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Sample records for controlling trichome formation

  1. Genetic evidence suggests that GIS functions downstream of TCL1 to regulate trichome formation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Yang, Li; Luo, Sha; Wang, Xutong; Wang, Wei; Cheng, Yuxin; Tian, Hainan; Zheng, Kaijie; Cai, Ling; Wang, Shucai

    2018-04-13

    Trichome formation in Arabidopsis is regulated by a MBW complex formed by MYB, bHLH and WD40 transcriptional factors, which can activate GLABRA2 (GL2) and the R3 MYB transcription factor genes. GL2 promotes trichome formation, whereas R3 MYBs are able to block the formation of the MBW complex. It has been reported that the C2H2 transcription factor GIS (GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS) functions upstream of the MBW activator complex to regulate trichome formation, and that the expression of TCL1 is not regulated by the MBW complex. However, gis and the R3 MYB gene mutant tcl1 (trichomeless 1) have opposite inflorescence trichome phenotypes, but their relationship in regulating trichome formation remained unknown. By generating and characterization of the gis tcl1 double mutant, we found that trichome formation in the gis tcl1double and the tcl1 single mutants were largely indistinguishable, but the trichome formation in the 35S:TCL1/gis transgenic plant was similar to that in the gis mutant. By using quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we showed that expression level of GIS was increased in the triple mutant tcl1 try cpc, but the expression level of TCL1 was not affected in the gis mutant. On the other hand, trichome morphology in both gis tcl1 and 35S:TCL1/gis plants was similar to that in the gis mutant. In summary, our results indicate that GIS may work downstream of TCL1 to regulate trichome formation, and GIS has a dominant role in controlling trichome morphology.

  2. An overview of the gene regulatory network controlling trichome development in the model plant, Arabidopsis

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    Sitakanta ePattanaik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichomes are specialized epidermal cells located on aerial parts of plants and are associated with a wide array of biological processes. Trichomes protect plants from adverse conditions including UV light and herbivore attack and are also an important source of a number of phytochemicals. The simple unicellular trichomes of Arabidopsis serve as an excellent model to study molecular mechanism of cell differentiation and pattern formation in plants. The emerging picture suggests that the developmental process is controlled by a transcriptional network involving three major groups of transcription factors: the R2R3 MYB, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH and WD40 repeat (WDR protein. These regulatory proteins form a trimeric activator complex that positively regulates trichome development. The single repeat R3 MYBs act as negative regulators of trichome development. They compete with the R2R3 MYBs to bind the bHLH factor and form a repressor complex. In addition to activator-repressor mechanism, a depletion mechanism may operate in parallel during trichome development. In this mechanism, the bHLH factor traps the WDR protein which results in depletion of WDR protein in neighboring cells. Consequently, the cells with high levels of bHLH and WDR proteins are developed into trichomes. A group of C2H2 zinc finger TFs has also been implicated in trichome development. Phytohormones, including gibberellins and jasmonic acid, play significant roles in this developmental process. Recently, microRNAs have been shown to be involved in trichome development. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the activities of the key regulatory proteins involved in trichome development are controlled by the 26S/ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS, highlighting the complexity of the regulatory network controlling this developmental process. To complement several excellent recent relevant reviews, this review focuses on the transcriptional network and hormonal interplay

  3. Control of trichome branching by Chromatin Assembly Factor-1

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    Hennig Lars

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin dynamics and stability are both required to control normal development of multicellular organisms. Chromatin assembly factor CAF-1 is a histone chaperone that facilitates chromatin formation and the maintenance of specific chromatin states. In plants and animals CAF-1 is essential for normal development, but it is poorly understood which developmental pathways require CAF-1 function. Results Mutations in all three CAF-1 subunits affect Arabidopsis trichome morphology and lack of CAF-1 function results in formation of trichomes with supernumerary branches. This phenotype can be partially alleviated by external sucrose. In contrast, other aspects of the CAF-1 mutant phenotype, such as defective meristem function and organ formation, are aggravated by external sucrose. Double mutant analyses revealed epistatic interactions between CAF-1 mutants and stichel, but non-epistatic interactions between CAF-1 mutants and glabra3 and kaktus. In addition, mutations in CAF-1 could partly suppress the strong overbranching and polyploidization phenotype of kaktus mutants. Conclusion CAF-1 is required for cell differentiation and regulates trichome development together with STICHEL in an endoreduplication-independent pathway. This function of CAF-1 can be partially substituted by application of exogenous sucrose. Finally, CAF-1 is also needed for the high degree of endoreduplication in kaktus mutants and thus for the realization of kaktus' extreme overbranching phenotype.

  4. Papillae formation on trichome cell walls requires the function of the mediator complex subunit Med25.

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    Fornero, Christy; Suo, Bangxia; Zahde, Mais; Juveland, Katelyn; Kirik, Viktor

    2017-11-01

    Glassy Hair 1 (GLH1) gene that promotes papillae formation on trichome cell walls was identified as a subunit of the transcriptional mediator complex MED25. The MED25 gene is shown to be expressed in trichomes. The expression of the trichome development marker genes GLABRA2 (GL2) and Ethylene Receptor2 (ETR2) is not affected in the glh1 mutant. Presented data suggest that Arabidopsis MED25 mediator component is likely involved in the transcription of genes promoting papillae deposition in trichomes. The plant cell wall plays an important role in communication, defense, organization and support. The importance of each of these functions varies by cell type. Specialized cells, such as Arabidopsis trichomes, exhibit distinct cell wall characteristics including papillae. To better understand the molecular processes important for papillae deposition on the cell wall surface, we identified the GLASSY HAIR 1 (GLH1) gene, which is necessary for papillae formation. We found that a splice-site mutation in the component of the transcriptional mediator complex MED25 gene is responsible for the near papillae-less phenotype of the glh1 mutant. The MED25 gene is expressed in trichomes. Reporters for trichome developmental marker genes GLABRA2 (GL2) and Ethylene Receptor2 (ETR2) were not affected in the glh1 mutant. Collectively, the presented results show that MED25 is necessary for papillae formation on the cell wall surface of leaf trichomes and suggest that the Arabidopsis MED25 mediator component is likely involved in the transcription of a subset of genes that promote papillae deposition in trichomes.

  5. Petunia hybrida PDR2 is involved in herbivore defense by controlling steroidal contents in trichomes.

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    Sasse, Joëlle; Schlegel, Markus; Borghi, Lorenzo; Ullrich, Friederike; Lee, Miyoung; Liu, Guo-Wei; Giner, José-Luis; Kayser, Oliver; Bigler, Laurent; Martinoia, Enrico; Kretzschmar, Tobias

    2016-12-01

    As a first line of defense against insect herbivores many plants store high concentrations of toxic and deterrent secondary metabolites in glandular trichomes. Plant Pleiotropic Drug Resistance (PDR)-type ABC transporters are known secondary metabolite transporters, and several have been implicated in pathogen or herbivore defense. Here, we report on Petunia hybrida PhPDR2 as a major contributor to trichome-related chemical defense. PhPDR2 was found to localize to the plasma membrane and be predominantly expressed in multicellular glandular trichomes of leaves and stems. Down-regulation of PhPDR2 via RNA interference (pdr2) resulted in a markedly higher susceptibility of the transgenic plants to the generalist foliage feeder Spodoptera littoralis. Untargeted screening of pdr2 trichome metabolite contents showed a significant decrease in petuniasterone and petuniolide content, compounds, which had previously been shown to act as potent toxins against various insects. Our findings suggest that PhPDR2 plays a leading role in controlling petuniasterone levels in leaves and trichomes of petunia, thus contributing to herbivory resistance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Genome-wide identification of GLABRA3 downstream genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in Arabidopsis.

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    Gao, Chenhao; Li, Dong; Jin, Changyu; Duan, Shaowei; Qi, Shuanghui; Liu, Kaige; Wang, Hanchen; Ma, Haoli; Hai, Jiangbo; Chen, Mingxun

    2017-04-01

    GLABRA3 (GL3), a bHLH transcription factor, has previously proved to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in Arabidopsis, however, its downstream targeted genes are still largely unknown. Here, we found that GL3 was widely present in Arabidopsis vegetative and reproductive organs. New downstream targeted genes of GL3 for anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation were identified in young shoots and expanding true leaves by RNA sequencing. GL3-mediated gene expression was tissue specific in the two biological processes. This study provides new clues to further understand the GL3-mediated regulatory network of anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Trichomes: different regulatory networks lead to convergent structures.

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    Serna, Laura; Martin, Cathie

    2006-06-01

    Sometimes, proteins, biological structures or even organisms have similar functions and appearances but have evolved through widely divergent pathways. There is experimental evidence to suggest that different developmental pathways have converged to produce similar outgrowths of the aerial plant epidermis, referred to as trichomes. The emerging picture suggests that trichomes in Arabidopsis thaliana and, perhaps, in cotton develop through a transcriptional regulatory network that differs from those regulating trichome formation in Antirrhinum and Solanaceous species. Several lines of evidence suggest that the duplication of a gene controlling anthocyanin production and subsequent divergence might be the major force driving trichome formation in Arabidopsis, whereas the multicellular trichomes of Antirrhinum and Solanaceous species appear to have a different regulatory origin.

  8. NTL8 Regulates Trichome Formation in Arabidopsis by Directly Activating R3 MYB Genes TRY and TCL1.

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    Tian, Hainan; Wang, Xianling; Guo, Hongyan; Cheng, Yuxin; Hou, Chunjiang; Chen, Jin-Gui; Wang, Shucai

    2017-08-01

    The NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC (NAC) are plant-specific transcription factors that regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development and plant response to environmental stimuli. We report here the identification of NTM1-LIKE8 (NTL8), a membrane-associated NAC transcription factor, as a novel regulator of trichome formation in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ). From an activation-tagged Arabidopsis population, we identified a dominant, gain-of-function mutant with glabrous inflorescence stem. By using plasmid rescue and RT-PCR analyses, we found that NTL8 was tagged; thus, the mutant was named ntl8-1 Dominant ( ntl8-1D ). Recapitulation experiment further confirmed that the phenotype observed in the ntl8-1D mutant was caused by elevated expression of NTL8 Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that the expression level of the single-repeat R3 MYB genes TRIPTYCHON ( TRY ) and TRICHOMELESS1 ( TCL1 ) was elevated in the ntl8-1D mutant. Genetic analyses demonstrated that NTL8 acts upstream of TRY and TCL1 in the regulation of trichome formation. When recruited to the promoter region of the reporter gene Gal4:GUS by a fused GAL4 DNA-binding domain, NTL8 activated the expression of the reporter gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation results indicated that TRY and TCL1 are direct targets of NTL8. However, NTL8 did not interact with SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE9, another transcription factor that regulates the expression of TRY and TCL1 , in yeast and plant cells. Taken together, our results suggest that NTL8 negatively regulates trichome formation in Arabidopsis by directly activating the expression of TRY and TCL1 . © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Brassica napusGLABRA3-1 promotes anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in true leaves when expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Gao, C; Guo, Y; Wang, J; Li, D; Liu, K; Qi, S; Jin, C; Duan, S; Gong, J; Li, Z; Chen, M

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that GLABRA3 (AtGL3), a bHLH transcription factor, plays essential roles in anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, there have been no such studies of a homologue, BnGL3, from the closely related crop, Brassica napus. Here, we analysed the BnGL3-1 coding domain sequence from the B. napus cultivar QINYOU Seven, identified conserved protein domains and performed a phylogenetic analysis to elucidate its relationship with homologues form a range of plant species. When expressed in tobacco leaves as a fusion protein with green fluorescent protein, BnGL3-1 accumulated in the nucleus, consistent with its predicted function as a transcription factor. Ectopic expression of the BnGL3-1 gene in the A. thaliana gl3-3 mutant resulted in levels of anthocyanins and numbers of trichomes in true leaves that were higher than in wild-type plants. Moreover, overexpression of BnGL3-1 in gl3-3 compensated for the promotion and repression of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation, respectively, that has been reported in gl3-3 young shoots and expanding true leaves. This study provides new insights into GL3 function in anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in crucifers, and represents a promising target for genetic manipulation of B. napus. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. Plant Glandular Trichomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    landing on the plant. Glandular trichomes in catmint (Nepeta sp.) produce nepetalactone, closely related to the aphid sex pheromone, nepetalactol. Nepetalactone can be reduced to the corresponding nepetalactol. ... Plant glandular trichomes function either as repositories or releasing sites of various chemicals. Interest in ...

  11. Quantification of variability in trichome patterns

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    Bettina eGreese

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While pattern formation is studied in various areas of biology, little is known about the intrinsic noise leading to variations between individual realizations of the pattern. One prominent example for de novo pattern formation in plants is the patterning of trichomes on Arabidopsis leaves, which involves genetic regulation and cell-to-cell communication. These processes are potentially variable due to , e.g., the abundance of cell components or environmental conditions. To elevate the understanding of the regulatory processes underlying the pattern formation it is crucial to quantitatively analyze the variability in naturally occurring patterns. Here, we review recent approaches towards characterization of noise on trichome initiation. We present methods for the quantification of spatial patterns, which are the basis for data-driven mathematical modeling and enable the analysis of noise from different sources. Besides the insight gained on trichome formation, the examination of observed trichome patterns also shows that highly regulated biological processes can be substantially affected by variability.

  12. Functional characterization of TRICHOMELESS2, a new single-repeat R3 MYB transcription factor in the regulation of trichome patterning in Arabidopsis

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    Gan Lijun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-repeat R3 MYB transcription factors (single-repeat MYBs play important roles in controlling trichome patterning in Arabidopsis. It was proposed that single-repeat MYBs negatively regulate trichome formation by competing with GLABRA1 (GL1 for binding GLABRA3/ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (GL3/EGL3, thus inhibiting the formation of activator complex TTG1(TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1-GL3/EGL3-GL1 that is required for the activation of GLABRA2 (GL2, whose product is a positive regulator of trichome formation. Previously we identified a novel single-repeat MYB transcription factor, TRICHOMELESS1 (TCL1, which negatively regulates trichome formation on the inflorescence stems and pedicels by directly suppressing the expression of GL1. Results We analyzed here the role of TRICHOMELESS2 (TCL2, a previously-uncharacterized single-repeat MYB transcription factor in trichome patterning in Arabidopsis. We showed that TCL2 is closely related to TCL1, and like TCL1 and other single-repeat MYBs, TCL2 interacts with GL3. Overexpression of TCL2 conferred glabrous phenotype while knockdown of TCL2 via RNAi induced ectopic trichome formation on the inflorescence stems and pedicels, a phenotype that was previously observed in tcl1 mutants. These results suggested that TCL2 may have overlapping function with TCL1 in controlling trichome formation on inflorescences. On the other hand, although the transcription of TCL2, like TCL1, is not controlled by the activator complex formed by GL1 and GL3, and TCL2 and TCL1 proteins are more than 80% identical at the amino acid level, the expression of TCL2 under the control of TCL1 promoter only partially recovered the mutant phenotype of tcl1, implying that TCL2 and TCL1 are not fully functional equivalent. Conclusions TCL2 function redundantly with TCL1 in controlling trichome formation on inflorescences, but they are not fully functional equivalent. Transcription of TCL2 is not controlled by activator complex

  13. Quantitative expression analysis of selected transcription factors in pavement, basal and trichome cells of mature leaves from Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Schliep, Martin; Ebert, Berit; Simon-Rosin, Ulrike; Zoeller, Daniela; Fisahn, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Gene expression levels of several transcription factors from Arabidopsis thaliana that were described previously to be involved in leaf development and trichome formation were analysed in trichome, basal and pavement cells of mature leaves. Single cell samples of these three cells types were collected by glass micro-capillaries. Real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was used to analyse expression patterns of the following transcription factors: MYB23, MYB55, AtHB1, FILAMENTOUS FLOWER (FIL)/YABBY1 (YAB1), TRIPTYCHON (TRY) and CAPRICE (CPC). A difference in the expression patterns of TRY and CPC was revealed. Contrary to the CPC expression pattern, no transcripts of TRY could be detected in pavement cells. FIL/YAB1 was exclusively expressed in trichome cells. AtHB1 was highly expressed throughout all three cell types. MYB55 was higher expressed in basal cells than in trichome and pavement cells. MYB23 showed a pattern of low expression in pavement cells, medium in basal cells and high expression in trichomes. Expression patterns obtained by single cell sampling and real-time RT-PCR were compared to promoter GUS fusions of the selected transcription factors. Therefore, we regenerated two transgenic Arabidopsis lines that expressed the GUS reporter gene under control of the promoters of MYB55 and YAB1. In conclusion, despite their function in leaf morphogenesis, all six transcription factors were detected in mature leaves. Furthermore, single cell sampling and promoter GUS staining patterns demonstrated the predominant presence of MYB55 in basal cells as compared to pavement cells and trichomes.

  14. Ectopic expression of Capsicum-specific cell wall protein Capsicum annuum senescence-delaying 1 (CaSD1) delays senescence and induces trichome formation in Nicotiana benthamiana.

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    Seo, Eunyoung; Yeom, Seon-In; Jo, Sunghwan; Jeong, Heejin; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Choi, Doil

    2012-04-01

    Secreted proteins are known to have multiple roles in plant development, metabolism, and stress response. In a previous study to understand the roles of secreted proteins, Capsicum annuum secreted proteins (CaS) were isolated by yeast secretion trap. Among the secreted proteins, we further characterized Capsicum annuum senescence-delaying 1 (CaSD1), a gene encoding a novel secreted protein that is present only in the genus Capsicum. The deduced CaSD1 contains multiple repeats of the amino acid sequence KPPIHNHKPTDYDRS. Interestingly, the number of repeats varied among cultivars and species in the Capsicum genus. CaSD1 is constitutively expressed in roots, and Agrobacterium-mediated transient overexpression of CaSD1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves resulted in delayed senescence with a dramatically increased number of trichomes and enlarged epidermal cells. Furthermore, senescence- and cell division-related genes were differentially regulated by CaSD1-overexpressing plants. These observations imply that the pepper-specific cell wall protein CaSD1 plays roles in plant growth and development by regulating cell division and differentiation.

  15. GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS (GIS) is required for trichome branching through gibberellic acid signaling in Arabidopsis.

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    An, Lijun; Zhou, Zhongjing; Su, Sha; Yan, An; Gan, Yinbo

    2012-02-01

    Cell differentiation generally corresponds to the cell cycle, typically forming a non-dividing cell with a unique differentiated morphology, and Arabidopsis trichome is an excellent model system to study all aspects of cell differentiation. Although gibberellic acid is reported to be involved in trichome branching in Arabidopsis, the mechanism for such signaling is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS (GIS) is required for the control of trichome branching through gibberellic acid signaling. The phenotypes of a loss-of-function gis mutant and an overexpressor showed that GIS acted as a repressor to control trichome branching. Our results also show that GIS is not required for cell endoreduplication, and our molecular and genetic study results have shown that GIS functions downstream of the key regulator of trichome branching, STICHEL (STI), to control trichome branching through the endoreduplication-independent pathway. Furthermore, our results also suggest that GIS controls trichome branching in Arabidopsis through two different pathways and acts either upstream or downstream of the negative regulator of gibbellic acid signaling SPINDLY (SPY).

  16. Seed trichome variation in Hibiscus section Furcaria in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The micromorphology of the seed trichomes in Hibiscus section Furcaria in Tropical East Africa was surveyed. The structure of the trichomes was found to be unique for each species examined, where such trichomes are present. Seed trichomes of specimens of H. altissimus Horny from the Kenya and Tanzania coasts were ...

  17. Leaf Trichomes Morphology of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. (LAMIACEAE)

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    Chatri, M.; Baktiar, A.; Mansyurdin, M.; Periadnadi, P.

    2018-04-01

    Hyptis suaveolens L. Poit is one of the plants from family Lamiaceae and is an aromatic plant. The aroma contained in plants is usually secreted by certain structures in plants, such as glandular trichomes. At this plant has been carried out observations about the type and distribution of trichomes by using light microscopy and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy). The results showed that the leaves of this plant are non-glandular trichomes types and glandular, either on the surface abaxial and adaxial and on the veins. Non-glandular trichomes consist of the monoselular and multicellular trichomes. While the glandular trichomes consist of peltate type, capitate type I and type II.

  18. Capitate glandular trichomes in Aldama discolor (Heliantheae - Asteraceae): morphology, metabolite profile and sesquiterpene biosynthesis.

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    Bombo, A B; Appezzato-da-Glória, B; Aschenbrenner, A-K; Spring, O

    2016-05-01

    The capitate glandular trichome is the most common type described in Asteraceae species. It is known for its ability to produce various plant metabolites of ecological and economic importance, among which sesquiterpene lactones are predominant. In this paper, we applied microscopy, phytochemical and molecular genetics techniques to characterise the capitate glandular trichome in Aldama discolor, a native Brazilian species of Asteraceae, with pharmacological potential. It was found that formation of trichomes on leaf primordia of germinating seeds starts between 24 h and 48 h after radicle growth indicates germination. The start of metabolic activity of trichomes was indicated by separation of the cuticle from the cell wall of secretory cells at the trichome tip after 72 h. This coincided with the accumulation of budlein A, the major sesquiterpene lactone of A. discolor capitate glandular trichomes, in extracts of leaf primordia after 96 h. In the same timeframe of 72-96 h post-germination, gene expression studies showed up-regulation of the putative germacrene A synthase (pGAS2) and putative germacrene A oxidase (pGAO) of A. discolor in the transcriptome of these samples, indicating the start of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Sequencing of the two genes revealed high similarity to HaGAS and HaGAO from sunflower, which shows that key steps of this pathway are highly conserved. The processes of trichome differentiation, metabolic activity and genetic regulation in A. discolor and in sunflower appear to be typical for other species of the subtribe Helianthinae. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Temperature controlled 'void' formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, P.; Sharma, B.D.

    1975-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of voids in structural materials during high temperature deformation or irradiation is essentially dependent upon the existence of 'vacancy supersaturation'. The role of temperature dependent diffusion processes in 'void' formation under varying conditions, and the mechanical property changes associated with this microstructure are briefly reviewed. (author)

  20. Glandular Trichomes and Essential Oil of Thymus quinquecostatus

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    Ping Jia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and types of glandular trichomes and essential oil chemistry of Thymus quinquecostatus were studied. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of stem, leaf, rachis, calyx and corolla, except petiole, pistil and stamen. Three morphologically distinct types of glandular trichomes are described. Peltate trichomes, consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell and a 12-celled head, are distributed on the stem, leaf, corolla and outer side of calyx. Capitate trichomes, consisting of a unicellular base, a 1–2-celled stalk and a unicellular head, are distributed more diffusely than peltate ones, existing on stem, leaf, rachis and calyx. Digitiform trichomes are just distributed on the outer side of corolla, consisting of 1 basal cell, 3 stalk cells and 1 head cell. All three types of glandular trichomes can secrete essential oil, and in small capitate trichomes of rachis, all peltate trichomes and digitiform trichomes, essential oil is stored in a large subcuticular space, released by cuticle rupture, whereas, in other capitate trichomes, essential oil crosses the thin cuticle. The essential oil of T. quinquecostatus is yellow, and its content is highest in the growth period. 68 constituents were identified in the essential oils. The main constituent is linalool.

  1. Robust Decentralized Formation Flight Control

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    Zhao Weihua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the idea of multiplexed model predictive control (MMPC, this paper introduces a new framework for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs formation flight and coordination. Formulated using MMPC approach, the whole centralized formation flight system is considered as a linear periodic system with control inputs of each UAV subsystem as its periodic inputs. Divided into decentralized subsystems, the whole formation flight system is guaranteed stable if proper terminal cost and terminal constraints are added to each decentralized MPC formulation of the UAV subsystem. The decentralized robust MPC formulation for each UAV subsystem with bounded input disturbances and model uncertainties is also presented. Furthermore, an obstacle avoidance control scheme for any shape and size of obstacles, including the nonapriorily known ones, is integrated under the unified MPC framework. The results from simulations demonstrate that the proposed framework can successfully achieve robust collision-free formation flights.

  2. TCS1, a Microtubule-Binding Protein, Interacts with KCBP/ZWICHEL to Regulate Trichome Cell Shape in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Liangliang Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available How cell shape is controlled is a fundamental question in developmental biology, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms that determine cell shape are largely unknown. Arabidopsis trichomes have been used as a good model system to investigate cell shape at the single-cell level. Here we describe the trichome cell shape 1 (tcs1 mutants with the reduced trichome branch number in Arabidopsis. TCS1 encodes a coiled-coil domain-containing protein. Pharmacological analyses and observations of microtubule dynamics show that TCS1 influences the stability of microtubules. Biochemical analyses and live-cell imaging indicate that TCS1 binds to microtubules and promotes the assembly of microtubules. Further results reveal that TCS1 physically associates with KCBP/ZWICHEL, a microtubule motor involved in the regulation of trichome branch number. Genetic analyses indicate that kcbp/zwi is epistatic to tcs1 with respect to trichome branch number. Thus, our findings define a novel genetic and molecular mechanism by which TCS1 interacts with KCBP to regulate trichome cell shape by influencing the stability of microtubules.

  3. Trichomes morphology as a taxonomic marker in the subfamily heliotropioideae (boraginaceae from Pakistan and Kashmir)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parveen, A.

    2009-01-01

    Trichomes morphology of the subfamily heliotropioideae (Boraginaceae representing by 18 spectes has been examined by light and scanning microscope. Within the subfamily Heliotropoideae trichomes are generally eglandular rarely glandular as in Heliotropium ohioglossum Boiss. Within the subfamily Heliotropoideae 1-celled unicellular and two celled uniseriate trichomes are observed. Shape of the trichomes usually comical with pointed tims and distinct trichomes base. However few species have indistinct trichome base. The data is significantly useful at specific and generic level within the subfamily Heliotropioideae. (author)

  4. Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in leaves and glandular trichomes of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Cícero; Simon, James E

    2010-01-01

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oil phenylpropenes are synthesized and accumulate in peltate glandular trichomes and their content and composition depend on plant developmental stage. Studies on gene expression and enzymatic activity indicate that the phenylpropene biosynthetic genes are developmentally regulated. In this study, the methylchavicol accumulation in basil leaves and the enzyme activities and gene expression of both chavicol O-methyltransferase (CVOMT) and eugenol O-methyltransferase (EOMT) were investigated in all leaves at four plant developmental stages. Methylchavicol accumulation decreased over time as leaves matured. There was a significant correlation between methylchavicol accumulation and CVOMT (r(2) = 0.88) enzyme activity, suggesting that the levels of biosynthetic enzymes control the essential oil content. CVOMT and EOMT transcript expression levels, which decreased with leaf age, followed the same pattern in both whole leaves and isolated glandular trichomes, providing evidence that CVOMT transcript levels are developmentally regulated in basil glandular trichomes themselves and that differences in CVOMT expression observed in whole leaves are not solely the result of differences in glandular trichome density.

  5. Structure and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The glandular trichomes were classified into two subpopulations, namely the peltate and capitate glandular trichomes. The former was characterized by a short stalk and a large four-celled secretory head, while the latter was further subdivided into two groups; one has a short unicellular stalk and two-cellular head (type I), ...

  6. Trichomes morphology in petals of some Acanthaceae species.

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    Muhammad Amirul Aiman Ahmad Juhari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary taxonomic study was carried out on seven Acanthaceae species namely as Andrographis paniculata, Pseuderanthemum graciliflorum, P. carruthersii,  Asystasia gangetica ssp. micrantha, Ruellia repens, Justicia comata and J. betonica. The study was undertaken to    investigate the morphology of trichomes present on the surfaces of flower petal. The variations found in this study are in their types and density. Based on observation, two forms of trichomes are present in all species studies which are glandular and non-glandular trichomes. There are seven types of trichomes found in this study. Trichomes types are shown to have systematic significance that can be used to differentiate and identify certain Acanthaceae species studied. 

  7. Expression of β-glucosidase increases trichome density and artemisinin content in transgenic Artemisia annua plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Kumar, Shashi; Daniell, Henry

    2016-03-01

    Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the aetiological agent of the most severe form of malaria. However, a low level of accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a major limitation for its production and delivery to malaria endemic areas of the world. While several strategies to enhance artemisinin have been extensively explored, enhancing storage capacity in trichome has not yet been considered. Therefore, trichome density was increased with the expression of β-glucosidase (bgl1) gene in A. annua through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene (bgl1) integration and transcript were confirmed by molecular analysis. Trichome density increased up to 20% in leaves and 66% in flowers of BGL1 transgenic plants than Artemisia control plants. High-performance liquid chromatography, time of flight mass spectrometer data showed that artemisinin content increased up to 1.4% in leaf and 2.56% in flowers (per g DW), similar to the highest yields achieved so far through metabolic engineering. Artemisinin was enhanced up to five-fold in BGL1 transgenic flowers. This study opens the possibility of increasing artemisinin content by manipulating trichomes' density, which is a major reservoir of artemisinin. Combining biosynthetic pathway engineering with enhancing trichome density may further increase artemisinin yield in A. annua. Because oral feeding of Artemisia plant cells reduced parasitemia more efficiently than the purified drug, reduced drug resistance and cost of prohibitively expensive purification process, enhanced expression should play a key role in making this valuable drug affordable to treat malaria in a large global population that disproportionally impacts low-socioeconomic areas and underprivileged children. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Expression of Beta-glucosidase increases trichome density and artemisinin content in transgenic Artemisia annua plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Kumar, Shashi; Daniell, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the etiological agent of the most severe form of malaria. However, a low level of accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a major limitation for its production and delivery to malaria endemic areas of the world. While several strategies to enhance artemisinin have been extensively explored, enhancing storage capacity in trichome has not yet been considered. Therefore, trichome density was increased with the expression of β glucosidase (bgl1) gene in A. annua through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene (bgl1) integration and transcript was confirmed by molecular analysis. Trichome density increased up to 20% in leaves and 66% in flowers of BGL1 transgenic plants than Artemisia control plants. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, MS-TOF) data showed that artemisinin content increased up to 1.4% in leaf and 2.56% in flowers (g-1DW), similar to the highest yields achieved so far through metabolic engineering. Artemisinin was enhanced up to 5-fold in BGL1 transgenic flowers. The present study opens the possibility of increasing artemisinin content by manipulating trichomes density, which is a major reservoir of artemisinin. Combining biosynthetic pathway engineering with enhancing trichome density may further increase artemisinin yield in A. annua. Because oral feeding of Artemisia plant cells reduced parasitemia more efficiently than the purified drug, reduced drug resistance and cost of prohibitively expensive purification process, enhanced expression should play a key role in making this valuable drug affordable to treat malaria in a large global population that disproportionally impacts low-socioeconomic areas and underprivileged children. PMID:26360801

  9. Regulation of trichome development in tobacco by JcZFP8, a C2H2 zinc finger protein gene from Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaodong; Gu, Yuxi; Dai, Tingwei; Wu, Yang; Wu, Peng; Xu, Ying; Chen, Fang

    2018-06-05

    Trichomes are epidermal outgrowths of plant tissues that can secrete or store large quantities of secondary metabolites, which contribute to plant defense responses against stress. The use of bioengineering methods for regulating the development of trichomes and metabolism is a widely researched topic. In the present study, we demonstrate that JcZFP8, a C2H2 zinc finger protein gene from Jatropha curcas L., can regulate trichome development in transgenic tobacco. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we performed transcriptome profiling of overexpression JcZFP8 transgenic plants and wild-type tobacco. Based on the analysis of differentially expressed genes, we determined that genes of the plant hormone signal transduction pathway was significantly enriched, suggesting that these pathways were modulated in the transgenic plants. In addition, the transcript levels of the known trichome-related genes in Arabidopsis were not significantly changed, whereas CycB2 and MYB genes were differentially expressed in the transgenic plants. Despite tobacco and Arabidopsis have different types of trichomes, all the pathways were associated with C2H2 zinc finger protein genes. Our findings help us to understand the regulation of multicellular trichome formation and suggest a new metabolic engineering method for the improvement of plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Satellite Formation Control Using Atmospheric Drag

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hajovsky, Blake B

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the use of a linear quadratic terminal controller to reconfigure satellite formations using atmospheric drag actuated control while minimizing the loss of energy of the formation...

  11. Morphology, structure and ontogeny of trichomes of the grape genus (Vitis, Vitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yao eMa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Trichomes are widely distributed on surfaces of different organs in the grape genus Vitis and are of taxonomic utility. To explore the morphology, structure and ontogeny of Vitis trichomes, we investigated the diversity and distribution of trichomes in 34 species of Vitis. Two main types of trichomes in Vitis are documented: non-glandular and glandular. Within non-glandular trichomes, ribbon and simple trichomes are found on different vegetative plant organs. The morphology and ontogeny of these types of trichomes are further examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the glandular trichomes is explored with transmission electron microscopy. The ribbon trichomes are twisted, greatly elongated and unicellular, and this trichome type may be a morphological synapomorphy of Vitis and its closest tropical relative Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes in Vitaceae. The simple trichomes are documented in most species sampled in the genus. The glandular trichomes are multicellular, non-vascularized and composed of both epidermis and subjacent layers. We show that prickles occurring along the stems and petioles of Vitis davidii are modified glandular trichomes. In our observation, the glandular trichomes of V. romanetii can secret mucilage and send out volatile substance so that many insects are often glued to glands. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that metabolic products accumulate in vacuoles, the cytoplasm and intercellular spaces. We infer that glandular trichomes and young prickles are involved in the secretion of these metabolic products and the intercellular spaces may be the places of temporary storage of these secretions.

  12. Is nectar reabsorption restricted by the stalk cells of floral and extrafloral nectary trichomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Gustavson, P; Davis, A R

    2015-01-01

    Reabsorption is a phase of nectar dynamics that occurs concurrently with secretion; it has been described in floral nectaries that exude nectar through stomata or unicellular trichomes, but has not yet been recorded in extrafloral glands. Apparently, nectar reabsorption does not occur in multicellular secretory trichomes (MST) due to the presence of lipophilic impregnations - which resemble Casparian strips - in the anticlinal walls of the stalk cells. It has been assumed that these impregnations restrict solute movement within MST to occur unidirectionally and exclusively by the symplast, thereby preventing nectar reflux toward the underlying nectary tissues. We hypothesised that reabsorption is absent in nectaries possessing MST. The fluorochrome lucifer yellow (LYCH) was applied to standing nectar of two floral and extrafloral glands of distantly related species, and then emission spectra from nectary sections were systematically analysed using confocal microscopy. Passive uptake of LYCH via the stalk cells to the nectary tissues occurred in all MST examined. Moreover, we present evidence of nectar reabsorption in extrafloral nectaries, demonstrating that LYCH passed the stalk cells of MST, although it did not reach the deepest nectary tissues. Identical (control) experiments performed with neutral red (NR) demonstrated no uptake of this stain by actively secreting MST, whereas diffusion of NR did occur in plasmolysed MST of floral nectaries at the post-secretory phase, indicating that nectar reabsorption by MST is governed by stalk cell physiology. Interestingly, non-secretory trichomes failed to reabsorb nectar. The role of various nectary components is discussed in relation to the control of nectar reabsorption by secretory trichomes. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Decentralized Control for Scalable Quadcopter Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An innovative framework has been developed for teamwork of two quadcopter formations, each having its specified formation geometry, assigned task, and matching control scheme. Position control for quadcopters in one of the formations has been implemented through a Linear Quadratic Regulator Proportional Integral (LQR PI control scheme based on explicit model following scheme. Quadcopters in the other formation are controlled through LQR PI servomechanism control scheme. These two control schemes are compared in terms of their performance and control effort. Both formations are commanded by respective ground stations through virtual leaders. Quadcopters in formations are able to track desired trajectories as well as hovering at desired points for selected time duration. In case of communication loss between ground station and any of the quadcopters, the neighboring quadcopter provides the command data, received from the ground station, to the affected unit. Proposed control schemes have been validated through extensive simulations using MATLAB®/Simulink® that provided favorable results.

  14. Shavenbaby couples patterning to epidermal cell shape control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Chanut-Delalande

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that developmental programs act during embryogenesis to determine animal morphogenesis. How these developmental cues produce specific cell shape during morphogenesis, however, has remained elusive. We addressed this question by studying the morphological differentiation of the Drosophila epidermis, governed by a well-known circuit of regulators leading to a stereotyped pattern of smooth cells and cells forming actin-rich extensions (trichomes. It was shown that the transcription factor Shavenbaby plays a pivotal role in the formation of trichomes and underlies all examined cases of the evolutionary diversification of their pattern. To gain insight into the mechanisms of morphological differentiation, we sought to identify shavenbaby's downstream targets. We show here that Shavenbaby controls epidermal cell shape, through the transcriptional activation of different classes of cellular effectors, directly contributing to the organization of actin filaments, regulation of the extracellular matrix, and modification of the cuticle. Individual inactivation of shavenbaby's targets produces distinct trichome defects and only their simultaneous inactivation prevent trichome formation. Our data show that shavenbaby governs an evolutionarily conserved developmental module consisting of a set of genes collectively responsible for trichome formation, shedding new light on molecular mechanisms acting during morphogenesis and the way they can influence evolution of animal forms.

  15. Genetic Architecture of Capitate Glandular Trichome Density in Florets of Domesticated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing-Ming; Kane, Nolan C; Hulke, Brent S; Reinert, Stephan; Pogoda, Cloe S; Tittes, Silas; Prasifka, Jarrad R

    2017-01-01

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT), one type of glandular trichomes, are most common in Asteraceae species. CGT can produce various secondary metabolites such as sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) and provide durable resistance to insect pests. In sunflower, CGT-based host resistance is effective to combat the specialist pest, sunflower moth. However, the genetic basis of CGT density is not well understood in sunflower. In this study, we identified two major QTL controlling CGT density in sunflower florets by using a F 4 mapping population derived from the cross HA 300 × RHA 464 with a genetic linkage map constructed from genotyping-by-sequencing data and composed of 2121 SNP markers. One major QTL is located on chromosome 5, which explained 11.61% of the observed phenotypic variation, and the second QTL is located on chromosome 6, which explained 14.06% of the observed phenotypic variation. The QTL effects and the association between CGT density and QTL support interval were confirmed in a validation population which included 39 sunflower inbred lines with diverse genetic backgrounds. We also identified two strong candidate genes in the QTL support intervals, and the functions of their orthologs in other plant species suggested their potential roles in regulating capitate glandular trichome density in sunflower. Our results provide valuable information to sunflower breeding community for developing host resistance to sunflower insect pests.

  16. Distributed formation control for autonomous robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia de Marina Peinado, Hector Jesús

    2016-01-01

    This thesis addresses several theoretical and practical problems related to formation-control of autonomous robots. Formation-control aims to simultaneously accomplish the tasks of forming a desired shape by the robots and controlling their coordinated collective motion. This kind of robot

  17. Trichomes of Cannabis sativa as viewed with scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledbetter, M C; Krikorian, A D

    1975-06-01

    Direct examination of fresh, unfixed and uncoated specimens from vegetative and floral parts of Cannabis sativa with the scanning electron microscope enables one to obtain a faithful representation of their surface morphology. The presence of two major types of trichomes has been confirmed: a glandular type comprising or terminating in a globoid structure, and a conically-shaped nonglandular type. Moreover, three or possibly four distinct glandular types can be distinguished: sessile globoid, small-stalked and large-stalked globoid, and a peltate type. The nonglandular trichomes can be distinguished by the nature of their surfaces: those with a warty surface, and those which are relatively smooth. The range of size and distribution, and the special features of all these types of trichomes are also provided.

  18. Genetic architecture of capitate glandular trichome density in florets of domesticated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT), one type of glandular trichomes, are most common in Asteraceae species. Capitate glandular trichomes can produce various secondary metabolites such as sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) and provide durable resistance to insect pests. In sunflower, CGT-based host resist...

  19. Influence of growth regulators on distribution of trichomes and the production of volatiles in micropropagated plants of Plectranthus ornatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helna C. Passinho-Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The profile of volatile organic compounds, the glandular and non-glandular trichomes of Plectranthus ornatus, obtained by in vitro cultivation, was evaluated in plants grown in Murashide and Skoog medium supplemented with benylaminopurine at 4.5, 9.0, and 18.0 µM + naphthaleneacetic acid at 5.37 µM, kinetin at 4.7, 9.3 and 18.5 µM + naphthaleneacetic acid (5.37 µM or Murashide and Skoog 0 medium (as a control. Scanning Electron Microscopy was performed on samples of the third leaf node of the 90 days old plants obtained from treatment with 4.5 or 9.0 µM benylaminopurine, and 4.7 or 9.3 µM kinetin. Headspace Solid Phase Micro-Extraction of the 30, 60 and 90 days old in vitro plants permitted to determinate by GC/MS the composition comprised of 62 compounds. The data were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis and, the major constituents of these oils after treatment and aging were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Morphoanatomical analysis of trichomes, by Scanning Electron Microscopy, enabled the identification of non-glandular trichomes and four types of glandular trichomes, which comprised capitate and peltate glandular trichomes that were distributed on both sides of the leaf. We observed that the regulators influenced qualitative and quantitative profiles of the volatile organic compounds and the number and distribution of hairs on the leaf surface.

  20. The Jasmonate-ZIM-domain proteins interact with the WD-Repeat/bHLH/MYB complexes to regulate Jasmonate-mediated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Tiancong; Song, Susheng; Ren, Qingcuo; Wu, Dewei; Huang, Huang; Chen, Yan; Fan, Meng; Peng, Wen; Ren, Chunmei; Xie, Daoxin

    2011-05-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) mediate plant responses to insect attack, wounding, pathogen infection, stress, and UV damage and regulate plant fertility, anthocyanin accumulation, trichome formation, and many other plant developmental processes. Arabidopsis thaliana Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, substrates of the CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1)-based SCF(COI1) complex, negatively regulate these plant responses. Little is known about the molecular mechanism for JA regulation of anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation. In this study, we revealed that JAZ proteins interact with bHLH (Transparent Testa8, Glabra3 [GL3], and Enhancer of Glabra3 [EGL3]) and R2R3 MYB transcription factors (MYB75 and Glabra1), essential components of WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB transcriptional complexes, to repress JA-regulated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation. Genetic and physiological evidence showed that JA regulates WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complex-mediated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in a COI1-dependent manner. Overexpression of the MYB transcription factor MYB75 and bHLH factors (GL3 and EGL3) restored anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in the coi1 mutant, respectively. We speculate that the JA-induced degradation of JAZ proteins abolishes the interactions of JAZ proteins with bHLH and MYB factors, allowing the transcriptional function of WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complexes, which subsequently activate respective downstream signal cascades to modulate anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation.

  1. The Jasmonate-ZIM-Domain Proteins Interact with the WD-Repeat/bHLH/MYB Complexes to Regulate Jasmonate-Mediated Anthocyanin Accumulation and Trichome Initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Tiancong; Song, Susheng; Ren, Qingcuo; Wu, Dewei; Huang, Huang; Chen, Yan; Fan, Meng; Peng, Wen; Ren, Chunmei; Xie, Daoxin

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) mediate plant responses to insect attack, wounding, pathogen infection, stress, and UV damage and regulate plant fertility, anthocyanin accumulation, trichome formation, and many other plant developmental processes. Arabidopsis thaliana Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, substrates of the CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1)–based SCFCOI1 complex, negatively regulate these plant responses. Little is known about the molecular mechanism for JA regulation of anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation. In this study, we revealed that JAZ proteins interact with bHLH (Transparent Testa8, Glabra3 [GL3], and Enhancer of Glabra3 [EGL3]) and R2R3 MYB transcription factors (MYB75 and Glabra1), essential components of WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB transcriptional complexes, to repress JA-regulated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation. Genetic and physiological evidence showed that JA regulates WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complex-mediated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in a COI1-dependent manner. Overexpression of the MYB transcription factor MYB75 and bHLH factors (GL3 and EGL3) restored anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in the coi1 mutant, respectively. We speculate that the JA-induced degradation of JAZ proteins abolishes the interactions of JAZ proteins with bHLH and MYB factors, allowing the transcriptional function of WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complexes, which subsequently activate respective downstream signal cascades to modulate anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation. PMID:21551388

  2. Formation Control for the MAXIM Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquette, Richard J.; Leitner, Jesse; Gendreau, Keith; Sanner, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    Over the next twenty years, a wave of change is occurring in the space-based scientific remote sensing community. While the fundamental limits in the spatial and angular resolution achievable in spacecraft have been reached, based on today s technology, an expansive new technology base has appeared over the past decade in the area of Distributed Space Systems (DSS). A key subset of the DSS technology area is that which covers precision formation flying of space vehicles. Through precision formation flying, the baselines, previously defined by the largest monolithic structure which could fit in the largest launch vehicle fairing, are now virtually unlimited. Several missions including the Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), and the Stellar Imager will drive the formation flying challenges to achieve unprecedented baselines for high resolution, extended-scene, interferometry in the ultraviolet and X-ray regimes. This paper focuses on establishing the feasibility for the formation control of the MAXIM mission. MAXIM formation flying requirements are on the order of microns, while Stellar Imager mission requirements are on the order of nanometers. This paper specifically addresses: (1) high-level science requirements for these missions and how they evolve into engineering requirements; and (2) the development of linearized equations of relative motion for a formation operating in an n-body gravitational field. Linearized equations of motion provide the ground work for linear formation control designs.

  3. Foliar trichomes, boundary layers, and gas exchange in 12 species of epiphytic Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Brett W; Martin, Craig E

    2006-04-01

    We examined the relationships between H2O and CO2 gas exchange parameters and leaf trichome cover in 12 species of Tillandsia that exhibit a wide range in trichome size and trichome cover. Previous investigations have hypothesized that trichomes function to enhance boundary layers around Tillandsioid leaves thereby buffering the evaporative demand of the atmosphere and retarding transpirational water loss. Data presented herein suggest that trichome-enhanced boundary layers have negligible effects on Tillandsia gas exchange, as indicated by the lack of statistically significant relationships in regression analyses of gas exchange parameters and trichome cover. We calculated trichome and leaf boundary layer components, and their associated effects on H2O and CO2 gas exchange. The results further indicate trichome-enhanced boundary layers do not significantly reduce transpirational water loss. We conclude that although the trichomes undoubtedly increase the thickness of the boundary layer, the increase due to Tillandsioid trichomes is inconsequential in terms of whole leaf boundary layers, and any associated reduction in transpirational water loss is also negligible within the whole plant gas exchange pathway.

  4. Trichome density and its UV-B protective potential are affected by shading and leaf position on the canopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liakoura, V.; Stefanou, M.; Manetas, Y.; Cholevas, C.; Karabourniotis, G.

    1997-01-01

    In Olea europaea trichome density and UV-B absorbing compounds of leaf hairs and the lamina proper of leaves located in south-facing, north-facing and the internal of the canopy were positively correlated to the UV-B midday instant irradiance measured in September at these three different positions of the canopy. The correlation between these three parameters and the receiving photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), however, was weaker. In Quercus ilex, trichome density and its UV-B absorbing capacity were considerably higher in the exposed, south-facing leaves, compared to the deeply shaded ones; the UV-B absorbing capacity of the de-haired lamina, however, was the same. In the broad-leaved, alpine rosette of Verbascum speciosum, one could distinguish two areas on the leaves, one exposed and one shaded by the superimposed lamina. Although trichome density and the UV-B absorbing compounds of the de-haired leaf were the same in the two areas, the UV-B absorbing capacity of hairs was considerably increased in the exposed region. In V. speciosum, exposure induced also qualitative changes in the UV-B absorbance profile, apparently due to the formation of new flavonoid compounds absorbing maximally at 345–350 nm. In all other cases, the differences were mainly quantitative. The results support the postulate of a function of leaf hairs as a UV-B radiation screen and suggest that trichome density and/or its UV-B absorbing capacity may depend on irradiance during leaf development

  5. Variation in vegetative growth and trichomes in Cannabis sativa L. (Marihuana) in response to enviromental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.K.; Mann, S.K.

    1984-07-01

    Four populations of Cannabis sativa L. (marihuana) growing in their native habitat and exposed to different levels of environmental pollution were studied for several leaf morphology and leaf trichome features. Leaf length, petiole length, length and width of central leaflet, and the number of teeth on leaf margin decreased with increase in pollution. Trichome length and trichome density values were found to be higher in populations exposed to higher levels of environmental pollution.

  6. Arabidopsis ketoacyl-CoA synthase 16 (KCS16) forms C36 /C38 acyl precursors for leaf trichome and pavement surface wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegebarth, Daniela; Buschhaus, Christopher; Joubès, Jérôme; Thoraval, Didier; Bird, David; Jetter, Reinhard

    2017-09-01

    The aliphatic waxes sealing plant surfaces against environmental stress are generated by fatty acid elongase complexes, each containing a β-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS) enzyme that catalyses a crucial condensation forming a new C─C bond to extend the carbon backbone. The relatively high abundance of C 35 and C 37 alkanes derived from C 36 and C 38 acyl-CoAs in Arabidopsis leaf trichomes (relative to other epidermis cells) suggests differences in the elongation machineries of different epidermis cell types, possibly involving KCS16, a condensing enzyme expressed preferentially in trichomes. Here, KCS16 was found expressed primarily in Arabidopsis rosette leaves, flowers and siliques, and the corresponding protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. The cuticular waxes on young leaves and isolated leaf trichomes of ksc16 loss-of-function mutants were depleted of C 35 and C 37 alkanes and alkenes, whereas expression of Arabidopsis KCS16 in yeast and ectopic overexpression in Arabidopsis resulted in accumulation of C 36 and C 38 fatty acid products. Taken together, our results show that KCS16 is the sole enzyme catalysing the elongation of C 34 to C 38 acyl-CoAs in Arabidopsis leaf trichomes and that it contributes to the formation of extra-long compounds in adjacent pavement cells. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Brassica villosa, a system for studying non-glandular trichomes and genes in the Brassicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayidu, Naghabushana K; Tan, Yifang; Taheri, Ali; Li, Xiang; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Nowak, Jacek; Wishart, David S; Hegedus, Dwayne; Gruber, Margaret Y

    2014-07-01

    Brassica villosa is a wild Brassica C genome species with very dense trichome coverage and strong resistance to many insect pests of Brassica oilseeds and vegetables. Transcriptome analysis of hairy B. villosa leaves indicated higher expression of several important trichome initiation genes compared with glabrous B. napus leaves and consistent with the Arabidopsis model of trichome development. However, transcripts of the TRY inhibitory gene in hairy B. villosa were surprisingly high relative to B. napus and relative transcript levels of SAD2, EGL3, and several XIX genes were low, suggesting potential ancillary or less important trichome-related roles for these genes in Brassica species compared with Arabidopsis. Several antioxidant, calcium, non-calcium metal and secondary metabolite genes also showed differential expression between these two species. These coincided with accumulation of two alkaloid-like compounds, high levels of calcium, and other metals in B. villosa trichomes that are correlated with the known tolerance of B. villosa to high salt and the calcium-rich natural habitat of this wild species. This first time report on the isolation of large amounts of pure B. villosa trichomes, on trichome content, and on relative gene expression differences in an exceptionally hairy Brassica species compared with a glabrous species opens doors for the scientific community to understand trichome gene function in the Brassicas and highlights the potential of B. villosa as a trichome research platform.

  8. Morphology and histochemistry of glandular trichomes of Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd is an achlorophyllous root parasite rare in Poland. It prefers dry and sunny slopes, xerothermic grasslands and pastures, mountain pastures, light scrubs, and rock fissures and ledges. The hosts of O. alba include Thymus polytrichus A. ern. ex Borbás, Clinopodium vulgare L. and Origanum vulgare L. The tick and fleshy 10-70 cm high stem in this species bears an inflorescence composed of zygomorphic, white or yellow “spotted” flowers covered by purple glandular trichomes. Glandular trichomes of this type are also borne on other parts of the plant, i.e. on the stem, scaly leaves, sepals, filaments, and the style. The secondary metabolites secreted by the glandular trichomes are related to defense of plants against the attack of herbivores and pathogens or act as attractants to pollinators or for fruit dispersal. The micromorphology and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes in O. alba were examined using scanning electron and light microscopes. In order to determine the type of secondary metabolites produced by the trichomes, the flowing histochemical assays were used: Sudan III and neutral red for detection of lipophilic compounds, IKI for detection of starch, and FeCl3 for detection of phenolic compounds. The peltate glandular trichomes of O. alba were characterised by a varied length (0.15‑0.48 mm and different activity phases. The trichome was composed of one larger basal epidermal cell, 1-3 hyaline stalk cells with a striated cuticle, a neck cell with a smooth cuticle on the surface, and a globose head formed of 8-18 secretory cells arranged in a circle. Many stalk cells of the trichomes, particularly those located on the corolla, contained anthocyanins, which give the trichomes dark carmine colour. In turn, the colour of the heads was dependent on trichome age: the heads were brown in older trichomes and yellow in younger hairs. Secretion was produced by both young and older trichomes. It penetrated

  9. Control of ribosome formation in rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Diabetes of 9 days duration produced a 17% diminution in the rate of total protein synthesis in rat hearts perfused as Langendorff preparations supplied with glucose, plasma levels of amino acids, and 400 μU/ml insulin. This reduction was attributable to a decrease in efficiency of protein synthesis and total RNA content. Total messenger RNA content decreased in diabetic hearts in proportion to the reduction in total RNA. Diabetes also resulted in diminished ribosome content as reflected by the induction in total RNA. Ribosome production was investigated by monitoring incorporation of [ 3 H]phenylalanine into the proteins of cytoplasmic ribosomes. Rates of ribosome formation in diabetic hearts were as fast as control rates in the presence of insulin, and were faster than control rates in the absence of the hormone. These results indicated that ribosome content fell in diabetic hearts despite unchanged or faster rates of ribosome formation

  10. Partially Decentralized Control Architectures for Satellite Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Bauer, Frank H.

    2002-01-01

    In a partially decentralized control architecture, more than one but less than all nodes have supervisory capability. This paper describes an approach to choosing the number of supervisors in such au architecture, based on a reliability vs. cost trade. It also considers the implications of these results for the design of navigation systems for satellite formations that could be controlled with a partially decentralized architecture. Using an assumed cost model, analytic and simulation-based results indicate that it may be cheaper to achieve a given overall system reliability with a partially decentralized architecture containing only a few supervisors, than with either fully decentralized or purely centralized architectures. Nominally, the subset of supervisors may act as centralized estimation and control nodes for corresponding subsets of the remaining subordinate nodes, and act as decentralized estimation and control peers with respect to each other. However, in the context of partially decentralized satellite formation control, the absolute positions and velocities of each spacecraft are unique, so that correlations which make estimates using only local information suboptimal only occur through common biases and process noise. Covariance and monte-carlo analysis of a simplified system show that this lack of correlation may allow simplification of the local estimators while preserving the global optimality of the maneuvers commanded by the supervisors.

  11. Wood combustion and NOx formation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewksbury, C.

    1991-01-01

    The control of wood combustion on stoker fed grates for optimum efficiency and the limiting of NO x (oxides of nitrogen) formation are not necessarily contradictory. This paper presents a matrix of air/fuel ratio control options, then discusses simple on-line monitoring techniques and the importance of operator training and alertness. The significance of uniform fuel feed and air distribution is emphasized. The relationships between combustion control and NO x formation are outlined both in theory and as tested. The experience of the McNeil Generating Station (the largest wood-fired, single boiler, stoker grate, utility electric generating station in the world) is used to demonstrate the theoretical principles. It has been observed that NO x emissions firing 100% whole tree chips with moisture contents as low as 40% by weight can be as low as 0.13 lb/MMBtu (MMBtu = 10 6 Btu) while still achieving a boiler efficiency in the range of 68% to 73% (in the high end of the design range) without the use of post-combustion treatment or flue gas recirculation (FGR). Problems of combustion and emissions control at steaming rates other than normal full-load are also examined. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  12. RNA sequencing on Solanum lycopersicum trichomes identifies transcription factors that activate terpene synthase promoters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spyropoulou, E.A.; Haring, M.A.; Schuurink, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glandular trichomes are production and storage organs of specialized metabolites such as terpenes, which play a role in the plant's defense system. The present study aimed to shed light on the regulation of terpene biosynthesis in Solanum lycopersicum trichomes by identification of

  13. Structure formation control of foam concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steshenko, Aleksei; Kudyakov, Aleksander; Konusheva, Viktoriya; Syrkin, Oleg

    2017-01-01

    The process of predetermined foam concrete structure formation is considered to be a crucial issue from the point of process control and it is currently understudied thus defining the need for additional research. One of the effective ways of structure formation control in naturally hardening foam concrete is reinforcement with dispersed fibers or introduction of plasticizers. The paper aims at studying the patterns of influence of microreinforcing and plasticizing additives on the structure and performance properties of foam concrete. Preparation of foam concrete mix has been conducted using one-step technology. The structure of modified foam concrete has been studied by means of electron microscopy. The cellular structure of foam concrete samples with the additives is homogeneous; the pores are uniformly distributed over the total volume. It has been revealed that introduction of the Neolas 5.2 plasticizer and microreinforcing fibers in the foam concrete mixture in the amount of 0.4 - 0.1 % by weight of cement leads to reduction of the average pore diameter in the range of 45.3 to 30.2 microns and the standard deviation of the pore average diameter from 23.6 to 9.2 in comparison with the sample without additive. Introduction of modifying additives has stimulated formation of a large number of closed pores. Thus porosity of conditionally closed pores has increased from 16.06 % to 34.48 %, which has lead to increase of frost resistance brand of foam concrete from F15 to F50 and to reduction of its water absorption by weight by 20 %.

  14. Interactive Effects of Jasmonic Acid, Salicylic Acid, and Gibberellin on Induction of Trichomes in Arabidopsis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traw, M. Brian; Bergelson, Joy

    2003-01-01

    Leaf trichomes protect plants from attack by insect herbivores and are often induced following damage. Hormonal regulation of this plant induction response has not been previously studied. In a series of experiments, we addressed the effects of artificial damage, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and gibberellin on induction of trichomes in Arabidopsis. Artificial damage and jasmonic acid caused significant increases in trichome production of leaves. The jar1-1 mutant exhibited normal trichome induction following treatment with jasmonic acid, suggesting that adenylation of jasmonic acid is not necessary. Salicylic acid had a negative effect on trichome production and consistently reduced the effect of jasmonic acid, suggesting negative cross-talk between the jasmonate and salicylate-dependent defense pathways. Interestingly, the effect of salicylic acid persisted in the nim1-1 mutant, suggesting that the Npr1/Nim1 gene is not downstream of salicylic acid in the negative regulation of trichome production. Last, we found that gibberellin and jasmonic acid had a synergistic effect on the induction of trichomes, suggesting important interactions between these two compounds. PMID:14551332

  15. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  16. Formation control of unicycle robots using virtual structure approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadowska, A.D.; Huijberts, H.J.C.; Kostic, D.; Wouw, van de N.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of formation control of groups of unicycle robots with possibly time-varying formation shapes. To solve the problem, we propose two simple distributed formation control algorithms based on the virtual structure approach. We prove exponential convergence of error

  17. Structural features of flower trichomes in drug eyebright (Euphrasia stricta D. Wolff EX J. F. Lehm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Haratym

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphrasia stricta D. Wolff ex J. F. Lehm. (Orobanchaceae is a representative of plants that are widely used in folk medicine, phytomedicine, and homeopathy. The medicinal raw material derived from the drug eyebright is applied primarily in treatment of ophthalmic diseases. The investigations of trichomes in drug eyebright (Euphrasia stricta D. Wolff ex J. F. Lehm were conducted in 2010–2011. Using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, their location and morphological and anatomical features were identified. Three types of non-glandular trichomes were found: short unicellular, long 1–2 celled, and long 2-celled with wall ornamentation. Additionally, 7 types of glandular trichomes were found; these included: unicellular clavate, 2–3-celled clavate, capitate with a unicellular head and a 3-cel- led stalk, capitate with a unicellular head and a 2-celled stalk, capitate with a 2-celled head, conical papillae, and ribbon-like trichomes with wall thickening.

  18. Boomeranging in structural defense: phytophagous insect uses cycad trichomes to defend against entomophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Thomas E

    2012-11-01

    Plant defensive behaviors that resist arthropod herbivory include trichome-mediated defenses, and variation in plant trichome morphology and abundance provides examples of the mechanistic complexities of insect-plant interactions. Trichomes were removed from Cycas revoluta cataphylls on the island of Guam to reveal Aulacaspis yasumatsui scale infestation, and predation of the newly exposed insects by pre-existing Rhyzobius lophanthae beetles commenced within one day. The quotient of predated/total scale insects was 0.5 by day 4 and stabilized at that found on adjacent glabrous leaves in about one week. The trichome phenotype covering the C. revoluta cataphyll complex offers the invasive A. yasumatsui armored scale effectual enemy-free space in this system. This pest and predator share no known evolutionary history with C. revoluta, therefore, the adaptive significance of this plant behavior in natural habitat is not yet known.

  19. Within and between generation phenotypic plasticity in trichome density of Mimulus guttatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holeski, L M

    2007-11-01

    Mimulus guttatus (yellow monkeyflower) frequently produce glandular trichomes, a trait that may resist herbivory. Constitutive production of trichomes is variable both within and among populations of M. guttatus and most of this variation is genetic. This study demonstrates that damage on early leaves can induce increased trichome production on later leaves, a plastic response that is likely adaptive. Moreover, this study shows that this induction can be maternally transmitted, increasing trichome density in progeny before they experience herbivory. This transgenerational response must involve a yet undescribed epigenetic mechanism. These experiments also show genetic variation among plants in the capacity for both within and between plant generation induction. Despite the clear evolutionary importance of variation in constitutive and induced herbivory-resistance traits, few other studies have noted genetic variation in both within a plant species.

  20. Biosynthesis of a new tobacco alkaloid, hydroxy-N-acylnornicotine in the trichomes of Nicotiana stocktonii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zador, E.; Jones, D.

    1986-01-01

    A new tobacco alkaloid from section Repandae is highly toxic to an insect (Manduca sexta) unsusceptible to previously described nicotine alkaloids (1). They have localized the alkaloid, HO-N-acylnornicotine (HO-NAN) nearly entirely to the exudate secreted by the epidermal trichomes of N. stocktonii. Only the nicotine and nornicotine were found in abundance inside the trichomes, while primarily nicotine was present inside the aerial vegetative parts and root. These results suggest that the HO-NAN is synthesized by the trichomes. When unlabelled nicotine was fed to isolated leaves there was an increase in internal nicotine, nornicotine and secretion of HO-NAN. Feeding leaves with 2'-C 14 nicotine resulted in labelling of both nornicotine and HO-NAN. These data strongly suggest synthesis of HO-NAN from nicotine via nornicotine in the trichomes, followed by rapid secretion. The possible evolutionary significance of this pathway of synthesis and secretion is discussed

  1. Trichomes that secrete substances of a mixed nature in the vegetative and reproductive organs of some species of Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Noce Schnetzler

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to obtain new information about the distribution, morphology and content of secretory trichomes present in the vegetative and reproductive organs of four species of Moraceae: Artocarpus heterophyllus, Dorstenia cayapia, Maclura tinctoria and Sorocea bonplandii. Stem, leaf, flower and inflorescence samples were processed for scanning electron and light microscopy. The species have secretory trichomes on the leaf blade, petiole and stem and also on the inflorescence and flowers of D. cayapia and S. bonplandii and on the peduncle of the inflorescence in A. heterophyllus. These trichomes are of the capitate type in all species, but A. heterophyllus also possess peltate secretory trichomes. Both trichome types exhibit a multicellular head and a unicellular peduncle. Peduncle size and head cell number varies according to species. Peltate trichomes located in depressions were found only in species of Artocarpus, and so should be of diagnostic value for the genus. In all species the trichomes secrete polysaccharides, alkaloids and lipids; phenolic compounds occur in A. heterophyllus and M. tinctoria trichomes. These trichomes probably act in the protection against herbivores, pathogens, desiccation and/ or UV radiation. Moreover, the trichomes found in the inflorescence of D. cayapia may exert a function in pollen grain adhesion.

