbidities and mortality including all health care domains, especially among persons who were young at the onset...

  18. Homoeopathy for delayed onset muscle soreness: a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, A J; Fisher, P; Smith, C; Wyllie, S E; Lewith, G T

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To pilot a model for determining whether a homoeopathic medicine is superior to placebo for delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). DESIGN: Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. SETTING: Physiotherapy department of a homoeopathic hospital. SUBJECTS: Sixty eight healthy volunteers (average age 30; 41% men) undertook a 10 minute period of bench stepping carrying a small weight and were randomised to a homoeopathic medicine or placebo. OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean muscle soreness in the five day period after the exercise test, symptom free days, maximum soreness score, days to no soreness, days on medication. RESULTS: The difference between group means was 0.17 in favour of placebo with 95% confidence intervals +/- 0.50. Similar results were found for other outcome measures. CONCLUSION: The study did not find benefit of the homoeopathic remedy in DOMS. Bench stepping may not be an appropriate model to evaluate the effects of a treatment on DOMS because of wide variation between subject soreness scores. PMID:9429007

  19. Controlling the onset of turbulence by streamwise traveling waves. Part 2. Direct numerical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Lieu, Binh K; Jovanović, Mihailo R

    2010-01-01

    This work builds on and confirms the theoretical findings of Part 1 of this paper, Moarref & Jovanovi\\'c (2010). We use direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations to assess the efficacy of blowing and suction in the form of streamwise traveling waves for controlling the onset of turbulence in a channel flow. We highlight the effects of the modified base flow on the dynamics of velocity fluctuations and net power balance. Our simulations verify the theoretical predictions of Part 1 that the upstream traveling waves promote turbulence even when the uncontrolled flow stays laminar. On the other hand, the downstream traveling waves with parameters selected in Part 1 are capable of reducing the fluctuations' kinetic energy, thereby maintaining the laminar flow. In flows driven by a fixed pressure gradient, a positive net efficiency as large as 25 % relative to the uncontrolled turbulent flow can be achieved with downstream waves. Furthermore, we show that these waves can also relaminarize full...

  20. Climatic Controls on Spring Onset of the Tibetan Plateau Grasslands from 1982 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjiang Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding environmental controls on vegetation spring onset (SO in the Tibetan Plateau (TP is crucial to diagnosing regional ecosystem responses to climate change. We investigated environmental controls on the SO of the TP grasslands using satellite vegetation index (VI from the 3rd Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS3g product, with in situ air temperature (Ta and precipitation (Prcp measurement records from 1982 to 2008. The SO was determined using a dynamic threshold method based on a 25% threshold of seasonal VI amplitude. We find that SO shows overall close associations with spring Ta, but is also subject to regulation from spring precipitation. In relatively dry but increasingly wetting (0.50 mm·year−1, p < 0.10 grasslands (mean spring Prcp = 22.8 mm; Ta = −3.27 °C, more precipitation tends to advance SO (−0.146 day·mm−1, p = 0.150 before the mid-1990s, but delays SO (0.110 day·mm−1, p = 0.108 over the latter record attributed to lower solar radiation and cooler temperatures associated with Prcp increases in recent years. In contrast, in relatively humid TP grasslands (73.0 mm; −3.51 °C, more precipitation delays SO (0.036 day·mm−1, p = 0.165 despite regional warming (0.045 °C·year−1, p < 0.05; the SO also shows a delaying response to a standardized drought index (mean R = 0.266, indicating a low energy constraint to vegetation onset. Our results highlight the importance of surface moisture status in regulating the phenological response of alpine grasslands to climate warming.

  1. Dust coagulation in ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokshi, Arati; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Hollenbach, David

    1989-01-01

    Coagulation is an important mechanism in the growth of interstellar and interplanetary dust particles. The microphysics of the coagulation process was theoretically analyzed as a function of the physical properties of the coagulating grains, i.e., their size, relative velocities, temperature, elastic properties, and the van der Waal interaction. Numerical calculations of collisions between linear chains provide the wave energy in individual particles and the spectrum of the mechanical vibrations set up in colliding particles. Sticking probabilities are then calculated using simple estimates for elastic deformation energies and for the attenuation of the wave energy due to absorption and scattering processes.

  2. Risk Factors for Early-Onset and Very-Early-Onset Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: A Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Robert R; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Bamlet, William R; Petersen, Gloria M; Li, Donghui; Risch, Harvey A; Yu, Herbert; Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Luckett, Brian; Bosetti, Cristina; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo; Talamini, Renato; Bueno de Mesquita, H Bas; Bracci, Paige; Gallinger, Steven; Neale, Rachel E; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2016-02-01

    While pancreatic cancer (PC) most often affects older adults, to date, there has been no comprehensive assessment of risk factors among PC patients younger than 60 years. We defined early-onset PC (EOPC) and very-early-onset PC (VEOPC) as diagnosis of PC in patients younger than 60 and 45 years, respectively. We pooled data from 8 case-control studies, including 1954 patients with EOPC and 3278 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify associations with EOPC and VEOPC. Family history of PC, diabetes mellitus, smoking, obesity, and pancreatitis were associated with EOPC. Alcohol use equal to or greater than 26 g daily also was associated with increased risk of EOPC (odds ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.84), and there appeared to be a dose- and age-dependent effect of alcohol on risk. The point estimate for risk of VEOPC was an odds ratio of 2.18 (95% confidence interval, 1.17-4.09). The established risk factors for PC, including smoking, diabetes, family history of PC, and obesity, also apply to EOPC. Alcohol intake appeared to have an age-dependent effect; the strongest association was with VEOPC.

  3. Coagulation and oxidation for controlling ultrafiltration membrane fouling in drinking water treatment: Application of ozone at low dose in submerged membrane tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenzheng; Graham, Nigel J D; Fowler, Geoffrey D

    2016-05-15

    Coagulation prior to ultrafiltration (UF) is widely applied for treating contaminated surface water sources for potable supply. While beneficial, coagulation alone is unable to control membrane fouling effectively in many cases, and there is continuing interest in the use of additional, complementary methods such as oxidation in the pre-treatment of raw water prior to UF. In this study, the application of ozone at low dose in the membrane tank immediately following coagulation has been evaluated at laboratory-scale employing model raw water. In parallel tests with and without the application of ozone, the impact of applied ozone doses of 0.5 mg L(-1) and 1.5 mg L(-1) (approximately 0.18 mg L(-1) and 0.54 mg L(-1) consumed ozone, respectively) on the increase of trans-membrane pressure (TMP) was evaluated and correlated with the quantity and nature of membrane deposits, both as a cake layer and within membrane pores. The results showed that a dose of 0.5 mgO3 L(-1) gave a membrane fouling rate that was substantially lower than without ozone addition, while a dose of 1.5 mgO3 L(-1) was able to prevent fouling effects significantly (no increase in TMP). Ozone was found to decrease the concentration of bacteria (especially the concentration of bacteria per suspended solid) in the membrane tank, and to alter the nature of dissolved organic matter by increasing the proportion of hydrophilic substances. Ozone decreased the concentration of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), such as polysaccharides and proteins, in the membrane cake layer; the reduced EPS and bacterial concentrations resulted in a much thinner cake layer, although the suspended solids concentration was much higher in the ozone added membrane tank. Ozone also decreased the accumulation and hydrophobicity of organic matter within the membrane pores, leading to minimal irreversible fouling. Therefore, the application of low-dose ozone within the UF membrane tank is a potentially important

  4. School bonds and the onset of substance use among Korean youth: an examination of social control theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yoonsun; Kim, Heejoo; Ma, Julie

    2015-03-09

    This study examined the association between school bonds and the onset of substance use among adolescents in South Korea. Based on Hirschi's social control theory, this study tested the roles of teacher attachment, educational aspiration, extracurricular activities, and rule internalization--four elements of social bonds within the school setting--in delayed initiation of alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. Discrete-time logistic regression was used to analyze five waves of the Korea Youth Panel Survey (N=3449 at baseline), a nationally representative sample of Korean youth. Stronger teacher attachment, higher educational aspiration, and higher rule internalization were correlated with delayed onset of alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. On the other hand, participation in school extracurricular activities was positively associated with the onset of alcohol drinking, but not statistically significantly linked with the onset of cigarette smoking. These findings suggest that early prevention strategies for youth substance use should specifically target school-related factors that represent social bonds developed among youth.

  5. Melt onset over Arctic sea ice controlled by atmospheric moisture transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortin, Jonas; Svensson, Gunilla; Graversen, Rune G.; Kapsch, Marie-Luise; Stroeve, Julienne C.; Boisvert, Linette N.

    2016-06-01

    The timing of melt onset affects the surface energy uptake throughout the melt season. Yet the processes triggering melt and causing its large interannual variability are not well understood. Here we show that melt onset over Arctic sea ice is initiated by positive anomalies of water vapor, clouds, and air temperatures that increase the downwelling longwave radiation (LWD) to the surface. The earlier melt onset occurs; the stronger are these anomalies. Downwelling shortwave radiation (SWD) is smaller than usual at melt onset, indicating that melt is not triggered by SWD. When melt occurs early, an anomalously opaque atmosphere with positive LWD anomalies preconditions the surface for weeks preceding melt. In contrast, when melt begins late, clearer than usual conditions are evident prior to melt. Hence, atmospheric processes are imperative for melt onset. It is also found that spring LWD increased during recent decades, consistent with trends toward an earlier melt onset.

  6. Melt onset over Arctic sea ice controlled by atmospheric moisture transport

    OpenAIRE

    Mortin, J.; G. Svensson; Graversen, R.; Kapsch, M.; Stroeve, J.; Boisvert, L.

    2016-01-01

    The timing of melt onset affects the surface energy uptake throughout the melt season. Yet the processes triggering melt and causing its large interannual variability are not well understood. Here we show that melt onset over Arctic sea ice is initiated by positive anomalies of water vapor, clouds, and air temperatures that increase the downwelling longwave radiation (LWD) to the surface. The earlier melt onset occurs; the stronger are these anomalies. Downwelling shortwave radiation (SWD) is...

  7. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jr, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 141. Thachil J, Toh CH. Current concepts in the management of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Thromb Res . 2012;129 ...

  8. Coagulation and Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Hoirisch-Clapauch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking coagulation and some psychiatric disorders.

  9. Design and evaluation of controlled onset extended release multiparticulate systems for chronotherapeutic delivery of ketoprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An oral controlled onset extended release dosage form intended to approximate the chronobiology of rheumatoid arthritis is proposed for site-specific release to the colon. The multiparticulate system consisting of drug-loaded cellulose acetate cores encapsulated within Eudragit S-100 microcapsules was designed for chronotherapeutic delivery of ketoprofen. Drug-loaded cellulose acetate cores were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation technique in an oily phase at different drug:polymer ratios (1:1, 2:1 and 4:1. These cores were successfully microencapsulated with Eudragit S-100 following the same technique at the core:coat ratio of 1:5. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed that the cellulose acetate cores were discrete, uniform and spherical with a porous and rough surface, whereas the Eudragit microcapsules were discrete and spherical with a smooth and dense surface. In vitro drug release studies of the Eudragit microcapsules were performed in different pH conditions following pH-progression method for a period of 16 h. The release studies indicated that the microcapsules posses both pH-sensitive and controlled-release properties, showing limited drug release below pH 7.0 (6.40 to 8.94%, following which the cellulose acetate cores effectively controlled the drug release for a period of 11 h in pH 7.5. The differential scanning calorimetric and powder X-ray diffraction studies demonstrated that ketoprofen was present in dissolved state in the cellulose acetate polymeric matrix, which could explain the controlled drug release from the cores. The release of ketoprofen from Eudragit microcapsules in pH 7.5 depended on the cellulose acetate levels and was characterized by Higuchi′s diffusion model.

  10. Surface and atmospheric controls on the onset of moist convection over land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gentine, P.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Andrea, D' F.; Ek, M.

    2013-01-01

    The onset of moist convection over land is investigated using a conceptual approach with a slab boundary layer model. We here determine the essential factors for the onset of boundary layer clouds over land, and study their relative importance. They are: 1) the ratio of the temperature to the moistu

  11. 早发型重度子痫前期合并器官功能障碍患者可溶性内皮抑素、内皮素-1与凝血功能的变化及意义%Serum soluble Endoglin, plasma endothelin-1 and coagulation function in early onset severe preeclampsia with organ dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立军; 韩玉环; 韩玉植

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression levels of serum soluble Endoglin (sEng), plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) and coagulation function in patients suffering from early onset severe preeclampsia with organ dysfunction, and to analyze the clinical significance. Methods Forty-nine early onset severe preeclampsia patients were enrolled in the study group, including 26 cases without organ dysfunction (study group Ⅰ) and 23 cases with organ dysfunction (study group Ⅱ). The control group included 30 cases of health pregnant women during the same period of gestation. The serum levels of sEng and plasma ET-1 were analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), coagulation function was determined at the same time, and the relationship between the change in levels of sEng, ET-1, coagulation function and organ function, and also outcome of perinatal infants. Results ① The levels of sEng, ET-1, fibrinogen (Fib) and mean platelet volume (MPV) of the study group Ⅰ and I were significantly higher compared with control group (sEng,μg/L:10.96±3.21, 14.17±4.02vs. 7.49±2.73; ET-1, μg/L: 41.54 ± 10. 37, 65.91± 12.46vs. 24.56±6.26; Fib, g/L:4.41±1.02,5.35±1.17vs. 3.69±0.82; MPV, fl:11. 71± 1.21, 13.89±1.76vs. 11.03±0.82, all P< 0.05), and prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and platelet (PLT) were significantly lower compared with control group (PT, s:10.73±1.82, 8.37±1.51vs. 12.95±1.91; APTT, s:26.14±4.32, 22.69±3.77vs. 30.25±4.71; PLT,×109/L; 164.17±50.67, 136.43±51.21vs. 201.63±59.83, all P<0.05). There were also statistical significances in all the values between study group Ⅰ and I (all P<0.05). ②There was positive correlation between the sEng level and systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, Fib, urine protein of 24 hours, serum creatinine (SCr); there was negative correlation between the sEng level and albumin (Alb) content, PT, estriol/creatinine (E/C) of 12-hour urine, fetal birth weight (all P

  12. Cognitive Control in Bilingual Children Disentangling the Effects of Second-Language Proficiency and Onset Age of Acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struys, E.; Mohades, G.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2015-01-01

    Studies comparing the cognitive control of bilingual and monolingual speakers are inconclusive about the nature and underlying mechanisms of differences in language-related processing. In the present study, in order to disentangle the impact of second-language onset age of acquisition and

  13. Cognitive control in bilingual children disentangling the effects of second-language proficiency and onset age of acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struys, E.; Mohades, G.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2015-01-01

    Studies comparing the cognitive control of bilingual and monolingual speakers are inconclusive about the nature and underlying mechanisms of differences in language-related processing. In the present study, in order to disentangle the impact of second-language onset age of acquisition and bilinguali

  14. Cognitive control in bilingual children disentangling the effects of second-language proficiency and onset age of acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struys, E.; Mohades, G.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2015-01-01

    Studies comparing the cognitive control of bilingual and monolingual speakers are inconclusive about the nature and underlying mechanisms of differences in language-related processing. In the present study, in order to disentangle the impact of second-language onset age of acquisition and bilinguali

  15. Ice‐water immersion and delayed‐onset muscle soreness: a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellwood, Kylie Louise; Brukner, Peter; Williams, David; Nicol, Alastair; Hinman, Rana

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine if ice‐water immersion after eccentric quadriceps exercise minimises the symptoms of delayed‐onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Design A prospective randomised double‐blind controlled trial was undertaken. 40 untrained volunteers performed an eccentric loading protocol with their non‐dominant leg. Interventions Participants were randomised to three 1‐min immersions in either ice water (5±1°C) or tepid water (24°C). Main outcome measures Pain and tenderness (visual analogue scale), swelling (thigh circumference), function (one‐legged hop for distance), maximal isometric strength and serum creatine kinase (CK) recorded at baseline, 24, 48 and 72 h after exercise. Changes in outcome measures over time were compared to determine the effect of group allocation using independent t tests or Mann–Whitney U tests. Results No significant differences were observed between groups with regard to changes in most pain parameters, tenderness, isometric strength, swelling, hop‐for‐distance or serum CK over time. There was a significant difference in pain on sit‐to‐stand at 24 h, with the intervention group demonstrating a greater increase in pain than the control group (median change 8.0 vs 2.0 mm, respectively, p = 0.009). Conclusions The protocol of ice‐water immersion used in this study was ineffectual in minimising markers of DOMS in untrained individuals. This study challenges the wide use of this intervention as a recovery strategy by athletes. PMID:17261562

  16. Cyclin-dependent kinase activity controls the onset of the HCMV lytic cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zydek

    Full Text Available The onset of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV lytic infection is strictly synchronized with the host cell cycle. Infected G0/G1 cells support viral immediate early (IE gene expression and proceed to the G1/S boundary where they finally arrest. In contrast, S/G2 cells can be infected but effectively block IE gene expression and this inhibition is not relieved until host cells have divided and reentered G1. During latent infection IE gene expression is also inhibited, and for reactivation to occur this block to IE gene expression must be overcome. It is only poorly understood which viral and/or cellular activities maintain the block to cell cycle or latency-associated viral IE gene repression and whether the two mechanisms may be linked. Here, we show that the block to IE gene expression during S and G2 phase can be overcome by both genotoxic stress and chemical inhibitors of cellular DNA replication, pointing to the involvement of checkpoint-dependent signaling pathways in controlling IE gene repression. Checkpoint-dependent rescue of IE expression strictly requires p53 and in the absence of checkpoint activation is mimicked by proteasomal inhibition in a p53 dependent manner. Requirement for the cyclin dependent kinase (CDK inhibitor p21 downstream of p53 suggests a pivotal role for CDKs in controlling IE gene repression in S/G2 and treatment of S/G2 cells with the CDK inhibitor roscovitine alleviates IE repression independently of p53. Importantly, CDK inhibiton also overcomes the block to IE expression during quiescent infection of NTera2 (NT2 cells. Thus, a timely block to CDK activity not only secures phase specificity of the cell cycle dependent HCMV IE gene expression program, but in addition plays a hitherto unrecognized role in preventing the establishment of a latent-like state.

  17. The TRIM-NHL protein LIN-41 controls the onset of developmental plasticity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Tocchini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms controlling cell fate determination and reprogramming are fundamental for development. A profound reprogramming, allowing the production of pluripotent cells in early embryos, takes place during the oocyte-to-embryo transition. To understand how the oocyte reprogramming potential is controlled, we sought Caenorhabditis elegans mutants in which embryonic transcription is initiated precociously in germ cells. This screen identified LIN-41, a TRIM-NHL protein and a component of the somatic heterochronic pathway, as a temporal regulator of pluripotency in the germline. We found that LIN-41 is expressed in the cytoplasm of developing oocytes, which, in lin-41 mutants, acquire pluripotent characteristics of embryonic cells and form teratomas. To understand LIN-41 function in the germline, we conducted structure-function studies. In contrast to other TRIM-NHL proteins, we found that LIN-41 is unlikely to function as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Similar to other TRIM-NHL proteins, the somatic function of LIN-41 is thought to involve mRNA regulation. Surprisingly, we found that mutations predicted to disrupt the association of LIN-41 with mRNA, which otherwise compromise LIN-41 function in the heterochronic pathway in the soma, have only minor effects in the germline. Similarly, LIN-41-mediated repression of a key somatic mRNA target is dispensable for the germline function. Thus, LIN-41 appears to function in the germline and the soma via different molecular mechanisms. These studies provide the first insight into the mechanism inhibiting the onset of embryonic differentiation in developing oocytes, which is required to ensure a successful transition between generations.

  18. Enhancement of pig embryonic implants in factor VIII KO mice: a novel role for the coagulation cascade in organ size control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Aronovich

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the mechanisms that contribute to organ size differences between species. In the present study, we used a mouse model of embryonic pig tissue implantation to define the role of host Factor VIII in controlling the final size attained by the implant. We show here that pig embryonic spleen, pancreas, and liver all grow to an increased size in mice that are deficient in the Factor VIII clotting cascade. Similar results were obtained using the transplantation model after treatment with the low molecular weight heparin derivative Clexane which markedly enhanced transplant size. Likewise, enhanced size was found upon treatment with the direct thrombin inhibitor Dabigatran, suggesting that organ size regulation might be mediated by thrombin, downstream of Factor VIII. Considering that thrombin was shown to mediate various functions unrelated to blood clotting, either directly by cleavage of protease-activated receptors (PARs or indirectly by cleaving osteopontin (OPN on stroma cells, the role of PAR1 and PAR4 antagonists as well as treatment with cleaved form of OPN (tcOPN were tested. While the former was not found to have an impact on overgrowth of embryonic pig spleen implants, marked reduction of size was noted upon treatment with the (tcOPN. Collectively, our surprising set of observations suggests that factors of the coagulation cascade have a novel role in organ size control.

  19. [Blood coagulation in hyperthermia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierzina, W D; Herold, M; Günther, R; Kunz, F

    1980-01-01

    Young healthy volunteers were treated with physical hyperthermia (baths) in order to investigate changes in blood coagulation. Such therapy is used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. Single hot baths (mean body temperature 38,2-39,9 degrees C) resulted in a rise of fibrinogen, factors IX and XII, maximal amplitude of the thrombelastogram and hemoglobin and in a decrease of plasminogen. In a series of hypothermic baths no additional changes of coagulation or fibrinolysis could be found. The results suggest that hyperthermia causes a tendency to thrombosis.

  20. Influence of blood flow on the coagulation cascade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The influence of diffusion and convetive flows on the blood coagulation cascade is investigated for a controlled perfusion experiment. We present a cartoon model and reaction schemes for parts of the coagulation cascade with sunsequent set up of a mathematical model in two space dimensions plus one...

  1. School Bonds and the Onset of Substance Use among Korean Youth: An Examination of Social Control Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonsun Han

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between school bonds and the onset of substance use among adolescents in South Korea. Based on Hirschi’s social control theory, this study tested the roles of teacher attachment, educational aspiration, extracurricular activities, and rule internalization—four elements of social bonds within the school setting—in delayed initiation of alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. Discrete-time logistic regression was used to analyze five waves of the Korea Youth Panel Survey (N = 3449 at baseline, a nationally representative sample of Korean youth. Stronger teacher attachment, higher educational aspiration, and higher rule internalization were correlated with delayed onset of alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. On the other hand, participation in school extracurricular activities was positively associated with the onset of alcohol drinking, but not statistically significantly linked with the onset of cigarette smoking. These findings suggest that early prevention strategies for youth substance use should specifically target school-related factors that represent social bonds developed among youth.

  2. Tartar-control toothpaste as a possible contributory factor in the onset of superficial mucocele: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M

    1995-01-01

    Superficial mucoceles are small, clear vesicles that occur on clinically non-inflamed mucosa and are often misdiagnosed as vesiculobullous disorders. Soft palate, retromolar pads, and posterior buccal mucosa are common sites of involvement. The lesions are more common in women than in men and need no treatment. This paper describes a 71-year-old female who demonstrated some of the pitfalls in diagnosis and a possible contributory role of a tartar-control toothpaste in the onset of the lesions.

  3. Genetically determined coagulation disorders in ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P.J. van Goor (Marie-Louise)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the research described in this thesis was to investigate the role of genetically determined coagulation disorders in ischemic stroke. We therefore performed several retrospective studies and one prospective case-control study of patients with recent ischemic stroke (the COCOS

  4. The seasonal timing of warming that controls onset of the growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James S; Melillo, Jerry; Mohan, Jacqueline; Salk, Carl

    2014-04-01

    Forecasting how global warming will affect onset of the growing season is essential for predicting terrestrial productivity, but suffers from conflicting evidence. We show that accurate estimates require ways to connect discrete observations of changing tree status (e.g., pre- vs. post budbreak) with continuous responses to fluctuating temperatures. By coherently synthesizing discrete observations with continuous responses to temperature variation, we accurately quantify how increasing temperature variation accelerates onset of growth. Application to warming experiments at two latitudes demonstrates that maximum responses to warming are concentrated in late winter, weeks ahead of the main budbreak period. Given that warming will not occur uniformly over the year, knowledge of when temperature variation has the most impact can guide prediction. Responses are large and heterogeneous, yet predictable. The approach has immediate application to forecasting effects of warming on growing season length, requiring only information that is readily available from weather stations and generated in climate models. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effect of tranexamic acid on coagulation and fibrinolysis in women with postpartum haemorrhage (WOMAN-ETAC): protocol and statistical analysis plan for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakur, Haleema; Fawole, Bukola; Kuti, Modupe; Olayemi, Oladapo; Bello, Adenike; Ogunbode, Olayinka; Kotila, Taiwo; Aimakhu, Chris O; Huque, Sumaya; Gregg, Meghann; Roberts, Ian

    2016-12-16

    Background: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death. Tranexamic acid has the potential to reduce bleeding and a large randomized controlled trial of its effect on maternal health outcomes in women with PPH (The WOMAN trial) is ongoing. We will examine the effect of tranexamic acid on fibrinolysis and coagulation in a subset of WOMAN trial participants. Methods. Adult women with clinically diagnosed primary PPH after vaginal or caesarean delivery are eligible for inclusion in the WOMAN trial. In a sub-group of trial participants, blood samples will be collected at baseline and 30 minutes after the first dose of tranexamic acid or matching placebo.  Our primary objective is to evaluate the effect of tranexamic acid on fibrinolysis. Fibrinolysis will be assessed by measuring D-dimers and by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). Secondary outcomes are international normalized ratio (INR), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen, haemoglobin and platelets. We aim to include about 180 women from the University College Hospital, Ibadan in Nigeria. Discussion:  This sub-study of WOMAN trial participants should provide information on the mechanism of action of tranexamic acid in women with postpartum haemorrhage. We present the trial protocol and statistical analysis plan. The trial protocol was registered prior to the start of patient recruitment. The statistical analysis plan was completed before un-blinding. Trial registration: The trial was registered: ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier NCT00872469 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00872469; ISRCTN registry, Identifier ISRCTN76912190 http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN76912190 (Registration date: 22/03/2012).

  6. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in term and preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Alex; Fischer, Doris; Nold, Marcel F; Wong, Flora Y

    2010-06-01

    Among critically ill patients, the risk of developing disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is probably highest in neonates. Low plasma reserves in pro- and anticoagulant coagulation factors, intravascular volume contraction after birth, and a high incidence of hypoxia and sepsis in critically ill newborns rapidly lead to a decompensation of the coagulation system in this population. Global coagulation tests and single-factor plasma levels have to be interpreted in the context of age-corrected normal ranges. Platelet consumption and reduced protein C plasma levels have diagnostic value; the latter also has prognostic potential in neonates with DIC and sepsis. Therapeutic success relies heavily on reversal of the underlying condition. Some coagulation-specific therapies have been explored in small studies and case series with varying success and sometimes conflicting results. Therefore, larger controlled trials in this common and serious condition are urgently needed.

  7. Clinical and prognostic significance of coagulation assays in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Serilmez, Murat; Keskin, Serkan; Sen, Fatma; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2013-03-01

    Activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis is frequently encountered among cancer patients. Such tumors are supposed to be associated with higher risk of invasion, metastases and eventually worse outcome. The aim of this study is to explore the prognostic value of blood coagulation tests for lung cancer patients. The study comprised 110 lung cancer patients. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, aPTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels and platelet counts were evaluated. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group (p coagulation parameters (p = 0.05). In conclusion, elevation of PT and INR are associated with decreased survival in lung cancer patients.

  8. Frontal Motor Cortex Activity During Reactive Control Is Associated With Past Suicidal Behavior in Recent-Onset Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minzenberg, Michael J; Lesh, Tyler; Niendam, Tara; Yoon, Jong H; Cheng, Yaoan; Rhoades, Remy N; Carter, Cameron S

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is prevalent in schizophrenia (SZ), yet the neural system functions that confer suicide risk remain obscure. Circuits operated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are altered in SZ, including those that support reactive control, and PFC changes are observed in postmortem studies of heterogeneous suicide victims. We tested whether history of suicide attempt is associated with altered frontal motor cortex activity during reactive control processes. We evaluated 17 patients with recent onset of DSM-IV-TR-defined SZ using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale and functional magnetic resonance imaging during Stroop task performance. Group-level regression models relating past suicidal behavior to frontal activation controlled for depression, psychosis, and impulsivity. Past suicidal behavior was associated with relatively higher activation in the left-hemisphere supplementary motor area (SMA), pre-SMA, premotor cortex, and dorsolateral PFC, all ipsilateral to the active primary motor cortex. This study provides unique evidence that suicidal behavior in patients with recent-onset SZ directly relates to frontal motor cortex activity during reactive control, in a pattern reciprocal to the relationship with proactive control found previously. Further work should address how frontal-based control functions change with risk over time, and their potential utility as a biomarker for interventions to mitigate suicide risk in SZ.

  9. Overview of the coagulation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Palta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation is a dynamic process and the understanding of the blood coagulation system has evolved over the recent years in anaesthetic practice. Although the traditional classification of the coagulation system into extrinsic and intrinsic pathway is still valid, the newer insights into coagulation provide more authentic description of the same. Normal coagulation pathway represents a balance between the pro coagulant pathway that is responsible for clot formation and the mechanisms that inhibit the same beyond the injury site. Imbalance of the coagulation system may occur in the perioperative period or during critical illness, which may be secondary to numerous factors leading to a tendency of either thrombosis or bleeding. A systematic search of literature on PubMed with MeSH terms ′coagulation system, haemostasis and anaesthesia revealed twenty eight related clinical trials and review articles in last 10 years. Since the balance of the coagulation system may tilt towards bleeding and thrombosis in many situations, it is mandatory for the clinicians to understand physiologic basis of haemostasis in order to diagnose and manage the abnormalities of the coagulation process and to interpret the diagnostic tests done for the same.

  10. The design of a microcomputer-controlled voice onset time analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeini, S M; Flege, J E; McCutcheon, M J

    1990-01-01

    In spoken syllables such as "ta," the interval between the release of the tongue constriction for the stop consonant /t/ and the onset of the vowel is called voice onset time, or VOT. Voice onset time is an important determinant of whether the initial consonant will be heard as a /t/(values of 60-90 ms) or as a /d/ (values of 0-30 ms). VOT information, immediately following a spoken syllable, can provide a speaker with feedback for modifying speech production. Such information can help the hearing-impaired learn to speak. It may also help people who learn English as a second language, since they often produce /b,d,g/ and /p,t,k/ with inappropriate VOT values. A prototype portable device measures VOT for initial voiced and voiceless stop consonants (e.g., "da" and "ta"). A dual-microphone method is used for acoustic measurement. A microphone in front of the mouth picks up the radiated acoustic signal; another over the larynx transduces vocal vibrations that mark the beginning of a vowel. Analog circuits process the transducer signals and provide gain and filtering. Filters were designed on the basis of the acoustic properties of stop consonants. The output from each analog circuit is fed to a comparator that compares the signal level with a fixed threshold voltage reference. A digital timer starts when the amplitude of the oral signal voltage exceeds a threshold and stops when the laryngeal signal voltage exceeds a threshold. VOT values obtained by the device were compared with those made from digital waveforms of words spoken by five talkers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Thromboelastometry in patients with severe sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivula, Mirka; Pettilä, Ville; Niemi, Tomi T; Varpula, Marjut; Kuitunen, Anne H

    2009-09-01

    Severe sepsis induces coagulopathy, which may lead to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Thromboelastometry is a point-of-care whole blood coagulation monitor, which has been validated in human endotoxemia model. We assessed thromboelastometry in severe sepsis and overt DIC and investigated its applicability in differentiating sepsis-related coagulation disturbances. Thromboelastometry (EXTEM and FIBTEM tests) and traditional coagulation assays were analyzed in 28 patients with severe sepsis, 12 of who fulfilled the criteria of overt DIC on admission. Ten healthy persons served as controls. Coagulation parameters, clotting time, clot formation time (CFT), alpha angle, maximal clot firmness (MCF) and lysis index at 60 min, were registered. In patients with overt DIC, EXTEM MCF, CFT and alpha angle differed from that in both healthy controls and patients without DIC, indicating hypocoagulation (MCF 52, 63 and 68 mm; CFT 184, 88 and 73 s; and alpha angle 58, 72 and 76 degrees , respectively, P coagulation assays showed progressively worsening coagulopathy from controls to septic patients without DIC and further to those with overt DIC. We conclude that thromboelastometry may be a valuable tool in assessing whole blood coagulation capacity in patients with severe sepsis with and without overt DIC.

  12. Tonic control of kisspeptin release in prepubertal monkeys: implications to the mechanism of puberty onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Joseph R; Keen, Kim L; Guerriero, Kathryn A; Terasawa, Ei

    2012-07-01

    Previously we have shown that a reduction in γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) inhibition is critical for the mechanism initiating puberty onset because chronic infusion of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist, bicuculline, significantly increased GnRH release and accelerated the timing of menarche and first ovulation in female rhesus monkeys. Because previous studies in our laboratory indicate that in prepubertal female monkeys, kisspeptin release in the medial basal hypothalamus is low, whereas kisspeptin-10 can stimulate GnRH release, we hypothesized that a low level of kisspeptin release prior to puberty onset is due to tonic GABA inhibition. To test this hypothesis we examined the effects of bicuculline infusion on kisspeptin release using a microdialysis method. We found that bicuculline at 1 μM dramatically stimulates kisspeptin release in the medial basal hypothalamus of prepubertal monkeys but had little effect on kisspeptin release in midpubertal monkeys. We further examined whether bicuculline-induced GnRH release is blocked by the presence of the kisspeptin antagonist, peptide 234. We found that inhibition of kisspeptin signaling blocked the bicuculline-induced stimulation of GnRH release, suggesting that kisspeptin neurons may relay inhibitory GABA signals to GnRH neurons. This implies that a reduction in tonic GABA inhibition of GnRH release is, at least in part, mediated through kisspeptin neurons.

  13. Molecular Features and Methylation Status in Early Onset (≤40 Years Colorectal Cancer: A Population Based, Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Magnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is usually considered a disease of the elderly. However, a small fraction of patients develops colorectal cancer earlier. The aim of our study was to define the frequency of known hereditary colorectal syndromes and to characterise genetic and epigenetic features of early nonhereditary tumors. Thirty-three patients ≤40 years with diagnosis of colorectal cancer and 41 patients with disease at >60 years of age were investigated for MSI, Mismatch Repair proteins expression, KRAS and BRAF mutations, hypermethylation, and LINE-1 hypomethylation. Detection of germline mutations was performed in Mismatch Repair, APC and MUTYH genes. Early onset colorectal cancer showed a high incidence of hereditary forms (18%. KRAS mutations were detected in 36% of early nonhereditary tumors. Early onset colorectal cancer disclosed an average number of methylated genes significantly lower when compared to the controls (p=0.02. Finally both of the two groups were highly methylated in ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes and were similar for LINE-1 hypomethylation. The genetic make-up of carcinomas differs from young to elderly patients. Early onset tumors showed more frequently a constitutional defective of Mismatch Repair System and a minor number of methylated genes. Hypermethylation of ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes suggests possible markers in the earlier diagnosis of colorectal tumorigenesis.

  14. Molecular Features and Methylation Status in Early Onset (≤40 Years) Colorectal Cancer: A Population Based, Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Giulia; Furlan, Daniela; Sahnane, Nora; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Domati, Federica; Pedroni, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is usually considered a disease of the elderly. However, a small fraction of patients develops colorectal cancer earlier. The aim of our study was to define the frequency of known hereditary colorectal syndromes and to characterise genetic and epigenetic features of early nonhereditary tumors. Thirty-three patients ≤40 years with diagnosis of colorectal cancer and 41 patients with disease at >60 years of age were investigated for MSI, Mismatch Repair proteins expression, KRAS and BRAF mutations, hypermethylation, and LINE-1 hypomethylation. Detection of germline mutations was performed in Mismatch Repair, APC and MUTYH genes. Early onset colorectal cancer showed a high incidence of hereditary forms (18%). KRAS mutations were detected in 36% of early nonhereditary tumors. Early onset colorectal cancer disclosed an average number of methylated genes significantly lower when compared to the controls (p = 0.02). Finally both of the two groups were highly methylated in ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes and were similar for LINE-1 hypomethylation. The genetic make-up of carcinomas differs from young to elderly patients. Early onset tumors showed more frequently a constitutional defective of Mismatch Repair System and a minor number of methylated genes. Hypermethylation of ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes suggests possible markers in the earlier diagnosis of colorectal tumorigenesis. PMID:26557847

  15. Tapasin gene polymorphism in systemic onset juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: a family-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukulmez, Hulya; Fife, Mark; Tsoras, Monica; Thompson, Susan D; Twine, Natalie A; Woo, Patricia; Olson, Jane M; Elston, Robert C; Glass, David N; Colbert, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) comprises a group of chronic systemic inflammatory disorders that primarily affect joints and can cause long-term disability. JRA is likely to be a complex genetic trait, or a series of such traits, with both genetic and environmental factors contributing to the risk for developing the disease and to its progression. The HLA region on the short arm of chromosome 6 has been intensively evaluated for genetic contributors to JRA, and multiple associations, and more recently linkage, has been detected. Other genes involved in innate and acquired immunity also map to near the HLA cluster on 6p, and it is possible that variation within these genes also confers risk for developing JRA. We examined the TPSN gene, which encodes tapasin, an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone that is involved in antigen processing, to elucidate its involvement, if any, in JRA. We employed both a case-control approach and the transmission disequilibrium test, and found linkage and association between the TPSN allele (Arg260) and the systemic onset subtype of JRA. Two independent JRA cohorts were used, one recruited from the Rheumatology Clinic at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (82 simplex families) and one collected by the British Paediatric Rheumatology Group in London, England (74 simplex families). The transmission disequilibrium test for these cohorts combined was statistically significant (chi2 = 4.2, one degree of freedom; P = 0.04). Linkage disequilibrium testing between the HLA alleles that are known to be associated with systemic onset JRA did not reveal linkage disequilibrium with the Arg260 allele, either in the Cincinnati systemic onset JRA cohort or in 113 Caucasian healthy individuals. These results suggest that there is a weak association between systemic onset JRA and the TPSN polymorphism, possibly due to linkage disequilibrium with an as yet unknown susceptibility allele in the centromeric part of chromosome 6.

  16. Age at Onset in Two Common Neurodegenerative Diseases Is Genetically Controlled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Ju; Scott, William K.; Hedges, Dale J.; Zhang, Fengyu; Gaskell, P. Craig; Nance, Martha A.; Watts, Ray L.; Hubble, Jean P.; Koller, William C.; Pahwa, Rajesh; Stern, Matthew B.; Hiner, Bradley C.; Jankovic, Joseph; Allen, Jr., Fred H.; Goetz, Christopher G.; Mastaglia, Frank; Stajich, Jeffrey M.; Gibson, Rachel A.; Middleton, Lefkos T.; Saunders, Ann M.; Scott, Burton L.; Small, Gary W.; Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Reed, Allison D.; Schmechel, Donald E.; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A.; Conneally, P. Michael; Roses, Allen D.; Gilbert, John R.; Vance, Jeffery M.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.

    2002-01-01

    To identify genes influencing age at onset (AAO) in two common neurodegenerative diseases, a genomic screen was performed for AAO in families with Alzheimer disease (AD; n=449) and Parkinson disease (PD; n=174). Heritabilities between 40%–60% were found in both the AD and PD data sets. For PD, significant evidence for linkage to AAO was found on chromosome 1p (LOD = 3.41). For AD, the AAO effect of APOE (LOD = 3.28) was confirmed. In addition, evidence for AAO linkage on chromosomes 6 and 10 was identified independently in both the AD and PD data sets. Subsequent unified analyses of these regions identified a single peak on chromosome 10q between D10S1239 and D10S1237, with a maximum LOD score of 2.62. These data suggest that a common gene affects AAO in these two common complex neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:11875758

  17. Blood coagulation: hemostasis and thrombin regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi A; Key, Nigel S; Levy, Jerrold H

    2009-05-01

    Perioperative bleeding is a major challenge particularly because of increasing clinical use of potent antithrombotic drugs. Understanding current concepts of coagulation is important in determining the preoperative bleeding risk of patients, and in managing hemostatic therapy perioperatively. The serine protease thrombin plays pivotal roles in the activation of additional serine protease zymogens (inactive enzymatic precursors), cofactors, and cell-surface receptors. Thrombin generation is closely regulated to locally achieve rapid hemostasis after injury without causing uncontrolled systemic thrombosis. During surgery, there are major disturbances in coagulation and inflammatory systems because of hemorrhage/hemodilution, blood transfusion, and surgical stresses. Postoperative bleeding often requires allogeneic blood transfusions, which support thrombin generation and hemostasis. However, procoagulant activity and inflammation are increased postoperatively; thus, antithrombotic therapy may be required to prevent perioperative thrombotic complications. There have been significant advances in the management of perioperative hemostasis and thrombosis because of the introduction of novel hemostatic and antithrombotic drugs. However, a limitation of current treatment is that conventional clotting tests do not reflect the entire physiological processes of coagulation making optimal pharmacologic therapy difficult. Understanding the in vivo regulatory mechanisms and pharmacologic modulation of thrombin generation may help control bleeding without potentially increasing prothrombotic risks. In this review, we focus on the regulatory mechanisms of hemostasis and thrombin generation using multiple, simplified models of coagulation.

  18. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Levi

    2009-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome that may complicate a variety of diseases, including malignant disease. DIC is characterized by widespread, intravascular activation of coagulation (leading to intravascular fibrin deposition) and simultaneous consumption of coagulation fact

  19. How Is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Treated? Treatment for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) depends ... and treat the underlying cause. Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation People who have acute DIC may have severe ...

  20. 电凝聚控制 MBR 膜污染的研究%Research on Controlling MBR Membrane Fouling by Electro-Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱光升; 胡筱敏; 陈文希; 戚重阳

    2016-01-01

    试验考察了 SECMBR 的膜过滤特性,探讨了电凝聚对控制 MBR 膜污染的作用及机理.试验结果表明:胞外聚合物(EPS)、溶解性代谢产物(SMP)、ζ电位和污泥颗粒粒径等是膜污染的重要影响因素. SECMBR 的膜污染远小于 SMBR;SECMBR 原位溶出铁离子与 EPS 结合,絮凝性增强,滤饼层污染减轻;SECMBR 中电凝聚可降低单位容积活性污泥分泌的 SMP 与 EPS,减轻膜污染;SECMBR 降低 EPS 和 SMP 中主要污染物蛋白质的比例,减轻膜污染;ζ电位与 Rc 之间呈负相关,在 SMBR 与 SECMBR 中相关度分别为-0.7988和-0.5574.SECMBR 在电场与铁粒子作用下降低了ζ电位绝对值,减轻了膜污染.%Filtration characteristics of the submerged electric coagulation membrane bioreactor (SECMBR)membrane was investigated,function and mechanism of controlling MBR membrane fouling by electrocoagulation was discussed.The results show that the extracellular polymers (EPS),soluble microbial products (SMP),ζpotential and sludge particle size are the important influence factors of membrane fouling.Membrane fouling of SECMBR is much less than that of SMBR.In the SECMBR,the in situ dissolved iron ion combines with EPS which can enhance flocculation and alleviate pollution of cake layer.Electrocoagulation can reduce SMP and EPS secreted by unit volume activated sludge in SECMBR,and alleviate membrane pollution. SECMBR reduces the proportion of protein which is main pollution in EPS and SMP,and reduces membrane pollution.ζpotential has a negative correlation with Rc . Correlation degree is-0.798 8 and -0.557 4 in SMBR and SECMBR.Under the effect of electric field and iron ion, the ζpotential absolute value is reduced,and membrane pollution is alleviated.

  1. EFFECTS OF ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES ON COAGULATING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. Sadeghipour Roudsari.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty young, healthy, nonsmoking women (mean age approximately 28 years taking low-dose oral contraceptive pills were recruited for the study of the effects of these pills on coagulating factors. Twenty subjects were taking LD pill (Ethinyl estradiol 0.03 mg, levonorgestrel 0.15 mg and 10 others were taking Cilest (Ethinyl estradiol 0.035 mg, Norgestimate 0.25 mg for six months. The control subjects did not receive any oral contraceptives or other medications. Our results showed that:"n1. There is no significant difference between the effects of LD and Cilest (with a different progestin content on coagulating factors."n2. No significant changes were observed between both LD users and controls in PT, APTT, and fibrinogen levels."n3. No significant changes were observed between both Cilest users and controls in PT, APTT, and fibrinogen levels."n

  2. Loss of independent limb control in childhood hemiparesis is related to time of brain injury onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Murray, Theresa M; Dewald, Julius P A

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the presence of inter-limb activity at the elbow joint in individuals with childhood-onset hemiparesis, including spontaneous mirror movements during unilateral tasks and the ability to suppress them during bilateral tasks. Eighteen individuals with hemiparesis were divided into three categories of injury timing: before birth (PRE-natal), around the time of birth (PERI-natal), and after 6 months of age (POST-natal). Individuals with hemiparesis, as well as 12 typically developing peers, participated in unilateral and bilateral elbow flexion and extension tasks completed at maximal and submaximal effort while muscle activity was monitored and motor output was quantified by two multiple degrees-of-freedom load cells. Significantly, higher levels of paretic elbow flexion were found only in the PRE- and PERI-natal groups during the flexion of the non-paretic limb, which was modulated by effort level in both unilateral and bilateral tasks. The bilateral activation of elbow flexors in the PRE-/PERI-natal groups indicates potential use of a common cortical command source to drive both upper extremities, while the POST-natal/typically developing groups' flexors appear to receive input from different supraspinal structures.

  3. Effect of coital activity on onset of labor in women scheduled for labor induction: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Peng Chiong; Yow, Choon Ming; Omar, Siti Zawiah

    2007-10-01

    To estimate the effect of coitus on the onset of labor. Women with a nonurgent labor induction at term were recruited. Women randomly assigned to the advised-coitus group were encouraged to have sex to promote the onset of labor. Controls were neither encouraged nor discouraged regarding coitus. Participants kept a coital and orgasm diary until delivery, and standard obstetric care was provided to both groups. Primary outcomes were reported coitus and spontaneous labor. Secondary outcomes included reported orgasms, initial Bishop score at the admission for induction, preterm rupture of membranes, use of dinoprostone, oxytocin, or epidural, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, cesarean delivery, maternal fever, and neonatal morbidity. One hundred eight and 102 women randomly assigned to advised-coitus and control groups, respectively, were available for analysis. Women assigned to the advised-coitus group were more likely to report coital activity before delivery (60.2% compared with 39.6%, relative risk 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.0; P=.004), but the spontaneous labor rate was no different (55.6% compared with 52.0%, relative risk 1.1, 95% confidence interval 0.8-1.4; P=.68). Cesarean delivery rate and neonatal and other secondary outcomes were also not different. Among women scheduled for labor induction who were advised to have sex, the increase in sexual activity did not increase the rate of spontaneous labor. isrctn.org, http://isrctn.org, ISRCTN17998696

  4. The hybrid BCI system for movement control by combining motor imagery and moving onset visual evoked potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Teng; Li, Hui; Deng, Lili; Yang, Hao; Lv, Xulin; Li, Peiyang; Li, Fali; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Tiejun; Yao, Dezhong; Xu, Peng

    2017-04-01

    Objective. Movement control is an important application for EEG-BCI (EEG-based brain-computer interface) systems. A single-modality BCI cannot provide an efficient and natural control strategy, but a hybrid BCI system that combines two or more different tasks can effectively overcome the drawbacks encountered in single-modality BCI control. Approach. In the current paper, we developed a new hybrid BCI system by combining MI (motor imagery) and mVEP (motion-onset visual evoked potential), aiming to realize the more efficient 2D movement control of a cursor. Main result. The offline analysis demonstrates that the hybrid BCI system proposed in this paper could evoke the desired MI and mVEP signal features simultaneously, and both are very close to those evoked in the single-modality BCI task. Furthermore, the online 2D movement control experiment reveals that the proposed hybrid BCI system could provide more efficient and natural control commands. Significance. The proposed hybrid BCI system is compensative to realize efficient 2D movement control for a practical online system, especially for those situations in which P300 stimuli are not suitable to be applied.

  5. Review of levetiracetam, with a focus on the extended release formulation, as adjuvant therapy in controlling partial-onset seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol M Ulloa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Carol M Ulloa, Allen Towfigh, Joseph SafdiehDepartment of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Levetiracetam is a second-generation antiepileptic drug (AED with a unique chemical structure and mechanism of action. The extended release formulation of levetiracetam (Keppra XR™; UCB Pharma was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial-onset seizures in patients 16 years of age and older with epilepsy. This approval is based on a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter, multinational trial. Levetiracetam XR allows for once-daily dosing, which may increase compliance and, given the relatively constant plasma concentrations, may minimize concentration-related adverse effects. Levetiracetam’s mode of action is not fully elucidated, but it has been found to target high-voltage, N-type calcium channels as well as the synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A. Levetiracetam has nearly ideal pharmacokinetics. It is rapidly and almost completely absorbed after oral ingestion, is ‹10% protein-bound, demonstrates linear kinetics, is minimally metabolized through a pathway independent of the cytochrome P450 system, has no significant drug–drug interactions, and has a wide therapeutic index. The most common reported adverse events with levetiracetam XR were somnolence, irritability, dizziness, nausea, influenza, and nasopharyngitis. Levetiracetam XR provides an efficacious and well-tolerated treatment option for adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial-onset seizures.Keywords: levetiracetam, partial-onset seizures, antiepileptic drugs

  6. The Influencing Factors and Quality Control of Emergency Four Items of Blood Coagulation Before Analysis%急诊凝血四项分析前的影响因素及质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the influencing factors and quality control of emergency four items of blood coagulation before analysis.Method:511 patients admitted to emergency department in our hospital from July 2012 to July 2014 were selected,the four items of blood coagulation were measured after venous blood collection,found the error results for repeated blood sampling and reviewed.Result:A total of 91 samples(17.8%) of blood appeared error,in which 27 samples(29.7%) of blood with anticoagulant ratio appeared error,compared with the original results,the PT,APTT,TT in the results of review reduced significantly,the FIB increased significantly,the differences were statistically significant(P0.05);and 45 samples(49.5%) of blood without mixing. Conclusion:The implementation of quality control before analysis from the blood collection,storage,inspection,medication and other aspects can improve the test quality of the four items of blood coagulation and give full play to the role of blood coagulation detection diagnosis.%目的:分析急诊凝血四项分析前的影响因素及质量控制。方法:选取2012年7月-2014年7月笔者所在医院急诊收治入院的511例患者,对其静脉采血后进行凝血四项的测定,找出误差结果重复采血并进行复查。结果:共有91份(17.8%)血样出现误差,其中27份(29.7%)血量与抗凝剂比例有误,其复查结果与原结果比较,PT、APTT、TT均明显减小,FIB明显增大,差异均有统计学意义(P0.05);45份(49.5%)血样未混匀。结论:从血样采集、储存、送检、患者用药等多方面进行分析前质量控制,能提高凝血四项检验的质量,充分发挥凝血检测的诊断作用。

  7. Onset of action and seizure control in Lennox-Gaustaut syndrome: focus on rufinamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneto, Russell P; Anderson, Gail D

    2009-04-01

    Lennox-Gaustaut syndrome is an electroclinical epilepsy syndrome characterized by the triad of electroencephalogram showing diffuse slow spike-and-wave discharges and paroxysmal fast activity, multiple intractable seizure types, and cognitive impairment. The intractability to seizure medications and cognitive impairment gives rise to eventual institutionalized patient care. Only a small subset of seizure medications has been shown to be helpful in seizure control. Most patients take up to 3 medications at high therapeutic dosing and are susceptible to medication-induced side effects. The lack of medication efficacy in seizure control has led one meta-analysis to conclude that there is no single medication that is highly efficacious in controlling seizures in this syndrome. On this background, a new and structurally novel seizure medication, rufinamide, has been found to be beneficial in the treatment of seizures in this syndrome. In a multicenter, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study, rufinamide was found to reduce seizures by over 30%. More importantly, it reduced the frequency of the seizure type that induces most of the morbidity of this syndrome, the drop seizure, by over 40%. There were few side effects, the medication was well tolerated, and in the open labeled extension study, tolerance was not found. In this review, we describe the main electroclinical features of Lennox-Gaustaut syndrome and summarize the few controlled studies that have contributed to its rational treatment. Currently, there is no single agent or combination of agents that effectively treat the multiple seizure types and co-morbidities in this syndrome. Our focus will be on the role of the new medication rufinamide in seizure reduction in patients with Lennox-Gaustaut syndrome.

  8. Onset of action and seizure control in Lennox-Gaustaut syndrome: focus on rufinamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P Saneto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Russell P Saneto1, Gail D Anderson21Division of Pediatric Neurology, Seattle Children’s Hospital/University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; 2Department of Pharmacy, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USAAbstract: Lennox-Gaustaut syndrome is an electroclinical epilepsy syndrome characterized by the triad of electroencephalogram showing diffuse slow spike-and-wave discharges and paroxysmal fast activity, multiple intractable seizure types, and cognitive impairment. The intractability to seizure medications and cognitive impairment gives rise to eventual institutionalized patient care. Only a small subset of seizure medications has been shown to be helpful in seizure control. Most patients take up to 3 medications at high therapeutic dosing and are susceptible to medication-induced side effects. The lack of medication efficacy in seizure control has led one meta-analysis to conclude that there is no single medication that is highly efficacious in controlling seizures in this syndrome. On this background, a new and structurally novel seizure medication, rufinamide, has been found to be beneficial in the treatment of seizures in this syndrome. In a multicenter, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study, rufinamide was found to reduce seizures by over 30%. More importantly, it reduced the frequency of the seizure type that induces most of the morbidity of this syndrome, the drop seizure, by over 40%. There were few side effects, the medication was well tolerated, and in the open labeled extension study, tolerance was not found. In this review, we describe the main electroclinical features of Lennox-Gaustaut syndrome and summarize the few controlled studies that have contributed to its rational treatment. Currently, there is no single agent or combination of agents that effectively treat the multiple seizure types and co-morbidities in this syndrome. Our focus will be on the role of the new medication rufinamide in

  9. Bio-responsive polymer hydrogels homeostatically regulate blood coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitz, Manfred F.; Freudenberg, Uwe; Tsurkan, Mikhail V.; Fischer, Marion; Beyrich, Theresa; Werner, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Bio-responsive polymer architectures can empower medical therapies by engaging molecular feedback-response mechanisms resembling the homeostatic adaptation of living tissues to varying environmental constraints. Here we show that a blood coagulation-responsive hydrogel system can deliver heparin in amounts triggered by the environmental levels of thrombin, the key enzyme of the coagulation cascade, which—in turn—becomes inactivated due to released heparin. The bio-responsive hydrogel quantitatively quenches blood coagulation over several hours in the presence of pro-coagulant stimuli and during repeated incubation with fresh, non-anticoagulated blood. These features enable the introduced material to provide sustainable, autoregulated anticoagulation, addressing a key challenge of many medical therapies. Beyond that, the explored concept may facilitate the development of materials that allow the effective and controlled application of drugs and biomolecules. PMID:23868446

  10. Welfare cost of childhood- and adolescent-onset epilepsy: A controlled national study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Pickering, Line; Christensen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    the Danish Civil Registration System. Welfare costs included outpatient services, inpatient admissions, and emergency room visits based on the Danish National Patient Registry and information from the primary health-care sector based on data from the Danish Ministry of Health. This allowed the total health-care...... cost of epilepsy to be estimated. The use and costs of drugs were based on data from the Danish Medicines Agency. The frequencies of visits to outpatient clinics and hospitalizations and costs from primary sectors were based on data obtained from the National Patient Registry. RESULTS: Children...... with epilepsy had higher welfare costs than controls. The highest cost was found one year after diagnosis, with higher costs up to 10years after diagnosis compared with controls. Children aged 0-5years incurred greater health-care costs than those aged 6-20years. CONCLUSION: Epilepsy has major socioeconomic...

  11. Case-control study of severe pre-eclampsia of early onset.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, M P; Redman, C W

    1983-01-01

    Twenty four women with severe pre-eclampsia diagnosed before 34 weeks' gestation were compared with 48 randomly selected controls matched for age and parity. Subjects were studied in the puerperium using a questionnaire, clinical examination, and review of case records. A history of infertility, headaches (particularly migraine), pre-eclampsia in a previous pregnancy, or a raised serum alpha-fetoprotein concentration at the time of screening for neural tube defect in the index pregnancy were ...

  12. Error-enhancing robot therapy to induce motor control improvement in childhood onset primary dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casellato Claudia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robot-generated deviating forces during multijoint reaching movements have been applied to investigate motor control and to tune neuromotor adaptation. Can the application of force to limbs improve motor learning? In this framework, the response to altered dynamic environments of children affected by primary dystonia has never been studied. Methods As preliminary pilot study, eleven children with primary dystonia and eleven age-matched healthy control subjects were asked to perform upper limb movements, triangle-reaching (three directions and circle-writing, using a haptic robot interacting with ad-hoc developed task-specific visual interfaces. Three dynamic conditions were provided, null additive external force (A, constant disturbing force (B and deactivation of the additive external force again (C. The path length for each trial was computed, from the recorded position data and interaction events. Results The results show that the disturbing force affects significantly the movement outcomes in healthy but not in dystonic subjects, already compromised in the reference condition: the external alteration uncalibrates the healthy sensorimotor system, while the dystonic one is already strongly uncalibrated. The lack of systematic compensation for perturbation effects during B condition is reflected into the absence of after-effects in C condition, which would be the evidence that CNS generates a prediction of the perturbing forces using an internal model of the environment. The most promising finding is that in dystonic population the altered dynamic exposure seems to induce a subsequent improvement, i.e. a beneficial after-effect in terms of optimal path control, compared with the correspondent reference movement outcome. Conclusions The short-time error-enhancing training in dystonia could represent an effective approach for motor performance improvement, since the exposure to controlled dynamic alterations induces a refining

  13. JNK controls the onset of mitosis in planarian stem cells and triggers apoptotic cell death required for regeneration and remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Almuedo-Castillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration of lost tissues depends on the precise interpretation of molecular signals that control and coordinate the onset of proliferation, cellular differentiation and cell death. However, the nature of those molecular signals and the mechanisms that integrate the cellular responses remain largely unknown. The planarian flatworm is a unique model in which regeneration and tissue renewal can be comprehensively studied in vivo. The presence of a population of adult pluripotent stem cells combined with the ability to decode signaling after wounding enable planarians to regenerate a complete, correctly proportioned animal within a few days after any kind of amputation, and to adapt their size to nutritional changes without compromising functionality. Here, we demonstrate that the stress-activated c-jun-NH2-kinase (JNK links wound-induced apoptosis to the stem cell response during planarian regeneration. We show that JNK modulates the expression of wound-related genes, triggers apoptosis and attenuates the onset of mitosis in stem cells specifically after tissue loss. Furthermore, in pre-existing body regions, JNK activity is required to establish a positive balance between cell death and stem cell proliferation to enable tissue renewal, remodeling and the maintenance of proportionality. During homeostatic degrowth, JNK RNAi blocks apoptosis, resulting in impaired organ remodeling and rescaling. Our findings indicate that JNK-dependent apoptotic cell death is crucial to coordinate tissue renewal and remodeling required to regenerate and to maintain a correctly proportioned animal. Hence, JNK might act as a hub, translating wound signals into apoptotic cell death, controlled stem cell proliferation and differentiation, all of which are required to coordinate regeneration and tissue renewal.