  2. Herbivore handling of a plant's trichome: the case of Heliconius charithonia (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch. (Passifloraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Marcio Z.

    2008-01-01

    Trichomes reduce herbivore attack on plants by physically and/or chemically inhibiting movement or other activities. Despite evidence that herbivores are negatively affected by trichomes there also reports of insect counter-adaptations that circumvent the plant's defense. This paper reports on a study that investigated the likely mechanisms employed by larvae of the nymphalid butterfly, Heliconius charithonia (L.), that allow it to feed on a host that is presumably protected by hooked trichomes (Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch). Evidence were gathered using data from direct observations of larval movement and behavior, faeces analysis, scanning electron microscopy of plant surface and experimental analysis of larval movement on plants with and without trichomes (manually removed). The latter involved a comparison with a non specialist congener, Heliconius pachinus Salvin. Observations showed that H. charithonia larvae are capable of freeing themselves from entrapment on trichome tips by physical force. Moreover, wandering larvae lay silk mats on the trichomes and remove their tips by biting. In fact, trichome tips were found in the faeces. Experimental removal of trichomes aided in the movement of the non specialist but had no noticeable effect on the specialist larvae. These results support the suggestion that trichomes are capable of deterring a non specialist herbivore (H. pachinus). The precise mechanisms that allow the success of H. charithonia are not known, but I suggest that a blend of behavioral as well as physical resistance mechanisms is involved. Future studies should ascertain whether larval integument provides physical resistance to trichomes. (author)

  3. Morphological differentiation of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Marrubium vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dmitruk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Marrubium vulgare L., commonly known as a white horehound or common horehound, belongs to the plant family Lamiaceae. It is a perennial aromatic herb which grows naturally in Europe, Asia, and America. Since ancient Egypt, this species has been known as a remedy for upper respiratory tract ailments. Nowadays, horehound is used in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases, biliary tract disorders, and for increasing the appetite and supporting the function of the stomach. The main biologically active substances in M. vulgare organs are: marrubiin, tannins, essential oils, and ursolic acid. The paper presents micromorphological analyses of non-glandular and glandular trichomes of M. vulgare. The research material was sampled from the plant collection in the Botanical Garden of the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin (51°14′ N, 22°34′ E. The above-ground parts of horehound were collected during the flowering period in July 2013. Using light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the types and sizes of trichomes from the stem, leaf, calyx, and corolla were investigated. The results of the microscopic observations show that the surfaces of M. vulgare vegetative and reproductive organs are densely clothed with glandular and non-glandular trichomes. The glandular trichomes are of two main types: peltate and capitate. Peltate trichomes consist of a short stalk cell and a large head with secretory cells arranged in a circle. The height of a mature trichome is about 31.33 μm and the diameter of the head is 31.47 μm. The substance produced by secretory cells passes through the apical walls and accumulates within a space between the cuticle and the cell wall layer. Capitate long trichomes with a basal cell, long stalk, neck cell, and a unicellular head are 36.65 μm long and the diameter of the head is about 15.6 μm. There are two types of short capitate trichomes: with a bicellular head and a unicellular stalk and with

  4. Structure and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on above-ground organs in Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micromorphology and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the above-ground organs of Inula helenium L. were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Two types of biseriate glandular trichomes, i.e. sessile and stalk hairs, and non-glandular trichomes were recorded. Sessile glandular trichomes were found on all examined I. helenium organs (with their highest density on the abaxial surface of leaves and disk florets, and on stems, whereas stalk glandular trichomes were found on leaves and stems. Sessile trichomes were characterised by a slightly lower height (58–103 μm and width (32–35 μm than the stalk trichomes (62–111 μm x 31–36 μm. Glandular hairs were composed of 5–7 (sessile trichomes or 6–9 (stalk trichomes cell tiers. Apical trichome cell tiers exhibited features of secretory cells. Secretion was accumulated in subcuticular space, which expanded and ruptured at the top, and released its content. Histochemical assays showed the presence of lipids and polyphenols, whereas no starch was detected. Non-glandular trichomes were seen on involucral bracts, leaves and stems (more frequently on involucral bracts. Their structure comprised 2–9 cells; basal cells (1–6 were smaller and linearly arranged, while apical cells had a prozenchymatous shape. The apical cell was the longest and sharply pointed. Applied histochemical tests revealed orange-red (presence of lipids and brow colour (presence of polyphenols in the apical cells of the trichomes. This may suggest that beside their protective role, the trichomes may participate in secretion of secondary metabolites.

  5. Are trichomes involved in the biomechanical systems of Cucurbita leaf petioles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajączkowska, Urszula; Kucharski, Stanisław; Guzek, Dominika

    2015-12-01

    Trichomes are involved in petiole movement and likely function as a part of the plant biomechanical system serving as an additional reservoir of hydrostatic pressure. The large, non-glandular trichomes on Cucurbita petioles occur across collenchyma strands. Time-lapse imaging was used to study the leaf reorientation of Cucurbita maxima 'Bambino' plants placed in horizontal position. The experiment comprised four variants of the large non-glandular petiole trichomes: (1) intact, (2) mechanically removed, (3) dehydrated, and (4) intact but with longitudinally injured petioles. Isolated strands of collenchyma with intact epidermis or epidermis mechanically removed from the abaxial and adaxial sides of the petiole were subjected to breaking test. The stiffness of the non-isolated tissue with intact epidermis was measured using the micro-indentation method. Petioles without trichomes did not exhibit tropic response, and the dehydration of trichomes slowed and prevented complete leaf reorientation. Isolated strands of collenchyma showed no correlation between strength values and position on the petiole. However, strands of collenchyma with epidermis exhibited a significantly greater strength regardless of their position on the petiole. The indentation test showed that non-isolated collenchyma is stiffer on the abaxial side of the petiole. Trichomes from the abaxial side of the petiole were larger at their base. The application of the 'tensile triangles method' revealed that these trichomes had a biomechanically optimized shape in comparison to the adaxial side. We conclude that trichomes can be involved in plant biomechanical system and serve as an additional reservoir of hydrostatic pressure that is necessary for maintaining petioles in the prestressed state.

  6. Formation control of surface marine craft using Lagrange multipliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihle, Ivar-Andre F.; Jouffroy, Jerome; Fossen, Thor I.

    We propose a method for constructing control laws for formation control of marine craft using classical tools from analytical mechanics. The control law is based on applying inter-vessel constraint functions which again impose forces on the individual vessels that maintain the given constraints...... on the total system. In this way, a formation can be assembled and stay together when exposed to external forces. A brief comparison with other control designs for a group of marine craft is done. Further, control laws for formation assembling (with dynamic positioning), and formation keeping during...

  7. Robust combined position and formation control for marine surface craft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihle, Ivar-Andre F.; Jouffroy, Jerome; Fossen, Thor I.

    We consider the robustness properties of a formation control system for marine surface vessels. Intervessel constraint functions are stabilized to achieve the desired formation configuration. We show that the formation dynamics is Input-to-State Stable (ISS) to both environmental perturbations th...

  8. Robust formation control of marine surface craft using Lagrange multipliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihle, Ivar-Andre F.; Jouffroy, Jerome; Fossen, Thor I.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a formation modelling scheme based on a set of inter-body constraint functions and Lagrangian multipliers. Formation control for a °eet of marine craft is achieved by stabilizing the auxiliary constraints such that the desired formation con¯guration appears. In the proposed fr...

  9. Trichome morphology in Teucrium L. (Labiatae. A taxonomic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro, Teresa

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of trichomes of 56 Teucrium L. species belonging to the 9 sections of the genus in the Mediterranean área was surveyed by scanning electrón microscopy (SEM of leaves, calyx, corolla and nutlets. 25 trichome types are described, 12 of them are new. Thin walled hairs are the exclusive type found in the corolla and are the most widespread type on the abaxial side of the leaves. Subsessile glandular hairs, 2-4-celled, are found on the nutlet and leaves of the semi-shrubby and paleoendemic species. The presence of short or elongated, generally adpressed simple thick-walled slighüy conical hairs provides an additional character to clarify the boundaries between sect. Chamedrys (Mill. Schreb, and sect. Polium (Mill. Schreb. Branched non-glandular hairs are confined to sect. Polium subsect Polium, except for the rare branched hair conical and thick-walled type found in Teucrium barbarum Jahand. & Maire (sect. Chamaedrys and T. heterophyllum L`Hér. from sect. Teucrium. This last section is well defined by the absence of simple slighüy conical thick-walled hairs and the glandular hairs in the corolla. Sect. Teucriopsis Benth, is of particular interest for the exclusive presence of branched and peltate glandular hairs on the nutlets surface. Sect. Chamedrys is a homogeneous group, distinguished from the other sections by an indumentum formed only by trichomes types evolved from the simple slighüy conical thick-walled hairs. This section overlaps, in the presence of glandular sub-sessile hair on the nutlets surface, with sects. Isotriodon Boiss, and sect. Polium subsect. Rotundifolia Cohén ex Valdés Berm. & Sánchez Crespo. The trichomes type of the calyx teeth, abaxial side of the leaf and latero-posterior corolla lobes can be used as a distinctive taxonomic character at specific and infra-specific level. This study supports Bentham's delimitaüon of sections with the addiüons subequently made by Boissier.La micromorfología de

  10. A Family of Resonant Vibration Control Formats

    OpenAIRE

    Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2012-01-01

    Resonant control makes use of a controller with a resonance frequency and an equivalent damping ratio.A simple explicit calibration procedure is presented for a family of resonant controllers in which the frequencyis tuned to the natural frequency of the targeted mode in such a way that the two resulting modes exhibit identicaldamping ratio. This tuning is independent of the imposed controller damping. The controller damping is thenselected as an optimal compromise between too small damping, ...

  11. The key role of peltate glandular trichomes in symbiota comprising clavicipitaceous fungi of the genus periglandula and their host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Ulrike; Kucht, Sabine Hellwig neé; Ahimsa-Müller, Mahalia A; Grundmann, Nicola; Li, Shu-Ming; Drewke, Christel; Leistner, Eckhard

    2015-04-16

    Clavicipitaceous fungi producing ergot alkaloids were recently discovered to be epibiotically associated with peltate glandular trichomes of Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa, dicotyledonous plants of the family Convolvulaceae. Mediators of the close association between fungi and trichomes may be sesquiterpenes, main components in the volatile oil of different convolvulaceous plants. Molecular biological studies and microscopic investigations led to the observation that the trichomes do not only secrete sesquiterpenes and palmitic acid but also seem to absorb ergot alkaloids from the epibiotic fungal species of the genus Periglandula. Thus, the trichomes are likely to have a dual and key function in a metabolic dialogue between fungus and host plant.

  12. Autonomous formation flight of helicopters: Model predictive control approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hoam

    Formation flight is the primary movement technique for teams of helicopters. However, the potential for accidents is greatly increased when helicopter teams are required to fly in tight formations and under harsh conditions. This dissertation proposes that the automation of helicopter formations is a realistic solution capable of alleviating risks. Helicopter formation flight operations in battlefield situations are highly dynamic and dangerous, and, therefore, we maintain that both a high-level formation management system and a distributed coordinated control algorithm should be implemented to help ensure safe formations. The starting point for safe autonomous formation flights is to design a distributed control law attenuating external disturbances coming into a formation, so that each vehicle can safely maintain sufficient clearance between it and all other vehicles. While conventional methods are limited to homogeneous formations, our decentralized model predictive control (MPC) approach allows for heterogeneity in a formation. In order to avoid the conservative nature inherent in distributed MPC algorithms, we begin by designing a stable MPC for individual vehicles, and then introducing carefully designed inter-agent coupling terms in a performance index. Thus the proposed algorithm works in a decentralized manner, and can be applied to the problem of helicopter formations comprised of heterogenous vehicles. Individual vehicles in a team may be confronted by various emerging situations that will require the capability for in-flight reconfiguration. We propose the concept of a formation manager to manage separation, join, and synchronization of flight course changes. The formation manager accepts an operator's commands, information from neighboring vehicles, and its own vehicle states. Inside the formation manager, there are multiple modes and complex mode switchings represented as a finite state machine (FSM). Based on the current mode and collected

  13. Identification, functional characterization and developmental regulation of sesquiterpene synthases from sunflower capitate glandular trichomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ro Dae-Kyun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites of Asteraceae (or Compositae which often display potent bioactivities and are sequestered in specialized organs such as laticifers, resin ducts, and trichomes. For characterization of sunflower sesquiterpene synthases we employed a simple method to isolate pure trichomes from anther appendages which facilitated the identification of these genes and investigation of their enzymatic functions and expression patterns during trichome development. Results Glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. were isolated, and their RNA was extracted to investigate the initial steps of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments led to the identification of three sesquiterpene synthases. By combination of in vitro and in vivo characterization of sesquiterpene synthase gene products in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, two enzymes were identified as germacrene A synthases, the key enzymes of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Due to the very low in vitro activity, the third enzyme was expressed in vivo in yeast as a thioredoxin-fusion protein for functional characterization. In in vivo assays, it was identified as a multiproduct enzyme with the volatile sesquiterpene hydrocarbon δ-cadinene as one of the two main products with α-muuorlene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-copaene as minor products. The second main compound remained unidentified. For expression studies, glandular trichomes from the anther appendages of sunflower florets were isolated in particular developmental stages from the pre- to the post-secretory phase. All three sesquiterpene synthases were solely upregulated during the biosynthetically active stages of the trichomes. Expression in different aerial plant parts coincided with occurrence and maturity of trichomes. Young roots with root hairs showed expression of the sesquiterpene synthase genes

  14. Direct Analyses of Secondary Metabolites by Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MSI) from Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentan Silva, Denise; Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Spring, Otmar

    2017-05-10

    Helianthus annuus (sunflower) displays non-glandular trichomes (NGT), capitate glandular trichomes (CGT), and linear glandular trichomes (LGT), which reveal different chemical compositions and locations in different plant tissues. With matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) techniques, efficient methods were developed to analyze the tissue distribution of secondary metabolites (flavonoids and sesquiterpenes) and proteins inside of trichomes. Herein, we analyzed sesquiterpene lactones, present in CGT, from leaf transversal sections using the matrix 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) (mixture 1:1) with sodium ions added to increase the ionization in positive ion mode. The results observed for sesquiterpenes and polymethoxylated flavones from LGT were similar. However, upon desiccation, LGT changed their shape in the ionization source, complicating analyses by MSI mainly after matrix application. An alternative method could be applied to LGT regions by employing LDI (without matrix) in negative ion mode. The polymethoxylated flavones were easily ionized by LDI, producing images with higher resolution, but the sesquiterpenes were not observed in spectra. Thus, the application and viability of MALDI imaging for the analyses of protein and secondary metabolites inside trichomes were confirmed, highlighting the importance of optimization parameters.

  15. Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maluf, Wilson Roberto; Inoue, Irene Fumi; Ferreira, Raphael de Paula Duarte; Gomes, Luiz Antonio Augusto; Castro, Evaristo Mauro de; Cardoso, Maria das Gracas

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites Tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Counts were made both on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, and trichomes were classified into glandular types IV and VI, other glandular types (types I+VII), and nonglandular types. Mite repellence was measured by distances walked by mites onto the tomato leaf surface after 20, 40 and 60 min. Spider mite repellence biotests indicated that higher densities of glandular trichomes (especially type VI) decreased the distances walked by the mites onto the tomato leaf surface. Selection of plants with higher densities of glandular trichomes can be an efficient criterion to obtain tomato genotypes with higher resistance (repellence) to spider mites. (author)

  16. A Family of Resonant Vibration Control Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    resulting modes exhibit identical damping ratio. This tuning is independent of the imposed controller damping. The controller damping is then selected as an optimal compromise between too small damping, and too large damping at which the modal frequencies coincide, and thereby produce undesirable...

  17. Controls on Gas Hydrate Formation and Dissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miriam Kastner; Ian MacDonald

    2006-03-03

    The main objectives of the project were to monitor, characterize, and quantify in situ the rates of formation and dissociation of methane hydrates at and near the seafloor in the northern Gulf of Mexico, with a focus on the Bush Hill seafloor hydrate mound; to record the linkages between physical and chemical parameters of the deposits over the course of one year, by emphasizing the response of the hydrate mound to temperature and chemical perturbations; and to document the seafloor and water column environmental impacts of hydrate formation and dissociation. For these, monitoring the dynamics of gas hydrate formation and dissociation was required. The objectives were achieved by an integrated field and laboratory scientific study, particularly by monitoring in situ formation and dissociation of the outcropping gas hydrate mound and of the associated gas-rich sediments. In addition to monitoring with the MOSQUITOs, fluid flow rates and temperature, continuously sampling in situ pore fluids for the chemistry, and imaging the hydrate mound, pore fluids from cores, peepers and gas hydrate samples from the mound were as well sampled and analyzed for chemical and isotopic compositions. In order to determine the impact of gas hydrate dissociation and/or methane venting across the seafloor on the ocean and atmosphere, the overlying seawater was sampled and thoroughly analyzed chemically and for methane C isotope ratios. At Bush hill the pore fluid chemistry varies significantly over short distances as well as within some of the specific sites monitored for 440 days, and gas venting is primarily focused. The pore fluid chemistry in the tub-warm and mussel shell fields clearly documented active gas hydrate and authigenic carbonate formation during the monitoring period. The advecting fluid is depleted in sulfate, Ca Mg, and Sr and is rich in methane; at the main vent sites the fluid is methane supersaturated, thus bubble plumes form. The subsurface hydrology exhibits both

  18. Caracterização e ontogenia dos tricomas glandulares de Ocimum selloi Benth. - Lamiaceae Characterization and ontogeny of the glandular trichomes of Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Almeida Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul e na medicina popular tem sido usada devido suas propriedades analgésica, anti-inflamatória e antiespasmódica. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar os tipos de tricomas glandulares que ocorrem nos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos de O. selloi e determinar a ontogenia desses tricomas. Ramos laterais em início de formação, folhas totalmente expandidas, flores em diferentes estádios de diferenciação, amostras de caule e do eixo das inflorescências foram analisados em microscopias de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Tricomas glandulares do tipo peltado e capitado subséssil foram observados no caule, nas folhas, no eixo da inflorescência e na superfície adaxial das sépalas. Nas sépalas foi encontrado, além dos tricomas secretores peltados e capitados subsésseis, o tricoma glandular capitado pedunculado. A ontogenia inicia-se com a expansão de uma célula protodérmica que, de acordo com a seqüência de divisões periclinais e anticlinais (ora simétricas, ora assimétricas, dá origem aos tricomas. A diferenciação dos tricomas glandulares peltados e capitados não é sincrônica e ocorre muito cedo no desenvolvimento da folha, do caule e do eixo floral.Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae is native to South America and in traditional medicine has been used due to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antispasmodic properties. The aim of this study was to identify the types of glandular trichomes that occur on the vegetative and reproductive organs of O. selloi and to determine trichome ontogeny. Lateral branches at the initial formation phase, fully opened leaves, flowers at different differentiation stages, and stem and inflorescence axes were analyzed under light and scanning electron microscopy. Glandular trichomes of the peltate and subsessile capitate types were observed on the stem, leaves, inflorescence axis and the adaxial surface of the

  19. Effect of heat shock on ultrastructure and calcium distribution in Lavandula pinnata L. glandular trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S S; Kirchoff, B K; Liao, J P

    2013-02-01

    The effects of heat shock (HS) on the ultrastructure and calcium distribution of Lavandula pinnata secretory trichomes are examined using transmission electron microscopy and potassium antimonate precipitation. After 48-h HS at 40°C, plastids become distorted and lack stroma and osmiophilic deposits, the cristae of the mitochondria become indistinct, the endoplasmic reticulum acquires a chain-like appearance with ribosomes prominently attached to the lamellae, and the plasma and organelle membranes become distorted. Heat shock is associated with a decrease in calcium precipitates in the trichomes, while the number of precipitates increases in the mesophyll cells. Prolonged exposure to elevated calcium levels may be toxic to the mesophyll cells, while the lack of calcium in the glands cell may deprive them of the normal protective advantages of elevated calcium levels. The inequality in calcium distribution may result not only from uptake from the transpiration stream, but also from redistribution of calcium from the trichomes to the mesophyll cells.

  20. A new quantitative classification of ecological types in the bromeliad genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae) based on trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, Mosti; Papini, Alessio; Brighigna, Luigi

    2008-03-01

    Using collection specimens, we measured the density and wing area of trichomes in 37 species of the bromeliad genus Tillandsia, specifically the abaxial proximal, abaxial distal, adaxial proximal and adaxial distal parts of the leaf. The product of the trichome "wing" area by the number of trichomes (means) produced a pure number (T) that was correlated to ecological features. The correlation was positive with respect to arid environments (xeric Tillands) and negative with respect to humid environments (mesic Tillands). Bulbous, and particularly myrmecophytic species and species with tanks, represented particular categories. Other intermediate types were identified based on the T number, totalling five ecological types. In comparison with other systems of ecological typification for Tillands and other Bromeliaceae, the present system offers measurable data whose analysis is reproducible.

  1. Analyzing trichomes and spatio-temporal expression of a cysteine protease gene Mucunain in Mucuna pruriens L. (DC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susheel Kumar; Dhawan, Sunita Singh

    2018-03-01

    Mucuna pruriens is a well-known legume for the itching attributes of the trichome and a valuable medicinal herb that is used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, sexual debilities, etc. Its cultivation was deprived due to its itching behavior. The wild genotype of M. pruriens have the largest trichome length (2015 ± 29 μm) compared to other genotype and mutants. The white-seeded variety of M. pruriens was found to be the most suitable for large-scale cultivation due to the small trichome size and less trichome density on the pod. The external surface trichomes have protuberance with unknown function. The unicellular trichomes of Mucuna show the flowing fluid or cytoplasm inside the trichome. The unigenes regulating the differentiation and development of the trichome such as GLABRA-1, GLABRA-2, and cpr-5 have been identified in M. pruriens transcriptome of the leaf. The Mucunain shows a higher transcript abundance in the flower and pod cover compared to the seeds. The Mucunain was found in every stage of plant growth, but it was highly expressed during maturity (about 170 days) with a high fragment per kilobase per million value.

  2. Analysis of cannabinoids in laser-microdissected trichomes of medicinal Cannabis sativa using LCMS and cryogenic NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happyana, Nizar; Agnolet, Sara; Muntendam, Remco; Van Dam, Annie; Schneider, Bernd; Kayser, Oliver

    Trichomes, especially the capitate-stalked glandular hairs, are well known as the main sites of cannabinoid and essential oil production of Cannabis sativa. In this study the distribution and density of various types of Cannabis sativa L trichomes, have been investigated by scanning electron

  3. Complex Formation Control of Large-Scale Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new formation framework of large-scale intelligent autonomous vehicles is developed, which can realize complex formations while reducing data exchange. Using the proposed hierarchy formation method and the automatic dividing algorithm, vehicles are automatically divided into leaders and followers by exchanging information via wireless network at initial time. Then, leaders form formation geometric shape by global formation information and followers track their own virtual leaders to form line formation by local information. The formation control laws of leaders and followers are designed based on consensus algorithms. Moreover, collision-avoiding problems are considered and solved using artificial potential functions. Finally, a simulation example that consists of 25 vehicles shows the effectiveness of theory.

  4. Cadmium induced changes in subcellular glutathione contents within glandular trichomes of Cucurbita pepo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Dagmar; Müller, Maria; Zellnig, Günther; Zechmann, Bernd

    2010-07-01

    Plants cope with cadmium (Cd) stress by complexation with phytochelatins (Pc), metallothioneins and glutathione and sequestration within vacuoles. Especially glutathione was found to play a major role in Cd detoxification as Cd shows a high binding affinity towards thiols and as glutathione is a precursor for Pc synthesis. In the present study, we have used an immunohistochemical approach combined with computer-supported transmission electron microscopy in order to measure changes in the subcellular distribution of glutathione during Cd-stress in mesophyll cells and cells of different glandular trichomes (long and short stalked) of Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca GREB: . Even though no ultrastructural alterations were observed in leaf and glandular trichome cells after the treatment of plants with 50 microM cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) for 48 h, all cells showed a large decrease in glutathione contents. The strongest decrease was found in nuclei and the cytosol (up to 76%) in glandular trichomes which are considered as a major side of Cd accumulation in leaves. The ratio of glutathione between the cytosol and nuclei and the other cell compartments was strongly decreased only in glandular trichomes (more than 50%) indicating that glutathione in these two cell compartments is especially important for the detoxification of Cd in glandular trichomes. Additionally, these data indicate that large amounts of Cd are withdrawn from nuclei during Cd exposure. The present study gives a detailed insight into the compartment-specific importance of glutathione during Cd exposure in mesophyll cells and glandular trichomes of C. pepo L. plants.

  5. Comparison of Five Major Trichome Regulatory Genes in Brassica villosa with Orthologues within the Brassicaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayidu, Naghabushana K.; Kagale, Sateesh; Taheri, Ali; Withana-Gamage, Thushan S.; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Gruber, Margaret Y.

    2014-01-01

    Coding sequences for major trichome regulatory genes, including the positive regulators GLABRA 1(GL1), GLABRA 2 (GL2), ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3), and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1) and the negative regulator TRIPTYCHON (TRY), were cloned from wild Brassica villosa, which is characterized by dense trichome coverage over most of the plant. Transcript (FPKM) levels from RNA sequencing indicated much higher expression of the GL2 and TTG1 regulatory genes in B. villosa leaves compared with expression levels of GL1 and EGL3 genes in either B. villosa or the reference genome species, glabrous B. oleracea; however, cotyledon TTG1 expression was high in both species. RNA sequencing and Q-PCR also revealed an unusual expression pattern for the negative regulators TRY and CPC, which were much more highly expressed in trichome-rich B. villosa leaves than in glabrous B. oleracea leaves and in glabrous cotyledons from both species. The B. villosa TRY expression pattern also contrasted with TRY expression patterns in two diploid Brassica species, and with the Arabidopsis model for expression of negative regulators of trichome development. Further unique sequence polymorphisms, protein characteristics, and gene evolution studies highlighted specific amino acids in GL1 and GL2 coding sequences that distinguished glabrous species from hairy species and several variants that were specific for each B. villosa gene. Positive selection was observed for GL1 between hairy and non-hairy plants, and as expected the origin of the four expressed positive trichome regulatory genes in B. villosa was predicted to be from B. oleracea. In particular the unpredicted expression patterns for TRY and CPC in B. villosa suggest additional characterization is needed to determine the function of the expanded families of trichome regulatory genes in more complex polyploid species within the Brassicaceae. PMID:24755905

  6. Formation control of marine surface craft: a Lagrangian approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihle, Ivar-Andre F.; Jouffroy, Jerome; Fossen, Thor I.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a method for formation control of marine surface craft inspired by Lagrangian mechanics. The desired formation configuration and response of the marine surface craft are given as a set of constraints in analytical mechanics. Thus, constraints forces arise and feedback from...

  7. Formation control of marine craft using constraint functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihle, Ivar-Andre F.; Jouffroy, Jerome; Fossen, Thor I.

    This article presents a method for formation control of marine surface vessels inspired by Lagrangian mechanics. The desired formation configuration is given as a set of constraint functions. The functions are treated analytically and by using feedback from the imposed constraint functions, const...

  8. Formation Control of the MAXIM L2 Libration Orbit Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, David; Hartman, Kate; Howell, Kathleen; Marchand, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    The Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), a proposed concept for the Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) Black Hole Imager mission, is designed to make a ten million-fold improvement in X-ray image clarity of celestial objects by providing better than 0.1 micro-arcsecond imaging. Currently the mission architecture comprises 25 spacecraft, 24 as optics modules and one as the detector, which will form sparse sub-apertures of a grazing incidence X-ray interferometer covering the 0.3-10 keV bandpass. This formation must allow for long duration continuous science observations and also for reconfiguration that permits re-pointing of the formation. To achieve these mission goals, the formation is required to cooperatively point at desired targets. Once pointed, the individual elements of the MAXIM formation must remain stable, maintaining their relative positions and attitudes below a critical threshold. These pointing and formation stability requirements impact the control and design of the formation. In this paper, we provide analysis of control efforts that are dependent upon the stability and the configuration and dimensions of the MAXIM formation. We emphasize the utilization of natural motions in the Lagrangian regions to minimize the control efforts and we address continuous control via input feedback linearization (IFL). Results provide control cost, configuration options, and capabilities as guidelines for the development of this complex mission.

  9. Bearing-Only Formation Control for Cascade Multirobots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new formation control method is proposed, which is used to queue multirobots in a single-direction cascade structure. In the cascade formation, each robot is a follower for the previous robot and a leader for the next robot, and the robots in the middle act as both leader and follower. The follower robot can only observe the bearing information of the leader robot. The observability of the cascade leader-follower formation is studied, which shows that the bearing-only observation meets the observability conditions required for the nonlinear system. Based on the bearing-only observations, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF is employed for the state estimation of the leader and the follower robots at all levels, which enables the real-time movement control of the follower robots via the input-output feedback control. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach can efficiently control the formation of multirobots as desired.

  10. Tensegrity Models and Shape Control of Vehicle Formations

    OpenAIRE

    Nabet, Benjamin; Leonard, Naomi Ehrich

    2009-01-01

    Using dynamic models of tensegrity structures, we derive provable, distributed control laws for stabilizing and changing the shape of a formation of vehicles in the plane. Tensegrity models define the desired, controlled, multi-vehicle system dynamics, where each node in the tensegrity structure maps to a vehicle and each interconnecting strut or cable in the structure maps to a virtual interconnection between vehicles. Our method provides a smooth map from any desired planar formation shape ...

  11. Exponential stability for formation control systems with generalized controllers: A unified approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Zhiyong; Mou, Shaoshuai; Anderson, Brian D.O.; Cao, Ming

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses generalized controllers for distance-based rigid formation shape stabilization and aims to provide a unified approach for the convergence analysis. We consider two types of formation control systems according to different characterizations of target formations: minimally rigid

  12. Aeration-Controlled Formation of Acid in Heterolactic Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Jens

    1994-01-01

    fermentation processes should be analyzed as fed-batch fermentations with oxygen as the limiting substrate. Addition of fructose in limited amounts leads to the formation of one half mole of acetic acid for each mole fructose, thus offering an alternative mechanism for controlling acetic acid formation.......Controlled aeration of Leuconostoc mesenteroides was studied as a possible mechanism for control of the formation of acetic acid, a metabolite of major influence on the taste of lactic fermented foods. Fermentations were carried out in small scale in a medium in which growth was limited...... by the buffer capacity only. Ethanol and acetic acid formed during the fermentation were analyzed by rapid head space gas chromatography, and the ratio of the molar concentrations of these two volatiles quantitatively predicted the balance between the formation of acetic acid and lactic acid. The oxygen...

  13. Relative dynamics and motion control of nanosatellite formation flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimnoo, Ammarin; Hiraki, Koju

    2016-04-01

    Orbit selection is a necessary factor in nanosatellite formation mission design/meanwhile, to keep the formation, it is necessary to consume fuel. Therefore, the best orbit design for nanosatellite formation flying should be one that requires the minimum fuel consumption. The purpose of this paper is to analyse orbit selection with respect to the minimum fuel consumption, to provide a convenient way to estimate the fuel consumption for keeping nanosatellite formation flying and to present a simplified method of formation control. The formation structure is disturbed by J2 gravitational perturbation and other perturbing accelerations such as atmospheric drag. First, Gauss' Variation Equations (GVE) are used to estimate the essential ΔV due to the J2 perturbation and atmospheric drag. The essential ΔV presents information on which orbit is good with respect to the minimum fuel consumption. Then, the linear equations which account for J2 gravitational perturbation of Schweighart-Sedwick are presented and used to estimate the fuel consumption to maintain the formation structure. Finally, the relative dynamics motion is presented as well as a simplified motion control of formation structure by using GVE.

  14. Comparative genetic analysis of trichome-less and normal pod genotypes of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, S S; Rai, G K; Darokar, M P; Lal, R K; Misra, H O; Khanuja, S P S

    2011-09-15

    Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) seeds contain the catecholic amino acid L-DoPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine), which is a neurotransmitter precursor and used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and mental disorders. The great demand for L-DoPA is largely met by the pharmaceutical industry through extraction of the compound from wild populations of this plant; commercial exploitation of this compound is hampered because of its limited availability. The trichomes present on the pods can cause severe itching, blisters and dermatitis, discouraging cultivation. We screened genetic stocks of velvet bean for the trichome-less trait, along with high seed yield and L-DoPA content. The highest yielding trichome-less elite strain was selected and indentified on the basis of a PCR-based DNA fingerprinting method (RAPD), using deca-nucleotide primers. A genetic similarity index matrix was obtained through multivariant analysis using Nei and Li's coefficient. The similarity coefficients were used to generate a tree for cluster analysis using the UPGMA method. Analysis of amplification spectra of 408 bands obtained with 56 primers allowed us to distinguish a trichome-less elite strain of M. pruriens.

  15. Lima bean – lady beetle interactions: hooked trichomes affect survival of Stethorus punctillum larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested the hypothesis that Lima bean Phaseolus lunatus L. (Henderson cultivar) trichome density affects the survival of the acariphagous lady beetle Stethorus punctillum Weise. When isolated throughout larval development, 10% or less of S. punctillum larvae reared on two-spotted spider mite Tetr...

  16. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa I. Egorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodological aspects of the internal control system formation are stated in the article. The great attention is focused on the problems of financial statements misrepresentation. The basic principles and structure of the internal control system are discussed in this article.

  17. Analysis of cannabinoids in laser-microdissected trichomes of medicinal Cannabis sativa using LCMS and cryogenic NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happyana, Nizar; Agnolet, Sara; Muntendam, Remco; Van Dam, Annie; Schneider, Bernd; Kayser, Oliver

    2013-03-01

    Trichomes, especially the capitate-stalked glandular hairs, are well known as the main sites of cannabinoid and essential oil production of Cannabis sativa. In this study the distribution and density of various types of Cannabis sativa L. trichomes, have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, glandular trichomes were isolated over the flowering period (8 weeks) by laser microdissection (LMD) and the cannabinoid profile analyzed by LCMS. Cannabinoids were detected in extracts of 25-143 collected cells of capitate-sessile and capitate stalked trichomes and separately in the gland (head) and the stem of the latter. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid [THCA (1)], cannabidiolic acid [CBDA (2)], and cannabigerolic acid [CBGA (3)] were identified as most-abundant compounds in all analyzed samples while their decarboxylated derivatives, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC (4)], cannabidiol [CBD (5)], and cannabigerol [CBG (6)], co-detected in all samples, were present at significantly lower levels. Cannabichromene [CBC (8)] along with cannabinol (CBN (9)) were identified as minor compounds only in the samples of intact capitate-stalked trichomes and their heads harvested from 8-week old plants. Cryogenic nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) was used to confirm the occurrence of major cannabinoids, THCA (1) and CBDA (2), in capitate-stalked and capitate-sessile trichomes. Cryogenic NMR enabled the additional identification of cannabichromenic acid [CBCA (7)] in the dissected trichomes, which was not possible by LCMS as standard was not available. The hereby documented detection of metabolites in the stems of capitate-stalked trichomes indicates a complex biosynthesis and localization over the trichome cells forming the glandular secretion unit. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Theoretical model for ultracold molecule formation via adaptive feedback control

    OpenAIRE

    Poschinger, Ulrich; Salzmann, Wenzel; Wester, Roland; Weidemueller, Matthias; Koch, Christiane P.; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2006-01-01

    We investigate pump-dump photoassociation of ultracold molecules with amplitude- and phase-modulated femtosecond laser pulses. For this purpose a perturbative model for the light-matter interaction is developed and combined with a genetic algorithm for adaptive feedback control of the laser pulse shapes. The model is applied to the formation of 85Rb2 molecules in a magneto-optical trap. We find for optimized pulse shapes an improvement for the formation of ground state molecules by more than ...

  19. The foliar trichomes of Hypoestes aristata (Vahl) Sol. ex Roem. & Schult var aristata (Acanthaceae) a widespread medicinal plant species in tropical sub-Saharan Africa: with comments on its possible phylogenetic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, A; Naidoo, Y; Nicholas, A

    2010-01-01

    The micromorphology of foliar trichomes of Hypoestes aristata var. aristata was studied using stereo, light and scanning microscopy (SEM). This genus belongs to the advanced angiosperm family Acanthaceae, for which few micromorphological leaf studies exist. Results revealed both glandular and non-glandular trichomes, the latter being more abundant on leaf veins, particularly on the abaxial surface of very young leaves. With leaf maturity, the density of non-glandular trichomes decreased. Glandular trichomes were rare and of two types: long-stalked capitate and globose-like peltate trichomes. Capitate trichomes were observed only on the abaxial leaf surface, while peltate trichomes were distributed on both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces.

  20. Temperature controlled formation of lead/acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungardt, M.

    At present, standard formation programs have to accommodate the worst case. This is important, especially in respect of variations in climatic conditions. The standard must be set so that during the hottest weather periods the maximum electrolyte temperature is not exceeded. As this value is defined not only by the desired properties and the recipe of the active mass, but also by type and size of the separators and by the dimensions of the plates, general rules cannot be formulated. It is considered to be advantageous to introduce limiting data for the maximum temperature into a general formation program. The latter is defined so that under normal to good ambient conditions the shortest formation time is achieved. If required, the temperature control will reduce the currents employed in the different steps, according to need, and will extend the formation time accordingly. With computer-controlled formation, these parameters can be readily adjusted to suit each type of battery and can also be reset according to modifications in the preceding processing steps. Such a procedure ensures that: (i) the formation time is minimum under the given ambient conditions; (ii) in the event of malpractice ( e.g. actual program not fitting to size) the batteries will not be destroyed; (iii) the energy consumption is minimized (note, high electrolyte temperature leads to excess gassing). These features are incorporated in the BA/FOS-500 battery formation system developed by Digatron. The operational characteristics of this system are listed in Table 1.

  1. Dislocation processes in quasicrystals-Kink-pair formation control or jog-pair formation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Shin

    2005-01-01

    A computer simulation of dislocation in a model quasiperiodic lattice indicates that the dislocation feels a large Peierls potential when oriented in particular directions. For a dislocation with a high Peierls potential, the glide velocity and the climb velocity of the dislocation can be described almost in parallel in terms of the kink-pair formation followed by kink motion and the jog-pair formation followed by jog motion, respectively. The activation enthalpy of the kink-pair formation is the sum of the kink-pair formation enthalpy and the atomic jump activation enthalpy, while the activation enthalpy of the jog-pair formation involves the jog-pair enthalpy and the self-diffusion enthalpy. Since the kink-pair energy can be considerably larger than the jog-pair energy, the climb velocity can be faster than the glide velocity, so that the plastic deformation of quasicrystals can be brought not by dislocation glide but by dislocation climb at high temperatures

  2. Localization of a defensive volatile 4-hydroxy-4-methylpentan-2-one in the capitate glandular trichomes of Oenothera glazioviana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanyun Tan; Desen Li; Juan Hua; Shihong Luo; Yan Liu; Shenghong Li

    2017-01-01

    Glandular trichomes of plants produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites which are considered as major defensive chemicals. The capitate glandular trichomes of Oenothera glazioviana (Onagraceae) were collected with laser microdissection and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The volatile compound 4-hydroxy-4-methylpentan-2-one (1) was identified. We found that compound 1 displays antimicrobial, insecticidal, and phytotoxic activities. These results suggest that compound 1 might function as a defensive compound in the capitate glandular trichomes of O. glazioviana against pathogens, insect herbivores, and presumably competitive plants as well.

  3. Localization of a defensive volatile 4-hydroxy-4-methylpentan-2-one in the capitate glandular trichomes of Oenothera glazioviana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyun Tan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Glandular trichomes of plants produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites which are considered as major defensive chemicals. The capitate glandular trichomes of Oenothera glazioviana (Onagraceae were collected with laser microdissection and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The volatile compound 4-hydroxy-4-methylpentan-2-one (1 was identified. We found that compound 1 displays antimicrobial, insecticidal, and phytotoxic activities. These results suggest that compound 1 might function as a defensive compound in the capitate glandular trichomes of O. glazioviana against pathogens, insect herbivores, and presumably competitive plants as well.

  4. Swarm formation control utilizing elliptical surfaces and limiting functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Laura E; Fields, Mary Anne; Valavanis, Kimon P

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we present a strategy for organizing swarms of unmanned vehicles into a formation by utilizing artificial potential fields that were generated from normal and sigmoid functions. These functions construct the surface on which swarm members travel, controlling the overall swarm geometry and the individual member spacing. Nonlinear limiting functions are defined to provide tighter swarm control by modifying and adjusting a set of control variables that force the swarm to behave according to set constraints, formation, and member spacing. The artificial potential functions and limiting functions are combined to control swarm formation, orientation, and swarm movement as a whole. Parameters are chosen based on desired formation and user-defined constraints. This approach is computationally efficient and scales well to different swarm sizes, to heterogeneous systems, and to both centralized and decentralized swarm models. Simulation results are presented for a swarm of 10 and 40 robots that follow circle, ellipse, and wedge formations. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the applicability of the approach on a swarm of four custom-built unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs).

  5. Controlling Non-Equilibrium Structure Formation on the Nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Benedikt; Hecht, Fabian Manfred; Pernpeintner, Carla; Lohmueller, Theobald; Bausch, Andreas R

    2017-12-06

    Controlling the structure formation of gold nanoparticle aggregates is a promising approach towards novel applications in many fields, ranging from (bio)sensing to (bio)imaging to medical diagnostics and therapeutics. To steer structure formation, the DNA-DNA interactions of DNA strands that are coated on the surface of the particles have become a valuable tool to achieve precise control over the interparticle potentials. In equilibrium approaches, this technique is commonly used to study particle crystallization and ligand binding. However, regulating the structural growth processes from the nano- to the micro- and mesoscale remains elusive. Here, we show that the non-equilibrium structure formation of gold nanoparticles can be stirred in a binary heterocoagulation process to generate nanoparticle clusters of different sizes. The gold nanoparticles are coated with sticky single stranded DNA and mixed at different stoichiometries and sizes. This not only allows for structural control but also yields access to the optical properties of the nanoparticle suspensions. As a result, we were able to reliably control the kinetic structure formation process to produce cluster sizes between tens of nanometers up to micrometers. Consequently, the intricate optical properties of the gold nanoparticles could be utilized to control the maximum of the nanoparticle suspension extinction spectra between 525 nm and 600 nm. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Theoretical model for ultracold molecule formation via adaptive feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poschinger, Ulrich; Salzmann, Wenzel; Wester, Roland; Weidemueller, Matthias; Koch, Christiane P; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2006-01-01

    We theoretically investigate pump-dump photoassociation of ultracold molecules with amplitude- and phase-modulated femtosecond laser pulses. For this purpose, a perturbative model for light-matter interaction is developed and combined with a genetic algorithm for adaptive feedback control of the laser pulse shapes. The model is applied to the formation of 85 Rb 2 molecules in a magneto-optical trap. We find that optimized pulse shapes may maximize the formation of ground state molecules in a specific vibrational state at a pump-dump delay time for which unshaped pulses lead to a minimum of the formation rate. Compared to the maximum formation rate obtained for unshaped pulses at the optimum pump-dump delay, the optimized pulses lead to a significant improvement of about 40% for the target level population. Since our model yields the spectral amplitudes and phases of the optimized pulses, the results are directly applicable in pulse shaping experiments

  7. Structural control of void formation in dual phase steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azuma, Masafumi

    The objective of this study is to explore the void formation mechanisms and to clarify the influence of the hardness and structural parameters (volume fraction, size and morphology) of martensite particles on the void formation and mechanical properties in dual phase steels composed of ferrite...... and (iii) strain localization. The critical strain for void formation depends on hardness of the martensite, but is independent of the volume fraction, shape, size and distribution of the martensite. The strain partitioning between the martensite and ferrite depends on the volume fraction and hardness...... of the martensite accelerates the void formation in the martensite by enlarging the size of voids both in the martensite and ferrite. It is suggested that controlling the hardness and structural parameters associated with the martensite particles such as morphology, size and volume fraction are the essential...

  8. Multimodel Predictive Control Approach for UAV Formation Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-jian Ru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation flight problem is the most important and interesting problem of multiple UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles cooperative control. In this paper, a novel approach for UAV formation flight based on multimodel predictive control is designed. Firstly, the state equation of relative motion is obtained and then discretized. By the geometrical method, the characteristic points of state are determined. Afterwards, based on the linearization technique, the standard linear discrete model is obtained at each characteristic state point. Then, weighted model set is proposed using the idea of T-S (Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control and the predictive control is carried out based on the multimodel method. Finally, to verify the performance of the proposed method, two different simulation scenarios are performed.

  9. Mission Analysis and Orbit Control of Interferometric Wheel Formation Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourcade, J.

    Flying satellite in formation requires maintaining the specific relative geometry of the spacecraft with high precision. This requirement raises new problem of orbit control. This paper presents the results of the mission analysis of a low Earth observation system, the interferometric wheel, patented by CNES. This wheel is made up of three receiving spacecraft, which follow an emitting Earth observation radar satellite. The first part of this paper presents trades off which were performed to choose orbital elements of the formation flying which fulfils all constraints. The second part presents orbit positioning strategies including reconfiguration of the wheel to change its size. The last part describes the station keeping of the formation. Two kinds of constraints are imposed by the interferometric system : a constraint on the distance between the wheel and the radar satellite, and constraints on the distance between the wheel satellites. The first constraint is fulfilled with a classical chemical station keeping strategy. The second one is fulfilled using pure passive actuators. Due to the high stability of the relative eccentricity of the formation, only the relative semi major axis had to be controlled. Differential drag due to differential attitude motion was used to control relative altitude. An autonomous orbit controller was developed and tested. The final accuracy is a relative station keeping better than few meters for a wheel size of one kilometer.

  10. Herbivore handling of a plant's trichome: the case of Heliconius charithonia (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch. (Passifloraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Marcio Z. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias. Dept. de Botanica, Ecologia e Zoologia]. E-mail: mzc@cb.ufrn.br

    2008-05-15

    Trichomes reduce herbivore attack on plants by physically and/or chemically inhibiting movement or other activities. Despite evidence that herbivores are negatively affected by trichomes there also reports of insect counter-adaptations that circumvent the plant's defense. This paper reports on a study that investigated the likely mechanisms employed by larvae of the nymphalid butterfly, Heliconius charithonia (L.), that allow it to feed on a host that is presumably protected by hooked trichomes (Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch). Evidence were gathered using data from direct observations of larval movement and behavior, faeces analysis, scanning electron microscopy of plant surface and experimental analysis of larval movement on plants with and without trichomes (manually removed). The latter involved a comparison with a non specialist congener, Heliconius pachinus Salvin. Observations showed that H. charithonia larvae are capable of freeing themselves from entrapment on trichome tips by physical force. Moreover, wandering larvae lay silk mats on the trichomes and remove their tips by biting. In fact, trichome tips were found in the faeces. Experimental removal of trichomes aided in the movement of the non specialist but had no noticeable effect on the specialist larvae. These results support the suggestion that trichomes are capable of deterring a non specialist herbivore (H. pachinus). The precise mechanisms that allow the success of H. charithonia are not known, but I suggest that a blend of behavioral as well as physical resistance mechanisms is involved. Future studies should ascertain whether larval integument provides physical resistance to trichomes. (author)

  11. Formation Control of Robotic Swarm Using Bounded Artificial Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Yabing; Peng, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Formation control of multirobot systems has drawn significant attention in the recent years. This paper presents a potential field control algorithm, navigating a swarm of robots into a predefined 2D shape while avoiding intermember collisions. The algorithm applies in both stationary and moving targets formation. We define the bounded artificial forces in the form of exponential functions, so that the behavior of the swarm drove by the forces can be adjusted via selecting proper control parameters. The theoretical analysis of the swarm behavior proves the stability and convergence properties of the algorithm. We further make certain modifications upon the forces to improve the robustness of the swarm behavior in the presence of realistic implementation considerations. The considerations include obstacle avoidance, local minima, and deformation of the shape. Finally, detailed simulation results validate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, and the direction of possible futrue work is discussed in the conclusions. PMID:24453809

  12. Formation Control of Robotic Swarm Using Bounded Artificial Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation control of multirobot systems has drawn significant attention in the recent years. This paper presents a potential field control algorithm, navigating a swarm of robots into a predefined 2D shape while avoiding intermember collisions. The algorithm applies in both stationary and moving targets formation. We define the bounded artificial forces in the form of exponential functions, so that the behavior of the swarm drove by the forces can be adjusted via selecting proper control parameters. The theoretical analysis of the swarm behavior proves the stability and convergence properties of the algorithm. We further make certain modifications upon the forces to improve the robustness of the swarm behavior in the presence of realistic implementation considerations. The considerations include obstacle avoidance, local minima, and deformation of the shape. Finally, detailed simulation results validate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, and the direction of possible futrue work is discussed in the conclusions.

  13. Formation control of robotic swarm using bounded artificial forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Long; Zha, Yabing; Yin, Quanjun; Peng, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Formation control of multirobot systems has drawn significant attention in the recent years. This paper presents a potential field control algorithm, navigating a swarm of robots into a predefined 2D shape while avoiding intermember collisions. The algorithm applies in both stationary and moving targets formation. We define the bounded artificial forces in the form of exponential functions, so that the behavior of the swarm drove by the forces can be adjusted via selecting proper control parameters. The theoretical analysis of the swarm behavior proves the stability and convergence properties of the algorithm. We further make certain modifications upon the forces to improve the robustness of the swarm behavior in the presence of realistic implementation considerations. The considerations include obstacle avoidance, local minima, and deformation of the shape. Finally, detailed simulation results validate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, and the direction of possible futrue work is discussed in the conclusions.

  14. Efficiency of Trichome-Based Plant Defense in Phaseolus vulgaris Depends on Insect Behavior, Plant Ontogeny, and Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlong Xing

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant trichomes often function as physical barriers in preventing arthropod feeding and oviposition. Even though insects are frequently reported being entrapped and killed by trichome traps, the actual trapping behavior has not yet been described in detail. Capture experiments showed that capture efficiency during the plant's vegetative stage was considerably higher than in the fruiting and cotyledon stages. The ventral surface of the leaf was more effective in trapping flies than other parts of the plant. Capture-events monitoring showed that the mouthparts, legs, and ovipositor of Liriomyza trifolii adults are the body parts involved in entrapment by surface trichomes on Phaseolus vulgaris plants, and subsequently, deter their ability to feed, walk, and oviposit. Of the three main body parts normally affected, mouthparts was found to be the body part most susceptible to the trichomes. Entrapments were most often caused by landing, followed by puncturing or feeding, and occasionally by walking or fighting. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and optical microscopy, we determined the susceptible positions of each body part and found that the flies were all trapped by hooked trichomes. This study revealed the process by which leafminer flies are entrapped by surface trichomes of the host plant and evaluated the capture efficiency. The results will contribute to our understanding of physical defenses against herbivores.

  15. Light affects Varronia curassavica essential oil yield by increasing trichomes frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily V.R. da S. Feijó

    Full Text Available Light can act on essential oil yield directly on synthesis of secondary metabolites, or indirectly on plant growth. Varronia curassavica Jacq., Boraginaceae, is a native medicinal species from Brazil known as “erva-baleeira”, with anti-inflammatory activity related to its essential oil. Despite pharmacological evidences of this species and its economic importance for herbal medicine production, little is known about the effect of light on growth and essential oil production. This study aimed to analyze the influence of different irradiances on growth, frequency of trichomes, essential oil yield and composition of V. curassavica. The irradiance affected plant growth, but no significant alteration on leaf biomass was detected. The increase in essential oil content under higher irradiance reflected on essential oil yield, and is associated with higher frequency of glandular, globular trichomes. The essential oil composition, rich in caryophyllene derivatives was affected by irradiance, but α-humulene, the constituent of pharmaceutical interest, remained unchanged.

  16. Assembly of Liposomes Controlled by Triple Helix Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stefan; Jakobsen, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Attachment of DNA to the surface of different solid nanoparticles (e.g. gold- and silica nanoparticles) is well established and a number of DNA-modified solid nanoparticle systems have been applied to thermal denaturation analysis of oligonucleotides. We report herein the non-covalent immobilizat...... analysis (NTA) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) show independently from ultraviolet spectroscopy experiments the formation of liposome aggregates.......-covalent immobilization of oligonucleotides on the surface of soft nanoparticles (e.g. liposomes) and the subsequent controlled assembly by DNA triple helix formation. The non-covalent approach avoids tedious surface chemistry and necessary purification procedures and can simplify and extend the available methodology...... sequences (G or C-rich) to explore the applicability of the method for different triple helical assembly modes. We demonstrate advantages and limitations of the approach and proof the reversible and reproducible formation of liposome aggregates during thermal denaturation cycles. Nanoparticle tracking...

  17. Monoterpenes in the glandular trichomes of tomato are synthesized from a neryl diphosphate precursor rather than geranyl diphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilmiller, Anthony L; Schauvinhold, Ines; Larson, Matthew; Xu, Richard; Charbonneau, Amanda L; Schmidt, Adam; Wilkerson, Curtis; Last, Robert L; Pichersky, Eran

    2009-06-30

    We identified a cis-prenyltransferase gene, neryl diphosphate synthase 1 (NDPS1), that is expressed in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar M82 type VI glandular trichomes and encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of neryl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. mRNA for a terpene synthase gene, phellandrene synthase 1 (PHS1), was also identified in these glands. It encodes an enzyme that uses neryl diphosphate to produce beta-phellandrene as the major product as well as a variety of other monoterpenes. The profile of monoterpenes produced by PHS1 is identical with the monoterpenes found in type VI glands. PHS1 and NDPS1 map to chromosome 8, and the presence of a segment of chromosome 8 derived from Solanum pennellii LA0716 causes conversion from the M82 gland monoterpene pattern to that characteristic of LA0716 plants. The data indicate that, contrary to the textbook view of geranyl diphosphate as the "universal" substrate of monoterpene synthases, in tomato glands neryl diphosphate serves as a precursor for the synthesis of monoterpenes.

  18. The effect of chrysanthemum leaf trichome density and prey spatial distribution on predation of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) by Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirvin, D J; Stavrinides, M C; Skirvin, D J

    2003-08-01

    The effect of plant architecture, in terms of leaf hairiness, and prey spatial arrangement, on predation rate of eggs of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, by the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot was examined on cut stems of chrysanthemums. Three levels of leaf hairiness (trichome density) were obtained using two different chrysanthemum cultivars and two ages within one of the cultivars. The number of prey consumed by P. persimilis was inversely related to trichome density. At low prey densities (less than ten eggs per stem), prey consumption did not differ in a biologically meaningful way between treatments. The effect of prey spatial arrangement on the predation rate of P. persimilis was also examined. Predation rates were higher in prey patches on leaves adjacent to the release point of P. persimilis, but significantly greater numbers of prey were consumed in higher density prey patches compared to low density patches. The predators exhibited non-random searching behaviour, spending more time on leaves closest to the release point. The implications of these findings for biological control and predator-prey dynamics are discussed.

  19. Flexible Structure Control Scheme of a UAVs Formation to Improve the Formation Stability During Maneuvers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kownacki Cezary

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the issues related to formation flights, which requires to be still discussed, is the stability of formation flight in turns, where the aerodynamic conditions can be substantially different for outer vehicles due to varying bank angles. Therefore, this paper proposes a decentralized control algorithm based on a leader as the reference point for followers, i.e. other UAVs and two flocking behaviors responsible for local position control, i.e. cohesion and repulsion. But opposite to other research in this area, the structure of the formation becomes flexible (structure is being reshaped and bent according to actual turn radius of the leader. During turns the structure is bent basing on concentred circles with different radiuses corresponding to relative locations of vehicles in the structure. Simultaneously, UAVs' air-speeds must be modified according to the length of turn radius to achieve the stability of the structure. The effectiveness of the algorithm is verified by the results of simulated flights of five UAVs.

  20. Spacecraft formation control using analytical finite-duration approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Larbi, Mohamed Khalil; Stoll, Enrico

    2018-03-01

    This paper derives a control concept for formation flight (FF) applications assuming circular reference orbits. The paper focuses on a general impulsive control concept for FF which is then extended to the more realistic case of non-impulsive thrust maneuvers. The control concept uses a description of the FF in relative orbital elements (ROE) instead of the classical Cartesian description since the ROE provide a direct insight into key aspects of the relative motion and are particularly suitable for relative orbit control purposes and collision avoidance analysis. Although Gauss' variational equations have been first derived to offer a mathematical tool for processing orbit perturbations, they are suitable for several different applications. If the perturbation acceleration is due to a control thrust, Gauss' variational equations show the effect of such a control thrust on the Keplerian orbital elements. Integrating the Gauss' variational equations offers a direct relation between velocity increments in the local vertical local horizontal frame and the subsequent change of Keplerian orbital elements. For proximity operations, these equations can be generalized from describing the motion of single spacecraft to the description of the relative motion of two spacecraft. This will be shown for impulsive and finite-duration maneuvers. Based on that, an analytical tool to estimate the error induced through impulsive maneuver planning is presented. The resulting control schemes are simple and effective and thus also suitable for on-board implementation. Simulations show that the proposed concept improves the timing of the thrust maneuver executions and thus reduces the residual error of the formation control.

  1. Controls on Cyclic Formation of Quaternary Early Diagenetic Dolomite

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, J.; Bontognali, T. R. R.; Immenhauser, A.; Kwiecien, O.

    2018-04-01

    The origin of sedimentary dolomite and the factors that control its formation within the geological record remain speculative. In most models, dolomite formation is linked to evaporative conditions, high water temperature, increasing Mg/Ca ratio, increasing alkalinity, and high amounts of biomass. Here we challenge these archetypal views, by documenting a case example of Quaternary dolomite which formed in Lake Van at constantly low temperature (stress, resulting from reventilation of the water-sediment interface. Independently from the validity of this hypothesis, our results call for a reevaluation of the paleoenvironmental conditions often invoked for early diagenetic dolomite-rich intervals within sedimentary sequences and for caution when interpreting time series of subrecent lacustrine carbonates.

  2. Control of Biofilm Formation in Fungi Using Ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Sebaey, R.T.

    2015-01-01

    The use of fungi in biotechnology requires that no cell loss takes place; a maximal level of cell-nutrient interaction is required to achieve efficient performance and avoid cell loss. The main aim of the present study is to use ethanol to control cell-cell and cell-surface adhesion through manipulating cell surface properties. A Fungal isolate with a phenol oxidase activity (43.2 U/ml) was chosen out of twelve isolates belonging to two main genera: Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. The fungus isolate, assigned as the highest phenol oxidase producer, was morphologically identified as Penicillium purpurogenum. Penicillium purpurogenum formed a ring around the bottle in static and shaking conditions, therefore, a number of different stress conditions, such as ph, temperature, different nitrogen sources, gamma radiation and ethanol, were employed separately to control biofilm formation in the fungus under study. The fungus was tested for its morphology, mycelia weight, stress response (catalase, lipid peroxidation and red pigment synthesis) and extracellular and surface bound protein and exo polysaccharides. The obtained results correlate the biofilm formation to stress response and surface bound protein. Combining all types of stress did not result in more biofilm formation control; on the contrary, it posed more stress on the fungus and affected the biomass. Ethanol on its own was successively used to control biofilm, which was inhibited in the presence of 2.5% v/v ethanol without affecting the growth. The addition of ethanol also increased the intracellular phenol oxidase activity from 43.2 to 228.43 U/ml. scanning electron microscopy showed that the addition of ethanol resulted in the formation of loose mycelia network as compared to a tight mycelia network in ethanol free cultures. The presence of Yap1p gene, the detection of an oxidized form of glutathione (GSSG) and catalase after ethanol addition all suggest that a stress response might be involved in the

  3. Disinfection Methods for Swimming Pool Water: Byproduct Formation and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Ilyas

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive and critical comparison of 10 disinfection methods of swimming pool water: chlorination, electrochemically generated mixed oxidants (EGMO, ultraviolet (UV irradiation, UV/chlorine, UV/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, UV/H2O2/chlorine, ozone (O3/chlorine, O3/H2O2/chlorine, O3/UV and O3/UV/chlorine for the formation, control and elimination of potentially toxic disinfection byproducts (DBPs: trihalomethanes (THMs, haloacetic acids (HAAs, haloacetonitriles (HANs, trihaloacetaldehydes (THAs and chloramines (CAMs. The statistical comparison is carried out using data on 32 swimming pools accumulated from the reviewed studies. The results indicate that O3/UV and O3/UV/chlorine are the most promising methods, as the concentration of the studied DBPs (THMs and HANs with these methods was reduced considerably compared with chlorination, EGMO, UV irradiation, UV/chlorine and O3/chlorine. However, the concentration of the studied DBPs including HAAs and CAMs remained much higher with O3/chlorine compared with the limits set by the WHO for drinking water quality. Moreover, the enhancement in the formation of THMs, HANs and CH with UV/chlorine compared with UV irradiation and the increase in the level of HANs with O3/UV/chlorine compared with O3/UV indicate the complexity of the combined processes, which should be optimized to control the toxicity and improve the quality of swimming pool water.

  4. Cohesive Motion Control Algorithm for Formation of Multiple Autonomous Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabrata Atta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a motion control strategy for a rigid and constraint consistent formation that can be modeled by a directed graph whose each vertex represents individual agent kinematics and each of directed edges represents distance constraints maintained by an agent, called follower, to its neighbouring agent. A rigid and constraint consistent graph is called persistent graph. A persistent graph is minimally persistent if it is persistent, and no edge can be removed without losing its persistence. An acyclic (free of cycles in its sensing pattern minimally persistent graph of Leader-Follower structure has been considered here which can be constructed from an initial Leader-Follower seed (initial graph with two vertices, one is Leader and another one is First Follower and one edge in between them is directed towards Leader by Henneberg sequence (a procedure of growing a graph containing only vertex additions. A set of nonlinear optimization-based decentralized control laws for mobile autonomous point agents in two dimensional plane have been proposed. An infinitesimal deviation in formation shape created continuous motion of Leader is compensated by corresponding continuous motion of other agents fulfilling the shortest path criteria.

  5. Trichomes and chemical composition of the volatile oil of Trichogonia cinerea (Gardner) R. M. King & H. Rob. (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Yanne S; Trindade, Luma M P; Rezende, Maria Helena; Paula, José R; Gonçalves, Letícia A

    2016-03-01

    Trichogonia cinerea is endemic to Brazil and occurs in areas of cerrado and campo rupestre. In this study, we characterized the glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the aerial parts of this species, determined the principal events in the development of the former, and identified the main constituents of the volatile oil produced in its aerial organs. Fully expanded leaves, internodes, florets, involucral bracts, and stem apices were used for the characterization of trichomes. Leaves, internodes, florets, and involucral bracts were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, whereas stem apices were examined only by light microscopy. Branches in the reproductive phase were used for the extraction and determination of the composition of the volatile oil. The species has three types of glandular trichomes, biseriate vesicular, biseriate pedunculate, and multicellular uniseriate, which secrete volatile oils and phenolic compounds. The major components identified in the volatile oil were 3,5-muuroladiene (39.56%) and butylated hydroxytoluene (13.07%).

  6. Formation and control of plasma potentials in TMX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonen, T.C.; Orzechowski, T.J.; Porkolab, M.; Stallard, B.W.

    1981-05-06

    The methods to be employed to form and control plasma potentials in the TMX Upgrade tandem mirror with thermal barriers are described. ECRH-generated mirror -confined electron plasmas are used to establish a negative potential region to isolate the end-plug and central-cell celectrons. This thermal isolation will allow a higher end-plug electron temperature and an increased central-cell confining potential. Improved axial central-cell ion confinement results since higher temperature central-cell ions can be confined. This paper describes: (1) calculations of the sensitivity of barrier formation to vacuum conditions and to the presence of impurities in the neutral beams, (2) calculations of microwave penetration and absorption used to design the ECRH system, and (3) techniques to limit electron runaway to high energies by localized microwave beams and by relativistic detuning.

  7. Formation and control of plasma potentials in TMX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, T.C.; Orzechowski, T.J.; Porkolab, M.; Stallard, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    The methods to be employed to form and control plasma potentials in the TMX Upgrade tandem mirror with thermal barriers are described. ECRH-generated mirror -confined electron plasmas are used to establish a negative potential region to isolate the end-plug and central-cell celectrons. This thermal isolation will allow a higher end-plug electron temperature and an increased central-cell confining potential. Improved axial central-cell ion confinement results since higher temperature central-cell ions can be confined. This paper describes: (1) calculations of the sensitivity of barrier formation to vacuum conditions and to the presence of impurities in the neutral beams, (2) calculations of microwave penetration and absorption used to design the ECRH system, and (3) techniques to limit electron runaway to high energies by localized microwave beams and by relativistic detuning

  8. Development and Structure of Internal Glands and External Glandular Trichomes in Pogostemon cablin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiansheng; Yuan, Yongming; Liu, Zhixue; Zhu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Pogostemon cablin possesses two morphologically and ontogenetically different types of glandular trichomes, one type of bristle hair on the surfaces of leaves and stems and one type of internal gland inside the leaves and stems. The internal gland originates from elementary meristem and is associated with the biosynthesis of oils present inside the leaves and stems. However, there is little information on mechanism for the oil biosynthesis and secretion inside the leaves and stems. In this study, we identified three kinds of glandular trichome types and two kinds of internal gland in the Pogostemon cablin. The oil secretions from internal glands of stems and leaves contained lipids, flavones and terpenes. Our results indicated that endoplasmic reticulum and plastids and vacuoles are likely involved in the biosynthesis of oils in the internal glands and the synthesized oils are transported from endoplasmic reticulum to the cell wall via connecting endoplasmic reticulum membranes to the plasma membrane. And the comparative analysis of the development, distribution, histochemistry and ultrastructures of the internal and external glands in Pogostemon cablin leads us to propose that the internal gland may be a novel secretory structure which is different from external glands. PMID:24205002

  9. Cloning of a sesquiterpene synthase from Lavandula x intermedia glandular trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Lukman S; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2013-11-01

    The essential oil (EO) of Lavandula is dominated by monoterpenes, but can also contain small amounts of sesquiterpenes, depending on species and environmental conditions. For example, the sesquiterpene 9-epi-caryophyllene can make up to 8 % of the EO in a few species, including those commercially propagated for EO production. Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of 9-epi-caryophyllene synthase (LiCPS) from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia, cv. Grosso. The 1,617 bp open reading frame of LiCPS, which did not encode a transit peptide, was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography. The ca. 60 kDa recombinant protein specifically converted farnesyl diphosphate to 9-epi-caryophyllene. LiCPS also produced a few monoterpenes when assayed with the monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate (GPP), but--unlike most monoterpene synthases--was not able to derive detectable amounts of any products from the cis isomer of GPP, neryl diphosphate. The LiCPS transcripts accumulated in developing L. x intermedia flowers and were highly enriched in glandular trichomes, but were not detected in leaves suggesting that the transcriptional expression of this gene is spatially and developmentally regulated.

  10. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of borneol dehydrogenase from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Lukman S; Galata, Mariana; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2012-12-15

    Several varieties of Lavandula x intermedia (lavandins) are cultivated for their essential oils (EOs) for use in cosmetic, hygiene and personal care products. These EOs are mainly constituted of monoterpenes including camphor, which contributes an off odor reducing the olfactory appeal of the oil. We have recently constructed a cDNA library from the glandular trichomes (the sites of EO synthesis) of L. x intermedia plants. Here, we describe the cloning of a borneol dehydrogenase cDNA (LiBDH) from this library. The 780 bp open reading frame of the cDNA encoded a 259 amino acid short chain alcohol dehydrogenase with a predicted molecular mass of ca. 27.5 kDa. The recombinant LiBDH was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography, and functionally characterized in vitro. The bacterially produced enzyme specifically converted borneol to camphor as the only product with K(m) and k(cat) values of 53 μM and 4.0 × 10(-4) s(-1), respectively. The LiBDH transcripts were specifically expressed in glandular trichomes of mature flowers indicating that like other Lavandula monoterpene synthases the expression of this gene is regulated in a tissue-specific manner. The cloning of LiBDH has far reaching implications in improving the quality of Lavandula EOs through metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Distributed Flight Software Design for Satellite Formation Flying Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mueller, Joseph B; Brito, Margarita

    2003-01-01

    .... Princeton Satellite Systems developed the Formation Flying Module (FFM) for TechSat 21 to provide autonomous reconfiguration, formation keeping,and collision avoidance capabilities to the three-satellite cluster...

  12. Distributed Consensus-Based Robust Adaptive Formation Control for Nonholonomic Mobile Robots with Partial Known Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxia Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the distributed consensus-based robust adaptive formation control for nonholonomic mobile robots with partially known dynamics. Firstly, multirobot formation control problem has been converted into a state consensus problem. Secondly, the practical control strategies, which incorporate the distributed kinematic controllers and the robust adaptive torque controllers, are designed for solving the formation control problem. Thirdly, the specified reference trajectory for the geometric centroid of the formation is assumed as the trajectory of a virtual leader, whose information is available to only a subset of the followers. Finally, numerical results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approaches.

  13. Evolution of oil-producing trichomes in Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae): insights from the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, Olivier; Eggers, Lilian; Raquin, Christian; Silvério, Adriano; Brown, Spencer; Couloux, Arnaud; Cruaud, Corine; Kaltchuk-Santos, Eliane; Yockteng, Roxana; Souza-Chies, Tatiana T.; Nadot, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae: Iridoideae: Sisyrinchieae) is one of the largest, most widespread and most taxonomically complex genera in Iridaceae, with all species except one native to the American continent. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus were investigated and the evolution of oil-producing structures related to specialized oil-bee pollination examined. Methods Phylogenetic analyses based on eight molecular markers obtained from 101 Sisyrinchium accessions representing 85 species were conducted in the first extensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus. Total evidence analyses confirmed the monophyly of the genus and retrieved nine major clades weakly connected to the subdivisions previously recognized. The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis was used to reconstruct biogeographical patterns, and to trace the evolutionary origin of glandular trichomes present in the flowers of several species. Key Results and Conclusions Glandular trichomes evolved three times independently in the genus. In two cases, these glandular trichomes are oil-secreting, suggesting that the corresponding flowers might be pollinated by oil-bees. Biogeographical patterns indicate expansions from Central America and the northern Andes to the subandean ranges between Chile and Argentina and to the extended area of the Paraná river basin. The distribution of oil-flower species across the phylogenetic trees suggests that oil-producing trichomes may have played a key role in the diversification of the genus, a hypothesis that requires future testing. PMID:21527419

  14. Identification and characterization of two bisabolene synthases from linear glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Conrad, Jürgen; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Sunflower is known to produce a variety of bisabolene-type sesquiterpenes and accumulates these substances in trichomes of leaves, stems and flowering parts. A bioinformatics approach was used to identify the enzyme responsible for the initial step in the biosynthesis of these compounds from its precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate. Based on sequence similarity with a known bisabolene synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana AtTPS12, candidate genes of Helianthus were searched in EST-database and used to design specific primers. PCR experiments identified two candidates in the RNA pool of linear glandular trichomes of sunflower. Their sequences contained the typical motifs of sesquiterpene synthases and their expression in yeast functionally characterized them as bisabolene synthases. Spectroscopic analysis identified the stereochemistry of the product of both enzymes as (Z)-γ-bisabolene. The origin of the two sunflower bisabolene synthase genes from the transcripts of linear trichomes indicates that they may be involved in the synthesis of sesquiterpenes produced in these trichomes. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the sunflower bisabolene synthases showed high similarity with sesquiterpene synthases from other Asteracean species and indicated putative evolutionary origin from a β-farnesene synthase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The European wool-carder bee (Anthidium manicatum) eavesdrops on plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during trichome collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kelsey K; Brown, Steve; Clarke, Stephanie; Röse, Ursula S R; Starks, Philip T

    2017-11-01

    The plant-pollinator relationship is generally considered mutualistic. This relationship is less clear, however, when pollinators also cause tissue damage. Some Megachilidae bees collect plant material for nests from the plants they pollinate. In this study, we examined the relationship between Anthidium manicatum, the European wool-carder bee, and the source of its preferred nesting material - Stachys byzantina, lamb's ear. Female A. manicatum use their mandibles to trim trichomes from plants for nesting material (a behaviour dubbed "carding"). Using volatile organic compound (VOC) headspace analysis and behavioural observations, we explored (a) how carding effects S. byzantina and (b) how A. manicatum may choose specific S. byzantina plants. We found that removal of trichomes leads to a dissimilar VOC bouquet compared to intact leaves, with a significant increase in VOC detection following damage. A. manicatum also visit S. byzantina plants with trichomes removed at a greater frequency compared to plants with trichomes intact. Our data suggest that A. manicatum eavesdrop on VOCs produced by damaged plants, leading to more carding damage for individual plants due to increased detectability by A. manicatum. Accordingly, visitation by A. manicatum to S. byzantina may incur both a benefit (pollination) and cost (tissue damage) to the plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Epifluorescence and stereomicroscopy of trichomes associated with resistant and susceptible host plant genotypes of the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifluorescence, light and stereo-microscopy were used to characterize foliar trichomes associated with young flush leaves and stems of six plant genotypes that are hosts of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, vector of the economically important citrus greening disease. These genotypes incl...

  17. A new quantitative classification of ecological types in the bromeliad genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae based on trichomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosti Stefano

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Using collection specimens, we measured the density and wing area of trichomes in 37 species of the bromeliad genus Tillandsia, specifically the abaxial proximal, abaxial distal, adaxial proximal and adaxial distal parts of the leaf. The product of the trichome "wing" area by the number of trichomes (means produced a pure number (T that was correlated to ecological features. The correlation was positive with respect to arid environments (xeric Tillands and negative with respect to humid environments (mesic Tillands. Bulbous, and particularly myrmecophytic species and species with tanks, represented particular categories. Other intermediate types were identified based on the T number, totalling five ecological types. In comparison with other systems of ecological typification for Tillands and other Bromeliaceae, the present system offers measurable data whose analysis is reproducible. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (1: 191-203. Epub 2008 March 31.Medimos el número por milímetro cuadrado y el área del "ala" (parte móvil de los tricomas en las partes adaxial próxima y distal, y adaxial próxima y distal, de la hoja de 37 especies de bromelias del género Tillandsia. El producto del área del ala para el número de los tricomas (promedio produjo un número puro (T. Hallamos que T se correlaciona con las características ecológicas de las tilandsias investigadas. La correlación es positiva con respecto a ambientes áridos (especies xéricas y negativa con respecto a los ambientes húmedos (especies mésicas. Las especies con bulbo, y particularmente las asociadas con hormigas y especies con de tanque representan categorías particulares. Identificamos otros tipos intermedios, agradando así cinco tipos ecológicos. En comparación con otros sistemas de tipificación ecológica, este sistema ofrece la ventaja de ser reproducible y cuantitativo.

  18. The foliar trichomes of Hypoestes aristata (Vahl Sol. ex Roem. & Schult var aristata (Acanthaceae a widespread medicinal plant species in tropical sub-Saharan Africa: with comments on its possible phylogenetic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bhatt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of foliar trichomes of Hypoestes aristata var. aristata was studied using stereo, light and scanning microscopy (SEM. This genus belongs to the advanced angiosperm family Acanthaceae, for which few micromorphological leaf studies exist. Results revealed both glandular and non-glandular trichomes, the latter being more abundant on leaf veins, particularly on the abaxial surface of very young leaves. With leaf maturity, the density of non-glandular trichomes decreased. Glandular trichomes were rare and of two types: long-stalked capitate and globose-like peltate trichomes. Capitate trichomes were observed only on the abaxial leaf surface, while peltate trichomes were distributed on both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces.

  19. Decentralized Formation Flying Control in a Multiple-Team Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Joseph .; Thomas, Stephanie J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the prototype of a system that addresses these objectives-a decentralized guidance and control system that is distributed across spacecraft using a multiple-team framework. The objective is to divide large clusters into teams of manageable size, so that the communication and computational demands driven by N decentralized units are related to the number of satellites in a team rather than the entire cluster. The system is designed to provide a high-level of autonomy, to support clusters with large numbers of satellites, to enable the number of spacecraft in the cluster to change post-launch, and to provide for on-orbit software modification. The distributed guidance and control system will be implemented in an object-oriented style using MANTA (Messaging Architecture for Networking and Threaded Applications). In this architecture, tasks may be remotely added, removed or replaced post-launch to increase mission flexibility and robustness. This built-in adaptability will allow software modifications to be made on-orbit in a robust manner. The prototype system, which is implemented in MATLAB, emulates the object-oriented and message-passing features of the MANTA software. In this paper, the multiple-team organization of the cluster is described, and the modular software architecture is presented. The relative dynamics in eccentric reference orbits is reviewed, and families of periodic, relative trajectories are identified, expressed as sets of static geometric parameters. The guidance law design is presented, and an example reconfiguration scenario is used to illustrate the distributed process of assigning geometric goals to the cluster. Next, a decentralized maneuver planning approach is presented that utilizes linear-programming methods to enact reconfiguration and coarse formation keeping maneuvers. Finally, a method for performing online collision avoidance is discussed, and an example is provided to gauge its performance.

  20. Standard formatted data units-control authority procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to establish a set of minimum and optional requirements for the implementation of Control Authority (CA) organizations within and among the Agencies participating in the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). By satisfying these requirements, the resultant cooperating set of CA organizations will produce a global CA service supporting information transfer with digital data under the Standard Formatted Data Unit (SFDU) concept. This service is primarily accomplished through the registration, permanent archiving, and dissemination of metadata in the form of Metadata Objects (MDO) that assist in the interpretation of data objects received in SFDU form. This Recommendation addresses the responsibilities, services, and interface protocols for a hierarchy of CA organizations. The top level, consisting of the CCSDS Secretariat and its operational agent, is unique and primarily provides a global coordination function. The lower levels are Agency CA organizations that have primary responsibility for the registration, archiving, and dissemination of MDOs. As experience is gained and technology evolves, the CA Procedures will be extended to include enhanced services and their supporting protocols. In particular, it is anticipated that eventually CA organizations will be linked via networks on a global basis, and will provide requestors with online automated access to CA services. While this Recommendation does not preclude such operations, it also does not recommend the specific protocols to be used to ensure global compatibility of these services. These recommendations will be generated as experience is gained.

  1. Inherent-opening-controlled pattern formation in carbon nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiao; Zhou, Jijie J; Sansom, Elijah; Gharib, Morteza; Haur, Sow Chorng

    2007-01-01

    We have introduced inherent openings into densely packed carbon nanotube arrays to study self-organized pattern formation when the arrays undergo a wetting-dewetting treatment from nanotube tips. These inherent openings, made of circular or elongated hollows in nanotube mats, serve as dewetting centres, from where liquid recedes from. As the dewetting centres initiate dry zones and the dry zones expand, surrounding nanotubes are pulled away from the dewetting centres by liquid surface tension. Among short nanotubes, the self-organized patterns are consistent with the shape of the inherent openings, i.e. slender openings lead to elongated trench-like structures, and circular holes result in relatively round nest-like arrangements. Nanotubes in a relatively high mat are more connected, like in an elastic body, than those in a short mat. Small cracks often initialize themselves in a relatively high mat, along two or more adjacent round openings; each of the cracks evolves into a trench as liquid dries up. Self-organized pattern control with inherent openings needs to initiate the dewetting process above the nanotube tips. If there is no liquid on top, inherent openings barely enlarge themselves after the wetting-dewetting treatment

  2. Evolution of a flipped pathway creates metabolic innovation in tomato trichomes through BAHD enzyme promiscuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Pengxiang; Miller, Abigail M; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Jones, A Daniel; Last, Robert L

    2017-12-12

    Plants produce hundreds of thousands of structurally diverse specialized metabolites via multistep biosynthetic networks, including compounds of ecological and therapeutic importance. These pathways are restricted to specific plant groups, and are excellent systems for understanding metabolic evolution. Tomato and other plants in the nightshade family synthesize protective acylated sugars in the tip cells of glandular trichomes on stems and leaves. We describe a metabolic innovation in wild tomato species that contributes to acylsucrose structural diversity. A small number of amino acid changes in two acylsucrose acyltransferases alter their acyl acceptor preferences, resulting in reversal of their order of reaction and increased product diversity. This study demonstrates how small numbers of amino acid changes in multiple pathway enzymes can lead to diversification of specialized metabolites in plants. It also highlights the power of a combined genetic, genomic and in vitro biochemical approach to identify the evolutionary mechanisms leading to metabolic novelty.

  3. Backstepping Based Formation Control of Quadrotors with the State Transformation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun Uk Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a backstepping-based formation control of quadrotors with the state transformation technique is proposed. First, the dynamics of a quadrotor is derived by using the Newton–Euler formulation. Next, a backstepping-based formation control for quadrotors using a state transformation technique is presented. In the position control, which is the basis of formation control, it is possible to derive the reference attitude angles employing a state transformation technique without the small angle assumption or the simplified dynamics usually used. Stability analysis based on the Lyapunov theorem shows that the proposed formation controller can provide a quadrotor formation error system that is asymptotically stabilized. Finally, we verify the performance of the proposed formation control method through comparison simulations.

  4. Real Time Control Software for Electromagnetic Formation Flight, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the focus of space system architectures changes from single, to multiple, and eventually to many spacecraft flying in formation, a greater demand on total...

  5. Formation Learning Control of Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicles With Heterogeneous Nonlinear Uncertain Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chengzhi; Licht, Stephen; He, Haibo

    2017-09-26

    In this paper, a new concept of formation learning control is introduced to the field of formation control of multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), which specifies a joint objective of distributed formation tracking control and learning/identification of nonlinear uncertain AUV dynamics. A novel two-layer distributed formation learning control scheme is proposed, which consists of an upper-layer distributed adaptive observer and a lower-layer decentralized deterministic learning controller. This new formation learning control scheme advances existing techniques in three important ways: 1) the multi-AUV system under consideration has heterogeneous nonlinear uncertain dynamics; 2) the formation learning control protocol can be designed and implemented by each local AUV agent in a fully distributed fashion without using any global information; and 3) in addition to the formation control performance, the distributed control protocol is also capable of accurately identifying the AUVs' heterogeneous nonlinear uncertain dynamics and utilizing experiences to improve formation control performance. Extensive simulations have been conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  6. The role of NNH in NO formation and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Harding, Lawrence B.; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    One of the remaining issues in our understanding of nitrogen chemistry in combustion is the chemistry of NNH. This species is known as a key intermediate in Thermal DeNOx, where NH3 is used as a reducing agent for selective non-catalytic reduction of NO. In addition, NNH has been proposed to faci...... potential energy surfaces using methods previously developed by Miller, Klippenstein, Harding, and their co-workers. Their impact on Thermal DeNOx and the NNH mechanism for NO formation is investigated in detail....... to facilitate formation of NO from thermal fixation of molecular nitrogen through the so-called NNH mechanism. The importance of NNH for formation and reduction of NO depends on its thermal stability and its major consumption channels. In the present work, we study reactions on the NNH+O, NNH+O2, and NH2+O2...

  7. Negative ion 'chip-based' nanospray tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of flavonoids in glandular trichomes of Lychnophora ericoides Mart. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Gates, Paul J; Lopes, Norberto P

    2008-12-01

    This paper reports a method for the analysis of secondary metabolites stored in glandular trichomes, employing negative ion 'chip-based' nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. The analyses of glandular trichomes from Lychnophora ericoides, a plant endemic to the Brazilian 'cerrado' and used in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent, led to the identification of five flavonoids (chrysin, pinocembrin, pinostrobin, pinobanksin and 3-O-acetylpinobanksin) by direct infusion of the extracts of glandular trichomes into the nanospray ionisation source. All the flavonoids have no oxidation at ring B, which resulted in a modification of the fragmentation pathways compared with that of the oxidised 3,4-dihydroflavonoids already described in the literature. The absence of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant di-C-glucosylflavone vicenin-2, or any other flavonoid glycosides, in the glandular trichomes was also demonstrated. The use of the 'chip-based' nanospray QqTOF apparatus is a new fast and useful tool for the identification of secondary metabolites stored in the glandular trichomes, which can be useful for chemotaxonomic studies based on metabolites from glandular trichomes.

  8. Geologic Controls of Sand Boil Formation at Buck Chute, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    26 5.1 Electrical resistivity tomography ...construction at Buck Chute in preparation to the 2011 Flood. ERDC/GSL TR-17-12 21 4 Methods 4.1 Electrical resistivity tomography The resistivity ...could contribute to sand boil formation is missed. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) is a subsurface investigation method that combines the

  9. Road-Following Formation Control of Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro; Droge, Greg; Grip, Havard; Toupet, Olivier; Scrapper, Chris; Rahmani, Amir

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a novel cooperative path planning for formation keeping robots traversing along a road with obstacles and possible narrow passages. A unique challenge in this problem is a requirement for spatial and temporal coordination between vehicles while ensuring collision and obstacle avoidance.

  10. Circuit Formation by Spatio-Temporal Control of Messenger RNA ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The connections inside the brain need to be wired in a precise manner during development to ensure its proper function. This project will provide insight into circuit formation to help us understand how axon regeneration can improve clinical outcomes. Brain wiring, damage, and developmental defects Researchers have ...

  11. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafieian, Damon; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Savenije, T.J.; Lammertink, Rob G H

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon

  12. Observer enhanced control for spin-stabilized tethered formation in earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang, Zhai; Yuyang, Li; Liang, Bin

    2018-04-01

    This paper addresses the issues relevant to control of spin-stabilized tethered formation in circular orbit. Due to the dynamic complexities and nonlinear perturbations, it is challenging to promote the control precision for the formation deployment and maintenance. In this work, the formation dynamics are derived with considering the spinning rate of the central body, then major attention is dedicated to develop the nonlinear disturbance observer. To achieve better control performance, the observer-enhanced controller is designed by incorporating the disturbance observer into the control loop, benefits from the disturbance compensation are demonstrated, and also, the dependences of the disturbance observer performance on some important parameters are theoretically and numerically analyzed.

  13. Trichomes of tobacco excrete zinc as zinc-substituted calcium carbonate and other zinc-containing compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarret, G.; Harada, E.; Choi, Y-E.; Isaure, M.-P.; Geoffroy, N.; Fakra, S.; Marcus, M.A.; Birschwilks, M.; Clemens, S.; Manceau, A.

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi) plants were exposed to toxic levels of zinc (Zn). Zn exposure resulted in toxicity signs in plants, and these damages were partly reduced by a calcium (Ca) supplement. Confocal imaging of intracellular Zn using Zinquin showed that Zn was preferentially accumulated in trichomes. Exposure to Zn and Zn + Ca increased the trichome density and induced the production of Ca/Zn mineral grains on the head cells of trichomes. These grains were aggregates of submicrometer-sized crystals and poorly crystalline material and contained Ca as major element, along with subordinate amounts of Zn, manganese, potassium, chlorine, phosphorus, silicon, and magnesium. Micro x-ray diffraction revealed that the large majority of the grains were composed essentially of metal-substituted calcite (CaCO3). CaCO3 polymorphs (aragonite and vaterite) and CaC2O4 (Ca oxalate) mono- and dihydrate also were identified, either as an admixture to calcite or in separate grains. Some grains did not diffract, although they contained Ca, suggesting the presence of amorphous form of Ca. The presence of Zn-substituted calcite was confirmed by Zn K-edge micro-extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Zn bound to organic compounds and Zn-containing silica and phosphate were also identified by this technique. The proportion of Zn-substituted calcite relative to the other species increased with Ca exposure. The production of Zn-containing biogenic calcite and other Zn compounds through the trichomes is a novel mechanism involved in Zn detoxification. This study illustrates the potential of laterally resolved x-ray synchrotron radiation techniques to study biomineralization and metal homeostasis processes in plants

  14. Adaptive Fuzzy Output Regulation for Formation Control of Unmanned Surface Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shaobao; Er, Meng Joo; Wang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the formation control problem of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) is investigated. Unlike the classical formation control problem where the reference signal is required to be second-order differentiable with respect to time, we consider a more general autonomous dynamic system...

  15. Formation Flight Control System for In-Flight Sweet Spot Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brodecki, M.; Subbarao, K.; Chu, Q.P.

    2013-01-01

    A formation flight control system has been designed that addresses the unique environment encountered by aircraft flying in formation and in the upwash of the leading aircraft. In order to test the control system a simulation environment has been created that adequately represents the aerodynamic

  16. Computer Vision for High-Throughput Quantitative Phenotyping: A Case Study of Grapevine Downy Mildew Sporulation and Leaf Trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divilov, Konstantin; Wiesner-Hanks, Tyr; Barba, Paola; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Reisch, Bruce I

    2017-12-01

    Quantitative phenotyping of downy mildew sporulation is frequently used in plant breeding and genetic studies, as well as in studies focused on pathogen biology such as chemical efficacy trials. In these scenarios, phenotyping a large number of genotypes or treatments can be advantageous but is often limited by time and cost. We present a novel computational pipeline dedicated to estimating the percent area of downy mildew sporulation from images of inoculated grapevine leaf discs in a manner that is time and cost efficient. The pipeline was tested on images from leaf disc assay experiments involving two F 1 grapevine families, one that had glabrous leaves (Vitis rupestris B38 × 'Horizon' [RH]) and another that had leaf trichomes (Horizon × V. cinerea B9 [HC]). Correlations between computer vision and manual visual ratings reached 0.89 in the RH family and 0.43 in the HC family. Additionally, we were able to use the computer vision system prior to sporulation to measure the percent leaf trichome area. We estimate that an experienced rater scoring sporulation would spend at least 90% less time using the computer vision system compared with the manual visual method. This will allow more treatments to be phenotyped in order to better understand the genetic architecture of downy mildew resistance and of leaf trichome density. We anticipate that this computer vision system will find applications in other pathosystems or traits where responses can be imaged with sufficient contrast from the background.

  17. Identifying three ecological chemotypes of Xanthium strumarium glandular trichomes using a combined NMR and LC-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangfang; Hao, Fuhua; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Lu, Dayan; Gong, Fujun; Tang, Huiru; Zhang, Yansheng

    2013-01-01

    Xanthanolides, as the sesquiterpene lactones, are reportedly the major components for the pharmacological properties of X. strumarium L. species. Phytochemical studies indicated that the glandular structures on the surface of plant tissues would form the primary sites for the accumulation of this class of the compounds. As the interface between plants and their natural enemies, glandular trichomes may vary with respect to which of their chemicals are sequestered against different herbivores in different ecologies. However, to date, no data are available on the chemical characterisation of X. strumarium glandular cells. In this study, the trichome secretions of the X. strumarium species originating from nineteen unique areas across eleven provinces in China, were analysed by HPLC, LC-ESI-MS and NMR. For the first time three distinct chemotypes of X. strumarium glandular trichomes were discovered along with the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of their presence of xanthanolides; these were designated glandular cell Types I, II, and III, respectively. The main xanthanolides in Type I cells were 8-epi-xanthatin and xanthumin while no xanthatin was detected. Xanthatin, 8-epi-xanthatin, and xanthumin dominated in Type II cells with comparable levels of each being present. For Type III cells, significantly higher concentrations of 8-epi-xanthatin or xanthinosin (relative to xanthatin) were detected with xanthinosin only being observed in this type. Further research will focus on understanding the ecological and molecular mechanism causing these chemotype differences in X. strumarium glandular structures.

  18. Identifying three ecological chemotypes of Xanthium strumarium glandular trichomes using a combined NMR and LC-MS method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Chen

    Full Text Available Xanthanolides, as the sesquiterpene lactones, are reportedly the major components for the pharmacological properties of X. strumarium L. species. Phytochemical studies indicated that the glandular structures on the surface of plant tissues would form the primary sites for the accumulation of this class of the compounds. As the interface between plants and their natural enemies, glandular trichomes may vary with respect to which of their chemicals are sequestered against different herbivores in different ecologies. However, to date, no data are available on the chemical characterisation of X. strumarium glandular cells. In this study, the trichome secretions of the X. strumarium species originating from nineteen unique areas across eleven provinces in China, were analysed by HPLC, LC-ESI-MS and NMR. For the first time three distinct chemotypes of X. strumarium glandular trichomes were discovered along with the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of their presence of xanthanolides; these were designated glandular cell Types I, II, and III, respectively. The main xanthanolides in Type I cells were 8-epi-xanthatin and xanthumin while no xanthatin was detected. Xanthatin, 8-epi-xanthatin, and xanthumin dominated in Type II cells with comparable levels of each being present. For Type III cells, significantly higher concentrations of 8-epi-xanthatin or xanthinosin (relative to xanthatin were detected with xanthinosin only being observed in this type. Further research will focus on understanding the ecological and molecular mechanism causing these chemotype differences in X. strumarium glandular structures.

  19. Trichomes and chemical composition of the volatile oil of Trichogonia cinerea (Gardner R. M. King & H. Rob. (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANNE S. FERNANDES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Trichogonia cinerea is endemic to Brazil and occurs in areas of cerrado and campo rupestre. In this study, we characterized the glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the aerial parts of this species, determined the principal events in the development of the former, and identified the main constituents of the volatile oil produced in its aerial organs. Fully expanded leaves, internodes, florets, involucral bracts, and stem apices were used for the characterization of trichomes. Leaves, internodes, florets, and involucral bracts were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, whereas stem apices were examined only by light microscopy. Branches in the reproductive phase were used for the extraction and determination of the composition of the volatile oil. The species has three types of glandular trichomes, biseriate vesicular, biseriate pedunculate, and multicellular uniseriate, which secrete volatile oils and phenolic compounds. The major components identified in the volatile oil were 3,5-muuroladiene (39.56% and butylated hydroxytoluene (13.07%.

  20. Robot Formations Using Only Local Sensing and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredslund, Jakob; Matarić, Maja J

    2001-01-01

    , behaviorbased algorithm that solves the problem for N robots each equipped with sonar, laser, camera, and a radio link for communicating with other robots. The method uses the idea of keeping a single friend at a desired angle (by panning the camera and keeping the friend centered in the image), and only......We study the problem of achieving global behavior in a group of robots using only local sensing and interaction, in the context of formations, where the goal is to have N mobile robots establish and maintain some predetermined geometric shape. We have devised a simple, general, robust, localized...... communicating heartbeat messages. We also developed a general analytical method for evaluating formations and applied it to our algorithm. We validate our algorithm both in simulation and with physical robots....

  1. Integral sliding mode-based formation control of multiple unertain robots via nonlinear disturbane observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianwei Qian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a control scheme for formation of maneuvers of a team of mobile robots. The control scheme integrates the integral sliding mode control method with the nonlinear disturbance observer technique. The leader–follower formation dynamics suffer from uncertainties originated from the individual robots. The uncertainties challenge the formation control of such robots. Assuming that the uncertainties are unknown but bounded, an nonlinear disturbance observer-based observer is utilized to approximate them. The observer outputs feed on an integral sliding mode control-based controller. The controller and observer are integrated into the control scheme to realize formation maneuvers despite uncertainties. The formation stability is analyzed by means of the Lyapunov’s theorem. In the sense of Lyapunov, not only the convergence of the approximation errors is guaranteed but also such a control scheme can asymptotically stabilize the formation system. Compared to the results by the sole integral sliding mode control, some simulations are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the control scheme.

  2. Decentralized Receding Horizon Control and Coordination of Autonomous Vehicle Formations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keviczky, T.; Borelli, F.; Fregene, K.; Godbole, D.; Bals, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a novel methodology for high-level control and coordination of autonomous vehicle teams and its demonstration on high-fidelity models of the organic air vehicle developed at Honeywell Laboratories. The scheme employs decentralized receding horizon controllers

  3. Communication Dependent Control of Multi-Vehicle Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-11

    On Maximizing the Second Smallest Eigen- value of a State-Dependent Graph Laplacian,” IEEE Transactions on Au- tomatic Control, vol. 51, no. 1, pp...Collective Motion With Limited Communication,” IEEE Transactions on Au- tomatic Control, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 706–719, 2008. [Online]. Available: http

  4. Unsteady Landscapes: Climatic and Tectonic Controls on Fluvial Terrace Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clubb, F. J.; Mudd, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Fluvial terraces are common landforms throughout mountainous regions which represent abandoned remnants of active river systems and their floodplains. The formation of these landforms points to a fundamental unsteadiness in the incision rate of the fluvial network, providing important information on channel response to climatic, tectonic, and base-level forcing, sediment storage and dynamics within mountainous systems, and the relative importance of lateral and vertical incision rates. In his 1877 Report on the Geology of the Henry Mountains, G.K. Gilbert suggested that strath terraces may form due to climatically-driven increase in sediment supply, causing armouring of the channel bed and hindering vertical incision. An alternative hypothesis suggests that strath terraces may be preserved through progressive tectonic uplift or base-level fall. These different formation mechanisms should result in varying distribution of terrace elevations along channels: if terraces are formed through climate-driven variations in sediment supply, we might expect that terrace elevations would be random, whereas progressive fluvial incision should result in a series of terraces with a systematic elevation pattern. Here we test alternative hypotheses for strath terrace formation using a new method for objectively and rapidly identifying terrace surfaces from digital elevation models (DEMs) over large spatial scales. Our new method identifies fluvial terraces using their gradient and elevation compared to the modern channel, thresholds of which are statistically calculated from the DEM and do not need to be set manually by the user. We use this method to extract fluvial terraces for every major river along the coast of California, and quantify their distribution and elevation along the fluvial long profile. Our results show that there is no systematic pattern in terrace elevations despite a well-constrained spatial variation in uplift rates, suggesting that terraces in this region do

  5. Volatiles and Nonvolatiles in Flourensia campestris Griseb. (Asteraceae), How Much Do Capitate Glandular Trichomes Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Leonardo A; López, Daniela; Silva, Mariana P; López Rivilli, Marisa J; Tourn, Mónica G; Cantero, Juan J; Scopel, Ana L

    2018-03-01

    The distribution and ultrastructure of capitate glandular trichomes (GTs) in Flourensia species (Asteraceae) have been recently elucidated, but their metabolic activity and potential biological function remain unexplored. Selective nonvolatile metabolites from isolated GTs were strikingly similar to those found on leaf surfaces. The phytotoxic allelochemical sesquiterpene (-)-hamanasic acid A ((-)-HAA) was the major constituent (ca. 40%) in GTs. Although GTs are quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs)-accumulating species, glycine betaine was not found in GTs; it was only present in the leaf mesophyll. Two (-)-HAA accompanying surface secreted products: compounds 4-hydroxyacetophenone (piceol; 1) and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxyacetophenone (2), which were isolated and fully characterized (GC/MS, NMR), were present in the volatiles found in GTs. The essential oils of fresh leaves revealed ca. 33% monoterpenes, 26% hydrocarbon- and 30% oxygenated sesquiterpenes, most of them related to cadinene and bisabolene derivatives. Present results suggest a main role of GTs in determining the volatile and nonvolatile composition of F. campestris leaves. Based on the known activities of the compounds identified, it can be suggested that GTs in F. campestris would play key ecological functions in plant-pathogen and plant-plant interactions. In addition, the strikingly high contribution of compounds derived from cadinene and bisabolene pathways, highlights the potential of this species as a source of high-valued bioproducts. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  6. Glandular trichomes in Connarus suberosus (Connaraceae: distribution, structural organization and probable functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Donizete Denardi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Connarus suberosus is a typical species of the Brazilian Cerrado biome, and its inflorescences and young vegetative branches are densely covered by dendritic trichomes. The objective of this study was to report the occurrence of a previously undescribed glandular trichome of this species. The localization, origin and structure of these trichomes were investigated under light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Collections were made throughout the year, from five adult specimens of Connarus suberosus near Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, including vegetative and reproductive apices, leaves and fruits in different developmental stages, as well as floral buds and flowers at anthesis. Glandular trichomes (GTs occurred on vegetative and reproductive organs during their juvenile stages. The GTs consisted of a uniseriate, multicellular peduncle, whose cells contain phenolic compounds, as well as a multicellular glandular portion that accumulates lipids. The glandular cell has thin wall, dense cytoplasm (with many mitochondria, plastids and dictyosomes, and a large nucleus with a visible nucleolus. The starch present in the plastids was hydrolyzed during the synthesis phase, reducing the density of the plastid stroma. Some plastids were fused to vacuoles, and some evidence suggested the conversion of plastids into vacuoles. During the final activity stages of the GTs, a darkening of the protoplasm was observed in some of the glandular cells, as a programmed cell death; afterwards, became caducous. The GTs in C. suberosus had a temporal restriction, being limited to the juvenile phase of the organs. Their presence on the exposed surfaces of developing organs and the chemical nature of the reserve products, suggest that these structures are food bodies. Field observations and detailed studies of plant-environment interactions, as well as chemical analysis of the reserve compounds, are still necessary to confirm the role of these GTs as feeding

  7. Distributed Control Architectures for Precision Spacecraft Formations, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LaunchPoint Technologies, Inc. (LaunchPoint) proposes to develop synthesis methods and design architectures for distributed control systems in precision spacecraft...

  8. Formation of the controlling mechanism in the management of innovative development of enterprise potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрій Анатолійович Пилипенко

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the guidelines for the formation of the controlling mechanism in the activation cycles of innovative activities and the formation of the development programs of the enterprise potential. It is offered understanding the development potential and proved grouping of controlled performance, taking into account the level of innovation ability of the enterprise. It is presented the strategic matrix of determining the composition of performance, determination of monitoring parameters and aspects of controlling mechanism

  9. Dioxin formation and control in a gasification-melting plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Katsuya; Miyata, Haruo

    2015-10-01

    We investigated dioxin formation and removal in a commercial thermal waste treatment plant employing a gasification and melting process that has become widespread in the last decade in Japan. The aim was to clarify the possibility of dioxin formation in a process operation at high temperatures and the applicability of catalytic decomposition of dioxins. Also, the possible use of dioxin surrogate compounds for plant monitoring was further evaluated. The main test parameter was the influence of changes in the amount and type of municipal solid waste (MSW) supplied to the thermal waste treatment plant which from day to day operation is a relevant parameter also from commercial perspective. Here especially, the plastic content on dioxin release was assessed. The following conclusions were reached: (1) disturbance of combustion by adding plastic waste above the capability of the system resulted in a considerable increase in dioxin content of the flue gas at the inlet of the bag house and (2) bag filter equipment incorporating a catalytic filter effectively reduced the gaseous dioxin content below the standard of 0.1 ng toxic equivalency (TEQ)/m(3) N, by decomposition and partly adsorption, as was revealed by total dioxin mass balance and an increased levels in the fly ash. Also, the possible use of organohalogen compounds as dioxin surrogate compounds for plant monitoring was further evaluated. The levels of these surrogates did not exceed values corresponding to 0.1 ng TEQ/m(3) N dioxins established from former tests. This further substantiated that surrogate measurement therefore can well reflect dioxin levels.

  10. Multi-UAVs Formation Autonomous Control Method Based on RQPSO-FSM-DMPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-lei Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For various threats in the enemy defense area, in order to achieve covert penetration and implement effective combat against enemy, the unmanned aerial vehicles formation needs to be reconfigured in the process of penetration; the mutual collision avoidance problems and communication constraint problems among the formation also need to be considered. By establishing the virtual-leader formation model, this paper puts forward distributed model predictive control and finite state machine formation manager. Combined with distributed cooperative strategy establishing the formation reconfiguration cost function, this paper proposes that adopting the revised quantum-behaved particle swarm algorithm solves the cost function, and it is compared with the result which is solved by particle swarm algorithm. Simulation result shows that this algorithm can control multiple UAVs formation autonomous reconfiguration effectively and achieve covert penetration safely.

  11. Coordinated Formation Control of Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicles for Pipeline Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbo Xiang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the control problem of inspecting underwater pipeline on the seabed, with coordinated multiple autonomous underwater vehicles in a formation. Based on the leader-follower strategy, the dedicated nonlinear path following controller is rigorously built on Lyapunov-based design, driving a fleet of vehicles onto assigned parallel paths elevated and offset from the underwater pipeline, while keeping a triangle formation to capture complete 3D images for inspection. Due to the spatial-temporal decoupling characteristics of individual path following controller, the velocities of the followers can be adapted in the coordinated control level, only relying on the information of generalized along-path length from the leader, in order to build the desired formation. Thus, the communication variable broadcast from the leader is kept to a minimum, which is feasible under the severely constraints of acoustic communication bandwidth. Simulation results illustrate the efficiency of coordinated formation controller proposed for underwater pipeline inspection.

  12. Standard formatted data units-control authority operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to illustrate a Control Authority's (CA) possible operation. The document is an interpretation and expansion of the concept found in the CA Procedures Recommendation. The CA is described in terms of the functions it performs for the management and control of data descriptions (metadata). Functions pertaining to the organization of Member Agency Control Authority Offices (MACAOs) (e.g., creating and disbanding) are not discussed. The document also provides an illustrative operational view of a CA through scenarios describing interaction between those roles involved in collecting, controlling, and accessing registered metadata. The roles interacting with the CA are identified by their actions in requesting and responding to requests for metadata, and by the type of information exchanged. The scenarios and examples presented in this document are illustrative only. They represent possible interactions supported by either a manual or automated system. These scenarios identify requirements for an automated system. These requirements are expressed by identifying the information to be exchanged and the services that may be provided by a CA for that exchange.

  13. The formation of nuclear export control in Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibov, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The controlling process of exporting and importing on Azerbaijan borders is being carried out by two state organizations. 1.Border Guard Department; 2.Azerbaijan State Customs Committee. The officers of these organizations have no enough necessary experience and knowledge dealing with the legal and illegal trafficking. There were not special educational institutions in order to train personals for both of these organizations made newly. So there's difference between the professions of the majority of the employees, that's why some of the employees follow the instructions linking to the normative documents while passing the border. When trafficking nuclear and dual-use items officially the controller and other employees should look through the list of all and know them how to behave and to make official, the characteristic parameters of the materials, and the instruction of monitoring. In order to realize all works pointed, the employees of Border Guard Department and Customs Control Check Points have to attend special courses. The employees of both organizations are frequently changed that's why studying courses are to be organized. The analysis of studying considered that will be realized shows mainly there may be two student groups. Mainly, the Institute of Radiation Problems of ANAS (Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences) as the expert laboratory takes part in. On the borders of Azerbaijan Republic the dual-use items and equipment having the type of isotope sources being utilized in the technological process are mainly being transported. In the materials presented the results and the solution of the problems dealing with realizing the controlling expert system of nuclear materials in the existing control checkpoints due to the international standards have been given

  14. Hydrodynamic and sedimentological controls governing formation of fluvial levees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, G. H.; Edmonds, D. A.; David, S. R.; Czuba, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Fluvial levees are familiar features found on the margins of river channels, yet we know little about what controls their presence, height, and shape. These attributes of levees are important because they control sediment transfer from channel to floodplain and flooding patterns along a river system. Despite the familiarity and importance of levees, there is a surprising lack of basic geomorphic data on fluvial levees. Because of this we seek to understand: 1) where along rivers do levees tend to occur?; 2) what geomorphic and hydrodynamic variables control cross-sectional shape of levees? We address these questions by extracting levee shape from LiDAR data and by collecting hydrodynamic and sedimentological data from reaches of the Tippecanoe River, the White River, and the Muscatatuck River, Indiana, USA. Fluvial levees are extracted from a 1.5-m resolution LiDAR bare surface model and compared to hydrological, sedimentological, and geomorphological data from USGS stream gages. We digitized banklines and extracted levee cross-sections to calculate levee slope, taper, height, e-folding length, and e-folding width. To answer the research questions, we performed a multivariable regression between the independent variables—channel geometry, sediment grain size and concentration, flooding conditions, and slope—and the dependent levee variables. We find considerable variation in levee presence and shape in our field data. On the Muscatatuck River levees occur on 30% of the banks compared to 10% on the White River. Moreover, levees on the Muscatatuck are on average 3 times wider than the White River. This is consistent with the observation that the Muscatatuck is finer-grained compared to the White River and points to sedimentology being an important control on levee geomorphology. Future work includes building a morphodynamic model to understand how different hydrodynamic and geomorphic conditions control levee geometry.

  15. Controlled formation of metallic nanowires via Au nanoparticle ac trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, L; Calame, M; Molen, S J van der; Liao, J; Schoenenberger, C

    2007-01-01

    Applying ac voltages, we trapped gold nanoparticles between micro-fabricated electrodes under well-defined conditions. We demonstrate that the nanoparticles can be controllably fused together to form homogeneous gold nanowires with pre-defined diameters and conductance values. Whereas electromigration is known to form a gap when a dc voltage is applied, this ac technique achieves the opposite, thereby completing the toolkit for the fabrication of nanoscale junctions

  16. Controlled formation of metallic nanowires via Au nanoparticle ac trapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, L; Calame, M; Molen, S J van der; Liao, J; Schoenenberger, C [Institute of Physics, University of Basel, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2007-06-13

    Applying ac voltages, we trapped gold nanoparticles between micro-fabricated electrodes under well-defined conditions. We demonstrate that the nanoparticles can be controllably fused together to form homogeneous gold nanowires with pre-defined diameters and conductance values. Whereas electromigration is known to form a gap when a dc voltage is applied, this ac technique achieves the opposite, thereby completing the toolkit for the fabrication of nanoscale junctions.

  17. Controlled electrosprayed formation of non-spherical microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyhani, Morteza; Mak, Sze Yi; Sammut, Stephen; Shum, Ho Cheung; Hwang, Dae Kun; Tsai, Scott S. H.

    2017-11-01

    Fabrication of biocompatible microparticles, such as alginate particles, with the possibility of controlling the particles' morphology in a high-throughput manner, is essential for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Even though the shape of alginate particles has been shown to be an important parameter in controlling drug delivery, there are very limited manufacturing methods to produce non-spherical alginate microparticles in a high-throughput fashion. Here, we present a system that generates non-spherical biocompatible alginate microparticles with a tunable size and shape, and at high-throughput, using an electrospray technique. Alginate solution, which is a highly biocompatible material, is flown through a needle using a constant flow rate syringe pump. The alginate phase is connected to a high-voltage power supply to charge it positively. There is a metallic ring underneath the needle that is charged negatively. The applied voltage creates an electric field that forces the dispensing droplets to pass through the metallic ring toward the collection bath. During this migration, droplets break up to smaller droplets to dissipate their energy. When the droplets reach the calcium chloride bath, polymerization happens and solidifies the droplets. We study the effects of changing the distance from the needle to the bath, and the concentration of calcium chloride in the bath, to control the size and the shape of the resulting microparticles.

  18. Monitoring Metabolite Profiles of Cannabis sativa L. Trichomes during Flowering Period Using 1H NMR-Based Metabolomics and Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happyana, Nizar; Kayser, Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Cannabis sativa trichomes are glandular structures predominantly responsible for the biosynthesis of cannabinoids, the biologically active compounds unique to this plant. To the best of our knowledge, most metabolomic works on C. sativa that have been reported previously focused their investigations on the flowers and leaves of this plant. In this study, (1)H NMR-based metabolomics and real-time PCR analysis were applied for monitoring the metabolite profiles of C. sativa trichomes, variety Bediol, during the last 4 weeks of the flowering period. Partial least squares discriminant analysis models successfully classified metabolites of the trichomes based on the harvest time. Δ (9)-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (1) and cannabidiolic acid (2) constituted the vital differential components of the organic preparations, while asparagine, glutamine, fructose, and glucose proved to be their water-extracted counterparts. According to RT-PCR analysis, gene expression levels of olivetol synthase and olivetolic acid cyclase influenced the accumulation of cannabinoids in the Cannabis trichomes during the monitoring time. Moreover, quantitative (1)H NMR and RT-PCR analysis of the Cannabis trichomes suggested that the gene regulation of cannabinoid biosynthesis in the C. sativa variety Bediol is unique when compared with other C. sativa varieties. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Substrate Lattice-Guided Seed Formation Controls the Orientation of 2D Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Aljarb, Areej; Cao, Zhen; Tang, Hao-Ling; Huang, Jing-Kai; Li, Mengliu; Hu, Weijin; Cavallo, Luigi; Li, Lain-Jong

    2017-01-01

    affecting the seed formation and orientation becomes an important issue for controlling the growth. Here, we systematically study the growth of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) monolayer on c-plane sapphire with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to discover

  20. Controlling public speaking jitters: making the butterflies fly in formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Hannah; Baum, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Nearly every person who has been asked to give a speech or who has volunteered to make a presentation to a group of strangers develops fear and anxiety prior to the presentation. Most of us, the authors included, start hyperventilating, our pulse quickens, and we feel a little weak in the knees. We grab the lectern and our knuckles turn white as we hold on for dear life. This is a normal response that everyone experiences. However, this stress can be controlled and made manageable by understanding the stress response cycle and practicing a few techniques that calm those butterflies flying around in the pit of your stomach.

  1. Control analysis as a tool to understand the formation of the las operon in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Købmann, Brian Jensen; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2005-01-01

    control on glycolysis and growth rate but high negative control on formate production. We find that PFK and PK have zero control on glycolysis and growth rate at the wildtype enzyme level but both enzymes exert strong positive control on the glycolytic flux at reduced activities. PK has high positive...... coefficient increased towards 3. Increased las expression resulted in a slight decrease in the glycolytic flux. At the wildtype level the control was close to zero on both glycolysis and the pyruvate branches. The sum of control coefficients for the three enzymes individually was comparable to the control...... coefficient found for the entire operon; the strong positive control by PK almost cancels out the negative control by LDH on formate production. The analysis suggests that co-regulation of PFK and PK provides a very efficient way to regulate glycolysis, and co-regulating PK and LDH allows the cells...

  2. Controlled electroplating and electromigration in nickel electrodes for nanogap formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Los Santos Valladares, Luis; Mitrelias, Thanos; Sfigakis, Francois; Barnes, Crispin H W [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Leon Felix, Lizbet; Bustamante Dominguez, Angel [Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Ap. Postal 14-0149, Lima (Peru); Khondaker, Saiful I [NanoScience Technology Center and Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); Majima, Yutaka, E-mail: ld301@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: luisitodv@yahoo.es [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2010-11-05

    We report the fabrication of nickel nanospaced electrodes by electroplating and electromigration for nanoelectronic devices. Using a conventional electrochemical cell, nanogaps can be obtained by controlling the plating time alone and after a careful optimization of electrodeposition parameters such as electrolyte bath, applied potential, cleaning, etc. During the process, the gap width decreases exponentially with time until the electrode gaps are completely bridged. Once the bridge is formed, the ex situ electromigration technique can reopen the nanogap. When the gap is {approx} 1 nm, tunneling current-voltage characterization shows asymmetry which can be corrected by an external magnetic field. This suggests that charge transfer in the nickel electrodes depends on the orientation of magnetic moments.

  3. Controlled electroplating and electromigration in nickel electrodes for nanogap formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Los Santos Valladares, Luis; Mitrelias, Thanos; Sfigakis, Francois; Barnes, Crispin H W; Leon Felix, Lizbet; Bustamante Dominguez, Angel; Khondaker, Saiful I; Majima, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    We report the fabrication of nickel nanospaced electrodes by electroplating and electromigration for nanoelectronic devices. Using a conventional electrochemical cell, nanogaps can be obtained by controlling the plating time alone and after a careful optimization of electrodeposition parameters such as electrolyte bath, applied potential, cleaning, etc. During the process, the gap width decreases exponentially with time until the electrode gaps are completely bridged. Once the bridge is formed, the ex situ electromigration technique can reopen the nanogap. When the gap is ∼ 1 nm, tunneling current-voltage characterization shows asymmetry which can be corrected by an external magnetic field. This suggests that charge transfer in the nickel electrodes depends on the orientation of magnetic moments.

  4. Neural Network Observer-Based Finite-Time Formation Control of Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caihong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the leader-following formation problem of nonholonomic mobile robots. In the formation, only the pose (i.e., the position and direction angle of the leader robot can be obtained by the follower. First, the leader-following formation is transformed into special trajectory tracking. And then, a neural network (NN finite-time observer of the follower robot is designed to estimate the dynamics of the leader robot. Finally, finite-time formation control laws are developed for the follower robot to track the leader robot in the desired separation and bearing in finite time. The effectiveness of the proposed NN finite-time observer and the formation control laws are illustrated by both qualitative analysis and simulation results.

  5. Foliar trichome- and aquaporin-aided water uptake in a drought-resistant epiphyte Tillandsia ionantha Planchon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrui, T; Nobira, H; Sakata, Y; Taji, T; Yamamoto, C; Nishida, K; Yamakawa, T; Sasuga, Y; Yaguchi, Y; Takenaga, H; Tanaka, Shigeo

    2007-12-01

    The atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia ionantha is capable of surviving drought stress for 6 months or more without any exogenous water supply via an as of yet to be determined mechanism. When plants were soaked in water for 3 h, leaves absorbed a remarkably large amount of water (30-40% on the basis of fresh weight), exhibiting a bimodal absorption pattern. Radiolabeled water was taken up by the leaves by capillary action of the epidermal trichomes within 1 min (phase 1) and then transported intracellularly to leaf tissues over 3 h (phase 2). The removal of epidermal trichome wings from leaves as well as rinsing leaves with water significantly lowered the extracellular accumulation of water on leaf surfaces. The intracellular transport of water was inhibited by mercuric chloride, implicating the involvement of a water channel aquaporin in second-phase water absorption. Four cDNA clones (TiPIP1a, TiPIP1b, TiPIP1c, and TiPIP2a) homologous to PIP family aquaporins were isolated from the leaves, and RT-PCR showed that soaking plants in water stimulated the expression of TiPIP2a mRNA, suggesting the reinforcement in ability to rapidly absorb a large amount of water. The expression of TiPIP2a complementary RNA in Xenopus oocytes enhanced permeability, and treatment with inhibitors suggested that the water channel activity of TiPIP2a protein was regulated by phosphorylation. Thus, the high water uptake capability of T. ionantha leaves surviving drought is attributable to a bimodal trichome- and aquaporin-aided water uptake system based on rapid physical collection of water and subsequent, sustained chemical absorption.

  6. Adaptive PID formation control of nonholonomic robots without leader's velocity information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dongbin; Sun, Weijie; Sun, Zhendong

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive proportional integral derivative (PID) algorithm to solve a formation control problem in the leader-follower framework where the leader robot's velocities are unknown for the follower robots. The main idea is first to design some proper ideal control law for the formation system to obtain a required performance, and then to propose the adaptive PID methodology to approach the ideal controller. As a result, the formation is achieved with much more enhanced robust formation performance. The stability of the closed-loop system is theoretically proved by Lyapunov method. Both numerical simulations and physical vehicle experiments are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive PID algorithm. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sedimentary controls on modern sand grain coat formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowey, Patrick J.; Worden, Richard H.; Utley, James; Hodgson, David M.

    2017-05-01

    Coated sand grains can influence reservoir quality evolution during sandstone diagenesis. Porosity can be reduced and fluid flow restricted where grain coats encroach into pore space. Conversely pore-lining grain coats can restrict the growth of pore-filling quartz cement in deeply buried sandstones, and thus can result in unusually high porosity in deeply buried sandstones. Being able to predict the distribution of coated sand grains within petroleum reservoirs is thus important to help find good reservoir quality. Here we report a modern analogue study of 12 sediment cores from the Anllóns Estuary, Galicia, NW Spain, collected from a range of sub-environments, to help develop an understanding of the occurrence and distribution of coated grains. The cores were described for grain size, bioturbation and sedimentary structures, and then sub-sampled for electron and light microscopy, laser granulometry, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The Anllóns Estuary is sand-dominated with intertidal sand flats and saltmarsh environments at the margins; there is a shallowing/fining-upwards trend in the estuary-fill succession. Grain coats are present in nearly every sample analysed; they are between 1 μm and 100 μm thick and typically lack internal organisation. The extent of grain coat coverage can exceed 25% in some samples with coverage highest in the top 20 cm of cores. Samples from muddy intertidal flat and the muddy saltmarsh environments, close to the margins of the estuary, have the highest coat coverage (mean coat coverage of 20.2% and 21.3%, respectively). The lowest mean coat coverage occurs in the sandy saltmarsh (10.4%), beyond the upper tidal limit and sandy intertidal flat environments (8.4%), close to the main estuary channel. Mean coat coverage correlates with the concentration of clay fraction. The primary controls on the distribution of fine-grained sediment, and therefore grain coat distribution, are primary sediment transport and deposition processes that

  8. Penetration of UV-A, UV-B and blue light through the leaf trichome layers of two xeromorphic plants, olive and oak, measured by optical fibre microprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabourniotis, G.; Bornman, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    Quartz fibre-optic microprobes were used to monitor the light microenvironment beneath trichome layers of the xeromorphic leaves of two Mediterranean evergreen sclerophylls, Olea europaea and Quercus ilex. Young developing leaves of both plants were densely pubescent on both surfaces of the lamina, whereas the mature leaves were pubescent only on the abaxial side. Trichome layers of young as well as of mature leaves of both plants attenuated almost all incident ultraviolet (UV)-B (310 nm) and UV-A (360 nm) radiation and a considerable portion of blue light (430 nm). Abaxial trichome layers of young leaves were more effective in screening out the incident radiation compared to the adaxial ones of the same leaves and also compared to the abaxial layer of the mature leaves. The abaxial epidermis of dehaired mature leaves of O. europaea was ineffective in absorbing most of the incident UV-B and UV-A radiation. UV and visible spectra beneath trichome layers of O. europaea in mature leaves confirmed that the light microenvironment on the epidermis was deprived in the UV-B, UV-A and partly in the blue spectral regions. It is proposed that the occurrence of a dense trichome layer, especially in young leaves, may play a protective role against not only UV-B radiation damage, but also against high visible irradiance. This function is performed irrespective of the differing anatomy of individual hairs of both plants. The protection provided by the trichomes could afford advantages under stress conditions, especially during leaf development. (author)

  9. Biofilm formation on a TiO2 nanotube with controlled pore diameter and surface wettability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anitha, V C; Narayan Banerjee, Arghya; Woo Joo, Sang; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Jintae; Ki Min, Bong

    2015-01-01

    Titania (TiO 2 ) nanotube arrays (TNAs) with different pore diameters (140 − 20 nm) are fabricated via anodization using hydrofluoric acid (HF) containing ethylene glycol (EG) by changing the HF-to-EG volume ratio and the anodization voltage. To evaluate the effects of different pore diameters of TiO 2 nanotubes on bacterial biofilm formation, Shewanella oneidensis (S. oneidensis) MR-1 cells and a crystal-violet biofilm assay are used. The surface roughness and wettability of the TNA surfaces as a function of pore diameter, measured via the contact angle and AFM techniques, are correlated with the controlled biofilm formation. Biofilm formation increases with the decreasing nanotube pore diameter, and a 20 nm TiO 2 nanotube shows the maximum biofilm formation. The measurements revealed that 20 nm surfaces have the least hydrophilicity with the highest surface roughness of ∼17 nm and that they show almost a 90% increase in the effective surface area relative to the 140 nm TNAs, which stimulate the cells more effectively to produce the pili to attach to the surface for more biofilm formation. The results demonstrate that bacterial cell adhesion (and hence, biofilm formation) can effectively be controlled by tuning the roughness and wettability of TNAs via controlling the pore diameters of TNA surfaces. This biofilm formation as a function of the surface properties of TNAs can be a potential candidate for both medical applications and as electrodes in microbial fuel cells. (paper)

  10. Equal modal damping design for a family of resonant vibration control formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2013-01-01

    derivative term in the control coupling can change these properties into balanced position and velocity peaks, respectively. In particular this gives an improved control format based on measurement of structural displacement or deformation. In all cases the optimal calibration in terms of a root locus......The principle of equal modal damping is used to give a unified presentation and calibration of resonant control of structures for different control formats, based on velocity, acceleration–position or position feedback. When introducing a resonant controller the original resonant mode splits...... identification leads to a simple explicit pair of design formulae for controller frequency and damping ratio based on a simple two -degrees-of-freedom system. Unconditional stability is demonstrated for a general multi-degrees-of-freedom system with multiple controllers for the velocity and acceleration...

  11. On the internal model principle in formation control and in output synchronization of nonlinear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, Claudio De; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2012-01-01

    The role of internal model principle is investigated in this paper in the context of collective synchronization and formation control problems. In the collective synchronization problem for nonlinear systems, we propose distributed control laws for passive systems which synchronize to the solution

  12. A virtual structure approach to formation control of unicycle mobile robots using mutual coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadowska, A.D.; van den Broek, T.H.A.; Huijberts, H.J.C.; Wouw, van de N.; Kostic, D.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the formation control problem for unicycle mobile robots is studied. A distributed virtual structure control strategy with mutual coupling between the robots is proposed. The rationale behind the introduction of the coupling terms is the fact that these introduce additional

  13. A Stable Formation Control Using Approximation of Translational and Angular Accelerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viet-Hong Tran

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a stable leader-following formation control for multiple non-holonomic mobile robot systems using only limited on-board sensor information is proposed. The control can be used for the conventional single leader – single follower (SLSF or for novel two leaders – single follower (TLSF schemes. The control algorithm utilizes estimations of the leaders' translational and angular accelerations in a simple form to reduce the measurement of indirect information. Simulation results show that the TLSF scheme can suppress the oscillation and damping in formation of large robot teams.