  14. Powdered activated carbon coupled with enhanced coagulation for natural organic matter removal and disinfection by-product control: application in a Western Australian water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiana, Ina; Joll, Cynthia; Heitz, Anna

    2011-04-01

    The removal of organic precursors of disinfection by-products (DBPs), i.e. natural organic matter (NOM), prior to disinfection and distribution is considered as the most effective approach to minimise the formation of DBPs. This study investigated the impact of the addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to an enhanced coagulation treatment process at an existing water treatment plant on the efficiency of NOM removal, the disinfection behaviour of the treated water, and the water quality in the distribution system. This is the first comprehensive assessment of the efficacy of plant-scale application of PAC combined with enhanced coagulation on an Australian source water. As a result of the PAC addition, the removal of NOM improved by 70%, which led to a significant reduction (80-95%) in the formation of DBPs. The water quality in the distribution system also improved, indicated by lower concentrations of DBPs in the distribution system and better maintenance of disinfectant residual at the extremities of the distribution system. The efficacy of the PAC treatment for NOM removal was shown to be a function of the characteristics of the NOM and the quality of the source water, as well as the PAC dose. PAC treatment did not have the capacity to remove bromide ion, resulting in the formation of more brominated DBPs. Since brominated DBPs have been found to be more toxic than their chlorinated analogues, their preferential formation upon PAC addition must be considered, especially in source waters containing high concentrations of bromide.

  15. Obstetrical disseminated intravascular coagulation score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takao

    2014-06-01

    Obstetrical disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is usually a very acute, serious complication of pregnancy. The obstetrical DIC score helps with making a prompt diagnosis and starting treatment early. This DIC score, in which higher scores are given for clinical parameters rather than for laboratory parameters, has three components: (i) the underlying diseases; (ii) the clinical symptoms; and (iii) the laboratory findings (coagulation tests). It is justifiably appropriate to initiate therapy for DIC when the obstetrical DIC score reaches 8 points or more before obtaining the results of coagulation tests. Improvement of blood coagulation tests and clinical symptoms are essential to the efficacy evaluation for treatment after a diagnosis of obstetrical DIC. Therefore, the efficacy evaluation criteria for obstetrical DIC are also defined to enable follow-up of the clinical efficacy of DIC therapy.

  16. Disorders of coagulation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, D; Beilin, Y

    2015-12-01

    The process of haemostasis is complex and is further complicated in the parturient because of the physiological changes of pregnancy. Understanding these changes and the impact that they have on the safety profile of the anaesthetic options for labour and delivery is crucial to any anaesthetist caring for the parturient. This article analyses current theories on coagulation and reviews the physiological changes to coagulation that occur during pregnancy and the best methods with which to evaluate coagulation. Finally, we examine some of the more common disorders of coagulation that occur during pregnancy, including von Willebrand disease, common factor deficiencies, platelet disorders, the parturient on anticoagulants, and the more rare acute fatty liver of pregnancy, with a focus on their implications for neuraxial anaesthesia.

  17. Metabolic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus at the onset of primary adrenal insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Larina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary adrenal insufficiency is a rare disorder but it is more common in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM or autoimmune thyroid diseases than in the general population. T1DM may precede the development of adrenocortical insufficiency. Addison’s disease can influence the glycemic control in patients with T1DM worsening glucose metabolism. It causes the decrease of gluconeogenesis, reduction in total insulin requirement and rather often «unexplained» recurrent hypoglycemia. Glucocorticoid replacement therapy in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency and T1DM increases the insulin requirement. The article presents the development of primary adrenal insufficiency in a patient with type 1 DM and autoimmune hypothyroidism, accompanied with incidents of recurrent hypoglycemia.

  18. Do genetic factors protect for early onset lung cancer? A case control study before the age of 50 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilge Bettina

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early onset lung cancer shows some familial aggregation, pointing to a genetic predisposition. This study was set up to investigate the role of candidate genes in the susceptibility to lung cancer patients younger than 51 years at diagnosis. Methods 246 patients with a primary, histologically or cytologically confirmed neoplasm, recruited from 2000 to 2003 in major lung clinics across Germany, were matched to 223 unrelated healthy controls. 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes with reported associations to lung cancer have been genotyped. Results Genetic associations or gene-smoking interactions was found for GPX1(Pro200Leu and EPHX1(His113Tyr. Carriers of the Leu-allele of GPX1(Pro200Leu showed a significant risk reduction of OR = 0.6 (95% CI: 0.4–0.8, p = 0.002 in general and of OR = 0.3 (95% CI:0.1–0.8, p = 0.012 within heavy smokers. We could also find a risk decreasing genetic effect for His-carriers of EPHX1(His113Tyr for moderate smokers (OR = 0.2, 95% CI:0.1–0.7, p = 0.012. Considered both variants together, a monotone decrease of the OR was found for smokers (OR of 0.20; 95% CI: 0.07–0.60 for each protective allele. Conclusion Smoking is the most important risk factor for young lung cancer patients. However, this study provides some support for the T-Allel of GPX1(Pro200Leu and the C-Allele of EPHX1(His113Tyr to play a protective role in early onset lung cancer susceptibility.

  19. Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water by Adsorption and Coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Removal of arsenic from drinking water has been an important issue worldwide, which has attracted greater attentions in recent years especially for supplying safe drinking water in developing countries. Although many kinds of treatment approaches that are available or applicable both in principle and practice, such as adsorption, coagulation, membrane filtration, ion exchange, biological process, electrocoagulation and so on, the first 2 approaches (i.e., adsorption and coagulation) are most promising due to the low-cost, high-efficiency, simplicity of treating systems, and thus can be practically used in developing countries. In this study, a literature survey on water quality in Bangladesh was performed to understand the ranges of arsenic concentration and pH of groundwater in Bangladesh. A series of tests were then organized and performed to investigate the effects of arsenic concentration, arsenic forms, pH, chemical compositions of the materials used for adsorption and coagulation, particle size distribution and treatment time on quality of treated water. The experimental results obtained in the study illustrated that both adsorption and coagulation can be used to effectively reduce the concentrations of either arsenic (V) or arsenic (III) from the contaminated water. Coagulation of arsenic with a magnesium-based material developed in this study can be very effective to remove arsenic, especially arsenic (V), from contaminated water with a concentration of 10 ppm to an undetectable level of 0.002 ppm by ICP analyses. Compared to arsenic (III), arsenic (V) is easier to be removed. The materials used for adsorption and coagulation in this study can remove arsenic (V) up to 9 mg/g and 6 mg/g, and arsenic (III) up to 4 mg/g and 3 mg/g, respectively, depending on test conditions and compositions of the materials being used. The control of pH during treatment can be a challenging technical issue for developing both adsorbent and coagulant. Keywords: Water Treatment

  20. Initiation of blood coagulation - Evaluating the relevance of specific surface functionalities using self assembled monolayers

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Marion

    2010-01-01

    The surface of biomaterials can induce contacting blood to coagulate, similar to the response initiated by injured blood vessels to control blood loss. This poses a challenge to the use of biomaterials as the resulting coagulation can impair the performance of hemocompatible devices such as catheters, vascular stents and various extracorporeal tubings [1], what can moreover cause severe host reactions like embolism and infarction. Biomaterial induced coagulation processes limit the therape...

  1. Hypoglycemia and hemostatic parameters in juvenile-onset diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Madsbad, S; Nielsen, J D;

    1980-01-01

    Hypoglycemia was induced by intravenous infusion of insulin in six juvenile-onset diabetic subjects. Hemostatic parameters were assessed before insulin infusion and 0, 1, and 2 h after discontinuation of insulin infusion. The onset of hypoglycemia coincided with an enhancement of ADP-induced plat......Hypoglycemia was induced by intravenous infusion of insulin in six juvenile-onset diabetic subjects. Hemostatic parameters were assessed before insulin infusion and 0, 1, and 2 h after discontinuation of insulin infusion. The onset of hypoglycemia coincided with an enhancement of ADP...... potentially lead to intravascular coagulation in juvenile-onset diabetic patients....

  2. Interleukin-1 antagonism in type 1 diabetes of recent onset: two multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Antoinette; Bundy, Brian; Becker, Dorothy J; DiMeglio, Linda A; Gitelman, Stephen E; Goland, Robin; Greenbaum, Carla J; Herold, Kevan C; Marks, Jennifer B; Raskin, Philip; Sanda, Srinath; Schatz, Desmond; Wherrett, Diane K; Wilson, Darrell M; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Skyler, Jay S; Pickersgill, Linda; de Koning, Eelco; Ziegler, Anette-G; Böehm, Bernhard; Badenhoop, Klaus; Schloot, Nanette; Bak, Jens Friis; Pozzilli, Paolo; Mauricio, Didac; Donath, Marc Y; Castaño, Luis; Wägner, Ana; Lervang, Hans Henrik; Perrild, Hans; Poulsen, Thomas Mandrup

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Innate immunity contributes to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, but until now no randomised, controlled trials of blockade of the key innate immune mediator interleukin-1 have been done. We aimed to assess whether canakinumab, a human monoclonal anti-interleukin-1 antibody, or anakinra, a human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, improved β-cell function in recent-onset type 1 diabetes. Methods We did two randomised, placebo-controlled trials in two groups of patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes and mixed-meal-tolerance-test-stimulated C peptide of at least 0·2 nM. Patients in the canakinumab trial were aged 6–45 years and those in the anakinra trial were aged 18–35 years. Patients in the canakinumab trial were enrolled at 12 sites in the USA and Canada and those in the anakinra trial were enrolled at 14 sites across Europe. Participants were randomly assigned by computer-generated blocked randomisation to subcutaneous injection of either 2 mg/kg (maximum 300 mg) canakinumab or placebo monthly for 12 months or 100 mg anakinra or placebo daily for 9 months. Participants and carers were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was baseline-adjusted 2-h area under curve C-peptide response to the mixed meal tolerance test at 12 months (canakinumab trial) and 9 months (anakinra trial). Analyses were by intention to treat. These studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT00947427 and NCT00711503, and EudraCT number 2007-007146-34. Findings Patients were enrolled in the canakinumab trial between Nov 12, 2010, and April 11, 2011, and in the anakinra trial between Jan 26, 2009, and May 25, 2011. 69 patients were randomly assigned to canakinumab (n=47) or placebo (n=22) monthly for 12 months and 69 were randomly assigned to anakinra (n=35) or placebo (n=34) daily for 9 months. No interim analyses were done. 45 canakinumab-treated and 21 placebo-treated patients in the canakinumab trial

  3. Changes in autumn vegetation dormancy onset date and the climate controls across temperate ecosystems in China from 1982 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Guan, Huade; Shen, Miaogen; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Lei

    2015-02-01

    Vegetation phenology is a sensitive indicator of the dynamic response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. In this study, the spatiotemporal pattern of vegetation dormancy onset date (DOD) and its climate controls over temperate China were examined by analysing the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index and concurrent climate data from 1982 to 2010. Results show that preseason (May through October) air temperature is the primary climatic control of the DOD spatial pattern across temperate China, whereas preseason cumulative precipitation is dominantly associated with the DOD spatial pattern in relatively cold regions. Temporally, the average DOD over China's temperate ecosystems has delayed by 0.13 days per year during the past three decades. However, the delay trends are not continuous throughout the 29-year period. The DOD experienced the largest delay during the 1980s, but the delay trend slowed down or even reversed during the 1990s and 2000s. Our results also show that interannual variations in DOD are most significantly related with preseason mean temperature in most ecosystems, except for the desert ecosystem for which the variations in DOD are mainly regulated by preseason cumulative precipitation. Moreover, temperature also determines the spatial pattern of temperature sensitivity of DOD, which became significantly lower as temperature increased. On the other hand, the temperature sensitivity of DOD increases with increasing precipitation, especially in relatively dry areas (e.g. temperate grassland). This finding stresses the importance of hydrological control on the response of autumn phenology to changes in temperature, which must be accounted in current temperature-driven phenological models. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Adult-onset acute leukemia and employment in the meat industry: a New Zealand case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethwaite, P; McLean, D; Kennedy, J; Pearce, N

    2001-09-01

    To assess the risks for adult-onset acute leukemia associated with employment in the New Zealand meat industry. A total of 110 incident leukemia cases identified from referrals to one of six treatment centers between 1989 and 1991 were compared with 199 general population controls. Detailed occupational exposure histories were obtained by interview. There was an elevated risk associated with ever having worked in an abattoir (OR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.2), which appeared confined to those with over 2 years exposure (OR = 4.9, 95% CI 1.5-15.6). The excess risk was confined to abattoir workers having direct contact with animals or animal products (OR = 5.2 95% CI 1.2-22.2). Ever having worked as a butcher was associated with elevated risk (OR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.1-7.2), confined to those individuals who worked as a butcher in an abattoir (OR = 4.8) or who butchered livestock on farms (OR = 8.2). No increased risk was found for work as a retail/wholesale butcher or meatpacker (OR = 1.2). This study found increased leukemia risks associated with employment in the meat industry. These were confined to abattoir workers with over 2 years employment in the industry, and to persons whose jobs involved contact with animals or animal tissue, implying that biological exposures may be responsible.

  5. Control study of coagulation function of pregnant women with hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy%妊娠期高血压疾病孕妇凝血功能的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱容; 曾嘉

    2014-01-01

    目的:对妊娠期高血压疾病孕妇凝血功能进行对照研究。方法选取2011年7月~2013年6月在我院妇产科住院分娩的妊娠期高血压疾病孕妇272例作为研究对象,分为3个亚组;随机选取来本院产检的正常孕妇55例作为对照组,对凝血功能进行测定。结果研究组Ⅰ与对照组比较,PT缩短显著,APTT和TT 延长(P<0.05),而两组INR比较,差异不显著。两组Fbg、血小板和红细胞比积比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。分组比较,PT差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),APTT 和 TT 有显著性延长(P<0.05), Fbg 有显著性减少(P <0.05)。D-二聚体升高的百分率,研究组明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P <0.05)。而研究组Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ组间D-二聚体升高的百分率比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论妊娠期高血压疾病患者具有较高的凝血状态,且存在血管内凝血消耗的情况。%Objective To conduct control study of coagulation function of pregnant women with hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy. Methods 272 pregnant women with hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy who delivered in the gynecology and obstetrics department of our hospital from July 2011 to June 2013 were selected as the study subjects and divided into 3 subgroups. Fifty-five normal pregnant women who received antenatal examination in our hospital were selected as the control group. Their coagulation function was measured. Results Compared to the control group, the study group I had significantly shortened PT and prolonged APTT and TT (P 0.05), and had significantly prolonged APTT and TT (P 0.05). Conclusion The patients with hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy have high coagulation state and intravascular coagulation consumption situation.

  6. Melatonin improves health status and sleep in children with idiopathic chronic sleep-onset insomnia: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.G.; van Stel, H.F.; van der Heijden, K.; Meijer, A.M.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Kerkhof, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of melatonin treatment on health status and sleep in children with idiopathic sleep-onset insomnia. Method: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in a Dutch sleep center, involving 62 children, 6 to 12 years of age, who suffered more

  7. Depinning as a coagulation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    İşeri, M.; Kaspar, D.; Mungan, M.

    2016-08-01

    We consider a one-dimensional model that describes the depinning of an elastic string of particles in a strongly pinning, phase-disordered periodic environment under a slowly increasing force. The evolution towards depinning occurs by the triggering of avalanches in regions of activity which are at first isolated, but later grow and merge. For large system sizes the dynamically critical behavior is dominated by the coagulation of these active regions. Our analysis and numerical simulations show that the evolution of the sizes of active regions is well described by a Smoluchowski coagulation equation, allowing us to predict correlation lengths and avalanche sizes in terms of certain moments of the size distribution.

  8. The Diagnosis and Man Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flelcher B.; Taylor.Jr

    2003-01-01

    @@ This review describes disseminated intravascular coagulation(DIC) as a syndrome in which hemostatic factors are activated and products are generated. This syndrome ranges in severity from an obvious decompensated coagulopathy (overt-DIC) to the subclinical compensated activation of hemostatic factors(non-overt DIC). Ths first part of this review emphasizes two points: First, activation of the hemostatic system is controlled by a vast network of capillaries and venules through anticoagulant and antiinflammatory regulatory factors that operate from the endothelium( e. G. , protein C and thrombomodulin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor).

  9. Coagulation/Flocculation of Tannery Wastewater Using Immobilized Chemical Coagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Imran

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical coagulants were immobilized into bead form using sodium alginate to treat tannery wastewater samples. The used chemical coagulants were ammonium aluminium sulphate (NH4Al(SO42, aluminium sulphate (Al2(SO42, calcium carbonate (CaCO3, sodium citrate (Na3C6HsO7. The effect of the chemical coagulant dose and tannery wastewater pH was studied on wastewater electrical conductance (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, sulphates, chlorides, phenolphthalein alkalinity, total alkalinity and chemical oxygen demand (COD. The quantity of various pollutants present in waste water was reduced after treatment. The optimized dose and pH for maximum decrease in EC and TDS were 5g/L and 7, respectively. The maximum reduction in the amount of sulphates and chlorides present in tannery wastewater was observed at dosage of 0.5g/L and pH 7. A dosage of 5g/L and pH 7 was also found most favorable for maximum reduction in values of COD, phenolphtalein and total alkalinity. The chromium concentrations in tannery wastewater before and after treatment were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A reduction in chromium concentration was observed after treatment. The promising results of the present study demonstrate that immobilization of chemical coagulants can make them more effective for wastewater treatment.

  10. Onset dominance in lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyman, R L; Zurek, P M; Balakrishnan, U; Chiang, Y C

    1997-03-01

    Saberi and Perrott [Acustica 81, 272-275 (1995)] found that the in-head lateralization of a relatively long-duration pulse train could be controlled by the interaural delay of the single pulse pair that occurs at onset. The present study examined this further, using an acoustic pointer measure of lateralization, with stimulus manipulations designed to determine conditions under which lateralization was consistent with the interaural onset delay. The present stimuli were wideband pulse trains, noise-burst trains, and inharmonic complexes, 250 ms in duration, chosen for the ease with which interaural delays and correlations of select temporal segments of the stimulus could be manipulated. The stimulus factors studied were the periodicity of the ongoing part of the signal as well as the multiplicity and ambiguity of interaural delays. The results, in general, showed that the interaural onset delay controlled lateralization when the steady state binaural cues were relatively weak, either because the spectral components were only sparsely distributed across frequency or because the interaural time delays were ambiguous. Onset dominance can be disrupted by sudden stimulus changes within the train, and several examples of such changes are described. Individual subjects showed strong left-right asymmetries in onset effectiveness. The results have implications for understanding how onset and ongoing interaural delay cues contribute to the location estimates formed by the binaural auditory system.

  11. 21 CFR 864.5400 - Coagulation instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coagulation instrument. 864.5400 Section 864.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....5400 Coagulation instrument. (a) Identification. A coagulation instrument is an automated or...

  12. WATER PURIFICATION BY COAGULATION UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ULTRASONIC FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikulina Vera Borisovna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors carried out experiments on the in-fluence of ultrasound on the subsidence of suspended materials. The efficiency of coagulation process in wa-ter purification in ultrasound field is estimated. The influence of ultrasound on the water with suspended materials before introducing coagulant was a condition of the experiment. The magnetostriction method for obtaining ultrasound oscillations with the help of ultra-sound generator of batch production was applied. The samples were chosen and the coagulation process was controlled using standard procedures. The experimental data was obtained which estimate the efficiency in-crease in the subsidence of suspended materials de-pending on the duration of ultrasound processing. Dur-ing one minute of ultrasound processing the following results were obtained: the subsidence efficiency in-creased by 25.83 % in case of coagulant share Al2O3 2.5 mg/l; the subsidence efficiency increased by 23.70 % in case of coagulant share Al2O3 5.0 mg/l.

  13. Coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2014-06-01

    Activated coagulation and fibrinolytic system in cancer patients is associated with tumor stroma formation and metastasis in different cancer types. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation of blood coagulation assays for various clinicopathologic factors in breast cancer patients. A total of 123 female breast cancer patients were enrolled into the study. All the patients were treatment naïve. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, APTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels, and platelet counts were evaluated. Median age of diagnosis was 51 years old (range 26-82). Twenty-two percent of the group consisted of metastatic breast cancer patients. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group except for PT (p50 years) was associated with higher D-dimer levels (p=0.003). Metastatic patients exhibited significantly higher D-dimer values when compared with early breast cancer patients (p=0.049). Advanced tumor stage (T3 and T4) was associated with higher INR (p=0.05) and lower PTA (p=0.025). In conclusion, coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

  14. A Pilot Study of the Sludge Recycling Enhanced Coagulation-Ultrafiltration Process for Drinking Water: The Effects of Sludge Recycling Ratio and Coagulation Stirring Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bin Liu; Fangshu Qu; Shaodong Guo; Huarong Yu; Guibai Li; Heng Liang; Bart Vander Bruggen

    2017-01-01

    ...) process for surface water treatment is investigated in this paper. The impact of the sludge recycling ratio and coagulation stirring strategy on removal, sedimentation efficiency, and membrane fouling control was studied in this work...

  15. Objective measures of sleep and dim light melatonin onset in adolescents and young adults with delayed sleep phase disorder compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxvig, Ingvild W; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Pallesen, Ståle; Vedaa, Oystein; Nordhus, Inger H; Sørensen, Eli; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2013-08-01

    Delayed sleep phase disorder is characterized by a delay in the timing of the major sleep period relative to conventional norms. The sleep period itself has traditionally been described as normal. Nevertheless, it is possible that sleep regulatory mechanism disturbances associated with the disorder may affect sleep duration and/or architecture. Polysomnographic data that may shed light on the issue are scarce. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine polysomnographic measures of sleep in adolescents and young adults with delayed sleep phase disorder, and to compare findings to that of healthy controls. A second aim was to estimate dim light melatonin onset as a marker of circadian rhythm and to investigate the phase angle relationship (time interval) between dim light melatonin onset and the sleep period. Data from 54 adolescents and young adults were analysed, 35 diagnosed with delayed sleep phase disorder and 19 healthy controls. Results show delayed timing of sleep in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder, but once sleep was initiated no group differences in sleep parameters were observed. Dim light melatonin onset was delayed in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder, but no difference in phase angle was observed between the groups. In conclusion, both sleep and dim light melatonin onset were delayed in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder. The sleep period appeared to occur at the same circadian phase in both groups, and once sleep was initiated no differences in sleep parameters were observed.

  16. Exercise-onset heart rate increase is slowed in multiple sclerosis patients: does a disturbed cardiac autonomic control affect exercise tolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Dominique; Wens, Inez; Dendale, Paul; Eijnde, Bert O

    2013-01-01

    To explore the etiology of exercise intolerance in patients with MS, it is analyzed whether a disturbed cardiac autonomic control could be observed during exercise testing in patients with MS, and is related to exercise tolerance. From 26 MS patients and 15 healthy subjects, exercise-onset (first 20 and 60 seconds) and -offset (1-minute recovery) HR change was determined during a 6-minute constant-load exercise bout on bike. Blood lactate, HR, oxygen uptake, expiratory volume and perceived exertion were assessed during exercise, and compared between groups. In 15 MS patients, a 6-min walking test was executed. Twenty-second exercise-onset HR increase was significantly smaller in MS patients (14 ± 7 bts/min) vs. healthy subjects (20 ± 8 bts/min, p exercise-onset and -offset HR changes were not different between groups, nor independently related to MS presence (p > 0.05). A significant correlation was found between 20-second exercise-onset HR increase and walking capacity in MS patients (r = 0.64, p increase in heart rate during endurance exercise is significantly slowed, indicating a disturbed cardiac autonomic control, and is related to exercise tolerance.

  17. [Traumatic abruption of the placenta with disseminated intravascular coagulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, R; Malär, A-U; Benz-Wörner, J; Scherer, M; Hodel, M; Gähler, A; Haberthür, C; Konrad, C

    2012-10-01

    Trauma in pregnancy is infrequent and a systematic primary strategy constitutes a real challenge for the interdisciplinary team. With a high fetal mortality rate and a substantial maternal mortality rate traumatic placental abruption is a severe emergency which every anesthetist should be aware of. After hemodynamic stabilization of the mother and control of the viability of the fetus the therapy of traumatic placental abruption consists mostly of an immediate caesarean section. Coagulopathy by depletion of coagulation factors as well as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) have to be expected and consequently a massive blood loss must be anticipated. Thrombelastography provides assistance for fast differential diagnosis and goal-directed treatment of the disturbed sections of the coagulation cascade.

  18. Characteristics of meso-particles formed in coagulation process causing irreversible membrane fouling in the coagulation-microfiltration water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Q; Yamamura, H; Murata, N; Aoki, N; Yonekawa, H; Hafuka, A; Watanabe, Y

    2016-09-15

    In coagulation-membrane filtration water treatment processes, it is still difficult to determine the optimal coagulation condition to minimize irreversible membrane fouling. In microfiltration (MF), meso-particles (i.e., 20 nm-0.5 μm) are thought to play an important role in irreversible membrane fouling, especially their characteristics of particle number (PN) and zeta potential (ZP). In this study, a new nanoparticle tracker combined a high-output violet laser with a microscope was developed to identify the physicochemical characteristics of these microscopic and widely dispersed meso-particles. The effects of pH and coagulant dose on ZP and PN of micro-particles (i.e., >0.5 μm) and meso-particles were investigated, and then coagulation-MF tests were conducted. As the result, irreversible membrane fouling was best controlled for both types of membranes, while meso-particle ZP approached zero at around pH 5.5 for both types of natural water. Since PN was greatest under these conditions, ZP is more important in determining the extent of irreversible membrane fouling than PN. However, the acidic condition to neutralize meso-particles is not suitable for actual operation, as considering residual aluminum concentration, pipe corrosion, and chlorination efficiency. It is therefore necessary to investigate coagulants or other methods for the appropriate modification of meso-particle characteristics.

  19. APOE ε4 lowers age at onset and is a high risk factor for Alzheimer's disease; A case control study from central Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltvedt Ingvild

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to analyze factors influencing the risk and timing of Alzheimer's disease (AD in central Norway. The APOE ε4 allele is the only consistently identified risk factor for late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD. We have described the allele frequencies of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE in a large population of patients with AD compared to the frequencies in a cognitively-normal control group, and estimated the effect of the APOE ε4 allele on the risk and the age at onset of AD in this population. Methods 376 patients diagnosed with AD and 561 cognitively-normal control individuals with no known first degree relatives with dementia were genotyped for the APOE alleles. Allele frequencies and genotypes in patients and control individuals were compared. Odds Ratio for developing AD in different genotypes was calculated. Results Odds Ratio (OR for developing AD was significantly increased in carriers of the APOE ε4 allele compared to individuals with the APOE ε3/ε3 genotype. Individuals carrying APOE ε4/ε4 had OR of 12.9 for developing AD, while carriers of APOE ε2/ε4 and APOE ε3/ε4 had OR of 3.2 and 4.2 respectively. The effect of the APOE ε4 allele was weaker with increasing age. Carrying the APOE ε2 allele showed no significant protective effect against AD and did not influence age at onset of the disease. Onset in LOAD patients was significantly reduced in a dose dependent manner from 78.4 years in patients without the APOE ε4 allele, to 75.3 in carriers of one APOE ε4 allele and 72.9 in carriers of two APOE ε4 alleles. Age at onset in early onset AD (EOAD was not influenced by APOE ε4 alleles. Conclusion APOE ε4 is a very strong risk factor for AD in the population of central Norway, and lowers age at onset of LOAD significantly.

  20. Maternal and neonatal risk factors for early-onset group B streptococcal disease: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Kadri HM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hanan M Al-Kadri,1 Samira S Bamuhair,2 Sameera M Al Johani,3 Namsha A Al-Buriki,1 Hani M Tamim4 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Department of Basic Medical Sciences, 3Microbiology Division, 4Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Objectives: To identify the prominent maternal and neonatal risk factors associated with early-onset group B streptococcus (EOGBS disease in neonates and to determine their importance by comparing them with a control group. Setting: Neonatal unit at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Patients: Cases were infants <7 days of age with invasive group B streptococcus (GBS disease diagnosed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2009. Controls were healthy infants born in the same hospital during the same period having the same birth weight and gestational age category. Main outcome measures: Maternal risk factors for developing EOGBS disease, feto–maternal and neonatal clinical data, their morbidities, mortalities, and length of hospital stay. Results: A total of 99 cases and 200 controls were included. The majority of cases presented in the first 72 hours of life (62/99 [63.9%], of which 87/99 (89.7% had at least one clinical risk factor for the development of EOGBS disease. Mothers of neonates with EOGBS disease were more likely to have GBS bacteriuria (odds ratio [OR] 10.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24–93.42, infection in the peripartum period (OR 8.92, CI 2.87–27.68, and temperature ≥38°C (OR 7.10, CI 2.50–20.17. GBS disease was associated with premature rupture of membranes and fetal tachycardia (P<0.01 for both. Neonates with EOGBS disease were more likely to have respiratory distress disease and convulsions, require tube feeding, and have longer hospital stays compared with the controls (P<0.01 for all. Stepwise multiple logistic

  1. Systemic coagulation parameters in mice after treatment with vascular targeting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gottstein Claudia

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular targeting of malignant tumors has become a clinically validated new treatment approach with clear patient benefit. However clinical studies have also revealed that some types of vascular targeting agents (VTAs are prone to coagulation system side effects. It is therefore essential to predetermine coagulation parameters in preclinical studies. As of to date, this has rarely been done, predominantly due to technical issues. The goal of this study was to establish and apply a standardized process, whereby systemic coagulation activation can be routinely measured in mice. Results We have evaluated a number of sampling techniques and coagulation tests regarding their suitability for this purpose. We were able to adapt two assays measuring soluble fibrin, a marker for a prethrombotic status. Thus, soluble fibrin could be measured for the first time in mice. All assays were validated in a positive control model for systemic coagulation activation, i.e. lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia. Based on our results, we selected a panel of coagulation tests, which are both feasable and informative for preclinical testing of VTAs: soluble fibrin, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, free antithrombin III, white blood cell counts and platelet counts. The effect of tumor transplants on coagulation parameters was evaluated using this panel. We then applied this set of assays in treatment studies with a VTA developed in our laboratory to investigate a potential systemic coagulation activation. Conclusion We have established a standardized panel of assays that can be used to test murine blood samples for coagulation activation in preclinical studies. All tests are feasible to perform in any research laboratory without specialized equipment. In addition, this is the first report to measure soluble fibrin, an early marker of systemic coagulation activation, in mice. The panel was applied on tumor bearing mice and mice treated with a VTA

  2. Neonatal gram-negative bacillary late-onset sepsis: A case-control-control study on a prospectively collected database of 5,233 admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Horng; Wu, I Hsyuan; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Chu, Shih-Ming; Lien, Reyin; Huang, Hsuan-Rong; Chiang, Ming-Chou; Fu, Ren-Huei; Hsu, Jen-Fu; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2016-02-01

    Gram-negative bacillary (GNB) bloodstream infections account for 20%-30% of neonatal late-onset sepsis (LOS). We aimed to identify the incidence, clinical characteristics, and risk factors for adverse outcomes in neonates with GNB LOS. All patients with GNB LOS admitted to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of a university-affiliated teaching hospital in Taiwan from January 1, 2004-December 31, 2011, were enrolled. A case-control-control study was performed to evaluate risk factors for acquisition of neonatal GNB LOS. Of the 5,010 neonates, 290 (5.8%) had a total of 346 episodes of GNB LOS (36.7% of total LOS), with an incidence rate of 13.6 per 10,000 neonate hospital days. The overall mortality rate was 17.6% (51/290), and the sepsis attributable mortality rate was 9.8% (34/346 episodes). After multivariate logistic regression analysis, neonates with prolonged use of total parenteral nutrition (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-2.29; P = .041) were independently associated with acquisition of GNB LOS. The independent predictors of in-hospital mortality were Pseudomonas aeruginosa etiology (OR = 11.45; 95% CI, 2.83-46.24) and underlying secondary pulmonary hypertension (OR = 18.02; 95% CI, 3.28-98.89), renal disease (OR = 17.16; 95% CI, 2.96-99.38), and neuromuscular comorbidities (OR = 2.72; 95% CI, 1.06-7.00). Given the higher illness severity and sepsis-attributable mortality rate of neonatal GNB LOS in the NICU, strategies to reduce the incidence need to be addressed urgently. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makruasi, Nisa

    2015-11-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by systemic activation of blood coagulation, generation of thrombin, and leading to disturbance of the microvasculature. In this article, definition and diagnostic criteria of DIC depend on the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH). There is no gold standard for diagnosis of DIC, only low quality evidence is used in general practice. Many diagnostic tests and repeated measurement are required. For the treatment of DIC, there is no good quality evidence. The most important treatment for DIC is the specific treatment of the conditions associated DIC. Platelets and/or plasma transfusion may be also necessary if indicated. Nevertheless, there is no gold standard for diagnosis and treatment of DIC, we use only low quality evidence in general practice.

  4. Novel online sensor technology for continuous monitoring of milk coagulation and whey separation in cheesemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Colette C; Castillo, Manuel; Payne, Fred A; O'Donnell, Colm P; Leedy, Megan; O'Callaghan, Donal J

    2007-10-31

    The cheese industry has continually sought a robust method to monitor milk coagulation. Measurement of whey separation is also critical to control cheese moisture content, which affects quality. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that an online optical sensor detecting light backscatter in a vat could be applied to monitor both coagulation and syneresis during cheesemaking. A prototype sensor having a large field of view (LFV) relative to curd particle size was constructed. Temperature, cutting time, and calcium chloride addition were varied to evaluate the response of the sensor over a wide range of coagulation and syneresis rates. The LFV sensor response was related to casein micelle aggregation and curd firming during coagulation and to changes in curd moisture and whey fat contents during syneresis. The LFV sensor has potential as an online, continuous sensor technology for monitoring both coagulation and syneresis during cheesemaking.

  5. Comparison of coagulation performance and floc properties using a novel zirconium coagulant against traditional ferric and alum coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Peter; Sharp, Emma; Pidou, Marc; Molinder, Roger; Parsons, Simon A; Jefferson, Bruce

    2012-09-01

    Coagulation in drinking water treatment has relied upon iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) salts throughout the last century to provide the bulk removal of contaminants from source waters containing natural organic matter (NOM). However, there is now a need for improved treatment of these waters as their quality deteriorates and water quality standards become more difficult to achieve. Alternative coagulant chemicals offer a simple and inexpensive way of doing this. In this work a novel zirconium (Zr) coagulant was compared against traditional Fe and Al coagulants. The Zr coagulant was able to provide between 46 and 150% lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC) residual in comparison to the best traditional coagulant (Fe). In addition floc properties were significantly improved with larger and stronger flocs forming when the Zr coagulant was used with the median floc sizes being 930 μm for Zr; 710 μm for Fe and 450 μm for Al. In pilot scale experiments, a similar improved NOM and particle removal was observed. The results show that when optimised for combined DOC removal and low residual turbidity, the Zr coagulant out-performed the other coagulants tested at both bench and pilot scale.

  6. Impaired metabolic control and socio-demographic status in immigrant children at onset of Type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Soderstrom, U.; Samuelsson, Ulf; Sahlqvist, L.; Aman, J

    2014-01-01

    AimThe aim of the present study was to compare clinical and socio-demographic conditions at the onset of Type1 diabetes in children born to immigrant families and children born to Swedish families, and to assess whether those conditions had an impact on metabolic status. Methods and designThis was an observational nationwide population-based matched cohort study on prospectively recorded registry data of all children with diabetes in Sweden and their families during 2000-2010. Out of a total ...

  7. Coagulation factor Xa signaling : the link between coagulation and inflammatory bowel disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borensztajn, Keren; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by activation of the coagulation cascade and it has long been suspected that coagulation is an essential component of this still largely idiopathic group of diseases. The realization that coagulation factors are not only passive mediators in the prop

  8. Bedtime ingestion of hypertension medications reduces the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Mojón, Artemio; Fernández, José R

    2016-02-01

    We investigated whether therapy with the entire daily dose of ≥ 1 hypertension medications at bedtime exerts greater reduction in the risk of new-onset diabetes than therapy with all medications upon awakening. We conducted a prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded endpoint trial of 2,012 hypertensive patients without diabetes, 976 men and 1,036 women, 52.7 ± 13.6 years of age. Patients were randomised, using a computer-generated allocation table, to ingest all their prescribed hypertension medications upon awakening or the entire daily dose of ≥ 1 of them at bedtime. Investigators blinded to the hypertension treatment scheme of the patients assessed the development of new-onset diabetes. During a 5.9-year median follow-up, 171 participants developed type 2 diabetes. Patients of the bedtime, compared with the morning-treatment group, showed: (1) significantly lower asleep BP mean, greater sleep-time relative BP decline and attenuated prevalence of non-dipping at the final evaluation (32% vs 52%, p Ciencia e Innovación (SAF2006-6254-FEDER; SAF2009-7028-FEDER); Xunta de Galicia (PGIDIT03-PXIB-32201PR; INCITE07-PXI-322003ES; INCITE08-E1R-322063ES; INCITE09-E2R-322099ES; 09CSA018322PR); and Vicerrectorado de Investigación, University of Vigo.

  9. Influence of Blood Collection Systems on Coagulation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Yavaş

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Coagulation tests are influenced by pre-analytic conditions such as blood collection systems. Change of glass collection tubes with plastic ones will cause alteration of the test results. The aim of this study was to compare three plastic blood collection tubes with a standard glass blood collection tube and each plastic collection tube with the other two for possible additional tube-to- tube differences. METHODS: A total of 284 blood samples were obtained from 42 patients receiving warfarin during their routine controls, besides 29 healthy volunteers. Subgroup analyses were done according to health status. RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that different blood collection tubes have a statistically significant influence on coagulation tests. The magnitude of the effect depends on the tube used. However most of the tests performed on samples obtained from any tube correlated significantly with results obtained from other tube samples. CONCLUSION: Although blood collection tubes with different brands or properties will have distinct effects on coagulation tests, the influence of these blood collection tubes may be relatively small to interfere with decision-making on dose prescription, therefore lack clinical importance. Correlations between the results showed that, one of these plastic blood collection tubes tested in our study, can be used interchangably for a wide variety of coagulation assays.

  10. Genetic engineering and coagulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fass, D N; Toole, J J

    1985-06-01

    It is unfortunate that we cannot report, in the area of coagulation, advances that have been seen in related fields such as thrombolytic therapy. The reported progress (Gold et al, 1984; Van de Werf et al, 1984) with human recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (Pennica et al, 1983) augers well for the application of recombinant technology to the problems faced by patients with coagulation defects. While plasminogen activator is being assessed in an acute therapeutic setting, its use signals a beginning of the application of the technology to abnormalities of the haemostatic mechanism. Chronic administration of coagulation factors for prophylaxis and replacement therapy would appear to be just one more step down the pathway illuminated by the biochemists, microbiologists and cell biologists who have preceded the clinicians in this promising area. There is no record of the use of genetically engineered materials in the treatment of coagulation defects, primarily because the body of knowledge and refined techniques have only recently been acquired. For this reason we have had to project developments in other areas onto the problems that exist for the haemostatically compromised patient. In describing the potential usefulness of these technologies, it is difficult to ascertain where the logical projection, from a fully investigated model system, diverges from flights of imaginative fancy. Cloning projects considered overly ambitious and grandiose at the beginning of this decade are already accomplished feats. The feasibility of gene therapy in the mammalian system has been demonstrated, and trade publications now discuss governmental approval for investigative use of this procedure in 1985. Panels of physicians, scientists and even politicians now seriously contemplate and promulgate views and regulations pertaining to the efficacy and ethics of the use of genetic engineering in the treatment of human disease. The haemophilias will certainly be among the first

  11. Delayed sleep phase syndrome: A placebo-controlled cross-over study on the effects of melatonin administered five hours before the individual dim light melatonin onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagtegaal, J E; Kerkhof, G A; Smits, M G; Swart, A C; Van Der Meer, Y G

    1998-06-01

    In a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study, 30 patients with Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS) were included, of whom 25 finished the study. Melatonin 5 mg was administered during two weeks in a double-blind setting and two weeks in an open setting successively or interrupted by two week of placebo. The study's impact was assessed by measurements of the 24-h curves of endogenous melatonin production and rectal temperature (n = 14), polysomnography (n = 22), actigraphy (n = 13), sleep log (n = 22), and subjective sleep quality (n = 25). Mean dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) (+/- SD), before treatment, occurred at 23.17 hours (+/- 138 min). Melatonin was administered five hours before the individual DLMO. After treatment, the onset of the nocturnal melatonin profile was significantly advanced by approximately 1.5 hour. Body temperature trough did not advance significantly. During melatonin use, actigraphy showed a significant advance of sleep onset and polysomnography, a significant decreased sleep latency. Sleep architecture was not influenced. During melatonin treatment patients felt significantly more refreshed in the morning. These results show that analysis of DLMO of patients suffering from DSPS is important both for diagnosis and therapy. These results are discussed in terms of the biochemistry of the pineal.

  12. challenges in management of warfarin anti-coagulation in advanced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-01

    Jul 1, 2013 ... hyper-coagulable state in advanced HIV/AIDS patients has ... state in these patients with abnormalities in the coagulation ... Oral anti-coagulation therapy with warfarin ..... as stasis, trauma, or known hypercoagulability (e.g..

  13. High-molecular-weight kininogen and the intrinsic coagulation pathway in patients with de novo acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubedo, Judit; Ramaiola, Ilaria; Padró, Teresa; Martin-Yuste, Victoria; Sabate-Tenas, Manel; Badimon, Lina

    2013-12-01

    After an acute ischaemic event serum proteins may change reflecting the ischaemic damage. Proteomic studies could provide new insights into potential biomarkers in the evolution of ischaemic syndromes. In this study we have investigated the coordinated changes in coagulation-related proteins in the evolution after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Serum proteome (2D-electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF) of AMI-patients within the first 6 hours after event onset (admission-time) and 3 days after were compared to controls. Systems biology and bioinformatic analysis were performed to identify the differentially expressed canonical pathways. In silico analysis of differential proteins revealed changes in the intrinsic coagulation pathway in the early phase post-AMI. The two identified high-molecular weight kininogen (HMWK) clusters were inversely correlated in AMI patients at admission, being the intensity of the low-molecular-weight form inversely related to myocardial necrosis (pfibrinogen gamma and D-dimer at admission, followed by a decrease in fibrinogen turnover 3 days after (pfibrinogen distribution changes was validated in coronary thrombi retrieved by thromboaspiration. In conclusion, our results demonstrate an active exchange between HMWK forms and a decrease in FXI indicative of intrinsic pathway activation, together with an increase in fibrinogen gamma turnover and D-dimer formation in the early phase post-AMI. Moreover, coronary thrombi showed a dynamic evolution in fibrinogen composition depending on the duration of ischaemia influencing serum fibrinogen-related products content.

  14. Effect of coagulants upon turbidity removal of waste water from the Chasnala coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, G.; Singh, P.K. [Bira Institute of Technology Sindri, Dhanbad (India)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, attempt has been made to control the extremely high turbidity of mine waste water by using different coagulants and it is observed that ferrous sulphate is the most effective coagulant followed by alum, ferric sulphate and lime. Also combinations of coagulants are used for getting the optimal results. Further steps are also discussed to make this water portable and a scheme of low cost water supply system of mine waste water has been suggested under the Water Management Strategies. 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Developmental Control of Cell-Cycle Compensation Provides a Switch for Patterned Mitosis at the Onset of Chordate Neurulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Yosuke; Sasakura, Yasunori

    2016-04-18

    During neurulation of chordate ascidians, the 11th mitotic division within the epidermal layer shows a posterior-to-anterior wave that is precisely coordinated with the unidirectional progression of the morphogenetic movement. Here we show that the first sign of this patterned mitosis is an asynchronous anterior-to-posterior S-phase length and that mitotic synchrony is reestablished by a compensatory asynchronous G2-phase length. Live imaging combined with genetic experiments demonstrated that compensatory G2-phase regulation requires transcriptional activation of the G2/M regulator cdc25 by the patterning genes GATA and AP-2. The downregulation of GATA and AP-2 at the onset of neurulation leads to loss of compensatory G2-phase regulation and promotes the transition to patterned mitosis. We propose that such developmentally regulated cell-cycle compensation provides an abrupt switch to spatially patterned mitosis in order to achieve the coordination between mitotic timing and morphogenesis.

  16. Coagulation and fibrinolysis during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahr, H B; Fabrin, K; Larsen, J F

    1999-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery appears to be less traumatic to the patient than open surgery, but its influence upon coagulation and fibrinolysis is incompletely elucidated. Our aim was to measure markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis before, during. and after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Blood...

  17. Investigation of coagulation activity of natural coagulants from seeds of different leguminose species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćiban Marina B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of seeds of plants: Phaseolus vulgaris, Robinia pseudoacacia Ceratonia siliqua and Amorpha fruticosa, to act as natural coagulants was tested using synthetic turbid water. This water was prepared by adding kaolin into tap water, just before the test. Active components were extracted from ground seeds with distilled water. The coagulation ability of this extract was assessed by the use of standard jar test measurements in water with various initial turbidity. Investigation of these natural coagulants was confirmed their positive coagulation activity. Of all plants that have been examined, the seed extract from Ceratonia siliqua appeared to be one of the most effective coagulants for water treatment. A dose of 20 mg/l of this coagulant resulted in 100% coagulation activity for clarification of water with 17.5 NTU initial turbidity.

  18. Quantifying interspecific coagulation efficiency of phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J.L.S.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Non-sticky latex beads and sticky diatoms were used as models to describe mutual coagulation between sticky and non-sticky particles. in mixed suspensions of beads and Thalassiosira nordenskjoeldii, both types of particles coagulated into mixed aggregates at specific rates, from which the intersp......Non-sticky latex beads and sticky diatoms were used as models to describe mutual coagulation between sticky and non-sticky particles. in mixed suspensions of beads and Thalassiosira nordenskjoeldii, both types of particles coagulated into mixed aggregates at specific rates, from which....... nordenskjoeldii. Mutual coagulation between Skeletonema costatum and the non-sticky cel:ls of Ditylum brightwellii also proceeded with hall the efficiency of S. costatum alone. The latex beads were suitable to be used as 'standard particles' to quantify the ability of phytoplankton to prime aggregation...

  19. Textile wastewater purification through natural coagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Heredia, J.; Sánchez-Martín, J.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, M. T.

    2011-09-01

    A new coagulant obtained through polymerization of Acacia mearnsii de Wild tannin extract has been characterized in the removal of two dangerous dye pollutants: Alizarin Violet 3R and Palatine Fast Black WAN. This coagulant is lab-synthesized according to the etherification of tannins with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride and formaldehyde and its performance in dye removal in terms of efficiency was high. Reasonably low coagulant dosages (ca. 50 mg L-1) reaches high capacity levels (around 0.8 for Alizarin Violet 3R and 1.6 for Palatine Fast Black WAN mg dye mg-1 of coagulant) and pH and temperature are not extremely affecting variables. The systems coagulant dyes were successfully modeled by applying the Langmuir hypothesis. q max and b parameters were obtained with an adjusted correlation factor ( r 2) above 0.8.

  20. Fibrinolytic and coagulative activities of Yersinia pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo K. Korhonen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The outer membrane protease Pla belongs to the omptin protease family spread by horizontal gene transfer into Gram-negative bacteria that infect animals or plants. Pla has adapted to support the life style of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis. Pla has a -barrel fold with 10 membrane-spanning  strands and five surface loops, and the barrel surface contains bound lipopolysaccharide (LPS that is critical for the conformation and the activity of Pla. The biological activity of Pla is influenced by the structure of the surface loops around the active site groove and by temperature-induced LPS modifications. Several of the putative virulence-related functions documented for Pla in vitro address control of the human hemostatic system, i.e. coagulation and fibrinolysis. Pla activates human plasminogen to the serine protease plasmin and activates the physiological plasminogen activator urokinase. Pla also inactivates the protease inhibitors alpha-2-antiplasmin and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and prevents the activation of thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor. These functions enhance uncontrolled fibrinolysis which is thought to improve Y. pestis dissemination and survival in the mammalian host, and lowered fibrin(ogen deposition has indeed been observed in mice infected with Pla-positive Y. pestis. However, Pla also inactivates an anticoagulant, the tissue factor pathway inhibitor, which should increase fibrin formation and clotting. Thus Pla and Y. pestis have complex interactions with the hemostatic system. Y. pestis modifies its LPS upon transfer to the mammalian host and we hypothesize that the contrasting biological activities of Pla in coagulation and fibrinolysis are influenced by LPS changes during infection.

  1. Eptifibatide-induced thrombocytopenia: with thrombosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation immediately after left main coronary artery percutaneous coronary angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelhof, Michael W; Benzuly, Keith H; Fintel, Dan; Krichavsky, Marc Z

    2012-01-01

    Early clinical trials of eptifibatide did not show a significant association between eptifibatide and the development of thrombocytopenia, thrombosis, or disseminated intravascular coagulation. However, more recent literature has suggested a significant association between eptifibatide and the development of thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. Although the true incidence and the pathophysiology of these associations are unknown, the development of these events can be life-threatening. Herein, we describe the case of a patient who experienced acute onset of profound thrombocytopenia, developing thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. This paper adds to the few previous reports of cases that suggested an association between thrombocytopenia, thrombosis, and the administration of eptifibatide. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report in the medical literature that associates the new onset of thrombocytopenia, thrombosis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation with the administration of eptifibatide. We also provide a subject review.

  2. [Coagulation profiles during cardiac surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitkova, E E; Zvereva, N Iu; Khvatov, V B; Chumakov, M V; Timerbaev, V Kh; Dublev, A V; Redkoborodyĭ, A V

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate patients' hemostasis after cardiac surgery using thromboelastometric and impedance aggregometry. 66 patients were examined intraoperatively. Comparison group included 45 blood donors. Hemostasis was tested for thromboelastometricRotem Gamma with the assessment of external (exTem) and internal (inTem) pathways of coagulation tests performed detection of heparin (hepTem) and cytochalasin-D-inactivation of platelets (fibTem) to assess the level of fibrinogen. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation was determined in an aggregometer CHRONO-LOG (USA). Significant deviations of the parameters of hemostasis were detected in 52 of the 66 studied patients. In group-1 (23 patients) revealed a residual effect of heparin. The effect manifested prolongation CT (clotting time) inTem to an average of 241 +/- 15 s, compared with CT hepTem--181 +/- 7. Patients in this group were in need of additional administration of protamine sulfate. Postoperative bleeding and resternotomia were observed in 3 patients of group-1. In group-2 (25 patients) CT inTem was 216 +/- 21 with significantly fewer CT hepTem (272 +/- 26). The data indicated excess of protamine sulfate. Platelets aggregation decreased compared to the norm. According to the obtained results, the addition of protamine sulfate is not required, however, in 7 cases the protamine sulfate was administered in a dose of 8.9 +/- 0.8 mg in 6 cases resternotomiya required. In the third group (n = 6) bleeding was observed in 4 patients. The difference in CT-hepCT was significant. Significant variations were revealed in the tests of the activity of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation and cytochalasin-D-induced inactivation of platelets: exMCF- 42 +/- 2 mm (normal 57 +/- 15 mm), fibMCF 5.0 +/- 0.3 mm (norm 12.8 +/- 4.3 mm). The concentration of platelets and their aggregation activity was sharply reduced. Disorders of hemostasis in the third group, designated as dilution coagulopathy. Turning thromboelastometric and impedance

  3. Identification of a Sgo2-Dependent but Mad2-Independent Pathway Controlling Anaphase Onset in Fission Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Meadows

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The onset of anaphase is triggered by activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C following silencing of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC. APC/C triggers ubiquitination of Securin and Cyclin B, which leads to loss of sister chromatid cohesion and inactivation of Cyclin B/Cdk1, respectively. This promotes relocalization of Aurora B kinase and other components of the chromosome passenger complex (CPC from centromeres to the spindle midzone. In fission yeast, this is mediated by Clp1 phosphatase-dependent interaction of CPC with Klp9/MKLP2 (kinesin-6. When this interaction is disrupted, kinetochores bi-orient normally, but APC/C activation is delayed via a mechanism that requires Sgo2 and some (Bub1, Mph1/Mps1, and Mad3, but not all (Mad1 and Mad2, components of the SAC and the first, but not second, lysine, glutamic acid, glutamine (KEN box in Mad3. These data indicate that interaction of CPC with Klp9 terminates a Sgo2-dependent, but Mad2-independent, APC/C-inhibitory pathway that is distinct from the canonical SAC.

  4. Arabidopsis COPPER MODIFIED RESISTANCE1/PATRONUS1 is essential for growth adaptation to stress and required for mitotic onset control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraniec, Michal; Heyman, Jefri; Schubert, Veit; Salis, Pietrino; De Veylder, Lieven; Verbruggen, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    The mitotic checkpoint (MC) guards faithful sister chromatid segregation by monitoring the attachment of spindle microtubules to the kinetochores. When chromosome attachment errors are detected, MC delays the metaphase-to-anaphase transition through the inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase. In contrast to yeast and mammals, our knowledge on the proteins involved in MC in plants is scarce. Transient synchronization of root tips as well as promoter-reporter gene fusions were performed to analyze temporal and spatial expression of COPPER MODIFIED RESISTANCE1/PATRONUS1 (CMR1/PANS1) in developing Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Functional analysis of the gene was carried out, including CYCB1;2 stability in CMR1/PANS1 knockout and overexpressor background as well as metaphase-anaphase chromosome status. CMR1/PANS1 is transcriptionally active during M phase. Its deficiency provokes premature cell cycle exit and in consequence a rapid consumption of the number of meristematic cells in particular under stress conditions that are known to affect spindle microtubules. Root growth impairment is correlated with a failure to delay the onset of anaphase, resulting in anaphase bridges and chromosome missegregation. CMR1/PANS1 overexpression stabilizes the mitotic CYCB1;2 protein. Likely, CMR1/PANS1 coordinates mitotic cell cycle progression by acting as an APC/C inhibitor and plays a key role in growth adaptation to stress.

  5. A randomized controlled trial evaluating a low-intensity interactive online parenting intervention, Triple P Online Brief, with parents of children with early onset conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sabine; Sanders, Matthew R; Turner, Karen M T; Morawska, Alina

    2017-04-01

    This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of Triple P Online Brief, a low-intensity online positive parenting program for parents of children with early onset disruptive behavior problems. Two hundred parents with 2-9-year-old children displaying early onset disruptive behavior difficulties were randomly assigned to either the intervention condition (n = 100) or a Waitlist Control group (n = 100). At 8-week post-assessment, parents in the intervention group displayed significantly less use of ineffective parenting strategies and significantly more confidence in dealing with a range of behavior concerns. These effects were maintained at 9-month follow-up assessment. A delayed effect was found for child behavior problems, with parents in the intervention group reporting significantly fewer and less frequent child behavior problems at follow-up, but not at post-assessment. All effect sizes were in the small to medium range. There were no significant improvements in observed negative parent and child behavior. No change was seen for parents' adjustment, anger, or conflict over parenting. Consumer satisfaction ratings for the program were high. A brief, low-intensity parenting program delivered via the Internet can bring about significant improvements in parenting and child behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Event-related potentials to tones show differences between children with multiple risk factors for dyslexia and control children before the onset of formal reading instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Jarmo A; Lohvansuu, Kaisa; Ervast, Leena; Leppänen, Paavo H T

    2015-02-01

    Multiple risk factors can affect the development of specific reading problems or dyslexia. In addition to the most prevalent and studied risk factor, phonological processing, auditory discrimination problems have also been found in children and adults with reading difficulties. The present study examined 37 children between the ages of 5 and 6, 11 of which had multiple risk factors for developing reading problems. The children participated in a passive oddball EEG experiment with sinusoidal sounds with changes in sound frequency, duration, or intensity. The responses to the standard stimuli showed a negative voltage shift in children at risk for reading problems compared to control children at 107-215 ms in frontocentral areas corresponding to P1 offset and N250 onset. Source analyses showed that the difference originated from the left and right auditory cortices. Additionally, the children at risk for reading problems had a larger late discriminative negativity (LDN) response in amplitude for sound frequency change than the control children. The amplitudes at the P1-N250 time window showed correlations to letter knowledge and phonological identification whereas the amplitudes at the LDN time window correlated with verbal short-term memory and rapid naming. These results support the view that problems in basic auditory processing abilities precede the onset of reading instruction and can act as one of the risk factors for dyslexia.

  7. Effect of Internal Heat Source on the Onset of Double-Diffusive Convection in a Rotating Nanofluid Layer with Feedback Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Khalid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A linear stability analysis has been carried out to examine the effect of internal heat source on the onset of Rayleigh–Bénard convection in a rotating nanofluid layer with double diffusive coefficients, namely, Soret and Dufour, in the presence of feedback control. The system is heated from below and the model used for the nanofluid layer incorporates the effects of thermophoresis and Brownian motion. Three types of bounding systems of the model have been considered which are as follows: both the lower and upper bounding surfaces are free, the lower is rigid and the upper is free, and both of them are rigid. The eigenvalue equations of the perturbed state were obtained from a normal mode analysis and solved using the Galerkin method. It is found that the effect of internal heat source and Soret parameter destabilizes the nanofluid layer system while increasing the Coriolis force, feedback control, and Dufour parameter helps to postpone the onset of convection. Elevating the modified density ratio hastens the instability in the system and there is no significant effect of modified particle density in a nanofluid system.