  14. Enabling Spacecraft Formation Flying through Position Determination, Control and Enhanced Automation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, John; Bauer, Frank; Hartman, Kate; How, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Formation Flying is revolutionizing the way the space community conducts science missions around the Earth and in deep space. This technological revolution will provide new, innovative ways for the community to gather scientific information, share that information between space vehicles and the ground, and expedite the human exploration of space. Once fully matured, formation flying will result in numerous sciencecraft acting as virtual platforms and sensor webs, gathering significantly more and better science data than call be collected today. To achieve this goal, key technologies must be developed including those that address the following basic questions posed by the spacecraft: Where am I? Where is the rest of the fleet? Where do I need to be? What do I have to do (and what am I able to do) to get there? The answers to these questions and the means to implement those answers will depend oil the specific mission needs and formation configuration. However, certain critical technologies are common to most formations. These technologies include high-precision position and relative-position knowledge including Global Positioning System (GPS) mid celestial navigation; high degrees of spacecraft autonomy inter-spacecraft communication capabilities; targeting and control including distributed control algorithms, and high precision control thrusters and actuators. This paper provides an overview of a selection of the current activities NASA/DoD/Industry/Academia are working to develop Formation Flying technologies as quickly as possible, the hurdles that need to be overcome to achieve our formation flying vision, and the team's approach to transfer this technology to space. It will also describe several of the formation flying testbeds, such as Orion and University Nanosatellites, that are being developed to demonstrate and validate many of these innovative sensing and formation control technologies.

  15. Formation Control for Water-Jet USV Based on Bio-Inspired Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ming-yu; Wang, Duan-song; Wang, Cheng-long

    2018-03-01

    The formation control problem for underactuated unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) is addressed by a distributed strategy based on virtual leader strategy. The control system takes account of disturbance induced by external environment. With the coordinate transformation, the advantage of the proposed scheme is that the control point can be any point of the ship instead of the center of gravity. By introducing bio-inspired model, the formation control problem is addressed with backstepping method. This avoids complicated computation, simplifies the control law, and smoothes the input signals. The system uniform ultimate boundness is proven by Lyapunov stability theory with Young inequality. Simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness and robust of the proposed controller.

  16. Consensus seeking, formation keeping, and trajectory tracking in multiple vehicle cooperative control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei

    Cooperative control problems for multiple vehicle systems can be categorized as either formation control problems with applications to mobile robots, unmanned air vehicles, autonomous underwater vehicles, satellites, aircraft, spacecraft, and automated highway systems, or non-formation control problems such as task assignment, cooperative transport, cooperative role assignment, air traffic control, cooperative timing, and cooperative search. The cooperative control of multiple vehicle systems poses significant theoretical and practical challenges. For cooperative control strategies to be successful, numerous issues must be addressed. We consider three important and correlated issues: consensus seeking, formation keeping, and trajectory tracking. For consensus seeking, we investigate algorithms and protocols so that a team of vehicles can reach consensus on the values of the coordination data in the presence of imperfect sensors, communication dropout, sparse communication topologies, and noisy and unreliable communication links. The main contribution of this dissertation in this area is that we show necessary and/or sufficient conditions for consensus seeking with limited, unidirectional, and unreliable information exchange under fixed and switching interaction topologies (through either communication or sensing). For formation keeping, we apply a so-called "virtual structure" approach to spacecraft formation flying and multi-vehicle formation maneuvers. As a result, single vehicle path planning and trajectory generation techniques can be employed for the virtual structure while trajectory tracking strategies can be employed for each vehicle. The main contribution of this dissertation in this area is that we propose a decentralized architecture for multiple spacecraft formation flying in deep space with formation feedback introduced. This architecture ensures the necessary precision in the presence of actuator saturation, internal and external disturbances, and

  17. Formation Flight System Extremum-Seeking-Control Using Blended Performance Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John J. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    An extremum-seeking control system for formation flight that uses blended performance parameters in a conglomerate performance function that better approximates drag reduction than performance functions formed from individual measurements. Generally, a variety of different measurements are taken and fed to a control system, the measurements are weighted, and are then subjected to a peak-seeking control algorithm. As measurements are continually taken, the aircraft will be guided to a relative position which optimizes the drag reduction of the formation. Two embodiments are discussed. Two approaches are shown for determining relative weightings: "a priori" by which they are qualitatively determined (by minimizing the error between the conglomerate function and the drag reduction function), and by periodically updating the weightings as the formation evolves.

  18. A Memory/Immunology-Based Control Approach with Applications to Multiple Spacecraft Formation Flying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of formation control for multiple spacecrafts in Planetary Orbital Environment (POE. Due to the presence of diverse interferences and uncertainties in the outer space, such as the changing spacecraft mass, unavailable space parameters, and varying gravity forces, traditional control methods encounter great difficulties in this area. A new control approach inspired by human memory and immune system is proposed, and this approach is shown to be capable of learning from past control experience and current behavior to improve its performance. It demands much less system dynamic information as compared with traditional controls. Both theoretic analysis and computer simulation verify its effectiveness.

  19. Motion coordination for VTOL unmanned aerial vehicles attitude synchronisation and formation control

    CERN Document Server

    Abdessameud, Abdelkader

    2013-01-01

    Motion Coordination for VTOL Unmanned Aerial Vehicles develops new control design techniques for the distributed coordination of a team of autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it provides new control design approaches for the attitude synchronization of a formation of rigid body systems. In addition, by integrating new control design techniques with some concepts from nonlinear control theory and multi-agent systems, it presents  a new theoretical framework for the formation control of a class of under-actuated aerial vehicles capable of vertical take-off and landing. Several practical problems related to the systems’ inputs, states measurements, and  restrictions on the interconnection  topology  between the aerial vehicles in the team  are addressed. Worked examples with sufficient details and simulation results are provided to illustrate the applicability and effectiveness of the theoretical results discussed in the book. The material presented is primarily intended for researchers an...

  20. A Piecewise Affine Hybrid Systems Approach to Fault Tolerant Satellite Formation Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Bak, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a procedure for modelling satellite formations   including failure dynamics as a piecewise-affine hybrid system is   shown. The formulation enables recently developed methods and tools   for control and analysis of piecewise-affine systems to be applied   leading to synthesis of fault...... tolerant controllers and analysis of   the system behaviour given possible faults.  The method is   illustrated using a simple example involving two satellites trying   to reach a specific formation despite of actuator faults occurring....

  1. Lactate dehydrogenase has no control on lactate production but has a strong negative control on formate production in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.W.; Pedersen, M.B.; Hammer, Karin

    2001-01-01

    enhanced in the strain deleted for lactate dehydrogenase. What is more surprising is that the enzyme had a strong negative control (C- LDH(F1)J=-1.3) on the flux to formate at the wild-type level of lactate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, we showed that L. lactis has limited excess of capacity of lactate...

  2. Risk Factors for Inhibitor Formation in Hemophilia: A Prevalent Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragni, Margaret V.; Ojeifo, Oluseyi; Feng, Jinong; Yan, Jin; Hill, Kathleen A.; Sommer, Steve S.; Trucco, Massimo N.; Brambilla, Donald J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Inhibitor formation is a major complication of hemophilia treatment. Aim In a prevalent case-control study, we evaluated blood product exposure, genotype, and HLA type on hemophilia A inhibitor formation. Methods Product exposure was extracted from medical records. Genotype was determined on stored DNA samples by detection of virtually all mutations-SSCP (DOVAM-S) and subcycling PCR. HLA typing was performed by PCR amplification and exonuclease-released fluorescence. Results Cases experienced higher intensity factor, 455 vs. 200 U per exposure, p0.100. Genotype was not associated with race. Time to immune tolerance was shorter for titers 0.50. Conclusions Inhibitor formation is associated with high intensity product exposure, CNS bleeding, African-American race, and low frequency of missense mutations. The ideal time to initiate prophylaxis to reduce CNS bleeding and inhibitor formation will require prospective studies. PMID:19563499

  3. An Interactive Control Algorithm Used for Equilateral Triangle Formation with Robotic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Hongcai

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive control algorithm, called Triangle Formation Algorithm (TFA), used for three neighboring robotic sensors which are distributed randomly to self-organize into and equilateral triangle (E) formation. The algorithm is proposed based on the triangular geometry and considering the actual sensors used in robotics. In particular, the stability of the TFA, which can be executed by robotic sensors independently and asynchronously for E formation, is analyzed in details based on Lyapunov stability theory. Computer simulations are carried out for verifying the effectiveness of the TFA. The analytical results and simulation studies indicate that three neighboring robots employing conventional sensors can self-organize into E formations successfully regardless of their initial distribution using the same TFAs. PMID:24759118

  4. Formation and control of excimer of a coumarin derivative in Langmuir–Blodgett films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Santanu; Bhattacharjee, D.; Hussain, Syed Arshad, E-mail: sa_h153@hotmail.com

    2014-01-15

    In this communication we report the formation and control of excimer of a coumerin derivative 7-Hydroxy-N-Octadecyl Coumarin-3-Carboxamide (7HNO3C) assembled onto Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films. Surface pressure–area per molecule isotherm revealed that 7HNO3C formed stable Langmuir monolayer at the air–water interface. Spectroscoipic characterizations confirmed the formation of excimer of 7HNO3C in the LB film prepared at 20 mN/m surface pressure. The excimer band remains present even when 7HNO3C molecules are diluted with a long chain fatty acid stearic acid in LB films. The excimer formation of 7HNO3C can be controlled by incorporating clay particle laponite in the LB film. The excimer band is totally absent in the hybrid 7HNO3C–laponite LB films. In-situ fluorescence imaging microscopy and atomic force microscopy confirmed the incorporation of clay laponite onto LB films. -- Highlights: • Formation of Langmuir monolayer and Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) film of a coumarin derivative. • Presence of excimeric species in the LB film lifted at 20 mN/m surface pressure is confirmed from the spectroscopic studies. • Control of excimer formation by incorporating clay particle laponite on to the LB film. • In-situ fluorescence imaging microscopy and atomic force microscopy confirmed the incorporation of clay laponite onto LB films.

  5. Stable Formation Control of Multi-Robot System with Communication Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Jiang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a distributed formation control algorithm with delayed information exchange is discussed. The algorithm, which is derived from the flocking behaviour of birds and consensus theory, enables robots to move in formation at a desired velocity. After a series of orthogonal transformations to the original formation system, the upper bound tolerable delay is obtained by using matrix theory and the Nyquist criterion. According to the results, the upper bound tolerable delay depends on the control parameters and eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix. Therefore, the effect of the parameters on the maximum tolerable delay is analysed, obtaining the following conclusions: the upper bound tolerable delay is proportional to the parameters associated with the velocity, inversely proportional to the parameters associated with the position, and inversely proportional to the difference between the eigenvalue of Laplacian matrix and 1. The simulation results of a four-robot formation system with different communication delays verify the effectiveness of the formation control algorithm and the correctness of the theoretical analysis.

  6. Precise Localization and Formation Control of Swarm Robots via Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise localization and formation control are one of the key technologies to achieve coordination and control of swarm robots, which is also currently a bottleneck for practical applications of swarm robotic systems. Aiming at overcoming the limited individual perception and the difficulty of achieving precise localization and formation, a localization approach combining dead reckoning (DR with wireless sensor network- (WSN- based methods is proposed in this paper. Two kinds of WSN localization technologies are adopted in this paper, that is, ZigBee-based RSSI (received signal strength indication global localization and electronic tag floors for calibration of local positioning. First, the DR localization information is combined with the ZigBee-based RSSI position information using the Kalman filter method to achieve precise global localization and maintain the robot formation. Then the electronic tag floors provide the robots with their precise coordinates in some local areas and enable the robot swarm to calibrate its formation by reducing the accumulated position errors. Hence, the overall performance of localization and formation control of the swarm robotic system is improved. Both of the simulation results and the experimental results on a real schematic system are given to demonstrate the success of the proposed approach.

  7. Topology Control Algorithms for Spacecraft Formation Flying Networks Under Connectivity and Time-Delay Constraints, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI is proposing to develop a set of topology control algorithms for a formation flying spacecraft that can be used to design and evaluate candidate formation...

  8. Control and prevention of ice formation and accretion on heat exchangers for ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral; Afshari, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    In cold climates, the application of mechanical ventilation systems with heat recovery like are airto-air exchangers is used for reducing energy consumption for heating buildings by transferring heat exhausted air to supply air. However, increase efficiency of heat exchanger results in lower...... exhaust air temperatures and Ice formation on heat exchanger fins, which can cause problem and is not favourable. Therefore, prevention and control of ice formation on heat exchangers is necessary. The existing methods are divided into two different methods: active and passive ice control methods....... The active methods are e.g. bypass, recirculation, preheating. The passive methods relate to the surface characteristics of the heat exchanger fins as they have effect on ice formation in initial phase. All these methods have varying levels of success, cost, and effectiveness, which are depending on the heat...

  9. Effect of density control and impurity transport on internal transport barrier formation in tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakami, Tomoyuki; Fujita, Takaaki; Arimoto, Hideki; Yamazaki, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    In future fusion reactors, density control, such as fueling by pellet injection, is an effective method to control the formation of the internal transport barrier (ITB) in reversed magnetic shear plasma, which can improve plasma performance. On the other hand, an operation with ITB can cause accumulation of impurities inside the core ITB region. We studied the relation between pellet injection and ITB formation and the effect of impurity transport on the core of ITB for tokamak plasmas by using the toroidal transport analysis linkage. For ITB formation, we showed that the pellet has to be injected beyond the position where the safety factor q takes the minimum value. We confirmed that the accumulation of impurities causes the attenuation of ITB owing to radiation loss inside the ITB region. Moreover, in terms of the divertor heat flux reduction by impurity gas, the line radiation loss is high for high-Z noble gas impurities, such as Kr, whereas factor Q decreases slightly. (author)

  10. Precedent approach to the formation of programs for cyclic objects control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakov, S. M.; Trofimov, V. B.; Dobrynin, A. S.; Taraborina, E. N.

    2018-05-01

    The idea and procedure for formalizing the precedent method of formation of complex control solutions (complex control programs) is discussed with respect to technological or organizational objects, the operation of which is organized cyclically. A typical functional structure of the system of precedent control by complex technological unit is developed, including a subsystem of retrospective optimization of actually implemented control programs. As an example, the problem of constructing replaceable planograms for the operation of the link of a heading-and-winning machine on the basis of precedents is considered.

  11. The hexanoyl-CoA precursor for cannabinoid biosynthesis is formed by an acyl-activating enzyme in Cannabis sativa trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Jake M; Boubakir, Zakia; Ambrose, Stephen J; Purves, Randy W; Page, Jonathan E

    2012-08-01

    The psychoactive and analgesic cannabinoids (e.g. Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) in Cannabis sativa are formed from the short-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) precursor hexanoyl-CoA. Cannabinoids are synthesized in glandular trichomes present mainly on female flowers. We quantified hexanoyl-CoA using LC-MS/MS and found levels of 15.5 pmol g(-1) fresh weight in female hemp flowers with lower amounts in leaves, stems and roots. This pattern parallels the accumulation of the end-product cannabinoid, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA). To search for the acyl-activating enzyme (AAE) that synthesizes hexanoyl-CoA from hexanoate, we analyzed the transcriptome of isolated glandular trichomes. We identified 11 unigenes that encoded putative AAEs including CsAAE1, which shows high transcript abundance in glandular trichomes. In vitro assays showed that recombinant CsAAE1 activates hexanoate and other short- and medium-chained fatty acids. This activity and the trichome-specific expression of CsAAE1 suggest that it is the hexanoyl-CoA synthetase that supplies the cannabinoid pathway. CsAAE3 encodes a peroxisomal enzyme that activates a variety of fatty acid substrates including hexanoate. Although phylogenetic analysis showed that CsAAE1 groups with peroxisomal AAEs, it lacked a peroxisome targeting sequence 1 (PTS1) and localized to the cytoplasm. We suggest that CsAAE1 may have been recruited to the cannabinoid pathway through the loss of its PTS1, thereby redirecting it to the cytoplasm. To probe the origin of hexanoate, we analyzed the trichome expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset for enzymes of fatty acid metabolism. The high abundance of transcripts that encode desaturases and a lipoxygenase suggests that hexanoate may be formed through a pathway that involves the oxygenation and breakdown of unsaturated fatty acids. © 2012 National Research Council of Canada. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Formation and control of wrinkles in graphene by the wedging transfer method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calado, V.E.; Schneider, G.F.; Theulings, A.M.M.G.; Dekker, C.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2012-01-01

    We study the formation of wrinkles in graphene upon wet transfer onto a hydrophilic target substrate, whereby draining of water appears to play an important role. We are able to control the orientation of the wrinkles by tuning the surface morphology. Wrinkles are absent in flakes transferred to

  13. A dϕ-Strategy: Facilitating Dual-Formation Control of a Virtually Connected Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibhya Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of new centralized acceleration-based controllers for the multitask problem of motion planning and control of a coordinated lead-carrier team fixed in a dual-formation within an obstacle-ridden environment. A dϕ-strategy, where d and ϕ are Euclidean measures with respect to the lead robot, is developed to ensure virtual connectivity of the carrier robots to the lead robot. This connectivity, built into the system itself, inherently ensures globally rigid formation between each lead-carrier pair of the team. Moreover, a combination of target configuration, dϕ-strategy, orientation consensus, and avoidance of end-effector of robots results in a second, locally rigid formation (not infinitesimally rigid. Therefore, for the first time, a dual-formation control problem of a lead-carrier team of mobile manipulators is considered. This and other kinodynamic constraints have been treated simultaneously via the overarching Lyapunov-based control scheme, essentially a potential field method favored in the field of robotics. The formulation of this new scheme, demonstrated effectively via computer simulations, is timely, given that the current proposed engineering solutions, allowing autonomous vehicles on public roads, include the development of special lanes imbued with special sensors and wireless technologies.

  14. Dual function of the McaS small RNA in controlling biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mikkel Girke; Thomason, Maureen K.; Havelund, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    , and biofilm formation. Moreover, ectopic McaS expression leads to induction of two additional CsrA-repressed genes encoding diguanylate cyclases. Collectively, our study shows that McaS is a dual-function sRNA with roles in the two major post-transcriptional regulons controlled by the RNA-binding proteins Hfq...

  15. Chemical signal activation of an organocatalyst enables control over soft material formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trausel, Fanny; Maity, Chandan; Poolman, Jos M; Kouwenberg, D S J; Versluis, Frank; van Esch, Jan H; Eelkema, Rienk

    2017-10-12

    Cells can react to their environment by changing the activity of enzymes in response to specific chemical signals. Artificial catalysts capable of being activated by chemical signals are rare, but of interest for creating autonomously responsive materials. We present an organocatalyst that is activated by a chemical signal, enabling temporal control over reaction rates and the formation of materials. Using self-immolative chemistry, we design a deactivated aniline organocatalyst that is activated by the chemical signal hydrogen peroxide and catalyses hydrazone formation. Upon activation of the catalyst, the rate of hydrazone formation increases 10-fold almost instantly. The responsive organocatalyst enables temporal control over the formation of gels featuring hydrazone bonds. The generic design should enable the use of a large range of triggers and organocatalysts, and appears a promising method for the introduction of signal response in materials, constituting a first step towards achieving communication between artificial chemical systems.Enzymes regulated by chemical signals are common in biology, but few such artificial catalysts exist. Here, the authors design an aniline catalyst that, when activated by a chemical trigger, catalyses formation of hydrazone-based gels, demonstrating signal response in a soft material.

  16. Characterization of Trichome-Expressed BAHD Acyltransferases in Petunia axillaris Reveals Distinct Acylsugar Assembly Mechanisms within the Solanaceae1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebler, Joseph B.; Liu, Xiaoxiao

    2017-01-01

    Acylsugars are synthesized in the glandular trichomes of the Solanaceae family and are implicated in protection against abiotic and biotic stress. Acylsugars are composed of either sucrose or glucose esterified with varying numbers of acyl chains of differing length. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), acylsugar assembly requires four acylsugar acyltransferases (ASATs) of the BAHD superfamily. Tomato ASATs catalyze the sequential esterification of acyl-coenzyme A thioesters to the R4, R3, R3ʹ, and R2 positions of sucrose, yielding a tetra-acylsucrose. Petunia spp. synthesize acylsugars that are structurally distinct from those of tomato. To explore the mechanisms underlying this chemical diversity, a Petunia axillaris transcriptome was mined for trichome preferentially expressed BAHDs. A combination of phylogenetic analyses, gene silencing, and biochemical analyses coupled with structural elucidation of metabolites revealed that acylsugar assembly is not conserved between tomato and petunia. In P. axillaris, tetra-acylsucrose assembly occurs through the action of four ASATs, which catalyze sequential addition of acyl groups to the R2, R4, R3, and R6 positions. Notably, in P. axillaris, PaxASAT1 and PaxASAT4 catalyze the acylation of the R2 and R6 positions of sucrose, respectively, and no clear orthologs exist in tomato. Similarly, petunia acylsugars lack an acyl group at the R3ʹ position, and congruently, an ortholog of SlASAT3, which catalyzes acylation at the R3ʹ position in tomato, is absent in P. axillaris. Furthermore, where putative orthologous relationships of ASATs are predicted between tomato and petunia, these are not supported by biochemical assays. Overall, these data demonstrate the considerable evolutionary plasticity of acylsugar biosynthesis. PMID:28701351

  17. Characterization of Trichome-Expressed BAHD Acyltransferases in Petunia axillaris Reveals Distinct Acylsugar Assembly Mechanisms within the Solanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadakuduti, Satya Swathi; Uebler, Joseph B; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Jones, A Daniel; Barry, Cornelius S

    2017-09-01

    Acylsugars are synthesized in the glandular trichomes of the Solanaceae family and are implicated in protection against abiotic and biotic stress. Acylsugars are composed of either sucrose or glucose esterified with varying numbers of acyl chains of differing length. In tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ), acylsugar assembly requires four acylsugar acyltransferases (ASATs) of the BAHD superfamily. Tomato ASATs catalyze the sequential esterification of acyl-coenzyme A thioesters to the R4, R3, R3', and R2 positions of sucrose, yielding a tetra-acylsucrose. Petunia spp. synthesize acylsugars that are structurally distinct from those of tomato. To explore the mechanisms underlying this chemical diversity, a Petunia axillaris transcriptome was mined for trichome preferentially expressed BAHDs. A combination of phylogenetic analyses, gene silencing, and biochemical analyses coupled with structural elucidation of metabolites revealed that acylsugar assembly is not conserved between tomato and petunia. In P. axillaris , tetra-acylsucrose assembly occurs through the action of four ASATs, which catalyze sequential addition of acyl groups to the R2, R4, R3, and R6 positions. Notably, in P. axillaris , PaxASAT1 and PaxASAT4 catalyze the acylation of the R2 and R6 positions of sucrose, respectively, and no clear orthologs exist in tomato. Similarly, petunia acylsugars lack an acyl group at the R3' position, and congruently, an ortholog of SlASAT3, which catalyzes acylation at the R3' position in tomato, is absent in P. axillaris Furthermore, where putative orthologous relationships of ASATs are predicted between tomato and petunia, these are not supported by biochemical assays. Overall, these data demonstrate the considerable evolutionary plasticity of acylsugar biosynthesis. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Selective formation of VO2(A) or VO2(R) polymorph by controlling the hydrothermal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Shidong; Zhang Feng; Jin Ping

    2011-01-01

    Missing VO 2 (A) usually occurs during the preparation of VO 2 polymorphs. This leads to an ambiguous understanding of the transformation between VO 2 polymorphs. The calculation of the ground state energies for different VO 2 polymorphs indicated that there is only a small energy gap between VO 2 (A) and VO 2 (R), which destined that the transformation from VO 2 (A) to VO 2 (R) should be pressure sensitive. This hypothesis was verified during the synthesizing of VO 2 polymorphs by reducing V 2 O 5 with oxalic acid through hydrothermal treatment process. Selective formation of pure phase VO 2 (A) or VO 2 (R) was achieved by controlling the hydrothermal pressure through varying the filling ratio at 270 deg. C. It was found that a filling ratio over 0.5 favors the formation of pure VO 2 (R) while a reduced filling ratio to 0.4 or lower results in the formation of VO 2 (A). Based on our experiments, VO 2 (B) nanobelts were always first formed and then it transformed to VO 2 (A) by assembling process at increased temperature or extended reaction time. Under further higher pressure, the VO 2 (A) transformed spontaneously to VO 2 (R) initialized from the volume shrinkage due to the formation of denser VO 2 (R). - Graphical abstract: Selective formation of VO 2 (A) or VO 2 (R) could be achieved by controlling the system pressure through varying the filling ratio during hydrothermal treatment. Highlights: → Selective formation of VO 2 polymorphs by controlling hydrothermal pressure. → Ground state energy characteristics were revealed for the first time. → Phase transformation mechanism was clearly elucidated.

  19. Designing a Robust Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion Controller for Spacecraft Formation Flying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inseok Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The robust nonlinear dynamic inversion (RNDI control technique is proposed to keep the relative position of spacecrafts while formation flying. The proposed RNDI control method is based on nonlinear dynamic inversion (NDI. NDI is nonlinear control method that replaces the original dynamics into the user-selected desired dynamics. Because NDI removes nonlinearities in the model by inverting the original dynamics directly, it also eliminates the need of designing suitable controllers for each equilibrium point; that is, NDI works as self-scheduled controller. Removing the original model also provides advantages of ease to satisfy the specific requirements by simply handling desired dynamics. Therefore, NDI is simple and has many similarities to classical control. In real applications, however, it is difficult to achieve perfect cancellation of the original dynamics due to uncertainties that lead to performance degradation and even make the system unstable. This paper proposes robustness assurance method for NDI. The proposed RNDI is designed by combining NDI and sliding mode control (SMC. SMC is inherently robust using high-speed switching inputs. This paper verifies similarities of NDI and SMC, firstly. And then RNDI control method is proposed. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by simulations applied to spacecraft formation flying problem.

  20. A New Controller for a Smart Walker Based on Human-Robot Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadão, Carlos; Caldeira, Eliete; Bastos-Filho, Teodiano; Frizera-Neto, Anselmo; Carelli, Ricardo

    2016-07-19

    This paper presents the development of a smart walker that uses a formation controller in its displacements. Encoders, a laser range finder and ultrasound are the sensors used in the walker. The control actions are based on the user (human) location, who is the actual formation leader. There is neither a sensor attached to the user's body nor force sensors attached to the arm supports of the walker, and thus, the control algorithm projects the measurements taken from the laser sensor into the user reference and, then, calculates the linear and angular walker's velocity to keep the formation (distance and angle) in relation to the user. An algorithm was developed to detect the user's legs, whose distances from the laser sensor provide the information necessary to the controller. The controller was theoretically analyzed regarding its stability, simulated and validated with real users, showing accurate performance in all experiments. In addition, safety rules are used to check both the user and the device conditions, in order to guarantee that the user will not have any risks when using the smart walker. The applicability of this device is for helping people with lower limb mobility impairments.

  1. Matrix elasticity of void-forming hydrogels controls transplanted-stem-cell-mediated bone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebsch, Nathaniel; Lippens, Evi; Lee, Kangwon; Mehta, Manav; Koshy, Sandeep T.; Darnell, Max C.; Desai, Rajiv M.; Madl, Christopher M.; Xu, Maria; Zhao, Xuanhe; Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Verbeke, Catia; Kim, Woo Seob; Alim, Karen; Mammoto, Akiko; Ingber, Donald E.; Duda, Georg N.; Mooney, David J.

    2015-12-01

    The effectiveness of stem cell therapies has been hampered by cell death and limited control over fate. These problems can be partially circumvented by using macroporous biomaterials that improve the survival of transplanted stem cells and provide molecular cues to direct cell phenotype. Stem cell behaviour can also be controlled in vitro by manipulating the elasticity of both porous and non-porous materials, yet translation to therapeutic processes in vivo remains elusive. Here, by developing injectable, void-forming hydrogels that decouple pore formation from elasticity, we show that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) osteogenesis in vitro, and cell deployment in vitro and in vivo, can be controlled by modifying, respectively, the hydrogel’s elastic modulus or its chemistry. When the hydrogels were used to transplant MSCs, the hydrogel’s elasticity regulated bone regeneration, with optimal bone formation at 60 kPa. Our findings show that biophysical cues can be harnessed to direct therapeutic stem cell behaviours in situ.

  2. qcML: an exchange format for quality control metrics from mass spectrometry experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Mathias; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Nasso, Sara; Bittremieux, Wout; Nahnsen, Sven; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Pichler, Peter; van den Toorn, Henk W P; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Mazanek, Michael; Taus, Thomas; Scheltema, Richard A; Kelstrup, Christian D; Gatto, Laurent; van Breukelen, Bas; Aiche, Stephan; Valkenborg, Dirk; Laukens, Kris; Lilley, Kathryn S; Olsen, Jesper V; Heck, Albert J R; Mechtler, Karl; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gevaert, Kris; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Martens, Lennart

    2014-08-01

    Quality control is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Several recent papers discuss relevant parameters for quality control and present applications to extract these from the instrumental raw data. What has been missing, however, is a standard data exchange format for reporting these performance metrics. We therefore developed the qcML format, an XML-based standard that follows the design principles of the related mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, and TraML standards from the HUPO-PSI (Proteomics Standards Initiative). In addition to the XML format, we also provide tools for the calculation of a wide range of quality metrics as well as a database format and interconversion tools, so that existing LIMS systems can easily add relational storage of the quality control data to their existing schema. We here describe the qcML specification, along with possible use cases and an illustrative example of the subsequent analysis possibilities. All information about qcML is available at http://code.google.com/p/qcml. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. qcML: An Exchange Format for Quality Control Metrics from Mass Spectrometry Experiments*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Mathias; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Nasso, Sara; Bittremieux, Wout; Nahnsen, Sven; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Pichler, Peter; van den Toorn, Henk W. P.; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Mazanek, Michael; Taus, Thomas; Scheltema, Richard A.; Kelstrup, Christian D.; Gatto, Laurent; van Breukelen, Bas; Aiche, Stephan; Valkenborg, Dirk; Laukens, Kris; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Olsen, Jesper V.; Heck, Albert J. R.; Mechtler, Karl; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gevaert, Kris; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Martens, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Quality control is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Several recent papers discuss relevant parameters for quality control and present applications to extract these from the instrumental raw data. What has been missing, however, is a standard data exchange format for reporting these performance metrics. We therefore developed the qcML format, an XML-based standard that follows the design principles of the related mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, and TraML standards from the HUPO-PSI (Proteomics Standards Initiative). In addition to the XML format, we also provide tools for the calculation of a wide range of quality metrics as well as a database format and interconversion tools, so that existing LIMS systems can easily add relational storage of the quality control data to their existing schema. We here describe the qcML specification, along with possible use cases and an illustrative example of the subsequent analysis possibilities. All information about qcML is available at http://code.google.com/p/qcml. PMID:24760958

  4. Integument pattern formation involves genetic and epigenetic controls: feather arrays simulated by digital hormone models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting-Xin; Widelitz, Randall B; Shen, Wei-Min; Will, Peter; Wu, Da-Yu; Lin, Chih-Min; Jung, Han-Sung; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2004-01-01

    Pattern formation is a fundamental morphogenetic process. Models based on genetic and epigenetic control have been proposed but remain controversial. Here we use feather morphogenesis for further evaluation. Adhesion molecules and/or signaling molecules were first expressed homogenously in feather tracts (restrictive mode, appear earlier) or directly in bud or inter-bud regions ( de novo mode, appear later). They either activate or inhibit bud formation, but paradoxically colocalize in the bud. Using feather bud reconstitution, we showed that completely dissociated cells can reform periodic patterns without reference to previous positional codes. The patterning process has the characteristics of being self-organizing, dynamic and plastic. The final pattern is an equilibrium state reached by competition, and the number and size of buds can be altered based on cell number and activator/inhibitor ratio, respectively. We developed a Digital Hormone Model which consists of (1) competent cells without identity that move randomly in a space, (2) extracellular signaling hormones which diffuse by a reaction-diffusion mechanism and activate or inhibit cell adhesion, and (3) cells which respond with topological stochastic actions manifested as changes in cell adhesion. Based on probability, the results are cell clusters arranged in dots or stripes. Thus genetic control provides combinational molecular information which defines the properties of the cells but not the final pattern. Epigenetic control governs interactions among cells and their environment based on physical-chemical rules (such as those described in the Digital Hormone Model). Complex integument patterning is the sum of these two components of control and that is why integument patterns are usually similar but non-identical. These principles may be shared by other pattern formation processes such as barb ridge formation, fingerprints, pigmentation patterning, etc. The Digital Hormone Model can also be applied to

  5. Meteorological Support Interface Control Working Group (MSICWG) Instrumentation, Data Format, and Networks Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton, James; Roberts, Barry C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of instrumentation discussed at the Meteorological Interface Control Working Group (MSICWG), a reference for data formats currently used by members of the group, a summary of proposed formats for future use by the group, an overview of the data networks of the group's members. This document will be updated as new systems are introduced, old systems are retired, and when the MSICWG community necessitates a change to the formats. The MSICWG consists of personnel from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC), NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG), and the United States Air Force (USAF) 45th Space Wing and Weather Squadron. The purpose of the group is to coordinate the distribution of weather related data to support NASA space launch related activities.

  6. Hybrid 3D printing and electrodeposition approach for controllable 3D alginate hydrogel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wanfeng; Liu, Yanting; Wan, Wenfeng; Hu, Chengzhi; Liu, Zeyang; Wong, Chin To; Fukuda, Toshio; Shen, Yajing

    2017-06-07

    Calcium alginate hydrogels are widely used as biocompatible materials in a substantial number of biomedical applications. This paper reports on a hybrid 3D printing and electrodeposition approach for forming 3D calcium alginate hydrogels in a controllable manner. Firstly, a specific 3D hydrogel printing system is developed by integrating a customized ejection syringe with a conventional 3D printer. Then, a mixed solution of sodium alginate and CaCO 3 nanoparticles is filled into the syringe and can be continuously ejected out of the syringe nozzle onto a conductive substrate. When applying a DC voltage (∼5 V) between the substrate (anode) and the nozzle (cathode), the Ca 2+ released from the CaCO 3 particles can crosslink the alginate to form calcium alginate hydrogel on the substrate. To elucidate the gel formation mechanism and better control the gel growth, we can further establish and verify a gel growth model by considering several key parameters, i.e., applied voltage and deposition time. The experimental results indicate that the alginate hydrogel of various 3D structures can be formed by controlling the movement of the 3D printer. A cell viability test is conducted and shows that the encapsulated cells in the gel can maintain a high survival rate (∼99% right after gel formation). This research establishes a reliable method for the controllable formation of 3D calcium alginate hydrogel, exhibiting great potential for use in basic biology and applied biomedical engineering.

  7. Neural network-based distributed attitude coordination control for spacecraft formation flying with input saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, An-Min; Kumar, Krishna Dev

    2012-07-01

    This brief considers the attitude coordination control problem for spacecraft formation flying when only a subset of the group members has access to the common reference attitude. A quaternion-based distributed attitude coordination control scheme is proposed with consideration of the input saturation and with the aid of the sliding-mode observer, separation principle theorem, Chebyshev neural networks, smooth projection algorithm, and robust control technique. Using graph theory and a Lyapunov-based approach, it is shown that the distributed controller can guarantee the attitude of all spacecraft to converge to a common time-varying reference attitude when the reference attitude is available only to a portion of the group of spacecraft. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed distributed controller.

  8. UAV formation control design with obstacle avoidance in dynamic three-dimensional environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kai; Xia, Yuanqing; Huang, Kaoli

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the artificial potential field method combined with rotational vectors for a general problem of multi-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems tracking a moving target in dynamic three-dimensional environment. An attractive potential field is generated between the leader and the target. It drives the leader to track the target based on the relative position of them. The other UAVs in the formation are controlled to follow the leader by the attractive control force. The repulsive force affects among the UAVs to avoid collisions and distribute the UAVs evenly on the spherical surface whose center is the leader-UAV. Specific orders or positions of the UAVs are not required. The trajectories of avoidance obstacle can be obtained through two kinds of potential field with rotation vectors. Every UAV can choose the optimal trajectory to avoid the obstacle and reconfigure the formation after passing the obstacle. Simulations study on UAV are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed method.

  9. Apparent activation energy for creep controlled by jog-drag and cell-formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povolo, F.; Marzocca, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The expression for the apparent activation energy for creep controlled by jog-drag and cell-formation is given in terms of the parameters of the physical model. It is shown that, in general, this energy does not coincide with that for self-diffusion. The results are applied to actual experimental data obtained in stress-relieved Zircaloy-4 at 673 K. (orig.)

  10. Fixed geometric formation structure in formation control problem for group of robots with dynamically changing number of robots in the group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Morozova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a problem of the decentralization-based approach to formation control of a group of agents, which simulate mobile autonomous robots. The agents use only local information limited by the covering range of their sensors. The agents have to build and maintain the formation, which fits to the defined target geometric formation structure with desired accuracy during the movement to the target point. At any point in time the number of agents in the group can change unexpectedly (for example, as a result of the agent failure or if a new agent joins the group.The aim of the article is to provide the base control rule, which solves the formation control problem, and to develop its modifications, which provide the correct behavior in case the agent number in the group is not equal to the size of the target geometric formation structure. The proposed base control rule, developed by the author, uses the method of involving virtual leaders. The coordinates of the virtual leaders and also the priority to follow the specific leader are calculated by each agent itself according to specific rules.The following results are presented in the article: the base control rule for solving the formation control problem, its modifications for the cases when the number of agents is greater/less than the size of the target geometric formation structure and also the computer modeling results proving the efficiency of the modified control rules. The specific feature of the control rule, developed by the author, is that each agent itself calculates the virtual leaders and each agent performs dynamic choice of the place within the formation (there is no predefined one-to-one relation between agents and places within the geometric formation structure. The results, provided in this article, can be used in robotics for developing control algorithms for the tasks, which require preserving specific relational positions among the agents while moving. One of the

  11. Formation flying for electric sails in displaced orbits. Part II: Distributed coordinated control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Mengali, Giovanni; Quarta, Alessandro A.; Yuan, Jianping

    2017-09-01

    We analyze a cooperative control framework for electric sail formation flying around a heliocentric displaced orbit, aiming at observing the polar region of a celestial body. The chief spacecraft is assumed to move along an elliptic displaced orbit, while each deputy spacecraft adjusts its thrust vector (that is, both its sail attitude and characteristic acceleration) in order to track a prescribed relative trajectory. The relative motion of the electric sail formation system is formulated in the chief rotating frame, where the control inputs of each deputy are the relative sail attitude angles and the relative lightness number with respect to those of the chief. The information exchange among the spacecraft, characterized by the communication topology, is represented by a weighted graph. Two typical cases, according to whether the communication graph is directed or undirected, are discussed. For each case, a distributed coordinated control law is designed in such a way that each deputy not only tracks the chief state, but also makes full use of information from its neighbors, thus increasing the redundancy and robustness of the formation system in case of failure among the communication links. Illustrative examples show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. Control of daughter centriole formation by the pericentriolar material: Control of centriole duplication

    OpenAIRE

    Loncarek, Jadranka; Hergert, Polla; Magidson, Valentin; Khodjakov, Alexey

    2008-01-01

    Controlling the number of its centrioles is vital for the cell as supernumerary centrioles result in multipolar mitosis and genomic instability1,2. Normally, just one daughter centriole forms on each mature (mother) centriole3,4; however, a mother centriole can produce multiple daughters within a single cell cycle5,6. The mechanisms that prevent centriole ‘overduplication’ are poorly understood. Here we use laser microsurgery to test the hypothesis that attachment of the daughter centriole to...

  13. Clastic patterned ground in Lomonosov crater, Mars: examining fracture controlled formation mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Alexander M.; Balme, Matthew R.; Patel, Manish R.; Hagermann, Axel

    2017-10-01

    The area surrounding Lomonosov crater on Mars has a high density of seemingly organised boulder patterns. These form seemingly sorted polygons and stripes within kilometre scale blockfields, patches of boulder strewn ground which are common across the Martian high latitudes. Several hypotheses have been suggested to explain the formation of clastic patterned ground on Mars. It has been proposed that these structures could have formed through freeze-thaw sorting, or conversely by the interaction of boulders with underlying fracture polygons. In this investigation a series of sites were examined to evaluate whether boulder patterns appear to be controlled by the distribution of underlying fractures and test the fracture control hypotheses for their formation. It was decided to focus on this suite of mechanisms as they are characterised by a clear morphological relationship, namely the presence of an underlying fracture network which can easily be evaluated over a large area. It was found that in the majority of examples at these sites did not exhibit fracture control. Although fractures were present at many sites there were very few sites where the fracture network appeared to be controlling the boulder distribution. In general these were not the sites with the best examples of organization, suggesting that the fracture control mechanisms are not the dominant geomorphic process organising the boulders in this area.

  14. Circular Formation Control of Multiagent Systems with Any Preset Phase Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Jin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the circular formation control problem of multiagent systems for achieving any preset phase distribution. The control problem is decomposed into two parts: the first is to drive all the agents to a circle which either needs a target or not and the other is to arrange them in positions distributed on the circle according to the preset relative phases. The first part is solved by designing a circular motion control law to push the agents to approach a rotating transformed trajectory, and the other is settled using a phase-distributed protocol to decide the agents’ positioning on the circle, where the ring topology is adopted such that each agent can only sense the relative positions of its neighboring two agents that are immediately in front of or behind it. The stability of the closed-loop system is analyzed, and the performance of the proposed controller is verified through simulations.

  15. Using an ACTIVE teaching format versus a standard lecture format for increasing resident interaction and knowledge achievement during noon conference: a prospective, controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The traditional lecture is used by many residency programs to fulfill the mandate for regular didactic sessions, despite limited evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness. Active teaching strategies have shown promise in improving medical knowledge but have been challenging to implement within the constraints of residency training. We developed and evaluated an innovative structured format for interactive teaching within the residency noon conference. Methods We developed an ACTIVE teaching format structured around the following steps: assemble (A) into groups, convey (C) learning objectives, teach (T) background information, inquire (I) through cases and questions, verify (V) understanding, and explain (E) answer choices and educate on the learning points. We conducted a prospective, controlled study of the ACTIVE teaching format versus the standard lecture format, comparing resident satisfaction, immediate knowledge achievement and long-term knowledge retention. We qualitatively assessed participating faculty members’ perspectives on the faculty development efforts and the feasibility of teaching using the ACTIVE format. Results Sixty-nine internal medicine residents participated in the study. Overall, there was an improvement in perceived engagement using the ACTIVE teaching format (4.78 vs. 3.80, P teaching format (overall absolute score increase of 11%, P = 0.04) and a trend toward improvement in long-term knowledge retention. Faculty members felt adequately prepared to use the ACTIVE teaching format, and enjoyed teaching with the ACTIVE teaching format more than the standard lecture. Conclusions A structured ACTIVE teaching format improved resident engagement and initial knowledge, and required minimal resources. The ACTIVE teaching format offers an exciting alternative to the standard lecture for resident noon conference and is easy to implement. PMID:24985781

  16. Passive control of quorum sensing: prevention of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piletska, Elena V; Stavroulakis, Georgios; Larcombe, Lee D; Whitcombe, Michael J; Sharma, Anant; Primrose, Sandy; Robinson, Gary K; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2011-04-11

    Here we present the first molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) that is able to attenuate the biofilm formation of the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa through specific sequestration of its signal molecule N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C(12)-AHL). The MIP was rationally designed using computational modeling, and its capacity and specificity and that of a corresponding blank polymer toward signal molecule of P. aeruginosa (3-oxo-C(12)-AHL) and its analogue were tested. The biofilm formation in the presence of polymers and without polymers was studied using scanning confocal laser microscopy. Staining with crystal violet dye was used for the quantification of the biofilm formation. A significant reduction of the biofilm growth was observed in the presence of MIP (>80%), which was superior to that of the resin prepared without template, which showed a reduction of 40% in comparison with biofilm, which was grown without polymer addition. It was shown that 3-oxo-C(12)-AHL-specific MIP prevented the development of quorum-sensing-controlled phenotypes (in this case, biofilm formation) from being up-regulated. The developed MIP could be considered as a new tool for the elimination of life-threatening infections in a multitude of practical applications; it could, for example, be grafted on the surface of medical devices such as catheters and lenses, be a component of paints, or be used as a wound adsorbent.

  17. Implicit memory formation during routine anesthesia in children: a double-masked randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Xiuzhi; Smith, Katherine R; Sheppard, Suzette J; Bradshaw, Carolyn; Lo, Eric; Davidson, Andrew J

    2010-05-01

    Implicit memory cannot be consciously recalled but may be revealed by changes in behavior. There is evidence for implicit memory formation during anesthesia in adults, but several studies in children have found no evidence for implicit memory. This may be due to insensitive testing. Also many of these tests were undertaken under controlled conditions. It remains unknown whether implicit memory is formed during routine pediatric anesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is evidence of implicit memory formation during routine anesthesia in children, using a degraded auditory stimulus recognition task. Three hundred and twelve children, aged 5-12 yr, were randomly assigned to be played either a sheep sound or white noise continuously through headphones during general anesthesia. No attempt was made to standardize the anesthetic. On recovery, children were played a sheep sound degraded by a white noise mask that progressively decreased over 60 s, with the outcome being the time taken to correctly recognize the sheep sound. Three hundred children completed the task. A comparison of the distribution of recognition times between the two groups found little evidence that exposure to a sheep sound during anesthesia was associated with postoperative time to recognition of a degraded sheep sound (hazard ratio 1.14, 95% CI of 0.90-1.43, P = 0.28). No implicit memory formation during routine anesthesia was demonstrated in children. It is increasingly likely that the potential clinical implications of implicit memory formation are less of a concern for pediatric anesthetists.

  18. Differential microRNA Analysis of Glandular Trichomes and Young Leaves in Xanthium strumarium L. Reveals Their Putative Roles in Regulating Terpenoid Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rongyan; Li, Yuanjun; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plant Xanthium strumarium L. (X. strumarium) is covered with glandular trichomes, which are the sites for synthesizing pharmacologically active terpenoids such as xanthatin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 21-24 nucleotide (nt) non-coding RNAs, most of which are identified as regulators of plant growth development. Identification of miRNAs involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites remains limited. In this study, high-throughput Illumina sequencing, combined with target gene prediction, was performed to discover novel and conserved miRNAs with potential roles in regulating terpenoid biosynthesis in X. strumarium glandular trichomes. Two small RNA libraries from leaves and glandular trichomes of X. strumarium were established. In total, 1,185 conserved miRNAs and 37 novel miRNAs were identified, with 494 conserved miRNAs and 18 novel miRNAs being differentially expressed between the two tissue sources. Based on the X. strumarium transcriptome data that we recently constructed, 3,307 annotated mRNA transcripts were identified as putative targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis suggested that some of the differentially expressed miRNAs, including miR6435, miR5021 and miR1134, might be involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in the X. strumarium glandular trichomes. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of miRNAs in X. strumarium, which forms the basis for further understanding of miRNA-based regulation on terpenoid biosynthesis.

  19. Differential microRNA Analysis of Glandular Trichomes and Young Leaves in Xanthium strumarium L. Reveals Their Putative Roles in Regulating Terpenoid Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Rongyan; Li, Yuanjun; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plant Xanthium strumarium L. (X. strumarium) is covered with glandular trichomes, which are the sites for synthesizing pharmacologically active terpenoids such as xanthatin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 21-24 nucleotide (nt) non-coding RNAs, most of which are identified as regulators of plant growth development. Identification of miRNAs involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites remains limited. In this study, high-throughput Illumina sequencing, combined w...

  20. Differential microRNA Analysis of Glandular Trichomes and Young Leaves in Xanthium strumarium L. Reveals Their Putative Roles in Regulating Terpenoid Biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongyan Fan

    Full Text Available The medicinal plant Xanthium strumarium L. (X. strumarium is covered with glandular trichomes, which are the sites for synthesizing pharmacologically active terpenoids such as xanthatin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of 21-24 nucleotide (nt non-coding RNAs, most of which are identified as regulators of plant growth development. Identification of miRNAs involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites remains limited. In this study, high-throughput Illumina sequencing, combined with target gene prediction, was performed to discover novel and conserved miRNAs with potential roles in regulating terpenoid biosynthesis in X. strumarium glandular trichomes. Two small RNA libraries from leaves and glandular trichomes of X. strumarium were established. In total, 1,185 conserved miRNAs and 37 novel miRNAs were identified, with 494 conserved miRNAs and 18 novel miRNAs being differentially expressed between the two tissue sources. Based on the X. strumarium transcriptome data that we recently constructed, 3,307 annotated mRNA transcripts were identified as putative targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis suggested that some of the differentially expressed miRNAs, including miR6435, miR5021 and miR1134, might be involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in the X. strumarium glandular trichomes. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of miRNAs in X. strumarium, which forms the basis for further understanding of miRNA-based regulation on terpenoid biosynthesis.

  1. Robust Drones Formation Control in 5G Wireless Sensor Network Using mmWave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Meng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The drones formation control in 5G wireless sensor network is discussed. The base station (BS is used to receive backhaul position signals from the lead drone in formation and launches the beam to the lead one as the fronthaul flying signal enhancement. It is a promising approach to raise the formation strength of drones during flight control. The BS can transform the direction of the antennas and transmit energy to the lead drone that could widely enlarge the number of the receivers and increase the transmission speed of the data links. The millimeter-Wave (mmWave communication system offers new opportunities to meet this requirement owing to the tremendous amount of available spectrums. However, the massive non-line-of-sight (NLoS transmission and the site constraints in urban environment are severely challenging the conventional deploying terrestrial low power nodes (LPNs. Simulation experiments have been performed to verify the availability and effectiveness of mmWave in 5G wireless sensor network.

  2. Physics of turbulence control and transport barrier formation in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E.J.; Burrell, K.H.; Carlstrom, T.N.

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes the physical mechanisms responsible for turbulence control and transport barrier formation on DIII-D as determined from a synthesis of results from different enhanced confinement regimes, including quantitative and qualitative comparisons to theory. A wide range of DIII-D data support the hypothesis that a single underlying physical mechanism, turbulence suppression via E x B shear flow is playing an essential, though not necessarily unique, role in reducing turbulence and transport in all of the following improved confinement regimes: H-mode, VH-mode, high-ell i modes, improved performance counter-injection L-mode discharges and high performance negative central shear (NCS) discharges. DIII-D data also indicate that synergistic effects are important in some cases, as in NCS discharges where negative magnetic shear also plays a role in transport barrier formation. This work indicates that in order to control turbulence and transport it is important to focus on understanding physical mechanisms, such as E x B shear, which can regulate and control entire classes of turbulent modes, and thus control transport. In the highest performance DIII-D discharges, NCS plasmas with a VH-mode like edge, turbulence is suppressed at all radii, resulting in neoclassical levels of ion transport over most of the plasma volume

  3. Silver-indium-cadmium control rod behavior and aerosol formation in severe reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petti, D.A.

    1987-04-01

    Silver-indium-cadmium (Ag-In-Cd) control rod behavior and aerosol formation in severe reactor accidents are examined in an attempt to improve the methodology used to estimate reactor accident source terms. Control rod behavior in both in-pile and out-of-pile experiments is reviewed. A mechanistic model named VAPOR is developed that calculates the downward relocation and simultaneous vaporization behavior of the Ag-In-Cd alloy expected after control rod failure in a severe reactor accident. VAPOR is used to predict the release of silver, indium, and cadmium vapors expected in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) Severe Fuel Damage (SFD) 1-4 experiment. In addition, a sensitivity study is performed. Although cadmium is found to be the most volatile constituent of the alloy, all of the calculations predict that the rapid relocation of the alloy down to cooler portions of the core results in a small release for all three control rod alloy vapors. Potential aerosol formation mechanisms in a severe reactor accident are reviewed. Specifically, models for homogeneous, ion-induced, and heterogeneous nucleation are investigated. These models are applied to silver, cadmium, and CsI to examine the nucleation behavior of these three potential aerosol sources in a severe reactor accident and to illustrate the competition among these mechanisms for vapor depletion. The results indicate that aerosol formation in a severe reactor accident occurs in three stages. In the first stage, ion-induced nucleation causes aerosol generation. During the second stage, ion-induced and heterogeneous nucleation operates as competing pathways for gas-to-particle conversion until sufficient aerosol surface area is generated. In the third stage, ion-induced nucleation ceases; and heterogeneous nucleation becomes the dominant mechanism of gas-to-particle conversion until equilibrium is reached

  4. Precooking as a Control for Histamine Formation during the Processing of Tuna: An Industrial Process Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Farzana; Nolte, Fred; Colton, James; De Beer, John; Weddig, Lisa

    2018-02-23

    An experiment to validate the precooking of tuna as a control for histamine formation was carried out at a commercial tuna factory in Fiji. Albacore tuna ( Thunnus alalunga) were brought on board long-line catcher vessels alive, immediately chilled but never frozen, and delivered to an on-shore facility within 3 to 13 days. These fish were then allowed to spoil at 25 to 30°C for 21 to 25 h to induce high levels of histamine (>50 ppm), as a simulation of "worst-case" postharvest conditions, and subsequently frozen. These spoiled fish later were thawed normally and then precooked at a commercial tuna processing facility to a target maximum core temperature of 60°C. These tuna were then held at ambient temperatures of 19 to 37°C for up to 30 h, and samples were collected every 6 h for histamine analysis. After precooking, no further histamine formation was observed for 12 to 18 h, indicating that a conservative minimum core temperature of 60°C pauses subsequent histamine formation for 12 to 18 h. Using the maximum core temperature of 60°C provided a challenge study to validate a recommended minimum core temperature of 60°C, and 12 to 18 h was sufficient to convert precooked tuna into frozen loins or canned tuna. This industrial-scale process validation study provides support at a high confidence level for the preventive histamine control associated with precooking. This study was conducted with tuna deliberately allowed to spoil to induce high concentrations of histamine and histamine-forming capacity and to fail standard organoleptic evaluations, and the critical limits for precooking were validated. Thus, these limits can be used in a hazard analysis critical control point plan in which precooking is identified as a critical control point.

  5. Controlling formation of single-molecule junctions by electrochemical reduction of diazonium terminal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Thomas; Díez-Pérez, Ismael; Nakamura, Hisao; Shimazaki, Tomomi; Asai, Yoshihiro; Tao, Nongjian

    2013-03-06

    We report controlling the formation of single-molecule junctions by means of electrochemically reducing two axialdiazonium terminal groups on a molecule, thereby producing direct Au-C covalent bonds in situ between the molecule and gold electrodes. We report a yield enhancement in molecular junction formation as the electrochemical potential of both junction electrodes approach the reduction potential of the diazonium terminal groups. Step length analysis shows that the molecular junction is significantly more stable, and can be pulled over a longer distance than a comparable junction created with amine anchoring bonds. The stability of the junction is explained by the calculated lower binding energy associated with the direct Au-C bond compared with the Au-N bond.

  6. Parameters controlling fracturing distribution: example of an Upper Jurassic marly-calcareous formation (eastern Paris Basin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, G.; Rebours, H.; Wileveau, Y.; Proudhon, B.

    2006-01-01

    Study of fractures along a 490-m vertical section of marl/limestone alternations in the Upper Jurassic (Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory-eastern Paris Basin) reveals their organization and the different states of palaeo-stress. Type and extension of tectonic structures seem to be controlled principally by lithology and secondary by depth. Also, it appears deviations of Alpine palaeo-stresses between Kimmeridgian and Oxfordian formations. These deviations are related to the presence of marl/limestone contacts. The vertical evolution of current horizontal maximum stress shows a similar behaviour, with deviations at the walls of Callovo-Oxfordian argilites. These results allow us to point out and to discuss the impact of lithology, rheology and depth on fracturing occurrence and distribution. Furthermore, this study suggests the role of Callovo-Oxfordian as a barrier for fracture development between the limestones of Dogger and Oxfordian formations. (authors)

  7. Biofilm formation and control in a simulated spacecraft water system - Interim results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, John R.; Taylor, Robert D.; Flanagan, David T.; Gibbons, Randall E.; Brown, Harlan D.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of iodine to control microbial contamination and biofilm formation in spacecraft water distribution systems is studied using two stainless steel water subsystems. One subsystem has an iodine level of 2.5 mg/L maintained by an iodinated ion-exchange resin. The other subsystem has no iodine added. Stainless steel coupons are removed from each system to monitor biofilm formation. Results from the first six months of operation indicate that 2.5 mg/L of iodine has limited the number of viable bacteria that can be recovered from the iodinated subsystem. Epifluorescence microscopy of the coupons taken from this subsystem, however, indicates some evidence of microbial colonization after 15 weeks of operation. Numerous bacteria have been continually removed from both the water samples and the coupons taken from the noniodinated subsystem after only 3 weeks of operation.

  8. Control of lignin solubility and particle formation modulates its antioxidant efficiency in lipid medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barsberg, Søren Talbro; Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Sanadi, Anand Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Lignin is an abundant plant polymer usually regarded as waste material. In the present work, antioxidant properties of lignin preparations with differing lipid solubility were studied using biodiesel as a convenient lipid test substrate. In place of formerly used assays, we used attenuated total...... reflectance (ATR) FT-IR spectroscopy to follow in situ biodiesel autoxidation on a heated ATR crystal as a function of time. The study demonstrates that a complex balance between intrinsic (chemical) efficiency, solubility, and particle formation controls the antioxidant efficiency of differently prepared...... lignin fractions. It was found that solubility and particle formation of lignin preparations strongly modulate its antioxidant efficiency and that these properties might depend on the presence of lipid components within the original lignin source....

  9. Observations of ozone formation in power plant plumes and implications for ozone control strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryerson, T.B.; Trainer, M.; Holloway, J.S.; Parrish, D.D.; Huey, L.G.; Sueper, D.T.; Frost, G.J.; Donnelly, S.G.; Schauffler, S.; Atlas, E.L.; Kuster, W.C.; Goldan, P.D.; Huebler, G.; Meagher, J.F.; Fehsenfeld, F.C. [NOAA, Boulder, CO (USA). Aeronomy Lab.

    2001-04-27

    Data taken in aircraft transects of emissions plumes from rural US coal-fired power plants were used to confirm and quantify the nonlinear dependence of tropospheric ozone formation on plume NOx (NO plus NO{sub 2}) concentration, which is determined by plant NOx emission rate and atmospheric dispersion. The ambient availability of reactive volatile organic compounds, principally biogenic isoprene, was also found to modular ozone production rate and yield in these rural plumes. Differences of a factor of 2 or greater in plume ozone formation rates and yields as a function of NOx and volatile organic compound concentrations were consistently observed. These large differences suggest that consideration of power plant NOx emission rates and geographic locations in current and future US ozone control strategies could substantially enhance the efficacy of NOx reductions from these sources. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Generalized Momentum Control of the Spin-Stabilized Magnetospheric Multiscale Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Steven Z.; Shah, Neerav; Benegalrao, Suyog S.; Blackman, Kathie

    2015-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four identically instrumented, spin-stabilized observatories elliptically orbiting the Earth in a tetrahedron formation. The on-board attitude control system adjusts the angular momentum of the system using a generalized thruster-actuated control system that simultaneously manages precession, nutation and spin. Originally developed using Lyapunov control-theory with rate-feedback, a published algorithm has been augmented to provide a balanced attitude/rate response using a single weighting parameter. This approach overcomes an orientation sign-ambiguity in the existing formulation, and also allows for a smoothly tuned-response applicable to both a compact/agile spacecraft, as well as one with large articulating appendages.

  11. Assessing efficiency of formation of the bank’s system of financial controlling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmutova Irina N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a scientific and methodical approach to assessment of efficiency of formation of the bank’s system of financial controlling, which takes into account two components – assessment of efficiency of team work on introduction of financial controlling as an investment project. This would allow identification of expediency of investments into the project on introduction and taking into account not only professional level of the team but also psychological distinctive features of its each member. In order to determine correlations of the assessment components the article forms a matrix that would serve as a basis for development of the necessary complex of actions with respect to increase of the bank’s financial controlling efficiency.

  12. Influence of controlled immediate loading and implant design on peri-implant bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandamme, Katleen; Naert, Ignace; Geris, Liesbet; Vander Sloten, Jozef; Puers, Robert; Duyck, Joke

    2007-02-01

    Tissue formation at the implant interface is known to be sensitive to mechanical stimuli. The aim of the study was to compare the bone formation around immediately loaded versus unloaded implants in two different implant macro-designs. A repeated sampling bone chamber with a central implant was installed in the tibia of 10 rabbits. Highly controlled loading experiments were designed for a cylindrical (CL) and screw-shaped (SL) implant, while the unloaded screw-shaped (SU) implant served as a control. An F-statistic model with alpha=5% determined statistical significance. A significantly higher bone area fraction was observed for SL compared with SU (pimplant contact occurred was the highest for SL and significantly different from SU (pimplant contact was observed, a loading (SL versus SU: p=0.0049) as well as an implant geometry effect (SL versus CL: p=0.01) was found, in favour of the SL condition. Well-controlled immediate implant loading accelerates tissue mineralization at the interface. Adequate bone stimulation via mechanical coupling may account for the larger bone response around the screw-type implant compared with the cylindrical implant.

  13. Chemical-Reaction-Controlled Phase Separated Drops: Formation, Size Selection, and Coarsening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, Jean David; Lee, Chiu Fan

    2018-02-01

    Phase separation under nonequilibrium conditions is exploited by biological cells to organize their cytoplasm but remains poorly understood as a physical phenomenon. Here, we study a ternary fluid model in which phase-separating molecules can be converted into soluble molecules, and vice versa, via chemical reactions. We elucidate using analytical and simulation methods how drop size, formation, and coarsening can be controlled by the chemical reaction rates, and categorize the qualitative behavior of the system into distinct regimes. Ostwald ripening arrest occurs above critical reaction rates, demonstrating that this transition belongs entirely to the nonequilibrium regime. Our model is a minimal representation of the cell cytoplasm.

  14. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz R.S. Tozin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  15. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozin, Luiz R S; Marques, Marcia O M; Rodrigues, Tatiane M

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  16. Comparative glandular trichome transcriptome-based gene characterization reveals reasons for differential (-)-menthol biosynthesis in Mentha species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Md Qussen; Qamar, Nida; Yadav, Pallavi; Kulkarni, Pallavi; Kumar, Ajay; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2017-06-01

    The genes involved in menthol biosynthesis are reported earlier in Mentha × piperita. But the information on these genes is not available in Mentha arvensis. To bridge the gap in knowledge on differential biosynthesis of monoterpenes leading to compositional variation in the essential oil of these species, a comparative transcriptome analysis of the glandular trichome (GT) was carried out. In addition to the mevalonic acid (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway genes, about 210 and 196 different terpene synthases (TPSs) transcripts were identified from annotation in M. arvensis and M. × piperita, respectively, and correlated to several monoterpenes present in the essential oil. Six isoforms of (-)-menthol dehydrogenases (MD), the last enzyme of the menthol biosynthetic pathway, were identified, cloned and characterized from the transcriptome data (three from each species). Varied expression levels and differential enzyme kinetics of these isoforms indicated the nature and composition of the product, as these isoforms generate both (-)-menthol and (+)-neomenthol from (-)-menthone and converts (-)-menthol to (-)-menthone in the reverse reaction, and hence together determine the quantity of (-)-menthol in the essential oil in these two species. Several genes for high value minor monoterpenes could also be identified from the transcriptome data. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  17. Distributed Adaptive Finite-Time Approach for Formation-Containment Control of Networked Nonlinear Systems Under Directed Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujuan; Song, Yongduan; Ren, Wei

    2017-07-06

    This paper presents a distributed adaptive finite-time control solution to the formation-containment problem for multiple networked systems with uncertain nonlinear dynamics and directed communication constraints. By integrating the special topology feature of the new constructed symmetrical matrix, the technical difficulty in finite-time formation-containment control arising from the asymmetrical Laplacian matrix under single-way directed communication is circumvented. Based upon fractional power feedback of the local error, an adaptive distributed control scheme is established to drive the leaders into the prespecified formation configuration in finite time. Meanwhile, a distributed adaptive control scheme, independent of the unavailable inputs of the leaders, is designed to keep the followers within a bounded distance from the moving leaders and then to make the followers enter the convex hull shaped by the formation of the leaders in finite time. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is confirmed by the simulation.