  8. Changes in Dietary Fat Content Rapidly Alters the Mouse Plasma Coagulation Profile without Affecting Relative Transcript Levels of Coagulation Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey C A Cleuren

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with a hypercoagulable state and increased risk for thrombotic cardiovascular events.Establish the onset and reversibility of the hypercoagulable state during the development and regression of nutritionally-induced obesity in mice, and its relation to transcriptional changes and clearance rates of coagulation factors as well as its relation to changes in metabolic and inflammatory parameters.Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low fat (10% kcal as fat; LFD or high fat diet (45% kcal as fat; HFD for 2, 4, 8 or 16 weeks. To study the effects of weight loss, mice were fed the HFD for 16 weeks and switched to the LFD for 1, 2 or 4 weeks. For each time point analyses of plasma and hepatic mRNA levels of coagulation factors were performed after overnight fasting, as well as measurements of circulating metabolic and inflammatory parameters. Furthermore, in vivo clearance rates of human factor (F VII, FVIII and FIX proteins were determined after 2 weeks of HFD-feeding.HFD feeding gradually increased the body and liver weight, which was accompanied by a significant increase in plasma glucose levels from 8 weeks onwards, while insulin levels were affected after 16 weeks. Besides a transient rise in cytokine levels at 2 weeks after starting the HFD, no significant effect on inflammation markers was present. Increased plasma levels of fibrinogen, FII, FVII, FVIII, FIX, FXI and FXII were observed in mice on a HFD for 2 weeks, which in general persisted throughout the 16 weeks of HFD-feeding. Interestingly, with the exception of FXI the effects on plasma coagulation levels were not paralleled by changes in relative transcript levels in the liver, nor by decreased clearance rates. Switching from HFD to LFD reversed the HFD-induced procoagulant shift in plasma, again not coinciding with transcriptional modulation.Changes in dietary fat content rapidly alter the mouse plasma coagulation profile, thereby preceding plasma metabolic changes, which

  9. Seawater Immersion Aggravates Burn Injury Causing Severe Blood Coagulation Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the endothelial function in a canine model of burn injury combined with seawater immersion. The model of burn injury was established. The dogs were randomly divided into four groups including dogs with burn injury (B group), or burn injury combined with seawater immersion (BI group), or only immersion in seawater (I group), or control animals with no injury or immersion (C group). The circulating endothelial cell (CEC) count and coagulation-fibrinolysis paramet...

  10. Effect of microparticulated whey proteins on milk coagulation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturaro, A; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M; Varotto, A; De Marchi, M

    2014-11-01

    The enhancement of milk coagulation properties (MCP) and the reuse of whey produced by the dairy industry are of great interest to improve the efficiency of the cheese-making process. Native whey proteins (WP) can be aggregated and denatured to obtain colloidal microparticulated WP (MWP). The objective of this study was to assess the effect of MWP on MCP; namely, rennet coagulation time (RCT), curd-firming time, and curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition. Six concentrations of MWP (vol/vol; 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 9.0%) were added to 3 bulk milk samples (collected and analyzed during 3 d), and a sample without MWP was used as control. Within each day of analysis, 6 replicates of MCP for each treatment were obtained, changing the position of the treatment in the rack. For control samples, 2 replicates per day were performed. In addition to MCP, WP fractions were measured on each treatment during the 3 d of analysis. Milk coagulation properties were measured on 144 samples by using a Formagraph (Foss Electric, Hillerød, Denmark). Increasing the amount of MWP added to milk led to a longer RCT. In particular, significant differences were found between RCT of the control samples (13.5 min) and RCT of samples with 3.0% (14.6 min) or more MWP. A similar trend was observed for curd-firming time, which was shortest in the control samples and longest in samples with 9.0% MWP (21.4 min). No significant differences were detected for curd firmness at 30 min across concentrations of MWP. Adjustments in cheese processing should be made when recycling MWP, in particular during the coagulation process, by prolonging the time of rennet activity before cutting the curd.

  11. Enhanced coagulation for high alkalinity and micro-polluted water: the third way through coagulant optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mingquan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qu, Jiuhui; Ni, Jinren; Chow, Christopher W K

    2008-04-01

    Conventional coagulation is not an effective treatment option to remove natural organic matter (NOM) in water with high alkalinity/pH. For this type of water, enhanced coagulation is currently proposed as one of the available treatment options and is implemented by acidifying the raw water and applying increased doses of hydrolyzing coagulants. Both of these methods have some disadvantages such as increasing the corrosive tendency of water and increasing cost of treatment. In this paper, an improved version of enhanced coagulation through coagulant optimization to treat this kind of water is demonstrated. A novel coagulant, a composite polyaluminum chloride (HPAC), was developed with both the advantages of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) and the additive coagulant aids: PACl contains significant amounts of highly charged and stable polynuclear aluminum hydrolysis products, which is less affected by the pH of the raw water than traditional coagulants (alum and ferric salts); the additives can enhance both the charge neutralization and bridging abilities of PACl. HPAC exhibited 30% more efficiency than alum and ferric salts in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal and was very effective in turbidity removal. This result was confirmed by pilot-scale testing, where particles and organic matter were removed synergistically with HPAC as coagulant by sequential water treatment steps including pre-ozonation, coagulation, flotation and sand filtration.

  12. Design of intelligent minimally invasive coagulation knife control system based on AVR microcontroller%基于 AVR 单片机的微创智能切凝刀系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹婉; 叶兵; 张静雅; 余海东; 王立伟

    2015-01-01

    According to the development trend of minimally invasive surgery ,a portable minimally in‐vasive coagulation knife control system is designed .AVR microcontroller is selected as the core pro‐cessor ,and pulse width modulation(PWM ) control mode is used to complete the change of the average electric current of the electric wire so as to change the heat of the tip .This control method is different from the existing products which directly change the voltage of the electric wire ,and it is energy‐effi‐cient ,sensitive and precise .Finally ,the testing experiments on the developed system and the cutting test with minimally invasive knife are carried out .The result shows that the developed portable coagu‐lation knife works well while cutting tissue and closed blood vessels ,with the characteristics of no e‐lectric conduction ,little injury(average burn width of less than 1 mm) ,compact design ,strong porta‐bility and less smoke during surgery w hich makes clear vision .%文章根据微创手术的发展趋势,设计了一款便携式微创切凝刀控制系统。该系统选用AVR单片机作为微控制器,采用脉冲宽度调制(PWM )的控制方式,通过改变刀头电热丝通过的平均电流改变刀头的发热量。该控制方式相比于现有产品直接改变刀头电热丝电压的方式,具有节能、灵敏、精确的优点。对研制的系统进行了测试实验和用切凝刀实物进行了切割实验,结果表明研制的便携式切凝刀运行良好,具有电热传导损伤小(平均烫伤宽度小于1 mm)、设计精巧、便携性强、手术时烟雾少和视野清晰等优点。

  13. Effects of Paliperidone Palmitate on Coagulation: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Demirel Yılmaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a new antipsychotic drug paliperidone palmitate on hemogram and coagulation parameters in rats. Materials and Methods. Experiments were performed on 22 female albino Wistar rats (8–12 weeks old. Control group was given drinking water as vehicle (0.3 mL. PAL-1 rats were given 1 mg/kg paliperidone palmitate (in 0.3 mL drinking water by oral gavage once a day for ten days and PAL-3 rats received 3 mg/kg paliperidone palmitate (in 0.3 mL drinking water by oral gavage for ten days. Blood samples were drawn from the heart 24 hours after the last drug dose, and hemogram and coagulation parameters were measured with automated analyzers. Results. Hemogram did not change in the paliperidone treated groups compared to the controls. Factor VIII levels decreased in the PAL-1 and PAL-3 groups; and this decrease was significantly greater in the PAL-3. Factor IX levels decreased in PAL-3 rats, but its levels also increased in PAL-1 rats compared to the control. Discussion. Paliperidone has led to changes in the serum levels of coagulation factors VIII and IX in rats. As a result, paliperidone may be causing thromboembolism or bleeding in a dose-independent manner.

  14. Coagulation abnormalities in the cirrhotic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muciño-Bermejo, Jimena; Carrillo-Esper, Raúl; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2013-01-01

    The clotting process is a dynamic array of multiple processes which can be described in four phases: platelet plug initiation and formation, clotting process propagation by the coagulation cascade, clotting termination by antithrombotic mechanisms and clot removal by fibrinolysis. The liver plays a central role in each of these phases of clotting process, as it synthesizes the majority of coagulation factors and proteins involved in fibrinolysis as well as thrombopoeitin, which is responsible for platelet production from megakaryocytes. Many pathological processes associated with cirrhosis, such as portal hypertension and endothelial dysfunction, as well as co-morbid conditions, may also alter the coagulation process. Consequently, patients with liver disease have a disturbed balance of procoagulant and anti-coagulant factors which deviates from the normal coagulation cascade. This situation poses an additional problem in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to this group of patients, since traditional coagulation test may not be reliable for assessing bleeding or thrombotic risk and traditional transfusional strategies may not be applicable in cirrhotic patients. In this article, we review the pathophysiological bases of coagulation abnormalities, in cirrhotic patients, the diagnostic therapeutic strategies to be followed and its impact on the clinical outcome in the cirrhotic patient.

  15. MRI evaluation and follow-up of bone necrosis after meningococcal infection and disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damry, N. (Dept. of Radiology, Hopital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola, Brussels (Belgium)); Schurmans, T. (Dept. of Peadiatrics, Hopital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola, Brussels (Belgium)); Perlmutter, N. (Dept. of Radiology, Hopital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola, Brussels (Belgium))

    1993-10-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a serious complication of meningococcal septicaemia. It often results in infarction of various tissues namely the skin, adrenal glands, kidneys, brain and, much less commonly, bones. We describe a patient who presented bone lesions after meningococcal septicaemia. In addition to plain radiography and scintigraphy the lesions were evaluated with MRI and have proved to be extensive and still progressive, approxximately 18 months after the onset of the disease. (orig.)

  16. Disseminated intravascular coagulation does not play a major role in the pathogenesis of classical swine fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Sandra; Meindl-Böhmer, Alexandra; Nowak, Götz; Moennig, Volker

    2013-03-23

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a multi-systemic disease that can be accompanied by severe haemorrhagic lesions. The underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are still far from being understood, though disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) was discussed as a major factor. In the presented study, the direct thrombin inhibitor hirudin was used in an attempt to elucidate the role of the coagulation system in the pathogenesis of CSF-induced haemorrhagic lesions. Two groups of piglets (n=5) were infected with highly virulent CSF virus (CSFV) strain CSF0634. One group underwent daily treatment with hirudin, the other served as untreated challenge infection control. Assessment of clinical signs using a clinical score system, coagulation tests, and blood counts were performed daily. Both groups developed acute-lethal CSF with haemorrhagic lesions. Although changes in the coagulation system were seen in the late stages of CSFV infection, our results strongly suggest that DIC does not present the crucial event in the pathogenesis of haemorrhagic lesions.

  17. Coagulation competence for predicting perioperative hemorrhage in patients treated with lactated Ringer's vs. Dextran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Højskov, Michael; Johansson, Per Ingemar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perioperative hemorrhage may depend on coagulation competence and this study evaluated the influence of coagulation competence on blood loss during cystectomy due to bladder cancer. METHODS: Forty patients undergoing radical cystectomy were included in a randomized controlled trial...... to receive either lactated Ringer's solution or Dextran 70 (Macrodex ®) that affects coagulation competence. RESULTS: By thrombelastography evaluated coagulation competence, Dextran 70 reduced "maximal amplitude" (MA) by 25 % versus a 1 % reduction with the administration of lactated Ringer's solution (P ....001). Blinded evaluation of the blood loss was similar in the two groups of patients - 2339 ml with the use of Dextran 70 and 1822 ml in the lactated Ringer's group (P = 0.27). Yet, the blood loss was related to the reduction in MA (r = -0.427, P = 0.008) and by multiple regression analysis independently...

  18. Impact of Albumin on Coagulation Competence and Hemorrhage During Major Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Højskov, Michael; Johansson, Pär I;

    2016-01-01

    For patients exposed to a massive blood loss during surgery, maintained coagulation competence is important. It is less obvious whether coagulation competence influences bleeding during elective surgery where patients are exposed to infusion of a crystalloid or a colloid.This randomized controlled...... trial evaluates whether administration of 5% human albumin (HA) or lactated Ringer solution (LR) affects coagulation competence and in turn blood loss during cystectomy due to bladder cancer.Forty patients undergoing radical cystectomy were included to receive either 5% HA (n = 20) or LR (n = 20......) evaluated coagulation competence, albumin affected clot growth (TEG-angle 69 ± 5 vs 74° ± 3°, P blood loss (P = 0...

  19. A randomized controlled clinical trial of a nurse-led structured psychosocial intervention program for people with first-onset mental illness in psychiatric outpatient clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wai-Tong; Bressington, Daniel

    2015-09-30

    This study aimed to test the effectiveness of a nurse-led structured psychosocial intervention program in Chinese patients with first-onset mental illness. A single-blind, parallel group, randomized controlled trial design was used. The study involved 180 participants with mild to moderate-severe symptoms of psychotic or mood disorders who were newly referred to two psychiatric outpatient clinics in Hong Kong. Patients were randomly assigned to either an eight-session nurse-led psychosocial intervention program (plus usual care) or usual psychiatric outpatient care (both n=90). The primary outcome was psychiatric symptoms. Outcomes were measured at recruitment, one week and 12 months post-intervention. Patients in the psychosocial intervention group reported statistically significant improvements in symptoms compared to treatment as usual. There were also significant improvements in illness insight and perceived quality of life and reduction in length of re-hospitalizations over the 12-month follow-up. The findings provide evidence that the nurse-led psychosocial intervention program resulted in improved health outcomes in Chinese patients with first-onset mental illness.

  20. Influence of specific training on spatio-temporal parameters at the onset of goal-directed reaching in infants: a controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa B. Cunha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is evidence that long-term experience can promote functional changes in infants. However, much remains unknown about how a short-term experience affects performance of a task. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the influence of a single training session at the onset of goal-directed reaching on the spatio-temporal parameters of reaching and whether there are differences in the effects of training across different reaching positions. METHOD: Thirty-three infants were divided into three groups: 1 a control group; 2 a group that was reach trained in a reclined position; and 3 a group trained in the supine position. The infants were submitted to two assessments (pre- and post-training in two testing positions (supine and reclined at 45°. RESULTS: The short-duration training sessions were effective in promoting shorter reaches in the specific position in which the training was conducted. Training in the reclined position was associated with shorter and faster reaches upon assessment in the reclined position. CONCLUSIONS: A few minutes of reach training are effective in facilitating reaching behavior in infants at the onset of reaching. The improvements in reaching were specific to the position in which the infants were trained.

  1. Efficacy and Safety of Vernakalant for Cardioversion of Recent-onset Atrial Fibrillation in the Asia-Pacific Region: A Phase 3 Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatch, Gregory N; Bhirangi, Kiran; Juul-Moller, Steen; Rustige, Jörg

    2017-02-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common clinically significant cardiac arrhythmia. This phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessed the efficacy and safety of vernakalant hydrochloride for the pharmacological conversion of AF to sinus rhythm in patients with recent-onset (>3 hours to ≤7 days) symptomatic AF from the Asia-Pacific region. Patients received an infusion of vernakalant (3 mg/kg) or placebo for 10 minutes. If AF had not been terminated 15 minutes later, a second infusion of vernakalant (2 mg/kg) or placebo for 15 minutes was administered. The primary efficacy end point was conversion of AF to sinus rhythm for >1 minute within 90 minutes. The study was terminated early for administrative reasons; 123 patients from Korea, Taiwan, and India were randomized to receive vernakalant (n = 55) or placebo (n = 56). A greater proportion of patients who received vernakalant (52.7%) than placebo (12.5%) met the primary end point (P < 0.001), and cardioversion was faster in the vernakalant group than in the placebo group (P < 0.001). Vernakalant was generally well tolerated; the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar between the groups. We conclude that vernakalant is efficacious in the rapid cardioversion of recent-onset AF in patients from the Asia-Pacific region.

  2. Genetic and Pharmacological Modifications of Thrombin Formation in Apolipoprotein E-deficient Mice Determine Atherosclerosis Severity and Atherothrombosis Onset in a Neutrophil-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borissoff, Julian I.; Otten, Jeroen J. T.; Heeneman, Sylvia; Leenders, Peter; van Oerle, René; Soehnlein, Oliver; Loubele, Sarah T. B. G.; Hamulyák, Karly; Hackeng, Tilman M.; Daemen, Mat J. A. P.; Degen, Jay L.; Weiler, Hartmut; Esmon, Charles T.; van Ryn, Joanne; Biessen, Erik A. L.; Spronk, Henri M. H.; ten Cate, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    Background Variations in the blood coagulation activity, determined genetically or by medication, may alter atherosclerotic plaque progression, by influencing pleiotropic effects of coagulation proteases. Published experimental studies have yielded contradictory findings on the role of hypercoagulability in atherogenesis. We therefore sought to address this matter by extensively investigating the in vivo significance of genetic alterations and pharmacologic inhibition of thrombin formation for the onset and progression of atherosclerosis, and plaque phenotype determination. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated transgenic atherosclerosis-prone mice with diminished coagulant or hypercoagulable phenotype and employed two distinct models of atherosclerosis. Gene-targeted 50% reduction in prothrombin (FII−/WT:ApoE−/−) was remarkably effective in limiting disease compared to control ApoE−/− mice, associated with significant qualitative benefits, including diminished leukocyte infiltration, altered collagen and vascular smooth muscle cell content. Genetically-imposed hypercoagulability in TMPro/Pro:ApoE−/− mice resulted in severe atherosclerosis, plaque vulnerability and spontaneous atherothrombosis. Hypercoagulability was associated with a pronounced neutrophilia, neutrophil hyper-reactivity, markedly increased oxidative stress, neutrophil intraplaque infiltration and apoptosis. Administration of either the synthetic specific thrombin inhibitor Dabigatran etexilate, or recombinant activated protein C (APC), counteracted the pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic phenotype of pro-thrombotic TMPro/Pro:ApoE−/− mice. Conclusions/Significance We provide new evidence highlighting the importance of neutrophils in the coagulation-inflammation interplay during atherogenesis. Our findings reveal that thrombin-mediated proteolysis is an unexpectedly powerful determinant of atherosclerosis in multiple distinct settings. These studies suggest that selective

  3. Genetic and pharmacological modifications of thrombin formation in apolipoprotein e-deficient mice determine atherosclerosis severity and atherothrombosis onset in a neutrophil-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian I Borissoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Variations in the blood coagulation activity, determined genetically or by medication, may alter atherosclerotic plaque progression, by influencing pleiotropic effects of coagulation proteases. Published experimental studies have yielded contradictory findings on the role of hypercoagulability in atherogenesis. We therefore sought to address this matter by extensively investigating the in vivo significance of genetic alterations and pharmacologic inhibition of thrombin formation for the onset and progression of atherosclerosis, and plaque phenotype determination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated transgenic atherosclerosis-prone mice with diminished coagulant or hypercoagulable phenotype and employed two distinct models of atherosclerosis. Gene-targeted 50% reduction in prothrombin (FII(-/WT:ApoE(-/- was remarkably effective in limiting disease compared to control ApoE(-/- mice, associated with significant qualitative benefits, including diminished leukocyte infiltration, altered collagen and vascular smooth muscle cell content. Genetically-imposed hypercoagulability in TM(Pro/Pro:ApoE(-/- mice resulted in severe atherosclerosis, plaque vulnerability and spontaneous atherothrombosis. Hypercoagulability was associated with a pronounced neutrophilia, neutrophil hyper-reactivity, markedly increased oxidative stress, neutrophil intraplaque infiltration and apoptosis. Administration of either the synthetic specific thrombin inhibitor Dabigatran etexilate, or recombinant activated protein C (APC, counteracted the pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic phenotype of pro-thrombotic TM(Pro/Pro:ApoE(-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide new evidence highlighting the importance of neutrophils in the coagulation-inflammation interplay during atherogenesis. Our findings reveal that thrombin-mediated proteolysis is an unexpectedly powerful determinant of atherosclerosis in multiple distinct settings. These studies suggest that

  4. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF FLUIDO-COAGULANT BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Tase

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood fluidity is controlled by complex physiological systems. Normally, the fine balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis prevents both bleeding and thrombosis. The accelerated urbanization we are living last decades modifies the basic environment, confining the human being to biochemical and metabolic remodeling. The alteration of this balance in favour of coagulation leads to thrombosis, the major challenge of the 21st century medicine. There are interesting changes not only in human’s anthropological evolution, but also from birth to death. The HORUS study performed by american and egyptian researchers investigated the prevalence of atherosclerosis in antique and modern Egyptians. Despite the belief that atherosclerosis is a modern disease, it seems to be evidences of atherosclerosis in Egyptian mummies. Despite multiple differences, between 30 and 60 years, the prevalence of atherosclerosis was quite similar in antique and modern Egyptians, respectively.

  5. SYSTEM OF PRECISE DOSING OF COAGULANT IN THE PULVERIZING AERATOR POWERED BY WIND USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Osuch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods used to support land restoration lakes is the method of pulverizing aeration. Use of aerators powered exclusively by wind improves the condition of reservoirs, while not compromising the environment. The pulverizing aeration process drive is windy on the water aeration zone near bottom, while removing harmful gases anaerobic metabolism. Aerators of this type due to the unique method of operation also enable dosing of inactivation coagulants with oxygenated water to the depths of the lake. Mileage coagulant dosing can be made dependent on the speed of the wind, which has an impact on the performance of his work, because with the increase of wind speed dispensing valve coagulants should be stronger open. One of the methods for assessing the state of lakes is to measure water transparency. The softer visibility, the most likely state of the water is better. Dosage of coagulant so you can make the transparency of the water. Similarly, with increasing transparency water dispensing valve should be more covered up. Control of the drain valve dispenser coagulant can be simultaneously dependent on two factors. The study was designed method of control drain valve dispenser coagulant using fuzzy inference.

  6. Optical coherence tomography-guided laser microsurgery for blood coagulation with continuous-wave laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Yu; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Wang, Zu-Yi; Chi, Chun-Kai; Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chan, Ming-Che; Lee, Ya-Ju

    2015-11-01

    Blood coagulation is the clotting and subsequent dissolution of the clot following repair to the damaged tissue. However, inducing blood coagulation is difficult for some patients with homeostasis dysfunction or during surgery. In this study, we proposed a method to develop an integrated system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser microsurgery for blood coagulation. Also, an algorithm for positioning of the treatment location from OCT images was developed. With OCT scanning, 2D/3D OCT images and angiography of tissue can be obtained simultaneously, enabling to noninvasively reconstruct the morphological and microvascular structures for real-time monitoring of changes in biological tissues during laser microsurgery. Instead of high-cost pulsed lasers, continuous-wave laser diodes (CW-LDs) with the central wavelengths of 450 nm and 532 nm are used for blood coagulation, corresponding to higher absorption coefficients of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. Experimental results showed that the location of laser exposure can be accurately controlled with the proposed approach of imaging-based feedback positioning. Moreover, blood coagulation can be efficiently induced by CW-LDs and the coagulation process can be monitored in real-time with OCT. This technology enables to potentially provide accurate positioning for laser microsurgery and control the laser exposure to avoid extra damage by real-time OCT imaging.

  7. Optical coherence tomography-guided laser microsurgery for blood coagulation with continuous-wave laser diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Yu; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Wang, Zu-Yi; Chi, Chun-Kai; Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chan, Ming-Che; Lee, Ya-Ju

    2015-11-16

    Blood coagulation is the clotting and subsequent dissolution of the clot following repair to the damaged tissue. However, inducing blood coagulation is difficult for some patients with homeostasis dysfunction or during surgery. In this study, we proposed a method to develop an integrated system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser microsurgery for blood coagulation. Also, an algorithm for positioning of the treatment location from OCT images was developed. With OCT scanning, 2D/3D OCT images and angiography of tissue can be obtained simultaneously, enabling to noninvasively reconstruct the morphological and microvascular structures for real-time monitoring of changes in biological tissues during laser microsurgery. Instead of high-cost pulsed lasers, continuous-wave laser diodes (CW-LDs) with the central wavelengths of 450 nm and 532 nm are used for blood coagulation, corresponding to higher absorption coefficients of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. Experimental results showed that the location of laser exposure can be accurately controlled with the proposed approach of imaging-based feedback positioning. Moreover, blood coagulation can be efficiently induced by CW-LDs and the coagulation process can be monitored in real-time with OCT. This technology enables to potentially provide accurate positioning for laser microsurgery and control the laser exposure to avoid extra damage by real-time OCT imaging.

  8. Comparative efficacy of the Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy versus Supportive Psychotherapy for early onset chronic depression: design and rationale of a multisite randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Mathias

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective treatment strategies for chronic depression are urgently needed since it is not only a common and particularly disabling disorder, but is also considered treatment resistant by most clinicians. There are only a few studies on chronic depression indicating that traditional psycho- and pharmacological interventions are not as effective as in acute, episodic depression. Current medications are no more effective than those introduced 50 years ago whereas the only psychotherapy developed specifically for the subgroup of chronic depression, the Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP, faired well in one large trial. However, CBASP has never been directly compared to a non-specific control treatment. Methods/Design The present article describes the study protocol of a multisite parallel-group randomized controlled trial in Germany. The purpose of the study is to estimate the efficacy of CBASP compared to supportive psychotherapy in 268 non-medicated early-onset chronically depressed outpatients. The intervention includes 20 weeks of acute treatment with 24 individual sessions followed by 28 weeks of continuation treatment with another 8 sessions. Depressive symptoms are evaluated 20 weeks after randomisation by means of the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression (HRSD. Secondary endpoints are depressive symptoms after 12 and 48 weeks, and remission after 12, 20, and 48 weeks. Primary outcome will be analysed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA controlled for pre-treatment scores and site. Analyses of continuous secondary variables will be performed using linear mixed models. For remission rates, chi-squared tests and logistic regression will be applied. Discussion The study evaluates the comparative effects of a disorder-specific psychotherapy and a well designed non-specific psychological approach in the acute and continuation treatment phase in a large sample of early-onset chronically

  9. Comparative efficacy of the Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy versus supportive psychotherapy for early onset chronic depression: design and rationale of a multisite randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Elisabeth; Hautzinger, Martin; Zobel, Ingo; Kriston, Levente; Berger, Mathias; Härter, Martin

    2011-08-17

    Effective treatment strategies for chronic depression are urgently needed since it is not only a common and particularly disabling disorder, but is also considered treatment resistant by most clinicians. There are only a few studies on chronic depression indicating that traditional psycho- and pharmacological interventions are not as effective as in acute, episodic depression. Current medications are no more effective than those introduced 50 years ago whereas the only psychotherapy developed specifically for the subgroup of chronic depression, the Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP), faired well in one large trial. However, CBASP has never been directly compared to a non-specific control treatment. The present article describes the study protocol of a multisite parallel-group randomized controlled trial in Germany. The purpose of the study is to estimate the efficacy of CBASP compared to supportive psychotherapy in 268 non-medicated early-onset chronically depressed outpatients. The intervention includes 20 weeks of acute treatment with 24 individual sessions followed by 28 weeks of continuation treatment with another 8 sessions. Depressive symptoms are evaluated 20 weeks after randomisation by means of the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression (HRSD). Secondary endpoints are depressive symptoms after 12 and 48 weeks, and remission after 12, 20, and 48 weeks. Primary outcome will be analysed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlled for pre-treatment scores and site. Analyses of continuous secondary variables will be performed using linear mixed models. For remission rates, chi-squared tests and logistic regression will be applied. The study evaluates the comparative effects of a disorder-specific psychotherapy and a well designed non-specific psychological approach in the acute and continuation treatment phase in a large sample of early-onset chronically depressed patients. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00970437).

  10. Quantitative evaluation of hypothermia, hyperthermia, and hemodilution on coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmiecik, S A; Liu, J L; Vaadia, T S; Nichols, J D; Kohtz, R J; Mills, N J; Petterson, C M; Stammers, A H

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature change on the coagulation time of blood at two different hematocrit levels by using various coagulation-monitoring devices. The devices used in this study were the Bayer Rapid Point Coag Analyzers, Hemochron Jr. Signature, Hemochron Response, Medtronic ACT II, and Haemoscope Thrombelastograph. One unit of human bank blood was used in this study. The hematocrit level was adjusted to 40% and 20%. A control bath and experimental bath were set up. Control blood was maintained at 37 degrees C and tested every 45 +/- 15 min throughout the experimental period of 6 h to demonstrate the stability of the model. The experimental blood was tested at temperature points of 37, 32, 27, 32, 37, 42, and 37 degrees C. Activated clotting time (ACT) tended to increase when the temperature was initially decreased from 37 to 27 degrees C, which reached a statistically significant level when measured by the Hemochron Response at both the 20% (147 +/- 10.7 to 159.3 +/- 11.0, p coagulation by all devices utilized in this study.

  11. Genetic Factors Influencing Coagulation Factor XIII B-Subunit Contribute to Risk of Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanscombe, Ken B; Traylor, Matthew; Hysi, Pirro G; Bevan, Stephen; Dichgans, Martin; Rothwell, Peter M; Worrall, Bradford B; Seshadri, Sudha; Sudlow, Cathie; Williams, Frances M K; Markus, Hugh S; Lewis, Cathryn M

    2015-08-01

    Abnormal coagulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke, but how this association is mediated and whether it differs between ischemic stroke subtypes is unknown. We determined the shared genetic risk between 14 coagulation factors and ischemic stroke and its subtypes. Using genome-wide association study results for 14 coagulation factors from the population-based TwinsUK sample (N≈2000 for each factor), meta-analysis results from the METASTROKE consortium ischemic stroke genome-wide association study (12 389 cases, 62 004 controls), and genotype data for 9520 individuals from the WTCCC2 ischemic stroke study (3548 cases, 5972 controls-the largest METASTROKE subsample), we explored shared genetic risk for coagulation and stroke. We performed three analyses: (1) a test for excess concordance (or discordance) in single nucleotide polymorphism effect direction across coagulation and stroke, (2) an estimation of the joint effect of multiple coagulation-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in stroke, and (3) an evaluation of common genetic risk between coagulation and stroke. One coagulation factor, factor XIII subunit B (FXIIIB), showed consistent effects in the concordance analysis, the estimation of polygenic risk, and the validation with genotype data, with associations specific to the cardioembolic stroke subtype. Effect directions for FXIIIB-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly discordant with cardioembolic disease (smallest P=5.7×10(-04)); the joint effect of FXIIIB-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms was significantly predictive of ischemic stroke (smallest P=1.8×10(-04)) and the cardioembolic subtype (smallest P=1.7×10(-04)). We found substantial negative genetic covariation between FXIIIB and ischemic stroke (rG=-0.71, P=0.01) and the cardioembolic subtype (rG=-0.80, P=0.03). Genetic markers associated with low FXIIIB levels increase risk of ischemic stroke cardioembolic subtype. © 2015 The

  12. Comparative assessment of water treatment using polymeric and inorganic coagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Innocent K. M.; Chidya, Russel C. G.; Saka, John D. K.; Biswick, Timothy T.

    2016-06-01

    Portable water plays a vital role in improving human life, particularly in controlling the spread of diseases. However, problems associated with lack of potable water are still common especially in developing countries including Malawi. Until now little information exists on the effectiveness of available commercial coagulants used by national water boards in Malawi. Therefore, this study was undertaken in Southern Region Water Board (SRWB) to investigate the efficiency of polymeric coagulants (sufdfloc 3850 and algaefloc 19s) in turbidity reduction comparative with inorganic coagulant (aluminium sulphate) at Zomba, Liwonde, Mangochi, Chikwawa and Mulanje Treatment plants. The jar test method was used to determine the effectiveness of the water coagulants. The results revealed that sudfloc 3850 was most effective in reducing turbidity at Mangochi (99.4 ± 0.06%) and Liwonde (97.2 ± 0.04%) using 0.4 mg L-1 flocculant dose. The Zomba, Mulanje and Chikwawa plants gave 19.56 ± 0.03%, 29.23 ± 0.02% and 9.43 ± 0.02% total reductions respectively. Algaefloc 19s afforded the highest turbidity reduction at Liwonde and Mangochi plants (98.66 ± 0.06 and 97.48 ± 0.05% at a dose of 0.4 and 0.6 mg L-1 respectively), while Chikwawa provided the lowest (9.52 ± 0.01%). At the Zomba and Mulanje plants 20.5 ± 0.03% and 28.4 ± 0.04% reductions were obtained respectively. The inorganic flocculant, alum provided a 99.0 ± 0.05% and 98.6 ± 0.04% reduction at a dose of 4.0 mg L-1 and 6.0 mg L-1 at Zomba and Liwonde plants respectively. The lowest reductions in turbidity were achieved at Chikwawa (7.50 ± 0.01%), Mangochi (12.97 ± 0.02%) and Mulanje (25.00 ± 0.02). The best and optimum pH ranges for polymeric and inorganic coagulants were 7.20-7.80 and 7.35 to 7.57 respectively. The results further revealed that sudfloc 3850 and algaefloc 19s achieved faster formation of heavy flocs than alum. At 0.4 mg L-1 flocculant dosage sudfloc 3850 and algaefloc 19s required ten times

  13. [New oral anticoagulants - influence on coagulation tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, L; Nagler, M; Wuillemin, W A

    2014-01-01

    The new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) represent alternative antithrombotic agents for prophylaxis and therapy of thromboembolic diseases. They act either by inhibition of the clotting factor Xa or IIa (thrombin). As a consequence, they influence several coagulation assays (for example prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time). Because of the short half-life of these new agents, these changes show great variations in the course of 24 hours. Furthermore, there are significant differences of laboratory results depending on the used reagents. We explain the influence of apixaban, rivaroxaban (factor Xa inhibitors) and dabigatran (thrombin inhibitor) on the most commonly used coagulation assays. Besides we show that this influence depends on the way of action of the drug as well as on the principle of the coagulation assay. Being aware of this relationships helps to interpret the results of coagulation assays under influence of NOACs correctly.

  14. Coagulation testing in the perioperative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Thiruvenkatarajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Perioperative coagulation management is a complex task that has a significant impact on the perioperative journey of patients. Anaesthesia providers play a critical role in the decision-making on transfusion and/or haemostatic therapy in the surgical setting. Various tests are available in identifying coagulation abnormalities in the perioperative period. While the rapidly available bedside haemoglobin measurements can guide the transfusion of red blood cells, blood product administration is guided by many in vivo and in vitro tests. The introduction of newer anticoagulant medications and the implementation of the modified in vivo coagulation cascade have given a new dimension to the field of perioperative transfusion medicine. A proper understanding of the application and interpretation of the coagulation tests is vital for a good perioperative outcome.

  15. SIMULATION MODELING SLOW SPATIALLY HETER- OGENEOUS COAGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Zdorovtsev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new model of spatially inhomogeneous coagulation, i.e. formation of larger clusters by joint interaction of smaller ones, is under study. The results of simulation are compared with known analytical and numerical solutions.

  16. Long-Term Glycemic Control as a Result of Initial Education for Children With New Onset Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Susanne M.; Srivastava, Nayan T.; Behzadi, Jennifer M.; Pottorff, Tina M.; DiMeglio, Linda A.; Walvoord, Emily C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the role of initial diabetes education delivery at an academic medical center (AMC) versus non-AMCs on long-term glycemic control. Methods We performed a retrospective study of children with type 1 diabetes referred to an AMC after being educated at non-AMCs. These children were matched to a group of children diagnosed and educated as inpatients at an AMC. The A1C levels at 2, 3, and 5 years from diagnosis were compared between the 2 groups of children. Results Records were identified from 138 children. Glycemic control was comparable in the non-AMC-educated versus AMC-educated patients at 2, 3, and 5 years from diagnosis. The A1C was also highly consistent in each patient over time. Conclusions Long-term glycemic control was independent of whether initial education was delivered at an AMC or non-AMC. Formal education and location at time of diagnosis do not appear to play a significant role in long-term glycemic control. Novel educational constructs, focusing on developmental stages of childhood and reeducation over time, are likely more important than education at time of diagnosis. PMID:23427241

  17. Late-onset hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Dudek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, the number of men over the age of 50 years exceeds 6 million. It is estimated that about 2-6% of this population develops symptoms of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH. In men, testosterone deficiency increases slightly with age. LOH is a clinically and biochemically defined disease of older men with serum testosterone level below the reference parameters of younger healthy men and with symptoms of testosterone deficiency, manifested by pronounced disturbances of quality of life and harmful effects on multiple organ systems. Testosterone replacement therapy may give several benefits regarding body composition, metabolic control, and psychological and sexual parameters.

  18. Effects of nucleotides and nucleosides on coagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bune, Laurids; Thaning, Pia; Johansson, Pär I;

    2010-01-01

    Nucleotides, including ADP, ATP and uridine triphosphate (UTP), are discharged profusely in the circulation during many pathological conditions including sepsis. Sepsis can cause hypotension and systemic activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems in humans, which may cause disseminated...... intravascular coagulation. We investigated whether nucleotide-induced cardiovascular collapse as provoked by systemic infusion of adenosine, ADP, ATP, UTP and nitric oxide affected the haemostatic system as assessed by whole blood thromboelastography (TEG) analysis. Ten pigs received a randomized infusion...

  19. Coagulation testing in the perioperative period

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesan Thiruvenkatarajan; Ashlee Pruett; Sanjib Das Adhikary

    2014-01-01

    Perioperative coagulation management is a complex task that has a significant impact on the perioperative journey of patients. Anaesthesia providers play a critical role in the decision-making on transfusion and/or haemostatic therapy in the surgical setting. Various tests are available in identifying coagulation abnormalities in the perioperative period. While the rapidly available bedside haemoglobin measurements can guide the transfusion of red blood cells, blood product administration is ...

  20. Atopy and new-onset asthma in young Danish farmers and CD14, TLR2, and TLR4 genetic polymorphisms: a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, L A M; Bongers, S I M; Ruven, H J T;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence exists that exposure to high levels of microbial agents such as endotoxin in the farm environment decreases the risk of atopic sensitization. Genetic variation in innate immunity genes may modulate the response to microbial agents and thus influence susceptibility to asthma...... and atopy. OBJECTIVE: To study potential associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CD14, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and TLR4 genes, and atopy and new-onset asthma in young farmers. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted within a cohort of 1901 young Danish farmers. We....../-651 promoter polymorphisms are associated with atopy prevalence among young adults exposed to farm environments. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov...

  1. [Incidental finding of pathological coagulation parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxembourg, B; Lindhoff-Last, E

    2014-10-01

    Pathological coagulation parameters may reflect life-threatening hemorrhagic or thromboembolic diseases but may also be a laboratory result without any clinical significance, result from in vitro phenomena or preanalytical errors. This article gives an overview of potential pitfalls in coagulation diagnostics, lists the differential diagnoses of pathological coagulation parameters and describes further steps in the diagnostic approach to clarify pathological results. The focus lies on coagulation parameters that are frequently determined in routine clinical investigations, e.g. platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and fibrinogen. Besides heparin, fondaparinux, danaparoid, and vitamin K antagonists, direct factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors are nowadays available for therapeutic anticoagulation. This article gives an overview of the influence of anticoagulants on coagulation parameters which depends on the dose, the time of the last administration, as well as the method used for the determination of coagulation parameters. Moreover, common reasons for elevation of the fibrin degradation product D-dimer are presented. The clinical utility of D-dimer assays is limited by their poor specificity. Elevated D-dimer concentrations can be found in various diseases and also under normal physiological circumstances (e.g. in the elderly). Thus, the most useful clinical application of D-dimer is evidence of normal values to essentially rule out venous thromboembolism.

  2. Two-component Brownian coagulation: Monte Carlo simulation and process characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibo Zhao; Chu guang Zheng

    2011-01-01

    The compositional distribution within aggregates of a given size is essential to the functionality of composite aggregates that are usually enlarged by rapid Brownian coagulation.There is no analytical solution for the process of such two-component systems.Monte Carlo method is an effective numerical approach for two-component coagulation.In this paper,the differentially weighted Monte Carlo method is used to investigate two-component Brownian coagulation,respectively,in the continuum regime,the freemolecular regime and the transition regime.It is found that ( 1 ) for Brownian coagulation in the continuum regime and in the free-molecular regime,the mono-variate compositional distribution,i.e.,the number density distribution function of one component amount (in the form of volume of the component in aggregates) satisfies self-preserving form the same as particle size distribution in mono-component Brownian coagulation; (2) however,for Brownian coagulation in the transition regime the mono-variate compositional distribution cannot reach self-similarity; and (3) the bivariate compositional distribution,i.e.,the combined number density distribution function of two component amounts in the three regimes satisfies a semi self-preserving form.Moreover,other new features inherent to aggregative mixing are also demonstrated; e.g.,the degree of mixing between components,which is largely controlled by the initial compositional mass fraction,improves as aggregate size increases.

  3. pH modeling for maximum dissolved organic matter removal by enhanced coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiankun Xie; Dongsheng Wang; John van Leeuwen; Yanmei Zhao; Linan Xing; Christopher W. K. Chow

    2012-01-01

    Correlations between raw water characteristics and pH after enhanced coagulation to maximize dissolved organic matter (DOM)removal using four typical coagulants (FeCl3,Al2(SO4)3,polyaluminum chloride (PAC1) and high performance polyaluminum chloride (HPAC)) without pH control were investigated.These correlations were analyzed on the basis of the raw water quality and the chemical and physical fractionations of DOM of thirteen Chinese source waters over three seasons.It was found that the final pH after enhanced coagulation for each of the four coagulants was influenced by the content of removable DOM (i.e.hydrophobic,and higher apparent molecular weight (AMW) DOM),the alkalinity and the initial pH of raw water.A set of feed-forward semi-empirical models relating the final pH after enhanced coagulation for each of the four coagulants with the raw water characteristics were developed and optimized based on correlation analysis.The established models were preliminarily validated for prediction purposes,and it was found that the deviation between the predicted data and actual data was low.This result demonstrated the potential for the application of these models in practical operation of drinking water treatment plants.

  4. Effect of coagulation on laser light distribution in myocardial tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agah, Ramtin; Sheth, Devang; Motamedi, Massoud

    1991-05-01

    The changes in total reflection and transmission of porcine myocardium due to thermal coagulation were measured during tissue heating in a temperature-controlled water bath, at different temperature ranging between 54 degree(s)-63 degree(s)C. At 633 nm, the measurements yield a picture of continuous decrease in transmission and a peak with a subsequent fall (approximately 10% from the peak) in reflection measurements of the tissue during coagulation process. Utilizing these measurements and an inverse solution to the radiative transfer equation, the optical properties of tissue, absorption, (mu)a, and effective scattering, (mu)s=(mu)s(1-g) were calculated. A one-dimensional diffusion approximation was used to demonstrate the effects of thermally induced changes in the optical properties of tissue on light distribution in tissue. The pattern of changes in (mu)a and (mu)s seem to indicate that several simultaneous rate processes may be responsible for tissue coagulation. A postulate is put forward to use one such rate process to characterize threshold thermal damage to porcine myocardium and the accompanying protein denaturation.

  5. Infrared coagulation versus rubber band ligation in early stage hemorrhoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Gupta

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The ideal therapy for early stages of hemorrhoids is always debated. Some are more effective but are more painful, others are less painful but their efficacy is also lower. Thus, comfort or efficacy is a major concern. In the present randomized study, a comparison is made between infrared coagulation and rubber band ligation in terms of effectiveness and discomfort. One hundred patients with second degree bleeding piles were randomized prospectively to either rubber band ligation (N = 54 or infrared coagulation (N = 46. Parameters measured included postoperative discomfort and pain, time to return to work, relief in incidence of bleeding, and recurrence rate. The mean age was 38 years (range 19-68 years. The mean duration of disease was 17.5 months (range 12 to 34 months. The number of male patients was double that of females. Postoperative pain during the first week was more intense in the band ligation group (2-5 vs 0-3 on a visual analogue scale. Post-defecation pain was more intense with band ligation and so was rectal tenesmus (P = 0.0059. The patients in the infrared coagulation group resumed their duties earlier (2 vs 4 days, P = 0.03, but also had a higher recurrence or failure rate (P = 0.03. Thus, we conclude that band ligation, although more effective in controlling symptoms and obliterating hemorrhoids, is associated with more pain and discomfort to the patient. As infrared coagulation can be conveniently repeated in case of recurrence, it could be considered to be a suitable alternative office procedure for the treatment of early stage hemorrhoids.

  6. Micro- to Macroroughness of Additively Manufactured Titanium Implants in Terms of Coagulation and Contact Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingvall Ek, Rebecca; Hong, Jaan; Thor, Andreas; Bäckström, Mikael; Rännar, Lars-Erik

    This study aimed to evaluate how as-built electron beam melting (EBM) surface properties affect the onset of blood coagulation. The properties of EBM-manufactured implant surfaces for placement have, until now, remained largely unexplored in literature. Implants with conventional designs and custom-made implants have been manufactured using EBM technology and later placed into the human body. Many of the conventional implants used today, such as dental implants, display modified surfaces to optimize bone ingrowth, whereas custom-made implants, by and large, have machined surfaces. However, titanium in itself demonstrates good material properties for the purpose of bone ingrowth. Specimens manufactured using EBM were selected according to their surface roughness and process parameters. EBM-produced specimens, conventional machined titanium surfaces, as well as PVC surfaces for control were evaluated using the slide chamber model. A significant increase in activation was found, in all factors evaluated, between the machined samples and EBM-manufactured samples. The results show that EBM-manufactured implants with as-built surfaces augment the thrombogenic properties. EBM that uses Ti6Al4V powder appears to be a good manufacturing solution for load-bearing implants with bone anchorage. The as-built surfaces can be used "as is" for direct bone contact, although any surface treatment available for conventional implants can be performed on EBM-manufactured implants with a conventional design.

  7. Dietary Practices, Addictive Behavior and Bowel Habits and Risk of Early Onset Colorectal Cancer: a Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naveed Ali; Hussain, Mehwish; ur Rahman, Ata; Farooqui, Waqas Ahmed; Rasheed, Abdur; Memon, Amjad Siraj

    2015-01-01

    The abrupt rise of colorectal cancer in developing countries is raising concern in healthcare settings. Studies on assessing relationships with modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors in the Pakistani population have been limited. The present investigation was designed to examine associations of dietary practices, addictive behavior and bowel habits in developing colorectal cancer (CRC) among patients in a low-resource setup. An age-gender matched case control study was conducted from October 2011 to July 2015 in Karachi, Pakistan. Cases were from the surgical oncology department of a public sector tertiary care hospital, while their two pair-matched controls were recruited from the general population. A structured questionnaire was used which included questions related to demographic characteristics, family history, dietary patterns, addictive behavior and bowel habits. A family history of cancer was associated with a 2.2 fold higher chance of developing CRC. Weight loss reduced the likelihood 7.6 times. Refraining from a high fat diet and consuming more vegetables showed protective effects for CRC. The risk of CRC was more than twice among smokers and those who consumed Asian specific addictive products as compared to those who avoid using these addictions (ORsmoking: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.08 - 4.17, ORpan: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.6 - 5.33, ORgutka: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.14 - 3.97). Use of NSAID attenuated risk of CRC up to 86% (OR: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.07 - 0.31). Most of the findings showed concordance with the literature elucidating protective effects of consuming vegetables and low fat diet while documenting adverse associations with family history, weight loss, constipation and hematochezia. Moreover, this study highlighted Asian specific indigenous addictive products as important factors. Further studies are needed to validate the findings produced by this research.

  8. The effect of comprehensive infection control measures on the rate of late-onset bloodstream infections in very low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Linda; Saslow, Judy; Shah, Sahil; Bhat, Vishwanath; Sannoh, Sulaiman; Brandon, Emma; Kemble, Nicole; Pyon, Kee; Stahl, Gary; Aghai, Zubair H

    2011-03-01

    Late-onset bloodstream infection (LOBI) is a significant problem in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants and can lead to increased mortality and morbidity. The incidence of LOBI in VLBW infants in our unit was >35% before 2004, much higher than 20% reported in other studies. A comprehensive infection control measure was introduced in our unit in 2005. Here we report the effects of comprehensive infection control measures on the rate of LOBI in VLBW infants. Infants in the preintervention group (born 2001 to 2004) were compared with the intervention group (born 2005 to 2008) for baseline demographics, risk factors for infection, and the rate of LOBI. LOBI was defined as a positive blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid culture after 3 days of life. Three hundred thirty-four VLBW infants were admitted to our unit during the preintervention period and 303 during the intervention period. There was no significant difference in baseline demographics and risk factors for LOBI between the two groups. The incidence of LOBI was significantly reduced from 38% before intervention to 23% after intervention ( P control measures significantly reduced the rate of LOBI in VLBW infants. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  9. Blood coagulation reactions on nanoscale membrane surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pureza, Vincent S.

    Blood coagulation requires the assembly of several membrane-bound protein complexes composed of regulatory and catalytic subunits. The biomembranes involved in these reactions not only provide a platform for these procoagulant proteins, but can also affect their function. Increased exposure of acidic phospholipids on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane can dramatically modulate the catalytic efficiencies of such membrane-bound enzymes. Under physiologic conditions, however, these phospholipids spontaneously cluster into a patchwork of membrane microdomains upon which membrane binding proteins may preferentially assemble. As a result, the membrane composition surrounding these proteins is largely unknown. Through the development and use of a nanometer-scale bilayer system that provides rigorous control of the phospholipid membrane environment, I investigated the role of phosphatidylserine, an acidic phospholipid, in the direct vicinity (within nanometers) of two critical membrane-bound procoagulant protein complexes and their respective natural substrates. Here, I present how the assembly and function of the tissue factor˙factor VIIa and factor Va˙factor Xa complexes, the first and final cofactor˙enzyme complexes of the blood clotting cascade, respectively, are mediated by changes in their immediate phospholipid environments.

  10. Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) removal efficiency by a combination of coagulation and ultrafiltration to minimize SWRO membrane fouling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sheng

    2016-07-02

    This study investigated the impact of coagulation on the transformation between colloidal and particulate transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in seawater; and the effectiveness of a combined pretreatment consisting of coagulation and UF on minimizing TEP fouling of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes. Coagulation with ferric chloride at pH 5 substantially transformed colloidal TEP (0.1–0.4) into particulate TEP (>0.4) leading to a better membrane fouling control. Both 50 and 100 kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) UF membranes removed most of particulate and colloidal TEP without the assistance of coagulation, but coagulation is still necessary for better UF fouling control. The improvement of combined SWRO pretreatment with coagulation and 50 kDa UF membranes was not that much significant compared to UF pretreatment with 50 KDa alone. Therefore, the minimal coagulant dosage for seawater containing TEP should be based on the UF fouling control requirements rather than removal efficiency. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  11. Contact activation of blood coagulation on a defined kaolin/collagen surface in a microfluidic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu; Diamond, Scott L

    2014-12-01

    Generation of active Factor XII (FXIIa) triggers blood clotting on artificial surfaces and may also enhance intravascular thrombosis. We developed a patterned kaolin (0 to 0.3 pg/μm(2))/type 1 collagen fibril surface for controlled microfluidic clotting assays. Perfusion of whole blood (treated only with a low level of 4 μg/mL of the XIIa inhibitor, corn trypsin inhibitor) drove platelet deposition followed by fibrin formation. At venous wall shear rate (100 s(-1)), kaolin accelerated onset of fibrin formation by ~100 sec when compared to collagen alone (250 sec vs. 350 sec), with little effect on platelet deposition. Even with kaolin present, arterial wall shear rate (1000 s(-1)) delayed and suppressed fibrin formation compared to venous wall shear rate. A comparison of surfaces for extrinsic activation (tissue factor TF/collagen) versus contact activation (kaolin/collagen) that each generated equal platelet deposition at 100 s(-1) revealed: (1) TF surfaces promoted much faster fibrin onset (at 100 sec) and more endpoint fibrin at 600 sec at either 100 s(-1) or 1000 s(-1), and (2) kaolin and TF surfaces had a similar sensitivity for reduced fibrin deposition at 1000 s(-1) (compared to fibrin formed at 100 s(-1)) despite differing coagulation triggers. Anti-platelet drugs inhibiting P2Y1, P2Y12, cyclooxygenase-1 or activating IP-receptor or guanylate cyclase reduced platelet and fibrin deposition on kaolin/collagen. Since FXIIa or FXIa inhibition may offer safe antithrombotic therapy, especially for biomaterial thrombosis, these defined collagen/kaolin surfaces may prove useful in drug screening tests or in clinical diagnostic assays of blood under flow conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Onset of hypertension during pregnancy is associated with long-term worse blood pressure control and adverse cardiac remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Roberto F; Reis, Muriel; Beppler, Ana Paula; Bellinazzi, Vera Regina; Mattos, Sandra S; Lima-Filho, José L; Cipolli, José A; Coelho-Filho, Otavio R; Pio-Magalhães, José A; Sposito, Andrei C; Matos-Souza, José R; Nadruz, Wilson

    2014-11-01

    Up to 20% of women with hypertensive pregnancy disorders might persist with chronic hypertension. This study compared clinical and echocardiographic features between women whose hypertension began as hypertensive pregnancy disorders (PH group) and women whose diagnosis of hypertension did not occur during pregnancy (NPH group). Fifty PH and 100 NPH women were cross-sectionally evaluated by clinical, laboratory, and echocardiography analysis, and the groups were matched by duration of hypertension. PH exhibited lower age (46.6 ± 1.4 vs. 65.3 ± 1.1 years; P < .001), but higher systolic (159.8 ± 3.9 vs. 148.0 ± 2.5 mm Hg; P = .009) and diastolic (97.1 ± 2.4 vs. 80.9 ± 1.3 mm Hg; P < .001) blood pressure than NPH, although used more antihypertensive classes (3.4 ± 0.2 vs. 2.6 ± 0.1; P < .001). Furthermore, PH showed higher left ventricular wall thickness and increased prevalence of concentric hypertrophy than NPH after adjusting for age and blood pressure. In conclusion, this study showed that PH may exhibit worse blood pressure control and adverse left ventricular remodeling compared with NPH.

  13. The role of dyking and fault control in the rapid onset of eruption at Chaitén Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, C.; De La, Llera; Lara, L.E.; Lowenstern, J.

    2011-01-01

    Rhyolite is the most viscous of liquid magmas, so it was surprising that on 2 May 2008 at Chaitén Volcano, located in Chile’s southern Andean volcanic zone, rhyolitic magma migrated from more than 5 km depth in less than 4 hours and erupted explosively with only two days of detected precursory seismic activity. The last major rhyolite eruption before that at Chaitén was the largest volcanic eruption in the twentieth century, at Novarupta volcano, Alaska, in 1912. Because of the historically rare and explosive nature of rhyolite eruptions and because of the surprisingly short warning before the eruption of the Chaitén volcano, any information about the workings of the magmatic system at Chaitén, and rhyolitic systems in general, is important from both the scientific and hazard perspectives. Here we present surface deformation data related to the Chaitén eruption based on radar interferometry observations from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) DAICHI (ALOS) satellite. The data on this explosive rhyolite eruption indicate that the rapid ascent of rhyolite occurred through dyking and that melt segregation and magma storage were controlled by existing faults.

  14. Efficacy of manipulation for non-specific neck pain of recent onset: design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Rob D

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Manipulation is a common treatment for non-specific neck pain. Neck manipulation, unlike gentler forms of manual therapy such as mobilisation, is associated with a small risk of serious neurovascular injury and can result in stroke or death. It is thought however, that neck manipulation provides better results than mobilisation where clinically indicated. There is long standing and vigorous debate both within and between the professions that use neck manipulation as well as the wider scientific community as to whether neck manipulation potentially does more harm than good. The primary aim of this study is to determine whether neck manipulation provides more rapid resolution of an episode of neck pain than mobilisation. Methods/Design 182 participants with acute and sub-acute neck pain will be recruited from physiotherapy, chiropractic and osteopathy practices in Sydney, Australia. Participants will be randomly allocated to treatment with either manipulation or mobilisation. Randomisation will occur after the treating practitioner decides that manipulation is an appropriate treatment for the individual participant. Both groups will receive at least 4 treatments over 2 weeks. The primary outcome is number of days taken to recover from the episode of neck pain. Cox regression will be used to compare survival curves for time to recovery for the manipulation and mobilisation treatment groups. Discussion This paper presents the rationale and design of a randomised controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of neck manipulation and neck mobilisation for acute and subacute neck pain.

  15. The role of dyking and fault control in the rapid onset of eruption at Chaitén volcano, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Charles; de la Llera, Juan Carlos; Lara, Luis E; Lowenstern, Jacob

    2011-10-19

    Rhyolite is the most viscous of liquid magmas, so it was surprising that on 2 May 2008 at Chaitén Volcano, located in Chile's southern Andean volcanic zone, rhyolitic magma migrated from more than 5 km depth in less than 4 hours (ref. 1) and erupted explosively with only two days of detected precursory seismic activity. The last major rhyolite eruption before that at Chaitén was the largest volcanic eruption in the twentieth century, at Novarupta volcano, Alaska, in 1912. Because of the historically rare and explosive nature of rhyolite eruptions and because of the surprisingly short warning before the eruption of the Chaitén volcano, any information about the workings of the magmatic system at Chaitén, and rhyolitic systems in general, is important from both the scientific and hazard perspectives. Here we present surface deformation data related to the Chaitén eruption based on radar interferometry observations from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) DAICHI (ALOS) satellite. The data on this explosive rhyolite eruption indicate that the rapid ascent of rhyolite occurred through dyking and that melt segregation and magma storage were controlled by existing faults.