  18. HmsC Controls Yersinia pestis Biofilm Formation in Response to Redox Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai-Xian Ren

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis biofilm formation, controlled by intracellular levels of the second messenger molecule cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP, is important for blockage-dependent plague transmission from fleas to mammals. HmsCDE is a tripartite signaling system that modulates intracellular c-di-GMP levels to regulate biofilm formation in Y. pestis. Previously, we found that Y. pestis biofilm formation is stimulated in reducing environments in an hmsCDE-dependent manner. However, the mechanism by which HmsCDE senses the redox state remains elusive. Using a dsbA mutant and the addition of Cu2+ to simulate reducing and oxidizing periplasmic environments, we found that HmsC protein levels are decreased and the HmsC-HmsD protein-protein interaction is weakened in a reducing environment. In addition, we revealed that intraprotein disulphide bonds are critical for HmsC since breakage lowers protein stability and diminishes the interaction with HmsD. Our results suggest that HmsC might play a major role in sensing the environmental changes.

  19. Formation, precursors, control, and occurrence of nitrosamines in drinking water: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasner, Stuart W; Mitch, William A; McCurry, Daniel L; Hanigan, David; Westerhoff, Paul

    2013-09-01

    This review summarizes major findings over the last decade related to nitrosamines in drinking water, with a particular focus on N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), because it is among the most widely detected nitrosamines in drinking waters. The reaction of inorganic dichloramine with amine precursors is likely the dominant mechanism responsible for NDMA formation in drinking waters. Even when occurrence surveys found NDMA formation in chlorinated drinking waters, it is unclear whether chloramination resulted from ammonia in the source waters. NDMA formation has been associated with the use of quaternary amine-based coagulants and anion exchange resins, and wastewater-impaired source waters. Specific NDMA precursors in wastewater-impacted source waters may include tertiary amine-containing pharmaceuticals or other quaternary amine-containing constituents of personal care products. Options for nitrosamine control include physical removal of precursors by activated carbon or precursor deactivation by application of oxidants, particularly ozone or chlorine, upstream of chloramination. Although NDMA has been the most prevalent nitrosamine detected in worldwide occurrence surveys, it may account for only ≈ 5% of all nitrosamines in chloraminated drinking waters. Other significant contributors to total nitrosamines are poorly characterized. However, high levels of certain low molecular weight nitrosamines have been detected in certain Chinese waters suspected to be impaired by industrial effluents. The review concludes by identifying research needs that should be addressed over the next decade. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Controlled formation of iron carbides and their performance in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Wezendonk, Tim A.

    2018-04-19

    Iron carbides are unmistakably associated with the active phase for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS). The formation of these carbides is highly dependent on the catalyst formulation, the activation method and the operational conditions. Because of this highly dynamic behavior, studies on active phase performance often lack the direct correlation between catalyst performance and iron carbide phase. For the above reasons, an extensive in situ Mössbauer spectroscopy study on highly dispersed Fe on carbon catalysts (Fe@C) produced through pyrolysis of a Metal Organic Framework was coupled to their FTS performance testing. The preparation of Fe@C catalysts via this MOF mediated synthesis allows control over the active phase formation and therefore provides an ideal model system to study the performance of different iron carbides. Reduction of fresh Fe@C followed by low-temperature Fischer-Tropsch (LTFT) conditions resulted in the formation of the ε′-Fe2.2C, whereas carburization of the fresh catalysts under high-temperature Fischer-Tropsch (HTFT) resulted in the formation of χ-Fe5C2. Furthermore, the different activation methods did not alter other important catalyst properties, as pre- and post-reaction transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization confirmed that the iron nanoparticle dispersion was preserved. The weight normalized activities (FTY) of χ-Fe5C2 and ε′-Fe2.2C are virtually identical, whilst it is found that ε′-Fe2.2C is a better hydrogenation catalyst than χ-Fe5C2. The absence of differences under subsequent HTFT experiments, where χ-Fe5C2 is the dominating phase, is a strong indication that the iron carbide phase is responsible for the differences in selectivity.

  1. Consumer preferences in format and type of community-based weight control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, N E; Morton, N; Jeffery, R W; French, S A; Neumark-Sztainer, D; Falkner, N H

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide further information about preferences for types and formats (e.g., correspondence vs. face to face) of eating and exercise programs, actual participation rates in a variety of offered programs, and characteristics of program participants vs. nonparticipants. Over a 3-year period, a large sample of community volunteers was given the opportunity to participate in various forms of diet and exercise programs as part of a weight gain prevention study. The study was conducted at a university and three local health department sites. Subjects in the study were 616 individuals participating in the Pound of Prevention study (POP), a 3-year randomized evaluation of an intervention for preventing weight gain. The primary outcomes assessed were participation rates for each program offering. Program participants were also compared to those who did not participate on demographic characteristics, smoking, diet behavior, exercise behavior, and weight concern. Survey results indicated that correspondence formats for delivery of health education programs were rated as more desirable than face-to-face formats. Participation for program offering ranged from 0 to 16% of the study population. Participation data were consistent with survey results and showed participants' preference for correspondence formats even more strongly. Program offering attracted health-conscious participants with higher education and income levels. These data suggest that some community members will get interested and take part in low-cost, minimal contact programs for exercise and weight control. Future research efforts should focus on investigating ways to increase participation in brief or minimal contact programs, particularly among groups that may be difficult to reach and at high risk for the development of obesity.

  2. Formation of the Project Team on Introduction of Financial Controlling into Banking Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmutova Iryna M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies order and content of stages of formation of the project team of introduction of financial controlling into banking activity. It offers a procedure of identification of the qualitative team composition, which envisages selection of candidates with the use of rules of fuzzy logical conclusion for assessing three groups of competences: personal (initiative, communication ability, creative ability, purposefulness and responsibility; common managerial (ability to work in a team, ability to manage conflicts, ability to manage, strategic thinking ability, ability to plan team work and distribute rights and obligations and co-ordinate work; special managerial (ability to justify and make decisions under conditions of uncertainty and dynamism, analytical abilities, ability to master new directions and methods of work and use them, skills and ability to form justified recommendations, special knowledge – theoretical grounds and recommendations of modern science with respect to introduction of controlling.

  3. Role of photoexcited nitrogen dioxide chemistry on ozone formation and emission control strategy over the Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new hydroxyl radical formation pathway via photo-excited nitrogen dioxide chemistry is incorporated into a chemistry-only box model as well as a 3D air quality model to examine its potential role on ozone formation and emission control strategy over the Pearl River Delta region...

  4. Control of dew and frost formation on leaf by radiative cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, T.; Eguchi, H.; Mori, K.

    1981-01-01

    A radiative cooling system was developed to control dew and frost formations and to examine the effect of the radiative cooling on the leaf temperature. The growth chamber was provided with a box which was constructed by using heat insulating materials to minimize the disturbances and to regulate the air current. A cooling coil (cooling surface of 300 cm was equipped at the bottom of the box and manipulated by a refrigerator of 1, 430 kcal hour -1 , and a concave mirror was attached to the ceiling of the box to facilitate the reflection of the radiation from the leaf to the cooling coil. The moisture in air was supplied by flowing the controlled air (0.2 m min -1 ) into the box. The distribution of dew point temperatures was almost uniform horizontally even under vertically slight conversion (downward velocity of 1.3 cm sec -1 ) of the air. The leaf temperature became about 1.0°C lower than the ambient air temperature under the radiative cooling. The dew and the frost were clearly observed on the leaf after the time when the leaf temperature had become lower than the dew point temperature. The dew increased in size in course of time, and the frost varied in shape and in size with the temperatures. Thus, artificial formations of the dew and the frost were made possible by the radiative cooling system developed in this experiment

  5. Self-organized 3D equilibrium formation and its feedback control in RFX-mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piovesan, P.; Bonfiglio, D.; Marrelli, L.; Soppelsa, A.; Spolaore, M.; Terranova, D.

    2014-01-01

    The reversed-field pinch exhibits a strong tendency to self-organize into a helical equilibrium as the plasma current is increased. The helical reversed-field pinch is characterized by reduced magnetic stochasticity and by the formation of electron internal transport barriers. The paper gives an update on recent experimental and modelling work on helical states in RFX-mod (Sonato et al 2003 Fusion Eng. Des. 66 161), also discussing similarities with 3D equilibria in tokamaks. The helical equilibrium is modelled with 3D codes developed for stellarators, such as VMEC/V3FIT. The reconstructed safety factor profile has low or reversed magnetic shear in the core, which may be related to transport barrier formation. A significant extension of the RFX-mod database to high current and density confirms the dependence observed before of various helical state properties on macroscopic quantities. Even under conditions where it does not form spontaneously, such as at low current or high density, the 3D magnetic equilibrium can be stimulated and robustly controlled with external fields applied by an extensive set of non axi-symmetric coils. An advanced magnetic feedback algorithm that compensates for error fields induced by eddy currents in the 3D wall structures has been developed. This work stimulated similar experiments in RFX-mod run as a tokamak, where external 3D fields are applied to control a m = 1/n = 1 helical equilibrium. (paper)

  6. Topology Control Algorithms for Spacecraft Formation Flying Networks Under Connectivity and Time-Delay Constraints, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI is proposing to develop, test and deliver a set of topology control algorithms and software for a formation flying spacecraft that can be used to design and...

  7. Reversible formation of aminals: a new strategy to control the release of bioactive volatiles from dynamic mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Guillaume; Levrand, Barbara; Trachsel, Alain; Lehn, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, Andreas

    2010-05-14

    Dynamic mixtures generated by reversible aminal formation of fragrance aldehydes with N,N-dibenzyl alkyldiamines in aqueous systems were found to be suitable delivery systems for the controlled release of bioactive volatiles.

  8. Novel Approaches for Spacecraft Formation Robustness and Performance using Distributed Estimation, Control and Communication, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Formation flight can provide the benefits of a large effective telescope using precision formation flying of smaller, lower cost, collaborating telescopes. A...

  9. Internal hydraulic control in the Little Belt, Denmark - observations of flow configurations and water mass formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtegaard Nielsen, Morten; Vang, Torben; Chresten Lund-Hansen, Lars

    2017-12-01

    Internal hydraulic control, which occurs when stratified water masses are forced through an abrupt constriction, plays an enormous role in nature on both large and regional scales with respect to dynamics, circulation, and water mass formation. Despite a growing literature on this subject surprisingly few direct observations have been made that conclusively show the existence of and the circumstances related to internal hydraulic control in nature. In this study we present observations from the Little Belt, Denmark, one of three narrow straits connecting the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. The observations (comprised primarily of along-strait, detailed transects of salinity and temperature; continuous observations of flow velocity, salinity, and temperature at a permanent station; and numerous vertical profiles of salinity, temperature, fluorescence, and flow velocity in various locations) show that internal hydraulic control is a frequently occurring phenomenon in the Little Belt. The observations, which are limited to south-going flows of approximately two-layered water masses, show that internal hydraulic control may take either of two configurations, i.e. the lower or the upper layer being the active, accelerating one. This is connected to the depth of the pycnocline on the upstream side and the topography, which is both deepening and contracting toward the narrow part of the Little Belt. The existence of two possible flow configurations is known from theoretical and laboratory studies, but we believe that this has never been observed in nature and reported before. The water masses formed by the intense mixing, which is tightly connected with the presence of control, may be found far downstream of the point of control. The observations show that these particular water masses are associated with chlorophyll concentrations that are considerably higher than in adjacent water masses, showing that control has a considerable influence on the primary production and

  10. Efficacy of a triclosan formula in controlling early subgingival biofilm formation: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto ANDRADE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of rinses with slurries of a dentifrice containing triclosan (TCS, as compared with rinses with slurries from a control dentifrice, in controlling early subgingival biofilm formation. A double-blind, randomized and cross-over clinical trial was designed, and 26 dental students were included. In the first period, participants were randomized to rinse with a TCS slurry or a control slurry, in a 12 h interval, and to refrain from mechanical cleaning. A Plaque Free Zone Index was assessed at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h. After a washout period of 10 days, the second experimental period was conducted, following the same protocol as the first period, except that the slurry groups were switched. Use of the TCS slurry resulted in a significantly higher percentage of plaque-free surfaces, both at 24 h and at 72 h (p < 0.01. In the of 48-72 h interval, the triclosan slurry showed a lower percentage of sites converted to a score of 2 (38.1% for the testversus 40% for the control product, p = 0.015. In conclusion, rinsing with slurries of dentifrice containing TCS retards the down growth of bacterial biofilms from the supra- to the subgingival environment.

  11. Geologic controls on the formation of lakes in north-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindinger, Jack G.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Flocks, James G.; Pitman, Janet K.; Carroll, Alan R.

    1998-01-01

    Fluid exchange between surficial waters and groundwater, as well as the processes that control this exchange, are of critical concern to water management districts and planners. Digital high-resolution seismic systems were used to collect geophysical data from 30 lakes of north-central Florida. Although using seismic profile data in the past has been less than successful, the use of digital technology has increased the potential for success. Seismic profiles collected from the lakes of north-central Florida have shown the potential application of these techniques in understanding the formation of individual lakes. In each case study, lake structure and geomorphology were controlled by solution and/or mechanical processes. Processes that control lake development are twofold: 1) karstification or dissolution of the underlying limestone, and 2) me collapse, subsidence, or slumping of overburden to form sinkholes. Initial lake formation is directly related to the karst topography of the underlying host limestone. Lake size and shape are a factor of the thickness of overburden and size of the collapse or subsidence and/or clustering of depressions allowing for lake development. Lake development is through progressive sequence stages to maturity that can be delineated into geomorphic types. Case studies have shown that lakes can be divided by geomorphic types into progressive developmental phases: (1) active subsidence or collapse phase (young) - the open to partially filled collapse structures typically associated with sink holes; (2) transitional phase (middle age) - the sinkhole is plugged as the voids within the collapse are filled with sediment, periodic reactivation may occur; (3) baselevel phase (mature) - active sinkholes are progressively plugged by the continual erosion of material into the basin, and eventually sediment fills the basins; and (4) polje (drowned prairie) - broad flat-bottom basins located within the epiphreatic zone that are inundated at high

  12. Healthy habits: efficacy of simple advice on weight control based on a habit-formation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, P; Chipperfield, A; Wardle, J

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a simple weight loss intervention, based on principles of habit formation. An exploratory trial in which overweight and obese adults were randomized either to a habit-based intervention condition (with two subgroups given weekly vs monthly weighing; n=33, n=36) or to a waiting-list control condition (n=35) over 8 weeks. Intervention participants were followed up for 8 months. A total of 104 adults (35 men, 69 women) with an average BMI of 30.9 kg m(-2). Intervention participants were given a leaflet containing advice on habit formation and simple recommendations for eating and activity behaviours promoting negative energy balance, together with a self-monitoring checklist. Weight change over 8 weeks in the intervention condition compared with the control condition and weight loss maintenance over 32 weeks in the intervention condition. At 8 weeks, people in the intervention condition had lost significantly more weight (mean=2.0 kg) than those in the control condition (0.4 kg), with no difference between weekly and monthly weighing subgroups. At 32 weeks, those who remained in the study had lost an average of 3.8 kg, with 54% losing 5% or more of their body weight. An intention-to-treat analysis (based on last-observation-carried-forward) reduced this to 2.6 kg, with 26% achieving a 5% weight loss. This easily disseminable, low-cost, simple intervention produced clinically significant weight loss. In limited resource settings it has potential as a tool for obesity management.

  13. Microstructures imply cataclasis and authigenic mineral formation control geomechanical properties of New Zealand's Alpine Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, B.; Janssen, C.; Schleicher, A. M.; Toy, V. G.; Dresen, G.

    2018-05-01

    The Alpine Fault is capable of generating large (MW > 8) earthquakes and is the main geohazard on South Island, NZ, and late in its 250-291-year seismic cycle. To minimize its hazard potential, it is indispensable to identify and understand the processes influencing the geomechanical behavior and strength-evolution of the fault. High-resolution microstructural, mineralogical and geochemical analyses of the Alpine Fault's core demonstrate wall rock fragmentation, assisted by mineral dissolution, and cementation resulting in the formation of a fine-grained principal slip zone (PSZ). A complex network of anastomosing and mutually cross-cutting calcite veins implies that faulting occurred during episodes of dilation, slip and sealing. Fluid-assisted dilatancy leads to a significant volume increase accommodated by vein formation in the fault core. Undeformed euhedral chlorite crystals and calcite veins that have cut footwall gravels demonstrate that these processes occurred very close to the Earth's surface. Microstructural evidence indicates that cataclastic processes dominate the deformation and we suggest that powder lubrication and grain rolling, particularly influenced by abundant nanoparticles, play a key role in the fault core's velocity-weakening behavior rather than frictional sliding. This is further supported by the absence of smectite, which is reasonable given recently measured geothermal gradients of more than 120 °C km-1 and the impermeable nature of the PSZ, which both limit the growth of this phase and restrict its stability to shallow depths. Our observations demonstrate that high-temperature fluids can influence authigenic mineral formation and thus control the fault's geomechanical behavior and the cyclic evolution of its strength.

  14. Rho kinase activity controls directional cell movements during primitive streak formation in the rabbit embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankova, Viktoria; Tsikolia, Nikoloz; Viebahn, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    During animal gastrulation, the specification of the embryonic axes is accompanied by epithelio-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the first major change in cell shape after fertilization. EMT takes place in disparate topographical arrangements, such as the circular blastopore of amphibians, the straight primitive streak of birds and mammals or in intermediate gastrulation forms of other amniotes such as reptiles. Planar cell movements are prime candidates to arrange specific modes of gastrulation but there is no consensus view on their role in different vertebrate classes. Here, we test the impact of interfering with Rho kinase-mediated cell movements on gastrulation topography in blastocysts of the rabbit, which has a flat embryonic disc typical for most mammals. Time-lapse video microscopy, electron microscopy, gene expression and morphometric analyses of the effect of inhibiting ROCK activity showed - besides normal specification of the organizer region - a dose-dependent disruption of primitive streak formation; this disruption resulted in circular, arc-shaped or intermediate forms, reminiscent of those found in amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Our results reveal a crucial role of ROCK-controlled directional cell movements during rabbit primitive streak formation and highlight the possibility that temporal and spatial modulation of cell movements were instrumental for the evolution of gastrulation forms. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Nitrogen conservation and acidity control during food wastes composting through struvite formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Chan, Manting; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2013-11-01

    One of the main problems of food waste composting is the intensive acidification due to initial rapid fermentation that retards decomposition efficiency. Lime addition overcame this problem, but resulted in significant loss of nitrogen as ammonia that reduces the nutrient contents of composts. Therefore, this study investigated the feasibility of struvite formation as a strategy to control pH and reduce nitrogen loss during food waste composting. MgO and K2HPO4 were added to food waste in different molar ratios (P1, 1:1; P2, 1:2), and composted in 20-L composters. Results indicate that K2HPO4 buffered the pH in treatment P2 besides supplementing phosphate into the compost. In P2, organic decomposition reached 64% while the formation of struvite effectively reduced the nitrogen loss from 40.8% to 23.3% during composting. However, electrical conductivity of the compost increased due to the addition of Mg and P salts that requires further investigation to improve this technology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Air pollution control and decreasing new particle formation lead to strong climate warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Makkonen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The number concentration of cloud droplets determines several climatically relevant cloud properties. A major cause for the high uncertainty in the indirect aerosol forcing is the availability of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN, which in turn is highly sensitive to atmospheric new particle formation. Here we present the effect of new particle formation on anthropogenic aerosol forcing in present-day (year 2000 and future (year 2100 conditions. The present-day total aerosol forcing is increased from −1.0 W m−2 to −1.6 W m−2 when nucleation is introduced into the model. Nucleation doubles the change in aerosol forcing between years 2000 and 2100, from +0.6 W m−2 to +1.4 W m−2. Two climate feedbacks are studied, resulting in additional negative forcings of −0.1 W m−2 (+10% DMS emissions in year 2100 and −0.5 W m−2 (+50% BVOC emissions in year 2100. With the total aerosol forcing diminishing in response to air pollution control measures taking effect, warming from increased greenhouse gas concentrations can potentially increase at a very rapid rate.

  17. Air pollution control and decreasing new particle formation lead to strong climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkonen, R.; Asmi, A.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Boy, M.; Arneth, A.; Hari, P.; Kulmala, M.

    2012-02-01

    The number concentration of cloud droplets determines several climatically relevant cloud properties. A major cause for the high uncertainty in the indirect aerosol forcing is the availability of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), which in turn is highly sensitive to atmospheric new particle formation. Here we present the effect of new particle formation on anthropogenic aerosol forcing in present-day (year 2000) and future (year 2100) conditions. The present-day total aerosol forcing is increased from -1.0 W m-2 to -1.6 W m-2 when nucleation is introduced into the model. Nucleation doubles the change in aerosol forcing between years 2000 and 2100, from +0.6 W m-2 to +1.4 W m-2. Two climate feedbacks are studied, resulting in additional negative forcings of -0.1 W m-2 (+10% DMS emissions in year 2100) and -0.5 W m-2 (+50% BVOC emissions in year 2100). With the total aerosol forcing diminishing in response to air pollution control measures taking effect, warming from increased greenhouse gas concentrations can potentially increase at a very rapid rate.

  18. The Secreted Protease PrtA Controls Cell Growth, Biofilm Formation and Pathogenicity in Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouran, Hossein; Gillespie, Hyrum; Nascimento, Rafael; Chakraborty, Sandeep; Zaini, Paulo A; Jacobson, Aaron; Phinney, Brett S; Dolan, David; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P; Antonova, Elena S; Lindow, Steven E; Mellema, Matthew S; Goulart, Luiz R; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2016-08-05

    Pierce's disease (PD) is a deadly disease of grapevines caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Though disease symptoms were formerly attributed to bacteria blocking the plant xylem, this hypothesis is at best overly simplistic. Recently, we used a proteomic approach to characterize the secretome of X. fastidiosa, both in vitro and in planta, and identified LesA as one of the pathogenicity factors of X. fastidiosa in grapevines that leads to leaf scorching and chlorosis. Herein, we characterize another such factor encoded by PD0956, designated as an antivirulence secreted protease "PrtA" that displays a central role in controlling in vitro cell proliferation, length, motility, biofilm formation, and in planta virulence. The mutant in X. fastidiosa exhibited reduced cell length, hypermotility (and subsequent lack of biofilm formation) and hypervirulence in grapevines. These findings are supported by transcriptomic and proteomic analyses with corresponding plant infection data. Of particular interest, is the hypervirulent response in grapevines observed when X. fastidiosa is disrupted for production of PrtA, and that PD-model tobacco plants transformed to express PrtA exhibited decreased symptoms after infection by X. fastidiosa.

  19. Evolution of Xihulitu basin and its control to uranium ore-formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Qingyin; Li Ziying; Dong Wenming

    2003-01-01

    There is a close relationship between basin filling succession and evolution of the basin. Characteristics of basin evolution can be studied by analyzing the basin filling succession. Two major periods are recognized according to the filling succession and subsequent alteration of the Xihulitu Basin. Evolutionary characteristics of each stage of the basin formation and alteration have been discussed in details. The types and special distribution of uranium metallization are controlled by the scale, connection degree and distribution of sandstone units and impermeable mudstone beds. The environment of uranium ore-formation became favorable as the faults modified the hydrodynamic condition. The basin had been uplifted for a long time after it was filled. Intergranular pores are not destroyed due to the weak mechanical compaction, which is beneficial to groundwater penetrating. Montmorillonitization and zeolitization in some sandstone units are strong because of the high content of volcanic fragments. The major uranium metallization is the phreatic oxidation type. The northern zone of the second sub-basin in the central section of the basin is regarded as the first perspective target for subsequent exploration. (authors)

  20. Coherent control of the formation of cold heteronuclear molecules by photoassociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Emanuel F.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the formation of cold diatomic molecules in the electronic ground state by photoassociation of atoms of dissimilar species. A combination of two transition pathways from the free colliding pair of atoms to a bound vibrational level of the electronic molecular ground state is envisioned. The first pathway consists of a pump-dump scheme with two time-delayed laser pulses in the near-infrared frequency domain. The pump pulse drives the transition to a bound vibrational level of an excited electronic state, while the dump pulse transfers the population to a bound vibrational level of the electronic ground state. The second pathway takes advantage of the existing permanent dipole moment and employs a single pulse in the far-infrared domain to drive the transition from the unbound atoms directly to a bound vibrational level in the electronic ground state. We show that this scheme offers the possibility to coherently control the photoassociation yield by manipulating the relative phase and timing of the pulses. The photoassociation mechanism is illustrated for the formation of cold LiCs molecules.

  1. Role of cellular oxalate in oxalate clearance of patients with calcium oxalate monohydrate stone formation and normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlschläger, Sven; Fuessel, Susanne; Meye, Axel; Herrmann, Jana; Froehner, Michael; Albrecht, Steffen; Wirth, Manfred P

    2009-03-01

    To examine the cellular, plasma, and urinary oxalate and erythrocyte oxalate flux in patients with calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stone formation vs normal controls. Pathologic oxalate clearance in humans is mostly integrated in calcium oxalate stone formation. An underlying cause of deficient oxalate clearance could be defective transmembrane oxalate transport, which, in many tissues, is regulated by an anion exchanger (SLC26). We studied 2 groups: 40 normal controls and 41 patients with COM stone formation. Red blood cells were divided for cellular oxalate measurement and for resuspension in a buffered solution (pH 7.40); 0.1 mmol/L oxalate was added. The supernatant was measured for oxalate immediately and 1 hour after incubation. The plasma and urinary oxalate were analyzed in parallel. The mean cellular oxalate concentrations were significantly greater in the normal controls (5.25 +/- 0.47 micromol/L) than in those with COM stone formation (2.36 +/- 0.28 micromol/L; P stone formation (0.31 +/- 0.02 mmol/L) than in the controls (0.24 +/- 0.02 mmol/L; P r = 0.49-0.63; P r = -0.29-0.41; P r = -0.30; P r = 0.25; P stone formation. Our data implicate the presence of a cellular oxalate buffer to stabilize plasma and urinary oxalate concentrations in normal controls.

  2. Substrate Lattice-Guided Seed Formation Controls the Orientation of 2D Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Aljarb, Areej

    2017-08-07

    Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDCs) semiconductors are important for next-generation electronics and optoelectronics. Given the difficulty in growing large single crystals of 2D TMDC materials, understanding the factors affecting the seed formation and orientation becomes an important issue for controlling the growth. Here, we systematically study the growth of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) monolayer on c-plane sapphire with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to discover the factors controlling their orientation. We show that the concentration of precursors, i.e., the ratio between sulfur and molybdenum oxide (MoO3), plays a key role in the size and orientation of seeds, subsequently controlling the orientation of MoS2 monolayers. High S/MoO3 ratio is needed in the early stage of growth to form small seeds that can align easily to the substrate lattice structures while the ratio should be decreased to enlarge the size of the monolayer at the next stage of the lateral growth. Moreover, we show that the seeds are actually crystalline MoS2 layers as revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. There exist two preferred orientations (0° or 60°) registered on sapphire, confirmed by our density functional theory (DFT) simulation. This report offers a facile technique to grow highly aligned 2D TMDCs and contributes to knowledge advancement in growth mechanism.

  3. No contaminant methods for the bio films formation control on metallic surfaces of industrial interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez de Saravia, S. G.; Guiamet, P. S.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper was the control of aerobic and anaerobic bacterial biofilms formation on metal surfaces of industrial interest such as stainless steel and mild steel. A natural biocida obtained of an aqueous extract of seeds of black mustard (Brassica nigra) and mixtures of immunoglobulins IgA, IgG, and IgM were used. Microscopic techniques like scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and epifluorescens microscopy were used for observing bacterial adhesion of the metal surfaces. A marked inhibition of bacterial adherence was observed when an immunoglobulin film was formed on the metal surface. When the natural biocide was used, an important decrease in the number of microorganisms in the biofilms was observed. (Author) 8 refs

  4. Response regulator heterodimer formation controls a key stage in Streptomyces development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M Al-Bassam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The orphan, atypical response regulators BldM and WhiI each play critical roles in Streptomyces differentiation. BldM is required for the formation of aerial hyphae, and WhiI is required for the differentiation of these reproductive structures into mature spores. To gain insight into BldM function, we defined the genome-wide BldM regulon using ChIP-Seq and transcriptional profiling. BldM target genes clustered into two groups based on their whi gene dependency. Expression of Group I genes depended on bldM but was independent of all the whi genes, and biochemical experiments showed that Group I promoters were controlled by a BldM homodimer. In contrast, Group II genes were expressed later than Group I genes and their expression depended not only on bldM but also on whiI and whiG (encoding the sigma factor that activates whiI. Additional ChIP-Seq analysis showed that BldM Group II genes were also direct targets of WhiI and that in vivo binding of WhiI to these promoters depended on BldM and vice versa. We go on to demonstrate that BldM and WhiI form a functional heterodimer that controls Group II promoters, serving to integrate signals from two distinct developmental pathways. The BldM-WhiI system thus exemplifies the potential of response regulator heterodimer formation as a mechanism to expand the signaling capabilities of bacterial cells.

  5. Control of Polymer Glass Formation Behaviour Using Molecular Diluents and Dynamic Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalara, Jayachandra Hari

    The end use application of polymeric materials is mainly determined by their viscosity, thermal stability and processability. These properties are primarily determined by the segmental relaxation time (taualpha) of the polymer and its glass state modulus, which determines its glassy mechanical response. Developing design principles to obtain rational control over these properties would enable fabrication of new polymers or polymer blends with improved thermal stability, enhanced processability and better mechanical robustness of the material. Introduction of diluents and nanostructuring of the material serve as invaluable tools for altering polymers' glass transition and associated dynamic and mechanical properties. Besides providing guidelines for technologically important improvements in processability, glassy mechanical properties, and transport behavior, diluent effects and behavior of nanostructured materials can provide insights into the fundamental physics of the glass transition, for example, by elucidating the interrelation between high- and low-frequency structural relaxation processes. It has been previously suggested that there exists a similarity between how diluents and interfaces impact the glass formation behavior of the polymer, raising the possibility that the effects of these two polymer modifications may be separate manifestations of a common set of physics in glass forming polymers. Here we address several interrelated questions in the understanding of glass formation in polymer/diluent blends and nanostructured polymers. First, what is the relationship between a diluent's molecular structure and its impact on a polymer's glass formation behavior? How does this compare to the effect of interfaces? Second, how does the introduction of diluents impact the role of interfaces in modifying polymer glass formation? Third, how does the introduction of interfaces impact metrology of the polymer glass transition? Finally, we address a major open

  6. A WD40-repeat protein controls proanthocyanidin and phytomelanin pigmentation in the seed coats of the Japanese morning glory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyeung-Il; Hoshino, Atsushi

    2012-03-15

    The protein complex composed of the transcriptional regulators containing R2R3-MYB domains, bHLH domains, and WDR in plants controls various epidermal traits, including anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin pigmentation, trichome and root hair formation, and vacuolar pH. In the Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil), InMYB1 having R2R3-MYB domains and InWDR1 containing WDR were shown to regulate anthocyanin pigmentation in flowers, and InWDR1 was reported to control dark-brown pigmentation and trichome formation on seed coats. Here, we report that the seed pigments of I. nil mainly comprise proanthocyanidins and phytomelanins and that these pigments are drastically reduced in the ivory seed coats of an InWDR1 mutant. In addition, a transgenic plant of the InWDR1 mutant carrying the active InWDR1 gene produced dark-brown seeds, further confirming that InWDR1 regulates seed pigmentation. Early steps in anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthetic pathways are thought to be common. In the InWDR1 mutant, none of the structural genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis that showed reduced expression in the white flowers were down-regulated in the ivory seeds, which suggests that InWDR1 may activate different sets of the structural genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis in flowers and proanthocyanidin production in seeds. As in the flowers, however, we noticed that the expression of InbHLH2 encoding a bHLH regulator was down-regulated in the seeds of the InWDR1 mutant. We discuss the implications of these results with respect to the proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in the seed coats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. The Function of the Early Trichomes Gene in Arabidopsis and Maize.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Poethig

    2011-12-05

    Lateral organ polarity in Arabidopsis is regulated by antagonistic interactions between genes that promote either adaxial or abaxial identity, but the molecular basis of this interaction is largely unknown. We show that the adaxial regulator ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 (AS2) is a direct target of the abaxial regulator KANADI1 (KAN1), and that KAN1 represses the transcription of AS2 in abaxial cells. Mutation of a single nucleotide in a KAN1 binding site in the AS2 promoter causes AS2 to be ectopically expressed in abaxial cells, resulting in a dominant, adaxialized phenotype. We also show that the abaxial expression of KAN1 is mediated directly or indirectly by AS2. These results demonstrate that KAN1 acts as a transcriptional repressor and that mutually repressive interactions between KAN1 and AS2 contribute to the establishment of adaxial-abaxial polarity in plants. A screen for mutations that affect the expression of a GFP reporter for KANADI2 produced mutations in two genes, CENTER CITY (CCT) and GRAND CENTRAL (GCT). Mutations in GCT and CCT delay the specification of central and peripheral identity and the globular-to-heart transition, but have little or no effect on the initial growth rate of the embryo. Mutant embryos eventually recover and undergo relatively normal patterning, albeit at an inappropriate size. GCT and CCT were identified as the Arabidopsis orthologs of MED12 and MED13--evolutionarily conserved proteins that act in association with the Mediator complex to negatively regulate transcription. The predicted function of these proteins combined with the effect of gct and cct on embryo development suggests that MED12 and MED13 regulate pattern formation during Arabidopsis embryogenesis by transiently repressing a transcriptional program that interferes with this process. Their mutant phenotype reveals the existence of a previously unknown temporal regulatory mechanism in plant embryogenesis.

  8. Papel dos tricomas glandulares da folha do tomateiro na oviposição de Tuta absoluta Role of tomato leaf glandular trichomes on oviposition of Tuta absoluta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Gilardón

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Os tricomas glandulares presentes nas folhas e ramos das plantas do gênero Lycopersicon são responsáveis pela secreção de metabólitos de diferentes naturezas. A presença de alguns desses compostos tem sido associada à resistência do tomate a diferentes insetos. A traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, é uma das pragas mais nocivas da América do Sul. O adulto oviposita sobre as folhas do tomate e suas larvas abrem galerias no mesófilo das folhas, ramos, flores e frutos. As espécies silvestres do tomate conservam a capacidade de biossintetizar compostos químicos que lhes conferem resistência a esta praga. No presente trabalho, foi avaliada a preferência para oviposição desse inseto sobre folhas com e sem tricomas glandulares de L. esculentum (Mill. cv. Uco Plata, suscetível, e de L. hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull. PI 134417, espécie silvestre afim ao tomate, e resistente à traça. Os resultados sugerem que as fêmeas ovipositam indistintamente sobre as folhas de ambas espécies, independentemente da presença, ou não, dos tricomas glandulares. E a presença destes e de seus exsudatos não têm efeito inibidor na oviposição do inseto.In the genus Lycopersicon, different metabolites are secreted by the glandular trichomes of leaves and stems. These compounds have been associated to different tomato pests resistance. The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, is one of the most harmful pests in South America. The females oviposit on tomato leaves and the larvae mine the leaf mesophyl, stems, flowers and fruits. Some wild accessions of Lycopersicon keep their capacity to synthesize allelochemicals that protect them from the pest. In this paper a comparison was made between the tomato pinworm oviposition on leaves with and without trichomes of L. esculentum (Mill. cv. Uco Plata, a susceptible cultivar, and L. hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull. PI 134417, a resistant wild accession. Results suggest that the female

  9. Self-organized control in cooperative robots using a pattern formation principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starke, Jens; Ellsaesser, Carmen; Fukuda, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    Self-organized modular approaches proved in nature to be robust and optimal and are a promising strategy to control future concepts of flexible and modular manufacturing processes. We show how this can be applied to a model of flexible manufacturing based on time-dependent robot-target assignment problems where robot teams have to serve manufacturing targets such that an objective function is optimized. Feasibility of the self-organized solutions can be guaranteed even for unpredictable situations like sudden changes in the demands or breakdowns of robots. As example an uncrewed space mission is visualized in a simulation where robots build a space station. - Highlights: → Adapting a pattern formation principle to control cooperative robots in a robust way. → Flexible manufacturing systems are modelled by time-dependent assignment problems. → Coupled selection equations guarantee feasibility of solutions. → Solution structure (permutations) is not destroyed by inhomogeneous growth rates. → Example of an uncrewed space mission shows effectivity and robustness.

  10. Exploring and Controlling Intrinsic Defect Formation in SnO2 Thin Films

    KAUST Repository

    Porte, Yoann; Maller, Robert; Faber, Hendrik; Alshareef, Husam N.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D; McLachlan, Martyn

    2015-01-01

    By investigating the influence of key growth variables on the measured structural and electrical properties of SnO2 prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) we demonstrate fine control of intrinsic n-type defect formation. Variation of growth temperatures shows oxygen vacancies (VO) as the dominant defect which can be compensated for by thermal oxidation at temperatures > 500°C. As a consequence films with carrier concentrations in the range 1016-1019 cm-3 can be prepared by adjusting temperature alone. By altering the background oxygen pressure (PD) we observe a change in the dominant defect - from tin interstitials (Sni) at low PD (< 50 mTorr) to VO at higher oxygen pressures with similar ranges of carrier concentrations observed. Finally we demonstrate the importance of controlling the composition target surface used for PLD by exposing a target to > 100,000 laser pulses. Here carrier concentrations > 1x1020 cm-3 are observed that are attributed to high concentrations of Sni which cannot be completely compensated for by modifying the growth parameters.

  11. Exploring and Controlling Intrinsic Defect Formation in SnO2 Thin Films

    KAUST Repository

    Porte, Yoann

    2015-12-15

    By investigating the influence of key growth variables on the measured structural and electrical properties of SnO2 prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) we demonstrate fine control of intrinsic n-type defect formation. Variation of growth temperatures shows oxygen vacancies (VO) as the dominant defect which can be compensated for by thermal oxidation at temperatures > 500°C. As a consequence films with carrier concentrations in the range 1016-1019 cm-3 can be prepared by adjusting temperature alone. By altering the background oxygen pressure (PD) we observe a change in the dominant defect - from tin interstitials (Sni) at low PD (< 50 mTorr) to VO at higher oxygen pressures with similar ranges of carrier concentrations observed. Finally we demonstrate the importance of controlling the composition target surface used for PLD by exposing a target to > 100,000 laser pulses. Here carrier concentrations > 1x1020 cm-3 are observed that are attributed to high concentrations of Sni which cannot be completely compensated for by modifying the growth parameters.

  12. Diagenetic and compositional controls of wettability in siliceous sedimentary rocks, Monterey Formation, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kristina M.

    Modified imbibition tests were performed on 69 subsurface samples from Monterey Formation reservoirs in the San Joaquin Valley to measure wettability variation as a result of composition and silica phase change. Contact angle tests were also performed on 6 chert samples from outcrop and 3 nearly pure mineral samples. Understanding wettability is important because it is a key factor in reservoir fluid distribution and movement, and its significance rises as porosity and permeability decrease and fluid interactions with reservoir grain surface area increase. Although the low permeability siliceous reservoirs of the Monterey Formation are economically important and prolific, a greater understanding of factors that alter their wettability will help better develop them. Imbibition results revealed a strong trend of decreased wettability to oil with increased detrital content in opal-CT phase samples. Opal-A phase samples exhibited less wettability to oil than both opal-CT and quartz phase samples of similar detrital content. Subsurface reservoir samples from 3 oil fields were crushed to eliminate the effect of capillary pressure and cleansed of hydrocarbons to eliminate wettability alterations by asphaltene, then pressed into discs of controlled density. Powder discs were tested for wettability by dispensing a controlled volume of water and motor oil onto the surface and measuring the time required for each fluid to imbibe into the sample. The syringe and software of a CAM101 tensiometer were used to control the amount of fluid dispensed onto each sample, and imbibition completion times were determined by high-speed photography for water drops; oil drop imbibition was significantly slower and imbibition was timed and determined visually. Contact angle of water and oil drops on polished chert and mineral sample surfaces was determined by image analysis and the Young-Laplace equation. Oil imbibition was significantly slower with increased detrital composition and faster

  13. Miniinvasive paracentetic drain surgical interventions under ultrasonic control concerning liquid formations of abdominal cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.I. Ohrimenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Entry. Presently miniinvasive surgical interventions under ultrasonic control became the method of choice in treatment of quite a number of abdominal and retroperitoneal organs diseases, and their complications. These operations have a row of advantages, as compared to open and laparoscopic ones: comparative simplicity, insignificant infecting of abdominal region, least of intra- and postoperative complications. Actuality of problem is conditioned by that indications to the use of paracentetic drain surgical interventions, most optimal methods of preoperative diagnostic, features of postoperative treatment of patients remain not enough studied. Research aim. To study the results of diagnostics and treatment of patients with liquid formations of abdominal cavity that were exposed to miniinvasive surgical interventions under ultrasonic control and, on the basis of it, to work out an optimal curative diagnostic algorithm. Materials and research methods. The results of treatment of 25 patients with liquid formations of abdominal cavity are analyzed. They were submitted to miniinvasive paracentetic drain surgical interventions under ultrasonic control. The pseudocysts of pancreas were in 16 patients, abscesses of abdominal cavity – in 2 patients. Research results. Intraoperative complications were not marked. Postoperative complications were observed in 5 patients. Among them there were inadequate drainage of all cavities of multicamerate abscess of the liver in 2 patients, progress of sacculated uremic peritonitis developing in presence of ascites in one patient, and arrosive hemorrhage in the cavity of pancreas pseudocyst in 2 persons. It is determined that it is necessary to include the spiral computer tomography to the complex of preoperative inspection of patients that allows to diagnose multicamerate abscess of the liver in time and to drain all the additional cavities adequately. 2 patients after paracentetic drain surgical interventions

  14. Formation of interlayer gap and control of interlayer burr in dry drilling of stacked aluminum alloy plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In aircraft assembly, interlayer burr formation in dry drilling of stacked metal materials is a common problem. Traditional manual deburring operation seriously affects the assembly quality and assembly efficiency, is time-consuming and costly, and is not conducive to aircraft automatic assembly based on industrial robot. In this paper, the formation of drilling exit burr and the influence of interlayer gap on interlayer burr formation were studied, and the mechanism of interlayer gap formation in drilling stacked aluminum alloy plates was investigated, a simplified mathematical model of interlayer gap based on the theory of plates and shells and finite element method was established. The relationship between interlayer gap and interlayer burr, as well as the effect of feed rate and pressing force on interlayer burr height and interlayer gap was discussed. The result shows that theoretical interlayer gap has a positive correlation with interlayer burr height and preloading pressing force is an effective method to control interlayer burr formation.

  15. Kinetics and mechanical stability of the fibril state control fibril formation time of polypeptide chains: A computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouza, Maksim; Co, Nguyen Truong; Li, Mai Suan; Kmiecik, Sebastian; Kolinski, Andrzej; Kloczkowski, Andrzej; Buhimschi, Irina Alexandra

    2018-06-01

    Fibril formation resulting from protein misfolding and aggregation is a hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Despite much progress in the understanding of the protein aggregation process, the factors governing fibril formation rates and fibril stability have not been fully understood. Using lattice models, we have shown that the fibril formation time is controlled by the kinetic stability of the fibril state but not by its energy. Having performed all-atom explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations with the GROMOS43a1 force field for full-length amyloid beta peptides Aβ40 and Aβ42 and truncated peptides, we demonstrated that kinetic stability can be accessed via mechanical stability in such a way that the higher the mechanical stability or the kinetic stability, the faster the fibril formation. This result opens up a new way for predicting fibril formation rates based on mechanical stability that may be easily estimated by steered molecular dynamics.

  16. Histone deacetylase 3 supports endochondral bone formation by controlling cytokine signaling and matrix remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpio, Lomeli R.; Bradley, Elizabeth W.; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Weivoda, Megan M.; Poston, Daniel D.; Dudakovic, Amel; Xu, Ming; Tchkonia, Tamar; Kirkland, James L.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Oursler, Merry Jo; Westendorf, Jennifer J.

    2017-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are efficacious epigenetic-based therapies for some cancers and neurological disorders; however, each of these drugs inhibits multiple HDACs and has detrimental effects on the skeleton. To better understand how HDAC inhibitors affect endochondral bone formation, we conditionally deleted one of their targets, Hdac3, pre- and postnatally in type II collagen α1 (Col2α1)–expressing chondrocytes. Embryonic deletion was lethal, but postnatal deletion of Hdac3 delayed secondary ossification center formation, altered maturation of growth plate chondrocytes, and increased osteoclast activity in the primary spongiosa. HDAC3-deficient chondrocytes exhibited increased expression of cytokine and matrix-degrading genes (Il-6, Mmp3, Mmp13, and Saa3) and a reduced abundance of genes related to extracellular matrix production, bone development, and ossification (Acan, Col2a1, Ihh, and Col10a1). Histone acetylation increased at and near genes that had increased expression. The acetylation and activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) were also increased in HDAC3-deficient chondrocytes. Increased cytokine signaling promoted autocrine activation of Janus kinase (JAK)–signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and NF-κB pathways to suppress chondrocyte maturation, as well as paracrine activation of osteoclasts and bone resorption. Blockade of interleukin-6 (IL-6)–JAK–STAT signaling, NF-κB signaling, and bromodomain extraterminal proteins, which recognize acetylated lysines and promote transcriptional elongation, significantly reduced Il-6 and Mmp13 expression in HDAC3-deficient chondrocytes and secondary activation in osteoclasts. The JAK inhibitor ruxolitinib also reduced osteoclast activity in Hdac3 conditional knockout mice. Thus, HDAC3 controls the temporal and spatial expression of tissue-remodeling genes and inflammatory responses in chondrocytes to ensure proper endochondral ossification during development. PMID

  17. Real-time nonlinear feedback control of pattern formation in (bio)chemical reaction-diffusion processes: a model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt-Pollmann, U; Lebiedz, D; Diehl, M; Sager, S; Schlöder, J

    2005-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies related to manipulation of pattern formation in self-organizing reaction-diffusion processes by appropriate control stimuli become increasingly important both in chemical engineering and cellular biochemistry. In a model study, we demonstrate here exemplarily the application of an efficient nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) algorithm to real-time optimal feedback control of pattern formation in a bacterial chemotaxis system modeled by nonlinear partial differential equations. The corresponding drift-diffusion model type is representative for many (bio)chemical systems involving nonlinear reaction dynamics and nonlinear diffusion. We show how the computed optimal feedback control strategy exploits the system inherent physical property of wave propagation to achieve desired control aims. We discuss various applications of our approach to optimal control of spatiotemporal dynamics.

  18. Controlling phase formation during aluminium/steel Nd:YAG laser brazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez, L.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of fuel consumption of internal combustion motors, imposed by the new anti-pollution and energy saving laws may be attained by reducing the weight of vehicles, introducing, for example, aluminium sections into the main steel car-body. Laser brazing is a process which can be used to perform such a junction. The main problem of welding this kind of materials combination with conventional processes is the potential formation of inter-metallic phases, which reduces the good performance of the joint. Laser brazing allows a very good control of the thermal development of the joint, with a limited precipitation of these brittle phases. This paper presents the results of a feasibility study made with ZnAl-30 as filler metal. The study shows that the type of configuration used for the assembly has a particular influence on the formation of brittle phases and consequently on the mechanical performance of the joint.

    La reducción en el consumo de combustibles fósiles y las emergentes leyes mundiales anti-contaminación, obligan a prever una reducción en el peso de los vehículos de transporte. Esta condición se puede cumplir por ejemplo, introduciendo componentes de Aluminio en el cuerpo de la carrocería principal de acero de los mencionados vehículos. El principal problema que se presenta al realizar este tipo de ensamblaje es la formación de fases íntermetálicas frágiles que pueden comprometer el buen desenvolvimiento de la unión. La soldadura con rayo láser permite un buen control de calor aportado y una formación muy limitada de este tipo de fases. Este trabajo presenta los resultados preliminares de los estudios realizados en uniones soldadas con ZnAl-30 como material de aportación. El estudio muestra que el tipo de configuración utilizada para realizar la soldadura tiene una influencia importante sobre la posibilidad de formación de estas fases ínter-metálicas.

  19. Torque controlled rotary-shear experiments reveal pseudotachilites formation-dynamics and precursor events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisato, Nicola; Cordonnier, Benoit; De Siena, Luca; Lavier, Luc; Di Toro, Giulio

    2017-04-01

    Except few cases, rotary shear tests, which are designed to study dynamic friction and strengthening/weakening mechanisms in seismogenic faults, are performed by imposing, to the specimens, a slipping velocity that is pre-defined. This approach has been adopted from engineering that typically, tests man-made objects that, when functioning, spin or slide at a pre-defined velocity under a pre-defined load. On the other hand, natural earthquakes are the effect of a rupture that nucleates, propagates and arrests in the subsurface. These three phases, and the consequent emerging fault slipping velocity, are controlled by the accumulated and released energy around the seismogenic fault before, during and after the earthquake. Thus, imposing the slipping velocity in laboratory experiments might not represent the best option to uncover many aspects of earthquake nucleation and fault slipping dynamics. Here we present some experiments performed with an innovative rotary shear apparatus that uses a clock-spring that when winded provides to the rotating sample a linearly increasing torque. Thus, the nucleation of simulated events occur spontaneously when the shear stress on the slipping surface overcomes the static friction times the normal load that is controlled by a deadweight. In addition, this method allows studying precursory seismic events resembling natural slow-slip earthquakes. We report some preliminary results for a transparent polymer that has melting point 340 K and allows observing the slipping surface (i.e., the contact between the two samples). By coupling: i) the rotary shear apparatus, ii) a video camera recording at 60 fps and a iii) laser pointer we observed the formation and evolution of a melt film that forms in the slipping surface after a phase of "dry" stick-slip. After each seismic event the melt layer solidify forming a pseudotachilite that partially welds the slipping surfaces. We also present the mechanical data that show rupture strengthening in

  20. THE FORMATION OF BIOFILMS BY PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA STRAINS, AND METHODS OF ITS CONTROL (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkis-Ivanova VV

    2017-03-01

    investigate this problem the main source of nosocomial diseases and persistence factor of their causative agents in hospital ecosystems from air and water to inner surfaces of catheters and body systems are represented by biofilms. Bacteria of P. aeruginosa type are human opportunistic pathogens which being a part of biofilm may cause different nosological forms of pyoinflammatory diseases with severe course and high fatality in immunocompromised patients. These microorganisms are able to contaminate external and internal surfaces of catheters, probes, respiratory tubes, lenses, and form biofilm on them. The given information determines reasonability of searching the methods of control of biofilm production in P. aeruginosa cultures which can be used to increase the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment in blue pus infection and/or decontamination of medical equipment, and another objects of hospital environment. One of the methods to control biofilms produced by P. aeruginosa on abiotic surfaces from different materials is impact of antiseptics and decontaminants. Modern decontaminants are represented by a wide spectrum of chemical compounds of different classes which have a common ability to destroy microorganisms even in low concentrations. At present the impact of bacteria on separate elements of biofilm formation is considered to be one of the most perspective targets for the action of new antimicrobial medicines. Numerous investigations of recent 40 years demonstrated that the process of biofilm formation is complex and multistage. Currently the principal directions of development of new antimicrobial preparations are the following: development of antiadhesive coatings and preparations able to interrupt the function of eternal structures of cells in charge of adhesion (fimbriae, adhesins; development of preparations that block synthesis or destabilize matrix of biofilm; development of preparations that cause cell adhesion deficiency in microcolony, and block cell

  1. Case-control study of candidate gene methylation and adenomatous polyp formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M; Burch, J B; Steck, S E; Chen, C-F; Hurley, T G; Cavicchia, P; Shivappa, N; Guess, J; Zhang, H; Youngstedt, S D; Creek, K E; Lloyd, S; Jones, K; Hébert, J R

    2017-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common and preventable forms of cancer but remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Colorectal adenomas are precursor lesions that develop in 70-90 % of CRC cases. Identification of peripheral biomarkers for adenomas would help to enhance screening efforts. This exploratory study examined the methylation status of 20 candidate markers in peripheral blood leukocytes and their association with adenoma formation. Patients recruited from a local endoscopy clinic provided informed consent and completed an interview to ascertain demographic, lifestyle, and adenoma risk factors. Cases were individuals with a histopathologically confirmed adenoma, and controls included patients with a normal colonoscopy or those with histopathological findings not requiring heightened surveillance (normal biopsy, hyperplastic polyp). Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction was used to characterize candidate gene promoter methylation. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using unconditional multivariable logistic regression to test the hypothesis that candidate gene methylation differed between cases and controls, after adjustment for confounders. Complete data were available for 107 participants; 36 % had adenomas (men 40 %, women 31 %). Hypomethylation of the MINT1 locus (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.0-28.2) and the PER1 (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.1-7.7) and PER3 (OR 11.6, 95% CI 1.6-78.5) clock gene promoters was more common among adenoma cases. While specificity was moderate to high for the three markers (71-97 %), sensitivity was relatively low (18-45 %). Follow-up of these epigenetic markers is suggested to further evaluate their utility for adenoma screening or surveillance.

  2. Formation of Nanoparticles Controlled by the Yield and Properties of the γ-Generated Radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q.

    2009-01-01

    In the past two decades, nanoparticles have attracted much attention because of their novel properties. Among the numerous synthetic methods, ionizing irradiation, which is simple and can take at normal temperature and pressure, even at low temperature, is a powerful method for preparing metals, alloys, metal oxides, metal chalcogenides, metal halides and insoluble sulphate nanoparticles. In this method, dose rate is always used to affect the shape, component and size of synthesized nanoparticles. In addition, to eliminate the effect of ·OH on the formation of nanoparticles, alcohol (such as isopropyl alcohol) is always added and a lot of reductive radicals with wide range of reduction potentials are generated. At the same time, these radicals transformed from ·OH can also reduce the reactant, which have been used to control the growth of nanoparticles. However, so far, most nanoparticles synthesized by ionizing irradiation are spherical. In our previous work, ''solid'' BaSO 4 microspheres, mainly consisting of quasi-spherical nanoparticles, have been synthesized by precipitating Ba 2+ ions with SO 4 2- ions, which were generated from the reduction of K 2 S 2 O 8 in the presence of EDTA under N 2 atmosphere by γ-irradiation

  3. RIT1 controls actin dynamics via complex formation with RAC1/CDC42 and PAK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer Zum Büschenfelde, Uta; Brandenstein, Laura Isabel; von Elsner, Leonie; Flato, Kristina; Holling, Tess; Zenker, Martin; Rosenberger, Georg; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2018-05-01

    RIT1 belongs to the RAS family of small GTPases. Germline and somatic RIT1 mutations have been identified in Noonan syndrome (NS) and cancer, respectively. By using heterologous expression systems and purified recombinant proteins, we identified the p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) as novel direct effector of RIT1. We found RIT1 also to directly interact with the RHO GTPases CDC42 and RAC1, both of which are crucial regulators of actin dynamics upstream of PAK1. These interactions are independent of the guanine nucleotide bound to RIT1. Disease-causing RIT1 mutations enhance protein-protein interaction between RIT1 and PAK1, CDC42 or RAC1 and uncouple complex formation from serum and growth factors. We show that the RIT1-PAK1 complex regulates cytoskeletal rearrangements as expression of wild-type RIT1 and its mutant forms resulted in dissolution of stress fibers and reduction of mature paxillin-containing focal adhesions in COS7 cells. This effect was prevented by co-expression of RIT1 with dominant-negative CDC42 or RAC1 and kinase-dead PAK1. By using a transwell migration assay, we show that RIT1 wildtype and the disease-associated variants enhance cell motility. Our work demonstrates a new function for RIT1 in controlling actin dynamics via acting in a signaling module containing PAK1 and RAC1/CDC42, and highlights defects in cell adhesion and migration as possible disease mechanism underlying NS.

  4. Polyaspartic Acid Concentration Controls the Rate of Calcium Phosphate Nanorod Formation in High Concentration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogstad, Daniel V. [Biosystems and; Wang, Dongbo [Biosystems and; Lin-Gibson, Sheng [Biosystems and

    2017-08-31

    Polyelectrolytes are known to greatly affect calcium phosphate (CaP) mineralization. The reaction kinetics as well as the CaP phase, morphology and aggregation state depend on the relative concentrations of the polyelectrolyte and the inorganic ions in a complex, nonlinear manner. This study examines the structural evolution and kinetics of polyaspartic acid (pAsp) directed CaP mineralization at high concentrations of polyelectrolytes, calcium, and total phosphate (19–30 mg/mL pAsp, 50–100 mM Ca2+, Ca/P = 2). Using a novel combination of characterization techniques including cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), spectrophotometry, X-ray total scattering pair distribution function analysis, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), it was determined that the CaP mineralization occurred over four transition steps. The steps include the formation of aggregates of pAsp stabilized CaP spherical nanoparticles (sNP), crystallization of sNP, oriented attachment of the sNP into nanorods, and further crystallization of the nanorods. The intermediate aggregate sizes and the reaction kinetics were found to be highly polymer concentration dependent while the sizes of the particles were not concentration dependent. This study demonstrates the complex role of pAsp in controlling the mechanism as well as the kinetics of CaP mineralization.

  5. Formation of Nanoparticles Controlled by the Yield and Properties of the γ-Generated Radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Q. [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2009-07-01

    In the past two decades, nanoparticles have attracted much attention because of their novel properties. Among the numerous synthetic methods, ionizing irradiation, which is simple and can take at normal temperature and pressure, even at low temperature, is a powerful method for preparing metals, alloys, metal oxides, metal chalcogenides, metal halides and insoluble sulphate nanoparticles. In this method, dose rate is always used to affect the shape, component and size of synthesized nanoparticles. In addition, to eliminate the effect of ·OH on the formation of nanoparticles, alcohol (such as isopropyl alcohol) is always added and a lot of reductive radicals with wide range of reduction potentials are generated. At the same time, these radicals transformed from ·OH can also reduce the reactant, which have been used to control the growth of nanoparticles. However, so far, most nanoparticles synthesized by ionizing irradiation are spherical. In our previous work, ''solid'' BaSO{sub 4} microspheres, mainly consisting of quasi-spherical nanoparticles, have been synthesized by precipitating Ba{sup 2+} ions with SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions, which were generated from the reduction of K{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} in the presence of EDTA under N{sub 2} atmosphere by γ-irradiation.

  6. Control of Scar Tissue Formation in the Cornea: Strategies in Clinical and Corneal Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L. Wilson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Corneal structure is highly organized and unified in architecture with structural and functional integration which mediates transparency and vision. Disease and injury are the second most common cause of blindness affecting over 10 million people worldwide. Ninety percent of blindness is permanent due to scarring and vascularization. Scarring caused via fibrotic cellular responses, heals the tissue, but fails to restore transparency. Controlling keratocyte activation and differentiation are key for the inhibition and prevention of fibrosis. Ophthalmic surgery techniques are continually developing to preserve and restore vision but corneal regression and scarring are often detrimental side effects and long term continuous follow up studies are lacking or discouraging. Appropriate corneal models may lead to a reduced need for corneal transplantation as presently there are insufficient numbers or suitable tissue to meet demand. Synthetic optical materials are under development for keratoprothesis although clinical use is limited due to implantation complications and high rejection rates. Tissue engineered corneas offer an alternative which more closely mimic the morphological, physiological and biomechanical properties of native corneas. However, replication of the native collagen fiber organization and retaining the phenotype of stromal cells which prevent scar-like tissue formation remains a challenge. Careful manipulation of culture environments are under investigation to determine a suitable environment that simulates native ECM organization and stimulates keratocyte migration and generation.

  7. Enhancement of beam pulse controllability for a single-pulse formation system of a cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurashima, Satoshi; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Susumu; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The single-pulse formation technique using a beam chopping system consisting of two types of high-voltage beam kickers was improved to enhance the quality and intensity of the single-pulse beam with a pulse interval over 1 μs at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency cyclotron facility. A contamination rate of neighboring beam bunches in the single-pulse beam was reduced to less than 0.1%. Long-term purification of the single pulse beam was guaranteed by the well-controlled magnetic field stabilization system for the cyclotron magnet. Reduction of the multi-turn extraction number for suppressing the neighboring beam bunch contamination was achieved by restriction of a beam phase width and precise optimization of a particle acceleration phase. In addition, the single-pulse beam intensity was increased by a factor of two or more by a combination of two types of beam bunchers using sinusoidal and saw-tooth voltage waveforms. Provision of the high quality intense single-pulse beam contributed to improve the accuracy of experiments for investigation of scintillation light time-profile and for neutron energy measurement by a time-of-flight method

  8. Stability of formation control using a consensus protocol under directed communications with two time delays and delay scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda-Gomez, Rudy; Olgac, Nejat

    2016-01-01

    We consider a linear algorithm to achieve formation control in a group of agents which are driven by second-order dynamics and affected by two rationally independent delays. One of the delays is in the position and the other in the velocity information channels. These delays are taken as constant and uniform throughout the system. The communication topology is assumed to be directed and fixed. The formation is attained by adding a supplementary control term to the stabilising consensus protocol. In preparation for the formation control logic, we first study the stability of the consensus, using the recent cluster treatment of characteristic roots (CTCR) paradigm. This effort results in a unique depiction of the non-conservative stability boundaries in the domain of the delays. However, CTCR requires the knowledge of the potential stability switching loci exhaustively within this domain. The creation of these loci is done in a new surrogate coordinate system, called the 'spectral delay space (SDS)'. The relative stability is also investigated, which has to do with the speed of reaching consensus. This step leads to a paradoxical control design concept, called the 'delay scheduling', which highlights the fact that the group behaviour may be enhanced by increasing the delays. These steps lead to a control strategy to establish a desired group formation that guarantees spacing among the agents. Example case studies are presented to validate the underlying analytical derivations.

  9. A formation control strategy with coupling weights for the multi-robot system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xudong; Wang, Siming; Li, Weijie

    2017-12-01

    The distributed formation problem of the multi-robot system with general linear dynamic characteristics and directed communication topology is discussed. In order to avoid that the multi-robot system can not maintain the desired formation in the complex communication environment, the distributed cooperative algorithm with coupling weights based on zipf distribution is designed. The asymptotic stability condition for the formation of the multi-robot system is given, and the theory of the graph and the Lyapunov theory are used to prove that the formation can converge to the desired geometry formation and the desired motion rules of the virtual leader under this condition. Nontrivial simulations are performed to validate the effectiveness of the distributed cooperative algorithm with coupling weights.

  10. Effectiveness of a temperature control system in home induction hobs to reduce acrylamide formation during pan frying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillen, S.; Oria, R.; Salvador, M. L.

    2017-01-01

    Three trials were conducted to determine the influence of the use of temperature control systems on physico-chemical characteristics and acrylamide formation in the domestic preparation of potatoes. French fries were pre-treated by soaking in water or acidified water, and then they were cooked...

  11. 77 FR 65690 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies; Correction This notice corrects a notice (FR Doc. 2012-26297) published on page 65190 of the issue for Thursday, October 25, 2012. Under the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas heading, the entry for Bryon Dirk Bagenstos,...

  12. 77 FR 21100 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies; Correction This notice corrects a notice (FR Doc. 2012-7210) published on page 17478 of the issue for Monday, March 26, 2012. Under the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond heading, the entry for U.S. Immigration Investment...

  13. 78 FR 2996 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies; Correction Correction This notice corrects a notice (FR Doc. 2013-00331) published on page 2273 of the issue for Thursday, January 10, 2013. Under the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City heading, the entry for Whitewater...

  14. 78 FR 62633 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies; Correction This notice corrects a notice (FR Doc. 2013-24477) published on page 62333 of the issue for Thursday, October 17, 2013. Under the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis heading, the entry for Karen Neidhardt, Tamp...

  15. 78 FR 57853 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies; Correction This notice corrects a notice (FR Doc. 2013-22047) published on pages 55716 and 55717 of the issue for Wednesday, September 11, 2013. Under the Federal Reserve Bank of New York heading, the entry for Donald J....

  16. Potentiostatic control of ionic liquid surface film formation on ZE41 magnesium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiadis, Jim; Neil, Wayne C; Bunter, Andrew; Howlett, Patrick C; Hinton, Bruce R W; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Forsyth, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The generation of potentially corrosion-resistant films on light metal alloys of magnesium have been investigated. Magnesium alloy, ZE41 [Mg-Zn-Rare Earth (RE)-Zr, nominal composition approximately 4 wt % Zn, approximately 1.7 wt % RE (Ce), approximately 0.6 wt % Zr, remaining balance, Mg], was exposed under potentiostatic control to the ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium diphenylphosphate, denoted [P(6,6,6,14)][DPP]. During exposure to this IL, a bias potential, shifted from open circuit, was applied to the ZE41 surface. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronoamperometry (CA) were used to monitor the evolution of film formation on the metal surface during exposure. The EIS data indicate that, of the four bias potentials examined, applying a potential of -200 mV versus OCP during the exposure period resulted in surface films of greatest resistance. Both EIS measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging indicate that these surfaces are substantially different to those formed without potential bias. Time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) elemental mapping of the films was utilized to ascertain the distribution of the ionic liquid cationic and anionic species relative to the microstructural surface features of ZE41 and indicated a more uniform distribution compared with the surface following exposure in the absence of a bias potential. Immersion of the treated ZE41 specimens in a chloride contaminated salt solution clearly indicated that the ionic liquid generated surface films offered significant protection against pitting corrosion, although the intermetallics were still insufficiently protected by the IL and hence favored intergranular corrosion processes.

  17. RIT1 controls actin dynamics via complex formation with RAC1/CDC42 and PAK1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Meyer Zum Büschenfelde

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available RIT1 belongs to the RAS family of small GTPases. Germline and somatic RIT1 mutations have been identified in Noonan syndrome (NS and cancer, respectively. By using heterologous expression systems and purified recombinant proteins, we identified the p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1 as novel direct effector of RIT1. We found RIT1 also to directly interact with the RHO GTPases CDC42 and RAC1, both of which are crucial regulators of actin dynamics upstream of PAK1. These interactions are independent of the guanine nucleotide bound to RIT1. Disease-causing RIT1 mutations enhance protein-protein interaction between RIT1 and PAK1, CDC42 or RAC1 and uncouple complex formation from serum and growth factors. We show that the RIT1-PAK1 complex regulates cytoskeletal rearrangements as expression of wild-type RIT1 and its mutant forms resulted in dissolution of stress fibers and reduction of mature paxillin-containing focal adhesions in COS7 cells. This effect was prevented by co-expression of RIT1 with dominant-negative CDC42 or RAC1 and kinase-dead PAK1. By using a transwell migration assay, we show that RIT1 wildtype and the disease-associated variants enhance cell motility. Our work demonstrates a new function for RIT1 in controlling actin dynamics via acting in a signaling module containing PAK1 and RAC1/CDC42, and highlights defects in cell adhesion and migration as possible disease mechanism underlying NS.

  18. [Effect of chloramines disinfection for biofilm formation control on copper and stainless steel pipe materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling-ling; Zhang, Yong-ji; Li, Xing; Li, Gui-bai

    2008-12-01

    Two rotating annular bioreactors (RABs) with copper and stainless steel pipe materials were adopted in the study, the effects of these two pipe materials and chloramines disinfection on biofilms formation in drinking water distribution system were evaluated. The maximum viable bacterial number in biofilm of copper and stainless steel reached 5.5 x 10(3) CFU/cm2 and 2.5 x 10(5) CFU/cm2 at 18th and 21st day without chloramines, and the viable bacterial number at the apparent steady state was 1.0 x 10(3) CFU/cm2 and 1.3 x 10(5) CFU/cm2 respectively. It was obvious that the biomass on copper materials was lower than that of the stainless steel. The maximum viable bacterial on copper and stainless steel under chloramines was 5.0 x 10(2) CFU/cm2 and 5.0 x 10(4) CFU/cm2, which was one order of magnitude lower than that of without chloramines, and its number was 10 CFU/cm2 and 3.5 x 10(4) CFU/cm2 at the steady state. These results illustrated that chloramines had apparent ability in controlling biomass when the biofilm was on steady states, especially for copper material. There was exponential relationship between biomass in biofilm and residue chloramines, which meant less biomass with more chloramines, synergistic effects were observed between chloramines and copper materials on biomass in biofilms inactivation.

  19. Kinematic variables and water transport control the formation and location of arc volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, T L; Till, C B; Lev, E; Chatterjee, N; Médard, E

    2009-06-04

    The processes that give rise to arc magmas at convergent plate margins have long been a subject of scientific research and debate. A consensus has developed that the mantle wedge overlying the subducting slab and fluids and/or melts from the subducting slab itself are involved in the melting process. However, the role of kinematic variables such as slab dip and convergence rate in the formation of arc magmas is still unclear. The depth to the top of the subducting slab beneath volcanic arcs, usually approximately 110 +/- 20 km, was previously thought to be constant among arcs. Recent studies revealed that the depth of intermediate-depth earthquakes underneath volcanic arcs, presumably marking the slab-wedge interface, varies systematically between approximately 60 and 173 km and correlates with slab dip and convergence rate. Water-rich magmas (over 4-6 wt% H(2)O) are found in subduction zones with very different subduction parameters, including those with a shallow-dipping slab (north Japan), or steeply dipping slab (Marianas). Here we propose a simple model to address how kinematic parameters of plate subduction relate to the location of mantle melting at subduction zones. We demonstrate that the location of arc volcanoes is controlled by a combination of conditions: melting in the wedge is induced at the overlap of regions in the wedge that are hotter than the melting curve (solidus) of vapour-saturated peridotite and regions where hydrous minerals both in the wedge and in the subducting slab break down. These two limits for melt generation, when combined with the kinematic parameters of slab dip and convergence rate, provide independent constraints on the thermal structure of the wedge and accurately predict the location of mantle wedge melting and the position of arc volcanoes.

  20. Rapid formation of size-controllable multicellular spheroids via 3D acoustic tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kejie; Wu, Mengxi; Guo, Feng; Li, Peng; Chan, Chung Yu; Mao, Zhangming; Li, Sixing; Ren, Liqiang; Zhang, Rui; Huang, Tony Jun

    2016-07-05

    The multicellular spheroid is an important 3D cell culture model for drug screening, tissue engineering, and fundamental biological research. Although several spheroid formation methods have been reported, the field still lacks high-throughput and simple fabrication methods to accelerate its adoption in drug development industry. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) based cell manipulation methods, which are known to be non-invasive, flexible, and high-throughput, have not been successfully developed for fabricating 3D cell assemblies or spheroids, due to the limited understanding on SAW-based vertical levitation. In this work, we demonstrated the capability of fabricating multicellular spheroids in the 3D acoustic tweezers platform. Our method used drag force from microstreaming to levitate cells in the vertical direction, and used radiation force from Gor'kov potential to aggregate cells in the horizontal plane. After optimizing the device geometry and input power, we demonstrated the rapid and high-throughput nature of our method by continuously fabricating more than 150 size-controllable spheroids and transferring them to Petri dishes every 30 minutes. The spheroids fabricated by our 3D acoustic tweezers can be cultured for a week with good cell viability. We further demonstrated that spheroids fabricated by this method could be used for drug testing. Unlike the 2D monolayer model, HepG2 spheroids fabricated by the 3D acoustic tweezers manifested distinct drug resistance, which matched existing reports. The 3D acoustic tweezers based method can serve as a novel bio-manufacturing tool to fabricate complex 3D cell assembles for biological research, tissue engineering, and drug development.

  1. Toward Understanding Pore Formation and Mobility during Controlled Directional Solidification in a Microgravity Environment Investigation (PFMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Anilkumar, A. V.; Luz, Paul; Jeter, Linda; Volz, Martin P.; Spivey, Reggie; Smith, G.

    2003-01-01

    The generation and inclusion of detrimental porosity, e.g., pipes and rattails can occur during controlled directional solidification processing. The origin of these defects is generally attributed to gas evolution and entrapment during solidification of the melt. On Earth, owing to buoyancy, an initiated bubble can rapidly rise through the liquid melt and pop at the surface; this is obviously not ensured in a low gravity or microgravity environment. Clearly, porosity generation and inclusion is detrimental to conducting any meaningful solidification-science studies in microgravity. Thus it is essential that model experiments be conducted in microgravity, to understand the details of the generation and mobility of porosity, so that methods can be found to eliminate it. In hindsight, this is particularly relevant given the results of the previous directional solidification experiments conducted in Space. The current International Space Station (ISS) Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) investigation addresses the central issue of porosity formation and mobility during controlled directional solidification processing in microgravity. The study will be done using a transparent metal-analogue material, succinonitrile (SCN) and succinonitrile-water 'alloys', so that direct observation and recording of pore generation and mobility can be made during the experiments. Succinonitrile is particularly well suited for the proposed investigation because it is transparent, it solidifies in a manner analogous to most metals, it has a convenient melting point, its material properties are well characterized and, it has been successfully used in previous microgravity experiments. The PFMI experiment will be launched on the UF-2, STS-111 flight. Highlighting the porosity development problem in metal alloys during microgravity processing, the poster will describe: (i) the intent of the proposed experiments, (ii) the theoretical rationale behind using SCN as the study material for

  2. Genetic Control of Conventional and Pheromone-Stimulated Biofilm Formation in Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hsuan; Kabrawala, Shail; Fox, Emily P.; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Johnson, Alexander D.; Bennett, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans can stochastically switch between two phenotypes, white and opaque. Opaque cells are the sexually competent form of C. albicans and therefore undergo efficient polarized growth and mating in the presence of pheromone. In contrast, white cells cannot mate, but are induced – under a specialized set of conditions – to form biofilms in response to pheromone. In this work, we compare the genetic regulation of such “pheromone-stimulated” biofilms with that of “conventional” C. albicans biofilms. In particular, we examined a network of six transcriptional regulators (Bcr1, Brg1, Efg1, Tec1, Ndt80, and Rob1) that mediate conventional biofilm formation for their potential roles in pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation. We show that four of the six transcription factors (Bcr1, Brg1, Rob1, and Tec1) promote formation of both conventional and pheromone-stimulated biofilms, indicating they play general roles in cell cohesion and biofilm development. In addition, we identify the master transcriptional regulator of pheromone-stimulated biofilms as C. albicans Cph1, ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ste12. Cph1 regulates mating in C. albicans opaque cells, and here we show that Cph1 is also essential for pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation in white cells. In contrast, Cph1 is dispensable for the formation of conventional biofilms. The regulation of pheromone- stimulated biofilm formation was further investigated by transcriptional profiling and genetic analyses. These studies identified 196 genes that are induced by pheromone signaling during biofilm formation. One of these genes, HGC1, is shown to be required for both conventional and pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation. Taken together, these observations compare and contrast the regulation of conventional and pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation in C. albicans, and demonstrate that Cph1 is required for the latter, but not the former. PMID:23637598

  3. Evidence for Parallel Processing of Sensory Information Controlling Dauer Formation in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, J. H.; Birnby, D. A.; Vowels, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Dauer formation in Caenorhabditis elegans is induced by chemosensation of high levels of a constitutively secreted pheromone. Seven genes defined by mutations that confer a dauer-formation constitutive phenotype (Daf-c) can be congruently divided into two groups by any of three criteria. Group 1 genes (daf-11 and daf-21) are (1) strongly synergistic with group 2 genes for their Daf-c phenotype, (2) incompletely suppressed by dauer-formation defective (Daf-d) mutations in the genes daf-3 and d...

  4. Control of cell fate by the formation of an architecturally complex bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlamakis, Hera; Aguilar, Claudio; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2008-04-01

    Bacteria form architecturally complex communities known as biofilms in which cells are held together by an extracellular matrix. Biofilms harbor multiple cell types, and it has been proposed that within biofilms individual cells follow different developmental pathways, resulting in heterogeneous populations. Here we demonstrate cellular differentiation within biofilms of the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis, and present evidence that formation of the biofilm governs differentiation. We show that motile, matrix-producing, and sporulating cells localize to distinct regions within the biofilm, and that the localization and percentage of each cell type is dynamic throughout development of the community. Importantly, mutants that do not produce extracellular matrix form unstructured biofilms that are deficient in sporulation. We propose that sporulation is a culminating feature of biofilm formation, and that spore formation is coupled to the formation of an architecturally complex community of cells.

  5. COMPOSITION AND METHOD FOR CONTROLLING MICROBIAL ADHESION AND BIOFILM FORMATION OF SURFACES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention describes how coating of surfaces with an extract, particularly a fish extract, can significantly reduce microbial adhesion, attachment, colonization and biofilm formation on surfaces. Such reduction of microbial adherence, attachment and colonization will be applicable...

  6. Controlled formation of iron carbides and their performance in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Wezendonk, Tim A.; Sun, Xiaohui; Dugulan, A. Iulian; van Hoof, Arno J.F.; Hensen, Emiel J.M.; Kapteijn, Freek; Gascon, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    high-temperature Fischer-Tropsch (HTFT) resulted in the formation of χ-Fe5C2. Furthermore, the different activation methods did not alter other important catalyst properties, as pre- and post-reaction transmission electron microscopy (TEM

  7. Formation and Control of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in Wastewater Reclaimed for Indirect Potable Reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sgroi, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    A large variety of disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed during water treatment processes using chlorination. Disinfection with chloramines is often used to significantly reduce the formation of regulated DBPs. However, chloramination favours the formation of N-nitrosamines, which are emerging by-products of health concern. Of all the nitrosamines, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) has been most commonly detected in drinking water and wastewater. Nitrosamines can also be produced using diffe...

  8. Air pollution control and decreasing new particle formation lead to strong climate warming

    OpenAIRE

    Makkonen, R.; Asmi, A.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Boy, M.; Arneth, A.; Hari, P.; Kulmala, M.

    2012-01-01

    The number concentration of cloud droplets determines several climatically relevant cloud properties. A major cause for the high uncertainty in the indirect aerosol forcing is the availability of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), which in turn is highly sensitive to atmospheric new particle formation. Here we present the effect of new particle formation on anthropogenic aerosol forcing in present-day (year 2000) and future (year 2100) conditions. The present-day total aerosol forcing is increa...

  9. Controls of Ca/Mg/Fe activity ratios in pore water chemistry models of the Callovian-Oxfordian clay formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerouge, C.; Grangeon, S.; Wille, G.; Flehoc, C.; Gailhanou, H.; Gaucher, E.C.; Tournassat, C. [BRGM av. Claude Guillemin BP6009 45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Vinsot, A. [ANDRA Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground research Laboratory (URL), RD 960, 55290 Bure (France); Made, B.; Altmann, S. [ANDRA - Parc de la Croix Blanche, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France)

    2013-07-01

    In the pore water chemistry model of the Callovian-Oxfordian clay formation, the divalent cations Ca, Mg, and Fe are controlled by equilibrium reactions with pure carbonates: calcite for Ca, dolomite for Mg, and siderite for Fe. Results of a petrological study and computing of the Ca/Mg and Ca/Fe activity ratios based on natural pore water chemistry provide evidence that equilibrium with pure calcite and pure dolomite is a reasonable assumption for undisturbed pore waters; on the other hand, siderite cannot be considered at equilibrium with pore waters at the formation scale. (authors)

  10. Controls of Ca/Mg/Fe activity ratios in pore water chemistry models of the Callovian-Oxfordian clay formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerouge, C.; Grangeon, S.; Wille, G.; Flehoc, C.; Gailhanou, H.; Gaucher, E.C.; Tournassat, C.; Vinsot, A.; Made, B.; Altmann, S.

    2013-01-01

    In the pore water chemistry model of the Callovian-Oxfordian clay formation, the divalent cations Ca, Mg, and Fe are controlled by equilibrium reactions with pure carbonates: calcite for Ca, dolomite for Mg, and siderite for Fe. Results of a petrological study and computing of the Ca/Mg and Ca/Fe activity ratios based on natural pore water chemistry provide evidence that equilibrium with pure calcite and pure dolomite is a reasonable assumption for undisturbed pore waters; on the other hand, siderite cannot be considered at equilibrium with pore waters at the formation scale. (authors)

  11. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation during ozonation of N,N-dimethylhydrazine compounds: Reaction kinetics, mechanisms, and implications for NDMA formation control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sungeun; Lee, Woongbae; Na, Soyoung; Shin, Jaedon; Lee, Yunho

    2016-11-15

    Compounds with N,N-dimethylhydrazine moieties ((CH 3 ) 2 N-N-) form N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) during ozonation, but the relevant reaction chemistry is hitherto poorly understood. This study investigated the reaction kinetics and mechanisms of NDMA formation during ozonation of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) and daminozide (DMZ) as structural model N,N-dimethylhydrazine compounds. The reaction of ozone with these NDMA precursor compounds was fast, and k O3 at pH 7 was 2 × 10 6  M -1  s -1 for UDMH and 5 × 10 5  M -1  s -1 for DMZ. Molar NDMA yields (i.e., Δ[NDMA]/Δ[precursor] × 100) were 84% and 100% for UDMH and DMZ, respectively, determined at molar ozone dose ratio ([O 3 ] 0 /[precursor] 0 ) of ≥4 in the presence of tert-butanol as hydroxyl radical (OH) scavenger. The molar NDMA yields decreased significantly in the absence of tert-butanol, indicating OH formation and its subsequent reaction with the parent precursors forming negligible NDMA. The k OH at pH 7 was 4.9 × 10 9  M -1  s -1 and 3.4 × 10 9  M -1  s -1 for UDMH and DMZ, respectively. Reaction mechanisms are proposed in which an ozone adduct is formed at the nitrogen next to N,N-dimethylamine which decomposes via homolytic and heterolytic cleavages of the -N + -O-O-O - bond, forming NDMA as a final product. The heterolytic cleavage pathway explains the significant OH formation via radical intermediates. Overall, significant NDMA formation was found to be unavoidable during ozonation or even O 3 /H 2 O 2 treatment of waters containing N,N-dimethylhydrazine compounds due to their rapid reaction with ozone forming NDMA with high yield. Thus, source control or pre-treatment of N,N-dimethylhydrazine precursors and post-treatment of NDMA are proposed as the mitigation options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interference of Pseudomonas aeruginosa signalling and biofilm formation for infection control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Høiby, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the best described bacterium with regards to quorum sensing (QS), in vitro biofilm formation and the development of antibiotic tolerance. Biofilms composed of P. aeruginosa are thought to be the underlying cause of many chronic infections, including those in wounds...... and in the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis. In this review, we provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in QS, QS-enabled virulence, biofilm formation and biofilm-enabled antibiotic tolerance. We now have substantial knowledge of the multicellular behaviour of P. aeruginosa in vitro. A major...

  13. Generalized Momentum Control of the Spin-Stabilized Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benegalrao, Suyog; Queen, Steven; Shah, Neerav; Blackman, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Angular momentum control maneuvers required to keep spin-axis in science box. Traditional approach uses de-coupled modes for pointing, spin, nutation Impractical for MMS Frequency and Number of maneuvers (Orbit Control, Pointing, Nutation, Spin, four observatories, every 2-4 weeks). Difficult to implement de-coupled open-loop control with flexible wire booms. Desire a unified angular momentum controller. Comprehensively control pointing, spin, and nutation.

  14. Formation of failure matrix and failure–free control algorithm for multi–sectioned Switched–reluctance drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odnokopylov, G; Rozayev, I

    2014-01-01

    We review fault-tolerant switched reluctance drive with sectioning of the three–phase stator winding. In the operating process of an electric drive, there will be continuous monitoring of the operating state on the basis of a developed algorithm to analyse drive operability and formation tabulate a failure matrix. The paper introduces a failure–free control algorithm for multi–section switch – reluctance motor with formation the assignment values of amplitude phase currents taking into account the failure matrix. We show that in an emergency such single failure or multiple failure in switched–reluctance drive it is possible to provide reduction of torque fall and pro–gressively stock depletion with providing fault–tolerance of drive system. A method of residual life evaluation is proposed on the basis of calculating the coefficient of operability of the electric drive system that gives possibility to control the endurance of electric drive in real time from operational to completely unusable

  15. PRE-RIFT COMPRESSIONAL STRUCTURES AS A CONTROL ON PASSIVE MARGIN FORMATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Petersen, Kenni Dinesen

    Passive margins are commonly separated into volcanic and non-volcanic modes, each with a distinct formation mechanism and structure. Both form the transition from continental to oceanic crust. Large amounts of geophysical data at passive margins show that the tapering continental crust is often u...

  16. Vesicle coating and uncoating: controlling the formation of large COPII-coated carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Anna K; Stephens, David J

    2009-08-26

    The basic mechanisms underlying the formation of coated vesicles are now defined in considerable detail. This article highlights recent developments in our understanding of the problem of exporting large macromolecular cargo such as procollagen from the endoplasmic reticulum and discusses the implications that this has for cell and tissue organisation and human disease.

  17. Control and Prevention of Ice Formation on the Surface of an Aluminum Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral

    modified with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxy silane (APTES) exhibited longer freezing delays as compared to both more hydrophilic and more hydrophobic substrates. This is attributed to a particular surface chemistry of the APTES modification that prevents ice formation at the interface of the substrate due...

  18. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafieian Boroujeni, Damon; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Savenije, Tom; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to

  19. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Rafieian Boroujeni, Damon; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Savenije, Tom; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to anatase or rutile, depending on the initial sputtering conditions. Substoichiometric films (TiOx

  20. Green rust formation controls nutrient availability in a ferruginous water column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zegeye, Asfaw; Bonneville, Steeve; Benning, Liane G.

    2013-01-01

    a mechanism for reconstructing ancient ocean chemistry. Such reconstructions depend, however, on precise knowledge of the iron minerals formed in the water column. Here, we combine mineralogical and geochemical analyses to demonstrate formation of the mixed-valence iron mineral, green rust, in ferruginous...

  1. eEF1A Controls ascospore differentiation through elevated accuracy, but controls longevity and fruiting body formation through another mechanism in Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silar, P; Lalucque, H; Haedens, V; Zickler, D; Picard, M

    2001-01-01

    Antisuppressor mutations in the eEF1A gene of Podospora anserina were previously shown to impair ascospore formation, to drastically increase life span, and to permit the development of the Crippled Growth degenerative process. Here, we show that eEF1A controls ascospore formation through accuracy level maintenance. Examination of antisuppressor mutant perithecia reveals two main cytological defects, mislocalization of spindle and nuclei and nuclear death. Antisuppression levels are shown to be highly dependent upon both the mutation site and the suppressor used, precluding any correlation between antisuppression efficiency and severity of the sporulation impairment. Nevertheless, severity of ascospore differentiation defect is correlated with resistance to paromomycin. We also show that eEF1A controls fruiting body formation and longevity through a mechanism(s) different from accuracy control. In vivo, GFP tagging of the protein in a way that partly retains its function confirmed earlier cytological observation; i.e., this factor is mainly diffuse within the cytosol, but may transiently accumulate within nuclei or in defined regions of the cytoplasm. These data emphasize the fact that the translation apparatus exerts a global regulatory control over cell physiology and that eEF1A is one of the key factors involved in this monitoring. PMID:11514440

  2. Nanoparticle layer deposition for highly controlled multilayer formation based on high-coverage monolayers of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yue; Williams, Mackenzie G.; Miller, Timothy J.; Teplyakov, Andrew V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper establishes a strategy for chemical deposition of functionalized nanoparticles onto solid substrates in a layer-by-layer process based on self-limiting surface chemical reactions leading to complete monolayer formation within the multilayer system without any additional intermediate layers — nanoparticle layer deposition (NPLD). This approach is fundamentally different from previously established traditional layer-by-layer deposition techniques and is conceptually more similar to well-known atomic and molecular layer deposition processes. The NPLD approach uses efficient chemical functionalization of the solid substrate material and complementary functionalization of nanoparticles to produce a nearly 100% coverage of these nanoparticles with the use of “click chemistry”. Following this initial deposition, a second complete monolayer of nanoparticles is deposited using a copper-catalyzed “click reaction” with the azide-terminated silica nanoparticles of a different size. This layer-by-layer growth is demonstrated to produce stable covalently-bound multilayers of nearly perfect structure over macroscopic solid substrates. The formation of stable covalent bonds is confirmed spectroscopically and the stability of the multilayers produced is tested by sonication in a variety of common solvents. The 1-, 2- and 3-layer structures are interrogated by electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy and the thickness of the multilayers formed is fully consistent with that expected for highly efficient monolayer formation with each cycle of growth. This approach can be extended to include a variety of materials deposited in a predesigned sequence on different substrates with a highly conformal filling. - Highlights: • We investigate the formation of high-coverage monolayers of nanoparticles. • We use “click chemistry” to form these monolayers. • We form multiple layers based on the same strategy. • We confirm the formation of covalent bonds

  3. Assessment of hydrological controls on gully formation near Lake Tana, Northern Highlands of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebebu, T. Y.; Abiy, A. Z.; Dahlke, H. E.; White, E. D.; Collick, A. S.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2008-12-01

    For the past five decades, gully erosion has been one of the dominant degradation processes in the Ethiopian Highlands. Gully erosion negatively affects soil resources, lowers soil fertility in intergully areas, reduces the pastureland available for livestock, and aggravates siltation of reservoirs. Assessing the location and rate of gully development and changes in the controlling factors (climate, soil, hydrology and land cover) of gully erosion will help explain the faced acceleration in land degradation. The study was performed in a gully system in the 800 ha Debre-Mewi watershed south of Bahir Dar, Amhara region, Ethiopia. Analyses comprised monitoring gully development through profile measurements, air photograph interpretations, and semi-structured interview techniques. Gully hydrological processes were investigated based on measurements of gully runoff and water levels in 24 piezometers in the gully contributing area. The Debre-Mewi gully is a still actively eroding gully system. A comparison of the gully area estimated from a 0.5 m resolution Quickbird image with the current gully area, walked with a Garmin GPS, showed that the eroded gully area increased by 30% from 0.51 ha in 2005 to 0.735 ha in 2008. Based on measurements of several gully cross-sections an approximate gully volume of 7985 m3 could be estimated. Using the watershed area of the gully system of 14.29 ha and an average gully erosion rate of 24.8 t ha-1 a- 1 could be estimated. Gully erosion rates accelerated since 1991 through the increased degradation of the vegetation cover and clearance of the indigenous vegetation on the hillsides, leading to an increase of surface and subsurface runoff from the hillsides to the wet valley bottoms. Gully heads retreat into the hillslope through concentrated runoff during the rainy season erodes existing soil pipes and cracks in the vicinity of the gully head and banks. The formation of subsurface soil pipes is likely triggered through abrupt changes in

  4. Phosphorylation of the Bacillus subtilis Replication Controller YabA Plays a Role in Regulation of Sporulation and Biofilm Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García García, Tránsito; Ventroux, Magali; Derouiche, Abderahmane; Bidnenko, Vladimir; Correia Santos, Sara; Henry, Céline; Mijakovic, Ivan; Noirot-Gros, Marie-Françoise; Poncet, Sandrine

    2018-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis cells can adopt different life-styles in response to various environmental cues, including planktonic cells during vegetative growth, sessile cells during biofilm formation and sporulation. While switching life-styles, bacteria must coordinate the progression of their cell cycle with their physiological status. Our current understanding of the regulatory pathways controlling the decision-making processes and triggering developmental switches highlights a key role of protein phosphorylation. The regulatory mechanisms that integrate the bacterial chromosome replication status with sporulation involve checkpoint proteins that target the replication initiator DnaA or the kinase phosphorelay controlling the master regulator Spo0A. B. subtilis YabA is known to interact with DnaA to prevent over-initiation of replication during vegetative growth. Here, we report that YabA is phosphorylated by YabT, a Ser/Thr kinase expressed during sporulation and biofilm formation. The phosphorylation of YabA has no effect on replication initiation control but hyper-phosphorylation of YabA leads to an increase in sporulation efficiency and a strong inhibition of biofilm formation. We also provide evidence that YabA phosphorylation affects the level of Spo0A-P in cells. These results indicate that YabA is a multifunctional protein with a dual role in regulating replication initiation and life-style switching, thereby providing a potential mechanism for cross-talk and coordination of cellular processes during adaptation to environmental change.

  5. Phosphorylation of the Bacillus subtilis Replication Controller YabA Plays a Role in Regulation of Sporulation and Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tránsito García García

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus subtilis cells can adopt different life-styles in response to various environmental cues, including planktonic cells during vegetative growth, sessile cells during biofilm formation and sporulation. While switching life-styles, bacteria must coordinate the progression of their cell cycle with their physiological status. Our current understanding of the regulatory pathways controlling the decision-making processes and triggering developmental switches highlights a key role of protein phosphorylation. The regulatory mechanisms that integrate the bacterial chromosome replication status with sporulation involve checkpoint proteins that target the replication initiator DnaA or the kinase phosphorelay controlling the master regulator Spo0A. B. subtilis YabA is known to interact with DnaA to prevent over-initiation of replication during vegetative growth. Here, we report that YabA is phosphorylated by YabT, a Ser/Thr kinase expressed during sporulation and biofilm formation. The phosphorylation of YabA has no effect on replication initiation control but hyper-phosphorylation of YabA leads to an increase in sporulation efficiency and a strong inhibition of biofilm formation. We also provide evidence that YabA phosphorylation affects the level of Spo0A-P in cells. These results indicate that YabA is a multifunctional protein with a dual role in regulating replication initiation and life-style switching, thereby providing a potential mechanism for cross-talk and coordination of cellular processes during adaptation to environmental change.

  6. Methymercury Formation in Marine and Freshwater Systems: Sediment Characteristics, Microbial Activity and SRB Phylogeny Control Formation Rates and Food-Chain Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J. K.; Saunders, F. M.

    2004-05-01

    Mercury research in freshwater and marine systems suggests that sediment characteristics such as organic substrate, mercury speciation, and sulfate/sulfide concentrations influence availability of inorganic mercury for methylation. Similarly, sediment characteristics also influence sulfate-reducing bacterial (SRB) respiration as well as the presence/distribution of phylogenetic groups responsible for mercury methylation. Our work illustrates that the process of methylmercury formation in freshwater and marine systems are not dissimilar. Rather, the same geochemical parameters and SRB phylogenetic groups determine the propensity for methylmercury formation and are applicable in both fresh- and marine-water systems. The presentation will include our integration of sediment geochemical and microbial parameters affecting mercury methylation in specific freshwater and marine systems. Constructed wetlands planted with Schoenoplectus californicus and amended with gypsum (CaSO4) have demonstrated a capacity to remove inorganic mercury from industrial outfalls. However, bioaccumulation studies of periphyton, eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) and lake chubsucker (Erimyzon sucetta) were conducted in order to ascertain the availability of wetland-generated methylmercury to biota. Total mercury concentrations in mosquitofish from non-sulfate treated controls and the reference location were significantly lower than those from the low and high sulfate treatments while mean total mercury concentrations in lake chubsuckers were also significantly elevated in the high sulfate treatment compared to the low sulfate, control and reference populations. Methylmercury concentrations in periphyton also corresponded with mercury levels found in the tissue of the lake chubsuckers, and these findings fit well given the trophic levels identified for both species of fish. Overall, data from this study suggest that the initial use of gypsum to accelerate the maturity of a constructed

  7. Formation mechanism and control of MgO·Al2O3 inclusions in non-oriented silicon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan-hui; Zeng, Ya-nan; Xu, Rui; Cai, Kai-ke

    2014-11-01

    On the basis of the practical production of non-oriented silicon steel, the formation of MgO·Al2O3 inclusions was analyzed in the process of "basic oxygen furnace (BOF) → RH → compact strip production (CSP)". The thermodynamic and kinetic conditions of the formation of MgO·Al2O3 inclusions were discussed, and the behavior of slag entrapment in molten steel during RH refining was simulated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. The results showed that the MgO/Al2O3 mass ratio was in the range from 0.005 to 0.017 and that MgO·Al2O3 inclusions were not observed before the RH refining process. In contrast, the MgO/Al2O3 mass ratio was in the range from 0.30 to 0.50, and the percentage of MgO·Al2O3 spinel inclusions reached 58.4% of the total inclusions after the RH refining process. The compositions of the slag were similar to those of the inclusions; furthermore, the critical velocity of slag entrapment was calculated to be 0.45 m·s-1 at an argon flow rate of 698 L·min-1, as simulated using CFD software. When the test steel was in equilibrium with the slag, [Mg] was 0.00024wt%-0.00028wt% and [Al]s was 0.31wt%-0.37wt%; these concentrations were theoretically calculated to fall within the MgO·Al2O3 formation zone, thereby leading to the formation of MgO·Al2O3 inclusions in the steel. Thus, the formation of MgO·Al2O3 inclusions would be inhibited by reducing the quantity of slag entrapment, controlling the roughing slag during casting, and controlling the composition of the slag and the MgO content in the ladle refractory.

  8. Roles of texture in controlling oxidation, hydrogen ingress and hydride formation in Zr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, Jerzy A.; Qin, Wen; Li, Hualong; Kumar, Kiran

    2011-01-01

    Experimental observations shows that the oxide formed on Zr alloys are strongly textured. The texture and grain-boundary characteristics of oxide are dependent on the texture of metal substrate. Computer simulation and thermodynamic modeling clarify the effect of metal substrate on structure of oxide film, and intrinsic factors affecting the microstructure. Models of diffusion process of hydrogen atoms and oxygen diffusion through oxide are presented. Both intra-granular and inter-granular hydrides were found following (0001) α-Zr //(111) δ-ZrH1.5 relationship. The through-thickness texture inhomogeneity in cladding tubes, the effects of hoop stress on the hydride orientation and the formation of interlinked hydride structure were studied. A thermodynamic model was developed to analyze the nucleation and the stress-induced reorientation of intergranular hydrides. These works provide a framework for understanding the oxidation, the hydrogen ingress and the hydride formation in Zr alloys. (author)

  9. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon Rafieian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to anatase or rutile, depending on the initial sputtering conditions. Substoichiometric films (TiOx<2, obtained by sputtering at relatively low oxygen concentration, formed rutile upon annealing in air, whereas stoichiometric films formed anatase. This route therefore presents a formation route for rutile films via lower (<500 °C temperature pathways. The dynamics of the annealing process were followed by in situ ellipsometry, showing the optical properties transformation. The final crystal structures were identified by XRD. The anatase film obtained by this deposition method displayed high carriers mobility as measured by time-resolved microwave conductance. This also confirms the high photocatalytic activity of the anatase films.

  10. Rapid formation of size-controllable multicellular spheroids via 3D acoustic tweezers

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kejie; Wu, Mengxi; Guo, Feng; Li, Peng; Chan, Chung-Yu; Mao, Zhangming; Li, Sixing; Ren, Liqiang; Zhang, Rui; Huang, Tony Jun

    2016-01-01

    The multicellular spheroid is an important 3D cell culture model for drug screening, tissue engineering, and fundamental biological research. Although several spheroid formation methods have been reported, the field still lacks high-throughput and simple fabrication methods to accelerate its adoption in drug development industry. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) based cell manipulation methods, which are known to be non-invasive, flexible, and high-throughput, have not been successfully developed ...

  11. Hyphal formation of Candida albicans is controlled by electron transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Toshihiko; Ogasawara, Ayako; Mikami, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Tatsuji

    2006-01-01

    Most Candida albicans cells cultured in RPMI1640 medium at 37 deg. C grow in hyphal form in aerobic conditions, but they grow in yeast form in anaerobic conditions. The hyphal growth of C. albicans was inhibited in glucose-deficient conditions. Malonic acid, an inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, enhanced the yeast proliferation of C. albicans, indicating that the hyphal-formation signal was derived from the glycolysis system and the signal was transmitted to the electron transfer system via the citric acid cycle. Thenoyl trifluoro acetone (TTFA), an inhibitor of the signal transmission between complex II and Co Q, significantly inhibited the hyphal growth of C. albicans. Antimycin, KCN, and oligomycin, inhibitors of complex III, IV, and V, respectively, did not inhibit the hyphal growth of C. albicans. The production of mRNAs for the hyphal formation signal was completely inhibited in anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that the electron transfer system functions upstream of the RAS1 signal pathway and activates the expression of the hyphal formation signal. Since the electron transfer system is inactivated in anaerobic conditions, C. albicans grew in yeast form in this condition

  12. Genetic control of the radiosensitivity of lymphoid cells for antibody formation ability in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumoto, Masaaki; Mori, Nobuko; Esaki, Kozaburo; Imai, Shunsuke; Haga, Satomi; Hilgers, Jo; Takamori, Yasuhiko.

    1994-01-01

    To analyze the genetic basis of the relationship between the radiosensitivity of the immune response and radiation lymphomagenesis, we examined the radiosensitivity of lymphoid cells for antibody formation in BALB/cHeA, STS/A, F 1 hybrids, and their recombinant inbred mouse strains. The decrease in the number of plaque-forming spleen cells in BALB/cHeA mice exposed to 3 Gy X-irradiation was more than tenfold that in STS/A mice. The phenotype of radioresistance was dominant over sensitivity. The coincidence between the strain distribution patterns of the genetic markers and radiosensitivities of antibody formation in the various recombinant inbred strains was in the region with the lgh locus on chromosome 12. There was obvious difference between the patterns in the region containing the lfa locus on chromosome 4 which has been shown to be related to the incidence of radiation-induced lymphomas. These results indicate that the region on chromosome 12 may contain major gene(s) related to radiosensitivity for antibody formation. (author)

  13. An Effective Acid Combination for Enhanced Properties and Corrosion Control of Acidizing Sandstone Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, Mian Umer; Mahmud, Hisham Khaled Ben

    2016-01-01

    To fulfill the demand of the world energy, more technologies to enhance the recovery of oil production are being developed. Sandstone acidizing has been introduced and it acts as one of the important means to increase oil and gas production. Sandstone acidizing operation generally uses acids, which create or enlarge the flow channels of formation around the wellbore. In sandstone matrix acidizing, acids are injected into the formation at a pressure below the formation fracturing pressure, in which the injected acids react with mineral particles that may restrict the flow of hydrocarbons. Most common combination is Hydrofluoric Acid - Hydrochloric with concentration (3% HF - 12% HCl) known as mud acid. But there are some problems associated with the use of mud acid i.e., corrosion, precipitation. In this paper several new combinations of acids were experimentally screened to identify the most effective combination. The combinations used consist of fluoboric, phosphoric, formic and hydrofluoric acids. Cores were allowed to react with these combinations and results are compared with the mud acid. The parameters, which are analyzed, are Improved Permeability Ratio, strength and mineralogy. The analysis showed that the new acid combination has the potential to be used in sandstone acidizing. (paper)

  14. Cross-regulation by CrcZ RNA controls anoxic biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusic, Petra; Tata, Muralidhar; Wolfinger, Michael T.; Sonnleitner, Elisabeth; Häussler, Susanne; Bläsi, Udo

    2016-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) can thrive in anaerobic biofilms in the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Here, we show that CrcZ is the most abundant PA14 RNA bound to the global regulator Hfq in anoxic biofilms grown in cystic fibrosis sputum medium. Hfq was crucial for anoxic biofilm formation. This observation complied with an RNAseq based transcriptome analysis and follow up studies that implicated Hfq in regulation of a central step preceding denitrification. CrcZ is known to act as a decoy that sequesters Hfq during relief of carbon catabolite repression, which in turn alleviates Hfq-mediated translational repression of catabolic genes. We therefore inferred that CrcZ indirectly impacts on biofilm formation by competing for Hfq. This hypothesis was supported by the findings that over-production of CrcZ mirrored the biofilm phenotype of the hfq deletion mutant, and that deletion of the crcZ gene augmented biofilm formation. To our knowledge, this is the first example where competition for Hfq by CrcZ cross-regulates an Hfq-dependent physiological process unrelated to carbon metabolism.

  15. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling interacts differentially with Ihh signaling in controlling endochondral bone and synovial joint formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kingston Kinglun; Chen, Miao-Hsueh; Day, Timothy F; Chuang, Pao-Tien; Yang, Yingzi

    2006-09-01

    Both the Wnt/beta-catenin and Ihh signaling pathways play essential roles in crucial aspects of endochondral ossification: osteoblast differentiation, chondrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy. To understand the genetic interaction between these two signaling pathways, we have inactivated the beta-catenin gene and upregulated Ihh signaling simultaneously in the same cells during endochondral skeletal development using beta-catenin and patched 1 floxed alleles. We uncovered previously unexpected roles of Ihh signaling in synovial joint formation and the essential function of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in regulating chondrocyte survival. More importantly, we found that Wnt and Ihh signaling interact with each other in distinct ways to control osteoblast differentiation, chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, survival and synovial joint formation in the developing endochondral bone. Beta-catenin is required downstream of Ihh signaling and osterix expression for osteoblast differentiation. But in chondrocyte survival, beta-catenin is required upstream of Ihh signaling to inhibit chondrocyte apoptosis. In addition, Ihh signaling can inhibit chondrocyte hypertrophy and synovial joint formation independently of beta-catenin. However, there is a strong synergistic interaction between Wnt/beta-catenin and Ihh signaling in regulating synovial joint formation.

  16. Fault detection and isolation of the attitude control subsystem of spacecraft formation flying using extended Kalman filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, S.; Khorasani, K.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the problem of fault detection and isolation (FDI) of the attitude control subsystem (ACS) of spacecraft formation flying systems is considered. For developing the FDI schemes, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) is utilised which belongs to a class of nonlinear state estimation methods. Three architectures, namely centralised, decentralised, and semi-decentralised, are considered and the corresponding FDI strategies are designed and constructed. Appropriate residual generation techniques and threshold selection criteria are proposed for these architectures. The capabilities of the proposed architectures for accomplishing the FDI tasks are studied through extensive numerical simulations for a team of four satellites in formation flight. Using a confusion matrix evaluation criterion, it is shown that the centralised architecture can achieve the most reliable results relative to the semi-decentralised and decentralised architectures at the expense of availability of a centralised processing module that requires the entire team information set. On the other hand, the semi-decentralised performance is close to the centralised scheme without relying on the availability of the entire team information set. Furthermore, the results confirm that the FDI results in formations with angular velocity measurement sensors achieve higher level of accuracy, true faulty, and precision, along with lower level of false healthy misclassification as compared to the formations that utilise attitude measurement sensors.

  17. Handbook of air pollution from internal combustion engines: pollutant formation and control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sher, Eran

    1998-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix PART I OVERViEW . 1. Motor Vehicle Emissions Control: Achievements, Future Prospects Past 3 John B. Heywood Sun Jae Professor of Mechanical Engineering...

  18. Topographic and geomorphologic controls on the distribution of vegetation formations in Elephant Point (Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Oliva, Marc; García-Hernández, Cristina

    2017-06-01

    This article focuses on the spatial distribution of vegetation formations in Elephant Point, an ice-free area of 1.16km 2 located in Livingston Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). Fieldwork carried out in January 2014 consisted of floristic surveys and designation of a vegetation map. We have examined these data in a GIS environment together with topographical and geomorphological features existing in the peninsula in order to infer the factors controlling vegetation distribution. This has allowed quantifying the total area covered by the four different vegetation formations distributed across the peninsula, proliferating mainly on bedrock plateaus and Holocene raised beaches. Grass formation is essentially composed of Deschampsia antarctica, distributed almost exclusively on raised beaches, and covering 4.1% of the ice-free surface. The remaining three formations are fundamentally composed of cryptogam species. The first of which is fruticose lichen and moss formation, present on high bedrock plateaus and principally formed by lichens such as Usnea aurantiaco-atra. The next is the crustose lichen formation, spreading on bedrock plateaus near the coast populated by bird colonies. In this case, ornitocoprophilous lichens such as Caloplaca regalis, Xanthoria elegans and Haematomma erythromma are predominant. Together, both formations have colonised 5.1% of the peninsula. The last variety, moss carpet and moss cushion formation, occupies 1.4% of the deglaciated surface, spreading primarily in flooded areas, stabilised talus slopes, and bedrock plateaus as well. Therefore, the total surface colonised by vegetation is 12.2ha, which comprises 10.5% of the peninsula. Due to the retreat of the Rotch Dome glacier, 20.1ha remain ice-free since 1956 (17.3% of the deglaciated area). Ever since, even though the Antarctic Peninsula has registered one of the most significant temperature rises on Earth, vegetation has only colonised 0.04ha of this new space, which merely

  19. Symmetric caging formation for convex polygonal object transportation by multiple mobile robots based on fuzzy sliding mode control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yanyan; Kim, YoonGu; Wee, SungGil; Lee, DongHa; Lee, SukGyu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of object caging and transporting is considered for multiple mobile robots. With the consideration of minimizing the number of robots and decreasing the rotation of the object, the proper points are calculated and assigned to the multiple mobile robots to allow them to form a symmetric caging formation. The caging formation guarantees that all of the Euclidean distances between any two adjacent robots are smaller than the minimal width of the polygonal object so that the object cannot escape. In order to avoid collision among robots, the parameter of the robots radius is utilized to design the caging formation, and the A⁎ algorithm is used so that mobile robots can move to the proper points. In order to avoid obstacles, the robots and the object are regarded as a rigid body to apply artificial potential field method. The fuzzy sliding mode control method is applied for tracking control of the nonholonomic mobile robots. Finally, the simulation and experimental results show that multiple mobile robots are able to cage and transport the polygonal object to the goal position, avoiding obstacles. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamics of weed populations : spatial pattern formation and implications for control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, J.

    1998-01-01

    Modelling studies were carried out to analyse spatio-temporal dynamics of annual weed populations and to identify the key factors that determine the long-term herbicide use of weed control programmes. Three different weed control programmes were studied.

    In the first weed

  1. qcML : an exchange format for quality control metrics from mass spectrometry experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walzer, Mathias; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Nasso, Sara; Bittremieux, Wout; Nahnsen, Sven; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Pichler, Peter; van den Toorn, Henk W P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31093205X; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Mazanek, Michael; Taus, Thomas; Scheltema, Richard A; Kelstrup, Christian D; Gatto, Laurent; van Breukelen, Bas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/244219087; Aiche, Stephan; Valkenborg, Dirk; Laukens, Kris; Lilley, Kathryn S; Olsen, Jesper V; Heck, Albert J R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/105189332; Mechtler, Karl; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gevaert, Kris; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Martens, Lennart

    Quality control is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Several recent papers discuss relevant parameters for quality control and present applications to extract these from the instrumental raw data. What has been missing, however, is a standard data

  2. A review of acrylamide: an industry perspective on research, analysis, formation, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeymans, Dominique; Wood, John; Ashby, Peter; Blank, Imre; Studer, Alfred; Stadler, Richard H; Gondé, Pierre; Van Eijck, Paul; Lalljie, Sam; Lingnert, Hans; Lindblom, Marianne; Matissek, Reinhard; Müller, Detflef; Tallmadge, Dan; O'Brien, John; Thompson, Sara; Silvani, David; Whitmore, Tricia

    2004-01-01

    Acrylamide is a synthetic monomer with a wide scope of industrial applications, mainly as a precursor in the production of several polymers, such as polyacrylamide. The main uses of polyacrylamides are in water and wastewater treatment processes, pulp and paper processing, and mining and mineral processing. The announcement by the Swedish National Food Administration in April 2002 of the presence of acrylamide predominantly in heat-treated carbohydrate-rich foods sparked intensive investigations into acrylamide, encompassing the occurrence, chemistry, agricultural practices, and toxicology, in order to establish if there is a potential risk to human health from the presence of this contaminant in the human diet. The link of acrylamide in foods to the Maillard reaction and, in particular, to the amino acid asparagine has been a major step forward in elucidating the first feasible chemical route of formation during the preparation and processing of food. Other probably minor pathways have also been proposed, including acrolein and acrylic acid. This review addresses the analytical and mechanistic aspects of the acrylamide issue and summarizes the progress made to date by the European food industries in these key areas. Essentially, it presents experimental results generated under laboratory model conditions, as well as under actual food processing conditions covering different food categories, such as potatoes, biscuits, cereals, and coffee. Since acrylamide formation is closely linked to food composition, factors such as the presence of sugars and availability of free amino acids are also considered. Many new findings that contribute towards a better understanding of the formation and presence of acrylamide in foods are presented. Many national authorities across the world are assessing the dietary exposure of consumers to acrylamide, and scientific projects have commenced to gather new information about the toxicology of acrylamide. These are expected to provide

  3. Enhanced apatite formation on Ti metal heated in PO2-controlled nitrogen atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masami; Hayashi, Kazumi; Kitaoka, Satoshi

    2013-10-01

    The oxynitridation of biomedical titanium metal under a precisely regulated oxygen partial pressure (PO2) of 10(-14)Pa in nitrogen atmosphere at 973 K for 1 h strongly enhanced apatite formation compared with that on Ti heated in air. The factors governing the high apatite-forming ability are discussed from the viewpoint of the surface properties of Ti heated under a PO2 of 10(-14)Pa in nitrogen atmosphere determined from X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and zeta potential measurements. Nitrogen (N)-doped TiO2 (interstitial N) was formed on pure Ti heated under a PO2 of 10(-14)Pa in nitrogen atmosphere at 973 K. The XPS O1s main peak shifted toward a lower binding energy upon heating under a PO2 of 10(-14)Pa. This shift may be due to the formation of oxygen vacancies. This Ti surface had a positive zeta potential of approximately 20 mV. According to time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy results, PO4(3-) ions were predominantly adsorbed on Ti soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) after heat treatment, followed by calcium ions. It was concluded that the apatite formation kinetics can be described using the Avrami-Erofeev equation with an Avrami index of n=2, which implies the instantaneous nucleation of apatite on the surface of Ti soaked in SBF after heat treatment at 973 K under a PO2 of 10(-14)Pa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Biogeochemical processes controlling authigenic carbonate formation within the sediment column from the Okinawa Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiwei; Peng, Xiaotong; Bai, Shijie; Chen, Zhiyan; Van Nostrand, Joy D.

    2018-02-01

    Authigenic carbonates are one type of conspicuous manifestation in seep environments that can provide long-term archives of past seepage activity and methane cycling in the oceans. Comprehensive investigations of the microbial community functional structure and their roles in the process of carbonate formation are, however, lacking. In this study, the mineralogical, geochemical, and microbial functional composition were examined in seep carbonate deposits collected from the west slope of the northern section of the Okinawa Trough (OT). The aim of this work was to explore the correspondence between the mineralogical phases and microbial metabolism during carbonate deposit formation. The mineralogical analyses indicated that authigenic carbonate minerals (aragonite, magnesium-rich calcite, dolomite, ankerite and siderite) and iron-bearing minerals (limonite, chlorite, and biotite) were present in these carbonate samples. The carbon and oxygen isotopic values of the carbonate samples varied between -51.1‰ to -4.7‰ and -4.8‰ to 3.7‰, respectively. A negative linear correlation between carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions was found, indicating a mixture of methane-derived diagenetic (low δ13C/high 18O) carbonates and detrital origin (high δ13C/low 18O) carbonates at the OT. GeoChip analyses suggested that various metabolic activities of microorganisms, including methanogenesis, methane oxidation, sulfite oxidation, sulfate reduction, and metal biotransformations, all occurred during the formation process. On the basis of these findings, the following model for the methane cycle and seep carbonate deposit formation in the sediment column at the OT is proposed: (1) in the upper oxidizing zone, aerobic methane oxidation was the main way of methane consumption; (2) in the sulfate methane transition zone, sulfate-dependent AOM (anaerobic oxidation of methane) consumes methane, and authigenic minerals such as aragonite, magnesium-calcite, and sulfide minerals

  5. Protecting steel from rusting by rust. The mechanism of rust formation and its control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Masao

    2008-01-01

    Weathering steel, when exposed outdoors for a few years, forms a protective layer resulting in reduction of the corrosion rate. The state of rusts is fundamental for understanding its mechanisms, but the structure and its relationship with the mechanism have not been understood. In this study, a new crystallographic approach was applied to reveal nano-structure of rusts with using of X-ray synchrotron radiation. It has been shown that additional elements alter the corrosion process in its early stage, resulting in formation of protective rusts. (author)

  6. Steric control of reactivity: formation of oximes, benzodiazepinone N-oxides and isoxazoloquinolinones

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Frances; Bourke, Sharon; Cunningham, Desmond; McArdle, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    Reaction of the alkenyl carbonyl compounds 1 with hydroxylamine can lead to the formation of the oximes 2, the benzodiazepinone N-oxides 3 or the isoxazoloquinolinones 5. The product(s) of reaction are shown to depend on the electronic nature of the terminal olefinic substituent R3 and the space filling capacity of the substituents R1, R2 and R4. When the olefinic centre is electron poor (R3 = CO2Et) ketocarbonyls convert exclusively to bicyclic nitrones 3 whereas aldehydes are more sensitive...

  7. Formation and control of zinc nitride in a molten LiCl-KCl-Li3N system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Takuya; Toyoura, Kazuaki; Tsujimura, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yasuhiko

    2004-01-01

    We investigated a possibility of electrochemical formation and control of zinc nitride in a molten LiCl-KCl-Li 3 N system at 673 K. Zinc nitride films were obtained by means of potentiostatic electrolysis of zinc electrodes in the melt. From XRD analysis, it was confirmed that obtained films consisted of Zn 3 N 2 and LiZnN and that the composition of each film was effected by the applied potential value. In the potential range from 0.75 to 1.6 V (versus Li + /Li), the ratio of Zn 3 N 2 increased as the applied potential was more positive. Based on the result, we achieved the formation of Zn 3 N 2 film (3-5 μm) in anti-scandium oxide structure (a = 0.977 nm) by means of potentiostatic electrolysis at 1.6 V for 3 h

  8. Control of aliphatic halogenated DBP precursors with multiple drinking water treatment processes: Formation potential and integrated toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimeng; Chu, Wenhai; Yao, Dechang; Yin, Daqiang

    2017-08-01

    The comprehensive control efficiency for the formation potentials (FPs) of a range of regulated and unregulated halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs) (including carbonaceous DBPs (C-DBPs), nitrogenous DBPs (N-DBPs), and iodinated DBPs (I-DBPs)) with the multiple drinking water treatment processes, including pre-ozonation, conventional treatment (coagulation-sedimentation, pre-sand filtration), ozone-biological activated carbon (O 3 -BAC) advanced treatment, and post-sand filtration, was investigated. The potential toxic risks of DBPs by combing their FPs and toxicity values were also evaluated. The results showed that the multiple drinking water treatment processes had superior performance in removing organic/inorganic precursors and reducing the formation of a range of halogenated DBPs. Therein, ozonation significantly removed bromide and iodide, and thus reduced the formation of brominated and iodinated DBPs. The removal of organic carbon and nitrogen precursors by the conventional treatment processes was substantially improved by O 3 -BAC advanced treatment, and thus prevented the formation of chlorinated C-DBPs and N-DBPs. However, BAC filtration leads to the increased formation of brominated C-DBPs and N-DBPs due to the increase of bromide/DOC and bromide/DON. After the whole multiple treatment processes, the rank order for integrated toxic risk values caused by these halogenated DBPs was haloacetonitriles (HANs)≫haloacetamides (HAMs)>haloacetic acids (HAAs)>trihalomethanes (THMs)>halonitromethanes (HNMs)≫I-DBPs (I-HAMs and I-THMs). I-DBPs failed to cause high integrated toxic risk because of their very low FPs. The significant higher integrated toxic risk value caused by HANs than other halogenated DBPs cannot be ignored. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Controls on cutoff formation along a tropical meandering river in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, J.; Constantine, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    The termination of meander bends is an inherent part of the evolution of meandering rivers. Cutoffs are produced by one of two mechanisms: neck cutoffs occur when two adjacent meanders converge, while chute cutoffs are generated by flood-driven floodplain incision, resulting in a shorter, steeper channel path. Here we use an annually-resolved record of Landsat imagery, coupled with daily discharge data to assess the role of high-magnitude discharges (Q ≥ QBF) on cutoff formation along the Rio Beni, Bolivia. Our results suggest that despite numerous above-bankfull events, the dominant cutoff mechanism operating on the Beni is neck cutoff. Evaluating the formation of these cutoffs reveals that migration rates accelerate during years of high discharge, and eventually cause the migrating bends to breach. The density of floodplain vegetation and the medium into which the channel migrated was also responsible for the patterns of cutoff documented along this river. The presence of existing floodplain channels permitted the river to divert its flow along shorter courses thereby facilitating cutoff, and limiting sinuosity growth. Understanding the long-term evolution of meandering channels is important since their morphodynamics are responsible for the creation of highly biodiverse riparian habitats, as well as the store and release of alluvial material. Moreover, the interactions between discharge and the channel-floodplain system are integral for the functioning and long-term evolution of these landscapes, particularly in the face of global climate change.

  10. Redox-controlled dinitrosyl formation at the diiron-oxo center of NorA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Rainer; Strube, Katja

    2008-01-01

    In the denitrifying bacterium Ralstonia eutropha H16, the NorA protein is coproduced with the respiratory nitric oxide (NO) reductase. NorA contains a diiron-oxo center, which can form stable adducts with dioxygen and NO. In contrast to other diiron proteins, the formation of NorA-NO requires both fully reduced protein and additional electrons. A minor fraction of in vitro NorA-NO represents a paramagnetic dinitrosyl iron complex (DNIC), while the major fraction is attributed to a DNIC of the structure {Fe(NO)(2)}, which shows no electron paramagnetic resonance. The NorA-DNIC may be formed either upon direct reaction of the protein with NO or upon incubation with nitrite due to an intrinsic nitrite reduction activity of NorA that liberates NO. NorA can be purified rapidly as a six histidine-tagged derivative from overproducing cells of Escherichia coli. This chapter describes procedures for the preparation of different redox forms of NorA for the formation of NorA adducts with NO, dioxygen, and azide, as well as for the quantification of NorA-bound NO.

  11. Biofilm exopolymers control microbialite formation at thermal springs discharging into the alkaline Pyramid Lake, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, Gernot; Thiel, Volker; Reimer, Andreas; Michaelis, Walter; Reitner, Joachim

    1999-07-01

    Calcium carbonate precipitation and microbialite formation at highly supersaturated mixing zones of thermal spring waters and alkaline lake water have been investigated at Pyramid Lake, Nevada. Without precipitation, pure mixing should lead to a nearly 100-fold supersaturation at 40°C. Physicochemical precipitation is modified or even inhibited by the properties of biofilms, dependent on the extent of biofilm development and the current precipitation rate. Mucus substances (extracellular polymeric substances, EPS, e.g., of cyanobacteria) serve as effective Ca 2+-buffers, thus preventing seed crystal nucleation even in a highly supersaturated macroenvironment. Carbonate is then preferentially precipitated in mucus-free areas such as empty diatom tests or voids. After the buffer capacity of the EPS is surpassed, precipitation is observed at the margins of mucus areas. Hydrocarbon biomarkers extracted from (1) a calcifying Phormidium-biofilm, (2) the stromatolitic carbonate below, and (3) a fossil `tufa' of the Pleistocene pinnacles, indicate that the cyanobacterial primary producers have been subject to significant temporal changes in their species distribution. Accordingly, the species composition of cyanobacterial biofilms does not appear to be relevant for the formation of microbial carbonates in Pyramid Lake. The results demonstrate the crucial influence of mucus substances on carbonate precipitation in highly supersaturated natural environments.

  12. VOCs emission characteristics and priority control analysis based on VOCs emission inventories and ozone formation potentials in Zhoushan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiaoli; Li, Sujing; Dong, Minli; Li, Wei; Gao, Xiang; Ye, Rongmin; Zhang, Dongxiao

    2018-06-01

    Zhoushan is an island city with booming tourism and service industry, but also has many developed VOCs and/or NOX emission industries. It is necessary to carry out regional VOCs and O3 pollution control in Zhoushan as the only new area owns the provincial economic and social administration rights. Anthropogenic VOCs emission inventories were built based on emission factor method and main emission sources were identified according to the emission inventories. Then, localized VOCs source profiles were built based on in-site sampling and referring to other studies. Furthermore, ozone formation potentials (OFPs) profiles were built through VOCs source profiles and maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) theory. At last, the priority control analysis results showed that industrial processes, especially surface coating, are the key of VOCs and O3 control. Alkanes were the most emitted group, accounting for 58.67%, while aromatics contributed the most to ozone production accounting for 69.97% in total OFPs. n-butane, m/p-xylene, i-pentane, n-decane, toluene, propane, n-undecane, o-xylene, methyl cyclohexane and ethyl benzene were the top 10 VOC species that should be preferentially controlled for VOCs emission control. However, m/p-xylene, o-xylene, ethylene, n-butane, toluene, propene, 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene, 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene, ethyl benzene and 1,2,3-trimethyl benzene were the top 10 VOC species that required preferential control for O3 pollution control.

  13. Identifying Genes Controlling Ferulate Cross-Linking Formation in Grass Cell Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de O. Buanafina, Marcia Maria [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2013-10-16

    This proposal focuses on cell wall feruloylation and our long term goal is to identify and isolate novel genes controlling feruloylation and to characterize the phenotype of mutants in this pathway, with a spotlight on cell wall properties.

  14. Consensus Formation Control for a Class of Networked Multiple Mobile Robot Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Sheng

    2012-01-01

    for investigating the sufficient conditions to linear control gain design for the system with constant time delays. Simulation results as well as experimental studies on Pioneer 3 series mobile robots are shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. Optimal Distributed Controller Synthesis for Chain Structures: Applications to Vehicle Formations

    OpenAIRE

    Khorsand, Omid; Alam, Assad; Gattami, Ather

    2012-01-01

    We consider optimal distributed controller synthesis for an interconnected system subject to communication constraints, in linear quadratic settings. Motivated by the problem of finite heavy duty vehicle platooning, we study systems composed of interconnected subsystems over a chain graph. By decomposing the system into orthogonal modes, the cost function can be separated into individual components. Thereby, derivation of the optimal controllers in state-space follows immediately. The optimal...