  16. Dietary Intervention for Glucose Tolerance In Teens (DIG IT): Protocol of a randomized controlled trial using health coaching to prevent youth-onset type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Kelly A; Braun, Ethan; Armah, Seth M; Horan, Diarmuid; Smith, Lisa G; Pike, Julie; Tu, Wanzhu; Hamilton, Marc T; Delp, Edward J; Campbell, Wayne W; Boushey, Carol J; Hannon, Tamara S; Gletsu-Miller, Nana

    2017-02-01

    Youth-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disease that is newly emerging and behavioral strategies for its prevention are limited. Interventions that target the lifestyle behaviors of adolescents, to improve poor dietary quality and reduce excessive sedentariness, promise to reduce the risk of developing T2D. Health coaching is effective for promoting healthy behaviors in patients who have chronic disease, but few experimental studies are in adolescents. This randomized controlled trial, in adolescents with prediabetes, will determine the effectiveness of a health coaching intervention to facilitate adoption of healthy diet and activity behaviors that delay or prevent development of T2D. The Dietary Intervention for Glucose Tolerance In Teens (DIG IT) trial will involve an evaluation of a health coaching intervention in adolescents with prediabetes. Eligible participants will be randomized to receive 6months of health coaching or a single dietary consultation that is standard-of-care. The primary outcome will be 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test concentration. Secondary outcomes will include measures of glycemia and insulin action as well as dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviors measured using an electronic food record, and by inclinometer. Data will be collected before and after the intervention (at 6months) and at 12months (to assess sustainability). This trial will determine whether a health coaching intervention, a personalized and low-cost approach to modify dietary and activity behaviors, is effective and sustainable for prevention of youth-onset T2D, relative to standard-of-care. Health coaching has the potential to be widely implemented in clinical or community settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of stages of labor, stress indexes and coagulation function in dexmedetomidine combined with regular discontinuous epidural injection for labor analgesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Yi Zhang; Yu-Qiang Su; Ke-Xin Du

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the changes in stages of labor, stress indexes and coagulation function in dexmedetomidine combined with regular discontinuous epidural injection for labor analgesia. Methods:A total of 128 cases of full-term primiparas receiving epidural labor analgesia in our hospital between May 2013 and December 2015 were randomly divided into the dexmedetomidine (Dex group) and control group, the analgesia method for Dex group was dexmedetomidine combined with regular discontinuous epidural injection, and the analgesia method for control group was regular discontinuous epidural injection. The analgesic effect, time of stages of labor as well as stress indexes and coagulation function indexes in serum were evaluated.Results:The analgesic onset time and effective time of Dex group were significantly shorter than those of control group, the hold time was significantly longer than that of control group, latency time was not different from that of control group, and the time of the second stage of labor and the time of the third stage of labor were significantly shorter than those of control group; in the second and third stages of labor, blood glucose, blood cortisol, blood insulin, epinephrine and norepinephrine content of Dex group were significantly lower than those of control group; 24 h after childbirth, PT, APTT and TT of Dex group were significantly longer than those of control group, and FIB and D-D content were significantly lower than those of control group.Conclusions:Compared with epidural labor analgesia, the dexmedetomidine combined with regular discontinuous epidural injection can improve the analgesic effect, promote the progress of labor and reduce stress reaction as well as postpartum hypercoagulable state, and it is a more ideal solution for labor analgesia.

  18. Impacts of coagulation on the adsorption of organic micropollutants onto powdered activated carbon in treated domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Johannes; Zietzschmann, Frederik; Geiling, Eva-Linde; Ruhl, Aki Sebastian; Sperlich, Alexander; Jekel, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The application of powdered activated carbon (PAC) as an advanced wastewater treatment step for the removal of organic micropollutants (OMP) necessitates complete separation of the PAC particles, e.g. by coagulation. In this study, potential positive or negative indirect or direct effects of coagulation on the adsorption of OMPs onto PAC in treated wastewater were investigated. Although the concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM) was significantly reduced by coagulation, the selective removal of mainly larger DOM components such as biopolymers and humic substances did not improve subsequent OMP adsorption onto PAC, demonstrating that coagulation has minor effects on DOM constituents that are relevant for direct competition or pore blocking. The combination of coagulation and adsorption yielded the sum of the individual removals, as adsorption predominantly affected smaller compounds. While the formation of flocs led to visible incorporation of PAC particles, no significant mass transfer limitations impeded the OMP adsorption. As a result, the dosing sequence of coagulant and PAC is not critical for efficient adsorption of OMPs onto PAC. The relationships between adsorptive OMP removal and corresponding reduction of UV absorption at 254 nm (UVA254) as a promising surrogate correlation for the real-time monitoring and PAC adjustment were affected by coagulation, leading to individual correlations depending on the water composition. Correcting for UVA254 reduction by coagulation produces adsorptive UVA254 removal, which correlates highly with OMP removal for different WWTP effluents and varying coagulant doses and can be applied in combined adsorption/coagulation processes to predict OMP removal and control PAC dosing.

  19. Differential impact of statin on new-onset diabetes in different age groups: a population-based case-control study in women from an asian country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statins reduce cardiovascular risks but increase the risk of new-onset diabetes (NOD. The aim of this study is to determine what effect, if any, statins have on the risk of NOD events in a population-based case-control study. An evaluation of the relationship between age and statin-exposure on NOD risks was further examined in a female Asian population. METHOD: In a nationwide case-controlled study, the authors assessed 1065 female NOD patients and 10650 controls with matching ages, genders and physician visit dates. The impact of statin-exposure on NOD was examined through multiple logistic regression models. Subgroup analysis for exploring the risk of NOD and statin-exposure in different age groups was performed. RESULTS: Statin-exposure was statistically significantly associated with increased new-onset diabetes risks using multivariate analysis. Interaction effect between age and statin-exposure on NOD risk was noted. For atorvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 8.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57-24.90. For rosuvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 40-54 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.8; 95% CI, 2.27-96.15. For simvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 15.8; 95% CI, 5.77-43.26. For pravastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.0; 95% CI, 1.56-125.18. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study found that statin use is associated with an increased risk of NOD in women. The risk of statin-related NOD was more evident for women aged 40-64 years compared to women aged 65 or more, and was cumulative-dose dependent. The use of statins should always be determined by weighing the clinical benefits and potential risks for NOD, and the patients should be continuously monitored for adverse effects.

  20. Smoking, Porphyromonas gingivalis and the immune response to citrullinated autoantigens before the clinical onset of rheumatoid arthritis in a Southern European nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Benjamin A; Cartwright, Alison J; Quirke, Anne-Marie; de Pablo, Paola; Romaguera, Dora; Panico, Salvatore; Mattiello, Amalia; Gavrila, Diana; Navarro, Carmen; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Lappin, David F; Apatzidou, Danae; Apazidou, Danae; Culshaw, Shauna; Potempa, Jan; Michaud, Dominique S; Riboli, Elio; Venables, Patrick J

    2015-11-04

    Antibodies to citrullinated proteins (ACPA) occur years before RA diagnosis. Porphyromonas gingivalis expresses its own peptidylarginine deiminase (PPAD), and is a proposed aetiological factor for the ACPA response. Smoking is a risk factor for both ACPA-positive RA and periodontitis. We aimed to study the relation of these factors to the risk of RA in a prospective cohort. We performed a nested case-control study by identifying pre-RA cases in four populations from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition, matched with three controls. Data on smoking and other covariates were obtained from baseline questionnaires. Antibodies to CCP2 and citrullinated peptides from α-enolase, fibrinogen, vimentin and PPAD were measured. Antibodies to arginine gingipain (RgpB) were used as a marker for P.gingivalis infection and validated in a separate cohort of healthy controls and subjects with periodontitis. We studied 103 pre-RA cases. RA development was associated with several ACPA specificities, but not with antibodies to citrullinated PPAD peptides. Antibody levels to RgpB and PPAD peptides were higher in smokers but were not associated with risk of RA or with pre-RA autoimmunity. Former but not current smoking was associated with antibodies to α-enolase (OR 4.06; 95 % CI 1.02, 16.2 versus 0.54; 0.09-3.73) and fibrinogen peptides (OR 4.24; 95 % CI 1.2-14.96 versus 0.58; 0.13-2.70), and later development of RA (OR 2.48; 95 % CI 1.27-4.84 versus 1.57; 0.85-2.93), independent of smoking intensity. Smoking remains a risk factor for RA well before the clinical onset of disease. In this cohort, P.gingivalis is not associated with pre-RA autoimmunity or risk of RA in an early phase before disease-onset. Antibodies to PPAD peptides are not an early feature of ACPA ontogeny.

  1. The Lipid lowering and Onset of Renal Disease (LORD Trial: A randomized double blind placebo controlled trial assessing the effect of atorvastatin on the progression of kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraghty Dominic P

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that dyslipidemia is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Experimental studies have established that lipids are damaging to the kidney and animal intervention studies show statins attenuate this damage. Small clinical trials, meta-analyses, observational studies and post-hoc analyses of cardiovascular intervention studies all support the concept that statins can reduce kidney damage in humans. Based on this background, a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial was designed to assess the effectiveness of atorvastatin 10 mg on slowing the progression of kidney disease in a population of patients with CKD. Method/Design The Lipid lowering and Onset of Renal Disease (LORD trial is a three-year, single center, multi-site, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial. The primary outcome measure is kidney function measured by eGFR calculated by both Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD and Cockcroft and Gault equations. Secondary outcome measures include kidney function measured by 24-hour urine creatinine clearance and also 24-hour urinary protein excretion, markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and drug safety and tolerability. Discussion The results of this study will help determine the effectiveness and safety of atorvastatin and establish its effects on oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with CKD. Trial Registration ANZCTRN012605000693628

  2. Electrical stimulation of the sural cutaneous afferent nerve controls the amplitude and onset of the swing phase of locomotion in the spinal cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivier-Lanvin, Karen; Krupka, Alexander J; AuYong, Nicholas; Miller, Kassi; Prilutsky, Boris I; Lemay, Michel A

    2011-05-01

    Sensory feedback plays a crucial role in the control of locomotion and in the recovery of function after spinal cord injury. Investigations in reduced preparations have shown that the locomotor cycle can be modified through the activation of afferent feedback at various phases of the gait cycle. We investigated the effect of phase-dependent electrical stimulation of a cutaneous afferent nerve on the locomotor pattern of trained spinal cord-injured cats. Animals were first implanted with chronic nerve cuffs on the sural and sciatic nerves and electromyographic electrodes in different hindlimb muscles. Cats were then transected at T12 and trained daily to locomote on a treadmill. We found that electrical stimulation of the sural nerve can enhance the ongoing flexion phase, producing higher (+129%) and longer (+17.4%) swing phases of gait even at very low threshold of stimulation. Sural nerve stimulation can also terminate an ongoing extension and initiate a flexion phase. A higher prevalence of early switching to the flexion phase was observed at higher stimulation levels and if stimulation was applied in the late stance phase. All flexor muscles were activated by the stimulation. These results suggest that electrical stimulation of the sural nerve may be used to increase the magnitude of the swing phase and control the timing of its onset after spinal cord injury and locomotor training.

  3. Testosterone replacement therapy improves health-related quality of life for patients with late-onset hypogonadism: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Y; Ding, M; Hu, S; He, H; Cheng, S; Yi, L; Li, Y; Wang, Y

    2017-05-01

    Although testosterone replacement therapy can restore serum testosterone concentrations to normal level in late-onset hypogonadism patients, whether it can improve patients' quality of life remains uncertain. Therefore, we perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on this issue. Five randomized controlled trials total 1,212 patients were included. Fixed-effect model was used to calculate the weighted mean difference of score of Aging Males' Symptom rating scale. Our result reveals that testosterone replacement therapy improves patients' health-related quality of life in terms of the decrease in the AMS total score [WMD = -2.96 (-4.21, -1.71), p < .00001] and the psychological [WMD = -0.89 (-1.41, -0.37), p = .0008], somatic [WMD = -0.89 (-1.41, -0.37), p = .0008] and sexual [WMD = -1.29 (-1.75, -0.83), p < .00001] subscale score. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Diagnosis and treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, M

    2014-06-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition in which systemic activation of coagulation without a specific localization occurs, resulting in extensive formation of intravascular fibrin, particularly in small and midsize vessels. Disseminated intravascular coagulation may lead to several altered coagulation parameters, including a low platelet count, abnormal global clotting assays, low levels of physiological anticoagulant proteases, or increased fibrin degradation products. Also, more complex assays for activation of coagulation factors or pathways may indicate involvement of these molecules in DIC. None of these tests alone, however, can accurately ascertain or rebuff a diagnosis of DIC. Nonetheless, a combination of readily available routine assays may be instrumental in establishing a diagnosis of DIC and can also be useful to point to a subset of patients with DIC that may need definite, often costly, interventions in the hemostatic system. Current insights on relevant etiological pathways that may contribute to the occurrence of DIC have led to innovative therapeutic and adjunctive approaches to patient with DIC. Management options directed at the amelioration of hemostatic activation may tentatively be indicated and were found to be advantageous in experimental and clinical investigations. These treatments encompass elimination of tissue factor-mediated thrombin generation or restitution of normal anticoagulant function.

  5. Microrheological Coagulation Assay Exploiting Micromechanical Resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovani, Francesco; Duffy, James; Hegner, Martin

    2017-01-03

    Rheological measurements in biological liquids yield insights into homeostasis and provide information on important molecular processes that affect fluidity. We present a fully automated cantilever-based method for highly precise and sensitive measurements of microliter sample volumes of human blood plasma coagulation (0.009 cP for viscosity range 0.5-3 cP and 0.0012 g/cm(3) for density range 0.9-1.1 g/cm(3)). Microcantilever arrays are driven by a piezoelectric element, and resonance frequencies and quality factors of sensors that change over time are evaluated. A highly accurate approximation of the hydrodynamic function is introduced that correlates resonance frequency and quality factor of cantilever beams immersed in a fluid to the viscosity and density of that fluid. The theoretical model was validated using glycerol reference solutions. We present a surface functionalization protocol that allows minimization of unspecific protein adsorption onto cantilevers. Adsorption leads to measurement distortions and incorrect estimation of the fluid parameters (viscosity and density). Two hydrophilic terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) sensor surfaces are compared to a hydrophobic terminated SAM coating. As expected, the hydrophobic modified surfaces induced the highest mass adsorption and could promote conformational changes of the proteins and subsequent abnormal biological activity. Finally, the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) coagulation assay was performed, and the viscosity, density, and coagulation rate of human blood plasma were measured along with the standard coagulation time. The method could extend and improve current coagulation testing.

  6. Magnetic particle imaging of blood coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, Kenya, E-mail: murase@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Song, Ruixiao; Hiratsuka, Samu [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Division of Medical Technology and Science, Faculty of Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-06-23

    We investigated the feasibility of visualizing blood coagulation using a system for magnetic particle imaging (MPI). A magnetic field-free line is generated using two opposing neodymium magnets and transverse images are reconstructed from the third-harmonic signals received by a gradiometer coil, using the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization algorithm. Our MPI system was used to image the blood coagulation induced by adding CaCl{sub 2} to whole sheep blood mixed with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The “MPI value” was defined as the pixel value of the transverse image reconstructed from the third-harmonic signals. MPI values were significantly smaller for coagulated blood samples than those without coagulation. We confirmed the rationale of these results by calculating the third-harmonic signals for the measured viscosities of samples, with an assumption that the magnetization and particle size distribution of MNPs obey the Langevin equation and log-normal distribution, respectively. We concluded that MPI can be useful for visualizing blood coagulation.

  7. Viscoelastic coagulation testing: technology, applications, and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Maureen A; Smith, Stephanie A

    2011-06-01

    Use of viscoelastic point-of-care (POC) coagulation instrumentation is relatively new to veterinary medicine. In human medicine, this technology has recently undergone resurgence owing to its capacity to detect hypercoagulability. The lack of sensitive tests for detecting hypercoagulable states, along with our current understanding of in vivo coagulation, highlights the deficiencies of standard coagulation tests, such as prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times, which are performed on platelet-poor plasma. Viscoelastic coagulation analyzers can provide an assessment of global coagulation, from the beginning of clot formation to fibrinolysis, utilizing whole blood. In people, use of this technology has been reported to improve management of hemostasis during surgery and decrease usage of blood products and is being used as a rapid screen for hypercoagulability. In veterinary medicine, clinical use of viscoelastic technology has been reported in dogs, cats, foals, and adult horses. This article will provide an overview of the technology, reagents and assays, applications in human and veterinary medicine, and limitations of the 3 viscoelastic POC analyzers in clinical use.

  8. Magnetic particle imaging of blood coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kenya; Song, Ruixiao; Hiratsuka, Samu

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the feasibility of visualizing blood coagulation using a system for magnetic particle imaging (MPI). A magnetic field-free line is generated using two opposing neodymium magnets and transverse images are reconstructed from the third-harmonic signals received by a gradiometer coil, using the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization algorithm. Our MPI system was used to image the blood coagulation induced by adding CaCl2 to whole sheep blood mixed with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The "MPI value" was defined as the pixel value of the transverse image reconstructed from the third-harmonic signals. MPI values were significantly smaller for coagulated blood samples than those without coagulation. We confirmed the rationale of these results by calculating the third-harmonic signals for the measured viscosities of samples, with an assumption that the magnetization and particle size distribution of MNPs obey the Langevin equation and log-normal distribution, respectively. We concluded that MPI can be useful for visualizing blood coagulation.

  9. Coagulation management in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robba, Chiara; Bertuetti, Rita; Rasulo, Frank; Bertuccio, Alessando; Matta, Basil

    2017-10-01

    Management of coagulation in neurosurgical procedures is challenging. In this contest, it is imperative to avoid further intracranial bleeding. Perioperative bleeding can be associated with a number of factors, including anticoagulant drugs and coagulation status but is also linked to the characteristic and the site of the intracranial disorder. The aim of this review will be to focus primarily on the new evidence regarding the management of coagulation in patients undergoing craniotomy for neurosurgical procedures. Antihemostatic and anticoagulant drugs have shown to be associated with perioperative bleeding. On the other hand, an increased risk of venous thromboembolism and hypercoagulative state after elective and emergency neurosurgery, in particular after brain tumor surgery, has been described in several patients. To balance the risk between thrombosis and bleeding, it is important to be familiar with the perioperative changes in coagulation and with the recent management guidelines for anticoagulated patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures, in particular for those taking new direct anticoagulants. We have considered the current clinical trials and literature regarding both safety and efficacy of deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis in the neurosurgical population. These were mainly trials concerning both elective surgical and intensive care patients with a poor grade intracranial bleed or multiple traumas with an associated severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Coagulation management remains a major issue in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures. However, in this field of research, literature quality is poor and further studies are necessary to identify the best strategies to minimize risks in this group of patients.

  10. Echocardiographic assessment of subclinical left ventricular eccentric hypertrophy in adult-onset GHD patients by geometric remodeling: an observational case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trimarchi Francesco

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD show high body mass index. Overweight subjects, but GHD patients, were demonstrated to have high left ventricular mass index (LVMi and abnormal LV geometric remodeling. We sought to study these characteristics in a group of GHD patients, in an attempt to establish the BMI-independent role of GHD. Methods Fifty-four patients, 28 F and 26 M, aged 45.9 ± 13.1, with adult-onset GHD (pituitary adenomas 48.2%, empty sella 27.8%, pituitary inflammation 5.5%, cranio-pharyngioma 3.7%, not identified pathogenesis 14.8% were enrolled. To minimize any possible interferences of BMI on the aim of this study, the control group included 20 age- and weight-matched healthy subjects. The LV geometry was identified by the relationship between LVMi (cut-off 125 g/m2 and relative wall thickness (cut-off 0.45 at echocardiography. Results There was no significant between-group difference in resting cardiac morphology and function, nor when considering age-related discrepancy. The majority of patients had normal-low LVM/LVMi, but about one fourth of them showed higher values. These findings correlated to relatively high circulating IGF-1 and systolic blood pressure at rest. The main LV geometric pattern was eccentric hypertrophy in 22% of GHD population (26% of with severe GHD and in 15% of controls (p = NS. Conclusion Though the lack of significant differences in resting LV morphology and function, about 25% of GHD patients showed high LVMi (consisting of eccentric hypertrophy, not dissimilarly to overweight controls. This finding, which prognostic role is well known in obese and hypertensive patients, is worthy to be investigated in GHD patients through wider controlled trials.

  11. IMPACT OF OBESITY ON ENDOTOXIN-INDUCED DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duburcq, Thibault; Tournoys, Antoine; Gnemmi, Viviane; Hubert, Thomas; Gmyr, Valery; Pattou, François; Jourdain, Mercé

    2015-10-01

    An early activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis occurs during sepsis, leading to the syndrome of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Obesity has been demonstrated to be a hypercoagulable and hypofibrinolytic state, but its impact on DIC has never been studied. In this study, we aimed to determine if obesity impairs DIC in an acute endotoxic shock model using minipigs. This was a prospective, comparative, and experimental ancillary study approved by the Animal Ethics Committee. Pigs were chosen as a clinically relevant species, resembling humans in coagulation reactions. Four groups of five "Yucatan" minipigs were studied: lean and obese control groups, a lean lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group receiving Escherichia coli endotoxin (LPS), and an obese LPS group receiving the same endotoxin dose. We measured standard coagulation parameters (prothrombin time [PT], platelet count, and fibrinogen levels), thrombin-antithrombin complexes, tissue-type plasminogen activator, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. All measurements were performed at baseline and 30, 60, 90, 150, and 300 min. Results were given as median with interquartile ranges. At baseline, platelet count (477 [428 - 532] G/L vs. 381 [307 - 442] G/L; P = 0.005) and fibrinogen levels (4.6 [3.8 - 5.2] g/L vs. 2 [1.8 - 2.9] g/L; P coagulation parameters (PT, platelet count, and fibrinogen levels) and the increase in thrombin-antithrombin complexes (581 [382 - 1,057] μg/mL vs. 247 [125 - 369] μg/mL at 150 min; P = 0.03) were significantly more important in the obese LPS group compared with those in the lean LPS group. Concerning the fibrinolytic reaction, we found a slightly more elevated increase of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the obese LPS group at 300 min (481 [365 - 617] ng/mL vs. 355 [209 - 660] ng/mL; P = 0.66). In our model of endotoxic shock, obese pigs developed a more severe DIC with a more severe procoagulant response.

  12. Dysfunction in the coagulation system and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoirisch-Clapauch, S; Amaral, O B; Mezzasalma, M A U; Panizzutti, R; Nardi, A E

    2016-01-05

    Although different hypotheses have been formulated to explain schizophrenia pathogenesis, the links between them are weak. The observation that five psychotic patients on chronic warfarin therapy for deep-vein thrombosis showed long-term remission of psychotic symptoms made us suspect that abnormalities in the coagulation pathway, specifically low tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) activity, could be one of the missing links. Our hypothesis is supported by a high prevalence of conditions affecting tPA activity in drug-naive schizophrenia, such as antiphospholipid antibodies, elevated cytokine levels, hyperinsulinemia and hyperhomocysteinemia. We recently screened a group of schizophrenia patients and controls for conditions affecting tPA activity. Free-protein S deficiency was highly prevalent among patients, but not found in controls. Free-protein S and functional protein C are natural anticoagulants that form complexes that inhibit tPA inhibitors. All participants had normal protein C levels, suggesting that protein S could have a role in schizophrenia, independent of protein C. Chronic patients and those studied during acute episodes had between three and six conditions affecting tPA and/or protein S activity, while patients in remission had up to two, which led us to postulate that multiple conditions affecting tPA and/or protein S activity could contribute to the full expression of schizophrenia phenotype. This paper describes the physiological roles of tPA and protein S, reviewing how their activity influences pathogenesis and comorbidity of schizophrenia. Next, it analyzes how activity of tPA and protein S is influenced by biochemical abnormalities found in schizophrenia. Last, it suggests future directions for research, such as studies on animal models and on therapeutic approaches for schizophrenia aiming at increasing tPA and protein S activity.

  13. Dysfunction in the coagulation system and schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoirisch-Clapauch, S; Amaral, O B; Mezzasalma, M A U; Panizzutti, R; Nardi, A E

    2016-01-01

    Although different hypotheses have been formulated to explain schizophrenia pathogenesis, the links between them are weak. The observation that five psychotic patients on chronic warfarin therapy for deep-vein thrombosis showed long-term remission of psychotic symptoms made us suspect that abnormalities in the coagulation pathway, specifically low tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) activity, could be one of the missing links. Our hypothesis is supported by a high prevalence of conditions affecting tPA activity in drug-naive schizophrenia, such as antiphospholipid antibodies, elevated cytokine levels, hyperinsulinemia and hyperhomocysteinemia. We recently screened a group of schizophrenia patients and controls for conditions affecting tPA activity. Free-protein S deficiency was highly prevalent among patients, but not found in controls. Free-protein S and functional protein C are natural anticoagulants that form complexes that inhibit tPA inhibitors. All participants had normal protein C levels, suggesting that protein S could have a role in schizophrenia, independent of protein C. Chronic patients and those studied during acute episodes had between three and six conditions affecting tPA and/or protein S activity, while patients in remission had up to two, which led us to postulate that multiple conditions affecting tPA and/or protein S activity could contribute to the full expression of schizophrenia phenotype. This paper describes the physiological roles of tPA and protein S, reviewing how their activity influences pathogenesis and comorbidity of schizophrenia. Next, it analyzes how activity of tPA and protein S is influenced by biochemical abnormalities found in schizophrenia. Last, it suggests future directions for research, such as studies on animal models and on therapeutic approaches for schizophrenia aiming at increasing tPA and protein S activity. PMID:26731441

  14. Coagulation of carbon clusters in detonation front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupershtokh, A. L.; Ershov, A. P.; Medvedev, D. A.

    1996-05-01

    During the detonation synthesis, diamonds of ˜3 nm in size are produced from the excess carbon released in explosion. Coagulation occurs generally well below the melting temperature. Molecular dynamic simulations within the framework of simple Lennard-Jones model showed important features of interacting carbon clusters: 1) Coagulation is exothermic, and small clusters merge as liquid drops. Clusters larger than ˜3 nm unite keeping their shape, but surface atoms are in quasimolten state and can migrate between two grains. This "wetting" is rather slow. For small clusters there exist considerable temperature fluctuations due to interaction with the thermal bath. 2) Coagulation is accompanied by strong tensions. Both positive and negative pressure phases during the collision can reach ˜30 GPa. This can explain why the region of good diamond yield lies on P-T plane much higher than the graphite-diamond transition line.

  15. Monitoring Thermal Coagulation with Ultrasonic Textures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wei; ZHANG Su; CHEN Ya-zhu; CHEN Lei; HU Bing; MA Wei-yin

    2007-01-01

    The feasibility of using B-mode ultrasound image textures and pattern recognition technique to characterize the thermal coagulation in vitro during radiofrequency ablation was investigated.The changes of ultrasonic textures in the different regions of samples varied with the heating time in the in-vitro experiments, which would result in that the coagulated and noncoagulated regions of tissue had different ultrasonic textures.Using support vector machine to extract the ultrasonic texture features and characterize the state of tissue, the size and boundaries of thermal lesions could be detected and measured more exactly than only using the gray scale information of B-mode ultrasound image.The proposed method would be applied to the image-guided radiofrequency ablation (IGRA) procedure for monitoring the thermal coagulation.

  16. Coagulation function in patients with pancreatic carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hang-yan; XIU Dian-rong; LI Zhi-fei; WANG Gang

    2009-01-01

    Background The coagulation function in patients with pancreatic carcinoma is abnormal and the reason is not very clear. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the coagulation function in patients with pancreatic carcinoma.Methods From June 2004 to December 2007, 132 patients received diagnosis and treatment in our hospital. The coagulative parameters including the prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and fibrinogen levels were collected and studied retrospectively.Results The average fibrinogen levels in patients with pancreatic carcinoma, (476.21±142.05) mg/dl, were significantly higher than in patients with cholangiolithiasis, (403.28±126.41) mg/dl (P 0.05).Conclusions The level of fibrinogen in patients with pancreatic carcinoma was elevated. The elevated fibrinogen level may be associated with invasiveness and lymphatic metastasis. Using vitamin K in perioperation management did not reduce intraoperative blood loss.

  17. The investigation of coagulation activity of natural coagulants extracted from different strains of common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćiban Marina B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation and flocculation by adding chemicals are the methods that are usually used for removal of water turbidity. This study is concerned with the coagulation activity of extracts of various strains of bean. The aim was to ascertain if bean varieties influence coagulation activity. Active components were extracted from 1 g of ground sample with 100 ml distilled water. Contents of dry matter and nitrogen were specified in the solid samples, and the content of soluble nitrogen was determined in the extracts. These data were used to calculate the efficiency of extraction of nitrogen-containing compounds. The coagulation activity was assessed by jar test using synthetic turbid water, of the initial pH 9 and turbidity 35 NTU. The jar test was carried out by adding different amounts of extracts to model water, and stirring the content. After sedimentation for 1 h, residual turbidity was determined by turbidimeter and coagulation activity was calculated. The increment of organic matter concentration after the coagulation was also determined. These experiments confirmed that extracts of all investigated strains of bean could be used successfully as natural coagulants.

  18. The prevalence of abnormal preoperative coagulation tests in pediatric patients undergoing spinal surgery for scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Katie M; O'Brien, Kirsty; Regan, Irene; O'Byrne, John M; Moore, David; Kelly, Paula M; Noel, Jacques; Butler, Joseph; Nolan, Beatrice; Kiely, Patrick J

    2015-06-01

    scoliosis compared with those without; PT (t=3.37, p=.001), APTT (t=4.26, pscoliosis patients compared with non-scoliosis controls (t=-4.41, pscoliosis have a higher prevalence of preoperative coagulation abnormalities compared with normal healthy patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Ippolito, Luigi; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2010-06-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a complex and multifaceted disorder characterized by the activation of coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways, consumption of coagulation factors, and depletion of coagulation regulatory proteins. The introduction into the circulation of cellular debris characterized by strong thromboplastic activity due to tissue factor exposition or release (in or from burned tissues), which can thereby activate extrinsic pathway of coagulation system and trigger massive thrombin generation when present in sufficient concentration, represents the most plausible biological explanation to support the development of intravascular coagulation in patients with burn injury. Severe burns left untreated might also lead to an immunological and inflammatory response (activation of the complement cascade), which can amplify fibrinolysis and blood clotting. Overall, the real prevalence of DIC in patients with burns is as yet unclear. Postmortem, retrospective, and even longitudinal investigations are in fact biased by several factors, such as the objective difficulty to establish whether DIC might have occurred as a primary complication of burns or rather as a consequence of other superimposed pathologies (e.g., sepsis, multiple organ failure), the different diagnostic criteria for assessing DIC, and the heterogeneity of the patient samples studied. Nevertheless, the current scientific evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that biochemical changes suggestive for DIC (hypercoagulability, hypo- and hyperfibrinolysis) are commonplace in patients with burn trauma, and their severity increases exponentially with the severity of injury. Overt DIC seems to occur especially in critically ill burn patients or in those with severe burns (up to third degree) and large involvement of body surface area, in whom an appropriate therapy might be effective to prevent the otherwise fulminant course. Although early prophylaxis with antithrombin concentrates

  20. Effects of nucleotides and nucleosides on coagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bune, Laurids; Thaning, Pia; Johansson, Pär I;

    2010-01-01

    intravascular coagulation. We investigated whether nucleotide-induced cardiovascular collapse as provoked by systemic infusion of adenosine, ADP, ATP, UTP and nitric oxide affected the haemostatic system as assessed by whole blood thromboelastography (TEG) analysis. Ten pigs received a randomized infusion......Nucleotides, including ADP, ATP and uridine triphosphate (UTP), are discharged profusely in the circulation during many pathological conditions including sepsis. Sepsis can cause hypotension and systemic activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems in humans, which may cause disseminated.......7 ng/ml; P blood was evaluated by TEG. Circulating ADP induces hypocoagulation without signs of increased fibrinolysis as evaluated by TEG. The potential...

  1. Effect of rivaroxaban on blood coagulation using the viscoelastic coagulation test ROTEM™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casutt, M; Konrad, C; Schuepfer, G

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the influence of the oral direct inhibitor of factor Xa rivaroxaban on blood coagulation measured by rotation thrombelastometry ROTEM™. Blood was obtained from 11 healthy male volunteers before and 2.5 h after oral administration of 10 mg rivaroxaban. In addition to standard coagulation tests clot formation was measured by ROTEM™ analyzing extrinsic (Extem) and intrinsic thrombelastometry (Intem). Significant differences to the baseline values were found in the Extem clotting time (Extem-CT, 58 ± 9 s and 87 ± 17 s, p coagulation by rivaroxaban.

  2. The impact of onset controllability on stigmatization and supportive communication goals toward persons with HIV versus lung cancer: a comparison between Kenyan and U.S. participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ann Neville; Fellows, Kelli L; Kizito, Mary N

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of controllability of onset (i.e., means of transmission), disease type (HIV and lung cancer), and culture (Kenya and U.S.) on stigmatizing attitudes and goals for supportive communication. Four hundred sixty-four Kenyan students and 526 American students, and 441 Kenyan nonstudents and 591 American nonstudents were randomly assigned to 1 of 12 hypothetical scenario conditions and asked to respond to questions regarding 3 different types of stigmatizing attitudes and 6 types of supportive communication goals with respect to the character in the scenario. Means of transmission had a strong effect on the blame component of stigma, but none on cognitive attitudes and social interaction components. Similarly, although an effect for means of transmission emerged on intention to provide "recognize own responsibility" and "see others' blame" types of support, no effect was evident for most other supportive interaction goals. Although effects for culture were small, Kenyan participants, student and nonstudent alike, were not as quick as American participants to adopt goals of communicating blame in any direction. Implications for measurement of stigma in future research are discussed.

  3. Meropenem vs standard of care for treatment of late onset sepsis in children of less than 90 days of age: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Cabre Vincent

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late onset neonatal sepsis (LOS with the mortality of 17 to 27% is still a serious disease. Meropenem is an antibiotic with wide antibacterial coverage. The advantage of it over standard of care could be its wider antibacterial coverage and thus the use of mono-instead of combination therapy. Methods NeoMero-1, an open label, randomised, comparator controlled, superiority trial aims to compare the efficacy of meropenem with a predefined standard of care (ampicillin + gentamicin or cefotaxime + gentamicin in the treatment of LOS in neonates and infants aged less than 90 days admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit. A total of 550 subjects will be recruited following a 1:1 randomisation scheme. The trial includes patients with culture confirmed (at least one positive culture from normally sterile site except coagulase negative staphylococci in addition to one clinical or laboratory criterion or clinical sepsis (at least two laboratory and two clinical criteria suggestive of LOS in subjects with postmenstrual age The study will start recruitment in September 2011; the total duration is of 24 months. Trial registration EudraCT 2011-001515-31

  4. An Arthrobacter spp. bacteremia leading to fetal death and maternal disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, Naoya; Ozaki, Kimiaki; Hori, Kensuke; Ito, Kimihiko; Nakayama, Masahiro; Nakahira, Kumiko; Yanagihara, Itaru

    2013-02-01

    A 34-year-old parous woman developed high fever and threatened preterm labor after a 1-day trip, for which she was receiving prenatal care at a hospital. Three days after onset, at 24 4/7 weeks of gestation, she was transferred to our hospital in an emergency. Soon after the woman's arrival at our hospital, the infant was spontaneously stillborn via a transvaginal delivery. Laboratory tests revealed severe maternal disseminated intravascular coagulation with renal and liver insufficiency. Histopathologic examination of the placenta revealed vast fibrin deposition and remarkable neutrophilic infiltration in the intervillous space, suggesting a rare bacterial infection caused by Arthrobacter spp. The bacteria were predominantly detected in the placenta and maternal blood serum by common bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing after polymerase chain reaction amplification. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of bacteremia with Arthrobacter spp., which may lead to maternal disseminated intravascular coagulation and intrauterine fetal death.

  5. Fenton's reagent and coagulation-flocculation as pretreatments of combined wastewater for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán Moreno, A; González Lorenzo, E; Durán De Bazúa, C; Malpica De La Torre, J; Ramírez Zamora, R M

    2003-01-01

    In Mexico City, drinking water is mainly produced from groundwater (70%). This practice has caused collateral problems such as Mexico City's soil sinking (5-30 cm/year). One of the most viable alternatives to palliate this problem is the treatment of wastewater for reuse in either irrigation or for groundwater artificial recharge. This paper presents the evaluation of two physicochemical pretreatment systems to treat the wastewater from the metropolitan area of the Mexican Valley that are conducted by two main sewage systems called Great Canal and Churubusco River. In this research two treatment processes were studied: 1) coagulation-flocculation and, 2) Fenton's reagent. For each one of these processes suggested, tests were performed with wastewater samples of the Great Canal and the Churubusco River mixed in a volume ratio of 1:1. In the case of the coagulation-flocculation process, additional experiments were performed to determine the optimal conditions by applying an experimental design technique. In this experimental design, six coagulant agents were considered (alum, ferric chloride, three coagulant reagents of polymeric kind with aluminium and a coagulant reagent of natural origin), and three flocculant agents (an anionic, a cationic, and a non ionic polymers). Concerning the application of the Fenton's reagent (Fe2+:H2O2), the experimental variables were the weight ratio of the ferrous iron and the hydrogen peroxide and the concentrations of these reagents. The pH value was controlled to be near to 4. For the best experimental conditions, the effluent of the Fenton's method showed similar physicochemical characteristics to the wastewater treated by coagulation-flocculation. Nevertheless, Fenton's reagent showed two very important advantages compared to the coagulation-flocculation process: a disinfecting effect and a lower production of residual sludges.

  6. Hi-tech of the prostate: interstitial laser coagulation of benign prostatic hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschter, Rolf; Hofstetter, Alfons G.; Hessel, Stefan F. F.; Keiditsch, Ernst; Rothenberger, Karl-Heinz; Schneede, Peter; Frank, Klaus H.

    1992-06-01

    We report on the new technique of interstitial laser coagulation of the prostate (ILCP) in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Basic experiments by use of a Nd:YAG laser in combination with a newly designed fiber tip homogeneously distributing the laser irradiation have been performed in potato, muscle, liver, and surgically removed human BPH-tissue to determine the volume of coagulation. The coagulation zone surrounding the probe was well defined and homogeneous. The size was dependent on laser power and irradiation time. Carbonization was never present except in darker tissues irradiated with high energy. Volume and time resolved measurements correlated well with the size of coagulation. 10 W and 5 minutes, for example, resulted in a coagulation zone of 17 X 15 mm. Comparable results have been seen in in-vivo experiments in surgically exposed canine prostates. Specimen for macroscopic and microscopic examination were taken immediately after treatment and after 5 and 35 days. The well demarked coagulation necrosis of the early stage resulted in cystic degeneration and fibrosis in the later stages. This was combined with shrinkage and reduction in volume. The urothelium of the urethra, the external sphincter and the rectum showed no damage. Until now, 15 patients suffering from obstructive symptoms due to BPH have been treated with interstitial laser coagulation. The probes were inserted from the perineum into the center of each lateral lobe of the prostate by transrectal ultrasound guidance, while the median lobe was treated by urethroscopic guidance, while the median lobe was treated by urethroscopic control. Dependent on the size of the prostate irradiation, time was 5 to 10 minutes per lobe at a power setting of 5 to 10 W.

  7. [The implantation of bipolar coagulation to remove endometriosis foci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobkiewicz, S; Palatyński, A; Salata, I

    2001-05-01

    The paper compares the results of bipolar coagulation bey means of ERBE ICC 300 diatermy coagulator and WISAP endocoagulator. The results of both types of coagulation were assessed with reference to the changes occurring on peritoneum ligamenti sacro-uterini, Douglas pouch and ovary. The best results of endometriosis foci coagulation were obtained with bipolar ball at 20-30 W; no side effects or feelings of malaise were observed in patients just after the operation or over a longer period of convalescence.

  8. Mathematical Model of Extrinsic Blood Coagulation Cascade Dynamic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The blood coagulation system is very important to life. This paper presents a mathematical blood coagulation model for the extrinsic pathway. This model simulates clotting factor VIII, which plays an important role in the coagulation mechanism. The mathematical model is used to study the equilibrium stability, orbit structure, attractors and global stability behavior, with conclusions in accordance with the physiological phenomena. Moreover, the results provide information about blood related illnesses, which can be used for further study of the coagulation mechanism.

  9. Symptom onset in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Baena, Natalia; Aisen, Paul S.; Bird, Thomas; Danek, Adrian; Fox, Nick C.; Goate, Alison; Frommelt, Peter; Ghetti, Bernardino; Langbaum, Jessica B.S.; Lopera, Francisco; Martins, Ralph; Masters, Colin L.; Mayeux, Richard P.; McDade, Eric; Moreno, Sonia; Reiman, Eric M.; Ringman, John M.; Salloway, Steve; Schofield, Peter R.; Sperling, Reisa; Tariot, Pierre N.; Xiong, Chengjie; Morris, John C.; Bateman, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors influencing age at symptom onset and disease course in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD), and develop evidence-based criteria for predicting symptom onset in ADAD. Methods: We have collected individual-level data on ages at symptom onset and death from 387 ADAD pedigrees, compiled from 137 peer-reviewed publications, the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) database, and 2 large kindreds of Colombian (PSEN1 E280A) and Volga German (PSEN2 N141I) ancestry. Our combined dataset includes 3,275 individuals, of whom 1,307 were affected by ADAD with known age at symptom onset. We assessed the relative contributions of several factors in influencing age at onset, including parental age at onset, age at onset by mutation type and family, and APOE genotype and sex. We additionally performed survival analysis using data on symptom onset collected from 183 ADAD mutation carriers followed longitudinally in the DIAN Study. Results: We report summary statistics on age at onset and disease course for 174 ADAD mutations, and discover strong and highly significant (p 0.38) correlations between individual age at symptom onset and predicted values based on parental age at onset and mean ages at onset by mutation type and family, which persist after controlling for APOE genotype and sex. Conclusions: Significant proportions of the observed variance in age at symptom onset in ADAD can be explained by family history and mutation type, providing empirical support for use of these data to estimate onset in clinical research. PMID:24928124

  10. The relationship between inflammation and the coagulation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, Goda; Schultz, Marcus J; Levi, Marcel; van der Poll, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Inflammation and coagulation play pivotal roles in host defence. As phylogenetically old responses, there is extensive cross-talk between inflammation and coagulation in enabling an adequate immune response against potentially injurious stimuli. Immune cells are important in the initiation of coagul

  11. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of rufinamide as adjunctive therapy for refractory partial-onset seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biton, Victor; Krauss, Gregory; Vasquez-Santana, Blanca; Bibbiani, Francesco; Mann, Allison; Perdomo, Carlos; Narurkar, Milind

    2011-02-01

    Efficacy and safety of adjunctive rufinamide (3,200 mg/day) was assessed in adolescents and adults with inadequately controlled partial-onset seizures receiving maintenance therapy with up to three antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter study comprised a 56-day baseline phase (BP), 12-day titration phase, and 84-day maintenance phase (MP). The primary efficacy variable was percentage change in total partial seizure frequency per 28 days (MP vs. BP). Secondary efficacy outcome measures included ≥50% responder rate and reduction in mean total partial seizure frequency during the MP. Safety and tolerability evaluation included adverse events (AEs), physical and neurologic examinations, and laboratory values. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assessments were conducted. Three hundred fifty-seven patients were randomized: 176 to rufinamide and 181 to placebo. Patients had a median of 13.3 seizures per 28 days during BP; 86% were receiving ≥2 AEDs. For the intent-to-treat population, the median percentage reduction in total partial seizure frequency per 28 days was 23.25 for rufinamide versus 9.80 for placebo (p = 0.007). Rufinamide-treated patients were more than twice as likely to have had a ≥50% reduction in partial seizure frequency (32.5% vs. 14.3%; p < 0.001) and had a greater reduction in median total partial seizure rate per 28 days during the MP (13.2 vs. 5.2; p < 0.001). Treatment-emergent AEs occurring at ≥5% higher incidence in the rufinamide group compared with placebo were dizziness, fatigue, nausea, somnolence, and diplopia. Adjunctive treatment with rufinamide reduced total partial seizures in refractory patients. AEs reported were consistent with the known tolerability profile of rufinamide. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.

  12. Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Depression in Emerging Adults with Early-Onset, Long-Duration Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Metabolic Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bächle

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the prevalence of and association between symptoms of eating disorders and depression in female and male emerging adults with early-onset, long-duration type 1 diabetes and investigated how these symptoms are associated with metabolic control.In a nationwide population-based survey, 211 type 1 diabetes patients aged 18-21 years completed standardized questionnaires, including the SCOFF questionnaire for eating disorder symptoms and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 for symptoms of depression and severity of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between eating disorder and depressive symptoms and their associations with HbA1c.A total of 30.2% of the women and 9.5% of the men were screening positive for eating disorders. The mean PHQ-9 score (standard deviation was 5.3 (4.4 among women and 3.9 (3.6 among men. Screening positive for an eating disorder was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women (βwomen 3.8, p<0.001. However, neither eating disorder symptoms nor severity of depressive symptoms were associated with HbA1c among women, while HbA1c increased with the severity of depressive symptoms among men (βmen 0.14, p=0.006.Because of the high prevalence of eating disorder and depressive symptoms, their interrelationship, and their associations with metabolic control, particularly among men, regular mental health screening is recommended for young adults with type 1 diabetes.

  13. Cost analysis of magnetically controlled growing rods compared with traditional growing rods for early-onset scoliosis in the US: an integrated health care delivery system perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly, David W; Ackerman, Stacey J; Schneider, Karen; Pawelek, Jeff B; Akbarnia, Behrooz A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Traditional growing rod (TGR) for early-onset scoliosis (EOS) is effective but requires repeated invasive surgical lengthenings under general anesthesia. Magnetically controlled growing rod (MCGR) is lengthened noninvasively using a hand-held magnetic external remote controller in a physician office; however, the MCGR implant is expensive, and the cumulative cost savings have not been well studied. We compared direct medical costs of MCGR and TGR for EOS from the US integrated health care delivery system perspective. We hypothesized that over time, the MCGR implant cost will be offset by eliminating repeated TGR surgical lengthenings. Methods For both TGR and MCGR, the economic model estimated the cumulative costs for initial implantation, lengthenings, revisions due to device failure, surgical-site infections, device exchanges (at 3.8 years), and final fusion, over a 6-year episode of care. Model parameters were estimated from published literature, a multicenter EOS database of US institutions, and interviews. Costs were discounted at 3.0% annually and represent 2015 US dollars. Results Of 1,000 simulated patients over 6 years, MCGR was associated with an estimated 270 fewer deep surgical-site infections and 197 fewer revisions due to device failure compared with TGR. MCGR was projected to cost an additional $61 per patient over the 6-year episode of care compared with TGR. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the results were sensitive to changes in the percentage of MCGR dual rod use, months between TGR lengthenings, percentage of hospital inpatient (vs outpatient) TGR lengthenings, and MCGR implant cost. Conclusion Cost neutrality of MCGR to TGR was achieved over the 6-year episode of care by eliminating repeated TGR surgical lengthenings. To our knowledge, this is the first cost analysis comparing MCGR to TGR – from the US provider perspective – which demonstrates the efficient provision of care with MCGR. PMID:27695352

  14. The Effect of Warm-Up and Cool-Down Exercise on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in the Quadriceps Muscle: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Olav; Sjøhaug, Mona; van Beekvelt, Mireille; Mork, Paul Jarle

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of warm-up and cool-down exercise on delayed onset of muscle soreness at the distal and central parts of rectus femoris following leg resistance exercise. Thirty-six volunteers (21 women, 15 men) were randomly assigned to the warm-up (20 min ergometer cycling prior to the resistance exercise), cool-down (20 min cycling after the resistance exercise), or control group performing resistance exercise only. The resistance exercise consisted of front lunges (10×5 repetitions/sets) with external loading of 40% (women) and 50% (men) of body mass. Primary outcomes were pressure pain threshold along rectus femoris and maximal isometric knee extension force. Data were recorded before the resistance exercise and on the two consecutive days. Pressure pain threshold at the central muscle belly was significantly reduced for the control group on both day 2 and 3 (p≤0.003) but not for the warm-up group (p≥0.21). For the cool-down group, pressure pain threshold at the central muscle belly was significantly reduced on day 2 (p≤0.005) and was also lower compared to the warm-up group (p=0.025). Force was significantly reduced on day 2 and 3 for all groups (p<0.001). This study indicates that aerobic warm-up exercise performed prior to resistance exercise may prevent muscle soreness at the central but not distal muscle regions, but it does not prevent loss of muscle force. PMID:23486850

  15. A randomized active-controlled study comparing the efficacy and safety of vernakalant to amiodarone in recent-onset atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camm, A John; Capucci, Alessandro; Hohnloser, Stefan H;

    2011-01-01

    with 32.8% of amiodarone patients; p = 0.0012). Serious adverse events or events leading to discontinuation of study drug were uncommon. There were no cases of torsades de pointes, ventricular fibrillation, or polymorphic or sustained ventricular tachycardia. Conclusions Vernakalant demonstrated efficacy......Objectives This randomized double-blind study compared the efficacy and safety of intravenous vernakalant and amiodarone for the acute conversion of recent-onset atrial fibrillation (AF). Background Intravenous vernakalant has effectively converted recent-onset AF and was well tolerated in placebo...... superior to amiodarone for acute conversion of recent-onset AF. Both vernakalant and amiodarone were safe and well tolerated in this study. (A Phase III Superiority Study of Vernakalant vs Amiodarone in Subjects With Recent Onset Atrial Fibrillation...

  16. Diagnosis of overt disseminated intravascular coagulation in critically Ill adults by Sonoclot coagulation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Peng; Tong, Hua-Sheng; Zhang, Xing-Qin; Duan, Peng-Kai; Tang, You-Qing; Su, Lei

    2014-08-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) diagnosis is hampered by the limited availability of reliable clinical or laboratory tests. Currently available tests are time consuming and expensive. We investigated whether coagulation and platelet function analyses using the Sonoclot system were suitable for overt DIC diagnosis in critically ill adults. This was an observational diagnostic study performed in 498 patients presenting with an underlying disorder associated with DIC. Overt DIC patients were identified according to an International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) score of >5. Coagulation and platelet parameters were analyzed using the Sonoclot system, and compared with ISTH as the gold standard. Receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curves were used to evaluate the value of the Sonoclot parameters. There were no differences for age or gender between the groups. Significant correlations were observed between activated clotting time (ACT) and ISTH score (r = 0.7; P coagulation dysfunction in patients with overt DIC.

  17. Control of residual aluminum during coagulation in treatment of reservoir source water with high alkalinity%高碱度水库水混凝过程中残留铝控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭婷婷; 刘锐平; 易秀; 陈桂霞; 胡承志

    2013-01-01

    针对高碱度水库水源的某水厂残留铝超标问题,选取碱化度(B)与Alb含量不同的3种铝盐絮凝剂,研究不同投量与pH值下混凝效果与残留铝浓度水平.结果表明,碱化度和Alb含量显著影响混凝效果.DOC和浊度的去除率随着3种絮凝剂AlCl3(B=0)、PACl-1(B=1.2)、PACl-2(B=2.2)投量增大而升高.3种絮凝剂投量在1.5 ~2.0 mg/L(以铝计)范围内,总铝和溶解铝含量最低.对于该水厂自制的絮凝剂PACl-2,可通过降低絮凝剂碱化度,或将水的pH值降低至7 ~7.5之间,以此可以提高PACl-2混凝效果,而且可以降低出厂水残留铝浓度.考虑工程应用可行性,可优先考虑调整絮凝剂生产工艺.%To minimize the residual aluminum ( Al) levels in the effluent of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) with reservoirs source water of high alkalinity, the coagulation performances and the residual Al concentrations using three flocculants, with different basicity ( B ) and Alb content, were investigated under varib-ale Al doses and pH. The results indicate that the basicity and Alb content significantly affect coagulation behaviors. The removal efficiency of DOC and turbidity increases with elevated doses of A1C13(B =0) , PAC1-1 (B -1.2), and PAC1-2 ( B = 2.2). The concentrations of total Al and dissolved Al are the lowest at Al doses of 1. 5 ~ 2. 0 mg/L for three flocculants. As for the PAC1-2, which is prepared by this DWTP, both strategies of decreasing the basicity of flocculant and adjusting the solution pH to 7 ~ 7. 5 are useful to enhance the coagulation performances and to decrease the residual Al levels. Moreover, the adjustment of flocculant preparation is preferred in the future application.

  18. Relation of thromboelastography parameters to conventional coagulation tests used to evaluate the hypercoagulable state of aged fracture patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Guan, Zhao; Xu, Qinzhu; Zhao, Lei; Song, Ying; Wang, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Fractures are common among aged people, and rapid assessment of the coagulation status is important. The thromboelastography (TEG) test can give a series of coagulation parameters and has been widely used in clinics. In this research, we looked at fracture patients over 60 and compared their TEG results with those of healthy controls. Since there is a paucity of studies comparing TEG assessments with conventional coagulation tests, we aim to clarify the relationship between TEG values and the values given by conventional coagulation tests.Forty fracture patients (27 femur and 13 humerus) over 60 years old were included in the study. The change in their coagulation status was evaluated by TEG before surgery within 4 hours after the fracture. Changes in TEG parameters were analyzed compared with controls. Conventional coagulation test results for the patients, including activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), international normalized ratio (INR), fibrinogen, and platelets, were also acquired, and correlation analysis was done with TEG parameters, measuring similar aspects of the coagulation cascade. In addition, the sensitivity and specificity of TEG parameters for detecting raised fibrinogen levels were also analyzed.The K (time to 20 mm clot amplitude) and R (reaction time) values of aged fracture patients were lower than controls. The values for angle, maximal amplitude (MA), and coagulation index (CI) were raised compared with controls, indicating a hypercoagulable state. Correlation analysis showed that there were significant positive correlations between fibrinogen and MA/angle, between platelets and MA, and between APTT and R as well. There was significant negative correlation between fibrinogen and K. In addition, K values have better sensitivity and specificity for detecting elevated fibrinogen concentration than angle and MA values.Aged fracture patients tend to be in a hypercoagulable state, and this could be effectively reflected by a TEG test

  19. Laboratory testing in disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2010-06-01

    The diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) relies on clinical signs and symptoms, identification of the underlying disease, the results of laboratory testing, and differentiation from other pathologies. The clinical features mainly depend on the underlying cause of the DIC. The laboratory diagnosis of DIC uses a combination of tests because no single test result alone can firmly establish or rule out the diagnosis. Global tests of hemostasis may initially provide evidence of coagulation activation and later in the process provide evidence of consumption of coagulation factors, but their individual diagnostic efficiency is limited. Fibrinolytic markers, in particular D-dimer, are reflective of activation of both coagulation and fibrinolysis, so that a normal finding can be useful for ruling-out DIC. Decreased levels of the natural anticoagulants (in particular, antithrombin and protein C) are frequently observed in patients with DIC, but their measurement is not normally incorporated into standard diagnostic algorithms. New tests are being explored for utility in DIC, and some additional tests may be useful on a case-by-case basis, depending on the proposed cause of the DIC or their local availability. For example, clot waveform analysis is useful but currently limited to a single instrument. Also, procalcitonin is an inflammatory biomarker that may be useful within the context of septic DIC, and activated factor X clotting time is an emerging test of procoagulant phospholipids that also seems to hold promise in DIC.

  20. Blood coagulation factor VIII: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G M Bhopale; R K Nanda

    2003-12-01

    Factor VIII (FVIII) functions as a co-factor in the blood coagulation cascade for the proteolytic activation of factor X by factor IXa. Deficiency of FVIII causes hemophilia A, the most commonly inherited bleeding disorder. This review highlights current knowledge on selected aspects of FVIII in which both the scientist and the clinician should be interested.

  1. Coagulation-flocculation studies of wastewaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leentvaar, J.

    1982-01-01

    Although coagulation-flocculation processes have been practiced world-wide for almost a century in water treatment, several problems both in the theoretical and in the applied field have not been resolved yet. Especially interpretation of practical results with respect to governing coagula

  2. Haemostatic effects of recombinant coagulation factor VIIa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisman, Johannes Antonius

    2002-01-01

    Recombinant coagulation factor VIIa (rFVIIa) has recently become available for treatment of patients with inhibitor-complicated haemophilia. It has been postulated that rFVIIa could become a universal haemostatic agent. Case reports and small studies confirm efficacy and safety of rFVIIa in a

  3. Targeting exosites on blood coagulation proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Robson Q.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The high specificity of blood coagulation proteases has been attributed not only to residues surrounding the active site but also to other surface domains that are involved in recognizing and interacting with macromolecular substrates and inhibitors. Specific blood coagulation inhibitors obtained from exogenous sources such as blood sucking salivary glands and snake venoms have been identified. Some of these inhibitors interact with exosites on coagulation enzymes. Two examples are discussed in this short revision. Bothrojaracin is a snake venom-derived protein that binds to thrombin exosites 1 and 2. Complex formation impairs several exosite-dependent activities of thrombin including fibrinogen cleavage and platelet activation. Bothrojaracin also interacts with proexosite 1 on prothrombin thus decreasing the zymogen activation by the prothrombinase complex (FXa/FVa. Ixolaris is a two Kunitz tick salivary gland inhibitor, that is homologous to tissue factor pathway inhibitor. Recently it was demonstrated that ixolaris binds to heparin-binding exosite of FXa, thus impairing the recognition of prothrombin by the enzyme. In addition, ixolaris interacts with FX possibly through the heparin-binding proexosite. Differently from FX, the ixolaris-FX complex is not recognized as substrate by the intrinsic tenase complex (FIXa/FVIIIa. We conclude that these inhibitors may serve as tools for the study of coagulation exosites as well as prototypes for new anticoagulant drugs.

  4. Roles for vitamin K beyond coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent interest in vitamin K has been motivated by evidence of physiological roles beyond that of coagulation. Vitamin K and vitamin K-dependent proteins may be involved in regulation of calcification, energy metabolism, and inflammation. However, the evidence for many of these proposed roles in the...

  5. Brownian coagulation at high particle concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trzeciak, T. M.

    2012-01-01

    The process of Brownian coagulation, whereby particles are brought together by thermal motion and grow by collisions, is one of the most fundamental processes influencing the final properties of particulate matter in a variety of technically important systems. It is of importance in colloids, emulsi

  6. The hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio vs. dissolved organics removal by coagulation – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamel Ghernaout

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio as a function of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic contents removal by coagulation process. It is well established that coagulation process could bring a reduction in dissolved organic carbon of around 30–60% by increasing the coagulant dose and optimising reaction pH, in which large organic molecules with hydrophobic property was removed preferentially. Furthermore, the literature affirmed that the greater removal of UV-absorbing substances indicates that alum coagulation preferentially removed the hydrophobic fraction of the total organic carbon. For the hydrophobic fraction, it needs to be removed entirely without its transformation into hydrophilic fractions by coagulation process avoiding pre-chlorination/pre-oxidation due to the risk of organic molecules fragmentation. Determining the exact numerical values of the hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio for raw water and treated water at different stages of the treatment processes in a water treatment plant, as for the DCO/DBO5 ratio in the case of wastewater treatment, would help on more focusing on OM control and removal.

  7. Effects of haemodilution on the optical properties of blood during coagulation studied by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B.; Liu, Y.; Wei, H.; Yang, X.; Wu, G.; Guo, Z.; Yang, H.; He, Y.; Xie, S.