  16. Corporate internal control system in the process of transformations: formation, development, problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kanapickienė, Rasa

    2009-01-01

    In the market environment every company is seeking to obtain and maintain the best market share. One of the mechanisms in achieving this goal is an effective internal control of the company. With growing competition, fast development and introduction of new technologies, progressing complexity of business projects, and enlarging business diversity, company management is becoming increasingly more complicated. Consequently, company internal control is becoming a more and more complicated task....

  17. MicroRNAs Control Macrophage Formation and Activation: The Inflammatory Link between Obesity and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Cheng-An Chang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Activation and recruitment of resident macrophages in tissues in response to physiological stress are crucial regulatory processes in promoting the development of obesity-associated metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies have provided compelling evidence that microRNAs play important roles in modulating monocyte formation, macrophage maturation, infiltration into tissues and activation. Macrophage-dependent systemic physiological and tissue-specific responses also involve cell-cell interactions between macrophages and host tissue niche cell components, including other tissue-resident immune cell lineages, adipocytes, vascular smooth muscle and others. In this review, we highlight the roles of microRNAs in regulating the development and function of macrophages in the context of obesity, which could provide insights into the pathogenesis of obesity-related metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Calcium controls the formation of vacuoles from mitochondria to regulate microspore development in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong Xiao; Hu, Hai Yan; Li, Gan; Ru, Zhen Gang; Tian, Hui Qiao

    2017-09-01

    Potassium antimonite was used to investigate the localisation of calcium in developing wheat anthers to examine the relationship between Ca 2+ and pollen development. During anther development, calcium precipitate formation increased in anther wall cells prior to microspore mother cell meiosis and appeared in microspores, suggesting the presence of a calcium influx from anther wall cells into the locule. Initially, the precipitates in microspore cytoplasm primarily accumulated in the mitochondria and destroyed their inner membranes (cisterns) to become small vacuoles, which expanded and fused, ultimately becoming a large vacuole during microspore vacuolisation. After microspore division and large vacuole decomposition, many calcium precipitates again accumulated in the small vacuoles, indicating that calcium from the large vacuole moved back into the cytoplasm of bicellular pollen.

  19. Interdependency of formation and localisation of the Min complex controls symmetric plastid division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple, Jodi; Møller, Simon G

    2007-10-01

    Plastid division represents a fundamental biological process essential for plant development; however, the molecular basis of symmetric plastid division is unclear. AtMinE1 plays a pivotal role in selection of the plastid division site in concert with AtMinD1. AtMinE1 localises to discrete foci in chloroplasts and interacts with AtMinD1, which shows a similar localisation pattern. Here, we investigate the importance of Min protein complex formation during the chloroplast division process. Dissection of the assembly of the Min protein complex and determination of the interdependency of complex assembly and localisation in planta allow us to present a model of the molecular basis of selection of the division site in plastids. Moreover, functional analysis of AtMinE1 in bacteria demonstrates the level of functional conservation and divergence of the plastidic MinE proteins.

  20. Possibility of Cooper-pair formation controlled by multi-terminal spin injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, K.; Sakamoto, M.; Ishitaki, M.; Kimura, T.

    2018-03-01

    A multi-terminal lateral spin valve consisting of three ferromagnetic nanopillars on a Cu/Nb bilayer has been fabricated. We investigated the influence of the spin injection on the superconducting properties at the Cu/Nb interface. The non-local spin valve signal exhibits a clear spin insulation signature due to the superconducting gap of the Nb. The magnitude of the spin signal is found to show the probe configuration dependence. From the careful analysis of the bias current dependence, we found the suppression of the superconductivity due to the exchange interaction between the Cooper pair and accumulated spin plays an important role in the multi-terminal spin injections. We also discuss about the possibility of the Cooper-pair formation due to the spin injection from the two injectors with the anti-parallel alignment.

  1. The giant Mauritanian cold-water coral mound province: Oxygen control on coral mound formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienberg, Claudia; Titschack, Jürgen; Freiwald, André; Frank, Norbert; Lundälv, Tomas; Taviani, Marco; Beuck, Lydia; Schröder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Krengel, Thomas; Hebbeln, Dierk

    2018-04-01

    The largest coherent cold-water coral (CWC) mound province in the Atlantic Ocean exists along the Mauritanian margin, where up to 100 m high mounds extend over a distance of ∼400 km, arranged in two slope-parallel chains in 400-550 m water depth. Additionally, CWCs are present in the numerous submarine canyons with isolated coral mounds being developed on some canyon flanks. Seventy-seven Uranium-series coral ages were assessed to elucidate the timing of CWC colonisation and coral mound development along the Mauritanian margin for the last ∼120,000 years. Our results show that CWCs were present on the mounds during the Last Interglacial, though in low numbers corresponding to coral mound aggradation rates of 16 cm kyr-1. Most prolific periods for CWC growth are identified for the last glacial and deglaciation, resulting in enhanced mound aggradation (>1000 cm kyr-1), before mound formation stagnated along the entire margin with the onset of the Holocene. Until today, the Mauritanian mounds are in a dormant state with only scarce CWC growth. In the canyons, live CWCs are abundant since the Late Holocene at least. Thus, the canyons may serve as a refuge to CWCs potentially enabling the observed modest re-colonisation pulse on the mounds along the open slope. The timing and rate of the pre-Holocene coral mound aggradation, and the cessation of mound formation varied between the individual mounds, which was likely the consequence of vertical/lateral changes in water mass structure that placed the mounds near or out of oxygen-depleted waters, respectively.

  2. Controls on gut phosphatisation: the trilobites from the Weeks Formation Lagerstätte (Cambrian; Utah.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Lerosey-Aubril

    Full Text Available Despite being internal organs, digestive structures are frequently preserved in Cambrian Lagerstätten. However, the reasons for their fossilisation and their biological implications remain to be thoroughly explored. This is particularly true with arthropods--typically the most diverse fossilised organisms in Cambrian ecosystems--where digestive structures represent an as-yet underexploited alternative to appendage morphology for inferences on their biology. Here we describe the phosphatised digestive structures of three trilobite species from the Cambrian Weeks Formation Lagerstätte (Utah. Their exquisite, three-dimensional preservation reveals unique details on trilobite internal anatomy, such as the position of the mouth and the absence of a differentiated crop. In addition, the presence of paired pygidial organs of an unknown function is reported for the first time. This exceptional material enables exploration of the relationships between gut phosphatisation and the biology of organisms. Indeed, soft-tissue preservation is unusual in these fossils as it is restricted to the digestive structures, which indicates that the gut played a central role in its own phosphatisation. We hypothesize that the gut provided a microenvironment where special conditions could develop and harboured a source of phosphorus. The fact that gut phosphatization has almost exclusively been observed in arthropods could be explained by their uncommon ability to store ions (including phosphorous in their digestive tissues. However, in some specimens from the Weeks Formation, the phosphatisation extends to the entire digestive system, suggesting that trilobites might have had some biological particularities not observed in modern arthropods. We speculate that one of them might have been an increased capacity for ion storage in the gut tissues, related to the moulting of their heavily-mineralised carapace.

  3. Drebrin controls neuronal migration through the formation and alignment of the leading process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Xin-peng; Bandeira de Lima, Tiago; Allen, James; Geraldo, Sara; Gordon-Weeks, Phillip; Chilton, John K

    2012-03-01

    Formation of a functional nervous system requires neurons to migrate to the correct place within the developing brain. Tangentially migrating neurons are guided by a leading process which extends towards the target and is followed by the cell body. How environmental cues are coupled to specific cytoskeletal changes to produce and guide leading process growth is unknown. One such cytoskeletal modulator is drebrin, an actin-binding protein known to induce protrusions in many cell types and be important for regulating neuronal morphology. Using the migration of oculomotor neurons as a model, we have shown that drebrin is necessary for the generation and guidance of the leading process. In the absence of drebrin, leading processes are not formed and cells fail to migrate although axon growth and pathfinding appear grossly unaffected. Conversely, when levels of drebrin are elevated the leading processes turn away from their target and as a result the motor neuron cell bodies move along abnormal paths within the brain. The aberrant trajectories were highly reproducible suggesting that drebrin is required to interpret specific guidance cues. The axons and growth cones of these neurons display morphological changes, particularly increased branching and filopodial number but despite this they extend along normal developmental pathways. Collectively these results show that drebrin is initially necessary for the formation of a leading process and subsequently for this to respond to navigational signals and grow in the correct direction. Furthermore, we have shown that the actions of drebrin can be segregated within individual motor neurons to direct their migration independently of axon guidance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Controls on Gut Phosphatisation: The Trilobites from the Weeks Formation Lagerstätte (Cambrian; Utah)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Hegna, Thomas A.; Kier, Carlo; Bonino, Enrico; Habersetzer, Jörg; Carré, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    Despite being internal organs, digestive structures are frequently preserved in Cambrian Lagerstätten. However, the reasons for their fossilisation and their biological implications remain to be thoroughly explored. This is particularly true with arthropods – typically the most diverse fossilised organisms in Cambrian ecosystems – where digestive structures represent an as-yet underexploited alternative to appendage morphology for inferences on their biology. Here we describe the phosphatised digestive structures of three trilobite species from the Cambrian Weeks Formation Lagerstätte (Utah). Their exquisite, three-dimensional preservation reveals unique details on trilobite internal anatomy, such as the position of the mouth and the absence of a differentiated crop. In addition, the presence of paired pygidial organs of an unknown function is reported for the first time. This exceptional material enables exploration of the relationships between gut phosphatisation and the biology of organisms. Indeed, soft-tissue preservation is unusual in these fossils as it is restricted to the digestive structures, which indicates that the gut played a central role in its own phosphatisation. We hypothesize that the gut provided a microenvironment where special conditions could develop and harboured a source of phosphorus. The fact that gut phosphatization has almost exclusively been observed in arthropods could be explained by their uncommon ability to store ions (including phosphorous) in their digestive tissues. However, in some specimens from the Weeks Formation, the phosphatisation extends to the entire digestive system, suggesting that trilobites might have had some biological particularities not observed in modern arthropods. We speculate that one of them might have been an increased capacity for ion storage in the gut tissues, related to the moulting of their heavily-mineralised carapace. PMID:22431989

  5. BASICS OF FORMATION FOR A CONTROLLING SYSTEMS AT THE ENTERPRISES OF THE AVIATION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruglova Irina Sergeevna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to present the need for the introduction of elements system of controlling of large industrial plants, particularly in the aviation sector, as at this stage there is a need for understanding the most modern management techniques. Research in this area is based on the practical experience of individual aviation companies, as well as their work in cooperation, the general trend of industrial corporations to understand the need for the introduction of innovative control systems. The article provides a stepwise algorithm for setting the controlling system as a strategic structure to integrate all areas of life of the enterprise for the purpose of providing information in any necessary form. The results of this work may be useful to specialists in the field of management, changing as well as the financial and economic services industry aviation sector.

  6. Promoting helix pitch and trichome length to improve biomass harvesting efficiency and carbon dioxide fixation rate by Spirulina sp. in 660 m2 raceway ponds under purified carbon dioxide from a coal chemical flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Guo, Wangbiao; Ameer Ali, Kubar; Ye, Qing; Jin, Guiyong; Qiao, Zhanshan

    2018-08-01

    The helix pitch and trichome length of Spirulina sp. were promoted to improve the biomass harvesting efficiency and CO 2 fixation rate in 660 m 2 raceway ponds aerated with food-grade CO 2 purified from a coal chemical flue gas. The CO 2 fixation rate was improved with increased trichome length of the Spirulina sp. in a raceway pond with double paddlewheels, baffles, and CO 2 aerators (DBA raceway pond). The trichome length has increased by 33.3 μm, and CO 2 fixation rate has increased by 42.3% and peaked to 51.3 g/m 2 /d in a DBA raceway pond. Biomass harvesting efficiency was increased with increased helix pitch. When the day-average greenhouse temperature was 33 °C and day-average sunlight intensity was 72,100 lu×, the helix pitch of Spirulina sp. was increased to 56.2 μm. Hence the biomass harvesting efficiency was maximized to 75.6% and biomass actual yield was increased to 35.9 kg in a DBA raceway pond. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Controllable pretilt angle of liquid crystals with the formation of microgrooves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Kai-Yu; Lee, Chia-Rong; Lin, Chi-Huang; Kuo, Chie-Tong

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the controllability of the pretilt angle of liquid crystals (LCs) in a cell with an initial vertical alignment through microgrooves induced by the holographic fast-writing method. By changing the writing time or intensity of the pumped beam, the microgrooves with various surface modulations can form and provide distinct planar anchoring strength for the LCs. The pretilt angle of the LCs can be controlled over a range from 18.3° to 89°. The writing time of the microgrooves takes less than 25 s, which is a two-fold reduction in the time taken in previous investigations using other photoaligned methods.

  8. Neutron control of well debit increasing by acoustic influence on oil formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanovich, B.Yu.; Nesterovich, A.V.; Khasaya, D.R.; Shikanov, A.E.; Shikanov, E.A.; Il'inskiy, A.V.; Mihailov, L.V.; Kolomiets, N.F.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of the A E direction in oil reservoirs can be improved by controlling the parameters of the processes occurring before and after acoustic effect in oil reservoirs, followed by a choice of intervals stimulation of oil. Measurements of changes in these processes in the reservoir are made remotely via a metal pipe casing that requires the use of transparent methods of control. In implementing the method of pulse neutron-neutron logging in the study area provide periodic field impulse of fast neutrons emitted by the accelerating tube, resulting in leakage to its target nuclear reaction T (d, n) 4He

  9. Allogenic controls on the fluvial architecture and fossil preservation of the Upper Triassic Ischigualasto Formation, NW Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, Carina E.; Limarino, Carlos O.; Alcober, Oscar A.

    2017-12-01

    The Upper Triassic Ischigualasto Formation in NW Argentina was deposited in a fluvial system during the synrift filling of the extensional Ischigualasto-Villa Unión Basin. The expansive exposures of the fluvial architecture and paleosols provide a framework to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental evolution of this basin during the Upper Triassic using continental sequence stratigraphy. The Ischigualasto Formation deposition can be divided into seven sequential sedimentary stages: the 1) Bypass stage; 2) Confined low-accommodation stage; 3) Confined high accommodation stage; 4) Unstable-accommodation stage; 5) Unconfined high-accommodation stage; 6) Unconfined low-accommodation stage; and finally, 7) Unconfined high-accommodation stage. The sedimentary evolution of the Ischigualasto Formation was driven by different allogenic controls such as rises and falls in lake levels, local tectonism, subsidence, volcanism, and climate, which also produced modifications of the equilibrium profile of the fluvial systems. All of these factors result in different accommodations in central and flank areas of the basin, which led to different architectural configurations of channels and floodplains. Allogenic processes affected not only the sequence stratigraphy of the basin but also the vertebrate and plant taphocenosis. Therefore, the sequence stratigraphy can be used not only as a predictive tool related to fossil occurrence but also to understand the taphonomic history of the basin at each temporal interval.

  10. Statistical Ring Catenation under Thermodynamic Control: Should the Jacobson-Stockmayer Cyclization Theory Take into Account Catenane Formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Stefano; Ercolani, Gianfranco

    2017-01-26

    An extension of the Jacobson-Stockmayer theory is presented to include the reversible formation of [2]catenanes in a ring-chain system under thermodynamic control. The extended theory is based on the molar catenation constant, measuring the ease of catenation of two ring oligomers, whose expression was obtained in a previous work. Two scenarios have been considered: that of "thick" (hydrocarbon-like) chains and that of "thin" (DNA-like) chains. In the case of "thick" chains, the formation of catenanes can be neglected, unless in the unlikely case of a very large value of the equilibrium constant for linear propagation (K ≈ 10 8 mol -1 L, or larger). For K tending to infinity, the system becomes a chain-free system where only ring-catenane equilibria occur. Under this condition, there is a critical concentration below which only rings are present at equilibrium and above which the ring fraction remains constant, and the excess monomer is converted only into catenanes. In the case of "thin" chains, the formation of catenanes cannot be neglected even for values of K as low as 10 2 mol -1 L, thus justifying the use of the extended theory.

  11. Pollination: a key event controlling the expression of genes related to phytohormone biosynthesis during grapevine berry formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Nathalie; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Berry formation is the process of ovary conversion into a functional fruit, and is characterized by abrupt changes in the content of several phytohormones, associated with pollination and fertilization. Much effort has been made in order to improve our understanding of berry development, particularly from veraison to post-harvest time. However, the period of berry formation has been poorly investigated, despite its importance. Phytohormones are involved in the control of fruit formation; hence it is important to understand the regulation of their content at this stage. Grapevine is an excellent fleshy-fruit plant model since its fruits have particularities that differentiate them from those of commonly studied organisms. For instance, berries are prepared to cope with stress by producing several antioxidants and they are non-climacteric fruits. Also its genome is fully sequenced, which allows to identify genes involved in developmental processes. In grapevine, no link has been established between pollination and phytohormone biosynthesis, until recently. Here we highlight relevant findings regarding pollination effect on gene expression related to phytohormone biosynthesis, and present unpublished results showing how quickly this effect is achieved.

  12. External controls on Quaternary fluvial incision and terrace formation at the Segre River, Southern Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stange, K.M.; van Balen, R.T.; Vandenberghe, J.; Peña, J.L.; Sancho, C.

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on climatic- and structural (tectonic) controls, we aim to determine their relative importance for the (Pliocene to Quaternary) fluvial landscape evolution in the Southern Pyrenees foreland. We investigate the Segre River, which is one of the major streams of the Southern Pyrenees that

  13. Learning Mathematics in a Visuospatial Format: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Mental Abacus Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barner, David; Alvarez, George; Sullivan, Jessica; Brooks, Neon; Srinivasan, Mahesh; Frank, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Mental abacus (MA) is a technique of performing fast, accurate arithmetic using a mental image of an abacus; experts exhibit astonishing calculation abilities. Over 3 years, 204 elementary school students (age range at outset: 5-7 years old) participated in a randomized, controlled trial to test whether MA expertise (a) can be acquired in standard…

  14. Possibility of designing television control system for welded joint formation on electron beam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifshits, M.L.; Lobanova, N.G.

    1987-01-01

    Regression equations (models), connecting seam characteristics: width and depth with the welding bath leading front in joint gap and seam width respectively - are obtained at electron beam welding of circular articles with guaranteed clearance with application of television control system. Dispersion analysis showed the models adequancy to the process in the range, where they were identified

  15. Distributed fault-tolerant time-varying formation control for high-order linear multi-agent systems with actuator failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yongzhao; Dong, Xiwang; Li, Qingdong; Ren, Zhang

    2017-11-01

    This paper investigates the fault-tolerant time-varying formation control problems for high-order linear multi-agent systems in the presence of actuator failures. Firstly, a fully distributed formation control protocol is presented to compensate for the influences of both bias fault and loss of effectiveness fault. Using the adaptive online updating strategies, no global knowledge about the communication topology is required and the bounds of actuator failures can be unknown. Then an algorithm is proposed to determine the control parameters of the fault-tolerant formation protocol, where the time-varying formation feasible conditions and an approach to expand the feasible formation set are given. Furthermore, the stability of the proposed algorithm is proven based on the Lyapunov-like theory. Finally, two simulation examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The VMC Survey. XXIX. Turbulence-controlled Hierarchical Star Formation in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning-Chen; de Grijs, Richard; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; Rubele, Stefano; Subramanian, Smitha; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Bekki, Kenji; Bell, Cameron P. M.; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Marconi, Marcella; Muraveva, Tatiana; Oliveira, Joana M.; Ripepi, Vincenzo

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we report a clustering analysis of upper main-sequence stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud, using data from the VMC survey (the VISTA near-infrared YJK s survey of the Magellanic system). Young stellar structures are identified as surface overdensities on a range of significance levels. They are found to be organized in a hierarchical pattern, such that larger structures at lower significance levels contain smaller ones at higher significance levels. They have very irregular morphologies, with a perimeter–area dimension of 1.44 ± 0.02 for their projected boundaries. They have a power-law mass–size relation, power-law size/mass distributions, and a log-normal surface density distribution. We derive a projected fractal dimension of 1.48 ± 0.03 from the mass–size relation, or of 1.4 ± 0.1 from the size distribution, reflecting significant lumpiness of the young stellar structures. These properties are remarkably similar to those of a turbulent interstellar medium, supporting a scenario of hierarchical star formation regulated by supersonic turbulence.

  17. Control of temperature and aqueous Mg2+/Ca2+ ratio on the (trans-)formation of ikaite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purgstaller, B.; Dietzel, M.; Baldermann, A.; Mavromatis, V.

    2017-11-01

    The calcium carbonate hexahydrate mineral ikaite (CaCO3 ṡ 6 H2O) has been documented in aquatic environments at near-freezing temperatures. An increase of the prevailing temperature in the depositional environment, results in the transformation of natural ikaite into less soluble calcium carbonate phases occasionally leaving calcite pseudomorphs in the sediments, which are considered as an indicator for primary cold water temperatures. Detailed understanding on the physicochemical parameters controlling ikaite (trans-)formation however, such as temperature and reactive solution chemical composition, are still under debate. In order to study the formation of ikaite, we conducted precipitation experiments under controlled physicochemical conditions (pH = 8.3 ± 0.1; T = 6, 12, and 18 ± 0.1 °C) at defined aqueous molar Mg/Ca ratios. The transformation of ikaite into anhydrous calcium carbonate polymorphs was investigated in solution and at air exposure. The obtained results reveal the formation of ikaite at temperatures up to 12 °C, whereas Mg-rich amorphous calcium carbonate precipitated at 18 °C. In contact with the reactive solution ikaite transformed into aragonite at aqueous molar Mg2+/Ca2+ ratios of ≥14. In contrast, ikaite separated from the Mg-rich solution and exposed to air transformed in all cases into calcite/vaterite. The herein obtained temperature limit of ≤12 for ikaite formation is significantly higher than formerly expected and most probably caused by (i) the high saturation degree of the solution with respect to ikaite and (ii) the slow dehydration of the aqueous Ca2+ ion at low temperatures. This result questions the suitability of calcite pseudomorphs (i.e. glendonites) as a proxy for near-freezing temperatures. Moreover, our findings show that the CaCO3 polymorph formed from ikaite is strongly controlled by the physicochemical conditions, such as aqueous molar Mg2+/Ca2+ ratio of the reactive fluid and H2O availability throughout the

  18. Formation of visual memories controlled by gamma power phase-locked to alpha oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyojin; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Hahm, Jarang; Kim, June Sic; Chung, Chun Kee; Jiang, Haiteng; Gross, Joachim; Jensen, Ole

    2016-06-01

    Neuronal oscillations provide a window for understanding the brain dynamics that organize the flow of information from sensory to memory areas. While it has been suggested that gamma power reflects feedforward processing and alpha oscillations feedback control, it remains unknown how these oscillations dynamically interact. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data was acquired from healthy subjects who were cued to either remember or not remember presented pictures. Our analysis revealed that in anticipation of a picture to be remembered, alpha power decreased while the cross-frequency coupling between gamma power and alpha phase increased. A measure of directionality between alpha phase and gamma power predicted individual ability to encode memory: stronger control of alpha phase over gamma power was associated with better memory. These findings demonstrate that encoding of visual information is reflected by a state determined by the interaction between alpha and gamma activity.

  19. Formation of controllable polymer micropatterns through liquid film electro-dewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shangru; Zheng, Huai; Li, Guoliang; Liu, Jie; Liu, Sheng

    2018-04-01

    Controllable polymer micropatterns, served as indispensable function structures, are extensively required in many micro/nano scientific areas and engineering applications. Exploring advanced methods of fabricating micropatterns is always a research hotspot. In this article, we introduce a novel method of patterning polymer by the electro-dewetting induced by corona discharge. For the first time, it is observed experimentally that liquid polymer on conductive/non-conductive patterned substrates, spontaneously converges from non-conductive areas to conductive areas under the action of ion wind. Taking advantage of such a flow phenomenon, controllable polymer micropatterns including microbump arrays and microwell arrays are fabricated successfully. Their sizes range from hundreds of microns to millimeters. Micropattern surfaces present an ultra-smooth characteristic, with roughness in the nanometer range.

  20. Comparing global alcohol and tobacco control efforts: network formation and evolution in international health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gneiting, Uwe; Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Smoking and drinking constitute two risk factors contributing to the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Both issues have gained increased international attention, but tobacco control has made more sustained progress in terms of international and domestic policy commitments, resources dedicated to reducing harm, and reduction of tobacco use in many high-income countries. The research presented here offers insights into why risk factors with comparable levels of harm experience different trajectories of global attention. The analysis focuses particular attention on the role of dedicated global health networks composed of individuals and organizations producing research and engaging in advocacy on a given health problem. Variation in issue characteristics and the policy environment shape the opportunities and challenges of global health networks focused on reducing the burden of disease. What sets the tobacco case apart was the ability of tobacco control advocates to create and maintain a consensus on policy solutions, expand their reach in low- and middle-income countries and combine evidence-based research with advocacy reaching beyond the public health-centered focus of the core network. In contrast, a similar network in the alcohol case struggled with expanding its reach and has yet to overcome divisions based on competing problem definitions and solutions to alcohol harm. The tobacco control network evolved from a group of dedicated individuals to a global coalition of membership-based organizations, whereas the alcohol control network remains at the stage of a collection of dedicated and like-minded individuals. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2016; all rights reserved.

  1. Control of the formation of projective synchronisation in lower-dimensional discrete-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, C.Y.; Xu Daolin

    2003-01-01

    Projective synchronisation was recently observed in partially linear discrete-time systems. The scaling factor that characterises the behaviour of projective synchronisation is however unpredictable. In order to manipulate the ultimate state of the synchronisation, a control algorithm based on Schur-Chon stability criteria is proposed to direct the scaling factor onto any predestined value. In the numerical experiment, we illustrate the application on two chaotic discrete-time systems

  2. Multifunctional surfaces with biomimetic nanofibres and drug-eluting micro-patterns for infection control and bone tissue formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XN Chen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For long-term orthopaedic implants, the creation of a surface that is repulsive to bacteria while adhesive to tissue cells represents a promising strategy to control infection. To obtain such multifunctional surfaces, two possible approaches were explored to incorporate a model antibiotic, rifampicin (Rf, into the osteogenic polycaprolactone (PCL/chitosan (CHS biomimetic nanofibre meshes by (1 blending Rf into the electrospinning solutions and then electrospinning into nanofibres (i.e., Rf-incorporating fibres, or (2 depositing Rf-containing poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA micro-patterns onto the PCL/chitosan nanofibre meshes via ink-jet printing (i.e., Rf-eluting micro-pattern/fibre. Rapid release of Rf from both meshes was measured even though a relatively slower release rate was obtained from the Rf-eluting micro-pattern ones. Antibacterial assay with Staphylococcus epidermidis showed that both mesh surfaces could effectively kill bacteria and prevent biofilm formation. However, only Rf-eluting micro-pattern meshes favoured the attachment, spreading and metabolic activity of preosteoblasts in the cell culture study. Furthermore, the Rf-eluting micro-pattern meshes could better support the osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblasts by up-regulating the gene expression of bone markers (type I collagen and alkaline phosphatase. Clearly, compared to Rf-incorporating nanofibre meshes, Rf-eluting micro-patterns could effectively prevent biofilm formation without sacrificing the osteogenic properties of PCL/chitosan nanofibre surfaces. This finding provides an innovative avenue to design multifunctional surfaces for enhancing bone tissue formation while controlling infection.

  3. Controlled growth and shape formation of platinum nanoparticles and their electrochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, Minoru [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)]. E-mail: minaba@mail.doshisha.ac.jp; Ando, Miwa [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Hatanaka, Aoi [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Nomoto, Akihiro [Kyoto Prefecture Collaboration of Regional Entities, Keihanna Interaction Plaza Inc., Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan); Faculty of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 669-8531 (Japan); Matsuzawa, Koichi [Kyoto Prefecture Collaboration of Regional Entities, Keihanna Interaction Plaza Inc., Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan); Tasaka, Akimasa [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Kinumoto, Taro [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Iriyama, Yasutoshi [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Ogumi, Zempachi [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2006-12-01

    Cubic Pt nanoparticles were prepared from a solution of K{sub 2}PtCl{sub 4} containing sodium polyacrylate as a capping reagent. The effects of the Pt/polymer molar ratio, the average molecular weight (M {sub w}) of the polymer, and reaction temperature on the shape and size were investigated. When the polymer of M {sub w} = 5100 was added at a molar ratio of Pt/polymer = 1/12, cubic platinum nanoparticles of an average size of 10.3 nm were predominantly formed (ca. 50% in number) at 25 deg. C. The electron diffraction pattern of the cubic nanoparticles revealed that they are single crystals with Pt {l_brace}1 0 0{r_brace} faces on the surface. The cubic nanoparticles were electrochemically active, and showed strong features of Pt {l_brace}1 0 0{r_brace} faces on cyclic voltammogram under argon atmosphere. After repeated potential cycling in the range 0.05-1.4 V, the features of Pt {l_brace}1 0 0{r_brace} were gradually lost, and changed to those of polycrystalline Pt. Rotating ring disk electrode measurements in O{sub 2}-saturated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution revealed that the cubic nanoparticles had a high catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). After polycrystallization by repeated potential cycling, the activity for ORR and hydrogen peroxide formation decreased slightly, which were attributed to the surface structural change from Pt {l_brace}1 0 0{r_brace} to polycrystalline.

  4. Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J

    2011-07-01

    Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2 {micro}m h(-1)). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger ({approx}100 nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature.

  5. Morfologia dos tricomas das pétalas de espécies de Pseudobombax Dugand (Malvaceae, Bombacoideae e seu significado taxonômico Morphology of trichomes in petals of Pseudobombax Dugand (Malvaceae, Bombacoideae species and its taxonomic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Guedes de Carvalho-Sobrinho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Pseudobombax Dugand apresenta cerca de 30 espécies, é restrito à região Neotropical e apresenta taxonomia complexa, com muitas de suas espécies mal circunscritas. Parte de seus problemas taxonômicos é conseqüência do fato de que suas espécies perdem as folhas na floração e, portanto, a maioria delas é representada apenas por flores nas coleções de herbário. Neste trabalho, investigou-se a morfologia dos tricomas presentes nas pétalas de oito espécies de Pseudobombax. O estudo utilizou microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura a partir de amostras obtidas de material de herbário e flores fixadas em etanol a 70%. Em todas as espécies de Pseudobombax analisadas, foram encontrados dois tipos principais de tricomas: (a tricomas 2-4-armados, sésseis, longos, flexíveis e com paredes finas, situados na face adaxial de todas as espécies; (b tricomas tufosos, sésseis, curtos, rígidos, com paredes espessas e lignificadas, situados na face abaxial. Os dados qualitativos e quantitativos obtidos mostraram-se de valor taxonômico para a resolução de problemas de identificação específica em Pseudobombax.Trichome morphology of the petals of Pseudobombax Dugand species was investigated. The eight species selected of Pseudobombax were analyzed using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The study detected the existence of variation, both qualitative and quantitative, in morphology of trichomes in petals of species analyzed. In Pseudobombax petals, two kinds of trichomes were found: (a trichomes 2-4-armed, sessile, long, flexible and with thin walls, situated on the adaxial surface; (b tufted trichomes, sessile, short, rigid, with thick, lignified walls, on the abaxial surface of the petals. The qualitative and quantitative data were of taxonomic value for the resolution of problems of specific identification in the genus.

  6. Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites Alta densidade de tricomas glandulares em tomateiro e aumento da repelência a ácaros rajados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Roberto Maluf

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites Tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Counts were made both on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, and trichomes were classified into glandular types IV and VI, other glandular types (types I+VII, and nonglandular types. Mite repellence was measured by distances walked by mites onto the tomato leaf surface after 20, 40 and 60 min. Spider mite repellence biotests indicated that higher densities of glandular trichomes (especially type VI decreased the distances walked by the mites onto the tomato leaf surface. Selection of plants with higher densities of glandular trichomes can be an efficient criterion to obtain tomato genotypes with higher resistance (repellence to spider mites.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da seleção para maior densidade de tricomas glandulares na resistência (repelência ao ácaro Tetranychus urticae, em populações de tomate derivadas do cruzamento interespecífico Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Foram avaliados 19 genótipos quanto à densidade de tricomas, que incluíram 12 derivados de populações avançadas de retrocruzamentos, obtidos a partir do cruzamento original L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Nas faces abaxial e adaxial dos folíolos, realizaram-se as contagens e os tricomas foram classificados em glandulares tipo IV e VI, outros glandulares (tipo I e VII e não glandulares. A repelência aos ácaros foi medida pela distância média, percorrida pelo

  7. Controlled alpha-sexithiophene nanostructure formation in standard and inverted configuration organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Goszczak, Arkadiusz Jaroslaw; Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis

    -type domains in the active organic layer. The molecular packing in these is of same importance, as it strongly affects the carrier transport in the cells. In this work, we present the study of alpha-sexithiophene (α 6T) temperature dependent growth for standard, on gold anodes, and inverted, on electron...... accepting C60 layers, solar cell configurations. Furthermore, a comparative study of the correlation between the α-6T morphology and device performance parameters for standard and inverted solar cell configurations is presented. The morphology of the α 6T layer is controlled by means of the substrate...

  8. An Easy Approach to Control β-Phase Formation in PFO Films for Optimized Emission Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a novel approach to control β-phase content generated in poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene (PFO films. A very small amount of paraffin oil was used as the additive to the PFO solution in toluene. The β-phase fraction in the spin-coated PFO films can be modified from 0% to 20% simply by changing the volume percentage of paraffin oil in the mixed solution. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE study confirmed low β-phase fraction promise better OLEDs device, while high β-phase fraction benefits ASE performance.

  9. Controlling the selective formation of calcium sulfate polymorphs at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritschler, Ulrich; Van Driessche, Alexander E S; Kempter, Andreas; Kellermeier, Matthias; Cölfen, Helmut

    2015-03-23

    Calcium sulfate is a naturally abundant and technologically important mineral with a broad scope of applications. However, controlling CaSO4 polymorphism and, with it, its final material properties still represents a major challenge, and to date there is no universal method for the selective production of the different hydrated and anhydrous forms under mild conditions. Herein we report the first successful synthesis of pure anhydrite from solution at room temperature. We precipitated calcium sulfate in alcoholic media at low water contents. Moreover, by adjusting the amount of water in the syntheses, we can switch between the distinct polymorphs and fine-tune the outcome of the reaction, yielding either any desired CaSO4 phase in pure state or binary mixtures with predefined compositions. This concept provides full control over phase selection in CaSO4 mineralization and may allow for the targeted fabrication of corresponding materials for use in various areas. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Nanostructure Formation by controlled dewetting on patterned substrates: A combined theoretical, modeling and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liang-Xing; Wang, Ying-Min; Srinivasan, Bharathi Madurai; Asbahi, Mohamed; Yang, Joel K W; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2016-09-01

    We perform systematic two-dimensional energetic analysis to study the stability of various nanostructures formed by dewetting solid films deposited on patterned substrates. Our analytical results show that by controlling system parameters such as the substrate surface pattern, film thickness and wetting angle, a variety of equilibrium nanostructures can be obtained. Phase diagrams are presented to show the complex relations between these system parameters and various nanostructure morphologies. We further carry out both phase field simulations and dewetting experiments to validate the analytically derived phase diagrams. Good agreements between the results from our energetic analyses and those from our phase field simulations and experiments verify our analysis. Hence, the phase diagrams presented here provide guidelines for using solid-state dewetting as a tool to achieve various nanostructures.

  11. Fuzzy logic controller for cooperative mobile robotics implemented in leader-follower formation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alejandro Molina-Villa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el diseño de un controlador de lógica difusa implementandoel método líder-seguidor para un sistema de robótica cooperativa móvil, que permita a ungrupo de robots establecer y mantener una formación geométrica especifi ca mientras sedesplazan siguiendo una trayectoria de referencia. Como resultado de la investigación, seprobó mediante simulación un sistema de control cooperativo, que permite a un grupo derobots mantener una formación específi ca mientras desarrollan una misión determinada.Este controlador permite evadir obstáculos cambiando la formación o cambiando el líder delgrupo en cualquier momento.

  12. Mechanisms for ITB formation and control in Alcator C-Mod identified through gyrokinetic simulations of TEM turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, D.R.; Basse, N.; Bonoli, P.T.; Catto, P.J.; Fiore, C.L.; Greenwald, M.; Hubbard, A.E.; Marmar, E.S.; Porkolab, M.; Rice, J.E.; Zeller, K.; Zhurovich, K.; Dorland, W.

    2005-01-01

    Internal particle and thermal energy transport barriers are produced in Alcator C-Mod with off-axis ICRF heating, with core densities exceeding 10 21 m -3 , without core fueling, and with little change in the temperature profile. Applying on-axis ICRF heating controls the core density gradient and rate of rise. The present study employs linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence to explore mechanisms for ITB formation and control in Alcator C-Mod ITB experiments. Anomalous pinches are found to be negligible in our simulations; further, the collisional Ware pinch is sufficient to account for the slow density rise, lasting many energy confinement times. The simulations have revealed new nonlinear physics of TEM turbulence. The critical density gradient for onset of TEM turbulent transport is nonlinearly up-shifted by zonal flows. As the density profile peaks, during ITB formation, this nonlinear critical gradient is eventually exceeded, and the turbulent particle diffusivity from GS2 gyrokinetic simulations matches the particle diffusivity from transport analysis, within experimental errors. A stable equilibrium is then established when the TEM turbulent diffusion balances the Ware pinch in the ITB. This equilibrium is sensitive to temperature through gyroBohm scaling of the TEM turbulent transport, and the collisionality dependence of the neoclassical pinch, providing for control of the density rate of rise with on-axis RF heating. With no core particle fueling, and ∼1 mm between density spatial channels, the C-Mod experiments provide a nearly ideal test bed for particle transport studies. The pure TEM is the only unstable drift mode in the ITB, producing particle transport driven by the density gradient. (author)

  13. Control of nerve cord formation by Engrailed and Gooseberry-Neuro: A multi-step, coordinated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneaud, Nathalie; Layalle, Sophie; Colomb, Sophie; Jourdan, Christophe; Ghysen, Alain; Severac, Dany; Dantec, Christelle; Nègre, Nicolas; Maschat, Florence

    2017-12-15

    One way to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the construction of a nervous system is to identify the downstream effectors of major regulatory proteins. We previously showed that Engrailed (EN) and Gooseberry-Neuro (GsbN) transcription factors act in partnership to drive the formation of posterior commissures in the central nervous system of Drosophila. In this report, we identified genes regulated by both EN and GsbN through chromatin immunoprecipitation ("ChIP on chip") and transcriptome experiments, combined to a genetic screen relied to the gene dose titration method. The genomic-scale approaches allowed us to define 175 potential targets of EN-GsbN regulation. We chose a subset of these genes to examine ventral nerve cord (VNC) defects and found that half of the mutated targets show clear VNC phenotypes when doubly heterozygous with en or gsbn mutations, or when homozygous. This strategy revealed new groups of genes never described for their implication in the construction of the nerve cord. Their identification suggests that, to construct the nerve cord, EN-GsbN may act at three levels, in: (i) sequential control of the attractive-repulsive signaling that ensures contralateral projection of the commissural axons, (ii) temporal control of the translation of some mRNAs, (iii) regulation of the capability of glial cells to act as commissural guideposts for developing axons. These results illustrate how an early, coordinated transcriptional control may orchestrate the various mechanisms involved in the formation of stereotyped neuronal networks. They also validate the overall strategy to identify genes that play crucial role in axonal pathfinding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Formative research on the feasibility of hygiene interventions for influenza control in UK primary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Val

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions to increase hand washing in schools have been advocated as a means to reduce the transmission of pandemic influenza and other infections. However, the feasibility and acceptability of effective school-based hygiene interventions is not clear. Methods A pilot study in four primary schools in East London was conducted to establish the current need for enhanced hand hygiene interventions, identify barriers to their implementation and to test their acceptability and feasibility. The pilot study included key informant interviews with teachers and school nurses, interviews, group discussions and essay questions with the children, and testing of organised classroom hand hygiene activities. Results In all schools, basic issues of personal hygiene were taught especially in the younger age groups. However, we identified many barriers to implementing intensive hygiene interventions, in particular time constraints and competing health issues. Teachers' motivation to teach hygiene and enforce hygienic behaviour was primarily educational rather than immediate infection control. Children of all age groups had good knowledge of hygiene practices and germ transmission. Conclusion The pilot study showed that intensive hand hygiene interventions are feasible and acceptable but only temporarily during a period of a particular health threat such as an influenza pandemic, and only if rinse-free hand sanitisers are used. However, in many settings there may be logistical issues in providing all schools with an adequate supply. In the absence of evidence on effectiveness, the scope for enhanced hygiene interventions in schools in high income countries aiming at infection control appears to be limited in the absence of a severe public health threat.

  15. Apical control of xylem formation in the pine stem. II. Responses of differentiating tracheids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Porandowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of auxin supplied to the main stem of 5-year-old Pinus silvestris trees during various periods after decapitation upon differentiation of the secondary xylem tracheids was investigated. The results revealed the complexity of auxin involvement in the regulatory system of tracheid differentiation of secondary xylem. It is manifested both as the inductive effect to which the cells respond in the meristematic phase and in the continuous control during the consecutive stages of radial growth and maturation. A lack of auxin during the meristematic phase resulted in smaller cell diameters and reduced the daily rate of cell wall deposition even though these cells progressively grew and matured in the presence of auxin. The intensity of these two processes increased and the cells deposited thicker walls when auxin was supplied during all stages of tracheid differentiation even though the period of maturation decreased. Under these conditions tracheids of compression wood type differentiated. Continuous availability of auxin causes earlier termination of tracheid maturation while lack of auxin results in a delay of autolysis of protoplasts. In this case auxin probably functions in a system specifying information concerning the position of the cells in respect to the cambial layer.

  16. Periodic modulations controlling Kuznetsov–Ma soliton formation in nonlinear Schrödinger equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiofack, C.G.L., E-mail: glatchio@yahoo.fr [Univ. Lille, CNRS, UMR 8523 – PhLAM – Physique des Lasers Atomes et Molécules, F-59000 Lille (France); Coulibaly, S.; Taki, M. [Univ. Lille, CNRS, UMR 8523 – PhLAM – Physique des Lasers Atomes et Molécules, F-59000 Lille (France); De Bièvre, S.; Dujardin, G. [Univ. Lille, CNRS, UMR 8524 – Laboratoire Paul Painlevé, F-59000 Lille (France); Équipe-Projet Mephysto, INRIA Lille-Nord Europe (France)

    2017-06-28

    We analyze the exact Kuznetsov–Ma soliton solution of the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the presence of periodic modulations satisfying an integrability condition. We show that, in contrast to the case without modulation, the Kuznetsov–Ma soliton develops multiple compression points whose number, shape and position are controlled both by the intensity of the modulation and by its frequency. In addition, when this modulation frequency is a rational multiple of the natural frequency of the Kuznetsov–Ma soliton, a scenario similar to a nonlinear resonance is obtained: in this case the spatial oscillations of the Kuznetsov–Ma soliton's intensity are periodic. When the ratio of the two frequencies is irrational, the soliton's intensity is a quasiperiodic function. A striking and important result of our analysis is the possibility to suppress any component of the output spectrum of the Kuznetsov–Ma soliton by a judicious choice of the amplitude and frequency of the modulation. - Highlights: • Exact Kuznetsov–Ma soliton solution in presence of periodic coefficients is obtained. • The multiple compression points of the solution are studied. • The quasi-periodicity of the solution is discussed. • The possibility to suppress any component of the spectrum is analyzed.

  17. A cascade of morphogenic signaling initiated by the meninges controls corpus callosum formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Youngshik; Siegenthaler, Julie A; Pleasure, Samuel J

    2012-02-23

    The corpus callosum is the most prominent commissural connection between the cortical hemispheres, and numerous neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with callosal agenesis. By using mice either with meningeal overgrowth or selective loss of meninges, we have identified a cascade of morphogenic signals initiated by the meninges that regulates corpus callosum development. The meninges produce BMP7, an inhibitor of callosal axon outgrowth. This activity is overcome by the induction of expression of Wnt3 by the callosal pathfinding neurons, which antagonize the inhibitory effects of BMP7. Wnt3 expression in the cingulate callosal pathfinding axons is developmentally regulated by another BMP family member, GDF5, which is produced by the adjacent Cajal-Retzius neurons and turns on before outgrowth of the callosal axons. The effects of GDF5 are in turn under the control of a soluble GDF5 inhibitor, Dan, made by the meninges. Thus, the meninges and medial neocortex use a cascade of signals to regulate corpus callosum development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Controlled release of celecoxib inhibits inflammation, bone cysts and osteophyte formation in a preclinical model of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellegen, A R; Rudnik-Jansen, I; Pouran, B; de Visser, H M; Weinans, H H; Thomas, R E; Kik, M J L; Grinwis, G C M; Thies, J C; Woike, N; Mihov, G; Emans, P J; Meij, B P; Creemers, L B; Tryfonidou, M A

    2018-11-01

    Major hallmarks of osteoarthritis (OA) are cartilage degeneration, inflammation and osteophyte formation. COX-2 inhibitors counteract inflammation-related pain, but their prolonged oral use entails the risk for side effects. Local and prolonged administration in biocompatible and degradable drug delivery biomaterials could offer an efficient and safe treatment for the long-term management of OA symptoms. Therefore, we evaluated the disease-modifying effects and the optimal dose of polyesteramide microspheres delivering the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib in a rat OA model. Four weeks after OA induction by anterior cruciate ligament transection and partial medial meniscectomy, 8-week-old female rats (n = 6/group) were injected intra-articular with celecoxib-loaded microspheres at three dosages (0.03, 0.23 or 0.39 mg). Unloaded microspheres served as control. During the 16-week follow-up, static weight bearing and plasma celecoxib concentrations were monitored. Post-mortem, micro-computed tomography and knee joint histology determined progression of synovitis, osteophyte formation, subchondral bone changes, and cartilage integrity. Systemic celecoxib levels were below the detection limit 6 days upon delivery. Systemic and local adverse effects were absent. Local delivery of celecoxib reduced the formation of osteophytes, subchondral sclerosis, bone cysts and calcified loose bodies, and reduced synovial inflammation, while cartilage histology was unaffected. Even though the effects on pain could not be evualated directly in the current model, our results suggest the application of celecoxib-loaded microspheres holds promise as novel, safe and effective treatment for inflammation and pain in OA.

  19. Formation of hydrogenated amorphous carbon films of controlled hardness from a methane plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandentop, G.J.; Kawasaki, M.; Nix, R.M.; Brown, I.G.; Salmeron, M.; Somorjai, G.A.; Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720)

    1990-01-01

    Studies of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) film deposition revealed that methyl radicals are the precursor species responsible for the bulk mass deposition of the films, while the ions act to improve the mechanical properties. The films were deposited on Si(100) substrates both on the powered (negatively self-biased) and on the grounded electrodes from a methane rf plasma (13.56 MHz) at 68 to 70 mTorr and 300 to 370 K. The films produced on the powered electrode exhibited superior mechanical properties, such as high hardness. A mass spectrometer was used to identify neutral species and positive ions incident on the electrodes from the plasma, and also to measure ion energies. Methyl radicals were incident on the electrode surface with an estimated flux of 10 16 cm -2 s -1 , for a rf power of 50 W. Methyl radicals appear to be the dominant intermediates in the growth of the soft carbon polymer, and there is a remarkable decrease in deposition rate due to the introduction of NO, a radical scavenger. A novel pulsed biasing technique was used so that the role of ions in the plasma could be studied separately. It was found that the hardness of the films depends on the power supplied by the ions to the growing film surface (the time averaged difference between the plasma potential and the electrode potential), but not on the energy of individual ions. The pulsed biasing technique offers an efficient method to adjust the film hardness by independent control of the neutral radical and ion fluxes to the surface

  20. Controlling growth rate anisotropy for formation of continuous ZnO thin films from seeded substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R H; Slamovich, E B; Handwerker, C A

    2013-01-01

    Solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films are promising candidates for low-temperature-processable active layers in transparent thin film electronics. In this study, control of growth rate anisotropy using ZnO nanoparticle seeds, capping ions, and pH adjustment leads to a low-temperature (90 ° C) hydrothermal process for transparent and high-density ZnO thin films. The common 1D ZnO nanorod array was grown into a 2D continuous polycrystalline film using a short-time pure solution method. Growth rate anisotropy of ZnO crystals and the film morphology were tuned by varying the chloride (Cl − ) ion concentration and the initial pH of solutions of zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA), and the competitive adsorption effects of Cl − ions and HMTA ligands on the anisotropic growth behavior of ZnO crystals were proposed. The lateral growth of nanorods constituting the film was promoted by lowering the solution pH to accelerate the hydrolysis of HMTA, thereby allowing the adsorption effects from Cl − to dominate. By optimizing the growth conditions, a dense ∼100 nm thickness film was fabricated in 15 min from a solution of [Cl − ]/[Zn 2+ ] = 1.5 and pH= 4.8 ± 0.1. This film shows >80% optical transmittance and a field-effect mobility of 2.730 cm 2 V −1 s −1 at zero back-gate bias. (paper)

  1. Evaluating controls on fluvial sand-body clustering in the Ferris Formation (Cretaceous/Paleogene, Wyoming, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, E. A.; Heller, P.

    2009-12-01

    A primary goal of sedimentary geologists is to interpret past tectonic, climatic, and eustatic conditions from the stratigraphic record. Stratigraphic changes in alluvial-basin fills are routinely interpreted as the result of past tectonic movements or changes in climate or sea level. Recent physical and numerical models have shown that sedimentary systems can exhibit self-organization on basin-filling time scales, suggesting that structured stratigraphic patterns can form spontaneously rather than as the result of changing boundary conditions. The Ferris Formation (Upper Cretaceous/Paleogene, Hanna Basin, Wyoming) exhibits stratigraphic organization where clusters of closely-spaced channel deposits are separated from other clusters by intervals dominated by overbank material. In order to evaluate the role of basinal controls on deposition and ascertain the potential for self-organization in this ancient deposit, the spatial patterns of key channel properties (including sand-body dimensions, paleoflow depth, maximum clast size, paleocurrent direction, and sediment provenance) are analyzed. Overall the study area lacks strong trends sand-body properties through the stratigraphic succession and in cluster groups. Consequently there is no indication that the stratigraphic pattern observed in the Ferris Formation was driven by systematic changes in climate or tectonics.

  2. Formation and control of zinc nitride in a molten LiCl-KCl-Li{sub 3}N system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Takuya; Toyoura, Kazuaki; Tsujimura, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yasuhiko

    2004-08-25

    We investigated a possibility of electrochemical formation and control of zinc nitride in a molten LiCl-KCl-Li{sub 3}N system at 673 K. Zinc nitride films were obtained by means of potentiostatic electrolysis of zinc electrodes in the melt. From XRD analysis, it was confirmed that obtained films consisted of Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} and LiZnN and that the composition of each film was effected by the applied potential value. In the potential range from 0.75 to 1.6 V (versus Li{sup +}/Li), the ratio of Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} increased as the applied potential was more positive. Based on the result, we achieved the formation of Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} film (3-5 {mu}m) in anti-scandium oxide structure (a = 0.977 nm) by means of potentiostatic electrolysis at 1.6 V for 3 h.

  3. The level of pyruvate-formate lyase controls the shift from homolactic to mixed-acid product formation in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchiorsen, C.R.; Jokumsen, K.V.; Villadsen, John

    2002-01-01

    promoters in L. lactis MG1363 and in the PFL-deficient strain CRM40. Strains with five different PFL levels were obtained. Variation in the PFL level markedly affected the resulting end-product formation in these strains. During growth on galactose, the flux towards mixed-acid products was to a great extent...

  4. Compact toroid formation using barrier fields and controlled reconnection in the TRX-1 field reversed theta pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A.L.; Armstrong, W.T.

    1982-01-01

    TRX-1 is a new 20 cm diameter, 1-m long field reversed theta pinch with a magnetic field swing of 10 kG in 3 μsec. It employs z discharge preionization and octopole barrier fields to maximize flux trapping on first half cycle operation. Cusp coils are used at the theta pinch ends to delay reconnection and fast mirror coils are used to trigger reconnection at a time designed to maximize axial heating efficiency and toroid lifetime. These controls are designed to study toroid formation methods which are claimed to be especially efficient by Russian experimenters. Studies have been conducted on flux trapping efficiency, triggered reconnection, and equilibrium and lifetime

  5. UGT74S1 is the key player in controlling secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) formation in flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fofana, Bourlaye; Ghose, Kaushik; McCallum, Jason; You, Frank M; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2017-02-02

    Flax lignan, commonly known as secoisolariciresinol (SECO) diglucoside (SDG), has recently been reported with health-promoting activities, including its positive impact in metabolic diseases. However, not much was reported on the biosynthesis of SDG and its monoglucoside (SMG) until lately. Flax UGT74S1 was recently reported to sequentially glucosylate SECO into SMG and SDG in vitro. However, whether this gene is the only UGT achieving SECO glucosylation in flax was not known. Flax genome-wide mining for UGTs was performed. Phylogenetic and gene duplication analyses, heterologous gene expression and enzyme assays were conducted to identify family members closely related to UGT74S1 and to establish their roles in SECO glucosylation. A total of 299 different UGTs were identified, of which 241 (81%) were duplicated. Flax UGTs diverged 2.4-153.6 MYA and 71% were found to be under purifying selection pressure. UGT74S1, a single copy gene located on chromosome 7, displayed no evidence of duplication and was deemed to be under positive selection pressure. The phylogenetic analysis identified four main clusters where cluster 4, which included UGT74S1, was the most diverse. The duplicated UGT74S4 and UGT74S3, located on chromosomes 8 and 14, respectively, were the most closely related to UGT74S1 and were differentially expressed in different tissues. Heterologous expression levels of UGT74S1, UGT74S4 and UGT74S3 proteins were similar but UGT74S4 and UGT74S3 glucosylation activity towards SECO was seven fold less than UGT74S1. In addition, they both failed to produce SDG, suggesting neofunctionalization following their divergence from UGT74S1. We showed that UGT74S1 is closely related to two duplicated genes, UGT74S4 and UGT74S3 which, unlike UGT74S1, failed to glucosylate SMG into SDG. The study suggests that UGT74S1 may be the key player in controlling SECO glucosylation into SDG in flax although its closely related genes may also contribute to a minor extent in supplying

  6. Specific Human and Candida Cellular Interactions Lead to Controlled or Persistent Infection Outcomes during Granuloma-Like Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misme-Aucouturier, Barbara; Albassier, Marjorie; Alvarez-Rueda, Nidia; Le Pape, Patrice

    2017-01-01

    A delayed type of multicellular process could be crucial during chronic candidiasis in determining the course of infection. This reaction, consisting of organized immune cells surrounding the pathogen, initiates an inflammatory response to avoid fungal dissemination. The goal of the present study was to examine, at an in vitro cellular scale, Candida and human immune cell interaction dynamics during a long-term period. By challenging human peripheral blood immune cells from 10 healthy donors with 32 Candida albicans and non-albicans (C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. dubliniensis, C. lusitaniae, C. krusei, and C. kefyr) clinical isolates, we showed that Candida spp. induced the formation of granuloma-like structures within 6 days after challenge, but their sizes and the respective fungal burdens differed according to the Candida species. These two parameters are positively correlated. Phenotypic characteristics, such as hypha formation and higher axenic growth rate, seem to contribute to yeast persistence within granuloma-like structures. We showed an interindividual variability of the human response against Candida spp. Higher proportions of neutrophils and elevated CD4 + /CD8 + T cell ratios during the first days after challenge were correlated with early production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and associated with controlled infection. In contrast, the persistence of Candida could result from upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), IFN-γ, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and a poor anti-inflammatory negative feedback (IL-10). Importantly, regulatory subsets of NK cells and CD4 lo CD8 hi doubly positive (DP) lymphocytes at late stage infiltrate granuloma-like structures and could correlate with the IL-10 and TNF-α production. These data offer a base frame to explain cellular events that guide infection control or fungal persistence. Copyright © 2016 Misme-Aucouturier et al.

  7. Major factors controlling fracture development in the Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation tight oil reservoir, Junggar Basin, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhu, Deyu; Luo, Qun; Liu, Luofu; Liu, Dongdong; Yan, Lin; Zhang, Yunzhao

    2017-09-01

    Natural fractures in seven wells from the Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation in the Junggar Basin were evaluated in light of regional structural evolution, tight reservoir geochemistry (including TOC and mineral composition), carbon and oxygen isotopes of calcite-filled fractures, and acoustic emission (AE). Factors controlling the development of natural fractures were analyzed using qualitative and/or semi-quantitative techniques, with results showing that tectonic factors are the primary control on fracture development in the Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation of the Junggar Basin. Analyses of calcite, dolomite, and TOC show positive correlations with the number of fractures, while deltaic lithofacies appear to be the most favorable for fracture development. Mineral content was found to be a major control on tectonic fracture development, while TOC content and sedimentary facies mainly control bedding fractures. Carbon and oxygen isotopes vary greatly in calcite-filled fractures (δ13C ranges from 0.87‰ to 7.98‰, while δ18O ranges from -12.63‰ to -5.65‰), indicating that fracture development increases with intensified tectonic activity or enhanced diagenetic alteration. By analyzing the cross-cutting relationships of fractures in core, as well as four Kaiser Effect points in the acoustic emission curve, we observed four stages of tectonic fracture development. First-stage fractures are extensional, and were generated in the late Triassic, with calcite fracture fills formed between 36.51 °C and 56.89 °C. Second-stage fractures are shear fractures caused by extrusion stress from the southwest to the northeast, generated by the rapid uplift of the Tianshan in the Middle and Late Jurassic; calcite fracture fills formed between 62.91 °C and 69.88 °C. Third-stage fractures are NNW-trending shear fractures that resulted from north-south extrusion and thrusting in a foreland depression along the front of the Early Cretaceous Bogda Mountains. Calcite fracture

  8. Using an ACTIVE teaching format versus a standard lecture format for increasing resident interaction and knowledge achievement during noon conference: a prospective, controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Sawatsky, Adam P; Berlacher, Kathryn; Granieri, Rosanne

    2014-01-01

    Background The traditional lecture is used by many residency programs to fulfill the mandate for regular didactic sessions, despite limited evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness. Active teaching strategies have shown promise in improving medical knowledge but have been challenging to implement within the constraints of residency training. We developed and evaluated an innovative structured format for interactive teaching within the residency noon conference. Methods We developed an ACTIVE...

  9. The initial stages of template-controlled CaCO3 formation revealed by Cryo-TEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouget, E.M.; Bomans, P.H.H.; Goos, J.A.C.M.; Frederik, P.M.; With, de G.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Biogenic calcium carbonate forms the inorganic component of seashells, otoliths, and many marineskeletons, and its formation is directed by an ordered template of macromolecules. Classicalnucleation theory considers crystal formation to occur from a critical nucleus formed by theassembly of ions

  10. Beyond the Biomedical Paradigm: The Formation and Development of Indigenous Community-Controlled Health Organizations in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the formation and development of Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services in Australia, with emphasis on the Redfern Aboriginal Medical Service in Sydney. These organizations were established in the 1970s by Indigenous Australians who were excluded from and denied access to mainstream health services. The aim of this research was to explore notions of Indigenous agency against a historical backdrop of dispossession, colonialism, and racism. Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services act as a primary source of healthcare for many Indigenous communities in rural and urban areas. This study examined their philosophy of healthcare, the range of services provided, their problems with state bureaucracies and government funding bodies, and the imposition of managerialist techniques and strategies on their governance. Essentially, these organizations transcend individualistic, biomedical, and bureaucratic paradigms of health services by conceptualizing and responding to Indigenous health needs at a grassroots level and in a broad social and political context. They are based on a social model of health. © SAGE Publications 2015.

  11. Phenylethanol promotes adhesion and biofilm formation of the antagonistic yeast Kloeckera apiculata for the control of blue mold on citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Liu; Jingfan, Fang; Kai, Chen; Chao-an, Long; Yunjiang, Cheng

    2014-06-01

    The yeast Kloeckera apiculata strain 34-9 is an antagonist with biological control activity against postharvest diseases of citrus fruit. In a previous study it was demonstrated that K. apiculata produced the aromatic alcohol phenylethanol. In the present study, we found that K. apiculata was able to form biofilm on citrus fruit and embed in an extracellular matrix, which created a mechanical barrier interposed between the wound surface and pathogen. As a quorum-sensing molecule, phenylethanol can promote the formation of filaments by K. apiculata in potato dextrose agar medium, whereas on the citrus fruit, the antagonist remains as yeast after being treated with the same concentration of phenylethanol. It only induced K. apiculata to adhere and form biofilm. Following genome-wide computational and experimental identification of the possible genes associated with K. apiculata adhesion, we identified nine genes possibly involved in triggering yeast adhesion. Six of these genes were significantly induced after phenylethanol stress treatment. This study provides a new model system of the biology of the antagonist-pathogen interactions that occur in the antagonistic yeast K. apiculata for the control of blue mold on citrus caused by Penicillium italicum. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Controlling Factors of Cell Design on Large-Format Li-Ion Battery Safety during Nail Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qing; Shaffer, Christian Edward, E-mail: ceshaffer@ecpowergroup.com; Sinha, Puneet K. [EC Power, State College, PA (United States)

    2015-08-21

    In this paper, we investigate the controlling design parameters of large-format Li-ion batteries on safety while undergoing nail penetration. We have identified three critical design parameters that control the safety during the nail penetration process: nail diameter (D{sub nail}), single sheet foil area (A{sub foil}), and cell capacity (Q{sub cell}).Using commercial AutoLion™ software, we have investigated two typical design problems related to the selection of cell thickness and aspect ratio, namely, (1) the safety ramifications of increasing cell capacity via greater cell thickness for a fixed footprint and (2) the effect of aspect ratio, or single sheet foil size, on safety at a given capacity. For a fixed footprint, our results indicate that the safety of the cell can be predicted by (Q{sub cell} D{sub nail}{sup -0.5}). For a given cell capacity, our results indicate that typically a larger single sheet foil area leads to a greater likelihood for thermal runaway due to its effect of making the heating more local in nature; however, for small cells (~5 Ah) and large nails (~20 mm), the greater aspect ratio can lead to a safer cell, as the greater surface area strongly cools the global heating of the cell.

  13. Controlling Factors of Cell Design on Large-format Li-ion Battery Safety During Nail Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing eWang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the controlling design parameters of large-format Li-ion batteries on safety while undergoing nail penetration. We have identified three critical design parameters that control the safety during the nail penetration process: nail diameter, single sheet foil area, and cell capacity.Using commercial AutoLion software, we have investigated two typical design problems related to the selection of cell thickness and aspect ratio, namely: (1 the safety ramifications of increasing cell capacity via greater cell thickness for a fixed footprint, and (2 the effect of aspect ratio, or single sheet foil size, on safety at a given capacity. For a fixed footprint, our results indicate that the safety of the cell can be predicted by (Qcell Dnail^-0.5. For a given cell capacity, our results indicate that typically a larger single sheet foil area leads to a greater likelihood for thermal runaway due to its effect of making the heating more local in nature; however, for small cells (~ 5Ah and large nails (~ 20mm, the greater aspect ratio can lead to a safer cell, as the greater surface area strongly cools the global heating of the cell.