    2016-11-01

    We report an investigation of the effects of blood dilution with hypertonic (7.5 %) and normal (0.9 %) saline on its optical properties during coagulation in vitro using optical coherence tomography. The light penetration depth and attenuation coefficient are obtained from the dependences of reflectance on the depth. Normal whole blood has served as the control group. The average coagulation time is equal to 420 +/- 16, 418 +/- 16 and 358 +/- 14 {\\text{s}} with blood volume replacement of 2 %, 11 %, and 20 % by 0.9 % normal saline, respectively. With 2 %, 11% and 20% blood volume replacement with 7.5 % hypertonic saline, the average coagulation time is 422 +/- 17, 1160 +/- 45 and 1730 +/- 69 {\\text{s}}, respectively. For normal whole blood, the average coagulation time amounts to 425 +/- 19 {\\text{s}}. it is shown that dilution with normal saline has a procoagulant effect when it replaces 20 % of blood volume, and hypertonic saline has an anticoagulant effect if it replaces 11 % or more of blood volume. It is concluded that optical coherence tomography is a potential technique to quantify and monitor the liquid - gel transition during the coagulation process of blood diluted by normal and hypertonic saline.

  8. Optimized coagulation of high alkalinity, low temperature and particle water: pH adjustment and polyelectrolytes as coagulant aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianfeng; Wang, Dongsheng; Yan, Mingquan; Ye, Changqing; Yang, Min; Ge, Xiaopeng

    2007-08-01

    The Yellow River in winter as source water is characterized as high alkalinity, low temperature and low particle concentrations, which have brought many difficulties to water treatment plants. This study fully examines the optimized coagulation process of the Yellow River by conventional and pre-polymerized metal coagulants, pH adjustment and polyelectrolytes as the primary coagulants or coagulant aids. For all the metal coagulants, polyaluminum chlorides are superior to traditional metal coagulants due to their stable polymeric species and low consumption of alkalinity. The removal of natural organic matter by monomeric metal coagulants can be improved through pH adjustment, which is in accordance with the higher concentration of polymeric species formed at corresponding pH value. With the addition of polyelectrolytes as coagulant aids, the coagulation performance is significantly improved. The effective removal of dissolved organic matter is consistent with high charge density, while molecular weight is relatively important for removing particles, which is consistent with polyelectrolytes as primary coagulants. These results suggest that the coagulation mechanisms in the removal of dissolved organic matter and particles are different, which may be exploited for optimized coagulation for the typical source water in practice.

  9. Improvement of paint effluents coagulation using natural and synthetic coagulant aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboulhassan, M A; Souabi, S; Yaacoubi, A; Baudu, M

    2006-11-01

    The coagulant iron chloride and the flocculants Polysep 3000 (PO), Superfloc A-1820 (SU) and Praestol 2515 TR (PR) have been used in this study to show the efficiency of coagulation flocculation process in the chemical precipitation method for the removal of organic and colouring matters from the paint industry wastewater. This study also includes the amount of produced sludge. The results indicate that FeCl(3) is efficient at pH range 8-9 and at optimal dose of 650 mgl(-1). Iron chloride allows the removal of 82% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 94% of colour. However, sequential addition of coagulant and polymeric additives enhance clearly pollutant removal and produces less decanted sludge compared to the results obtained when the coagulant is used alone. The removal efficiency of COD reaches 91% and that of colour 99%. Coagulation-biflocculation process is more effective than the coagulation-monoflocculation one. The sequential addition of iron chloride, Polysep 3000 (cationic flocculant) and Praestol 2515 TR (anionic flocculant) seems to be the most suitable combination for the treatment of the paint industry wastewaters.

  10. Study on the removal of acid dyes using chitosan as a natural coagulant/coagulant aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonoozi, M H; Alavi Moghaddam, M R; Arami, M

    2011-01-01

    Chitosan was selected as a natural coagulating agent for the removal of acid dyes (Acid Blue 292; AB292, and Acid Red 398; AR398) from dye-containing solutions. The study was organised in two phases. In phase 1, chitosan was used alone as a natural coagulant for the removal of the dyes. For this purpose, the effect of different parameters including pH, chitosan dosage and initial dye concentration on the dye removal efficiency was examined. In phase 2 of the study, the application of chitosan as a natural coagulant aid in conjunction with polyaluminium chloride (PAC) was assessed. According to the results of phase 1, the best removal efficiencies occurred in an acidic pH range (less than 6) for both of the dyes. Also, excellent dye removal results (about 90%) were achieved with relatively low dosages of chitosan (30-35 mg L(-1) for AB292 and 50-60 mg L(-1) for AR398). However, the initial concentration of the dyes severely influenced the coagulation performance of chitosan, which can constrain the performance of chitosan as a natural coagulant. On the basis of the results of phase 2, chitosan, as a natural coagulant aid, noticeably enhanced the dye removal efficiency of PAC, especially in the case of AB292. Small amounts of chitosan (3 or 5 mg L(-1)) enhanced the dye removal efficiency of PAC up to 2.5 times for AB292.

  11. Enhanced coagulation for improving coagulation performance and reducing residual aluminum combining polyaluminum chloride with diatomite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenchao; Wu, Chunde

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of using enhanced coagulation, which combined polyaluminum chloride (PAC) with diatomite for improving coagulation performance and reducing the residual aluminum (Al), was discussed. The effects of PAC and diatomite dosage on the coagulation performance and residual Al were mainly investigated. Results demonstrated that the removal efficiencies of turbidity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV254 were significantly improved by the enhanced coagulation, compared with PAC coagulation alone. Meaningfully, the five forms of residual Al (total Al (TAl), total dissolved Al (TDAl), dissolved organic Al (DOAl), dissolved monomeric Al (DMAl), and dissolved organic monomeric Al (DOMAl)) all had different degrees of reduction in the presence of diatomite and achieved the lowest concentrations (0.185, 0.06, 0.053, 0.014, and 0 mg L(-1), respectively) at a PAC dose of 15 mg L(-1) and diatomite dose of 40 mg L(-1). In addition, when PAC was used as coagulant, the majority of residual Al existed in dissolved form (about 31.14-70.16%), and the content of DOMAl was small in the DMAl.

  12. THE IMPORTANCE OF COAGULATION BATH IN ACRYLIC FIBER PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail TİYEK

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In the production of acrylic fibers using wet-spinning method, fiber formation takes places in the coagulation bath. Therefore, physical properties of the fibers, produced by the wet-spinning method, is affected by coagulation bath conditions. For this reason, coagulation bath parameters have to be checked very well. In this paper, both the physical events such as diffusion and phase transition, occured in the coagulation bath, and some coagulation bath parameters that affect these physical events are studied. Furthermore, it is tried to express their affects on the physical characteristics of the fibers.

  13. Unidentified coagulation disorders in post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windfuhr, Jochen P; Chen, Yue-Shih; Remmert, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of 6,966 patients who had undergone tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy to evaluate the incidence and clinical features of previously unidentified coagulation disorders in patients who experienced postoperative hemorrhage (n = 201). We found that post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage secondary to unidentified coagulation disorders is extremely rare. However, normal coagulation values and an insignificant history do not rule out coagulation disorders. If diffuse, persistent, and bilateral bleeding is not related to arterial hypertension, dissection technique, or local infection, a rapid and detailed analysis of coagulation factors should be considered.

  14. Is it Clostridium difficile infection or something else? A case-control study of 352 hospitalized patients with new-onset diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manian, Farrin A; Aradhyula, Sangita; Greisnauer, Sandy; Senkel, Diane; Setzer, Janice; Wiechens, Michele; Meyer, P Lynn

    2007-08-01

    Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is a leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the United States, and may be associated with significant morbidity and occasional mortality. Diarrhea is also very common among hospitalized patients and is often related to a variety of factors not related to C difficile infection. We performed a retrospective case-control study at a tertiary care community medical center to delineate factors that are predictive of CDAD among hospitalized patients with new-onset diarrhea (ie, not present at the time of admission). Controls were selected based on negative C difficile toxin test(s) (CDTTs) (> 95% by cytotoxic assay), presence on the same ward as the patients with first positive CDTT, and hospitalization around the same period as the positive cases. The study involved 352 patients (88 cases and 264 controls). In univariate analysis, age 75 years or greater, exposure to cefazolin or levofloxacin during the 4-week period preceding CDTT, and hospitalization for 7 days or greater before CDTT were significantly associated with a positive test; male gender and prior ceftriaxone exposure nearly reached statistical significance. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed age 75 years or greater (odds ratio [OR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-3.7), hospitalization for 7 days or more (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-3.8], and prior exposure to cefazolin (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.6-7.5) or levofloxacin (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7) as independent predictors of a positive CDTT; male gender nearly achieved statistical significance (OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.9-2.7). Among hospitalized patients with diarrhea who underwent testing for C difficile toxin, age 75 years or older, hospitalization for 7 days or greater, and recent exposure to cefazolin or levofloxacin were important predictors of a positive CDTT. These findings may help in the initiation of early presumptive treatment for CDAD, and appropriate isolation of higher risk patients before results become

  15. Effect of soybean aging on the quality of soymilk, firmness of tofu and optimum coagulant concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamizake, N K K; Silva, L C P; Prudencio, S H

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of soybean aging (cultivars Coodetec 214 and BRS 267) on the physicochemical properties of soymilk and tofu. Two aging conditions were adopted: accelerated aging (84% relative humidity and 30 °C, up to 9 months) and natural aging (ambient temperature and relative humidity, up to 18 months) and a control condition (47% relative humidity, -20 °C). Tofu was coagulated with MgSO4. Optimum coagulant concentration (OCC) decreased with increasing coagulation temperature and soybean aging time. OCC showed positive correlation with total solids, protein, ash, Ca, Mg and P contents of soymilk. The products showed, in general, reduced color parameters (L(∗) and h°), proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, ash, Ca, Mg, P and total solids (except in the tofu) and firmness (tofu) with increasing aging time. Tofu yields decreased with accelerated aging time.

  16. A single-dose of oral nattokinase potentiates thrombolysis and anti-coagulation profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Yuko; Nirengi, Shinsuke; Homma, Toshiyuki; Esaki, Kazuki; Ohta, Mitsuhiro; Clark, Joseph F; Hamaoka, Takafumi

    2015-06-25

    Our aim was to determine the quantitative effects of a single-dose of Nattokinase (NK) administration on coagulation/fibrinolysis parameters comprehensively in healthy male subjects. A double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over NK intervention study was carried out in 12 healthy young males. Following the baseline blood draw, each subject was randomized to receive either a single-dose of 2,000 FU NK (NSK-SD, Japan Bio Science Laboratory Co., Ltd) or placebo with subsequent cross-over of the groups. Subjects donated blood samples at 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours following administration for analysis of coagulation/fibrinolysis parameters. As a result, D-dimer concentrations at 6, and 8 hours, and blood fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products at 4 hours after NK administration elevated significantly (p administration (p administration appears enhancing fibrinolysis and anti-coagulation via several different pathways simultaneously.

  17. Neprilysin Inhibits Coagulation through Proteolytic Inactivation of Fibrinogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Burrell

    Full Text Available Neprilysin (NEP is an endogenous protease that degrades a wide range of peptides including amyloid beta (Aβ, the main pathological component of Alzheimer's disease (AD. We have engineered NEP as a potential therapeutic for AD but found in pre-clinical safety testing that this variant increased prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of wild type NEP and the engineered variant on coagulation and define the mechanism by which this effect is mediated. PT and APTT were measured in cynomolgus monkeys and rats dosed with a human serum albumin fusion with an engineered variant of NEP (HSA-NEPv as well as in control plasma spiked with wild type or variant enzyme. The coagulation factor targeted by NEP was determined using in vitro prothrombinase, calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT and fibrin formation assays as well as N-terminal sequencing of fibrinogen treated with the enzyme. We demonstrate that HSA-NEP wild type and HSA-NEPv unexpectedly impaired coagulation, increasing PT and APTT in plasma samples and abolishing fibrin formation from fibrinogen. This effect was mediated through cleavage of the N-termini of the Aα- and Bβ-chains of fibrinogen thereby significantly impairing initiation of fibrin formation by thrombin. Fibrinogen has therefore been identified for the first time as a substrate for NEP wild type suggesting that the enzyme may have a role in regulating fibrin formation. Reductions in NEP levels observed in AD and cerebral amyloid angiopathy may contribute to neurovascular degeneration observed in these conditions.

  18. Effect of a Single Administration of Focused Extracorporeal Shock Wave in the Relief of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness: Results of a Partially Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, Johannes; Friton, Mara; Himmelreich, Heiko; Banzer, Winfried

    2017-05-01

    To examine the effects of a single administration of focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy on eccentric exercise-induced delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Three-arm randomized controlled study. University research center. Participants (N=46; 23 women) had a mean age of 29.0±3.0 years and a mean body mass index of 23.8±2.8kg/m(2). Participants were randomly allocated to verum- (energy flux density, .06-.09mJ/mm(2); pulse ratio per point, 200) or sham-focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy (no energy) at 7 equidistant points along the biceps muscle or no intervention. The primary outcome was the difference in pain intensity. Secondary outcomes included maximum isometric voluntary force (MIVF), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and impairment in daily life. Despite descriptive clinically meaningful differences, mixed-effects analysis (group × time) of changes to baseline did not reveal significant differences in the reduction of pain intensity between groups (F2,42=2.5, P=.094). MIVF was not significantly different between groups (F2,43=1.9, P=.159). PTT (F2,43=0.2, P=.854) and daily life impairment (F2,42=1.4, P=.248) were not significantly decreased over time, and there were no differences between groups in the post hoc analysis. DOMS is a common symptom in people participating in exercise, sports, or recreational physical activities. A single treatment with focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy causes clinically relevant effects in the relief of pain, increase in force, and improvement of pain-associated impairments of daily living. Still, results need to be cautiously interpreted because of the pilot character of this study. Focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy might present an option in the midterm recovery from DOMS (72h) and be an approach to enhance the return to play in athletes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Cutaneous warming promotes sleep onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymann, Roy J E M; Swaab, Dick F; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2005-06-01

    Sleep occurs in close relation to changes in body temperature. Both the monophasic sleep period in humans and the polyphasic sleep periods in rodents tend to be initiated when core body temperature is declining. This decline is mainly due to an increase in skin blood flow and consequently skin warming and heat loss. We have proposed that these intrinsically occurring changes in core and skin temperatures could modulate neuronal activity in sleep-regulating brain areas (Van Someren EJW, Chronobiol Int 17: 313-54, 2000). We here provide results compatible with this hypothesis. We obtained 144 sleep-onset latencies while directly manipulating core and skin temperatures within the comfortable range in eight healthy subjects under controlled conditions. The induction of a proximal skin temperature difference of only 0.78 +/- 0.03 degrees C (mean +/- SE) around a mean of 35.13 +/- 0.11 degrees C changed sleep-onset latency by 26%, i.e., by 3.09 minutes [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.91 to 4.28] around a mean of 11.85 min (CI, 9.74 to 14.41), with faster sleep onsets when the proximal skin was warmed. The reduction in sleep-onset latency occurred despite a small but significant decrease in subjective comfort during proximal skin warming. The induction of changes in core temperature (delta = 0.20 +/- 0.02 degrees C) and distal skin temperature (delta = 0.74 +/- 0.05 degrees C) were ineffective. Previous studies have demonstrated correlations between skin temperature and sleep-onset latency. Also, sleep disruption by ambient temperatures that activate thermoregulatory defense mechanisms has been shown. The present study is the first to experimentally demonstrate a causal contribution to sleep-onset latency of skin temperature manipulations within the normal nocturnal fluctuation range. Circadian and sleep-appetitive behavior-induced variations in skin temperature might act as an input signal to sleep-regulating systems.

  20. Effect of ligation of mesenteric lymph duct on coagulation function in rats with severe heat stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-sheng TONG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the influences of mesenteric lymph duct ligation (LDL on the coagulation function in rats with severe heat stroke (SHS. Methods  Forty male Wistar rats were randomly and equally divided into control, heat stroke sham (HSS, HSS-LDL, severe heat stroke (SHS and SHS+LDL groups. Mesenteric lymph ducts were ligated in HSC-LDL and SHS-LDL groups before reproduction of SHS model. SHS rat models were reproduced in a prewarmed incubator. Peripheral blood was drawn to determine the parameters pertaining to blood coagulability including prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, D-dimmer and platelet count (PLT, and lung and kidney histopathology was observed after heat stroke. Results  Compared with those in control group, no obvious changes were observed in the coagulation indices in HSS and HSS-LDL group. While PT and APTT significantly prolonged, PLT remarkably decreased, D-dimmer markedly increased in SHS group (P<0.05. The coagulation indices presented a recovery trend to certain extent in SHS-LDL group. Histopathological examination of the kidney and lung showed severe hemorrhagic and congestive lesions in SHS group. Mesenteric lymph duct ligation alleviated the coagulation disorders and histopathological lesions. Conclusion  The entrance of toxic agents through lymphatic passage may be the pathogenetic factor in producing coagulopathy, and ligation of the mesenteric lymph ducts might prevent the entrance of toxic materials and alleviate the injury to the blood coagulation property and internal organs. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.02.02

  1. Prothrombotic coagulation defects and cardiovascular risk factors in young women with acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, BC; Bloemenkamp, DGM; van den Bosch, MAAJ; Kemmeren, JM; Algra, A; van de Graaf, Y; Rosendaal, FR

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the effect of prothrombotic coagulation defects in combination with smoking and other conventional risk factors on the risk of myocardial infarction in young women. In 217 women with a first myocardial infarction before the age of 50 years and 763 healthy control women from a populat

  2. Plasma 24S-hydroxycholesterol levels in elderly subjects with late onset Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonetti Francesco

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In central nervous system cholesterol cannot be degraded but is secreted into circulation predominantly in the form of its polar metabolite 24(S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OH-Chol. Some studies suggested an association between 24S-OH-Chol metabolism and different neurological diseases including dementia. A possible decrease in 24S-OH-Chol plasma levels has been reported late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD and vascular dementia (VD, but results of previous studies are partially contradictory. Methods By high-speed liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry we evaluated the plasma levels of 24S-OH-Chol in a sample of 160 older individuals: 60 patients with LOAD, 35 patients with VD, 25 subjects affected by cognitive impairment no-dementia (CIND, and 40 (144 for genetics study cognitively normal Controls. We also investigated the possible association between PPARgamma Pro12Ala polymorphism and dementia or 24S-OH-Chol levels. Results Compared with Controls, plasma 24S-OH-Chol levels were higher in LOAD and lower in VD; a slight not-significant increase in CIND was observed (ANOVA p: 0.001. A positive correlation between 24S-OH-Chol/TC ratio and plasma C reactive protein (CRP levels was found in the whole sample, independent of possible confounders (multiple regression p: 0.04; r2: 0.10. This correlation was strong in LOAD (r: 0.39, still present in CIND (r: 0.20, but was absent in VD patients (r: 0.08. The PPARgamma Pro12Ala polymorphism was not associated with the diagnosis of LOAD, VD, or CIND; no correlation emerged between the Ala allele and 24S-OH-Chol plasma levels. Conclusions Our results suggest that plasma 24S-OH-Chol levels might be increased in the first stages of LOAD, and this phenomenon might be related with systemic inflammation. The finding of lower 24S-OH-Chol concentrations in VD might be related with a more advanced stage of VD compared with LOAD in our sample, and/or to different pathogenetic mechanisms and

  3. Evaluation of the process of coagulation/flocculation of produced water using Moringa oleifera Lam. as natural coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, C.R.; Pereira, D.F.; Sousa, S.C S N.; Silva, G.F. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: claudia@ufs.br; Cavalcanti, E.B. [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), SE (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia e Pesquisa

    2010-07-15

    In the lifetime of an oil well, there comes a moment when a lot of water begins to be produced along with oil, either by the conditions of the reservoir, or as a result of water injection in the secondary recovery of the well. An important step in such process involves the treatment of the produced water by means of coagulation techniques. Therefore, the use of environmentally correct coagulants is presented as a viable alternative and has demonstrated advantages over the use of chemical coagulants. The plant of the genus Moringa, whose species is oleifera Lam, stands out as one of the most promising natural coagulants. The present study investigated the evaluation of the coagulation/flocculation of produced water, using seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. as coagulant. The results were very significant, demonstrating that Moringa oleifera Lam. can be used as a natural coagulant in this type of treatment. (author)

  4. [Disseminated intravascular coagulation: clinical and biological diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touaoussa, Aziz; El Youssi, Hind; El Hassani, Imane; Hanouf, Daham; El Bergui, Imane; Zoulati, Ghizlane; Amrani Hassani, Moncef

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by the systemic activation of blood coagulation. Its pathophysiological mechanisms are complex and dependent on the underlying pathology, making the clinical and biological expression of quite variable DIC. Among the various biological parameters disrupted, most are not specific, and none of them allows in itself to make the diagnosis. All this does not facilitate the task of the practitioner for diagnosis of overt DIC, much less that of the non-overt DIC, early stage whose treatment would improve the prognosis. These considerations have led to develop scores, combining several parameters depending on their availability in daily practice, as well as their diagnostic relevance. Of all the scores, the ISTH (International society of thrombosis and hemostasis) remains the most used.

  5. Self-similar behavior for multicomponent coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨曼丽; 卢志明; 刘宇陆

    2014-01-01

    Self-similar behavior for the multicomponent coagulation system is investi-gated analytically in this paper. Asymptotic self-similar solutions for the constant ker-nel, sum kernel, and product kernel are achieved by introduction of different generating functions. In these solutions, two size-scale variables are introduced to characterize the asymptotic distribution of total mass and individual masses. The result of product kernel (gelling kernel) is consistent with the Vigli-Ziff conjecture to some extent. Furthermore, the steady-state solution with injection for the constant kernel is obtained, which is again the product of a normal distribution and the scaling solution for the single variable coag-ulation.

  6. Coagulation of dust particles in a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horanyi, M.; Goertz, C. K.

    1990-01-01

    The electrostatic charge of small dust grains in a plasma in which the temperature varies in time is discussed, pointing out that secondary electron emission might introduce charge separation. If the sign of the charge on small grains is opposite to that on big ones, enhanced coagulation can occur which will affect the size distribution of grains in a plasma. Two scenarios where this process might be relevant are considered: a hot plasma environment with temperature fluctuations and a cold plasma environment with transient heating events. The importance of the enhanced coagulation is uncertain, because the plasma parameters in grain-producing environments such as a molecular cloud or a protoplanetary disk are not known. It is possible, however, that this process is the most efficient mechanism for the growth of grains in the size range of 0.1-500 microns.

  7. Can dust coagulation trigger streaming instability?

    CERN Document Server

    Drazkowska, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Streaming instability can be a very efficient way of overcoming growth and drift barriers to planetesimal formation. However, it was shown that strong clumping, which leads to planetesimal formation, requires a considerable number of large grains. State-of-the-art streaming instability models do not take into account realistic size distributions resulting from the collisional evolution of dust. We investigate whether a sufficient quantity of large aggregates can be produced by sticking and what the interplay of dust coagulation and planetesimal formation is. We develop a semi-analytical prescription of planetesimal formation by streaming instability and implement it in our dust coagulation code based on the Monte Carlo algorithm with the representative particles approach. We find that planetesimal formation by streaming instability may preferentially work outside the snow line, where sticky icy aggregates are present. The efficiency of the process depends strongly on local dust abundance and radial pressure g...

  8. Ventricular metastasis resulting in disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Ian D

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC complicates up to 7% of malignancies, the commonest solid organ association being adenocarcinoma. Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC has rarely been associated with DIC. Case presentation A 74-year-old woman with TCC bladder and DIC was found to have a cardiac lesion suspicious for metastatic disease. The DIC improved with infusion of plasma and administration of Vitamin K, however the cardiac lesion was deemed inoperable and chemotherapy inappropriate; given the patients functional status. We postulate that direct activation of the coagulation cascade by the intraventricular metastasis probably triggered the coagulopathy in this patient. Conclusion Cardiac metastases should be considered in cancer patients with otherwise unexplained DIC. This may influence treatment choices.

  9. Pathophysiology of early trauma-induced coagulopathy: emerging evidence for hemodilution and coagulation factor depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaz, Beth H; Winkler, Anne M; James, Adelbert B; Hillyer, Christopher D; MacLeod, Jana B

    2011-06-01

    Trauma patients present with a coagulopathy, termed early trauma-induced coagulopathy (ETIC), that is associated with increased mortality. This study investigated hemostatic changes responsible for ETIC. Case-control study of trauma patients with and without ETIC, defined as prolonged prothrombin time (PT), was performed from prospective cohort of consecutive trauma patients who presented to Level I trauma center. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The case-control study group (n = 91) was 80% male, with mean age of 37 years, 17% penetrating trauma and 7% mortality rate. Patients with ETIC demonstrated decreased common and extrinsic pathway factor activities (factors V and VII) and decreased inhibition of the coagulation cascade (antithrombin and protein C activities) when compared with the matched control patients without ETIC. Both cohorts had evidence of increased thrombin and fibrin generation (prothrombin fragment 1.2 levels, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, and soluble fibrin monomer), increased fibrinolysis (d-dimer levels), and increased inhibition of fibrinolysis (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity) above normal reference values. Patients with versus without ETIC had increased mortality and received increased amount of blood products. ETIC following injury is associated with decreased factor activities without significant differences in thrombin and fibrin generation, suggesting that despite these perturbations in the coagulation cascade, patients displayed a balanced hemostatic response to injury. The lower factor activities are likely secondary to increased hemodilution and coagulation factor depletion. Thus, decreasing the amount of crystalloid infused in the early phases following trauma and administration of coagulation factors may prevent the development.

  10. Pure eccentric exercise does not activate blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilberg, Thomas; Gläser, Doreen; Prasa, Dagmar; Stürzebecher, Jörg; Gabriel, Holger H W

    2005-08-01

    Eccentric exercise can cause skeletal muscle damage with ultrastructural disruption, inflammation and increased proteolytic enzyme activity. It may be possible that these changes are able to trigger blood coagulation in vivo. The aim of the study was to investigate changes in blood coagulation via the measurement of aPTT, the thrombin potential (total [TTP] and endogenous [ETP], both intrinsic [in] and extrinsic [ex]) and the thrombin generation (prothrombinfragment 1 + 2 [F1 + 2] and thrombin-antithrombin complex [TAT]) after pure eccentric exercise. Seventeen healthy non-smokers (28 +/- 6 years, VO2-peak 59 +/- 7 ml/min/kg) underwent pure eccentric down jumps (9 x 28 isolated down jumps in 90 min, drop from a height of 55 cm), a cycle exercise (90% of the individual anaerobic threshold for 60-90 min) and a control experiment on different days. Blood samples were drawn after a 30-min rest, immediately, and 2 h after exercise. After the cycle exercise, a clear shortening by 12% (Pcoagulation.

  11. [Disseminated intravascular coagulation in solid tumours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, François Régis; Garcia-Hejl, Carine; Moussaid, Yassine; Schernberg, Antoine; Bidard, François-Clément; Pavic, Michel; Khenifer, Safia; Stoclin, Annabelle

    2014-06-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a complex abnormality of hemostasis with dramatic consequences and long described as associated with tumors. Yet the diagnosis and management of paraneoplastic DIC are poorly defined. The purpose of this paper is to review DIC associated with solid tumors, at the pathophysiological and therapeutic levels in particular. We also report data from a recent retrospective series of patients with DIC in the context of a solid tumor, to illustrate the epidemiological, clinical and prognostic.

  12. Rennet coagulation of heated milk concentrates

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, Regina; Hinrichs, Jörg

    2000-01-01

    International audience; The high temperature heating of cheese milk is a useful tool for preventing late fermentation during cheese ripening if the renneting properties remain unchanged. The aim of the investigations was to find heating conditions which guarantee the inactivation of clostridia spores but still enable rennet coagulation of the heated milk and milk concentrates respectively. The gel strength of the rennet gels increased the more the casein content increased. The native whey pro...

  13. Modelling Coagulation Systems: A Stochastic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ryazanov, V V

    2011-01-01

    A general stochastic approach to the description of coagulating aerosol system is developed. As the object of description one can consider arbitrary mesoscopic values (number of aerosol clusters, their size etc). The birth-and-death formalism for a number of clusters can be regarded as a partial case of the generalized storage model. An application of the storage model to the number of monomers in a cluster is discussed.

  14. Coagulation Factor IX for Hemophilia B Therapy


    OpenAIRE

    Orlova, N.; Kovnir, S.; Vorobiev, I.; Gabibov, A.

    2012-01-01

    Factor IX is a zymogen enzyme of the blood coagulation cascade. Inherited absence or deficit of the IX functional factor causes bleeding disorder hemophilia B, which requires constant protein replacement therapy. Reviewed herein are the current state in the manufacturing of FIX, improved variants of the recombinant protein for therapy, transgenic organisms for obtaining FIX, and the advances in the gene therapy of hemophilia B.

  15. Electrocoagulation versus chemical coagulation: coagulation/flocculation mechanisms and resulting floc characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harif, Tali; Khai, Moti; Adin, Avner

    2012-06-15

    Electrocoagulation (EC) and chemical coagulation (CC) are employed in water treatment for particle removal. Although both are used for similar purposes, they differ in their dosing method - in EC the coagulant is added by electrolytic oxidation of an appropriate anode material, while in CC dissolution of a chemical coagulant is used. These different methods in fact induce different chemical environments, which should impact coagulation/flocculation mechanisms and subsequent floc formation. Hence, the process implications when choosing which to apply should be significant. This study elucidates differences in coagulation/flocculation mechanisms in EC versus CC and their subsequent effect on floc growth kinetics and structural evolution. A buffered kaolin suspension served as a representative solution that underwent EC and CC by applying aluminum via additive dosing regime in batch mode. In EC an aluminum anode generated the active species while in CC, commercial alum was used. Aluminum equivalent doses were applied, at initial pH values of 5, 6.5 and 8, while samples were taken over pre-determined time intervals, and analyzed for pH, particle size distribution, ζ potential, and structural properties. EC generated fragile flocs, compared to CC, over a wider pH range, at a substantially higher growth rate, that were prone to restructuring and compaction. The results suggest that the flocculation mechanism governing EC in sweep floc conditions is of Diffusion Limited Cluster Aggregation (DCLA) nature, versus a Reaction Limited Cluster Aggregation (RLCA) type in CC. The implications of these differences are discussed.

  16. Ziprasidone Vs Olanzapine in Recent-Onset Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder : Results of an 8-Week Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootens, K. P.; van Veelen, N. M. J.; Peuskens, J.; Sabbe, B. G. C.; Thys, E.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Verkes, R. J.; Kahn, R. S.

    Introduction: Head-to-head comparisons of antipsychotics have predominantly included patients with chronic conditions. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of ziprasidone and olanzapine in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia. Methods: The study was an

  17. ANFIS-based modelling for coagulant dosage in drinking water treatment plant: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddam, Salim; Bermad, Abdelmalek; Dechemi, Noureddine

    2012-04-01

    Coagulation is the most important stage in drinking water treatment processes for the maintenance of acceptable treated water quality and economic plant operation, which involves many complex physical and chemical phenomena. Moreover, coagulant dosing rate is non-linearly correlated to raw water characteristics such as turbidity, conductivity, pH, temperature, etc. As such, coagulation reaction is hard or even impossible to control satisfactorily by conventional methods. Traditionally, jar tests are used to determine the optimum coagulant dosage. However, this is expensive and time-consuming and does not enable responses to changes in raw water quality in real time. Modelling can be used to overcome these limitations. In this study, an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) was used for modelling of coagulant dosage in drinking water treatment plant of Boudouaou, Algeria. Six on-line variables of raw water quality including turbidity, conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, ultraviolet absorbance, and the pH of water, and alum dosage were used to build the coagulant dosage model. Two ANFIS-based Neuro-fuzzy systems are presented. The two Neuro-fuzzy systems are: (1) grid partition-based fuzzy inference system (FIS), named ANFIS-GRID, and (2) subtractive clustering based (FIS), named ANFIS-SUB. The low root mean square error and high correlation coefficient values were obtained with ANFIS-SUB method of a first-order Sugeno type inference. This study demonstrates that ANFIS-SUB outperforms ANFIS-GRID due to its simplicity in parameter selection and its fitness in the target problem.

  18. Minimizing residual aluminum concentration in treated water by tailoring properties of polyaluminum coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masaoki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Kenta; Ishikawa, Tairyo B; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2013-04-15

    Aluminum coagulants are widely used in water treatment plants to remove turbidity and dissolved substances. However, because high aluminum concentrations in treated water are associated with increased turbidity and because aluminum exerts undeniable human health effects, its concentration should be controlled in water treatment plants, especially in plants that use aluminum coagulants. In this study, the effect of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulant characteristics on dissolved residual aluminum concentrations after coagulation and filtration was investigated. The dissolved residual aluminum concentrations at a given coagulation pH differed among the PACls tested. Very-high-basicity PACl yielded low dissolved residual aluminum concentrations and higher natural organic matter (NOM) removal. The low residual aluminum concentrations were related to the low content of monomeric aluminum (Ala) in the PACl. Polymeric (Alb)/colloidal (Alc) ratio in PACl did not greatly influence residual aluminum concentration. The presence of sulfate in PACl contributed to lower residual aluminum concentration only when coagulation was performed at around pH 6.5 or lower. At a wide pH range (6.5-8.5), residual aluminum concentrations residual aluminum concentrations did not increase with increasing the dosage of high-basicity PACl, but did increase with increasing the dosage of normal-basicity PACl. We inferred that increasing the basicity of PACl afforded lower dissolved residual aluminum concentrations partly because the high-basicity PACls could have a small percentage of Ala, which tends to form soluble aluminum-NOM complexes with molecular weights of 100 kDa-0.45 μm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Simultaneous measurement of thrombin and plasmin generation to assess the interplay between coagulation and fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tomoko; Nogami, Keiji; Shima, Midori

    2013-10-01

    Normal haemostasis is maintained by a controlled balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis, involving thrombin and plasmin the respective key enzymes. Simultaneous evaluation of both enzymes facilitates, therefore, an overall understanding of normal and pathological haemostasis. Combined thrombin and plasmin generation (T/P-G) assays have been recently described, and we have adapted the technique to investigate the interplay between coagulation and fibrinolysis in patients with various haemostatic disorders. Our modified T/P-G was initiated by the addition of a mixture of optimised lower concentrations of tissue factor and tissue-type plasminogen activator. Thrombin generation (TG) and plasmin generation (PG) were monitored simultaneously using individual fluorescent substrates in separate microtitre wells. The relationship between coagulation and fibrinolysis was demonstrated by analysing the effects of thrombin inhibitors, activated protein C and thrombomodulin. The most evident impairments in TG were observed with plasma samples deficient of coagulation factors participating in the prothrombinase complex. Defects in PG were observed with deficiencies of factor (F)V, FX, fibrinogen, and plasminogen. TG appeared to be a prerequisite for the initiation of PG, and overall PG was governed by fibrinogen concentration. TG in patients with haemophilia A correlated with levels of FVIII activity, but there was no significant relationship between PG and FVIII:C, confirming that the abnormal haemostasis in haemophilia A results in a severe imbalance between coagulation and fibrinolysis. The findings demonstrate that global haemostasis depends on a sensitive balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis, and that the modified T/P-G assay could provide an enhanced understanding of haemorrhage and thrombosis in clinical practice.

  20. Assessment of thermal coagulation in ex-vivo tissues using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Matthew; Weersink, Robert A.; Whelan, William M.

    2010-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy is used to study the effects of heating on specific molecular bonds present in albumen-based coagulation phantoms and ex-vivo tissues. Thermal coagulation is induced by submerging albumen-based phantoms in a 75°C water bath to achieve target temperatures of 45, 55, 65, and 75°C. Laser photocoagulation is performed on ex-vivo bovine muscle samples, yielding induced temperatures between 46 and 90°C, as reported by implanted microthermocouples. All phantoms and tissue samples are cooled to room temperature, and Raman spectra are acquired at the microthermocouple locations. Shifts in major Raman bands are observed with laser heating in bovine muscle, specifically from the amide-1 α-helix group (~1655 cm-1), the CH2/CH3 group (~1446 cm-1), the Cα-H stretch group (~1312 cm-1), and the CN stretch group (~1121cm-1). Raman bands at 1334 cm-1 (tryptophan), 1317 cm-1 [ν(Cα-H)], and 1655 cm-1 (amide-1 α-helix) also show a decrease in intensity following heating. The results suggest that Raman band locations and relative intensities are affected by thermal denaturation of proteins, and hence, may be a useful tool for monitoring the onset and progression of coagulation during thermal therapies.

  1. Argon beam coagulation for treatment of symptomatic radiation-induced proctitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantin, A C; Binek, J; Suter, W R; Meyenberger, C

    1999-04-01

    Radiation proctitis is a complication of radiotherapy for malignant pelvic disease. Argon beam coagulation is a new and rapidly evolving technology that permits a "no-touch" electrocoagulation of diseased tissue. We analyzed retrospectively the records of 7 patients with prostatic and endometrial cancers treated with irrradiation (median radiation dose was 6840 cGy, range 2400 to 7200 cGy). The median time to onset of symptoms after the conclusion of radiotherapy was 20 months (range 16 to 48 months); symptoms consisted of rectal bleeding and tenesmus in all patients. The patients underwent argon beam coagulation after colonoscopic evaluation. The usual treatment interval was 3 weeks (range 1 to 3 weeks). A median of 2 treatment sessions (range 2 to 4) was necessary for complete symptom relief. All interventions were well tolerated without complications. During follow-up (median 24 months, range 18 to 24 months), there was no recurrence of symptoms (bleeding, tenesmus). Argon beam coagulation is a safe, well tolerated, and effective treatment option in symptomatic radiation proctitis.

  2. Protein corona changes mediated by surface modification of amorphous silica nanoparticles suppress acute toxicity and activation of intrinsic coagulation cascade in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tokuyuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Morishita, Yuki; Aoyama, Michihiko; Tochigi, Saeko; Hirai, Toshiro; Tanaka, Kota; Nagano, Kazuya; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    Recently, nanomaterial-mediated biological effects have been shown to be governed by the interaction of nanomaterials with some kinds of proteins in biological fluids, and the physical characteristics of the nanomaterials determine the extent and type of their interactions with proteins. Here, we examined the relationships between the surface properties of amorphous silica nanoparticles with diameters of 70 nm (nSP70), their interactions with some proteins in biological fluids, and their toxicity in mice after intravenous administration. The surface modification of nSP70 with amino groups (nSP70-N) prevented acute lethality and abnormal activation of the coagulation cascade found in the nSP70-treated group of mice. Since our previous study showed that coagulation factor XII played a role in the nSP70-mediated abnormal activation of the coagulation cascade, we examined the interaction of nSP70 and nSP70-N with coagulation factor XII. Coagulation factor XII bonded to the surface of nSP70 to a greater extent than that observed for nSP70-N, and consequently more activation of coagulation factor XII was observed for nSP70 than for nSP70-N. Collectively, our results suggest that controlling the interaction of nSP70 with blood coagulation factor XII by modifying the surface properties would help to inhibit the nSP70-mediated abnormal activation of the blood coagulation cascade.

  3. Disseminated intravascular coagulation: testing and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Hideo; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoshiki; Hatada, Tsuyoshi

    2014-09-25

    Abnormalities of the hemostatic system in patients with DIC result from the sum of vectors for hypercoagulation and hyperfibrinolysis. DIC is classified into hyperfibrinolysis, hypercoagulation, massive bleeding or nonsymptomatic types according to the balance of the two vectors. Both the antithrombin (AT) and protein C (PC) levels are significantly low in patients with septic DIC, and reduced amounts of AT and PC result in the lack of inhibition of thrombin and activated FVIII, respectively. Thrombin activates FVIII, while activated FVIII accelerates the coagulation pathway to generate thrombin; thus activation of the coagulation system persists. Three sets of diagnostic criteria have been established by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis and Japanese Association for Acute Medicine, respectively. Although these three diagnostic criteria score hemostatic abnormalities using similar global coagulation tests, the sensitivity and/or specificity for death differ. Treatment with AT or activated PC may not improve the outcomes of patients with sepsis at the early stage, although they may improve the outcomes in those with DIC. Therefore, new diagnostic criteria for determining the appropriate time to initiate anticoagulant treatment are required.

  4. Coagulation factor VIII activity in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermina Babić

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To examine coagulation factor VIII activity in plasma, as a risk factor for thrombosis, in the patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. Also, to assess its relationship with ibrinogen and fasting blood glucose concentrations and with body mass index. Methods The plasma coagulation factor VIII activity, plasma levels of ibrinogen and blood glucose concentrations were measured in 30 patients with DM type 1, 30 patients with DM type 2 and in 30 healthy subjects. Body weight and body height were also measured and BMI was calculated.Results The plasma factor VIII activity in patients with DM type 1 and patients with DM type 2 was signiicantly higher than the values measured in healthy subjects. There was no signiicant difference in the factor VIII activity between patients with DM type 1 and type 2. The concentrations of ibrinogen and blood glucose in both groups of patients were signiicantly higher than in the group of healthy subjects. Patients with DM type 2 had a signiicantly higher BMI compared to healthy subjects, as well as compared to patients with DM type 1. There was a signiicant positive correlation between plasma factor VIII activity and plasma level of ibrinogen and a signiicant negative correlation between factor VIII activity and BMI in patients with DM type 2. Conclusion Diabetic patients have the elevated plasma coagulation factor VIII activity and increased ibrinogen concentration thus an increased risk of thrombosis and vascular diseases.

  5. Direct costs associated with the management of progressive early onset scoliosis: estimations based on gold standard technique or with magnetically controlled growing rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charroin, C; Abelin-Genevois, K; Cunin, V; Berthiller, J; Constant, H; Kohler, R; Aulagner, G; Serrier, H; Armoiry, X

    2014-09-01

    The main disadvantage of the surgical management of early onset scoliosis (EOS) using conventional growing rods is the need for iterative surgical procedures during childhood. The emergence of an innovative device using distraction-based magnetically controlled growing rods (MCGR) provides the opportunity to avoid such surgeries and therefore to improve the patient's quality of life. Despite the high cost of MCGR and considering its potential impact in reducing hospital stays, the use of MCGR could reduce medical resource consumption in a long-term view in comparison to traditional growing rod (TGR). A cost-simulation model was constructed to assess the incremental cost between the two strategies. The cost for each strategy was estimated based on probability of medical resource consumption determined from literature search as well as data from EOS patients treated in our centre. Some medical expenses were also estimated from expert interviews. The time horizon chosen was 4 years as from first surgical implantation. Costs were calculated in the perspective of the French sickness fund (using rates from year 2013) and were discounted by an annual rate of 4%. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test model strength to various parameters. With a time horizon of 4 years, the estimated direct costs of TGR and MCGR strategies were 49,067 € and 42,752 €, respectively leading to an incremental costs of 6135 € in favour of MCGR strategy. In the first case, costs were mainly represented by hospital stays expenses (83.9%) whereas in the other the cost of MCGR contributed to 59.5% of the total amount. In the univariate sensitivity analysis, the tariffs of hospital stays, the tariffs of the MCG, and the frequency of distraction surgeries were the parameters with the most important impact on incremental cost. MCGR is a recent and promising innovation in the management of severe EOS. Besides improving the quality of life, its use in the treatment of severe EOS is likely to

  6. Time to onset of analgesia and analgesic efficacy of effervescent acetaminophen 1000 mg compared to tablet acetaminophen 1000 mg in postoperative dental pain: a single-dose, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, P L; Nørholt, S E; Ganry, H E; Insuasty, J H; Vincent, F G; Skoglund, L A; Sindet-Pedersen, S

    2000-04-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared the time to onset of analgesia and the analgesic efficacy of two formulations of acetaminophen 1000 mg--an effervescent solution and tablet--in 242 patients with moderate or severe pain following dental surgery. Onset of analgesia was determined using a two-stopwatch procedure. Analgesia was assessed over a 4-hour period. Treatments were compared using standard indexes of pain intensity and pain relief and summary measures. Both acetaminophen formulations were significantly more effective than their corresponding placebo for all efficacy assessments. The median time to onset of analgesia was significantly shorter with effervescent acetaminophen (20 minutes) compared to tablet acetaminophen (45 minutes). During the first 45 minutes after administration, effervescent acetaminophen was significantly more effective at each scheduled assessment time than tablet acetaminophen. The median time to meaningful pain relief was significantly shorter with effervescent acetaminophen (45 minutes) compared to tablet acetaminophen (60 minutes). At 4 hours after administration, the pain relief was significantly better with tablet acetaminophen than with effervescent acetaminophen. No other significant differences were observed between the active treatments. In conclusion, effervescent acetaminophen produces a significantly faster onset of analgesia than tablet acetaminophen.

  7. Fates of Microcystis aeruginosa Cells and Associated Microcystins in Sediment and the Effect of Coagulation Process on Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguo Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During toxic Microcystis aeruginosa blooms, large amounts of cells can enter sediment through natural settlement, and coagulation treatment used to control water blooms can enhance the accumulation of cells. However, the current understanding of the fates of these cells and associated microcystins (MCs, as well as the effect of coagulation treatment on these factors, is limited. The results of the present study show that Microcystis aeruginosa cells in sediment were steadily decomposed under experimental conditions, and that they completely disappeared within 28 days. The major MCs released from settled cells were immediately degraded in sediment, and microbial degradation may be the main mechanism involved in this process. Coagulation treatment with PAC (polyaluminium chloride + sepiolite can efficiently remove Microcystis aeruginosa cells from the water column and prevent their re-invasion. Furthermore, coagulation treatment with PAC + sepiolite had no significant effect on the release and decomposition of MCs and, thus, will not enhance the MCs pollution. However, coagulation treatment can accelerate the nutrient cycle by enhancing the settlement of cells. More attention should be paid to the effect on nutrient cycle when coagulation treatment is used for restoration of aquatic ecosystems.

  8. Coagulation-adsorption of reactive orange from aqueous solution by freshly formed magnesium hydroxide: mixing time and mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianhai; Shi, Huanhuan; Liu, Meile; Lu, Jingfang; Li, Wenpu

    2017-04-01

    The utilization of magnesium hydroxide was successfully carried out to remove reactive orange by coagulation-adsorption from aqueous solution. The coagulation-adsorption mechanisms and magnesium hydroxide-reactive orange floc property were analyzed through zeta potential, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Flocculation Index was then discussed with controlled experiments using intelligent Particle Dispersion Analyzer (iPDA) and optimum rapid mixing time of 90 s was obtained for pH 12. The results of this study indicate that charge neutralization and adsorption are proposed to be the main coagulation mechanisms. The FT-IR spectra and SEM showed that reactive orange was adsorbed on the magnesium hydroxide surface during coagulation and adsorption. Freshly generated magnesium hydroxide can effectively remove reactive orange and the removal efficiency can reach 96.7% and 46.3% for coagulation and adsorption, respectively. Adsorption process accounts for 48% of the whole coagulation experiment. The removal efficiency decreased significantly with increasing magnesium hydroxide formation time.

  9. Removal of graphene oxide nanomaterials from aqueous media via coagulation: Effects of water chemistry and natural organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lin; Hao, Rongjie; Xu, Zhu; He, Xizhen; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Li, Yao

    2017-02-01

    With the increasing use of graphene oxide (GO) nanomaterials, its possible environmental release and human effects have received much attention. As GO may enter drinking or wastewater treatment systems like other carbonaceous nanomaterials, and have potential impact on human and/or environmental health, its removal efficiency during water treatment is important and requires investigation. In this study, the removal efficiency of GO during water treatment procedure via coagulation was evaluated, and the effects of solution chemistry and natural organic matter on the coagulation-based removal of GO nanomaterials were investigated. The results indicate that the removal efficiency of GO with alum coagulation can reach 80% with 20 mg/L alum dosage at neutral pH, and will not change significantly with higher concentration of alum. The coagulation mechanism and efficiency were strongly affected by the Al species in aqueous phase, which are controlled by pH. Co-existing cations (e.g. Na) may have minimal effect on GO removal efficiency, and the presence of humic acid (HA) suppresses coagulation remarkably at alum concentrations below 40 mg/L. The results from this study provide critical information for predicting the removal efficiency of GO nanomaterials during alum coagulation phase of water treatment procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adult mortality or morbidity is not increased in childhood-onset growth hormone deficient patients who received pediatric GH treatment: an analysis of the Hypopituitary Control and Complications Study (HypoCCS)

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Daojun; Hardin, Dana Sue; Erfurth, Eva Marie; Melmed, Shlomo

    2013-01-01

    Background The French Safety and Appropriateness of Growth Hormone treatments in Europe (SAGhE) cohort has raised concern of increased mortality risk during follow-up into adulthood in certain patients who had received growth hormone (GH) treatment during childhood. The Hypopituitary Control and Complications Study monitored mortality and morbidity of adult GH-deficient patients including those with childhood-onset GH deficiency (COGHD) who received GH treatment as children. Purpose Evaluate ...

  11. 骨科损伤控制技术对不稳定骨盆骨折合并四肢多发骨折患者凝血功能及疗效影响%The impact of coagulation function and therapy effect of damage control orthopaedics tech-nology for unstable pelvic fractures with limbs multiple fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立峰; 贾燕飞; 金淑霞; 秦茹俏; 佟雁翔; 李亚光; 张哲汉; 于成涌; 冯卫

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study effect coagulation function and therapy effect of damage control orthopaedics technol-ogy for unstable pelvic fractures with limbs multiple fractures. Method Select the Second Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University for treatment of unstable pelvic fracture limb multiple fractures in 70 patients for the study, control group given open reduction and internal fixation, observation group given damage control orthopaedics technology staging treatment . Operation indexes, coagulation function, therapy and complications were compared between two groups. Result Observation group operation time, intraoperative blood loss, temperature recovery time, lactic acid removal time, callus were significantly lower than the control group used time(P<0. 05); observation group PT, APTT, TT were significantly higher than the control group, FIB were significantly lower than the control group(P<0. 05);observation group fine rate 85. 71% was significantly higher than the control group 60. 00%(χ2=5. 861, P<0. 05);observation group complications 5. 71% was significantly lower than the control group 31. 43%(χ2=7. 652,P<0. 05). Conclusion Damage control orthopaedics technology helps to correcting the lactic acid level, improve coagulation function, and reduce the postoperative complications, then improve therapy effect.%目的:探讨骨科损伤控制技术对不稳定骨盆骨折合并四肢多发骨折患者凝血功能及治疗效果的影响。方法选取在本院就诊的不稳定骨盆骨折合并四肢多发骨折患者70例,采用随机数字表法分为对照组和观察组各35例,对照组给予一期切开复位内固定术,观察组给予骨科损伤控制下分期治疗术。比较两组手术相关指标、凝血功能、治疗效果、并发症。结果观察组手术时间、术中出血量、体温恢复时间、乳酸清除时间、骨痂所用时间均明显低于对照组(P均<0.05);凝血功能:

  12. Treatment of Leachate by Coagulation-Flocculation using different Coagulants and Polymer: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Mao Rui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leachate will be treated by using coagulation-flocculation. Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in a number of diverse disciplines, including biochemistry, cheese manufacturing, rubber manufacturing, and in water and waste water treatment. It is effective for removing high concentration organic pollutant and heavy metals in wastewater. However, coagulationflocculation examined the effectiveness of alum, ferric chloride and polyaluminum chloride (PAC1  as well as the use of synthetic polymers on the removal of suspended solid (SS, color, COD and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3N from leachate. The coagulant dosage has typically been determined through jar test, which requires a long experiment time in a field water treatment plant.

  13. Genetic parameters for rennet- and acid-induced coagulation properties in milk from Swedish Red dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, F; Glantz, M; Poulsen, N A; Wadsö, L; Stålhammar, H; Andrén, A; Lindmark Månsson, H; Larsen, L B; Paulsson, M; Fikse, W F

    2014-01-01

    Milk coagulation is an important processing trait, being the basis for production of both cheese and fermented products. There is interest in including technological properties of these products in the breeding goal for dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was therefore to estimate genetic parameters for milk coagulation properties, including both rennet- and acid-induced coagulation, in Swedish Red dairy cattle using genomic relationships. Morning milk samples and blood samples were collected from 395 Swedish Red cows that were selected to be as genetically unrelated as possible. Using a rheometer, milk samples were analyzed for rennet- and acid-induced coagulation properties, including gel strength (G'), coagulation time, and yield stress (YS). In addition to the technological traits, milk composition was analyzed. A binary trait was created to reflect that milk samples that had not coagulated 40min after rennet addition were considered noncoagulating milk. The cows were genotyped by using the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Almost 600,000 markers remained after quality control and were used to construct a matrix of genomic relationships among the cows. Multivariate models including fixed effects of herd, lactation stage, and parity were fitted using the ASReml software to obtain estimates of heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations. Heritability estimates (h(2)) for G' and YS in rennet and acid gels were found to be high (h(2)=0.38-0.62) and the genetic correlations between rennet-induced and acid-induced coagulation properties were weak but favorable, with the exception of YSrennet with G'acid and YSacid, both of which were strong. The high heritability (h(2)=0.45) for milk coagulating ability expressed as a binary trait suggests that noncoagulation could be eliminated through breeding. Additionally, the results indicated that the current breeding objective could increase the frequency of noncoagulating milk and

  14. Adult onset tic disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Chouinard, S; Ford, B.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Tic disorders presenting during adulthood have infrequently been described in the medical literature. Most reports depict adult onset secondary tic disorders caused by trauma, encephalitis, and other acquired conditions. Only rare reports describe idiopathic adult onset tic disorders, and most of these cases represent recurrent childhood tic disorders.
OBJECTIVE—To describe a large series of patients with tic disorders presenting during adulthood, to compare cl...

  15. Transgenic mice overexpressing arginase 1 in monocytic cell lineage are affected by lympho-myeloproliferative disorders and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astigiano, Simonetta; Morini, Monica; Damonte, Patrizia; Fraternali Orcioni, Giulio; Cassanello, Michela; Puglisi, Andrea; Noonan, Douglas M; Bronte, Vincenzo; Barbieri, Ottavia

    2015-11-01

    Arginase (ARG) is a metabolic enzyme present in two isoforms that hydrolyze l-arginine to urea and ornithine. In humans, ARG isoform 1 is also expressed in cells of the myeloid lineage. ARG activity promotes tumour growth and inhibits T lymphocyte activation. However, the two ARG transgenic mouse lines produced so far failed to show such effects. We have generated, in two different genetic backgrounds, transgenic mice constitutively expressing ARG1 under the control of the CD68 promoter in macrophages and monocytes. Both heterozygous and homozygous transgenic mice showed a relevant increase in mortality at early age, compared with wild-type siblings (67/267 and 48/181 versus 8/149, respectively, both P < 0.005). This increase was due to high incidence of haematologic malignancies, in particular myeloid leukaemia, myeloid dysplasia, lymphomas and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), diseases that were absent in wild-type mice. Atrophy of lymphoid organs due to reduction in T-cell compartment was also detected. Our results indicate that ARG activity may participate in the pathogenesis of lymphoproliferative and myeloproliferative disorders, suggest the involvement of alterations of L-arginine metabolism in the onset of DIC and confirm a role for the enzyme in regulating T-cell homeostasis.

  16. Global fibrinolytic capacity in pediatric patients with sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Ali; Oner, Ahmet Faik; Kose, Dogan; Dogan, Murat

    2006-10-01

    There are many complex pathophysiologic changes of the coagulation system in sepsis. The fibrinolytic system was evaluated in septic children using the global fibrinolytic capacity (GFC), a new technique reflecting the overall fibrinolytic activity. The study consisted of 24 children with sepsis, 36 children with sepsis plus disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and 20 healthy age-matched control individuals. Compared with controls, 86% of sepsis patients and 87% of sepsis plus DIC patients had decreased GFC levels. Between the sepsis plus DIC and sepsis groups there was no significant difference in terms of GFC levels. While 19 patients (52.7%) died in the sepsis plus DIC group, only three patients (12.5%) died in the sepsis group. When survivors and nonsurvivors were compared in terms of coagulation tests, there were significant differences for protein C, antithrombin, platelet, fibrinogen, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, prothrombin time, and white blood cell values. In conclusion, the level of GFC reduced in most of the pediatric sepsis patients but no difference was observed between patients with sepsis and patients with sepsis plus DIC. While inhibition of fibrinolysis is an important finding in sepsis, the mortality is mainly associated with the presence of end-organ damage and the status of coagulation parameters.

  17. Cutting and coagulation during intraoral soft tissue surgery using Er: YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onisor, I; Pecie, R; Chaskelis, I; Krejci, I

    2013-06-01

    To find the optimal techniques and parameters that enables Er:YAG laser to be used successfully for small intraoral soft tissue interventions, in respect to its cutting and coagulation abilities. In vitro pre-tests: 4 different Er:YAG laser units and one CO2 unit as the control were used for incision and coagulation on porcine lower jaws and optimal parameters were established for each type of intervention and each laser unit: energy, frequency, type, pulse duration and distance. 3 different types of intervention using Er:YAG units are presented: crown lengthening, gingivoplasty and maxillary labial frenectomy with parameters found in the in vitro pre-tests. The results showed a great decrease of the EMG activity of masseter and anterior temporalis muscles. Moreover, the height and width of the chewing cycles in the frontal plane increased after therapy. Er:YAG is able to provide good cutting and coagulation effects on soft tissues. Specific parameters have to be defined for each laser unit in order to obtain the desired effect. Reduced or absent water spray, defocused light beam, local anaesthesia and the most effective use of long pulses are methods to obtain optimal coagulation and bleeding control.

  18. Blood coagulation parameters and platelet indices: changes in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies and predictive values for preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Han

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is an obstetric disorder with high morbidity and mortality rates but without clear pathogeny. The dysfunction of the blood coagulation-fibrinolysis system is a salient characteristic of PE that varies in severity, and necessitates different treatments. Therefore, it is necessary to find suitable predictors for the onset and severity of PE.We aimed to evaluate blood coagulation parameters and platelet indices as potential predictors for the onset and severity of PE.Blood samples from 3 groups of subjects, normal pregnant women (n = 79, mild preeclampsia (mPE (n = 53 and severe preeclampsia (sPE (n = 42, were collected during early and late pregnancy. The levels of coagulative parameters and platelet indices were measured and compared among the groups. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curves of these indices were generated, and the area under the curve (AUC was calculated. The predictive values of the selected potential parameters were examined in binary regression analysis.During late pregnancy in the normal pregnancy group, the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, prothrombin time (PT, thrombin time (TT and platelet count decreased, while the fibrinogen level and mean platelet volume (MPV increased compared to early pregnancy (p<0.05. However, the PE patients presented with increased APTT, TT, MPV and D-dimer (DD during the third trimester. In the analysis of subjects with and without PE, TT showed the largest AUC (0.743 and high predictive value. In PE patients with different severities, MPV showed the largest AUC (0.671 and ideal predictive efficiency.Normal pregnancy causes a maternal physiological hypercoagulable state in late pregnancy. PE may trigger complex disorders in the endogenous coagulative pathways and consume platelets and FIB, subsequently activating thrombopoiesis and fibrinolysis. Thrombin time and MPV may serve as early monitoring markers for the onset and severity of PE

  19. A comprehensive model for the humoral coagulation network in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajima, T; Isbister, G K; Duffull, S B

    2009-09-01

    Coagulation is an important process in hemostasis and comprises a complicated interaction of multiple enzymes and proteins. We have developed a mechanistic quantitative model of the coagulation network. The model accurately describes the time courses of coagulation factors following in vivo activation as well as in vitro blood coagulation tests of prothrombin time (PT, often reported as international normalized ratio (INR)) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). The model predicts the concentration-time and time-effect profiles of warfarin, heparins, and vitamin K in humans. The model can be applied to predict the time courses of coagulation kinetics in clinical situations (e.g., hemophilia) and for biomarker identification during drug development. The model developed in this study is the first quantitative description of the comprehensive coagulation network.

  20. Coagulation, flocculation. Organic polymers and their use; Coagulation, floculation. Les polymeres organiques et leurs utilisations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charbonnier, H. [SNF Floerger, Saint Etienne (France)

    1997-12-31

    Used for specific pollutions, and less onerous in their use, organic polymers can be employed alone or in combination with inorganic products in order to meet legal standards or to reduce the volume of the sludges formed. Two major families of polymers can be distinguished according to the stage of the process in which they are used: coagulants and flocculants, these two uses corresponding to very different characteristics. A coagulant must provide the maximum of electrical charges in order to destabilize colloidal suspensions, whilst a flocculant must make it possible to collect small particles into conglomerates which are easier to filter out. (authors)

  1. Enzymic Milk Coagulation: Casein Micelle Aggregation and Curd Formation

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Donald J.

    1983-01-01

    Enzymic milk coagulation was monitored by measuring changes in curd firmness and apparent absorbance of undiluted milk. Detection of coagulation, visually or rheologically, occurred after the milk changes from a system of aggregating particles to an extended space network. This change was observed as a shoulder in apparent absorbance plots and coagulation time was defined as the critical point in the aggregation process analogously to non-linear condensation polymerization reactions. It corre...

  2. Computer Simulation of Influence of Sedimentation on Rapid Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙祉伟; 陈致英

    2003-01-01

    A computer simulation was performed to explore the features and effects of sedimentation on rapid coagulation.To estimate the accumulated influence of gravity on coagulation for dispersions, a sedimentation influence ratio is defined. Some factors possibly related to the influence of sedimentation were considered in the simulation and analysed by comparing the size distribution of aggregates, the change in collision number, and coagulation rates at different gravity levels (0 g, 1 g and more with g being the gravitational constant).

  3. Perfusion-CT guided intravenous thrombolysis in patients with unknown-onset stroke: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot feasibility trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Patrik [Center Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Department of Neurology Service, Lausanne (Switzerland); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Neurology Service, Lausanne (Switzerland); Ntaios, George; Reichhart, Marc [Center Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Department of Neurology Service, Lausanne (Switzerland); Schindler, Christian [Center Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Pharmacy Department, Lausanne (Switzerland); Bogousslavsky, Julien [Genolier Swiss Medical Network, Glion (Switzerland); Maeder, Philip; Meuli, Reto [Center Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Wintermark, Max [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Patients with unknown stroke onset are generally excluded from acute recanalisation treatments. We designed a pilot study to assess feasibility of a trial of perfusion computed tomography (PCT)-guided thrombolysis in patients with ischemic tissue at risk of infarction and unknown stroke onset. Patients with a supratentorial stroke of unknown onset in the middle cerebral artery territory and significant volume of at-risk tissue on PCT were randomized to intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase (0.9 mg/kg) or placebo. Feasibility endpoints were randomization and blinded treatment of patients within 2 h after hospital arrival, and the correct application (estimation) of the perfusion imaging criteria. At baseline, there was a trend towards older age [69.5 (57-78) vs. 49 (44-78) years] in the thrombolysis group (n = 6) compared to placebo (n = 6). Regarding feasibility, hospital arrival to treatment delay was above the allowed 2 h in three patients (25%). There were two protocol violations (17%) regarding PCT, both underestimating the predicted infarct in patients randomized in the placebo group. No symptomatic hemorrhage or death occurred during the first 7 days. Three of the four (75%) and one of the five (20%) patients were recanalized in the thrombolysis and placebo group respectively. The volume of non-infarcted at-risk tissue was 84 (44-206) cm{sup 3} in the treatment arm and 29 (8-105) cm{sup 3} in the placebo arm. This pilot study shows that a randomized PCT-guided thrombolysis trial in patients with stroke of unknown onset may be feasible if issues such as treatment delays and reliable identification of tissue at risk of infarction tissue are resolved. Safety and efficiency of such an approach need to be established. (orig.)

  4. The effect of earplugs during the night on the onset of delirium and sleep perception: a randomized controlled trial in intensive care patients

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rompaey, Bart; Elseviers, Monique M; Van Drom, Wim; Fromont, Veronique; Philippe G Jorens

    2012-01-01

    Introduction This study hypothesised that a reduction of sound during the night using earplugs could be beneficial in the prevention of intensive care delirium. Two research questions were formulated. First, does the use of earplugs during the night reduce the onset of delirium or confusion in the ICU? Second, does the use of earplugs during the night improve the quality of sleep in the ICU? Methods A randomized clinical trial included adult intensive care patients in an intervention group of...

  5. A cluster-randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of delaying onset of adolescent substance abuse on cognitive development and addiction following a selective, personality-targeted intervention programme: the Co-Venture trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Mâsse, Benoit; Pihl, Robert O; Stewart, Sherry H; Séguin, Jean R; Conrod, Patricia J

    2017-10-01

    Substance use and binge drinking during early adolescence are associated with neurocognitive abnormalities, mental health problems and an increased risk for future addiction. The trial aims to evaluate the protective effects of an evidence-based substance use prevention programme on the onset of alcohol and drug use in adolescence, as well as on cognitive, mental health and addiction outcomes over 5 years. Thirty-eight high schools will be recruited, with a final sample of 31 schools assigned to intervention or control conditions (3826 youth). Brief personality-targeted interventions will be delivered to high-risk youth attending intervention schools during the first year of the trial. Control school participants will receive no intervention above what is offered to them in the regular curriculum by their respective schools. Public/private French and English high schools in Montreal (Canada). All grade 7 students (12-13 years old) will be invited to participate. High-risk youth will be identified as those scoring one standard deviation or more above the school mean on one of the four personality subscales of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (40-45% youth). Self-reported substance use and mental health symptoms and cognitive functioning measured annually throughout 5 years. Primary outcomes are the onset of substance use disorders at 4 years post-intervention (year 5). Secondary intermediate outcomes are the onset of alcohol and substance use 2 years post-intervention and neuropsychological functions; namely, the protective effects of substance use prevention on cognitive functions generally, and executive functions and reward sensitivity specifically. This longitudinal, cluster-randomized controlled trial will investigate the impact of a brief personality-targeted intervention program on reducing the onset of addiction 4 years-post intervention. Results will tease apart the developmental sequences of uptake and growth in substance use and cognitive

  6. Effect of Extended-Release Niacin on New-Onset Diabetes Among Hyperlipidemic Patients Treated With Ezetimibe/Simvastatin in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, John R.; Fazio, Sergio; Adewale, Adeniyi J.; Jensen, Erin; Tomassini, Joanne E.; Shah, Arvind; Tershakovec, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of niacin on fasting glucose (FG) and new-onset diabetes in statin/ezetimibe-treated patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a prespecified secondary analysis among 942 hyperlipidemic patients randomized to ezetimibe/simvastatin (E/S; 10/20 mg) or E/S + extended-release niacin (N; titrated to 2 g) over 64 weeks. RESULTS FG levels peaked by 8–12 weeks, then declined even without antidiabetic medication. At 64 weeks, 3.5% taking E/S+N versus 2.6% taking E/S met criteria for new-onset diabetes (P = 0.66). An additional 1.4% taking E/S+N versus 0.4% taking E/S transiently met criteria for diabetes and then remitted (P = 0.46). Of 28 new-diabetes diagnoses in the E/S+N group, 25 occurred by 24 weeks. Among patients with baseline diabetes, 13.9% taking E/S+N and 11.6% taking E/S underwent antidiabetic treatment modification. CONCLUSIONS Increased FG and new-onset diabetes with E/S+N occurred mainly around the time of initial uptitration of N and often improved or remitted without specific treatment. PMID:22338103

  7. A STUDY ON COAGULATION PROFILE AND ITS PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE IN PATIENTS WITH SNAKE ENVENOMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramamurthy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snakebite envenomation is a treatable occupational hazard in India which can present mainly as haemotoxicity or neurotoxicity. Haemotoxicity includes bleeding manifestations, capillary leak syndrome or disseminated intravascular coagulation and acute renal failure. Coagulation abnormalities like prolonged whole blood clotting time/prothrombin (PT/activated partial thromboplastin (APTT can determine the prognosis in these patients and is also essential to triage such patients for regular monitoring and follow up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 50 snakebite cases admitted with systemic envenomation in the form of haemotoxicity (prolonged whole blood clotting time/PT/APTT to VIMS Hospital, Bellary, during the period January 2012 to June 2013 were studied to determine the coagulation profile in relation to prognosis of patients. RESULTS: In this study, out of 50 patients, 35 were males and 15 were females. Age group between 20 to 40 years had higher number of systemic envenomation following snakebite. 26 patients had hematocrit >40%, of which 7 had PT/APTT of more than 1 minute. Out of 8 patients with clotting time more than 30 minutes, 7 patients had PT/APTT more than one minute. Out of 40 patients with prolonged PT/ APTT, 8 patients developed capillary leakage syndrome. Also, 6 developed early onset hypotension (24 hours. Complications included hypotension, acute renal failure, multi organ failure and DIC. Six patients died of complications secondary to snake envenomation of which, three patients died of multi organ failure, one died of sudden onset cardiorespiratory arrest and two patients died of acute renal failure. CONCLUSION: We have found a significant correlation of prolonged PT/APTT, clotting time >30 minutes and raised hematocrit with morbidity and mortality in hemotoxic snake bite and treating physicians should monitor such patients meticulously to prevent complications associated with it.

  8. Recovery of struvite via coagulation and flocculation using natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifian, Maryam; Liu, Jing; Mattiasson, Bo

    2014-01-01

    One of the major setbacks of struvite recovery processes is the difficulty in harvesting struvite crystals. This study evaluates the use of different coagulants to improve precipitation of struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H20) crystals. Chitosan and poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride) (Poly-DADMAC) as a coagulant-flocculent and alginate and bentonite as a coagulant aid have been examined in jar tests. Also, a continuous three-phase process, i.e., struvite crystallization, coagulation/flocculation and precipitation process, was set up for real wastewater. Addition of chitosan as the coagulant and bentonite as the coagulant aid was significantly more efficient in forming struvite flocs in comparison to Poly-DADMAC alone or with coagulant aid, which did not show any positive effect. The calculated average settling velocity of struvite with chitosan-bentonite addition in synthetic and in real wastewater increased by approximately 5.3 and 2.8 folds, respectively, compared with that of no coagulant/flocculent addition. Phosphorus recovery of over 70% was achieved by the continuous process. Findings in this study clearly confirmed the possibility of using chitosan and bentonite as an efficient coagulant-flocculent to enhance the recovery of struvite crystals.

  9. Effect of cyanobacterial peptides and proteins on coagulation of kaolinite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Novotná

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation of peptides and proteins produced by the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and their influence on the coagulation of hydrophobic kaolinite particles were investigated. For this purpose, the dose of ferric sulphate used as the coagulant was optimized and jar tests with kaolinite, peptides/proteins and both kaolinite and peptides/proteins were carried out under different pH conditions. At pH 4–5.5, the peptides/proteins were efficiently coagulated and peptides/proteins were also found to contribute to the coagulation of kaolinite particles at this pH. Charge neutralization and adsorption were found to be the dominant coagulation mechanisms. The coagulation efficiency and the character of the prevailing coagulation mechanism were strongly dependent on the charge characteristics of the peptides/proteins, kaolinite and hydrolysis products of iron, thus on the pH value. At a pH of about 6, the coagulation process deteriorated due to the formation of soluble Fe-peptide/protein complexes.

  10. Compound bioflocculant and polyaluminum chloride in kaolin-humic acid coagulation: factors influencing coagulation performance and floc characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruihua; Gao, Baoyu; Huang, Xin; Dong, Hongyu; Li, Xiaochen; Yue, Qinyan; Wang, Yan; Li, Qian

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of coagulant dosage and pH on coagulation performance and floc properties using polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and compound bioflocculant (CBF) dual-coagulant in kaolin-humic acid (HA) treatment. Results showed that as PAC dosage rose, comparatively better coagulation efficiencies and floc characteristics were achieved due to stronger charge neutralization and sweeping effect. Addition of CBF could enhance coagulation performance and floc properties, including size, strength and recoverability, except fractal dimension. Solution pH had a significant effect on coagulation efficiencies and flocs formation. Under acidic condition, flocs showed higher strength and recoverability but lower fractal dimension, where charge neutralization was the foremost mechanism. More compact flocs were generated under alkaline condition due to the sweeping effect of hydrolyzed Al species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Coagulation profile of liquid-state plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Robert C; Marshall, Carol; Dwyre, Denis M; Gresens, Chris; Davis, Diana; Scherer, Lynette; Taylor, Douglas

    2013-03-01

    Use of liquid plasma (LP) has been reported as early as the mid 1930s. Unlike fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), LP is maintained at 1 to 6°C for up to 40 days after collection and processing. Despite its approved use by the US Food and Drug Administration, the coagulation profile of LP is incompletely described. In this study we evaluate the coagulation profile of LP stored up to 30 days. LP was prepared by removing plasma from nonleukoreduced whole blood within 24 hours of collection. Three LP units from each ABO group were collected and stored at 1 to 6°C. Plasma aliquots were obtained at Postcollection Days 1 to 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 and then stored at -70°C. Each aliquot was tested for prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and other coagulation and fibrinolytic factors. There was a significant decrease in Factor (F)V, FVII, FVIII, von Willebrand factor (VWF), protein S (PS) activity, and endogenous thrombin potential on Day 15 compared with Day 1. No significant difference was observed for PS antigen, D-dimer, or thrombin-antithrombin complex. At least 50% activity of all measured factors was noted on Day 15, compared to Day 1. Considerable heterogeneity was observed between the different blood groups for FVII, FVIII, and VWF. These data demonstrate that LP maintains at least 50% of factor activity and thrombin-generating capacity up to 15 days of refrigerated storage. It may be more appropriate to limit LP storage and supplement with FFP when used for management of massively bleeding patients. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  12. The effect of garlic on coagulation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Yeganeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: There are many reports on anti-thrombotic properties of garlic. Also, regarding the simultaneous consumption of garlic and Warfarine or non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, some warning recommendations are published. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of garlic on coagulation tests, and in case of any demonstrative anticoagulation effect, the patients, particularly those with coagulation disorders, could be given appropriate advice on proper consumption of garlic.Materials and Methods: This was a clinical trial in which 50 volunteer students were selected based on information collected using appropriate questionnaires. The students were tested for coagulation assays including bleeding time (BT, clotting time (CT, prothrombin time (PT, partial thromboplastin time (PIT, clot retraction (CR, and platelets count (PC before and after consumption of garlic. Data were analyzed using SPPS and T-test. The average values of tests obtained in two stages of experiment were further compared statistically. Results: The results of our study on subjects (30 females and 20 males with an average age of 21.7 years showed that there was no significant change in values obtained for CT, PT, PC and CR (p>0.05 following consumption of garlic. However, a significant increase in PTT values was found following consumption of garlic (the p values for samples collected after 24 hours and 4 hours were 0.001 and 0.012 respectively. There was also a significant difference (p=0.027 in BT 24 hours after garlic consumption. Regarding the results of similar tests among two genders, no significant difference was found.Conclusion: Following consumption of garlic, there was a significant increase in PIT and BT, the effect being more obvious after 24 hours. The data of present study regarding the inhibitory effect of garlic on platelet activities is consistent with those reported by some other researches which is also

  13. Coagulation-Inflammatory Network: Anti-inflammatory Effect of Natural Coagulation Inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺石林

    2001-01-01

    @@ Considerable evidence has accumulated to indicated that the serine protease in blood clotting process not only participate in the activation of coagulation factors,but also result in a series of cell responses particularly involved in inflammation process through appropriate receptors.

  14. Study on coagulation property of metal-polysilicate coagulants in low turbidity water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海燕; 崔福义; 赵庆良; 马超

    2004-01-01

    In order to remove the low turbidity present in surface water, a novel metal-polysilicate coagulant was used to treat the raw water taken from Tanjiang River in Guangdong Province. This study on the effects of A1/Fe molar ratio on the performance of a complex compound formed by polysilicic acid, aluminium and ferric salt (PAFS) showed that PAFS with A1/Fe ratio of 10:3 seemed to have the best coagulation performance in removing turbidity and color. Experimental results showed that under the conditions of polymerization time of 15 d, sedimentation time of 12 min, and pH of 6-8,PAFS with A1/Fe molar ratio of 10:3 had the best coagulation efficiency and lowest residual A1 concentration. The turbidity decreased from 23.8 NTU to 3.23 NTU and the residual A1 concentration was only 0.165 mg/L in the product water. It could be speculated that colloidal impurities and particulate A1 were removed by adsorption bridging and electrical neutralization of long chain inorganic polymer coagulants.

  15. Study on coagulation property of metal-polysilicate coagulants in low turbidity water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海燕; 崔福义; 赵庆良; 马超

    2004-01-01

    In order to remove the low turbidity present in surface water, a novel metal-polysilicate coagulant was used to treat the raw water taken from Tanjiang River in Guangdong Province. This study on the effects of Al/Fe molar ratio on the performance of a complex compound formed by polysilicic acid, aluminium and ferric salt (PAFS) showed that PAFS with Al/Fe ratio of 10:3 seemed to have the best coagulation performance in removing turbidity and color. Experimental results showed that under the conditions of polymerization time of 15 d, sedimentation time of 12 min, and pH of 6(8, PAFS with Al/Fe molar ratio of 10:3 had the best coagulation efficiency and lowest residual Al concentration. The turbidity decreased from 23.8 NTU to 3.23 NTU and the residual Al concentration was only 0.165 mg/L in the product water. It could be speculated that colloidal impurities and particulate Al were removed by adsorption bridging and electrical neutralization of long chain inorganic polymer coagulants.

  16. Effect of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) on coagulation and anticoagulation systems in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahi, Hossein; Javan, Atefeh Ordoei; Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Shahroodian, Masood; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-04-01

    Saffron showed some effects on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation in in vitro and in vivo studies. In a clinical trial with a limited number volunteers, saffron tablets influenced on bleeding time. In this study, the effect of saffron on plasma level of fibrinogen, factor VII (as coagulant agent), C and S protein (as anti-coagulant agent), PT and PTT in a larger sample size was evaluated. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study consisting of 1 week treatment with 200 mg and 400 mg saffron tablets. Sixty healthy volunteers (age range 20-50 years) were selected for the study. The volunteers were divided into three groups of 20 each. Group 1 received placebo; Groups 2 and 3 received 200 mg and 400 mg saffron tablets, respectively, for 7 days (1 tablet per day). Before and after 7 days treatment and also 1 month after that, blood samples were taken. The plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, C and S protein, PT and PTT were evaluated. Statistical analysis showed no difference between groups for any of evaluated factors. This study rejected any effect of saffron with dose of 200 and 400 mg for 1 week on coagulant and anticoagulant system.

  17. Coagulation disorders in the patients with deep vein thrombosis of lower extremity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Dragan J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE Venous thromboembolism is a relevant social and health care problem for its high incidence, pulmonary embolism-related mortality and long-term sequelae which may be disabling (post-thrombotic syndrome and ulceration. PROCEDURES The aim of our work was to establish the presence of coagulation disorders (hypercoagulable states in the patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT of the leg. Prospectively we have analyzed a group of 30 patients with echosono-graphicaly verified DVT of the leg who were admitted to the department of vascular surgery from August 1st 2000 to July 31st 2001.The following parameters were monitored: prothrombin time (PT partial thromboplastin time (PTT, fibrinogen (Fib, alpha 2 antiplasmin (A-2 AP, D-dimer (DD, antithrombin III (AT III and factor VII. FINDINGS Activation of the coagulation process was registered. The values of monitored coagulation parameters are shown in table 1. Plasma levels of monitored parameters in the patients with DVT of the leg were significantly higher than in the control subjects. CONCLUSION In patients with a DVT a hypercoagulable state is common finding. Some parameters of coagulation activity such as D-dimer might be of great interest in the diagnostic strategy of DVT.

  18. Tissue regenerating functions of coagulation factor XIII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soendergaard, C; Kvist, P H; Seidelin, J B;

    2013-01-01

    The protransglutaminase factor XIII (FXIII) has recently gained interest within the field of tissue regeneration, as it has been found that FXIII significantly influences wound healing by exerting a multitude of functions. It supports haemostasis by enhancing platelet adhesion to damaged......-receptor 2 and the αVβ3 integrin is important for angiogenesis supporting formation of granulation tissue. Chronic inflammatory conditions involving bleeding and activation of the coagulation cascade have been shown to lead to reduced FXIII levels in plasma. Of particular importance for this review...

  19. Benign intracranial hypertension associated to blood coagulation derangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niglio Alferio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benign Intracranial Hypertension (BIH may be caused, at least in part, by intracranial sinus thrombosis. Thrombosis is normally due to derangements in blood coagulation cascade which may predispose to abnormal clotting activation or deficiency in natural inhibitors' control. The aim of the study is to examine the strength of the association between risk factors for thrombosis and BIH. Patients and methods The incidence of prothrombotic abnormalities among a randomly investigated cohort of 17 patients with BIH, was compared with 51 healthy subjects matched for sex, age, body mass index, height and social background. Results The number of subjects with protein C deficiency was significantly higher in patients than in controls (3 vs 1, p Increased plasma levels of prothrombin fragment 1+2, fibrinopeptide A (FPA, and PAI-1 were demonstrated in patients group (5.7 ± 1.15 nM vs 0.45 ± 0.35 nM; 8.7 ± 2.5 ng/mL vs 2.2 ± 1.25 ng/mL; 45.7 ± 12.5 ng/mL vs 8.5 ± 6.7 ng/mL, respectively; p Discussion In agreement with other authors our data suggest a state of hypercoagulability in BIH associated with gene polymorphisms. Our findings also showed that mutations in cardiovascular genes significantly discriminate subjects with a BIH history. The association between coagulation and gene derangements, usually regarded to as cryptogenic, may suggest a possible pathogenetic mechanism in BIH. So, a prothrombotic tendency may exist that would, at least in part, explain some cases of BIH. Although based on a small population, these findings raise the exciting possibility of using these haemostatic factors as markers for selecting high-risk subjects in BIH disease.

  20. Polyphenoloxidase silencing affects latex coagulation in Taraxacum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahler, Daniela; Gronover, Christian Schulze; Richter, Carolin; Foucu, Florence; Twyman, Richard M; Moerschbacher, Bruno M; Fischer, Rainer; Muth, Jost; Prüfer, Dirk

    2009-09-01

    Latex is the milky sap that is found in many different plants. It is produced by specialized cells known as laticifers and can comprise a mixture of proteins, carbohydrates, oils, secondary metabolites, and rubber that may help to prevent herbivory and protect wound sites against infection. The wound-induced browning of latex suggests that it contains one or more phenol-oxidizing enzymes. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the major latex proteins from two dandelion species, Taraxacum officinale and Taraxacum kok-saghyz, and enzymatic studies showing that polyphenoloxidase (PPO) is responsible for latex browning. Electrophoretic analysis and amino-terminal sequencing of the most abundant proteins in the aqueous latex fraction revealed the presence of three PPO-related proteins generated by the proteolytic cleavage of a single precursor (pre-PPO). The laticifer-specific pre-PPO protein contains a transit peptide that can target reporter proteins into chloroplasts when constitutively expressed in dandelion protoplasts, perhaps indicating the presence of structures similar to plastids in laticifers, which lack genuine chloroplasts. Silencing the PPO gene by constitutive RNA interference in transgenic plants reduced PPO activity compared with wild-type controls, allowing T. kok-saghyz RNA interference lines to expel four to five times more latex than controls. Latex fluidity analysis in silenced plants showed a strong correlation between residual PPO activity and the coagulation rate, indicating that laticifer-specific PPO plays a major role in latex coagulation and wound sealing in dandelions. In contrast, very little PPO activity is found in the latex of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, suggesting functional divergence of latex proteins during plant evolution.

  1. [Sudden onset diplopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besch, D; Schuettauf, F

    2013-09-01

    Sudden onset diplopia may occur secondary to something as simple as uncorrected refractive error or as complicated as brainstem disorders in conjunction with other symptoms. Therefore, all complaints of diplopia must be a cause for concern. Ophthalmologists have to determine if diplopia is the first sign of a systemic or neurological disorder, which needs to be referred to a specialist or can be managed by the practitioner. In this paper the importance of the case history, primary diagnostic options, the indications for supplementary testing with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as treatment options when a patient complains of sudden onset diplopia are discussed.

  2. Onset of magnetospheric substorms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, B.; Bogott, F.

    1972-01-01

    An examination of the onset of magnetospheric substorms is made by using ATS 5 energetic particles, conjugate balloon X rays and electric fields, all-sky camera photographs, and auroral-zone magnetograms. It is shown that plasma injection to ATS distances, conjugate 1- to 10-keV auroral particle precipitation, energetic electron precipitation, and enhancements of westward magnetospheric electric-field component all occur with the star of slowly developing negative magnetic bays. No trapped or precipitating energetic-particle features are seen at ATS 5 when later sharp negative magnetic-bay onsets occur at Churchill or Great Whale River.

  3. Differing coagulation profiles of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Maeve P; Crowely, Maeve P; Quinn, Shane; Coleman, Eoin; Eustace, Joseph A; Gilligan, Oonagh M; O'Shea, Susan I; Shea, Susan I O

    2015-02-01

    The link between myeloma and thrombosis is well established. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) has also been associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. It was recently demonstrated that patients with myeloma display changes in thromboelastometry that may indicate a prothrombotic state. There is little data with regard to changes in thromboelastography in patients with myeloma or MGUS. The aim of this study was to investigate the differing coagulation profiles of patients of patients with myeloma and MGUS by means of conventional coagulation tests and thromboelastography. Blood was taken by direct venepuncture from patients with myeloma, MGUS and normal controls. Routine coagulation tests were performed in an accredited hospital laboratory. Thromboelastography (TEG(®)) was performed as per the manufacturer's protocol. Eight patients were recruited in each group. Patients with myeloma had a significantly lower mean haemoglobin level than patients with MGUS or normal controls (p < 0.001). Patients with myeloma had a significantly more prolonged mean prothrombin time than normal controls (p = 0.018) but not patients with MGUS. Patients with myeloma had significantly higher median D-dimer levels than normal controls (p = 0.025), as did patients with MGUS (p = 0.017). Patients with myeloma had a significantly higher mean factor VIII level than normal controls (p = 0.009) and there was a non-significant trend towards patients with MGUS having higher factor VIII levels than normal controls (p = 0.059). There was no significant difference in thromboelastographic parameters between the three groups. Patients with MGUS appear to have a distinct coagulation profile which is intermediate between patients with myeloma and normal controls.

  4. Attach importance to the early diagnosis and treatment of acute coagulation dysfunction after major war trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jie-Shou; You-sheng LI

    2013-01-01

    Coagulation dysfunction after major war trauma is conventionally attributed to consumption and dilution of coagulation factors. However, recent studies have identified an acute coagulation dysfunction at the early stage after trauma. This coagulation dysfunction due to endogenous coagulation disturbance at the early stage after trauma is called acute traumatic coagulation dysfunction (ATCD), and the patients with ATCD would have an increased complication rate and mortality. Standard coagulati...

  5. Nanoparticle assisted coagulation of aqueous alumina suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Fatih Çetinel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal processing of ceramics offers a high potential to achieve homogeneous microstructures with improved material properties. In this study, a novel forming method is investigated, which was already applied successfully for the fabrication of ceramic matrix composites (CMC, but is also considered to be a suitable direct casting technique for the fabrication of advanced ceramics with tailored microstructure and properties. The so-called nanoparticle assisted coagulation method (NPAC represents a modification of the hydrolysis-assisted solidification (HAS technique. It promises green components with high green strength, uniform density as well as homogeneous and tailored microstructure. Electrostatically stabilized colloidal suspensions with high solid loadings were produced by dispersing various fractions of submicron alumina powder and aluminium hydroxide nano-powder in water without use of any organic binder. Rheology and coagulation kinetics of suspensions and green part properties were studied regarding to modifications of pH value, setting temperature, amount of setting agent, amount of nano-powder, solids loading and process parameters like ultrasound treatment. It could be revealed that the homogeneous core-shell arrangement of submicron and nanoparticles in the colloidal state can be transmitted to the green state, which improves the microstructure and green density of the green parts. For this, the NPAC method is seen as a promising technique for the fabrication of advanced ceramics with tailored microstructure and properties.

  6. Coagulation mechanisms--nano- and microprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licsko, I

    2004-01-01

    Possible coagulation mechanisms were studied in relatively high alkalinity model systems and surface waters. On the basis of available information, original laboratory experiments and simple calculation were performed in order to show that the adsorption of Al3+ and Fe3+ ions is not the dominant process in decreasing the stability of suspended particles. The ions of the feeding coagulants hydrolyse within short time and form positively charged water soluble aluminium- or ferric hydroxides. Adsorption of these water soluble hydroxides onto the surface of colloids and quasi-colloid particles are restricted because of the quick completion of the hydrolysis process in relatively high alkalinity (>1.2 mmol/L) water. The result of complete hydrolysis of Al3+ or Fe3+ ions are slightly positively charged poorly water soluble aluminium or ferric hydroxide sols. The positively charged hydroxides and the associated water molecules are connected to each other by hydrogen bonds, providing a stabile structure. The hydrogen bonds provide the aggregation of slightly positively charged sol aggregation into flocs. Considering the repulsing forces among the sols, high numbers of individual sol particles (having nm sizes) are able adsorb onto the surface of suspended particles, changing their electrical charge and decreasing the stability of the colloids and quasi-colloid particles. This process is dominant in the destabilisation of suspended particles.

  7. Perioperative coagulation management--fresh frozen plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kor, Daryl J; Stubbs, James R; Gajic, Ognjen

    2010-03-01

    Clinical studies support the use of perioperative fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in patients who are actively bleeding with multiple coagulation factor deficiencies and for the prevention of dilutional coagulopathy in patients with major trauma and/or massive haemorrhage. In these settings, current FFP dosing recommendations may be inadequate. However, a substantial proportion of FFP is transfused in non-bleeding patients with mild elevations in coagulation screening tests. This practice is not supported by the literature, is unlikely to be of benefit and unnecessarily exposes patients to the risks of FFP. The role of FFP in reversing the effects of warfarin anticoagulation is dependent on the clinical context and availability of alternative agents. Although FFP is commonly transfused in patients with liver disease, this practice needs broad reconsideration. Adverse effects of FFP include febrile and allergic reactions, transfusion-associated circulatory overload and transfusion-related acute lung injury. The latter is the most serious complication, being less common with the preferential use of non-alloimmunised, male-donor predominant plasma. FP24 and thawed plasma are alternatives to FFP with similar indications for administration. Both provide an opportunity for increasing the safe plasma donor pool. Although prothrombin complex concentrates and factor VIIa may be used as alternatives to FFP in a variety of specific clinical contexts, additional study is needed.

  8. Monte Carlo models of dust coagulation

    CERN Document Server

    Zsom, Andras

    2010-01-01

    The thesis deals with the first stage of planet formation, namely dust coagulation from micron to millimeter sizes in circumstellar disks. For the first time, we collect and compile the recent laboratory experiments on dust aggregates into a collision model that can be implemented into dust coagulation models. We put this model into a Monte Carlo code that uses representative particles to simulate dust evolution. Simulations are performed using three different disk models in a local box (0D) located at 1 AU distance from the central star. We find that the dust evolution does not follow the previously assumed growth-fragmentation cycle, but growth is halted by bouncing before the fragmentation regime is reached. We call this the bouncing barrier which is an additional obstacle during the already complex formation process of planetesimals. The absence of the growth-fragmentation cycle and the halted growth has two important consequences for planet formation. 1) It is observed that disk atmospheres are dusty thr...

  9. Disinfection of an infrared coagulation device used to treat hemorrhoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Gergen, Maria F; Weber, David J

    2012-02-01

    Infrared coagulation devices are used to treat internal hemorrhoids, and as semicritical items should undergo high-level disinfection between patients. We developed and validated a method for disinfecting an infrared coagulation device that cannot be immersed in disinfectant solution.

  10. Analysis and optimization of coagulation and flocculation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saritha, V.; Srinivas, N.; Srikanth Vuppala, N. V.

    2015-02-01

    Natural coagulants have been the focus of research of many investigators through the last decade owing to the problems caused by the chemical coagulants. Optimization of process parameters is vital for the effectiveness of coagulation process. In the present study optimization of parameters like pH, dose of coagulant and mixing speed were studied using natural coagulants sago and chitin in comparison with alum. Jar test apparatus was used to perform the coagulation. The results showed that the removal of turbidity was up to 99 % by both alum and chitin at lower doses of coagulant, i.e., 0.1-0.3 g/L, whereas sago has shown a reduction of 70-100 % at doses of 0.1 and 0.2 g/L. The optimum conditions observed for sago were 6 and 7 whereas chitin was stable at all pH ranges, lower coagulant doses, i.e., 0.1-0.3 g/L and mixing speed—rapid mixing at 100 rpm for 10 min and slow mixing 20 rpm for 20 min. Hence, it can be concluded that sago and chitin can be used for treating water even with large seasonal variation in turbidity.

  11. Genetic parameters for milk coagulation properties in Estonian Holstein cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallas, M.; Bovenhuis, H.; Kaart, T.; Parna, K.; Kiiman, H.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities and repeatabilities for milk coagulation traits [milk coagulation time (RCT) and curd firmness (E30)] and genetic and phenotypic correlations between milk yield and composition traits (milk fat percentage and protein percentage, urea, somati

  12. Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, May Devan; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Stewart, Tom

    2010-02-01

    The formation of silica scale is a problem for thermoelectric power generating facilities, and this study investigated the potential for removal of silica by means of chemical coagulation from source water before it is subjected to mineral concentration in cooling towers. In Phase I, a screening of many typical as well as novel coagulants was carried out using concentrated cooling tower water, with and without flocculation aids, at concentrations typical for water purification with limited results. In Phase II, it was decided that treatment of source or make up water was more appropriate, and that higher dosing with coagulants delivered promising results. In fact, the less exotic coagulants proved to be more efficacious for reasons not yet fully determined. Some analysis was made of the molecular nature of the precipitated floc, which may aid in process improvements. In Phase III, more detailed study of process conditions for aluminum chloride coagulation was undertaken. Lime-soda water softening and the precipitation of magnesium hydroxide were shown to be too limited in terms of effectiveness, speed, and energy consumption to be considered further for the present application. In Phase IV, sodium aluminate emerged as an effective coagulant for silica, and the most attractive of those tested to date because of its availability, ease of use, and low requirement for additional chemicals. Some process optimization was performed for coagulant concentration and operational pH. It is concluded that silica coagulation with simple aluminum-based agents is effective, simple, and compatible with other industrial processes.

  13. Characteristics of particle coagulation in an underground parking lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Kato, Shinsuke; Zhao, Jianing

    2015-12-01

    Particles in vehicle exhaust plumes in underground parking lots have adverse health effects due to the enclosed environment in which they are released and the temperature difference between the tailpipe and ambient environment; at the same time, particle coagulation might be obvious near the tailpipe in an underground parking lot. In the present study, airflow and temperature fields were calculated using the Realizable k-ε model, and the Eulerian particle transport model was selected in the numerical simulation of particle concentration dispersion. Polydisperse thermal coagulation due to Brownian collisions was employed to calculate the particle coagulation. The results show that particle coagulation rate and half-time were significant within 1 m from the tailpipe. The variations in the particle coagulation rate and half-time were similar, but their directions were opposite. Air exhaust time was nearly four times longer than averaged half-time and 40 times longer than minimum half-time. The peak particle diameter increased approximately 1.43 times due to coagulation. A double particle concentration at the tailpipe caused the fourfold rise in the particle coagulation rate in the distance ranging less than 1 m from the tailpipe. An increase in exhaust velocity at the tailpipe could shorten the obvious range of particle coagulation along the centerline of the tailpipe from 1 to 0.8 m in the study.

  14. Critical assessment of chitosan as coagulant to remove cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lurling, Miguel; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa; Magalhães, de Leonardo; Miranda, Marcela; Mucci, Maíra; Oosterhout, van F.; Huszar, Vera L.M.; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi

    2017-01-01

    Removal of cyanobacteria from the water column using a coagulant and a ballast compound is a promising technique to mitigate nuisance. As coagulant the organic, biodegradable polymer chitosan has been promoted. Results in this study show that elevated pH, as may be common during cyanobacterial

  15. Critical assessment of chitosan as coagulant to remove cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lürling, Miquel; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa; Magalhães, Leonardo de; Miranda, Marcela; Mucci, Maíra; Oosterhout, Frank van; Huszar, Vera L.M.; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi

    2017-01-01

    Removal of cyanobacteria from the water column using a coagulant and a ballast compound is a promising technique to mitigate nuisance. As coagulant the organic, biodegradable polymer chitosan has been promoted. Results in this study show that elevated pH, as may be common during cyanobacterial

  16. A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR PURIFICATION OF WATER USING NATURAL COAGULANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Pise

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemical coagulants is not suitable due to health and economic considerations. Studies are carried out in laboratory scale on deionized and river water containing synthetic turbidity of kaolinite. Experiments are carried out in three turbidity ranges: 150, 450, 1000 (NTU and the pH range 6-8. The efficiency of Moringa oleifera (MO seed extract and alum is examined with jar test, settling column and pilot test. The aim of this study is to find out the optimum combination of MO and alum using alum as a coagulant aid in household treatment of natural river surface water for domestic use. The various coagulant combinations with which the raw water from the river is treated include Moringa oleifera seed powder only, Alum coagulant only and blended Moringa oleifera seeds and alum in different combinations. When Moringa oleifera seed powder is used as the sole coagulant, a filter was needed to obtain an acceptable turbidity value but there was no need for pH adjustment or correction. Moringa oleifera seed powder can be used in treating household drinking water either as a sole coagulant or in combination with alum as a coagulant aid. The recommended ratio for the combined coagulant dose is 60% MO seed powder and 40% alum.

  17. Metals in airpollution particles decrease whole blood coagulation time

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanism underlying the pro-coagulative effect of air pollution particle exposure is not known. We tested the postulate that 1) the soluble fraction ofan air pollution particle can affect whole blood coagulation time and 2) metals included in the soluble fraction are respons...

  18. Pre-coagulation for microfiltration of an upland surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikkarainen, A T; Judd, S J; Jokela, J; Gillberg, L

    2004-01-01

    The effect of different coagulants on cake formation and hydraulic resistance in membrane filtration of strongly coloured (SUVA> or =4.8) upland surface water has been studied at bench-scale under constant pressure conditions. Coagulants used were aluminium sulphate, polyaluminium chloride, ferric chloride and ferric sulphate. Optimisation of coagulation parameters was carried by conventional jar testing. The R'c (specific cake resistance in m(-2)) values were determined for all coagulants over a range of coagulant doses and slow mixing flocculation periods. Experiments indicated slight differences in cake formation trends between ferric- and aluminium-based coagulants and chloride and sulphate counterions, but that the range of measured R'c values was small (0.9 and 2.6 x 10(18) m(-2)) over the range of doses studied. Greater than 99% UV(254) removal was achieved with every coagulant, whereas dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal ranged from 78% to 88%. Optimisation of the pre-coagulation-membrane filtration process suggests ferric chloride to be slightly superior for the feedwater matrix studied on the basis of DOC removal, whereas ferric sulphate gave slightly lower filter cake specific resistance values.

  19. The immediate and late effects of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine on murine coagulation gene transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Salloum-Asfar

    Full Text Available Thyroid dysfunction is associated with changes in coagulation. The aim of our study was to gain more insight into the role of thyroid hormone in coagulation control. C57Black/6J mice received a low-iodine diet and drinking water supplemented with perchlorate to suppress endogenous triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 production. Under these conditions, the impact of exogenous T3 on plasma coagulation, and hepatic and vessel-wall-associated coagulation gene transcription was studied in a short- (4 hours and long-term (14 days setting. Comparing euthyroid conditions (normal mice, with hypothyroidism (conditions of a shortage of thyroid hormone and those with replacement by incremental doses of T3, dosages of 0 and 0.5 μg T3/mouse/day were selected to study the impact of T3 on coagulation gene transcription. Under these conditions, a single injection of T3 injection increased strongly hepatic transcript levels of the well-characterized T3-responsive genes deiodinase type 1 (Dio1 and Spot14 within 4 hours. This coincided with significantly reduced mRNA levels of Fgg, Serpinc1, Proc, Proz, and Serpin10, and the reduction of the latter three persisted upon daily treatment with T3 for 14 days. Prolonged T3 treatment induced a significant down-regulation in factor (F 2, F9 and F10 transcript levels, while F11 and F12 levels increased. Activity levels in plasma largely paralleled these mRNA changes. Thbd transcript levels in the lung (vessel-wall-associated coagulation were significantly up-regulated after a single T3 injection, and persisted upon prolonged T3 exposure. Two-week T3 administration also resulted in increased Vwf and Tfpi mRNA levels, whereas Tf levels decreased. These data showed that T3 has specific effects on coagulation, with Fgg, Serpinc1, Proc, Proz, Serpin10 and Thbd responding rapidly, making these likely direct thyroid hormone receptor targets. F2, F9, F10, F11, F12, Vwf, Tf and Tfpi are late responding genes and probably

  20. In Vitro impairment of whole blood coagulation and platelet function by hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Görlinger Klaus

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch (HH has been recommended for first line treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Its effects on coagulation are unclear. We studied in vitro effects of HH dilution on whole blood coagulation and platelet function. Furthermore 7.2% hypertonic saline, 6% hydroxyethylstarch (as ingredients of HH, and 0.9% saline solution (as control were tested in comparable dilutions to estimate specific component effects of HH on coagulation. Methods The study was designed as experimental non-randomized comparative in vitro study. Following institutional review board approval and informed consent blood samples were taken from 10 healthy volunteers and diluted in vitro with either HH (HyperHaes®, Fresenius Kabi, Germany, hypertonic saline (HT, 7.2% NaCl, hydroxyethylstarch (HS, HAES6%, Fresenius Kabi, Germany or NaCl 0.9% (ISO in a proportion of 5%, 10%, 20% and 40%. Coagulation was studied in whole blood by rotation thrombelastometry (ROTEM after thromboplastin activation without (ExTEM and with inhibition of thrombocyte function by cytochalasin D (FibTEM, the latter was performed to determine fibrin polymerisation alone. Values are expressed as maximal clot firmness (MCF, [mm] and clotting time (CT, [s]. Platelet aggregation was determined by impedance aggregrometry (Multiplate after activation with thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 (TRAP and quantified by the area under the aggregation curve (AUC [aggregation units (AU/min]. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to evaluate HyperHaes induced cell shape changes of thrombocytes. Statistics: 2-way ANOVA for repeated measurements, Bonferroni post hoc test, p Results Dilution impaired whole blood coagulation and thrombocyte aggregation in all dilutions in a dose dependent fashion. In contrast to dilution with ISO and HS, respectively, dilution with HH as well as HT almost abolished coagulation (MCFExTEM from 57.3 ± 4.9 mm (native to 1.7 ± 2.2 mm (HH 40

  1. In vitro impairment of whole blood coagulation and platelet function by hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Alexander A; Maschler, Stephanie; Schöchl, Herbert; Flöricke, Felix; Görlinger, Klaus; Zanger, Klaus; Kienbaum, Peter

    2011-02-10

    Hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch (HH) has been recommended for first line treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Its effects on coagulation are unclear. We studied in vitro effects of HH dilution on whole blood coagulation and platelet function. Furthermore 7.2% hypertonic saline, 6% hydroxyethylstarch (as ingredients of HH), and 0.9% saline solution (as control) were tested in comparable dilutions to estimate specific component effects of HH on coagulation. The study was designed as experimental non-randomized comparative in vitro study. Following institutional review board approval and informed consent blood samples were taken from 10 healthy volunteers and diluted in vitro with either HH (HyperHaes, Fresenius Kabi, Germany), hypertonic saline (HT, 7.2% NaCl), hydroxyethylstarch (HS, HAES6%, Fresenius Kabi, Germany) or NaCl 0.9% (ISO) in a proportion of 5%, 10%, 20% and 40%. Coagulation was studied in whole blood by rotation thrombelastometry (ROTEM) after thromboplastin activation without (ExTEM) and with inhibition of thrombocyte function by cytochalasin D (FibTEM), the latter was performed to determine fibrin polymerisation alone. Values are expressed as maximal clot firmness (MCF, [mm]) and clotting time (CT, [s]). Platelet aggregation was determined by impedance aggregrometry (Multiplate) after activation with thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 (TRAP) and quantified by the area under the aggregation curve (AUC [aggregation units (AU)/min]). Scanning electron microscopy was performed to evaluate HyperHaes induced cell shape changes of thrombocytes. 2-way ANOVA for repeated measurements, Bonferroni post hoc test, p coagulation and thrombocyte aggregation in all dilutions in a dose dependent fashion. In contrast to dilution with ISO and HS, respectively, dilution with HH as well as HT almost abolished coagulation (MCFExTEM from 57.3 ± 4.9 mm (native) to 1.7 ± 2.2 mm (HH 40% dilution; p coagulation is significant after 10% dilution or more. This effect can

  2. Coagulation-induced shedding of platelet glycoprotein VI mediated by factor Xa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tamimi, Mohammad; Grigoriadis, George; Tran, Huy; Paul, Eldho; Servadei, Patricia; Berndt, Michael C; Gardiner, Elizabeth E; Andrews, Robert K

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated shedding of the platelet collagen receptor, glycoprotein VI (GPVI) in human plasma. Collagen or other ligands induce metalloproteinase-mediated GPVI ectodomain shedding, generating approximately 55-kDa soluble GPVI (sGPVI) and approximately 10-kDa platelet-associated fragments. In the absence of GPVI ligands, coagulation of platelet-rich plasma from healthy persons induced GPVI shedding, independent of added tissue factor, but inhibitable by metalloproteinase inhibitor, GM6001. Factor Xa (FXa) common to intrinsic and tissue factor-mediated coagulation pathways was critical for sGPVI release because (1) shedding was strongly blocked by the FXa-selective inhibitor rivaroxaban but not FIIa (thrombin) inhibitors dabigatran or hirudin; (2) Russell viper venom that directly activates FX generated sGPVI, with complete inhibition by enoxaparin (inhibits FXa and FIIa) but not hirudin; (3) impaired GPVI shedding during coagulation of washed platelets resuspended in FX-depleted plasma was restored by adding purified FX; and (4) purified FXa induced GM6001-inhibitable GPVI shedding from washed platelets. In 29 patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation, mean plasma sGPVI was 53.9 ng/mL (95% confidence interval, 39.9-72.8 ng/mL) compared with 12.5 ng/mL (95% confidence interval, 9.0-17.3 ng/mL) in thrombocytopenic controls (n = 36, P coagulation-induced GPVI shedding via FXa down-regulates GPVI under procoagulant conditions. FXa inhibitors have an unexpected role in preventing GPVI down-regulation.

  3. Eosinophil cationic protein levels parallel coagulation activation in the blister fluid of patients with bullous pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, A; Marzano, A V; Lorini, M; Balice, Y; Cugno, M

    2015-04-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease due to autoantibodies against two hemidesmosomal antigens, namely BP180 and BP230, and characterized by coagulation activation both at cutaneous and systemic levels. Skin-infiltrating eosinophils contribute to bulla formation and, upon activation, are supposed to initiate the coagulation cascade. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the activation of eosinophils and coagulation are linked in BP. We evaluated the correlation between eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels and concentrations of the prothrombotic markers F1 + 2 and D-dimer in blister fluid and blood samples of 30 BP patients. Thirty healthy subjects were used as normal controls. ECP, F1 + 2 and D-dimer plasma levels were significantly higher in BP patients than in normal subjects. A significant correlation was found between ECP plasma levels and blood eosinophil count (r = 0.54, P = 0.002). F1 + 2 plasma levels positively correlated with disease severity, expressed as the percentage of body surface area involved (r = 0.36, P = 0.048). A striking increase in ECP (288.8 ± 45.2 ng/mL), F1 + 2 (31 409.9 ± 2929.4 pmol/L) and D-dimer levels (342 798.3 ± 44 206 ng/mL) was found in blister fluid from BP patients. In blister fluid, ECP levels were significantly higher than in peripheral blood (P blister fluids from BP patients and correlate with markers of coagulation activation, supporting the view that eosinophils initiate the coagulation cascade at skin level. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. Coagulation defects resulting from ambient temperature-induced hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, D B; Sorensen, V J; Fath, J J; Raman, S B; Horst, H M; Obeid, F N

    1994-05-01

    Ambient temperature-induced hypothermia noted in trauma patients is frequently accompanied by a bleeding diathesis despite "laboratory normal" coagulation values. To document this impression, the following experiment was conducted. Coagulation studies and platelet function studies were performed in ten minipigs during induced whole body hypothermia (40 degrees C to 34 degrees C) and rewarming. Cooling was achieved in 2 to 3 hours and rewarming took 4 to 5 hours. In addition, similar coagulation and platelet function studies were conducted on plasma samples from the same animals that were cooled and then rewarmed in a water bath. Platelet counts and function as measured by Sonoclot analysis and aggregation did not decrease significantly with hypothermia in either model. Plasma cooled in a water bath demonstrated abnormal PT and aPTT (p coagulation defects in a porcine model. Some of the coagulation defects were most pronounced during rewarming.

  5. Performance and characterization of a new tannin-based coagulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Heredia, J.; Sánchez-Martín, J.; Gómez-Muñoz, C.

    2012-09-01

    Diethanolamine and formaldehyde were employed to cationize tannins from black wattle. This novel coagulant called CDF was functionally characterized in removing sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (anionic surfactant) and Palatine Fast Black WAN (azoic dye). Refined tannin-derived commercial coagulants exhibited similar efficiency, while CDF presented higher coagulant ability than alum, a usual coagulant agent. Low doses of CDF (ca. 100 mg L-1) were able to remove more than 70 % of surfactant and more than 85 % of dye (initial pollutant concentration of ca. 100 mg L-1) and it presented no temperature affection and worked at a relatively wide pH range. Surfactant and dye removal responded to the classical coagulant-and-adsorption models, such as Frumkin-Fowler-Guggenheim or Gu and Zhu in the case of surfactant, and Langmuir and Freundlich in the case of dye.

  6. Peculiarities of coagulation hemostasis disorders in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakovlieva V.H.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The violation of blood coagulation properties is observed in many diseases of the respiratory system, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. It is known that in a stable COPD phase release of proinflammatory cytokines in blood is observed, it leads to disturbance of hemostasis parameters toward hypercoagulation. The aim of our study was to determine possibility of coagulation disorders formation in patients with COPD in a stable phase of pathological process at different stages of disease course and identify relationship between coagulation parameters levels and degree of violation of ventilation lung function. Materials and methods. We examined 30 patients with COPD in a stable disease phase, included in the main group (FEV1 =49,5±15,5% of the due, there were 27 men (90.0%, 3 (30.0% women, mean age was 61,8±7,9 years, level of pack /years index - 34,2±15,3. The control group consisted of 10 healthy subjects matched with the patients of the main group by age and sex. All patients were divided into 2 subgroups. Subgroup 1 included 16 patients with moderate COPD, that is the level of FEV1>50% (61,8±7,4% of predicted, and subgroup 2 - 14 COPD patients with severe COPD, that is the level of FEV1 <50% (35,3±8,2% of predicted. Patients received standard treatment according to the disease stage. Main indicators of coagulation levels: prothrombin index (PI, prothrombin ratio (PR, international normalized ratio (INR, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, thrombin time (TT and antithrombin III (AT III were identified in all patients. Results. The levels of PI, PR and INR in the subgroup 1 differed significantly from those of in the subgroup 2, control group (p<0,05 and pointed at hypercoagulation, whereas in the subgroup 2 all indicators were absolutely identical with control group. Correlation link between the level of INR levels and FEV1 (r=-0,73; p<0.01 in patients of the main group was determined. Levels of APTT, TT and AT

  7. Coagulant recovery and reuse for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, James; Jarvis, Peter; Smith, Andrea D; Judd, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Coagulant recovery and reuse from waterworks sludge has the potential to significantly reduce waste disposal and chemicals usage for water treatment. Drinking water regulations demand purification of recovered coagulant before they can be safely reused, due to the risk of disinfection by-product precursors being recovered from waterworks sludge alongside coagulant metals. While several full-scale separation technologies have proven effective for coagulant purification, none have matched virgin coagulant treatment performance. This study examines the individual and successive separation performance of several novel and existing ferric coagulant recovery purification technologies to attain virgin coagulant purity levels. The new suggested approach of alkali extraction of dissolved organic compounds (DOC) from waterworks sludge prior to acidic solubilisation of ferric coagulants provided the same 14:1 selectivity ratio (874 mg/L Fe vs. 61 mg/L DOC) to the more established size separation using ultrafiltration (1285 mg/L Fe vs. 91 mg/L DOC). Cation exchange Donnan membranes were also examined: while highly selective (2555 mg/L Fe vs. 29 mg/L DOC, 88:1 selectivity), the low pH of the recovered ferric solution impaired subsequent treatment performance. The application of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to ultrafiltration or alkali pre-treated sludge, dosed at 80 mg/mg DOC, reduced recovered ferric DOC contamination to water quality parameters. Several PAC-polished recovered coagulants provided the same or improved DOC and turbidity removal as virgin coagulant, as well as demonstrating the potential to reduce disinfection byproducts and regulated metals to levels comparable to that attained from virgin material.

  8. Activation of coagulation in chronic urticaria in relation to disease severity and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farres, M N; Refaat, M; Melek, N A; Ahmed, E E; Shamseldine, M G; Arafa, N A

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of chronic urticaria is incompletely understood. There is growing interest in the role of the coagulation cascade in chronic urticaria. We aimed to assess the possible activation of the coagulation cascade in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) in relation to disease severity and activity. This study was conducted on 30 patients with active CSU and 30 apparently healthy individuals as controls. Patients with acute urticaria, physical urticaria, or any form of urticaria other than spontaneous urticaria were excluded. Plasma levels of D-dimer and activated factor VII (FVIIa) were measured by ELISA at baseline for all recruited patients and controls. In addition, they were measured for CSU patients after complete disease remission. Plasma levels of D-dimer and FVIIa were significantly higher among patients with active CSU than among healthy controls. D-dimer levels were lowest among patients with grade 1 severity and highest among those with grade 4 severity. Factor VIIa levels did not differ significantly according to disease severity grades. After complete disease remission, there was a significant dramatic drop in levels of D-dimer and FVIIa among patients. We conclude that activation of the coagulation cascade occurs in CSU, and we demonstrate the novel finding that activated factor VII levels are significantly reduced after medical therapy, confirming the implication of the extrinsic pathway activation in CSU. Future controlled studies may investigate the role of anticoagulant therapy in refractory chronic urticaria. Copyright © 2014 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of autism spectrum disorders on outcome in teenage-onset anorexia nervosa evaluated by the Morgan-Russell outcome assessment schedule: a controlled community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Søren; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Gillberg, Carina; Gillberg, Christopher; Råstam, Maria; Wentz, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate time trends and effects of co-existing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on outcome in an ongoing long-term follow-up study of anorexia nervosa (AN). The Morgan-Russell Outcome Assessment Schedule (MROAS) was used at 6-, 10- and 18-year follow-up of a representative sample of 51 individuals with teenage-onset AN and a matched group of 51 healthy comparison cases. The full multinomial distribution of responses for the full scale and each of the subscales was evaluated using exact nonparametric statistical methods. The impact of diagnostic stability of ASD on outcome in AN was evaluated in a dose-response model. There were no deaths in either group. Food intake and menstrual pattern were initially poor in the AN group but normalised over time. MROAS 'mental state' was much poorer in the AN group and did not improve over time. The psychosexual MROAS domains 'attitudes' and 'aims' showed persistent problems in the AN group. In the MROAS socioeconomic domain, the subscales 'personal contacts', 'social activities' and 'employment record' all showed highly significant between-group differences at all three follow-ups. A statistically significant negative dose-response relationship was found between a stable diagnosis of ASD over time and the results on the subscales 'mental state', 'psychosexual state' and 'socio-economic state'. Outcome of teenage-onset AN is favourable with respect to mortality and persisting eating disorder, but serious problems remain in the domains 'mental state', 'psychosexual function' and 'socioeconomic state'. Outcome is considerably worse if ASD is present. Treatment programmes for AN need to be modified so as to accommodate co-existing ASD.

  10. Multifocal diabetic muscle infarction: a rare complication of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebbi, Wafa; Jerbi, Saida; Klii, Rym; Alaya, Wafa; Mestiri, Sarra; Zantour, Baha; Sfar, Mohamed Habib

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic muscle infarction (DMI) is a rare complication of long-standing poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. We herein describe the case of a 56-year-old man with a 10-year history of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus with multiple microvascular and macrovascular complications who presented with the sudden onset of left thigh pain and swelling. MRI suggested muscle infarction. A muscle biopsy demonstrated coagulation necrosis in the skeletal muscle with inflammation and infarction in the walls of small blood vessels. Physicians should consider DMI in the differential diagnosis of patients with diabetes who present with painful, swollen muscles without systemic signs of infection.

  11. Studies on the effect of administration of DDAVP in patients with cerebrovascular occlusive diseases from the viewpoint of blood coagulation-fibrinolysis in vessel walls

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Hiroyuki; Miyakawa, Teruo; Sakuragawa, Nobuo

    1985-01-01

    To clarify the pathogenesis of cerebral thrombosis and to estimate the effectiveness of fibrinolytic treatment by administration of urokinase from the viewpoint of coagulation-fibrinolysis in vessel walls, changes of blood coagulation were investigated by intravenous administration of 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) to 10 healthy volunteers and to 14 patients with cerebrovascular occlusive diseases. Results were as follows: 1) After the administration of DDAVP to normal controls, a...

  12. Comparison of coagulants and coagulation aids for treatment of meat processing wastewater by column flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sena, Rênnio F; Moreira, Regina F P M; José, Humberto J

    2008-11-01

    The physicochemical treatment of the wastewater from a meat processing industry was studied using three ferric salts as coagulants in conjunction with four different polymers as coagulation aids by batch column flotation. The effluent was characterized in terms of pH (6.5-6.7), turbidity (1000-12000 NTU), total solids (TS) (2300-7000mgl(-1)), oils and greases (OG) (820-1050mgl(-1)), and biochemical and chemical oxygen demands (BOD(5) and COD) (1200-1760 and 2800-3230mgl(-1)), respectively. The treatments achieved typical organic load reductions of oils and greases, and total solids (up to 85%), as well as biochemical and chemical oxygen demands (between 62.0-78.8% and 74.6-79.5%, respectively). The research also found that the utilization of a column flotation achieved high efficiency of organic matter removal and its operation as a primary treatment showed no significant dependence of pollutant removal and air flow rate.

  13. [Effect of xuebijing oral effervescent tablet on endotoxin induced fever and disseminated intravascular coagulation rabbit model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shan-Shan; Gao, Ying-Jie; Tian, Xue-Chuan; Jin, Ya-Hong; Liu, Fang-Zhou; Cui, Xiao-Lan

    2013-08-01

    In order to discover the mechanism of Xuebijing oral effervescent tablet (XBJOET) to treat infectious diseases, the effect of XBJOET on endotoxin induced rabbit fever and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) was investigated. Auricle microcirculation in rabbit was detected by laser speckle blood perfusion imager system; coagulation function was measured by coagulation analyzer, fibrinolytic system was quantified by Elisa assay and micro thrombosis in tissues was observed with HE staining under light microscope. The results demonstrated that the body temperature of rabbit decreased significantly at 1-3 h after administration with 4.8, 2.4 and 1.2 g x kg(-1) XBJOET to endotoxin induced DIC rabbit model, the auricle microcirculation blood flow in model group (54.45 +/- 14.53) PU was lower than that in control group (77.18 +/- 12.32) PU. The auricle microcirculation blood flow increased markedly and there was significant difference between model group and 1.2 g x kg(-1) XBJOET group. There was significant difference between model group and control group in the content of PAI1 and FIB. The PAI1 levels in model and control groups were (30.48 +/- 2.46) ng x mL(-1) and (20.93 +/- 3.25) ng x mL(-1), respectively. The FIB levels in model and control group were (3.34 +/- 1.09) g x L(-1) and (4.84 +/- 1.10) g x L(-1), respectively. The content of PAI1 in rabbit plasma decreased notably, there were significant differences between model group and 4.8, 2.4 g x kg(-1) XBJOET groups. On the contrary the content of FIB increased. XBJOET possessed pharmacological activities of curing infectious fever and DIC, the mechanism of which is related to amelioration of microcirculation disturbance, inhibition of fibrinolytic system activation and coagulation and micro thrombosis elimination.

  14. Influence of low molecular heparin on blood coagulation function and lung function in AECOPD patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Deng

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the influence of low molecular heparin on the blood coagulation function and lung function in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) patients.Methods:A total of 100 cases AECOPD patients were divided into observation group and control group according to the present order and odd number by half. They were all given AECOPD conventional symptomatic treatment, on this basis, patients in the observation group were treated with low molecular heparin, 10 d after treatment, arterial blood gas index such as oxygen partial pressure (PaO2), oxygen saturation (SaO2), carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2), pulmonary function index such as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, blood coagulation function index such as fibrinogen (Fib), D-dimer (D-D), activated partial blood coagulation time (APTT) live enzymes, plasma prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT) between two groups before and after treatment were compared.Results:Compared with before treatment, the levels of PaO2, SaO2, FEV1 and FVC, FEV1/FVC in control group after treatment were significantly elevated, PaCO2, D-D were significantly reduced, the difference were statistically significant (P<0.05); The levels of PaO2, SaO2, FEV1 and FVC, FEV1/FVC, PT, TT and APTT in observation group after treatment were significantly increased, and were significantly higher than the control group after treatment, PaCO2, D-D, Fib were significantly lower, and were lower than the control group after treatment, the differences were statistically significant (allP<0.05).Conclusions:AECOPD patients treated with low molecular heparin can help to improve the arterial blood gas, lung function and blood coagulation function.

  15. Wastewater treatment using flocculation, coagulation, and flotation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and evaluation of flocculation coagulation and flotation processes for the treatment of sewage and industrial wastes. Citations examine technology requirements and limitations, activated sludge and anaerobic processes, chlorination, runoff pollution control, wastewater recycling and reuse, and materials recovery.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Late-Onset Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2017-01-01

    Late-onset asthma is common, associated with poor outcome, underdiagnosed and undertreated, possibly due to the modifying effect of ageing on disease expression. Although the diagnostic work-up in elderly individuals suspected of having asthma follows the same steps as in younger individuals (case......, to objectively confirm asthma. If necessary, a trial of oral or inhaled corticosteroid might be necessary. Asthma can be diagnosed when increased airflow variability is identified in a symptomatic patient, and if the patient does not have a history of exposure, primarily smoking, known to cause chronic...... obstructive pulmonary disease, the diagnosis is asthma even if the patient does not have fully reversible airflow obstruction. Pharmacological therapy in patients with late-onset asthma follows international guidelines, including treatment with the lowest effective dose of inhaled corticosteroid to minimize...

  17. The loss of homeostasis in hemostasis: new approaches in treating and understanding acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Karen M; Abrams, Charles S

    2012-02-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) profoundly increases the morbidity and mortality of patients who have sepsis. Both laboratory and clinical research advanced the understanding of the biology and pathophysiology of DIC. This, in turn, gave rise to improved therapies and patient outcomes. Beginning with a stimulus causing disruption of vascular integrity, cytokines and chemokines cause activation of systemic coagulation and inflammation. Seemingly paradoxically, the interplay between coagulation and inflammation also inhibits endogenous anticoagulants, fibrinolytics, and antiinflammatory pathways. The earliest documented and best-studied microbial cause of DIC is the lipopolysaccharide endotoxin of Gram-negative bacteria. Extensive microvascular thrombi emerge in the systemic vasculature due to dysregulation of coagulation. The result of this unrestrained, widespread small vessel thromboses multiorgan system failure. Consumption of platelets and coagulation factors during this process can lead to an elevated risk of hemorrhage. The management of these patients with simultaneous hemorrhage and thrombosis is complex and challenging. Definitive treatment of DIC, and attenuation of end-organ damage, requires control of the inciting cause. Currently, activated protein C is the only approved therapy in the United States for sepsis complicated by DIC. Further research is needed in this area to improve clinical outcomes for patients with sepsis.

  18. Multiple response optimization of the coagulation process for upgrading the quality of effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Hu, Yi; Lu, Yong-Ze; Zeng, Raymond J.; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    2016-05-01

    To meet the high quality standard of receiving water, the coagulation process using polyferric chloride (PFC) was used to further improve the water quality of effluent from wastewater treatment plants. Uniform design (UD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted to assess the effects of the main influence factors: coagulant dosage, pH and basicity, on the removal of total organic carbon (TOC), NH4+-N and PO43--P. A desirability function approach was used to effectively optimize the coagulation process for the comprehensive removal of TOC, NH4+-N and PO43--P to upgrade the effluent quality in practical application. The optimized operating conditions were: dosage 28 mg/L, pH 8.5 and basicity 0.001. The corresponding removal efficiencies for TOC, NH4+-N and PO43--P were 77.2%, 94.6% and 20.8%, respectively. More importantly, the effluent quality could upgrade to surface water Class V of China through coagulation under optimal region. In addition, grey relational analysis (GRA) prioritized these three factors as: pH > basicity > dosage (for TOC), basicity > dosage > pH (for NH4+-N), pH > dosage > basicity (for PO43--P), which would help identify the most important factor to control the treatment efficiency of various effluent quality indexes by PFC coagulation.

  19. Preparation of PFS coagulant by sectionalized reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The oxidation rate of ferrous sulfate is investigated for the preparation of polyferric sulfate(PFS) coagulant.It is proved that this reaction is zero order with respect to Fe2 +,first order with respect to NO2 (g),and first order with respect to the interface area between gas phase and liquid phase.According to this mechanism,sectionalized reactor(SR) is used in place of traditional reactor(TR),and the liquid of reaction mixture is recycled by pump.As a result,not only the flow path of reaction liquid is prolonged,but also gas-liquid contact area enlarged,and the reaction distinctly accelerated,compared with traditional reactor.The effects of parameters including temperature,acidity and others on the reaction rate are also discussed.

  20. Quinine-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Abed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Every drug comes with some side effect. It is the benefit/risk ratio that determines the medical use of the drug. Quinine, a known antimalarial drug, has been used for nocturnal leg cramps since the 1930s; it is associated with severe life-threatening hematological and cardiovascular side effects. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, albeit rare, is a known coagulopathy associated with Quinine. It is imperative to inquire about the Quinine intake in medication history in patients with coagulopathy, as most patients still consider it a harmless home remedy for nocturnal leg cramps. In this report, we present a case of coagulopathy in a middle-aged woman, who gave a history of taking Quinine for nocturnal leg cramps, as her home remedy. Early identification of the offending agent led to the diagnosis, prompt discontinuation of the medication, and complete recovery and prevented the future possibility of recurrence.

  1. Contact activation of blood-plasma coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golas, Avantika

    Surface engineering of biomaterials with improved hemocompatibility is an imperative, given the widespread global need for cardiovascular devices. Research summarized in this dissertation focuses on contact activation of FXII in buffer and blood plasma frequently referred to as autoactivation. The extant theory of contact activation imparts FXII autoactivation ability to negatively charged, hydrophilic surfaces. According to this theory, contact activation of plasma involves assembly of proteins comprising an "activation complex" on activating surfaces mediated by specific chemical interactions between complex proteins and the surface. This work has made key discoveries that significantly improve our core understanding of contact activation and unravel the existing paradigm of plasma coagulation. It is shown herein that contact activation of blood factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) in neat-buffer solution exhibits a parabolic profile when scaled as a function of silanized-glass-particle activator surface energy (measured as advancing water adhesion tension t°a=g° Iv costheta in dyne/cm, where g°Iv is water interfacial tension in dyne/cm and theta is the advancing contact angle). Nearly equal activation is observed at the extremes of activator water-wetting properties --36 < t°a < 72 dyne/cm (O° ≤ theta < 120°), falling sharply through a broad minimum within the 20 < t°a < 40 dyne/cm (55° < theta < 75°). Furthermore, contact activation of FXII in buffer solution produces an ensemble of protein fragments exhibiting either procoagulant properties in plasma (proteolysis of blood factor XI or prekallikrein), amidolytic properties (cleavage of s-2302 chromogen), or the ability to suppress autoactivation through currently unknown biochemistry. The relative proportions of these fragments depend on activator surface chemistry/energy. We have also discovered that contact activation is moderated by adsorption of plasma proteins unrelated to coagulation through an

  2. Treatment of Textile Wastewaterby Adsorption and Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The composite of wastewater treatment was carried out using activated charcoal as adsorbent to remove COD, BOD, color in which various parameters like adsorbent dose, contact duration, temperature and agitator speed were considered. The adsorbent behavior can be explained on the basis of Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Maximum removal (87.6, 81.0 and 90.0% of COD, BOD and color respectively was found at adsorbent dosage of 11 g/L. Also, the textile mill wastewater was treated with different doses of coagulants like alum, ferric sulphate and ferrous sulphate at constant contact duration (4 hours and room temperature (300 K. Percentage reduction (maximum corresponds to 80.2, 74.0 and 84.9% was obtained for removal of COD, BOD and color respectively.

  3. Severe bleeding tendency caused by a rare complication of excessive fibrinolysis with disseminated intravascular coagulation in a 51-year-old Japanese man with prostate cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada Yoshihiro

    2012-11-01

    intravascular coagulation and excessive fibrinolysis is a warning case of potential coagulation disorder onset in patients with prostate cancer. We propose that combined administration of tranexamic acid and low-molecular-weight heparin together with high-dose anti-androgen therapy is a useful therapeutic option for patients with this complicated coagulation disorder.

  4. Using chloramine as a coagulant aid in enhancing coagulation of Yellow River water in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Considering that contaminated raw water mostly contains high Ammonia-N and a majority of water treatment plants use prechlorination process in China, efficiency of chloramines as a coagulant aid in enhancing coagulation was investigated by Jar stirring and pilot-scale tests, using Yellow River water containing high concentration of natural organic matters (NOM) and bromide in winter. The jar tests results showed that, compared with no preoxidation, preformed chloramine apparently decreased the turbidity of settled and filtered water with low dosage (2.0 mg/L), and the aid-coagulation efficiency was further enhanced with the increase of chlorine (Cl2) to Ammonia-N (N) ratio. Pilot-scale studies indicated that, in comparison to the case without preoxidation, the turbidity removal efficiency of flotation and filtration effluent water was significantly improved, the particle counts of filtered water were decreased 63.4%, the average rate of filter head loss was reduced 18.2%, and filter run time was prolonged 15.7%. Therefore, chloramine preoxidation may substantially enhance the particle separation efficiency.

  5. Effect of Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy on Cytokines, Hemorheology and Coagulation Function of Pregnant Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Cui-ge; LI Lian-xiang; LIU Xiao-qin; SHI Jian-yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) on the cytokines, hemorheology and coagulation function of pregnant women. Methods: A total of 43 singleton pregnant women with ICP delivered in Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital from June 2014 to June 2015 were selected as observation group, and 45 singleton healthy pregnant women accompanied by indications of cesarean section were selected as control group. Automatic Viscometer was used to detect the hematological indexes, Automatic Coagulometer to detect the indexes related to coagulation function and radioimmunoassay to determine the levels of cell inflammatory factors, and the pregnancy outcomes were closely observed. Results:The levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12), interleukin-18 (IL-18), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), high and low shear rates of whole blood viscosity, hematokrit, plasma viscosity and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in observation group were all dramatically higher than those in control group, and all the differences were statistically signiifcant (P0.05). When compared with control group, the levels of D-dimer (D-D) and fibrinogen (FIB) in observation group increased dramatically (P0.05). Conclusion: Both the hemorheology and coagulation function of pregnant women with ICP manifest signiifcantly high viscosity and hypercoagulability, and the release of cell inlfammatory factors increases, which all exert adverse inlfuence on pregnancy outcome.

  6. Polymorphisms in the genes for coagulation factor II,V,VII in patients undergoing coronary angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐耕; 金国栋; 傅国胜; 马骥; 单江; 王建安

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether polymorphisms in the genes for coagulation factor II,V, VII could predispose an individual to increase risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) and/or myocardial infarction (MI) in Chinese. Methods: We screened coagulation factor II(G20210A),V(G1691A),VII (R353Q and HVR4) genotype in 374 patients undergoing coronary angiography by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. Results: The R353Q and HVR4 genotype of the factor VII distribution was in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequencies of FVII genotype or allele did not show statistically significant differences between CAD group and controls or between male and female. The frequencies of the Q allele and (RQ+QQ) genotype were significantly higher among the CAD patients without myocardial infarction (MI) history than among those with MI history (P<0.05). However, HVR4 polymorphism was not significantly different within groups. We only find one normal control of factorII(G20210A) mutation. No coagulation factor V(G1691A) mutation was found in the CAD patients and controls. Conclusion: The factor II(G20210A),V(G1691A) mutation is absent and may not be a major genetic factor for CAD and/or MI; the Q allele of the R353Q polymorphism of the factor VII gene may be a protective genetic factor against myocardial infarction in Chinese.

  7. A short contemporary history of disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Marcel; van der Poll, Tom

    2014-11-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by systemic intravascular activation of coagulation, leading to a widespread deposition of fibrin in the circulation. There is ample experimental and pathological evidence that the fibrin deposition contributes to multiple organ failure. The massive and ongoing activation of coagulation may result in depletion of platelets and coagulation factors, which may cause bleeding (consumption coagulopathy). The syndrome of DIC is well known in the medical literature for centuries, although a more precise description of the underlying mechanisms had to await the 20th century. Initial ideas on a role of the contact activation system as the primary trigger for the systemic activation of coagulation as well as a presumed hyperfibrinolytic response in DIC have been found to be misconceptions. Experimental and clinical evidence now indicate that the initiation of coagulation in DIC is caused by tissue factor expression, which in combination with downregulated physiological anticoagulant pathways and impaired fibrinolysis leads to widespread fibrin deposition. In addition, an extensive bidirectional interaction between coagulation and inflammation may further contribute to the pathogenesis of DIC.

  8. Effect of coagulation pretreatment on the fouling of ultrafiltration membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Bing-zhi; CHEN Yan; GAO Nai-yun; FAN Jin-chu

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the effect and mechanism of preventing membrane fouling,by coagulation pretreatment,in terms of fractional component and molecular weight of natural organic matter(NOM).A relatively higher molecular weight(MW)of hydrophobic compounds was responsible for a rapid decline in the ultrafiltration flux.Coagulation could effectively remove the hydrophobic organics.resulting in the increase of flux.It was found that a lower MW of neutral hydrophilic compounds,which could remove inadequately by coagulation.was responsible for tlle slow declining flux.The fluxes in the filtration of coagulated water and supematant water were compared and the results showed that a lower MW of neutral hydrophilic compounds remained in the supernatant water after coagulation could be rejected by a membrane,resulting in fouling.It was also found that the coagulated flocs could absorb neutral hydrophilic compounds effectively.Therefore,with the coagulated flocs formed on the membrane surface,the flux decline could be improved.

  9. Improved protein-adsorption-resistant property of PES/SPC blend membrane by adjustment of coagulation bath composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Wang, Yan-qiang; Su, Yan-lei; Jiang, Zhong-yi

    2005-12-30

    To improve surface protein-adsorption-resistant property of polyethersulfone (PES) membranes, soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC) was added to PES casting solution. The blend membranes were prepared by a phase inversion method in a wet process. The surface of PES/SPC blend membranes was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XPS data revealed that the phosphorylcholine (PC) groups were concentrated at the surface by changing the composition of coagulation bath. Addition of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in coagulation bath could prolong coagulation time and facilitate the migration of SPC from polymer bulk to membrane surface. The PES/SPC blend membranes dramatically reduced BSA and fibrinogen adsorption compared to PES control membrane due to effective immobilization of PC groups at the surface of PES/SPC blend membranes.

  10. Double catholyte electrochemical approach for preparing ferrate-aluminum: a compound dxidant-coagulant for water purification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Ferrate is an excellent water treatment agent for its multi-functions in oxidation, disinfection, coagulation and adsorption, but its coagulation ability depends on its dosage and is after its oxidation. This paper focuses on preparing a new kind of ferrate combined with alum to enhance its coagulation function for water purification. An effective electrolysis reactor was designed and employed in the test. Some key parameters in the process of electrolysis concerning the preparation efficiency, such as the current density, temperature and alkalinity were also investigated. The proper conditions for ferrate-alum preparation were determined. In the condition of 5V given voltage, 6h electrolyzing interval, below 2% alum concentration (in weight), a combined liquid ferrate-alum products was successfully prepared, which contained 0.0294 mol/L FeO42-, 0.0302 mol/L total soluble ferron with 2% Al2O3. There was no insoluble ferron produced by controlling an optimum electrochemical condition.

  11. Origin of serpin-mediated regulation of coagulation and blood pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjie Wang

    Full Text Available Vertebrates evolved an endothelium-lined hemostatic system and a pump-driven pressurized circulation with a finely-balanced coagulation cascade and elaborate blood pressure control over the past 500 million years. Genome analyses have identified principal components of the ancestral coagulation system, however, how this complex trait was originally regulated is largely unknown. Likewise, little is known about the roots of blood pressure control in vertebrates. Here we studied three members of the serpin superfamily that interfere with procoagulant activity and blood pressure of lampreys, a group of basal vertebrates. Angiotensinogen from these jawless fish was found to fulfill a dual role by operating as a highly selective thrombin inhibitor that is activated by heparin-related glycosaminoglycans, and concurrently by serving as source of effector peptides that activate type 1 angiotensin receptors. Lampreys, uniquely among vertebrates, thus use angiotensinogen for interference with both coagulation and osmo- and pressure regulation. Heparin cofactor II from lampreys, in contrast to its paralogue angiotensinogen, is preferentially activated by dermatan sulfate, suggesting that these two serpins affect different facets of thrombin's multiple roles. Lampreys also express a lineage-specific serpin with anti-factor Xa activity, which demonstrates that another important procoagulant enzyme is under inhibitory control. Comparative genomics suggests that orthologues of these three serpins were key components of the ancestral hemostatic system. It appears that, early in vertebrate evolution, coagulation and osmo- and pressure regulation crosstalked through antiproteolytically active angiotensinogen, a feature that was lost during vertebrate radiation, though in gnathostomes interplay between these traits is effective.

  12. Easily-handled method to isolate mesenchymal stem cells from coagulated human bone marrow samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng-Xiang; Wang; Zhi-Yong; Li; Zhi-Kun; Guo; Zi-Kuan; Guo

    2015-01-01

    AIM:To establish an easily-handled method to isolate mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) from coagulated human bone marrow samples. METHODS: Thrombin was added to aliquots of seven heparinized human bone marrow samples to mimic marrow coagulation. The clots were untreated,treated with urokinase or mechanically cut into pieces before culture for MSCs. The un-coagulated samples and the clots were also stored at 4 ℃ for 8 or 16 h before the treatment. The numbers of colony-forming unit-fibroblast(CFU-F) in the different samples were determined. The adherent cells from different groups were passaged and their surface profile was analyzed with flow cytometry. Their capacities of in vitro osteogenesis and adipogenesis were observed after the cells were exposed to specific inductive agents.RESULTS: The average CFU-F number of urokinasetreated samples(16.85 ± 11.77/106) was comparable to that of un-coagulated control samples(20.22 ± 10.65/106,P = 0.293),which was significantly higher than those of mechanically-cut clots(6.5 ± 5.32/106,P < 0.01) and untreated clots(1.95 ± 1.86/106,P < 0.01). The CFU-F numbers decreased after samples were stored,but those of control and urokinase-treated clots remained higher than the other two groups. Consistently,the numbers of the attached cells at passage 0 were higher in control and urokinase-treated clots than those of mechanically-cut clots and untreated clots.The attached cells were fibroblast-like in morphology and homogenously positive for CD44,CD73 and CD90,and negative for CD31 and CD45. Also,they could be induced to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes in vitro. CONCLUSION: Urokinase pretreatment is an optimal strategy to isolate MSCs from human bone marrow samples that are poorly aspirated and clotted.

  13. Role of enteric supplementation of probiotics on late-onset sepsis by candida species in preterm low birth weight neonates: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Roy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase in invasive fungal infections (IFIs in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU is jeopardizing the survival of preterm neonates. Probiotics modulating the intestinal microflora of preterm neonates may minimize enteral fungal colonization. Aims: This study was to examine whether probiotic supplementation in neonates reduced fungal septicemia. Materials and Methods: This prospective, randomized, double blind trial investigating the supplementation of preterm infants with a probiotic was done from May 2012 to April 2013, with 112 subjects randomized into two groups. Primary outcome: Decreased fungal colonization in gastrointestinal tract. Others: Incidence of late onset septicemia; duration of the primary hospital admission; number of days until full enteral feeds established. Results: Full feed establishment was earlier in probiotics group compared to placebo group (P = 0.016. The duration of hospitalization was less in the probiotic group (P = 0.002. Stool fungal colonization, an important outcome parameter was 3.03 ± 2.33 × 10 5 colony formation units (CFU in the probiotics group compared to 3 ± 1.5 × 10 5 CFU in the placebo group (P = 0.03. Fungal infection is less in the study group (P = 0.001. Conclusion: The key features of our study were reduced enteral fungal colonization, reduce invasive fungal sepsis, earlier establishment of full enteral feeds, and reduced duration of hospital stay in the probiotics group.

  14. Current concepts in the management of disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thachil, Jecko; Toh, Cheng Hock

    2012-04-01

    Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation is a clinicopathological syndrome where widespread intravascular coagulation occurs in response to an inciting process. The pathophysiology for this disorder is complex with an important role for thrombin, the central regulator of the coagulation process. Since the clinical spectrum of DIC is variable due to its dynamic nature, the laboratory diagnosis should ideally be not based on a single marker or an isolated set of results. The treatment should primary focus on the management of the underlying triggering condition with blood products used as resuscitative measures. Newer therapeutic modalities have been recently tried with success although the management of DIC still remains a major challenge.

  15. Pro-coagulant activity of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Barbara A; Herzig, Maryanne C; Montgomery, Robbie K; Delavan, Christopher; Bynum, James A; Reddoch, Kristin M; Cap, Andrew P

    2017-04-05

    Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show great potential for the treatment of military and civilian trauma, based on their reduced immunogenicity and ability to modulate inflammation and immune function in the recipient. Although generally considered to be safe, MSCs express tissue factor (TF), a potent activator of coagulation. In the current study, we evaluated multiple MSC populations for tissue factor expression and pro-coagulant activity in order to characterize safety considerations for systemic use of MSCs in trauma patients who may have altered coagulation homeostasis. Multiple MSC populations derived from either human adipose tissue or bone marrow were expanded in the recommended stem cell media. Stem cell identity was confirmed using a well-characterized panel of positive and negative markers. Tissue factor expression on the cell surface was evaluated by flow cytometry with anti-CD142 antibody. Effects on blood coagulation were determined by thromboelastography (TEG) and calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) assays using platelet poor plasma or whole blood. MSCs express tissue factor on their surfaces and are pro-coagulant in the presence of blood or plasma. The adipose-derived MSCs (Ad-MSC) evaluated were more pro-coagulant and expressed more tissue factor than bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs), which showed a greater variability in TF expression. BM-MSCs were identified that exhibited low pro-coagulant activity, whereas all Ad-MSCs examined exhibited high pro-coagulant activity. The percentage of cells in a given population expressing surface tissue factor correlates roughly with functional pro-coagulant activity. MSC tissue factor expression and pro-coagulant activity change over time in culture. All MSC populations are not equivalent; care should be taken to select cells for clinical use that minimize potential safety problems and maximize chance of patient benefit. Adipose-derived MSCs appear more consistently pro-coagulant than BM-MSCs, presenting a

  16. A loop of coagulation factor VIIa influencing macromolecular substrate specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelke, Jais R; Persson, Egon; Rasmussen, Hanne B;

    2006-01-01

    Coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) belongs to a family of proteases being part of the stepwise, self-amplifying blood coagulation cascade. To investigate the impact of the mutation Met(298{156})Lys in FVIIa, we replaced the Gly(283{140})-Met(298{156}) loop with the corresponding loop of factor Xa....../Met(298{156})Lys-FVIIa with almost the same activity and specificity profile. We conclude that a lysine residue in position 298{156} of FVIIa requires a hydrophilic environment to be fully accommodated. This position appears critical for substrate specificity among the proteases of the blood coagulation...

  17. Changes in the human blood coagulating system during prolonged hypokinesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, L. M.; Anashkin, O. D.

    1978-01-01

    Changes in the coagulating system of the blood were studied in six subjects during prolonged hypokinesia. Thrombogenic properties of the blood rose in all cases on the 8th day. These changes are explained by stress reaction due to unusual conditions for a healthy person. Changes in the blood coagulating system in the group subjected to physical exercise and without it ran a practically parallel course. Apparently physical exercise is insufficient to prevent such changes that appear in the coagulating system of the blood during prolonged hypokinesia.

  18. Implementation of a microcontroller-based semi-automatic coagulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K; Kirumira, A; Elkateeb, A

    2001-01-01

    The coagulator is an instrument used in hospitals to detect clot formation as a function of time. Generally, these coagulators are very expensive and therefore not affordable by a doctors' office and small clinics. The objective of this project is to design and implement a low cost semi-automatic coagulator (SAC) prototype. The SAC is capable of assaying up to 12 samples and can perform the following tests: prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and PT/APTT combination. The prototype has been tested successfully.

  19. Reduced efficacy of marine cloud brightening geoengineering due to in-plume aerosol coagulation: parameterization and global implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Stuart

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The intentional enhancement of cloud albedo via controlled sea-spray injection from ships (marine cloud brightening has been proposed as a possible method to control anthropogenic global warming; however, there remains significant uncertainty in the efficacy of this method due to, amongst other factors, uncertainties in aerosol and cloud microphysics. A major assumption used in recent cloud- and climate-modeling studies is that all sea spray was emitted uniformly into some oceanic grid boxes, and thus these studies did not account for subgrid aerosol coagulation within the sea-spray plumes. We explore the evolution of these sea-salt plumes using a multi-shelled Gaussian plume model with size-resolved aerosol coagulation. We determine how the final number of particles depends on meteorological conditions, including wind speed and boundary-layer stability, as well as the emission rate and size distribution of aerosol emitted. Under previously proposed injection rates and typical marine conditions, we find that the number of aerosol particles is reduced by over 50%, but this reduction varies from under 10% to over 90% depending on the conditions. We provide a computationally efficient parameterization for cloud-resolving and global-scale models to account for subgrid-scale coagulation, and we implement this parameterization in a global-scale aerosol-climate model. While designed to address subgrid-scale coagulation of sea-salt particles, the parameterization is generally applicable for coagulation of subgrid-scale aerosol from point sources. We find that accounting for this subgrid-scale coagulation reduces cloud droplet number concentrations by 46% over emission regions, and reduces the global mean radiative flux perturbation from −1.5 W m−2 to −0.8 W m−2.

  20. Effect of nano-scale curvature on the intrinsic blood coagulation system

    OpenAIRE

    Kushida, Takashi; Saha, Krishnendu; Subramani, Chandramouleeswaran; Nandwana, Vikas; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2014-01-01

    The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation ‘silent’ surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature shows denaturation and concomitant coagulation.

  1. Removal of titanium dioxide nanoparticles by coagulation: effects of coagulants, typical ions, alkalinity and natural organic matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H T; Ye, Y Y; Qi, J; Li, F T; Tang, Y L

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of removing titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) from water by coagulation, as well as to find the optimal coagulant and experimental conditions for TiO2 NP removal, four types of coagulant were adopted: polyferric sulfate (PFS), ferric chloride (FeCl3), polyaluminum chloride (PACl), and alum (Al2(SO4)3). It was found that the removal of TiO2 NPs by coagulation was affected by ionic strength, alkalinity, as well as types and dosages of coagulants. PFS and FeCl3 achieved much higher removal efficiency of TiO2 NPs than PACl and Al2(SO4)3 did. For 30 mg/L TiO2 NPs, a dosage of 0.3 mM PFS (as Fe) achieved 84% removal after coagulation followed by 30 min settlement. Optimal ionic strength (0.1 M NaCl or 0.03 M CaCl2) is of vital importance for the performance of PFS. Na2SO4 is unfavorable for the performance of PFS. Optimal alkalinity (0.01-0.03 M NaHCO3) is necessary for FeCl3 to remove TiO2 NPs. Natural organic matter, as represented by humic acid (HA) up to 11 mg/L, reduces the removal of TiO2 NPs by coagulation. These findings indicate that coagulation is a good option for the removal of TiO2 NPs from water, and more attention should be paid to the effects of water quality when using coagulation to remove TiO2 NPs from aqueous matrices. This provides a possible solution to alleviate the potential hazard caused by TiO2 NPs.

  2. Influence of natural coagulants on isoflavones and antioxidant activity of tofu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekha, C R; Vijayalakshmi, G

    2010-08-01

    Tofu (instead of preparing using synthetic coagulant) was prepared using coagulants of plant origin (Citrus limonum, Garcinia indica, Tamarindus indica, Phyllanthus acidus and Passiflora edulis). Total crude protein and fat contents were highest in tofu prepared using G. indica and T. indica (72.5% dbw) compared to synthetic coagulant. Tofu prepared with natural coagulants had signifi cantly higher antioxidant activity compared to synthetic coagulant. Bioconversion of isoflavone glucosides (daidzin and genistin) into their corresponding bioactive aglycones (daidzein and genistein) was observed in tofu. The difference between glucosides and aglycones contents in soy milk was significant but there was not much difference in tofu coagulated with synthetic and natural coagulants.

  3. Late onset globoid cell leukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, R P; Petronas, N; Barton, N W

    1991-11-01

    A 29 year old male with onset of globoid cell leukodystrophy at age 14 is described. This is the first case of enzymatically confirmed globoid cell leukodystrophy with onset of symptoms after the age of ten. This patient is unique because of the late onset and slow progression and extends the clinical spectrum of globoid cell leukodystrophy.

  4. Adult-onset tic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eapen, [No Value; Lees, AJ; Lakke, JPWF; Trimble, MR; Robertson, MM

    2002-01-01

    We report on 8 patients with adult-onset motor tics and vocalisations. Three had compulsive tendencies in childhood and 3 had a family history of tics or obsessive-compulsive behaviour. In comparison with DSM-classified, younger-onset Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, adult-onset tic disorders are mor

  5. Violations of coagulation hemostasis in patients with arterial hypertension in combination with osteoarthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Rodionova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To define violations of coagulation hemostasis in patients with arterial hypertension (HT and osteoarthrosis (OA. Materials and Methods: The study involved 70 people. The main group included 25 patients (age 40-65 years with hypertension stage II, combined with knee OA stage 2 according to Kellgren-Lawrence. The first comparison group consisted of 15 patients with hypertension stage II, the second comparison group consisted of 15 patients with OA stage 2, the control group - 15 almost healthy people. Results and Discussion: In patients with OA dominated violation of coagulation hemostasis. In patients with hypertension and hypertensive OA was observed violation of platelet hemostasis in combination with coagulation disorders. Indicators of aPTT, activated recalcification time, prothrombin ratio and INR were significantly lower in patients of all studied groups in comparison with the control group. At the same time there were significantly increased rates: SFMC, autoсoagulation test and XII-dependent lysis. Conclusion: hypercoagulation disorders with normal platelet function prevailed in patients with OA. Patients with HT and HT in combination with OA had hypercoagulation with increased platelet function, which may contribute to the risk of thrombus formation.

  6. Polymorphisms in the genes for coagulation factor Ⅱ,Ⅴ,Ⅶ in patients undergoing coronary angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐耕; 金国栋; 傅国胜; 马骥; 单江; 王建安

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether polymorphisms in the genes for coagulation factor Ⅱ,Ⅴ,Ⅶ could predispose an individual to increase risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) and/or myocardial infarction (MI) in Chinese. Methods: We screened coagulation factor Ⅱ( G20210A),Ⅴ( G1691A),Ⅶ( R353Q and HVR4) genotype in 374 patients undergoing coronary angiography by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. Results: The R353Q and HVR4 genotype of the factor Ⅶ distribution was in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequencies of FVⅡ genotype or allele did not show statistically significant differences between CAD group and controls or between male and female.The frequencies of the Q allele and ( RQ + QQ) genotype were significantly higher among the CAD patients without myocardial infarction (MI) history than among those with MI history (P < 0.05). However, HVR4 polymorphism was not significantly different within groups. We only find one normal control of factorⅡ(G20210A) mutation. No coagulation factor Ⅴ(G1691A) mutation was found in the CAD patients and con-trois. Conclusion: The factor Ⅱ(G20210A),Ⅴ(G1691A) mutation is absent and may not be a major genetic factor for CAD and/or MI; the Q allele of the R353Q polymorphism of the factor Ⅶ gene may be a protective genetic factor against myocardial infarction in Chinese.

  7. 乌司他丁对双瓣置换患者围术期溶酶体膜稳定性及凝血功能的影响%Effects of ulinastatin on the stability of lysosomal membrane and blood coagulation functions in patients undergoing mitral and aortic valves replacement:a double blinded randomized controlled study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王臻; 程亮; 曹轶; 赵璧君; 张秀静; 金振晓

    2013-01-01

    目的观察体外循环中应用乌司他丁对双瓣置换患者围术期溶酶体膜稳定性及凝血功能的影响。方法在体外循环下行二尖瓣联合主动脉瓣置换患者20例,随机分为乌司他丁组及对照组,乌司他丁组患者按20000 U/kg总量给予乌司他丁,其中半量预充,半量于主动脉开放前加入到体外循环管路中,对照组患者给予等量生理盐水。分别于术前30 min,体外循环60 min、120 min及体外循环结束后30 min采集血样,ELISA方法检测血浆中组织蛋白酶D( CTSD)及N-乙酰-β-D-氨基葡萄糖苷酶( NAG)含量;采用血栓弹力图比较手术前后凝血功能。同时,记录术后ICU滞留时间、引流量、24 h尿量及呋塞米用量,以及术后呼吸机辅助时间、死亡等情况。结果两组患者均顺利出院,无死亡,无严重并发症;术后ICU时间、机械通气时间、术后第1个24小时尿量及呋塞米用量组间无显著差异( P>0.05);与对照组比较,凝血功能各项指标在手术结束后未见明显差异( P>0.05);体外循环过程中各时间点NAG及CTSD含量组间无显著差异( P>0.05)。结论体外循环中应用乌司他丁20000 U/kg对双瓣置换患者围术期溶酶体稳定性及凝血功能的保护作用与对照组没有明显差异。%Objective To investigate the effects of ulinastatin on the stability of lysosomal membrane and blood coagulation functions in patients undergoing mitral and aortic valves replacement .Methods Twenty consecutive patients scheduled for mitral and aortic valve replacement surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were randomized into two groups:ulinastatin group , who received 20 000 U/kg ulinastatin during CPB with half added into the prime solution and half added to the circuit upon aortic clamping removal;control group , who received same volume of saline .Blood sample were collected at 30 min before the operation ,60 min and 120

  8. Impacts of epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine on coagulation performance and membrane fouling in coagulation/ultrafiltration combined process with different Al-based coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Fan; Gao, Baoyu; Li, Ruihua; Sun, Shenglei; Yue, Qinyan

    2016-09-01

    Two kinds of aluminum-based coagulants and epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine (DAM-ECH) were used in the treatment of humic acid-kaolin simulated water by coagulation-ultrafiltration (C-UF) hybrid process. Coagulation performance, floc characteristics, including floc size, compact degree, and strength were investigated in this study. Ultrafiltration experiments were conducted by a dead-end batch unit to implement the resistance analyses to explore the membrane fouling mechanisms. Results showed that DAM-ECH aid significantly increased the UV254 and DOC removal efficiencies and contributed to the formation of larger and stronger flocs with a looser structure. Aluminum chloride (Al) gave rise to better coagulation performance with DAM-ECH compared with poly aluminum chloride (PACl). The consequences of ultrafiltration experiments showed that DAM-ECH aid could reduce the membrane fouling mainly by decreasing the cake layer resistance. The flux reductions for PACl, Al/DAM-ECH (dosing both Al and DAM-ECH) and PACl/DAM-ECH (dosing both PACl and DAM-ECH) were 62%, 56% and 44%, respectively. Results of this study would be beneficial for the application of PACl/DAM-ECH and Al/DAM-ECH composite coagulants in water treatment processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Some Plasma Coagulation Factors in Women with Spontaneous Miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Besharat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been reported that 15-20% of parous female have experienced at least one miscarriage, while 3% of them have experienced two miscarriages. The goal of this study was to evaluate the plasma level of coagulation factors in women with a history of spontaneous abortions. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 82 women with a history of two or more abortions referred to the six private gynecologic clinics in Gorgan city without any structural abnormality were recruited during 2011-2012. Plasma levels of antithrombin III (ATIII using colorimetric assay, protein C, protein S, factor V Leiden and lupus anticoagulant (LAC using coagulation method were measured. The control group was women with a history of normal delivery and no abortions. Those under anti-coagulant therapy were excluded from the study. Data were entered into the computer using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA version 16 and analyzed by Chi-square, t test and non-parametric tests. Results: At least one abnormality was reported in 35 cases (42.7%. Among them, protein C deficiency was the most prevalent (30.5%. ATIII was abnormal in 17.1% and lupus anti-coagulant was abnormal in 8.5%. Factor V Leiden was normal in all cases and protein S deficiency was only seen in one case. Conclusion: We suggest to perform these tests in regards to the thrombophilia in cases with spontaneous abortions in order to find an early cure for this treatable disorder.

  10. A cartridge based sensor array platform for multiple coagulation measurements from plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, O; Ermek, E; Kilinc, N; Bulut, S; Baris, I; Kavakli, I H; Yaralioglu, G G; Urey, Hakan

    2015-01-07

    This paper proposes a MEMS-based sensor array enabling multiple clot-time tests for plasma in one disposable microfluidic cartridge. The versatile LoC (Lab-on-Chip) platform technology is demonstrated here for real-time coagulation tests (activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) and Prothrombin Time (PT)). The system has a reader unit and a disposable cartridge. The reader has no electrical connections to the cartridge. This enables simple and low-cost cartridge designs and avoids reliability problems associated with electrical connections. The cartridge consists of microfluidic channels and MEMS microcantilevers placed in each channel. The microcantilevers are made of electroplated nickel. They are actuated remotely using an external electro-coil and the read-out is also conducted remotely using a laser. The phase difference between the cantilever oscillation and the coil drive is monitored in real time. During coagulation, the viscosity of the blood plasma increases resulting in a change in the phase read-out. The proposed assay was tested on human and control plasma samples for PT and aPTT measurements. PT and aPTT measurements from control plasma samples are comparable with the manufacturer's datasheet and the commercial reference device. The measurement system has an overall 7.28% and 6.33% CV for PT and aPTT, respectively. For further implementation, the microfluidic channels of the cartridge were functionalized for PT and aPTT tests by drying specific reagents in each channel. Since simultaneous PT and aPTT measurements are needed in order to properly evaluate the coagulation system, one of the most prominent features of the proposed assay is enabling parallel measurement of different coagulation parameters. Additionally, the design of the cartridge and the read-out system as well as the obtained reproducible results with 10 μl of the plasma samples suggest an opportunity for a possible point-of-care application.

  11. Blood coagulation parameters and activity indices in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Arshinov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess coagulation parameters and activity indices in pts with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Material and methods . 86 pts with SLE (83 female and 3 male were examined. 12 of them had antiphospholipid syndrome. Mean age was 35,9±1,5 years (from 18 to 58 years, mean disease duration was 9,8+1,4 years. Control group consisted of 60 healthy volunteers with mean age 37,1+4,1 years. SLE activity assessment was performed with SLAM, SLEDAI and ECLAM indices. Results. SLE pts showed 5-fold (p<0,01 increase of spontaneous platelets aggregation and more than 3-fold increase of factor von Willebrand antigen (FWA concentration. Platelet activation in pts was accompanied by decrease of platelet aggregation with collagen (on 27%, p<0,01. Characteristic sign of coagulation hemostasis activation was significant increase of soluble fibrin-monomer complexes (SFMC concentration on 81 % (p<0,01 so as increase D-dimers level in 53,3% of pts. Fibrinogen concentration was increased on 29%, spontaneous fibrinolysis parameters were decreased on 20%, antithrombin (AT 111 - on 21% in comparison with control. Direct correlation between activity indiccs and SFMC(ECLAM, r=0,5, fibrinogen concentration (SLAM, r=0,34, D- dimers level (ECLAM, r=0,5, spontaneous platelet aggregation (ECLAM, r=0,5 so as inverse correlation with AT III activity (SLEDAI, r-0,73 was revealed. Conclusion. Changes of hemostasis parameters in SLE may serve as predictors of thrombotic disorders development and indication to drug correction of blood coagulation disorders. Direct correlation between blood coagulation system activity and indices of SLE activity.

  12. Disseminated intravascular coagulation: a review for the internist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Marcel; van der Poll, Tom

    2013-02-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by systemic intravascular activation of coagulation, leading to widespread deposition of fibrin in the circulation. Recent knowledge on important pathogenetic mechanisms that may lead to DIC has resulted in novel preventive and therapeutic approaches to patients with DIC. The diagnosis of DIC can be made by sensitive laboratory tests; however, most of these tests are not readily available in a clinical setting. A reliable diagnosis can also be made on the basis of a small series of laboratory tests that can be combined in a scoring algorithm. The cornerstone of the management of DIC is the specific and vigorous treatment of the underlying disorder. Strategies aimed at the inhibition of coagulation activation may theoretically be justified and have been found beneficial in experimental and clinical studies. These strategies comprise inhibition of tissue factor-mediated activation of coagulation or restoration of physiological anticoagulant pathways.

  13. Performance of Solanum incunum Linnaeus as natural coagulant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    ISSN 1996-0786 ©2011 Academic Journals. Full Length ... that S. incunum is promising as coagulant and disinfectant product for water purification. ... it acceptable for release or reuse. ... to interfere with maintenance of a free chlorine residual.

  14. Treatability of South African surface waters by enhanced coagulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-05

    Jun 5, 2013 ... The majority of South African inland surface water sources are compromised due to a ... minimising residual coagulant, minimising sludge production .... included as being indicative of the worst effects of indirect reuse.

  15. Surgical Coagulator With Carbon Dioxide Laser For Gynecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Wieslaw; Kazmirowski, Antoni; Korobowicz, Witold; Olborski, Zbigniew

    1987-10-01

    The technical data and parameters of the CO2 surgical laser for gynecology are given. Coagulator was designed and constructed in Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw Technical University.

  16. Coagulation profile in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Decker; Vad, Henrik; Pedersen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    -, and the first two days postoperatively by standard coagulation blood test, thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) and thrombin generation. RESULTS: Patients undergoing potential curative surgery for lung cancer were not hypercoagulable preoperatively. There was no statistically significant difference in the majority...

  17. CARDIOVASCULAR AND BLOOD COAGULATION EFFECTS OF PULMONARY ZINC EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiovascular damage induced by pulmonary exposure to environmental chemicals can result from direct action or, secondarily, from pulmonary injury. We have developed a rat model of pulmonary exposure to zinc to demonstrate cardiac, coagulative, and fibrinolytic alterations. Mal...

  18. Thrombomodulin: A Bifunctional Modulator of Inflammation and Coagulation in Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Okamoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Deregulated interplay between inflammation and coagulation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Therapeutic approaches that simultaneously target both inflammation and coagulation hold great promise for the treatment of sepsis. Thrombomodulin is an endogenous anticoagulant protein that, in cooperation with protein C and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, serves to maintain the endothelial microenvironment in an anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant state. A recombinant soluble form of thrombomodulin has been approved to treat patients suffering from disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC and has thus far shown greater therapeutic potential than heparin. A phase II clinical trial is currently underway in the USA to study the efficacy of thrombomodulin for the treatment of sepsis with DIC complications. This paper focuses on the critical roles that thrombomodulin plays at the intersection of inflammation and coagulation and proposes the possible existence of interactions with integrins via protein C. Finally, we provide a rationale for the clinical application of thrombomodulin for alleviating sepsis.

  19. Carbon dioxide pressure-induced coagulation of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roland; Jessop, Philip G; Champagne, Pascale

    2015-12-28

    The move to a low-carbon economy has generated renewed interest in microalgae for the production of biofuels with the potential mutual benefit of wastewater treatment. However, harvesting has been identified as a limiting factor to the economic viability of this process. This paper explores the harvesting of microalgae using high-pressure gas without the addition of coagulants. Coagulation of microalgae under high-pressure gas was found to be an efficient method to separate algae from suspension. The critical coagulation pressures (CCPs) for H(2) and CO(2) were determined to be 6.1 and 6.2 MPa, respectively. The CO(2)-induced decrease in solution pH positively influenced coagulation rates, without appearing to affect the CCP. This approach could be beneficial for the economic removal of microalgae from solution for the production of both biofuels and biomedical compounds without the addition of non-environmentally friendly chemicals. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. optimization of coagulation-flocculation process for colour removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ... as an alternative for conventional coagulants that are widely used in dye wastewater treatment plants. ... biological treatment techniques used are aerobic degradation ... for colour removal from industrial wastewater due to its efficiency and ...

  1. Links between coagulation, inflammation, regeneration, and fibrosis in kidney pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Álvarez, Beatriz; Liapis, Helen; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2016-04-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) involves nephron injury leading to irreversible nephron loss, ie, chronic kidney disease (CKD). Both AKI and CKD are associated with distinct histological patterns of tissue injury, but kidney atrophy in CKD involves tissue remodeling with interstitial inflammation and scarring. No doubt, nephron atrophy, inflammation, fibrosis, and renal dysfunction are associated with each other, but their hierarchical relationships remain speculative. To better understand the pathophysiology, we provide an overview of the fundamental danger response programs that assure host survival upon traumatic injury from as early as the first multicellular organisms, ie, bleeding control by coagulation, infection control by inflammation, epithelial barrier restoration by re-epithelialization, and tissue stabilization by mesenchymal repair. Although these processes assure survival in the majority of the populations, their dysregulation causes kidney disease in a minority. We discuss how, in genetically heterogeneous population, genetic variants shift balances and modulate danger responses toward kidney disease. We further discuss how classic kidney disease entities develop from an insufficient or overshooting activation of these danger response programs. Finally, we discuss molecular pathways linking, for example, inflammation and regeneration or inflammation and fibrosis. Understanding the causative and hierarchical relationships and the molecular links between the danger response programs should help to identify molecular targets to modulate kidney injury and to improve outcomes for kidney disease patients.

  2. Coagulation parameters and platelet function analysis in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, A; Yılmaz, H; Temel, Y; Demirpence, M; Simsek, N; Karademirci, İ; Bozkurt, U; Yasar, E

    2016-01-01

    Acromegaly is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The data about the evaluation of coagulation and fibrinolysis in acromegalic patients are very limited and to our knowledge, platelet function analysis has never been investigated. So, we aimed to investigate the levels of protein C, protein S, fibrinogen, antithrombin 3 and platelet function analysis in patients with acromegaly. Thirty-nine patients with active acromegaly and 35 healthy subjects were included in the study. Plasma glucose and lipid profile, fibrinogen levels, GH and IGF-1 levels and protein C, protein S and antithrombin III activities were measured in all study subjects. Also, platelet function analysis was evaluated with collagen/ADP and collagen-epinephrine-closure times. Demographic characteristics of the patient and the control were similar. As expected, fasting blood glucose levels and serum GH and IGF-1 levels were significantly higher in the patient group compared with the control group (pglc: 0.002, pGH: 0.006, pIGF-1: 0.001, respectively). But lipid parameters were similar between the two groups. While serum fibrinogen and antithrombin III levels were found to be significantly higher in acromegaly group (p fibrinogen: 0.005 and pantithrombin III: 0.001), protein S and protein C activity values were significantly lower in the patient group (p protein S: 0.001, p protein C: 0.001). Also significantly enhanced platelet function (measured by collagen/ADP- and collagen/epinephrine-closure times) was demonstrated in acromegaly (p col-ADP: 0.002, p col-epinephrine: 0.002). The results did not change, when we excluded six patients with type 2 diabetes in the acromegaly group. There was a negative correlation between serum GH levels and protein S (r: -0.25, p: 0.04)) and protein C (r: -0.26, p: 0.04) values. Likewise, there was a negative correlation between IGF-1 levels and protein C values (r: -0.39, p: 0.002), protein S values (r: -0.39, p: 0.001), collagen

  3. Application of Dual Coagulant (Alum + Barley in Removing Colour from Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaylinda Mohd Zin Nur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation/flocculation is one of the treatment method for highly polluted leachate. One of the main affecting factor for this process is the coagulant used. Coagulant is divided into natural and chemical coagulant. In the current study, Alum (chemical coagulant and barley (natural coagulant were used as dual coagulant. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of dual coagulant made from alum and barley in removing colour from the effluent of Simpang Renggam landfill leachate aeration lagoon through coagulation/flocculation method. Coagulation/flocculation process with single alum coagulant, single barley coagulant and dual coagulant (alum+barley were examined by evaluating the optimum values of pH and dose. Optimum dose and pH for alum and barley as single coagulant were; 3 g/L & pH 5; 0.8 g/L & pH 6. Higher removal of colour was recorded for alum compared to barley. Application of alum and barley as dual coagulant had higher colour removal than alum and barley as single coagulant. The optimum pH and dose for dual coagulant were at pH 6, 3.0 g/L of alum and 0.8 g/L of barley respectively. However, at pH 6, 2 g/L alum and 1.6 g/L barley, the removal of colour was similar to alum at 3 g/L. It can be concluded that barley as coagulant aid able to reduce 33 % usage of alum at par removals of colour. Thus, the dual coagulant consist of alum and barley has the potential to be applied as a coagulant for leachate treatment.

  4. Factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation, and deficiencies in coagulation inhibitors associated with Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal vein thrombosis: results of a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L.A. Janssen (Harry); J.P. Vandenbroucke; F.R. Rosendaal (Frits); B. van Hoek (Bart); J.R. Meinardi; F.P. Vleggaar (Frank); S.H. van Uum; E.B. Haagsma (Els); F.J.M. van der Meer; J. van Hattum (Jan); R.A. Chamuleau; R.P.R. Adang (Rob)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn a collaborative multicenter case-control study, we investigated the effect of factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation, and inherited deficiencies of protein C, protein S, and antithrombin on the risk of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) and portal vein thrombosi

  5. Experimental dosing of wetlands with coagulants removes mercury from surface water and decreases mercury bioaccumulation in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Kraus, Tamara E C; Fleck, Jacob A; Krabbenhoft, David P; Horwath, William R; Bachand, Sandra M; Herzog, Mark P; Hartman, C Alex; Bachand, Philip A M

    2015-05-19

    Mercury pollution is widespread globally, and strategies for managing mercury contamination in aquatic environments are necessary. We tested whether coagulation with metal-based salts could remove mercury from wetland surface waters and decrease mercury bioaccumulation in fish. In a complete randomized block design, we constructed nine experimental wetlands in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, stocked them with mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and then continuously applied agricultural drainage water that was either untreated (control), or treated with polyaluminum chloride or ferric sulfate coagulants. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in surface waters were decreased by 62% and 63% in polyaluminum chloride treated wetlands and 50% and 76% in ferric sulfate treated wetlands compared to control wetlands. Specifically, following coagulation, mercury was transferred from the filtered fraction of water into the particulate fraction of water which then settled within the wetland. Mosquitofish mercury concentrations were decreased by 35% in ferric sulfate treated wetlands compared to control wetlands. There was no reduction in mosquitofish mercury concentrations within the polyaluminum chloride treated wetlands, which may have been caused by production of bioavailable methylmercury within those wetlands. Coagulation may be an effective management strategy for reducing mercury contamination within wetlands, but further studies should explore potential effects on wetland ecosystems.

  6. Controlled Cohort Study of Serum Gonadal and Adrenocortical Steroid Levels in Males Prior to Onset of Rheumatoid Arthritis (pre-RA: A Comparison to pre-RA Females and Sex Differences among the Study Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonse T. Masi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum testosterone levels are generally reported to be lower in male rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients, but it is not determined if a deficiency may occur before clinical onset of disease (pre-RA. Lower testosterone levels were recently reported in males many years before RA onset but were predictive only of rheumatoid factor (RF—negative disease. A preceding prospective study did not reveal androgenic-anabolic hormone association with risk of RA in men or women. This cohort study of males analyzed baseline serum levels of gonadal and adrenocortical steroids, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin in 18 pre-RA versus 72 matched non-RA control (CN subjects. Findings in males were compared to those in female pre-RA and CN subjects in the same cohort, and sex differences were analyzed. Steroidal and hormonal levels, including total testosterone, were similar between male study groups. In females, mean (±SE serum androstenedione (nmol/L was slightly (P=0.048 lower in 36 pre-RA (6.7 ± 0.36 than 144 CN (7.6 ± 0.22. With the exception of 3 partial correlations of hormonal variables observed to differ between pre-RA versus CN subjects, the patterns were similar overall. However, partial correlations of hormonal variables differed frequently by sex, both within and between study groups.

  7. Evaluation of the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrates from municipal wastewater reclamation by coagulation and granular activated carbon adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying-Xue; Yang, Zhe; Ye, Tao; Shi, Na; Tian, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis (mWRRO) contains elevated concentrations of contaminants which pose potential risks to aquatic environment. The treatment of ROC from an mWRRO using granular activated carbon (GAC) combined pretreatment of coagulation was optimized and evaluated. Among the three coagulants tested, ferric chloride (FeCl3) presented relatively higher DOC removal efficiency than polyaluminium chloride and lime at the same dosage and coagulation conditions. The removal efficiency of DOC, genotoxicity, and antiestrogenic activity concentration of the ROC could achieve 16.9, 18.9, and 39.7 %, respectively, by FeCl3 coagulation (with FeCl3 dosage of 180.22 mg/L), which can hardly reduce UV254 and genotoxicity normalized by DOC of the DOM with MW <5 kDa. However, the post-GAC adsorption column (with filtration velocity of 5.7 m/h, breakthrough point adsorption capacity of 0.22 mg DOC/g GAC) exhibited excellent removal efficiency on the dominant DOM fraction of MW <5 kDa in the ROC. The removal efficiency of DOC, UV254, and TDS in the ROC was up to 91.8, 96, and 76.5 %, respectively, by the FeCl3 coagulation and post-GAC adsorption. Also, the DOM with both genotoxicity and antiestrogenic activity were completely eliminated by the GAC adsorption. The results suggest that GAC adsorption combined pretreatment of FeCl3 coagulation as an efficient method to control organics, genotoxicity, and antiestrogenic activity in the ROC from mWRRO system.

  8. Coagulation-flocculation in leachate treatment using modified micro sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaldiri, Nur Hanani; Halim, Azhar Abdul

    2013-11-01

    Sanitary landfill leachate is considered as highly polluted wastewater, without any treatment, discharging into water system will cause underground water and surface water pollutions. This study was to investigate the treatability of the semi-aerobic landfill leachate via coagulation-flocculation using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), cationic polymer, and modified micro sand. Leachate was collected from Pulau Burung Sanitary Landfill (PBSL) located in Penang, Malaysia. Coagulation-flocculation was performed by using jar test equipment and the effect of pH, dose of coagulant and dose of polymer toward removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), color and suspended solid (SS) were examined. Micro sand was also used in this study to compare settling time of coagulation-flocculation process. The optimum pH, dose of coagulant (PAC) and dose of polymer (cationic) achieved were 7.0, 1000 mg/L and 8 mg/L, respectively. The dose of micro sand used for the settling time process was 300 mg/L. Results showed that 52.66% removal of COD, 97.16% removal of SS and 96.44% removal of color were achieved under optimum condition. The settling times for the settling down of the sludge or particles that formed during coagulation-flocculation process were 1 min with modified sand, 20 min with raw micro sand and 45 min without micro sand.

  9. Modeling of particle coagulation in low pressure PECVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandarkar, U.; Kortshagen, U.

    1998-10-01

    Contaminant particles generated in plasmas used to manufacture semiconductor devices can potentially destroy micro-electronic circuits. Particles of micrometer-size in a plasma are usually negatively charged due to the higher mobility of electrons. Like charges on the particles should inhibit growth by coagulation. However, the coagulation rates of nanometer-sized particles observed experimentally are even higher than the thermal coagulation rates of uncharged particles. This observation implies the presence of positively charged nano-particles along with the negative ones such that the mutual attraction enhances coagulation. We propose photo-detachment of electrons due to UV radiation as a potential path for the generation of positively charged particles. We have developed a self-consistent plasma-coagulation model based on the General Dynamic Equation which is well-known from aerosol research. Plasma properties are determined self-consistently using a global plasma model. The particle charge distribution is calculated using a charging module which also accounts for UV photo-detachment. Preliminary results of this model yield coagulation rates consistent with those observed experimentally.

  10. Activation of blood coagulation in cancer: implications for tumour progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luize G; Monteiro, Robson Q

    2013-09-04

    Several studies have suggested a role for blood coagulation proteins in tumour progression. Herein, we discuss (1) the activation of the blood clotting cascade in the tumour microenvironment and its impact on primary tumour growth; (2) the intravascular activation of blood coagulation and its impact on tumour metastasis and cancer-associated thrombosis; and (3) antitumour therapies that target blood-coagulation-associated proteins. Expression levels of the clotting initiator protein TF (tissue factor) have been correlated with tumour cell aggressiveness. Simultaneous TF expression and PS (phosphatidylserine) exposure by tumour cells promote the extravascular activation of blood coagulation. The generation of blood coagulation enzymes in the tumour microenvironment may trigger the activation of PARs (protease-activated receptors). In particular, PAR1 and PAR2 have been associated with many aspects of tumour biology. The procoagulant activity of circulating tumour cells favours metastasis, whereas the release of TF-bearing MVs (microvesicles) into the circulation has been correlated with cancer-associated thrombosis. Given the role of coagulation proteins in tumour progression, it has been proposed that they could be targets for the development of new antitumour therapies.

  11. Removal of dispersant-stabilized carbon nanotubes by regular coagulants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Liu; Changli Liu; Jing Zhang; Daohui Lin

    2012-01-01

    Coagulation followed by sedimentation,as a conventional technique in the water treatment plant,can be the first line of defense against exposures of carbon nanotubes(CNTs)to aquatic organisms and human beings,which has been rarely documented.This study investigated the removal of dispersant-stabilized CNT suspensions by poly aluminum chloride(PAC1)and KAI(SO4)2·12H2O (alum),with a focus on the effects of dispersant type,coagulant type and dosage.PAC1 performed better than alum in the removal of tannic acid-,humic acid-,and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate-stabilized CNTs,but worse for polyethylene glycol octylphenyl ether(TX100)-stabilized CNTs.Neither coagulant could effectively precipitate cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-stabilized CNTs.The removal by PAC1 first increased up to a plateau and then decreased with the continued increase of coagulant dosage.However,the removal rates leveled off but did not decrease after achieving their highest level with the continued addition of alum.The coagulation and flocculation of the CNT suspensions by PAC1 could be regulated mainly by the mechanism of adsorption charge neutralization,whereas the coagulation by alum mainly involved electrical double-layer compression.

  12. Coagulation properties of anelectrochemically prepared polyaluminum chloride containing active chlorine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chengzhi; LIU Huijuan; QU Jiuhui

    2006-01-01

    With high content of the Al13 species and the active chloride, an electrochemically prepared polyaluminum chloride (E-PACl) presents integrated efficiency of coagulation and oxidation. The coagulation properties of E-PACl were systemically investigated through jar tests in the various water quality conditions. The active chlorine in E-PACl can significantly influence the coagulation behavior due to the active chlorine preoxidation, which can change the surface charge characteristic of organic matter (OM) in water. The active chlorine preoxidation could improve the E-PACl coagulation efficiency if the water possessed the characteristics of relatively low OM content (2 mg/L) and high hardness (278 mg CaCO3/L). In the water with medium content of OM (5 mg/L), dosage would be a crucial factor to decide whether the active chlorine in E-PACl aided coagulation process or not. Comparing with alkaline condition, active chlorine would show a more significant influence on the coagulation process in acidic region.

  13. The effects of coagulants on the structure of PBO materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jin-huan; HUANG Yu-dong; MENG Lin

    2006-01-01

    PBO materials possess super mechanical properties and high thermal and chemical resistance due to their special rigid-rod backbones with heterocyclic chemical structure and supermolecular microstructure. But these structures may be affected by a series of preparing technologies, among which the coagulant is even more important. In this paper the chemical and microstructure changes of PBO materials coagulated with different solvents were investigated. Analyses of molecular weight and chemical structure of PBO coagulated indicate that the heterocyclic ring of PBO will experience cleavage in coagulation and in this stage water plays an important role. The final structure of PBO materials may involve several intermediate structures lying between benzoxazole and the open ring. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) 2θ scans and scanning probe microscope (SPM) show that the microstructure of PBO materials coagulated in solvents with different properties will change a lot and those coagulants with the smaller rate of diffusion like methanol can cause more ordered molecule alignment containing fewer voids.

  14. Does whole blood coagulation analysis reflect developmental haemostasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravn, Hanne Berg; Andreasen, Jo Bnding; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2016-07-27

    Developmental haemostasis has been well documented over the last 3 decades and age-dependent reference ranges have been reported for a number of plasmatic coagulation parameters. With the increasing use of whole blood point-of-care tests like rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and platelet function tests, an evaluation of age-dependent changes is warranted for these tests as well. We obtained blood samples from 149 children, aged 1 day to 5.9 years, and analysed conventional plasmatic coagulation tests, including activated partial prothrombin time, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen (functional). Whole blood samples were analysed using ROTEM to assess overall coagulation capacity and Multiplate analyzer to evaluate platelet aggregation. Age-dependent changes were analysed for all variables. We found age-dependent differences in all conventional coagulation tests (all P values coagulation assessment when applying ROTEM, apart from clotting time in the EXTEM assay (P coagulation test. However, these age-dependent changes were not displayed in whole blood monitoring using ROTEM or Multiplate analyzer. Type of anticoagulant had a significant influence on platelet aggregation across all age groups.

  15. Coagulation diagram using the Moringa oleifera Lam and the aluminium sulphate, aiming the removal of color and turbidity of water - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i3.12268

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Cardoso Valverde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work suggests the study of the coagulation diagram as a tool to verify the efficiency in removing color and turbidity of the water, using the Moringa oleifera Lam and the association of this biopolymer with the aluminium sulphate as coagulating agents. The assays were carried out in Jar Test, by varying the concentrations of coagulants and pH of coagulation. After the assays of coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation, samples were collected for the evaluation of the process efficiency. Best results were obtained at dose of 50 ppm of Moringa oleifera Lam. When associating the coagulants, the addition of the aluminium sulphate provided an increase in the efficiency of coagulation/flocculation, whose parameters of control used were color and turbidity. It was verified that the study of the coagulation diagram is useful, since it enables developing the assays in the optimal range, as a function of the raw water characteristics. The use of the Moringa oleifera Lam can be considered as an alternative technique to the conventional treatment.  

  16. A role of Yueju in fast-onset antidepressant action on major depressive disorder and serum BDNF expression: a randomly double-blind, fluoxetine-adjunct, placebo-controlled, pilot clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ruyan Wu,1,* Dandan Zhu,1,* Youchun Xia,2,* Haosen Wang,2 Weiwei Tao,1 Wenda Xue,1 Baomei Xia,1 Li Ren,1 Xin Zhou,1 Guochun Li,3 Gang Chen1 1Center for Translational Systems Biology and Neuroscience, Key Laboratory of Integrative Biomedicine of Brain Diseases, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2The Fourth People’s Hospital of Taizhou, Taizhou, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Basic Chinese Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: Conventional antidepressants, including fluoxetine, have a major disadvantage in delayed onset of efficacy. Yueju, an herbal medicine used to treat mood disorders was recently found to exhibit rapid antidepressant effects. The present study was conducted to evaluate the role of Yueju in rapidly acting on major depressive disorder (MDD.Methods: Participants were MDD patients with scores of 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-24 ≥20 and without history of antidepressant use. They randomly received daily oral doses of Yueju (23 g/day plus fluoxetine (20 mg/day (experimental group or placebo plus fluoxetine (control group for 7 days. HDRS-24 was used as the primary outcome measurement at baseline, and on days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Concentrations of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were assessed at baseline and on days 1 and 7.Results: In all, 18 participants met the criteria for data analysis. Compared to baseline level, only experimental group showed significant decrease of HDRS-24 score from day 3 to day 7 (P<0.05. Experimental group also showed significant improvement compared with control group from day 3 to day 7 (P<0.05. No correlation between treatment outcomes with serum BDNF levels was observed. However, experimental group showed significant correlation for serum BDNF level on day 1 with day 7 (r=0.721, P=0.028, whereas the control

  17. [Shock and coagulation disorders in systemic mastocytosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, U; Wiese, R; Knolle, J

    1994-09-16

    A 41-year-old man was admitted in circulatory shock of unknown aetiology (systolic pressure 50 mm Hg) and marked reddening of the upper part of the body as well as maculopapular rash over the whole body. After 1500 ml of colloidal solution had been infused the blood pressure rose to a level at which the patient's condition was no longer at risk. He reported having had a similar attack of flushing and circulatory collapse during the last few years, each time after drinking 3-41 of beer. Laboratory tests showed thromboplastin time 56%, partial thromboplastin time 130 s and thrombin time > 180 s. Three hours after admission the coagulation times had further deteriorated, but had become normal within 20 hours. After rest and after a provocation (hot bath) the serum concentrations were: heparin 0.21 U/ml and 0.85 U/ml; histamine 1.9 micrograms/ml and 2.3 micrograms/ml; serotonin 23 micrograms/ml and 38 micrograms/ml. Histological examination of an iliac crest bone marrow biopsy revealed dense collections of mast cells, as seen in systemic mastocytosis. A skin biopsy was diagnostic of urticaria pigmentosa.

  18. Inflammation and coagulation in urticaria and angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugno, Massimo; Asero, Riccardo; Tedeschi, Alberto; Lazzari, Riccardo; Marzano, Angelo V

    2012-09-01

    Urticaria is a skin disease characterised by short-lived surface swellings of the dermis (wheals) frequently accompanied by itching. It is classified as acute or chronic depending on whether the wheal recurrence occurs for less or more than six weeks. Acute urticaria is often due to a hypersensitivity reaction, whereas about 50% of the cases of chronic urticaria are regarded as autoimmune. Urticaria may occur alone or in association with a deeper swelling (angioedema) involving the subcutaneous and/or submucosal tissues, and last from hours to a few days. Angioedema can also develop alone, and may be idiopathic or be caused by allergies, inherited or acquired deficiencies of C1-inhibitor protein, or adverse drug reactions. An interplay between inflammation and coagulation has been proposed as a pathomechanism in urticaria and urticaria-associated angioedema (in which histamine and thrombin are involved), as well as in angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency, which involves various biological systems. An increase in the plasma markers of thrombin generation, fibrinolysis and inflammation has been documented during exacerbations of urticaria and angioedema, with the marker levels decreasing to normal during remission. However, the hypercoagulable state in chronic urticaria and angioedema has not been reported to be associated with any increased risk of thrombosis, although there have been a number of reports of cardiovascular events occurring during episodes of acute urticaria. These observations have provided the rationale for the clinical evaluation of anticoagulant and antifibrinolytic drugs, the efficacy of which has sometimes been demonstrated.

  19. Pregnancy outcomes in women with childhood-onset and adult-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Miranda-Hernández, Dafhne; Sánchez, Antonio; Morales, Sara; Cruz-Domínguez, Pilar; Medina, Gabriela; Jara, Luis Javier

    2016-10-01

    To compare the maternal and fetal outcomes between childhood-onset and adult-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we reviewed the medical records of SLE pregnant women treated from January 2005 to August 2013. For comparison, patients were allocated to one of the two groups, those pregnant patients with SLE onset before 18 years of age (childhood-onset) and ≥18 years (adult-onset). The patients were evaluated at least once in each trimester and postpartum. Relevant maternal and fetal outcomes were extracted, such as lupus flare, preeclampsia/eclampsia, rate of liveborns, fetal loss (spontaneous abortion and stillbirth), term delivery, preterm birth, neonatal death, low birth weight, low birth weight at term, and congenital malformations. We studied 186 pregnancies (in 180 women), 58 of them had childhood-onset SLE, and the remaining 128 had adult-onset SLE. The rate of maternal and fetal complications was similar in both groups. Multivariate analysis showed that active SLE before pregnancy, primigravida, renal flare, preeclampsia, lupus flare, anticardiolipin antibodies, and low serum complement were associated with an increased risk of poor maternal and fetal outcomes. The diagnosis of childhood-onset had no impact on maternal-fetal outcome. The maternal and fetal outcome in women with childhood-onset SLE is similar to that reported in women with adult-onset SLE. Pregnancy in women with childhood-onset SLE should not be contraindicated if the disease is well controlled.

  20. Respiratory Infections Precede Adult-Onset Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory infections in early life are associated with an increased risk of developing asthma but there is little evidence on the role of infections for onset of asthma in adults. The objective of this study was to assess the relation of the occurrence of respiratory infections in the past 12 months to adult-onset asthma in a population-based incident case-control study of adults 21-63 years of age. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recruited all new clinically diagnosed cases of a...

  1. Enhanced WWTP effluent organic matter removal in hybrid ozonation-coagulation (HOC) process catalyzed by Al-based coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Jin, Pengkang, E-mail: pkjin@hotmail.com [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Hou, Rui [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Yang, Lei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800 (Australia); Wang, Xiaochang C., E-mail: xcwang@xauat.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • A novel HOC process was firstly put forward to apply in wastewater reclamation. • Interactions between ozone and Al-based coagulants was found in the HOC process. • Ozonation can be catalyzed and enhanced by Al-based coagulants in the HOC process. • HOC process showed better organics removal than pre-ozonation-coagulation process. - Abstract: A novel hybrid ozonation-coagulation (HOC) process was developed for application in wastewater reclamation. In this process, ozonation and coagulation occurred simultaneously within a single unit. Compared with the conventional pre-ozonation-coagulation process, the HOC process exhibited much better performance in removing dissolved organic matters. In particular, the maximal organic matters removal efficiency was obtained at the ozone dosage of 1 mgO{sub 3}/mg DOC at each pH value (pH 5, 7 and 9). In order to interpret the mechanism of the HOC process, ozone decomposition was monitored. The results indicated that ozone decomposed much faster in the HOC process. Moreover, by using the reagent of O{sub 3}-resistant hydroxyl radical (·OH) probe compound, para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis, it was observed that the HOC process generated higher content of ·OH compared with pre-ozonation process. This indicates that the ·OH oxidation reaction as the key step can be catalyzed and enhanced by Al-based coagulants and their hydrolyzed products in this developed process. Thus, based on the catalytic effects of Al-based coagulants on ozonation, the HOC process provides a promising alternative to the conventional technology for wastewater reclamation in terms of higher efficiency.

  2. Early-Onset Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konijnenberg, Elles; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Kate, Mara Ten;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early-onset dementia (EOD) is a rare condition, with an often atypical clinical presentation, and it may therefore be challenging to diagnose. Specialized memory clinics vary in the type of patients seen, diagnostic procedures applied, and the pharmacological treatment given. The aim...... of this study was to investigate quality-of-care indicators in subjects with EOD from 3 tertiary memory clinics in 3 European countries. METHODS: We included 1325 newly diagnosed EOD patients, ages 65 years or younger, between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2013, from the Danish Dementia Registry...... (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen), the Swedish Dementia Registry ("SveDem", Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm), and the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (VU University Medical Center). RESULTS: The frequency of EOD among all dementia patients was significantly lower in Copenhagen (410, 20%) and Stockholm (284, 21...

  3. Long-term glycemic control as a result of initial education for children with new onset type 1 diabetes: does the setting matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Susanne M; Srivastava, Nayan T; Behzadi, Jennifer M; Pottorff, Tina M; Dimeglio, Linda A; Walvoord, Emily C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of initial diabetes education delivery at an academic medical center (AMC) versus non-AMCs on long-term glycemic control. We performed a retrospective study of children with type 1 diabetes referred to an AMC after being educated at non-AMCs. These children were matched to a group of children diagnosed and educated as inpatients at an AMC. The A1C levels at 2, 3, and 5 years from diagnosis were compared between the 2 groups of children. Records were identified from 138 children. Glycemic control was comparable in the non-AMC-educated versus AMC-educated patients at 2, 3, and 5 years from diagnosis. The A1C was also highly consistent in each patient over time. Long-term glycemic control was independent of whether initial education was delivered at an AMC or non-AMC. Formal education and location at time of diagnosis do not appear to play a significant role in long-term glycemic control. Novel educational constructs, focusing on developmental stages of childhood and reeducation over time, are likely more important than education at time of diagnosis.

  4. Influence of various coagulation factors on chemical composition of sera gained by centrifugation from casein gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Snežana T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological operations applied during curd processing influence syneresis and total solids content of cheese. Syneresis is not a simple physical process representing whey segregation due to curd contractions. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of various parameters (pH, quantity of CaCl2 added, temperature of coagulation and heat treatment on induced syneresis. Reconstituted instant skim milk (control samples and reconstituted instant skim milk heated at 87ºC for 10 min (experimental samples were coagulated at 30ºC and 35ºC, and pH of 5.8 and 6.2 with 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2 added. According to our results, these parameters had significant influence on nitrogen content of serum as well as on the distribution of nitrogen matter from gel into sera. Due to the formation of coaggregates the best rheological properties of gel were obtained for experimental samples coagulated with 400 mg/l of CaCl2 added at pH 5.8 and temperature of 35ºC.

  5. Use of Electrocautery for Coagulation and Wound Complications in Caesarean Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the safety of electrocautery for coagulation during Caesarean sections. Study Design. A randomized, controlled, clinical pilot study was performed at a university maternity hospital. After admission for delivery and decision to perform a C-section, volunteers were randomized to either the intervention group (use of electrocautery for coagulation or nonintervention group. The women were examined at the time of postpartum discharge (day 3, at days 7 to 10, and again at days 30 to 40 for signs of infection, hematoma, seroma, or dehiscence. Data were analyzed using an intention-to-treat analysis, and risk ratios were calculated. Results. No significant differences were found between the two groups. Only 2.8% of patients in the intervention group developed surgical wound complications during hospitalization. However, 7 to 10 days following discharge, these rates reached 23.0% and 15.4% in the intervention and nonintervention groups, respectively (RR = 1.50, 95% CI = 0.84–2.60. Conclusion. Further studies should confirm whether the use of electrocautery for coagulation does not increase the risk of surgical wound complications in patients undergoing Caesarean sections.

  6. Acid Separation, Catalytic Oxidation and Coagulation for ATC Waste Liquid Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xiaoling; JIA Chunning

    2005-01-01

    It is difficult to treat 2-amino-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATC) waste liquid effectively at present for its characteristics of high chemical oxygen demand (COD), high salinity and low biodegradability. In order to solve this problem, this paper presents several kinds of physical-chemical treatment unit techniques, including acid separation, catalytic oxidation and coagulation. First of all, acid separation was adopted to precipitate relevant organics at isoelectric point. When the temperature and pH value of acid separation were controlled at about 5 ℃ and 2.2 respectively, the COD removal rate could reach 27.6%. Secondly, oxidation was used to break chemical constitution of refractory organics. The optimal reaction parameters of catalytic oxidation should be 20 ℃, pH adjusted to 5.0 and [Fe2+] 300 mg/L. Then with 5% H 2O 2 added and after one-hour reaction, the COD removal rate could achieve about 52%. Finally, coagulation was adopted to remove a portion of refractory organics, and 15% polymeric molysite flocculant was the best for the coagulation, and the COD removal rate could reach about 15%. Therefore, the proposed feasible process of physical-chemical pretreatment for ATC waste liquid could have about 70% COD removed in total.

  7. Influence of coagulation bath on morphology of cellulose membranes prepared by NMMO method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To control the morphology of cellulose membranes used for separation,they were prepared by the NMMO method using water,methanol,ethanol and their binary solution as coagulation baths.Morphologies of the surface and cross section of dry membranes were observed.The pore structure parameters of wet membranes were determined.By comparison,the process and mechanism of pore formation in dry membranes were suggested,and the relativity of cellulose crystal size to average pore diameter in wet membranes and their influences were discussed.The results show that the morphology of dry membranes is clearly varied with coagulation baths,while the porosity of wet membranes is almost constant.Porous structures can appear in the compact region of dry membranes due to swelling from water.These pores have a virtual effect on the average pore diameter of wet membranes.By changing the composition of coagulation baths,the microstructure of cellulose membranes in a dry or wet environment can be adjusted separately.

  8. Early Onset Werner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna İmge Aydoğan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Werner syndrome (WS is a rare autosomal recessive adult-onset progeroid disorder characterized by the early onset of aged-appearance and age-related metabolic disorders. Symptoms of premature aging usually first develop in the second-third decades of life. We report a 27-year-old female who was admitted to our clinic at the age of eighteen with hyperglycemia. She was diagnosed with diabetes and type 4 dyslipidemia at the age of seven. In her family history, her parents were first cousins and she had three healthy brothers. On her first physical examination; she had bird-like face appearance, global hair loss, beaked nose, short stature and she was overweight. She had global hair loss with gray and thin hair. Hoarseness of voice and hyperkeratosis of skin were observed. She had bilateral cataracts and moderate sensorineural hearing loss. On psychiatric examination, borderline mental retardation was detected. She had severe insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia despite levothyroxine, gemfibrozil, omega-3 and intensive insulin treatment. Routine lipid apheresis was performed to lower the triglyceride levels reaching 5256 mg/dL. She also had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, hepatosteatosis, osteoporosis and epilepsy. Disease was accompanied by several congenital deformities, such as Rathke’s cleft cyst, angiomyolipoma and femoral neck hypoplasia. WS is a rare genetic disorder characterized by multiple endocrine manifestations as well as soft tissue changes. We present a case of early disturbances that were diagnosed before typical clinical signs and symptoms. We propose that WS should be kept in mind when type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia are diagnosed early in childhood. Turk Jem 2015; 19: 99-104

  9. Drinking water treatment using a submerged internal-circulation membrane coagulation reactor coupled with permanganate oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongguo; Liu, Dan; Qian, Yu; Wu, Yue; He, Peiran; Liang, Shuang; Fu, Xiaozheng; Li, Jiding; Ye, Changqing

    2017-06-01

    A submerged internal circulating membrane coagulation reactor (MCR) was used to treat surface water to produce drinking water. Polyaluminum chloride (PACl) was used as coagulant, and a hydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) submerged hollow fiber microfiltration membrane was employed. The influences of trans-membrane pressure (TMP), zeta potential (ZP) of the suspended particles in raw water, and KMnO4 dosing on water flux and the removal of turbidity and organic matter were systematically investigated. Continuous bench-scale experiments showed that the permeate quality of the MCR satisfied the requirement for a centralized water supply, according to the Standards for Drinking Water Quality of China (GB 5749-2006), as evaluated by turbidity (water flux, the removal of turbidity, TOC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the raw water also increased with increasing TMP in the range of 0.01-0.05MPa. High ZP induced by PACl, such as 5-9mV, led to an increase in the number of fine and total particles in the MCR, and consequently caused serious membrane fouling and high permeate turbidity. However, the removal of TOC and DOC increased with increasing ZP. A slightly positive ZP, such as 1-2mV, corresponding to charge neutralization coagulation, was favorable for membrane fouling control. Moreover, dosing with KMnO4 could further improve the removal of turbidity and DOC, thereby mitigating membrane fouling. The results are helpful for the application of the MCR in producing drinking water and also beneficial to the research and application of other coagulation and membrane separation hybrid processes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Aerosol size distribution in a coagulating plume: Analytical behavior and modeling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Richard P.; Yu, Fangqun

    In a previous paper (Turco and Yu, 1997), a series of analytical solutions were derived for the problem of aerosol coagulation in an expanding plume, as from a jet engine. Those solutions were shown to depend on a single dimensionless time-dependent number, NT, which is related to the particle coagulation kernel and the plume volume. Here, we derive a new analytical expression that describes the particle size distribution in an expanding plume in terms of NT. We show how this solution can be extended to include the effects of soot particles on the evolving volatile sulfuric acid aerosols in an aircraft wake. Our solutions apply primarily to cases where changes in the size distribution—beyond an initial period encompassing emission and prompt nucleation/condensation—is controlled mainly by coagulation. The analytical size distributions allow most of the important properties of an evolving aerosol population—mean size, number greater than a minimum size, surface area density, size dependent reactivities, and optical properties—to be estimated objectively. We have applied our analytical solution to evaluate errors associated with numerical diffusion in a detailed microphysical code, and demonstrate that, if care is not exercised in solving the coagulation equation, substantial errors can result in the predictions at large particle sizes. This effect is particularly important when comparisons between models and field observations are carried out. The analytical expressions derived here can also be employed to initialize models that do not resolve individual aircraft plumes, by providing a simple means for parameterizing the initial aerosol properties after an appropriate mixing time.

  11. Activation of Blood Coagulation in Two Prototypic Autoimmune Skin Diseases: A Possible Link with Thrombotic Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Cugno

    Full Text Available Coagulation activation has been demonstrated in two prototypic autoimmune skin diseases, chronic autoimmune urticaria and bullous pemphigoid, but only the latter is associated with increased thrombotic risk. Two markers of coagulation activation (prothrombin fragment F1+2 and fibrin fragment D-dimer were measured by immunoenzymatic methods in plasma samples from 30 patients with active chronic autoimmune urticaria, positive for autologous serum skin test, 30 patients with active bullous pemphigoid and 30 healthy subjects. In skin biopsies, tissue factor expression was evaluated by both immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. F1+2 and D-dimer levels were higher in active chronic autoimmune urticaria (276.5±89.8 pmol/L and 5.56±4.40 nmol/L, respectively than in controls (145.2±38.0 pmol/L and 1.06±0.25 nmol/L; P=0.029 and P=0.011 and were much higher in active bullous pemphigoid (691.7±318.7 pmol/L and 15.24±9.09 nmol/L, respectively (P<0.0001. Tissue factor positivity was evident in skin biopsies of both disorders with higher intensity in bullous pemphigoid. F1+2 and D-dimer, during remission, were markedly reduced in both disorders. These findings support the involvement of coagulation activation in the pathophysiology of both diseases. The strong systemic activation of coagulation in bullous pemphigoid may contribute to increase the thrombotic risk and provides the rationale for clinical trials on anticoagulant treatments in this disease.

  12. Effect of Maixuekang capsule therapy on optic nerve function, blood coagulation function and cytokines in diabetic optic neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Li Hao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of Maixuekang capsule therapy on optic nerve function, blood coagulation function and cytokines in diabetic optic neuropathy.Methods: A total of 55 patients (82 eyes) with diabetic optic neuropathy treated in our hospital between December 2013 and December 2015 were selected, and according to different therapeutic methods, they were divided into observation group (n=38) (49 eyes) who received Maixuekang therapy and control group (n=17) (33 eyes) who received compound vitamin therapy. Differences in optic nerve function, blood coagulation function and cytokine content were compared between two groups after 3 months of treatment.Results:After 3 months of treatment, optic nerve function indexes MS, RNFL thickness and AP100 levels of observation group were higher than those of control group while MD and LP100 levels were lower than those of control group; blood coagulation indexes WBV, PV and FBG levels were lower than those of control group while TT, PT and APTT levels were higher than those of control group; thrombelastogram parameters R value and K value levels were higher than those of control group while α angle, MA and CI levels were lower than those of control group; oxidative stress indexes ROS, MDA and CAT content in serum were lower than those of control group while SOD content was higher than that of control group.Conclusions:Maixuekang capsule can significantly optimize the optic nerve function in patients with DON, which is specifically directly related to its anticoagulation and anti-oxidative stress effect.

  13. Optimisation of combined coagulation and microfiltration for water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, S J; Hillis, P

    2001-08-01

    The effect of upstream coagulant dosing for full-flow microfiltration of an upland-reservoir water has been investigated. The process, run under conditions of constant flux and pH and based on a ferric salt, is compared with a published study of another full-flow process based on alum dosing and operated at constant pressure and coagulant concentration. The current study includes data for the residual deposit remaining following backflushing by reverse flow. Results are presented in terms of the specific-cake resistance (R'o, m(-2)) as a function of pH or coagulant dose. Reasonable correlation with classical cake filtration theory was obtained, such that R' was assumed to be independent of run time and cake thickness. The following trends have been noted: The optimum pH for the alum-based system appears to be between 7.5 and 8 on the basis of cake resistance. The effect of coagulant dose between 18 and 71 microM Fe3+ is much more significant than a change in pH between 5 and 9 for the alum system: a 53-fold increase in specific flux compared with a 7-fold increase with reference to the limiting R'o values at pH 4.8 and 7.7. A low coagulant dose (0.018mM, 1.0 mg l(-1) Fe3+) appears to have a slightly detrimental effect on downstream microfiltration operation. The low coagulant doses apparently cause incomplete aggregation of colloidal particles such that internal fouling of the membrane takes place. The residual (cleaning cycle) deposit resistance followed roughly the same trend as the backflush cycle-cake resistance with coagulant concentration, but with a much reduced value (about 16 times lower, on average). An optimum coagulant dose of 0.055 mM (3.1 mg/l) Fe3+ can be identified on the basis of operational cost based on coagulant cost and cake resistance, all other aspects of the system being substantially unchanged. It is concluded that coagulation with downstream microfiltration offers a cost-effective means of removing natural organic matter, achieving a THMFP

  14. Seawater Immersion Aggravates Burn Injury Causing Severe Blood Coagulation Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the endothelial function in a canine model of burn injury combined with seawater immersion. The model of burn injury was established. The dogs were randomly divided into four groups including dogs with burn injury (B group, or burn injury combined with seawater immersion (BI group, or only immersion in seawater (I group, or control animals with no injury or immersion (C group. The circulating endothelial cell (CEC count and coagulation-fibrinolysis parameters were measured. The CEC count in B group increased at 4 h, 7 h, and 10 h after injury and then reduced, whereas it continuously increased to a greater extent in BI group (P<0.05. The von Willebrand factor (vWF activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1, and the ratio of thromboxane B2 (TXB2 to 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-K-PGF1α in BI group had a marked increase after injury, and the tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA in the BI group decreased. Microscope observations revealed thrombus formation in lungs of the animals in BI group, but not in C, I, or B groups. Burn injury causes endothelial dysfunction, and seawater immersion lastingly aggravates this injury, leading to a higher risk of developing thrombosis.

  15. Modeling the kinetics of carbon coagulation in explosives detonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, F. H.; Viecelli, J. A.; Glosli, J. N.

    1998-05-01

    A typical insensitive high explosive such as LX-17 has a large carbon content. The detonation behavior of these explosives is affected by a slow coagulation of carbon atoms by diffusion and their possible transformation from one chemical bonding type to another. We have used the Brenner bond order potential to compute the melting line of diamond at high pressure and high temperature by molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations, with the goal to refine the potential for the study of the kinetics of the graphite diamond transition. The slow diffusion-controlled kinetics of carbon clusters has been examined by including a time-dependent surface correction to the Gibbs free energy of these clusters in the nonequilibrium CHEQ code. We also propose a new explosive burn model which incorporates a partial release of the heat of detonation in a fast reaction zone, followed by a diffusion-limited release of the remaining energy. Hydrodynamic applications of the new burn model to LX-17 show that computed expansion and compression results both agree closely with experimental data.

  16. Smoking, Porphyromonas gingivalis and the immune response to citrullinated autoantigens before the clinical onset of rheumatoid arthritis in a Southern European nested case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Benjamin A; Cartwright, Alison J; Quirke, Anne-Marie; de Pablo, Paola; Romaguera, Dora; Panico, Salvatore; Mattiello, Amalia; Gavrila, Diana; Navarro, Carmen; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Lappin, David F; Apazidou, Danae; Culshaw, Shauna

    2015-01-01

    Background: \\ud Antibodies to citrullinated proteins (ACPA) occur years before RA diagnosis. Porphyromonas gingivalis expresses its own peptidylarginine deiminase (PPAD), and is a proposed aetiological factor for the ACPA response. Smoking is a risk factor for both ACPA-positive RA and periodontitis. We aimed to study the relation of these factors to the risk of RA in a prospective cohort.\\ud \\ud Methods: \\ud We performed a nested case–control study by identifying pre-RA cases in four populat...

  17. Respiratory infections precede adult-onset asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino Rantala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Respiratory infections in early life are associated with an increased risk of developing asthma but there is little evidence on the role of infections for onset of asthma in adults. The objective of this study was to assess the relation of the occurrence of respiratory infections in the past 12 months to adult-onset asthma in a population-based incident case-control study of adults 21-63 years of age. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recruited all new clinically diagnosed cases of asthma (n = 521 during a 2.5-year study period and randomly selected controls (n = 932 in a geographically defined area in South Finland. Information on respiratory infections was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The diagnosis of asthma was based on symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction in lung function measurements. The risk of asthma onset was strongly increased in subjects who had experienced in the preceding 12 months lower respiratory tract infections (including acute bronchitis and pneumonia with an adjusted odds ratio (OR 7.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.16-9.99, or upper respiratory tract infections (including common cold, sinusitis, tonsillitis, and otitis media with an adjusted OR 2.26 (95% CI 1.72-2.97. Individuals with personal atopy and/or parental atopy were more susceptible to the effects of respiratory infections on asthma onset than non-atopic persons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides new evidence that recently experienced respiratory infections are a strong determinant for adult-onset asthma. Reducing such infections might prevent onset of asthma in adulthood, especially in individuals with atopy or hereditary propensity to it.

  18. Effect of safflower injection on lower limb fracture healing as well as blood viscosity and blood coagulation function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Zhong Wang; Yun Wen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of safflower injection on lower limb fracture healing as well as blood viscosity and blood coagulation function.Methods: A total of 118 patients with fracture of lower limb were randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=59), control group received conventional surgical treatment, observation group received surgery + postoperative safflower injection treatment, and then differences in serum content of bone turnover indexes and bone metabolism indexes as well as levels of thrombelastogram parameters and blood coagulation function indexes were compared between two groups after 1 month of treatment.Results:Bone turnover indexes sBAP, PINP and BGP content in serum of observation group after 1 month of treatment were higher than those of control group while sCTX, sTAP and TRAP-5b content were lower than those of control group; bone metabolism indexes Ca2+ and 25-OH-VitD content in serum were higher than those of control group while P, PTH andβ-CTX content were lower than those of control group; thrombelastogram parameters R time and K time were longer than those of control group while MA value, G value and angle level were lower than those of control group; blood coagulation function indexes PLT, FIB and D-D content in serum were lower than those of control group while PT, APTT and TT levels were higher than those of control group.Conclusions:Safflower injection can promote postoperative fracture end healing in patients with fracture of lower limb, and also plays a positive role in reducing blood viscosity and optimizing blood coagulation function.

  19. A quantitative comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for boron removal from boron-containing solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)], E-mail: aerdemy@atauni.edu.tr; Boncukcuoglu, Recep [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kocakerim, M. Muhtar [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2007-10-22

    This paper provides a quantitative comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation approaches based on boron removal. Electrocoagulation process delivers the coagulant in situ as the sacrificial anode corrodes, due to a fixed current density, while the simultaneous evolution of hydrogen at the cathode allows for pollutant removal by flotation. By comparison, conventional chemical coagulation typically adds a salt of the coagulant, with settling providing the primary pollutant removal path. Chemical coagulation was carried out via jar tests using aluminum chloride. Comparison was done with the same amount of coagulant between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation processes. Boron removal obtained was higher with electrocoagulation process. In addition, it was seen that chemical coagulation has any effect for boron removal from boron-containing solution. At optimum conditions (e.g. pH 8.0 and aluminum dose of 7.45 g/L), boron removal efficiencies for electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation were 94.0% and 24.0%, respectively.

  20. A quantitative comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for boron removal from boron-containing solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, A Erdem; Boncukcuoğlu, Recep; Kocakerim, M Muhtar

    2007-10-22

    This paper provides a quantitative comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation approaches based on boron removal. Electrocoagulation process delivers the coagulant in situ as the sacrificial anode corrodes, due to a fixed current density, while the simultaneous evolution of hydrogen at the cathode allows for pollutant removal by flotation. By comparison, conventional chemical coagulation typically adds a salt of the coagulant, with settling providing the primary pollutant removal path. Chemical coagulation was carried out via jar tests using aluminum chloride. Comparison was done with the same amount of coagulant between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation processes. Boron removal obtained was higher with electrocoagulation process. In addition, it was seen that chemical coagulation has any effect for boron removal from boron-containing solution. At optimum conditions (e.g. pH 8.0 and aluminum dose of 7.45 g/L), boron removal efficiencies for electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation were 94.0% and 24.0%, respectively.

  1. Effect of nano-scale curvature on the intrinsic blood coagulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Takashi; Saha, Krishnendu; Subramani, Chandramouleeswaran; Nandwana, Vikas; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2014-11-01

    The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation `silent' surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature show denaturation and concomitant coagulation.The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation `silent' surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature show denaturation and concomitant coagulation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Physical properties and scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of silica NPs, intrinsic coagulation activity after 3 h. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04128c

  2. Reference intervals for common coagulation tests of preterm infants (CME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Robert D; Baer, Vickie L; Lambert, Diane K; Henry, Erick; Ilstrup, Sarah J; Bennett, Sterling T

    2014-03-01

    Fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) is sometimes administered to nonbleeding preterm neonates who are judged to be at risk for bleeding because they have abnormal coagulation tests. The benefits/risks of this practice are not well defined. One limitation to progress is lack of reference intervals for the common coagulation tests, thus limiting precision about whether coagulation tests are indeed abnormal. In a sequential observational study, fetal blood was drawn at preterm birth (≤ 34 weeks) from the umbilical vein near the placenta. Fibrinogen, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, D-dimer, platelet (PLT) count, and mean PLT volume were measured. Reference intervals were constructed using 5th and 95th percentile values. Associations were then sought between abnormal coagulation values at birth and bleeding problems identified during the first week. Coagulation tests were drawn at 175 preterm deliveries and the results were organized into reference intervals by gestational age. No abnormal coagulation value, either alone or in combination, predicted hemorrhage (intraventricular, gastrointestinal, or pulmonary) during the first week. However, fibrinogen exceeding the 95th percentile was associated with evidence of in utero infection/inflammation (correlations with elevated C-reactive protein, pcoagulation values at preterm birth do not predict bleeding during the first week. This suggests to us that bleeding in the days after preterm birth is not generally the result of in utero coagulopathy. These findings bring into question the value of coagulation screening of nonbleeding preterm infants and prophylactic FFP administration to those with abnormal values. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  3. Age at type 2 diabetes onset and glycaemic control: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Seth A.; Meigs, James B.; Wexler, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We tested the hypothesis that age younger than 65 years at type 2 diabetes diagnosis is associated with worse subsequent glycaemic control. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of data from participants in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was performed. For adults with self-reported diabetes, we dichotomised age at diabetes diagnosis as younger (9.0% (75 mmol/mol). Secondary outcomes were HbA1c >8.0% (64 mmol/mol) and >7.0% (53 mmol/mol). We used multivariable logistic regression for analysis. Results Among 1,438 adults with diabetes, a higher proportion of those 9.0% (14.4% vs 2.5%, p 9.0% (OR 3.22, 95% CI 1.54, 6.72), HbA1c > 8.0% (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.43, 5.16) and HbA1c >7.0% (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.18, 3.11). The younger group reported fewer comorbidities, but were less likely to report good health (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.36, 0.83). Conclusions/interpretation Younger age at type 2 diabetes diagnosis is significantly associated with worse subsequent glycaemic control. Because patients who are younger at diagnosis have fewer competing comorbidities and complications, safe, aggressive, individualised treatment could benefit this higher-risk group. PMID:23995472

  4. The association between childhood maltreatment experiences and the onset of maltreatment perpetration in young adulthood controlling for proximal and distal risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Vered; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett; Kohl, Patricia L

    2015-08-01

    The evidence for association between child maltreatment victimization and later maltreatment perpetration is both scant and mixed. The objective of the present study was to assess the association between childhood maltreatment experiences and later perpetration of maltreatment in young adulthood controlling for proximal young adult functioning, prior youth risk behaviors, and childhood poverty. The study included 6,935 low-income children with (n=4,470) or without (n=2,465) maltreatment reports prior to age 18 followed from ages 1.5 through 11 years through early adulthood (ages 18-26). Administrative data from multiple regional and statewide agencies captured reports of maltreatment, family poverty and characteristics, system contact for health, behavioral risks and mental health in adolescence, and concurrent adult functioning (crime, mental health and poverty). After controlling for proximal adult functioning, repeated instances of neglect or mixed type maltreatment remained associated with young adult perpetration. Females and subjects with adolescent history of runaway, violent behaviors or non-violent delinquency also had higher risk. Greater caregiver education remained associated with reduced risk. The study concludes that prevention of recurrent neglect and mixed forms of maltreatment may reduce risk of maltreatment for future generations. Intervening to increase parental education and decrease adolescent risk behaviors may offer additional benefit.

  5. Effects of dabigatran on the cellular and protein phase of coagulation in patients with coronary artery disease on dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel. Results from a prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Francesco; Rollini, Fabiana; Cho, Jung Rae; King, Rhodri; Phoenix, Fladia; Bhatti, Mona; DeGroat, Christopher; Tello-Montoliu, Antonio; Zenni, Martin M; Guzman, Luis A; Bass, Theodore A; Ajjan, Ramzi A; Angiolillo, Dominick J

    2016-03-01

    There is growing interest in understanding the effects of adding an oral anticoagulant in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and clopidogrel represent the most broadly utilised oral anticoagulant and P2Y12 receptor inhibitor, respectively. However, VKAs can interfere with clopidogrel metabolism via the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system which in turn may result in an increase in platelet reactivity. Dabigatran is a direct acting (anti-II) oral anticoagulant which does not interfere with CYP and has favourable safety and efficacy profiles compared with VKAs. The pharmacodynamic (PD) effects on platelet reactivity and clot kinetic of adjunctive dabigatran therapy in patients on DAPT are poorly explored. In this prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled PD study, patients (n=30) on maintenance DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel were randomised to either dabigatran 150 mg bid or placebo for seven days. PD testing was performed before and after treatment using four different assays exploring multiple pathways of platelet aggregation and fibrin clot kinetics: light transmittance aggregometry (LTA), multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA), kaolin-activated thromboelastography (TEG) and turbidimetric assays. There were no differences in multiple measures of platelet reactivity investigating purinergic and non-purinergic signaling pathways assessed by LTA, MEA and TEG platelet mapping. Dabigatran significantly increased parameters related to thrombin activity and thrombus generation, and delayed fibrin clot formation, without affecting clot structure or fibrinolysis. In conclusion, in patients on DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel, adjunctive dabigatran therapy is not associated with modulation of profiles of platelet reactivity as determined by several assays assessing multiple platelet signalling pathways. However, dabigatran significantly interferes with parameters related to thrombin activity and delays fibrin clot formation.

  6. Crawling-Onset Age Predicts Visual Cliff Avoidance in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, John E.; Rader, Nancy

    1981-01-01

    Two experiments tested the effects of crawling-onset age, amount of crawling experience, and testing age on avoidance of the deep side of a visual cliff apparatus by human infants. Crawling-onset age disciminated between infants because crawling during the tactile phase interferes with later visual control of locomotion. (Author/RD)

  7. Clinical Analysis of the First Coagulation Test Abnormality in 32 Patients with Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation%32例弥散性血管内凝血患者首次凝血检验异常分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋剑玲; 董雪琴

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the test results for the first time in patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation.Methods Comparative observation group (n=32) and control group (n=73) of coagulation index.Results Statistical y significant dif erence between the two groups in coagulation index level ( <0.05).Conclusion DIC patients with first coagulation test indexes were significantly abnormal,can be used as a diagnostic index.%目的分析弥散性血管内凝血(dis eminated intarvaseulareoagulatino,DCI)患者首次凝血检验结果。方法取显性DIC患者32例纳入观察组,非显性DCI患者73例纳入对照组,对比两组患者凝血指标。结果观察组与对照组各凝血指标水平差异具有统计学意义(<0.05)。结论 DIC患者首次凝血检验各指标均呈明显异常;FIB可作为DIC诊断指标、PLT诊断符合率较高,联合诊断有助于诊断效用。

  8. IMPROVEMENT OF COAGULATION PROCESS FOR THE PRUT RIVER WATER TREATMENT USING ALUMINUM SULPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Postolachi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of presented research was to optimize the treatment process of the Prut River water. In order to realize the proposed goal, there were studied the following factors which can improve the process of coagulation: (i the influence of stirring speed during coagulation and (ii the influence of the concentration of the coagulant solution added in the process of coagulation. The optimal conditions of coagulation were established using the Jar-test method. Application of the recommended procedure contribute to the reduction of the coagulant dose, the contact time, the aluminum concentration in water and the expenses for water treatment.

  9. Comparison of Moringa stenopetala seed extract as a clean coagulant with Alum and Moringa stenopetala-Alum hybrid coagulant to remove direct dye from Textile Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Arash; Gholibegloo, Elham; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Golchinpoor, Najmeh; Khazaei, Mohammad; Kamani, Hossein; Hosseini, Sara Sadat; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the efficiency of Moringa stenopetala seed extract was compared with alum and M. stenopetala-alum hybrid coagulant to remove Direct Red 23 azo dye from textile wastewater. The effects of parameters such as pH, coagulant dose, type of salt used for the extraction of coagulant and initial dye concentration on dye removal efficiency were investigated. Moreover, the existing functional groups on the structure of M. stenopetala coagulant (MSC) were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the morphology of sludge produced by MSC, alum, and hybrid coagulant was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Ninhydrin test was also used to determine the quantity of primary amines in the MSC and Moringa oleifera coagulant (MOC). According to the results, with increasing the coagulant dose and decreasing the initial dye concentration, dye removal efficiency has increased. The maximum dye removal of 98.5, 98.2, and 98.3 % were obtained by using 240, 120, and 80 mg/L MSC, alum and hybrid coagulant at pH 7, respectively. The results also showed MSC was much more effective than MOC for dye removal. The volume of sludge produced by MSC was one fourth and half of those produced by alum and hybrid coagulant, respectively. Based on the results, hybrid coagulant was the most efficient coagulant for direct dye removal from colored wastewater.

  10. Back to the future: testing in disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Cheng-Hock; Downey, Colin

    2005-11-01

    Following on from the first clinical observations on disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in the nineteenth century, the dawn of laboratory testing for DIC began with the availability of assays that characterized the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of coagulation. Markedly increased clotting times were the hallmark of DIC. As the understanding of the biochemistry of haemostasis and thrombosis improved, new tests were developed based on the molecular players that participate in the process. However, many are non-specific for DIC and/or are unwieldy in performance to keep apace with the demands of the acute clinical setting. The renewed emphasis in DIC for the modern laboratory of the twenty-first century has seen a return to the simple, rapid and practical global tests of coagulation within scoring systems that also capture the pathophysiological continuum by trend analysis. Additionally, new technologies based on these simple tests of coagulation hold promise in also indicating the in vivo interplay between coagulation and inflammation during DIC.

  11. Molecular and structural advances in tissue factor-dependent coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhofer, D; Banner, D W

    1997-11-01

    The tissue factor:factor VIIa (TF-F.VIIa) complex is considered the physiological initiator of blood coagulation. Besides its role in normal hemostasis, this enzyme complex has been found to play an important role in various thrombotic disorders and thus has become an attractive target for the development of new anticoagulants. Recently, significant progress has been made in regard to structural and molecular aspects of TF-VIIa-initiated coagulation. A rather complete picture on how tissue factor binds to factor VIIa has emerged and is discussed in detail in this review. Also, the combined data of the TF-F.VIIa crystal structure, of naturally occurring F.VII variants, and of mutagenesis studies provide a framework to discuss molecular aspects of the tissue factor-mediated enhancement of F.VIIa catalytic efficiency and the recognition of macromolecular substrates. F.VIIa as a member of the serine protease family has an active site homologous to other coagulation factors. The release of the coordinates of the crystal structures of F.X and F.IX, together with the earlier determined thrombin structure, now allows a detailed comparison of these active centers with respect to the development of specific and potent active site inhibitors. This structural and molecular information about the TF-F.VIIa complex and other coagulation enzymes adds to our understanding of blood coagulation and should further the development of new classes of anticoagulants. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:316-324). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  12. Carbon monoxide and iron modulate plasmatic coagulation in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Vance G; Pretorius, Etheresia; Bester, Janette; Jacobsen, Wayne K; Boyle, Patrick K; Reinhard, Joao P

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality for millions of people worldwide, and multiple potential etiologies have been postulated to contribute to AD. Among these, spontaneous cerebral emboli and increased cerebral and circulating heme oxygenase (Hmox) activity in AD patients are of particular interest, as two of the products of Hmox activity, carbon monoxide (CO) and iron enhance plasmatic coagulation and modify the ultrastructure of thrombi. We hypothesized that patients afflicted with AD would have coagulation kinetics modulated by CO and iron. Using viscoelastic assessments of coagulation, it was determined with a small cohort (n=11) of AD patients that all had enhancement of coagulation by CO, iron, or both. In a complementary fashion, it was determined that a separate cohort (n=12) of AD patients had thrombi with ultrastructural features consistent with iron and CO exposure as assessed with scanning electron microscopy. Further, when stratified by normal or abnormally increased serum ferritin concentrations (which can be increased by Hmox), the AD patients with abnormal ferritin concentrations had significantly thinner fibrin fiber diameters, not unlike that noted when normal plasma is mixed with iron or CO. In sum, AD patients were noted to have plasmatic coagulation kinetic and thrombus ultrastructural changes consistent with exposure to CO and iron. Future investigation of CO and iron in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is warranted.

  13. Splenic hematoma in acute pancreatitis. Role of coagulation disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavé, P; Guillaumes, S; Blanco, I; Martínez de Hurtado, J; Esquius, J; Marruecos, L; Fontcuberta, J; Pérez, C; Farré, A; Lluís, F

    1992-08-01

    Splenic hematomas are infrequent complications of acute pancreatitis. In some cases, local factors that may play a role in the pathogenesis of the hematoma (thrombosis of the splenic artery or veins, intrasplenic pseudocysts, perisplenic adhesions, enzymatic digestion) are found. In the absence of local factors, the etiology of splenic hemorrhage remains unknown. We report two cases of splenic hematoma occurring during an acute necro-hemorrhagic pancreatitis associated with renal failure that required renal replacement therapy (hemodialysis and continuous arteriovenous hemodialysis). In both cases, more than half of splenic parenchyma was affected by multiple infarctions. No local factors responsible for the splenic abnormalities were detected in either case. Thrombosis of the splenic arterial microcirculation and a coagulation disorder consistent with disseminated intravascular coagulation was detected in one patient. In the second patient, coagulation disorders secondary to either liver disease, pancreatitis and its septic complications, or extracorporeal circuit heparinization for renal replacement therapy were present. Coagulation disorders should be considered whenever a splenic hematoma is found in a patient with acute pancreatitis. Disseminated intravascular coagulation may be the etiology of a splenic hematoma in acute pancreatitis.

  14. Nanoparticle coagulation in a planar jet via moment method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Large eddy simulations of nanoparticle coagulation in an incompressible planar jet were performed. The particle is described using a moment method to approximate the particle general dynamics equations. The time-averaged results based on 3000 time steps for every case were obtained to explore the influence of the Schmidt number and the Damkohler number on the nanoparticle dynamics. The results show that the changes of Schmidt number have the influence on the number concentration of nanoparticles only when the particle diameter is less than 1 nm for the fixed gas parameters. The number concentration of particles for small particles decreases more rapidly along the flow direction, and the nanoparticles with larger Schmidt number have a narrower distribution along the transverse direction. The smaller nanoparticles coagulate and disperse easily,grow rapidly hence show a stronger polydispersity. The smaller coagulation time scale can enhance the particle collision and coagulation. Frequented collision and coagulation bring a great increase in particle size. The larger the Damkohler number is, the higher the particle polydispersity is.

  15. Coagulation-flocculation process for combined sewage in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Tian-yin; XIA Si-qing; WU Zhi-ping; YIN Ming; LU Fen; ZHAO Jian-fu

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the coagulation-flocculation process using polyaluminium chloride (PAC) and its aids on the removal of organics and nutrient in the combined sewage from Shanghai Zhuyuan First Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant are studied,The coagulant aids include cationic polyacrylamide (PAM), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), activated silica (AS) and a kind of polyelectrolyte called AN prepared by the authors. The coagulating solution was added to the glass jar holding 1 L wastewater and stirred to a uniform mixture which was stilled to let the supernatant turn out. The supernatant was analyzed to see the removal efficiencies of suspended solid (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), soluble chemical oxygen demand (S-COD), total phosphorus (TP) and orthophosphate (PO43--P). It is found that PAC is efficient in reducing those five matters, PAM, PVA and AN each faciliates the reduction of TP, SS, COD and S-COD and has little contribution to the removal of ammonia nitrigen and orthophosphate, and AS is noneffective at all. The coagulation-flocculation process with PAC has demonstrated applicable to the treatment of combined sewage in Shanghai, and it involves mainly the sweep coagulation mechanism and maybe some more complicated mechanism as well.

  16. Changing common sense: Anti-platelet/coagulation therapyagainst cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, anti-platelet/coagulation therapy hadnot been recommended for patients with cirrhosis.Although venous thrombosis is one of the representativecomplications of cirrhosis and ischemic disordersassociated with atherosclerosis are not infrequent incirrhotic patients, many clinicians have tended to hesitateto introduce anti-platelet/coagulation therapy to theirpatients. Undoubtedly, this is due to the increased riskof hemorrhagic diathesis in cirrhotic patients. However,accumulating evidence has revealed the benefits ofanti-platelet/coagulation therapy for cirrhotic patients.In addition to the safety of the therapy carried outagainst cardiovascular diseases in cirrhotic patients,some clinical data have indicated its preventive effecton venous thrombosis. Moreover, the efficacy of antiplatelet/coagulation therapy against cirrhosis itself hasbeen demonstrated both clinically and experimentally.The conceptual basis for application of anti-platelet/coagulation therapy against cirrhosis was constructedthrough two pathologic studies on intrahepatic thrombosisin cirrhotic livers. It may be better to use thrombopoietinreceptoragonists, which have been tested as a treatmentfor cirrhosis-related thrombocytopenia, in combinationwith anti-platelet drugs to reduce the risk of venousthrombosis. During the last decade, the World Journalof Gastroenterology , a sister journal of World Journal ofHepatology , has been one of the main platforms of activediscussion of this theme.

  17. Improvement of wastewater treatment by use of natural coagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Prodanović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An activated sludge and other organic sludges from wastewater treatment processes are usually anaerobically digested prior to application on land. The purpose of digestion is to convert bulky, odorous sludges to relatively inert material that can be rapidly dewatering. The important benefit of this process is a biogas production, too. It is proper to enlarge primary sludge production in a primary settler by adding some coagulation aids, with aim to increase a biogas production, as much as possible. The most common coagulant is alum, but presence of large quantities of aluminum salts in sludge has a harmful impact on digestion and digested sludge application. Some natural coagulants, that have a numerous advantages, can be used instead of alum. Natural coagulants could be extracted from a different plant material, and considering the fact that they are of organic nature, the biogas yield can be enhanced by their presence. A plant material that remains after extraction can be used as a feed. The aim of this paper is a consideration of potential environmental benefits of substitution of alum by natural coagulant extracted from common bean seeds in sewage wastewater treatment process.

  18. Arsenic removal in water by means of coagulation-flocculation processes; Remocion de arsenico en agua mediante procesos de coagulacion-floculacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, M. F.; Carro P, M. E., E-mail: ffrancis@efn.uncor.edu [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Departamento de Construcciones Civiles, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-10-01

    Arsenic and arsenical compounds are considered as carcinogenic and risky for humans according to epidemiological evidence related with the ingestion of arsenical water during a long period. In many places the only source of drinking water contains arsenic and, therefore, removal strategies have to be investigated. This work shows experimental results of coagulation-flocculation processes implemented to evaluate the efficiency in the removal of arsenic from drinking water. The main objectives include the evaluation of the relevant aspect that controls the removal efficiency. Experimental tests were performed with coagulant concentrations from 5 to 500 mg/L, solid particle concentrations from 0 to 6000 mg/L, and initial arsenic concentrations from 0.5 to 5 mg/L. These variables were simultaneously varied in more than 100 experiments. The efficiency in remediation ranged from 0% to 95%. Removal efficiency near 95% was obtained when using ferric chloride as coagulant, and was close to 80% when using aluminium sulfate as coagulant in arsenate solutions. The remediation efficiency decreased significantly when the ferric chloride concentration was higher than 50 mg/L in relation to the obtained results for aluminum sulfate for different type and concentration of soil particles. The highest removal efficiency were obtained at ph between 3 and 5 in oxidized solutions. Obtained results simulated by means of multiple linear regression analysis (R>0.90) allow determining that the main parameters that control the removal of arsenic from drinking water are coagulant concentration, ph, and solid particles concentration. Conversely, particle mineralogy and coagulant type have less significant effect on the removal by means of coagulation-flocculation mechanisms. Obtained results are relevant for the removal of As in water treatment plants as well as for the development of small scale filters. The samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X

  19. Increasing concentrations of prothrombin complex concentrate induce disseminated intravascular coagulation in a pig model of coagulopathy with blunt liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grottke, Oliver; Braunschweig, Till; Spronk, Henri M H; Esch, Stephanie; Rieg, Annette D; van Oerle, Rene; ten Cate, Hugo; Fitzner, Christina; Tolba, Rene; Rossaint, Rolf

    2011-08-18

    Despite increasing use of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) to treat hemorrhage-associated coagulopathy, few studies have investigated PCC in trauma, and there is a particular lack of safety data. This study was performed to evaluate PCC therapy in a porcine model of coagulopathy with blunt liver injury. Coagulopathy was induced in 27 anesthetized pigs by replacing approximately 70% blood volume with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 and Ringer's lactate solution; erythrocytes were collected and retransfused. Ten minutes after trauma, animals randomly received PCC (35 or 50 IU/kg) or saline. Coagulation parameters including thromboelastometry, thrombin generation, and blood loss were monitored for 2 hours. Internal organs were examined macroscopically