  14. Factors controlling deposits in recovery boilers -particle formation and deposition; Soodakattilan likaantuminen ja siihen vaikuttavien tekijoeiden hallinta. Hiukkasten muodostuminen ja depositio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauppinen, E I; Mikkanen, P; Tapper, U; Ylaetalo, S; Jaervinen, R [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Jokiniemi, J K; Pyykoenen, J; Eskola, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In this project the aim is to find critical factors controlling the deposit formation in the recovery boilers. Focus is on particle formation, growth and deposition. During year 1995 the aerosol particle formation was studied by an experimental study within the recovery boiler furnace and by a sensitivity study with the ABC (Aerosol Behaviour in Combustion) computer code. During year 1996 the experimental studies on the aerosol particle formation continued within the furnace and the deposition mechanisms for carry over particles were included in the ABC code and sensitivity studies of the deposition were carried out. The experimental study confirmed the fact that the particles are already formed in the recovery boiler furnace. The particle formation is initiated in the boundary layer of the burning droplet or char bed, where metals are vaporised and oxidised to form tiny seed particles

  15. Effects of formative assessments to develop self-regulation among sixth grade students: Results from a randomized controlled intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meusen-Beekman, Kelly; Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Boshuizen, Els

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the results of a formative assessment intervention in writing assignments in sixth grade. We examined whether formative assessments would improve self-regulation, motivation and self-efficacy among sixth graders, and whether differential effects exist between formative

  16. Digital Bangladesh: Using Formative Research to Develop Phone Messages for the Prevention and Control of Diabetes in Rural Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Maria Jennings

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: As with many low-income countries, diabetes is an increasing issue in Bangladesh affecting an estimated 20% to 30% of the population either as intermediate hyperglycaemia or fully expressed diabetes mellitus (Bhowmik et al., 2012. The Bangladesh D-MAGIC project is a cluster randomised control trial to test the effectiveness of interventions to improve detection, management and control of diabetes in rural Bangladesh. One of these interventions is an mHealth intervention, which involves sending health promotion voice messages to individuals’ mobile phones to target diabetes prevention and management. In-depth formative research (interviews and focus group discussions has been undertaken in rural Faridpur District in order to gain a greater understanding of people’s beliefs, practices and behaviour regarding diabetes prevention and control and their access to and use of mobile phones. The findings of the research, used within the COM-B framework (Michie et al 2011, are being used to inform and appropriately tailor the voice messages to the needs of the target population. This presentation will highlight key findings of the formative research and discuss how these findings are being used to design the mHealth intervention. Aim: To identify key issues for the content and delivery of voice messages regarding the prevention and control of diabetes in rural Bangladesh through in-depth formative research. Methods: We conducted sixteen semi-structured interviews with purposively sampled diabetics, non-diabetics and health professionals. In addition, nine focus group discussions with diabetics and non-diabetics were conducted in villages in three sub-districts of Faridpur. We explored beliefs and behaviour regarding diet, exercise, smoking, stress and care-seeking. The findings from the interviews and focus group discussions were analysed thematically, and specific enablers and barriers to behaviour change related to diabetes identified

  17. Modeling Aspect Controlled Formation of Seasonally Frozen Ground on Montane Hillslopes: a Case Study from Gordon Gulch, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, M.; Rajaram, H.; Anderson, R. S.; Anderson, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013) warns that high-elevation ecosystems are extremely vulnerable to climate change due to short growing seasons, thin soils, sparse vegetation, melting glaciers, and thawing permafrost. Many permafrost-free regions experience seasonally frozen ground. The spatial distribution of frozen soil exerts a strong control on subsurface flow and transport processes by reducing soil permeability and impeding infiltration. Accordingly, evolution of the extent and duration of frozen ground may alter streamflow seasonality, groundwater flow paths, and subsurface storage, presenting a need for coupled thermal-hydrologic models to project hydrologic responses to climate warming in high-elevation regions. To be useful as predictive tools, such models should incorporate the heterogeneity of solar insolation, vegetation, and snowpack dynamics. We present a coupled thermal-hydrologic modeling study against the backdrop of field observations from Gordon Gulch, a seasonally snow-covered montane catchment in the Colorado Front Range in the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory. The field site features two instrumented hillslopes with opposing aspects: the snowpack on the north-facing slope persists throughout much of the winter season, while the snowpack on the south-facing slope is highly ephemeral. We implemented a surface energy balance and snowpack accumulation and ablation model that is coupled to the subsurface flow and transport code PFLOTRAN-ICE to predict the hydrologic consequences of aspect-controlled frozen soil formation during water years 2013-2016. Preliminary model results demonstrate the occurrence of seasonally-frozen ground on the north-facing slope that directs snowmelt to the stream by way of shallow subsurface flow paths. The absence of persistently frozen ground on the south-facing slope allows deeper infiltration of snowmelt recharge. The differences in subsurface flow paths also suggest strong aspect-controlled

  18. Reuse of sewage sludge as a catalyst in ozonation – Efficiency for the removal of oxalic acid and the control of bromate formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Gang; Pan, Zhi-Hui; Ma, Jun; Liu, Zheng-Qian; Zhao, Lei; Li, Jun-Jing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sewage sludge was converted into catalyst (SBC) and characterized. ► SBC can enhance oxalic acid degradation in ozonation. ► Surface reaction mechanism is responsible for enhancement of ozonation by SBC. ► SBC can control the formation of bromate in ozonation. ► Several combined reasons for the control of bromate formation are proposed. - Abstract: Sewage derived sludge is produced with an annual amount increase of 2% all over the world and it is an urgent issue to be addressed by human being. In the present study, sludge was converted into sludge-based catalyst (SBC) with ZnCl 2 as activation agent and characterized by several methods (e.g., scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope). Then it was used as a catalyst to enhance the removal of refractory organic matter, oxalic acid, and to control the formation of bromate (BrO 3 − ) in bench semi-continuous ozonation experiments. The effects of various operating parameters on the control of BrO 3 − formation were investigated. Furthermore, the mechanism for the enhancement of organic matter removal and the control of BrO 3 − formation was discussed as well. Results indicate that the combination of SBC with ozone shows a strong synergistic effect, resulting in a notable improvement on oxalic acid removal. A crucial surface reaction mechanism for the enhancement of organic matter removal is proposed on the basis of negative effect of higher pH and no inhibition effect of tert-butanol. The control for BrO 3 − formation was demonstrated and the reason for its control in the process of O 3 /SBC is the combined effect of SBC reductive properties, ozone exposure decrease and hydrogen peroxide concentration increase.

  19. The C. elegans DSB-2 protein reveals a regulatory network that controls competence for meiotic DSB formation and promotes crossover assurance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Rosu

    Full Text Available For most organisms, chromosome segregation during meiosis relies on deliberate induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs and repair of a subset of these DSBs as inter-homolog crossovers (COs. However, timing and levels of DSB formation must be tightly controlled to avoid jeopardizing genome integrity. Here we identify the DSB-2 protein, which is required for efficient DSB formation during C. elegans meiosis but is dispensable for later steps of meiotic recombination. DSB-2 localizes to chromatin during the time of DSB formation, and its disappearance coincides with a decline in RAD-51 foci marking early recombination intermediates and precedes appearance of COSA-1 foci marking CO-designated sites. These and other data suggest that DSB-2 and its paralog DSB-1 promote competence for DSB formation. Further, immunofluorescence analyses of wild-type gonads and various meiotic mutants reveal that association of DSB-2 with chromatin is coordinated with multiple distinct aspects of the meiotic program, including the phosphorylation state of nuclear envelope protein SUN-1 and dependence on RAD-50 to load the RAD-51 recombinase at DSB sites. Moreover, association of DSB-2 with chromatin is prolonged in mutants impaired for either DSB formation or formation of downstream CO intermediates. These and other data suggest that association of DSB-2 with chromatin is an indicator of competence for DSB formation, and that cells respond to a deficit of CO-competent recombination intermediates by prolonging the DSB-competent state. In the context of this model, we propose that formation of sufficient CO-competent intermediates engages a negative feedback response that leads to cessation of DSB formation as part of a major coordinated transition in meiotic prophase progression. The proposed negative feedback regulation of DSB formation simultaneously (1 ensures that sufficient DSBs are made to guarantee CO formation and (2 prevents excessive DSB levels that could

  20. Controlling the formation process and atomic structures of single pyrazine molecular junction by tuning the strength of the metal-molecule interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Satoshi; Takahashi, Ryoji; Fujii, Shintaro; Nishino, Tomoaki; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2017-04-12

    The formation process and atomic structures were investigated for single pyrazine molecular junctions sandwiched by three different Au, Ag, and Cu electrodes using a mechanically controllable break junction technique in ultrahigh vacuum conditions at 300 K. We demonstrated that the formation process of the single-molecule junction crucially depended on the choice of the metal electrodes. While single-molecule junction showing two distinct conductance states were found for the Au electrodes, only the single conductance state was evident for the Ag electrodes, and there was no junction formation for the Cu electrodes. These results suggested that metal-molecule interaction dominates the formation process and probability of the single-molecule junction. In addition to the metal-molecule interaction, temperature affected the formation process of the single-molecule junction. The single pyrazine molecular junction formed between Au electrodes exhibited significant temperature dependence where the junction-formation probability was about 8% at 300 K, while there was no junction-formation at 100 K. Instead of the junction formation, an Au atomic wire was formed at the low temperature. This study provides insight into the tuning of the junction-forming process for single-molecule junctions, which is needed to construct device structures on a single molecule scale.

  1. Formation Control and Obstacle Avoidance for Multiple Mobile Robots%多移动机器人避障编队控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨甜甜; 刘志远; 陈虹; 裴润

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of formation con-trol and obstacle avoidance for a group of nonholonomic mobile robots. On the basis of suboptimal model predictive control, two control algorithms are proposed. Both algorithms are formulated such that they solve as solving the optimal control problems in which the cost functions are coupled with the dynamics of each interacting robot. A potential function is used to define the ter- minal state penalty term, and a corresponding terminal state region is added to the optimization constraints. Moreover, the main issues inclusive of stability and safety are also discussed. Simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed control strategies.

  2. Y2 receptor signalling in NPY neurons controls bone formation and fasting induced feeding but not spontaneous feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yue; Fu, Melissa; Herzog, Herbert

    2016-02-01

    Y2 receptors have been implicated in the development of obesity and are a potential target for obesity treatment due to their known role of inhibiting neuropeptide Y (NPY) induced feeding responses. However, the precise neuronal population on which Y2 receptors act to fulfil this role is less clear. Here we utilise a novel inducible, postnatal onset NPY neurons specific deletion model to investigate the functional consequences of loss of Y2 signalling in this population of neurons on feeding and energy homeostasis regulation. While the consequences of lack of Y2 signalling in NPY neurons are confirmed in terms of the uncoupling of suppression/increasing of NPY and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expression in the arcuate nuclei (Arc), respectively, this lack of Y2 signalling surprisingly does not have any significant effect on spontaneous food intake. Fasting induced food intake, however, is strongly increased but only in the first 1h after re-feeding. Consequently no significant changes in body weight are being observed although body weight gain is increased in male mice after postnatal onset Y2 deletion. Importantly, another known function of central Y2 receptor signalling, the suppression of bone formation is conserved in this conditional model with whole body bone mineral content being decreased. Taken together this model confirms the critical role of Y2 signalling to control NPY and associated POMC expression in the Arc, but also highlights the possibility that others, non-NPY neuronal Y2 receptors, are also involved in controlling feeding and energy homeostasis regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nanocomposites of size-controlled gold nanoparticles and graphene oxide: formation and applications in SERS and catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Zhang, Liming; Chen, Biao; Ji, Nan; Chen, Fenghua; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Zhijun

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we describe the formation of Au nanoparticle-graphene oxide (Au-GO) and -reduced GO (Au-rGO) composites by noncovalent attachment of Au nanoparticles premodified with 2-mercaptopyridine to GO and rGO sheets, respectively, viaπ-π stacking and other molecular interactions. Compared with in situ reduction of HAuCl4 on the surface of graphene sheets that are widely used to prepare Au-GO composites, the approach developed by us offers well controlled size, size distribution, and morphology of the metal nanoparticles in the metal-GO nanohybrids. Moreover, we investigated surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and catalysis properties of the Au-graphene composites. We have demonstrated that the Au-GO composites are superior SERS substrates to the Au NPs. Similarly, a comparative study on the catalytic activities of the Au, Au-GO, and Au-rGO composites in the reduction of o-nitroaniline to 1,2-benzenediamine by NaBH4 indicates that both Au-GO and Au-rGO composites exhibit significantly higher catalytic activities than the corresponding Au nanoparticles.

  4. Controlling the formation of rodlike V2O5 nanocrystals on reduced graphene oxide for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meili; Sun, Guoying; Yin, Pingping; Ruan, Changping; Ai, Kelong

    2013-11-13

    Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) has attracted much attention for energy storage application because of its high Faradaic activity and stable crystal structure, which make it a promising electrode material for supercapacitors. However, the low electronic conductivity and small lithium-ion diffusion coefficient of V2O5 limit its practical applications. To overcome these limitations, a facile and efficient method is here demonstrated for the fabrication of V2O5/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites as electrode materials for supercapacitors. With this method, the reduction of graphene oxide can be achieved in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly solvent, without the addition of any other toxic reducing agent. Importantly, this solvent can control the formation of the uniform rodlike V2O5 nanocrystals on the surface of rGO. Compared to pure V2O5 microspheres, the V2O5/rGO nanocomposites exhibited a higher specific capacitance of 537 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1) in neutral aqueous electrolytes, a higher energy density of 74.58 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 500 W kg(-1), and better stability even after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. Their excellent performances can be attributed to the synergistic effect of rGO and rodlike V2O5 nanocrystals. Such impressive results may promote new opportunities for these electrode materials in high-energy-density storage systems.

  5. Delayed condensation and frost formation on superhydrophobic carbon soot coatings by controlling the presence of hydrophilic active sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmeryan, Karekin D.; Castano, Carlos E.; Mohammadi, Reza; Lazarov, Yuliyan; Radeva, Ekaterina I.

    2018-02-01

    Condensation frosting is an undesired natural phenomenon that could be impeded efficiently using appropriate wettability and morphologically patterned surfaces. The icephobic properties of carbon soot and the fabrication scalability of its synthesis method are a good foundation for anti-frosting applications; however, the fundamentals of frost growth and spreading on sooted surfaces have not been examined yet. In this study, we investigate the anti-frosting performance of three groups of superhydrophobic soot coatings by means of 16 MHz quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs). The analysis of the real-time sensor signal of each soot coated QCM pattern shows that frost formation and its propagation velocity depend on the quantity of oxygen functionalities and structural defects in the material. In turn, the reduction of both parameters shifts the onset of frost growth to temperatures below  -20 °C, whereas the interdroplet ice bridging is slowed by a factor of four. Moreover, high-resolution scanning electron micrographs of the samples imply delamination upon defrosting of the soot with spherical-like morphology via polar interactions driven mechanism. These results reveal an opportunity for control of frost incipiency on sooted surfaces by adjusting the synthesis conditions and depositing soot coatings with as low as possible content of hydrophilic active sites.

  6. Water ordering controls the dynamic equilibrium of micelle-fibre formation in self-assembly of peptide amphiphiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Sanket A; Solomon, Lee A; Kamath, Ganesh; Fry, H Christopher; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S

    2016-08-24

    Understanding the role of water in governing the kinetics of the self-assembly processes of amphiphilic peptides remains elusive. Here, we use a multistage atomistic-coarse-grained approach, complemented by circular dichroism/infrared spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering experiments to highlight the dual nature of water in driving the self-assembly of peptide amphiphiles (PAs). We show computationally that water cage formation and breakage near the hydrophobic groups control the fusion dynamics and aggregation of PAs in the micellar stage. Simulations also suggest that enhanced structural ordering of vicinal water near the hydrophilic amino acids shifts the equilibrium towards the fibre phase and stimulates structure and order during the PA assembly into nanofibres. Experiments validate our simulation findings; the measured infrared O-H bond stretching frequency is reminiscent of an ice-like bond which suggests that the solvated water becomes increasingly ordered with time in the assembled peptide network, thus shedding light on the role of water in a self-assembly process.

  7. Compositional controls on spinel clouding and garnet formation in plagioclase of olivine metagabbros, Adirondack Mountains, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLelland, J.M.; Whitney, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    Olivine metagabbros from the Adirondacks usually contain both clear and spinel-clouded plagioclase, as well as garnet. The latter occurs primarily as the outer rim of coronas surrounding olivine and pyroxene, and less commonly as lamellae or isolated grains within plagioclase. The formation of garnet and metamorphic spinel is dependent upon the anorthite content of the plagioclase. Plagioclase more sodic than An38??2 does not exhibit spinel clouding, and garnet rarely occurs in contact with plagioclase more albitic than An36??4. As a result of these compositional controls, the distribution of spinel and garnet mimics and visually enhances original igneous zoning in plagioclase. Most features of the arrangement of clear (unclouded) plagioclase, including the shells or moats of clear plagioclase which frequently occur inside the garnet rims of coronas, can be explained on the basis of igneous zoning. The form and distribution of the clear zones may also be affected by the metamorphic reactions which have produced the coronas, and by redistribution of plagioclase in response to local volume changes during metamorphism. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Folliculin directs the formation of a Rab34-RILP complex to control the nutrient-dependent dynamic distribution of lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Georgina P; Yip, Yan Y; Sanger, Anneri; Morton, Penny E; Eden, Emily R; Dodding, Mark P

    2016-06-01

    The spatial distribution of lysosomes is important for their function and is, in part, controlled by cellular nutrient status. Here, we show that the lysosome associated Birt-Hoge-Dubé (BHD) syndrome renal tumour suppressor folliculin (FLCN) regulates this process. FLCN promotes the peri-nuclear clustering of lysosomes following serum and amino acid withdrawal and is supported by the predominantly Golgi-associated small GTPase Rab34. Rab34-positive peri-nuclear membranes contact lysosomes and cause a reduction in lysosome motility and knockdown of FLCN inhibits Rab34-induced peri-nuclear lysosome clustering. FLCN interacts directly via its C-terminal DENN domain with the Rab34 effector RILP Using purified recombinant proteins, we show that the FLCN-DENN domain does not act as a GEF for Rab34, but rather, loads active Rab34 onto RILP We propose a model whereby starvation-induced FLCN association with lysosomes drives the formation of contact sites between lysosomes and Rab34-positive peri-nuclear membranes that restrict lysosome motility and thus promote their retention in this region of the cell. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  9. Eustatic control on epicontinental basins: The example of the Stuttgart Formation in the Central European Basin (Middle Keuper, Late Triassic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, M.; Nowak, K.; Berner, U.; Heunisch, C.; Bandel, K.; Röhling, H.-G.; Wolfgramm, M.

    2014-11-01

    The deposition of the Stuttgart Formation ('Schilfsandstein'), commonly considered as a type-example of the Carnian Pluvial Event, was controlled by high frequent 4th order sequences that resulted in pre-, intra- and post-Schilfsandstein transgressions from Tethyan waters into the epicontinental Central European Basin (CEB). The pre-Schilfsandstein transgression flooded the CEB trough gates to the Southeast and resulted in a wide-spread inland sea that was characterised by increased biological productivity, predominantly oxic conditions and enabled the immigration of euryhaline marine fauna with plankton, ostracodes, fishes, bivalves and the gastropods Omphaloptychia suebica n. sp. and Settsassia stuttgartica n. sp. The rather short-term intra- and post-Schilfsandstein transgressions flooded the CEB from the Southwest and Southeast and established a shallow brackish inland sea that stretched up to North Germany. Both, the 4th and 3rd order sequences derived from the succession in the CEB correlate well with those derived from successions of Tethyan shelfs. Therefore pronounced circum-Tethyan eustatic cycles are evidenced and may have had considerable impact on prominent middle Carnian events: Reingraben turnover, Carnian Pluvial Event, Carnian Crisis and Mid Carnian Wet Intermezzo. The broad circum-Tethyan evidence of 106-year scale cycles suggests glacioeustatic sea-level changes even in the Triassic Greenhouse period.

  10. Synthesis and shape control of copper tin sulphide nanocrystals and formation of gold-copper tin sulphide hybrid nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruszynska, Marta; Parisi, Juergen; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Hexagonal prismatic Cu 3 SnS 4 nanoparticles and nanorods were synthesized by a hot-injection procedure. Changing the reaction conditions leads to the formation of different shapes. When oleylamine is used as a solvent, hexagonal prismatic particles are obtained, while a reaction in octadecene results in the formation of nanorods. The growth process of copper tin sulphide starts with the formation of djurleite copper sulphide seeds. Their reaction with Sn 4+ ions leads to the formation of Cu 3 SnS 4 . These Cu 3 SnS 4 nanocrystals form Au-Cu 3 SnS 4 hybrid nanostructures by reaction with gold seeds.

  11. The formation of a complex community program for diabetes control: lessons learned from a case study of Project DIRECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, R M; Liburd, L C; Green-Phillips, A

    2001-05-01

    A case study was conducted of the formation of a diabetes initiative in a largely African American urban community. The study focused on how confluent the original project model was with actual formation, what benefits were produced, what areas of needed improvement surfaced, and how different stakeholder groups characterized one another's involvement. The project produced several benefits but also experienced needed improvements in its formation, which suffered from a lack of communication, cooperation, and coordination; unclear goals and personnel roles; and early delays. Lessons include treating project formation as an important developmental stage and reducing bureaucratic management approaches not suited for community partnerships.

  12. The effect of different cardiovascular risk presentation formats on intentions, understanding and emotional affect: a randomised controlled trial using a web-based risk formatter (protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newcombe Robert

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The future risk of heart disease can be predicted with increasing precision. However, more research is needed into how this risk is conveyed and presented. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of presenting cardiovascular risk in different formats on individuals' intention to change behaviour to reduce risk, understanding of risk information and emotional affect. Methods/design A randomised controlled trial comprising four arms, with a between subjects design will be performed. There will be two intervention groups and two control groups. The first control comprises a pre-intervention questionnaire and presents risk in a bar graph format. The second control presents risk in a bar graph format without pre-intervention questionnaire. These two control groups are to account for the potential Hawthorne effect of thinking about cardiovascular risk before viewing actual risk. The two intervention groups comprise presenting risk in either a pictogram or metonym format (image depicting seriousness of having a myocardial infarction. 800 individuals' aged between 45 and 64 years, who have not been previously diagnosed with heart disease and have access to a computer with internet, will be given a link to a website comprising a risk calculator and electronic questionnaires. 10-year risk of having a coronary heart disease event will be assessed and presented in one of the three formats. A post-intervention questionnaire will be completed after viewing the risk format. Main outcome measures are (i intention to change behaviour, (ii understanding of risk information, (iii emotional affect and (iv worry about future heart disease. Secondary outcomes are the sub-components of the theory of planned behaviour: attitudes, perceived behavioural control and subjective norms. Discussion Having reviewed the literature, we are not aware of any other studies which have used the assessment of actual risk, in a trial to compare different

  13. Effects of hanging drop culture conditions on embryoid body formation and neuronal cell differentiation using mouse embryonic stem cells: optimization of culture conditions for the formation of well-controlled embryoid bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Yoshitsugu; Kurosawa, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    Hanging drop (HD) cultures were carried out with a drop volume of either 20 or 30 μl. An incubation period of 3 days was determined to be appropriate for the formation of well-controlled embryoid bodies (EBs), and the initial cell number was identified as the most critical factor in the growth and neuronal cell differentiation of EBs. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Association between framing of the research question using the PICOT format and reporting quality of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabane Lehana

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experts recommend formulating a structured research question to guide the research design. However, the basis for this recommendation has not been formally evaluated. The aim of this study was to examine if a structured research question using the PICOT (Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome, Time-frame format is associated with a better reporting quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Methods We evaluated 89 RCTs reports published in three endocrinology journals in 2005 and 2006, the quality of reporting of which was assessed in a previous study. We examined whether the reports stated each of the five elements of a structured research question: population, intervention, comparator, outcome and time-frame. A PICOT score was created with a possible score between 0 and 5. Outcomes were: 1 a 14-point overall reporting quality score (OQS based on the Consolidated Standards for Reporting Trials; and 2 a 3-point key score (KS, based on allocation concealment, blinding and use of intention-to-treat analysis. We conducted multivariable regression analyses using generalized estimating equations to determine if a higher PICOT score or the use of a structured research question were independently associated with a better reporting quality. Journal of publication, funding source and sample size were identified as factors associated with OQS in our previous report on this dataset, and therefore included in the model. Results A higher PICOT score was independently associated with OQS (incidence rate ratio (IRR = 1.021, 95% CI: 1.012 to 1.029 and KS (IRR = 1.142, 95% CI: 1.079 to 1.210. A structured research question was present in 33.7% of the reports and it was associated with a better OQS (IRR = 1.095, 95% CI 1.059-1.132 and KS (IRR = 1.530, 95% CI 1.311-1.786. Conclusions Better framing of the research question using the PICOT format is independently associated with better overall reporting quality - although the effect

  15. Formation of unimer nanoparticles by controlling the self-association of hydrophobically modified poly(amino acid)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Takami; Piyapakorn, Phassamon; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2012-03-20

    Amphiphilic block or graft copolymers have been demonstrated to form a variety of self-assembled nano/microstructures in selective solvents. In this study, the self-association behavior of biodegradable graft copolymers composed of poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) as the hydrophilic segment and L-phenylalanine (Phe) as the hydrophobic segment in aqueous solution was investigated. The association behavior and unimer nanoparticle formation of these γ-PGA-graft-Phe (γ-PGA-Phe) copolymers in aqueous solution were characterized with a focus on the effect of the Phe grafting degree on the intra- and interpolymer association of γ-PGA-Phe. The particle size and number of polymer aggregates (N(agg)) in one particle of the γ-PGA-Phe depended on the Phe grafting degree. The size of γ-PGA-Phe with 12, 27, 35, or 42% Phe grafting (γ-PGA-Phe-12, -27, -35, or -42) was about 8-14 nm and the N(agg) was about 1, supporting the presence of a unimolecular graft copolymer in PBS. The pyrene fluorescence data indicated that γ-PGA-Phe-35 and -42 have hydrophobic domains formed by the intrapolymer association of Phe attached to γ-PGA. These results suggest that the Phe grafting degree is critical to the association behavior of γ-PGA-Phe and that γ-PGA-Phe-35 and -42 could form unimer nanoparticles. Moreover, when γ-PGA-Phe-42 dissolved in DMSO was added to various concentrations of NaCl solution, the particle size and N(agg) could be easily controlled by changing the NaCl concentration during the formation of the particles. These results suggest that biodegradable γ-PGA-Phe is useful for the fabrication of very small nanoparticles. It is expected that γ-PGA-Phe nanoparticles, including unimer particles, will have great potential as multifunctional carriers for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications, such as drug and vaccine delivery systems.

  16. Thermal dehydration of cobalt and zinc formate dihydrates by controlled-rate thermogravimetry (CRTG) and simultaneous X-ray diffractometry-differential scanning calorimetry (XRD-DSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arii, T.; Kishi, A.

    1999-01-01

    The thermal dehydration study of the similar hydrated salts, cobalt and zinc formate dihydrates, have been carried out successfully by means of X-ray diffractometry-differential scanning calorimetry (XRD-DSC) and controlled-rate thermogravimetry (CRTG). X-ray diffraction analysis recorded simultaneously indicates that the resulting anhydrous product, Zn(HCO 2 ) 2 , was crystalline, while Co(HCO 2 ) 2 was amorphous.The XRD-DSC data are proven to be invaluable in verifying the interpretation of overlapping processes in thermal events. In addition, these differences in the resulting anhydrous products can be explained from kinetic analysis results based on the CRTG data. The kinetic mechanism governing the dehydration of zinc formate dihydrate is a nucleation and growth process, while in the case of cobalt formate dihydrate a phase boundary controlled reaction is the governing mechanism. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  17. Differential control of Yersinia pestis biofilm formation in vitro and in the flea vector by two c-di-GMP diguanylate cyclases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Cheng Sun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis forms a biofilm in the foregut of its flea vector that promotes transmission by flea bite. As in many bacteria, biofilm formation in Y. pestis is controlled by intracellular levels of the bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP. Two Y. pestis diguanylate cyclase (DGC enzymes, encoded by hmsT and y3730, and one phosphodiesterase (PDE, encoded by hmsP, have been shown to control biofilm production in vitro via their opposing c-di-GMP synthesis and degradation activities, respectively. In this study, we provide further evidence that hmsT, hmsP, and y3730 are the only three genes involved in c-di-GMP metabolism in Y. pestis and evaluated the two DGCs for their comparative roles in biofilm formation in vitro and in the flea vector. As with HmsT, the DGC activity of Y3730 depended on a catalytic GGDEF domain, but the relative contribution of the two enzymes to the biofilm phenotype was influenced strongly by the environmental niche. Deletion of y3730 had a very minor effect on in vitro biofilm formation, but resulted in greatly reduced biofilm formation in the flea. In contrast, the predominant effect of hmsT was on in vitro biofilm formation. DGC activity was also required for the Hms-independent autoaggregation phenotype of Y. pestis, but was not required for virulence in a mouse model of bubonic plague. Our results confirm that only one PDE (HmsP and two DGCs (HmsT and Y3730 control c-di-GMP levels in Y. pestis, indicate that hmsT and y3730 are regulated post-transcriptionally to differentially control biofilm formation in vitro and in the flea vector, and identify a second c-di-GMP-regulated phenotype in Y. pestis.

  18. Facies-controlled reservoir properties in ramp-fan and slope-apron deposits, Miocene Puente Formation, Los Angeles basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, K.T.; Geving, R.L.; Suchecki, R.K.

    1989-03-01

    The Miocene Puente Formation in outcrops of the eastern Los Angeles basin is interpreted as a succession of slope-apron and ramp-fan deposits that accumulated in a prism-rise wedge. The principal depositional components of this dominantly base-of-slope and ramp system are ramp-fan channels and lobes, and slope-channel and slope-apron channel/interchannel deposits. Facies-specific textural, compositional, and diagenetic attributes observed in thin section assist in the classification of depositional facies. Specifically, occurrence of carbonate cement, clay mineralogy, and abundance of organic material vary as a function of component facies architecture of the depositional system. Slope and ramp-fan channel-fill sandstones are characterized by pervasive carbonate cements, including poikilotopic and fine-grained calcite, fine-grained and baroque dolomite, and minor siderite. Diagenetic clays predate carbonate cements, and dolomite predates coarser, void-filling calcite. Ramp-fan lobe and interchannel deposits are carbonate free but are rich in detrital clay and organic matter. Diagenetic clays include mixed-layer illite/smectite and kaolinite. Sediments deposited in slope-apron channel fill are virtually cement free except for small amounts of authigenic illite/smectite. Slope-apron interchannel deposits are characterized by high content of organic matter and clay-rich matrix. Potential reservoir characteristics, such as grain size, sorting, and abundance of depositional clay matrix, are related to the primary sedimentary properties of depositional architectural components in the ramp-fan and slope-apron system. Additional diagenetic modifications, without consideration of compaction, were controlled by precipitation reactions associated with fluid flow along pathways related to the depositional architectural framework.

  19. Formation of (111) orientation-controlled ferroelectric orthorhombic HfO{sub 2} thin films from solid phase via annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimura, Takanori; Katayama, Kiliha [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Shimizu, Takao [Materials Research Center for Element Strategy, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Uchida, Hiroshi [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Kiguchi, Takanori; Akama, Akihiro; Konno, Toyohiko J. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Sakata, Osami [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8 and Synchrotron X-ray Group, National Institute for Materials Science, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Funakubo, Hiroshi, E-mail: funakubo.h.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Materials Research Center for Element Strategy, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); School of Materials and Chemical Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2016-08-01

    0.07YO{sub 1.5}-0.93HfO{sub 2} (YHO7) films were prepared on various substrates by pulse laser deposition at room temperature and subsequent heat treatment to enable a solid phase reaction. (111)-oriented 10 wt. % Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3}(ITO)//(111) yttria-stabilized zirconia, (111)Pt/TiO{sub x}/SiO{sub 2}/(001)Si substrates, and (111)ITO/(111)Pt/TiO{sub x}/SiO{sub 2}/(001)Si substrates were employed for film growth. In this study, X-ray diffraction measurements including θ–2θ measurements, reciprocal space mappings, and pole figure measurements were used to study the films. The film on (111)ITO//(111)yttria-stabilized zirconia was an (111)-orientated epitaxial film with ferroelectric orthorhombic phase; the film on (111)ITO/(111)Pt/TiO{sub x}/SiO{sub 2}/(001)Si was an (111)-oriented uniaxial textured film with ferroelectric orthorhombic phase; and no preferred orientation was observed for the film on the (111)Pt/TiO{sub x}/SiO{sub 2}/(001)Si substrate, which does not contain ITO. Polarization–hysteresis measurements confirmed that the films on ITO covered substrates had saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loops. A remanent polarization (P{sub r}) of 9.6 and 10.8 μC/cm{sup 2} and coercive fields (E{sub c}) of 1.9 and 2.0 MV/cm were obtained for the (111)-oriented epitaxial and uniaxial textured YHO7 films, respectively. These results demonstrate that the (111)-oriented ITO bottom electrodes play a key role in controlling the orientation and ferroelectricity of the phase formation of the solid films deposited at room temperature.

  20. Nucleation-controlled microstructures and anomalous eutectic formation in undercooled Co-Sn and Ni-Si eutectic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingjun; Kuribayashi, Kazuhiko

    2003-12-01

    Co-20.5 at. pct Sn and Ni-21.4 at. pct Si eutectic alloys have been levitated and undercooled in an electromagnetic levitator (EML) and then solidified spontaneously at different undercoolings. The original surface and cross-sectional morphologies of these solidified samples consist of separate eutectic colonies regardless of melt undercooling, indicating that microstructures in the free solidification of the eutectic systems are nucleation controlled. Regular lamellae always grow from the periphery of an independent anomalous eutectic grain in each eutectic colony. This typical morphology shows that the basic unit should be a single eutectic colony, when discussing the solidification behavior. Special emphasis is focused on the anomalous eutectic formation after a significant difference in linear kinetic coefficients is recognized for terminal eutectic phases, in particular when a eutectic reaction contains a nonfaceted disordered solid solution and a faceted ordered intermetallic compound as the terminal eutectic phases. It is this remarkable difference in the linear kinetic coefficients that leads to a pronounced difference in kinetic undercoolings. The sluggish kinetics in the interface atomic attachment of the intermetallic compound originates the occurrence of the decoupled growth of two eutectic phases. Hence, the current eutectic models are modified to incorporate kinetic undercooling, in order to account for the competitive growth behavior of eutectic phases in a single eutectic colony. The critical condition for generating the decoupled growth of eutectic phases is proposed. Further analysis reveals that a dimensionless critical undercooling may be appropriate to show the tendency for the anomalous eutectic-forming ability when considering the difference in linear kinetic coefficients of terminal eutectic phases. This qualitative criterion, albeit crude with several approximations and assumptions, can elucidate most of the published experimental results

  1. Synthesis and shape control of copper tin sulphide nanocrystals and formation of gold-copper tin sulphide hybrid nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruszynska, Marta; Parisi, Juergen; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Physics, Energy and Semiconductor Research Lab.

    2014-08-15

    Hexagonal prismatic Cu{sub 3}SnS{sub 4} nanoparticles and nanorods were synthesized by a hot-injection procedure. Changing the reaction conditions leads to the formation of different shapes. When oleylamine is used as a solvent, hexagonal prismatic particles are obtained, while a reaction in octadecene results in the formation of nanorods. The growth process of copper tin sulphide starts with the formation of djurleite copper sulphide seeds. Their reaction with Sn{sup 4+} ions leads to the formation of Cu{sub 3}SnS{sub 4}. These Cu{sub 3}SnS{sub 4} nanocrystals form Au-Cu{sub 3}SnS{sub 4} hybrid nanostructures by reaction with gold seeds.

  2. Fgf signaling controls pharyngeal taste bud formation through miR-200 and Delta-Notch activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsimali, Marika; Kaushik, Anna-Lila; Gibon, Guillaume; Dirian, Lara; Ernest, Sylvain; Rosa, Frederic M

    2011-08-01

    Taste buds, the taste sensory organs, are conserved in vertebrates and composed of distinct cell types, including taste receptor, basal/presynaptic and support cells. Here, we characterize zebrafish taste bud development and show that compromised Fgf signaling in the larva results in taste bud reduction and disorganization. We determine that Fgf activity is required within pharyngeal endoderm for formation of Calb2b(+) cells and reveal miR-200 and Delta-Notch signaling as key factors in this process. miR-200 knock down shows that miR-200 activity is required for taste bud formation and in particular for Calb2b(+) cell formation. Compromised delta activity in mib(-/-) dramatically reduces the number of Calb2b(+) cells and increases the number of 5HT(+) cells. Conversely, larvae with increased Notch activity and ascl1a(-/-) mutants are devoid of 5HT(+) cells, but have maintained and increased Calb2b(+) cells, respectively. These results show that Delta-Notch signaling is required for intact taste bud organ formation. Consistent with this, Notch activity restores Calb2b(+) cell formation in pharyngeal endoderm with compromised Fgf signaling, but fails to restore the formation of these cells after miR-200 knock down. Altogether, this study provides genetic evidence that supports a novel model where Fgf regulates Delta-Notch signaling, and subsequently miR-200 activity, in order to promote taste bud cell type differentiation.

  3. Modeling of Flow, Transport and Controlled Sedimentation Phenomena during Mixing of Salt Solutions in Complex Porous Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouras, Eugene D.; Jaho, Sofia; Pavlakou, Efstathia I.; Sygouni, Varvara; Petsi, Anastasia; Paraskeva, Christakis A.

    2015-04-01

    The deposition of salts in porous media is a major engineering phenomenon encountered in a plethora of industrial and environmental applications where in some cases is desirable and in other not (oil production, geothermal systems, soil stabilization etc). Systematic approach of these problems requires knowledge of the key mechanisms of precipitating salts within the porous structures, in order to develop new methods to control the process. In this work, the development and the solution of spatiotemporally variable mass balances during salt solution mixing along specific pores were performed. Both analytical models and finite differences CFD models were applied for the study of flow and transport with simultaneous homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation (by crystal growth on the surface of the pores) in simple geometries, while unstructured finite elements and meshless methods were developed and implemented for spatial discretization, reconstruction, and solution of transport equations and homogeneous / heterogeneous reactions in more complex geometries. At initial stages of this work, critical problem parameters were identified, such as the characteristics of the porosity, the number of dissolved components, etc. The parameters were then used for solving problems which correspond to available experimental data. For each combination of ions and materials, specific data and process characteristics were included: (a) crystal kinetics (nucleation, growth rates or reaction surface rates of crystals, critical suspension concentrations), (b) physico-chemical properties (bulk density, dimensions of generated crystals, ion diffusion coefficients in the solution), (c) operating parameters (macroscopic velocity, flow, or pressure gradient of the solution, ion concentration) (d) microfluidic data (geometry, flow area), (e) porosity data in Darcy description (initial porosity, specific surface area, tortuosity). During the modeling of flow and transport in three

  4. Signal formation processes in Micromegas detectors and quality control for large size detector construction for the ATLAS new small wheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuger, Fabian

    2017-07-31

    The Micromegas technology is one of the most successful modern gaseous detector concepts and widely utilized in nuclear and particle physics experiments. Twenty years of R and D rendered the technology sufficiently mature to be selected as precision tracking detector for the New Small Wheel (NSW) upgrade of the ATLAS Muon spectrometer. This will be the first large scale application of Micromegas in one of the major LHC experiments. However, many of the fundamental microscopic processes in these gaseous detectors are still not fully understood and studies on several detector aspects, like the micromesh geometry, have never been addressed systematically. The studies on signal formation in Micromegas, presented in the first part of this thesis, focuses on the microscopic signal electron loss mechanisms and the amplification processes in electron gas interaction. Based on a detailed model of detector parameter dependencies, these processes are scrutinized in an iterating comparison between experimental results, theory prediction of the macroscopic observables and process simulation on the microscopic level. Utilizing the specialized detectors developed in the scope of this thesis as well as refined simulation algorithms, an unprecedented level of accuracy in the description of the microscopic processes is reached, deepening the understanding of the fundamental process in gaseous detectors. The second part is dedicated to the challenges arising with the large scale Micromegas production for the ATLAS NSW. A selection of technological choices, partially influenced or determined by the herein presented studies, are discussed alongside a final report on two production related tasks addressing the detectors' core components: For the industrial production of resistive anode PCBs a detailed quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) scheme as well as the therefore required testing tools have been developed. In parallel the study on micromesh parameter optimization

  5. Signal formation processes in Micromegas detectors and quality control for large size detector construction for the ATLAS new small wheel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuger, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    The Micromegas technology is one of the most successful modern gaseous detector concepts and widely utilized in nuclear and particle physics experiments. Twenty years of R and D rendered the technology sufficiently mature to be selected as precision tracking detector for the New Small Wheel (NSW) upgrade of the ATLAS Muon spectrometer. This will be the first large scale application of Micromegas in one of the major LHC experiments. However, many of the fundamental microscopic processes in these gaseous detectors are still not fully understood and studies on several detector aspects, like the micromesh geometry, have never been addressed systematically. The studies on signal formation in Micromegas, presented in the first part of this thesis, focuses on the microscopic signal electron loss mechanisms and the amplification processes in electron gas interaction. Based on a detailed model of detector parameter dependencies, these processes are scrutinized in an iterating comparison between experimental results, theory prediction of the macroscopic observables and process simulation on the microscopic level. Utilizing the specialized detectors developed in the scope of this thesis as well as refined simulation algorithms, an unprecedented level of accuracy in the description of the microscopic processes is reached, deepening the understanding of the fundamental process in gaseous detectors. The second part is dedicated to the challenges arising with the large scale Micromegas production for the ATLAS NSW. A selection of technological choices, partially influenced or determined by the herein presented studies, are discussed alongside a final report on two production related tasks addressing the detectors' core components: For the industrial production of resistive anode PCBs a detailed quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) scheme as well as the therefore required testing tools have been developed. In parallel the study on micromesh parameter optimization

  6. Mineral formation and organo-mineral controls on the bioavailability of carbon at the terrestrial-aquatic interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rod, K. A.; Smith, A. P.; Renslow, R.

    2016-12-01

    Recent evidence highlights the importance of organo-mineral interactions in regulating the source or sink capacity of soil. High surface area soils, such as allophane-rich or clay-rich soils, retain organic matter (OM) via sorption to mineral surfaces which can also contribute physical isolation in interlayer spaces. Despite the direct correlation between mineral surfaces and OM accumulation, the pedogenic processes controlling the abundance of reactive surface areas and their distribution in the mineral matrix remains unclear. As global soil temperatures rise, the dissolution of primary minerals and formation of new secondary minerals may be thermodynamically favored as part of soil weathering process. Newly formed minerals can supply surfaces for organo-metallic bonding and may, therefore, stabilize OM by surface bonding and physical exclusion. This is especially relevant in environments that intersect terrestrial and aquatic systems, such as the capillary fringe zone in riparian ecosystems. To test the mechanisms of mineral surface area protection of OM, we facilitated secondary precipitation of alumino-silicates in the presence of OM held at two different temperatures in natural Nisqually River sediments (Mt Rainier, WA). This was a three month reaction intended to simulate early pedogenesis. To tease out the influence of mineral surface area increase during pedogenesis, we incubated the sediments at two different soil moisture contents to induce biodegradation. We measured OM desorption, biodegradation, and the molecular composition of mineral-associated OM both prior to and following the temperature manipulation. To simulate the saturation of capillary fringe sediment and associated transport and reaction of OM, column experiments were conducted using the reacted sediments. More co-precipitation was observed in the 20°C solution compared to the 4°C reacted solution suggesting that warming trends alter mineral development and may remove more OM from solution

  7. jqcML: an open-source java API for mass spectrometry quality control data in the qcML format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittremieux, Wout; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Valkenborg, Dirk; Martens, Lennart; Laukens, Kris

    2014-07-03

    The awareness that systematic quality control is an essential factor to enable the growth of proteomics into a mature analytical discipline has increased over the past few years. To this aim, a controlled vocabulary and document structure have recently been proposed by Walzer et al. to store and disseminate quality-control metrics for mass-spectrometry-based proteomics experiments, called qcML. To facilitate the adoption of this standardized quality control routine, we introduce jqcML, a Java application programming interface (API) for the qcML data format. First, jqcML provides a complete object model to represent qcML data. Second, jqcML provides the ability to read, write, and work in a uniform manner with qcML data from different sources, including the XML-based qcML file format and the relational database qcDB. Interaction with the XML-based file format is obtained through the Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB), while generic database functionality is obtained by the Java Persistence API (JPA). jqcML is released as open-source software under the permissive Apache 2.0 license and can be downloaded from https://bitbucket.org/proteinspector/jqcml .

  8. Papel da 2-tridecanona e dos tricomas glandulares tipo VI na resistência do tomateiro a Tuta absoluta Role of 2-tridecanone and type VI glandular trichome on tomato resistance to Tuta absoluta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Gilardón

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available O metabólito secundário 2-tridecanona, secretado pelos tricomas glandulares tipo VI das folhas de tomateiro silvestre, Lycopersicon hirsutum L., confere-lhe resistência a uma grande variedade de insetos, inclusive a traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a concentração de 2- tridecanona, a densidade de tricomas glandulares tipo VI e o grau de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro na cultivar suscetível 'Uco Plata' (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., na linhagem resistente PI 134417 (L. hirsutum f. glabratum e em suas progênies F1 e F2. Foram avaliadas ainda as possíveis associações entre a concentração de 2-tridecanona, a densidade de tricomas glandulares tipo VI e o grau de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro. O grau médio de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro em 'Uco Plata' foi significativamente superior ao obtido em PI 134417. Ainda que a concentração de 2-tridecanona tenha sido significativamente superior no parental resistente, a presença deste metabólito somente explicaria parcialmente a resistência (R² = 8,17%. Não se detectaram diferenças significativas na densidade de tricomas tipo VI entre o parental suscetível e o resistente. Este comportamento ocorreu independentemente do conteúdo de 2-tridecanona e do grau de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro.The secondary metabolite 2-tridecanone, secreted by the type VI glandular trichomes present in the leaves of Lycopersicon hirsutum L., make it resistant to a great variety of insects, including the tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. The 2-tridecanone concentration, the type VI glandular trichome densities and the pinworm infestation degree were evaluated on the Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. susceptible cultivar 'Uco Plata', on the Lycopersicon hirsutum f. glabratum resistant accession PI 134417 and on their F1 and F2. The mean infestation degree with pinworm larvae was significantly higher in 'Uco Plata' than in PI 134417. The 2

  9. The cep quorum-sensing system of Burkholderia cepacia H111 controls biofilm formation and swarming motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, B.; Riedel, K.; Hentzer, Morten

    2001-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa often co-exist as mixed biofilms in the lungs of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). Here, the isolation of random mini-Tn5 insertion mutants of B. cepacia H111 defective in biofilm formation on an abiotic surface is reported. It is demons......Burkholderia cepacia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa often co-exist as mixed biofilms in the lungs of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). Here, the isolation of random mini-Tn5 insertion mutants of B. cepacia H111 defective in biofilm formation on an abiotic surface is reported...

  10. The control of fruiting body formation in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora Auersw. by regulation of hyphal development : An analysis based on scanning electron and light microscopic observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, B; Bahn, M; Walk, R A; Nitschke, U

    1978-01-01

    The morphological effects of biotin and L-arginine on fruiting body formation of the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora are investigated by scanning electron and light microscopy. Biotin is recognized as an elongation factor and arginine as a branching factor in vegetative and reproductive hyphae. In the absence of exogenous biotin, development is blocked after the ascogonium-core hypha stage of protoperithecial morphogenesis, whereas linear growth of the myceliar front is maintained. The addition of exogenous arginine to a biotin deficient culture induces the formation of numerous side branches even in the older mycelium. Fruiting body formation, however, remains blocked at the protoperithecial stage as before, because of the inability of the side branches to elongate. When biotin and arginine are administered simultaneously, a most vigorous branching and growth are induced in the older mycelium, accompanied by a rapid and maximal formation of fruiting bodies. The results are summarized in a model of the exogenous control of hyphal morphogenesis. The model is designed to explain the relationship between fruiting and hyphal density as well as the edge effect on fruiting body formation.

  11. Acceptable standard format and content for the fundamental nuclear material control (FNMC) plan required for low-enriched uranium facilities. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.R.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a standard format suggested by the NRC for use in preparing fundamental nuclear material control (FNMC) plans as required by the Low Enriched Uranium Reform Amendments (10CFR 74.31). This report also describes the necessary contents of a comprehensive plan and provides example acceptance criteria which are intended to communicate acceptable means of achieving the performance capabilities of the Reform Amendments. By using the suggested format, the licensee or applicant will minimize administrative problems associated with the submittal, review and approval of the FNMC plan. Preparation of the plan in accordance with this format Will assist the NRC in evaluating the plan and in standardizing the review and licensing process. However, conformance with this guidance is not required by the NRC. A license applicant who employs a format that provides a equal level of completeness and detail may use their own format. This document is also intended for providing guidance to licensees when making revisions to their FNMC plan

  12. Presenting risk information to people with diabetes: evaluating effects and preferences for different formats by a web-based randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Adrian; Thomas, Richard; Williams, Rhys; Ellner, Andrew L; Brown, Polly; Elwyn, Glyn

    2006-11-01

    Web-based patient information is widespread and information on the benefits and risks of treatments is often difficult to understand. We therefore evaluated different risk presentation formats - numerical, graphical and others - addressing the pros and cons of tight control versus usual treatment approaches for diabetes. Randomised controlled trial. Online. Publicity disseminated via Diabetes UK. People with diabetes or their carers. Control group information based on British Medical Journal 'Best Treatments'. Four intervention groups received enhanced information resources: (1) detailed numerical information (absolute/relative risk, numbers-needed-to-treat); (2) 'anchoring' to familiar risks or descriptions; (3) graphical (bar charts, thermometer scales, crowd figure formats); (4) combination of 1-3. Decision conflict scale (DCS, a measure of uncertainty); satisfaction with information; further free text responses for qualitative content analysis. Seven hundred and ten people visited the website and were randomised. Five hundred and eight completed the questionnaire for quantitative data. Mean DCS scores ranged from 2.12 to 2.24 for the five randomisation groups, indicating neither clear delay or vacillation about decisions (usually DCS>2.5) nor tending to make decisions (usually DCSOnline evaluation of different risk representation formats was feasible. There was a lack of intervention effects on quantitative outcomes, perhaps reflecting already well-informed participants from the Diabetes UK patient organisation. The large qualitative dataset included many comments about what participants found helpful as formats for communicating risk information. These findings assist the design of online decision aids and the representation of risk information. The challenge is to provide more information, in appropriate and clear formats, but without risking information overload. Interactive web designs hold much promise to achieve this.

  13. Controlling acrylamide in French fry and potato chip models and a mathematical model of acrylamide formation: acrylamide: acidulants, phytate and calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonhwa; Yang, Heewon; Storkson, Jayne M; Albright, Karen J; Liu, Wei; Lindsay, Robert C; Pariza, Michael W

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that in potato chip and French fry models, the formation of acrylamide can be reduced by controlling pH during processing steps, either by organic (acidulants) or inorganic acids. Use of phytate, a naturally occurring chelator, with or without Ca++ (or divalent ions), can reduce acrylamide formation in both models. However, since phytate itself is acidic, the question remains as to whether the effect of phytate is due to pH alone or to additional effects. In the French fry model, the effects on acrylamide formation of pH, phytate, and/or Ca++ in various combinations were tested in either blanching or soaking (after blanching) steps. All treatments significantly reduced acrylamide levels compared to control. Among variables tested, pH may be the single most important factor for reducing acrylamide levels, while there were independent effects of phytate and/or Ca++ in this French fry model. We also developed a mathematical formula to estimate the final concentration of acrylamide in a potato chip model, using variables that can affect acrylamide formation: glucose and asparagine concentrations, cut potato surface area and shape, cooking temperature and time, and other processing conditions.

  14. Selective formation of biphasic thin films of metal–organic frameworks by potential-controlled cathodic electrodeposition

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Minyuan Miller; Dinca, Mircea

    2013-01-01

    Cathodic electrodeposition lends itself to the formation of biphasic metal–organic framework thin films at room temperature from single deposition baths using potential bias as the main user input. Depending on the applied potential, we selectively deposit two different phases as either bulk mixtures or bilayer films.

  15. Fraction-specific controls on the trace element distribution in iron formations : Implications for trace metal stable isotope proxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, Paul B.H.; Tsikos, Harilaos; Mason, Paul R.D.; Henkel, Susann; Staubwasser, Michael; Fryer, Lindi; Poulton, Simon W.; Williams, Helen M.

    2017-01-01

    Iron formations (IFs) are important geochemical repositories that provide constraints on atmospheric and ocean chemistry, prior to and during the onset of the Great Oxidation Event. Trace metal abundances and their Mo-Cr-U isotopic ratios have been widely used for investigating ocean redox processes

  16. Magmatic-vapor expansion and the formation of high-sulfidation gold deposits: Chemical controls on alteration and mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, R.W.; Berger, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    Large bulk-tonnage high-sulfidation gold deposits, such as Yanacocha, Peru, are the surface expression of structurally-controlled lode gold deposits, such as El Indio, Chile. Both formed in active andesite-dacite volcanic terranes. Fluid inclusion, stable isotope and geologic data show that lode deposits formed within 1500. m of the paleo-surface as a consequence of the expansion of low-salinity, low-density magmatic vapor with very limited, if any, groundwater mixing. They are characterized by an initial 'Sulfate' Stage of advanced argillic wallrock alteration ?? alunite commonly with intense silicification followed by a 'Sulfide' Stage - a succession of discrete sulfide-sulfosalt veins that may be ore grade in gold and silver. Fluid inclusions in quartz formed during wallrock alteration have homogenization temperatures between 100 and over 500 ??C and preserve a record of a vapor-rich environment. Recent data for El Indio and similar deposits show that at the commencement of the Sulfide Stage, 'condensation' of Cu-As-S sulfosalt melts with trace concentrations of Sb, Te, Bi, Ag and Au occurred at > 600 ??C following pyrite deposition. Euhedral quartz crystals were simultaneously deposited from the vapor phase during crystallization of the vapor-saturated melt occurs to Fe-tennantite with progressive non-equilibrium fractionation of heavy metals between melt-vapor and solid. Vugs containing a range of sulfides, sulfosalts and gold record the changing composition of the vapor. Published fluid inclusion and mineralogical data are reviewed in the context of geological relationships to establish boundary conditions through which to trace the expansion of magmatic vapor from source to surface and consequent alteration and mineralization. Initially heat loss from the vapor is high resulting in the formation of acid condensate permeating through the wallrock. This Sulfate Stage alteration effectively isolates the expansion of magmatic vapor in subsurface fracture arrays

  17. Factors controlling alkali salt deposition in recovery boilers - particle formation and deposition; Soodakattilan likaantuminen ja siihen vaikuttavien tekijoeiden hallinta - hiukkasten muodostuminen ja depositio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauppinen, E.I.; Mikkanen, P.; Ylaetalo, S. [VTT Chemistry, Espoo (Finland); Jokiniemi, J.K.; Lyyraenen, J.; Pyykoenen, J.; Saastamoinen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    In this project, the aim was to find out those critical factors that control the deposit formation in the recovery boilers. We focus on the particle formation, growth and deposition as well as the single black liquor particle combustion behaviour. The final goal is the development of the predictive model to be used to describe deposit growth and subsequent behaviour as well as the dependence of deposition on black liquor characteristics and boiler operation conditions. During year 1995 an experimental study on the aerosol particle formation within the recovery boiler furnace and a sensitivity study with the Aerosol Behaviour in Combustion (ABC) code were carried out. The experimental study confirmed the fact that the particles are already formed in the recovery boiler furnace. The particle formation is initiated in the boundary layer of the burning droplet or smelt bed, where metals are vaporised and oxidised to form tiny seed particles. Trace amounts of metals were measured in all particle sizes and the sensitivity study with the ABC model gave further evidence of the seed formation was necessary primary step in the particle formation. At the furnace outlet the sintration ratio and the sulfation ratio of the particles were dependent on the furnace temperature and the residence time in the furnace. At ESP inlet three types of particles were observed (1) fine particles with the major mass mode at about 1-2 {mu}m, (2) large agglomerates in sizes larger than 8 {mu}m, and (3) spherical particles about 2-4 {mu}m in size. The fine particles were formed from vapours and the large agglomerates were formed from fine particles agglomerated on heat exchanger surfaces and re-entrained back to flue gas flow. The large agglomerates also contain vapours that have directly condensed to surfaces. The large spherical particles contain silicon and pass the process almost unchanged. (Abstract Truncated)

  18. LANDSAT-D data format control book. Volume 6, appendix G: GSFC HDT-AM inventory tape (GHIT-AM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The data format specifications of the Goddard HDT inventory tapes (GHITS), which accompany shipments of archival digital multispectral scanner image data (HDT-AM tapes), are defined. The GHIT is a nine-track, 1600-BPI tape which conforms to the ANSI standard and serves as an inventory and description of the image data included in the shipment. The archival MSS tapes (HDT-AMs) contain radiometrically corrected but geometrically uncorrected image data plus certain ancillary data necessary to perform the geometric corrections.

  19. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Rafieian, Damon; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Savenije, T.J.; Lammertink, Rob G H

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to anatase or rutile, depending on the initial sputtering conditions. Substoichiometric films (TiOx), obtained by sputtering at relatively low oxygen concentration, formed rutile upon annealing in air, ...

  20. Potential for visible plume formation at a coal-fired boiler using ammonia injection for non-catalytic NOx control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, T.

    1993-01-01

    Circulating fluidized bed boilers utilizing ammonia injection for non-catalytic NO x reduction have been highly successful in reducing NO x emissions to very low levels. However, one limitation on this technology is the potential for the formation of visible plumes. One plant, with uncontrolled NO x of about 190 ppm, reduces NO x concentrations to the 20-25 ppm range by injecting ammonia in the boiler's cyclones. However, infrequent, short-lived, white, detached plumes have been noted extending for short distances downwind of the stack. Because unreacted ammonia is present in the flue gas along with HCl from coal combustion, the formation of solid NH 4 Cl in the atmosphere was suspected to be the most likely cause of the visible plume. Simple thermodynamic calculations predict the formation of solid ammonium chloride very soon after the flue gas mixes with cooler ambient air and plume optical density calculations are in reasonable agreement with observed plume density. Stack testing and other tests have been conducted during both plume and non-plume events to confirm that NH 4 Cl formation is the most likely cause of the capacity. As presented in this paper, the test data and theoretical calculations indicate that a visible plume may be expected when as little as 5 ppm of ammonia and HCl are present in the flue gas, depending on observation conditions. Analyses of fuel samples taken during stack tests show about 40% of the chlorine in the low chloride coal fired, typically less than 0.04%, is released from the stack as HCl. Ammonia slip is somewhat variable depending on combustion conditions in the boiler and the temperature at the ammonia injection points

  1. Effects of control parameters of three-point initiation on the formation of an explosively formed projectile with fins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R.; Li, W. B.; Wang, X. M.; Li, W. B.

    2018-03-01

    The effects of the initiation diameter and synchronicity error on the formation of fins and stable-flight velocity of an explosively formed projectile (EFP) with three-point initiation are investigated. The pressure and area of the Mach wave acting on the metal liner at different initiation diameters are calculated employing the Whitham method. LS-DYNA software is used to investigate the asymmetric collision of detonation waves resulting from three-point initiation synchronicity error, the distortion characteristics of the liner resulting from the composite detonation waves, and the performance parameters of the EFP with fins. Results indicate that deviations of the Y-shaped high-pressure zone and central ultrahigh-pressure zone from the liner center can be attributed to the error of three-point initiation, which leads to the irregular formation of EFP fins. It is noted that the area of the Mach wave decreases, but the pressure of the Mach wave and the final speed and length-to-diameter ( L/ D) ratio of the EFP increase, benefiting the formation of the EFP fins, as the initiation diameter increases.

  2. Pharmacobotanical study of the leaf and stem of Mikania lanuginosa for its quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Amorin

    Full Text Available Mikania lanuginosa DC, Asteraceae, is popularly known as "cipó-cabeludo" in Brazil due to a remarkable number of trichomes on its leaves and stems. It shows antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Bacillus cereus. This species can be confused with M. microlepis Baker and M. hirsutissima DC for substitution and tampering purposes. The aim of this study was to investigate the morpho-anatomy of leaf and stem of M. lanuginosa to obtain pharmacobotanical data that may contribute to its identification and taxonomic definition from other species of Mikania. The leaves and stems were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy techniques. Mikania lanuginosa shows a uniseriate epidermis covered by a thin and smooth cuticle. The epidermal cells present sinuous anticlinal walls on both sides and anomocytic stomata were observed. A few glandular trichomes and numerous non-glandular trichomes were identified on both surfaces. The mesophyll is dorsiventral, the midrib has a biconvex contour and the petiole shows a circular shape in a cross-section. The stem has a circular shape. These pharmacobotanical features described for M. lanuginosa support data for its identification and taxonomic delimitation from other Mikania species, and are a contribution for the quality control of herbal drugs.

  3. Flood-controlled excess-air formation favors aerobic respiration and limits denitrification activity in riparian groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone ePeter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The saturated riparian zones of rivers act as spatially and temporally variable biogeochemical reactors. This complicates the assessment of biogeochemical transport and transformation processes. During a flood event, excess-air formation, i.e. the inclusion and dissolution of air bubbles into groundwater, can introduce high amounts of dissolved O2 and thereby affect biogeochemical processes in groundwater. With the help of a field-installed membrane-inlet mass-spectrometer we resolved the effects of flood induced excess-air formationon organic carbon and nitrogen transformations in groundwater of different riparian zones of a restored section of the River Thur, Switzerland. The results show that the flood event triggered high aerobic respiration activity in the groundwater below a zone densely populated with willow plants. The flood introduced high concentrations of O2 (230 µmol L–1 to the groundwater through the formation of excess air and transported up to ~400 µmol L 1 organic carbon from the soil/root layer into groundwater during the movement of the water table. A rapid respiration process, quantified via the measurements of O2, CO2 and noble-gas concentrations, led to fast depletion of the introduced O2 and organic carbon and to high CO2 concentration (590 µmol L–1 in the groundwater shortly after the flood. The synchronous analysis of different nitrogen species allowed studying the importance of denitrification activity. The results indicate that in the willow zone excess-air formation inhibited denitrification through high O2 concentration input. Instead, the observed decrease in nitrate concentration (~50 µmol N L 1 may be related to fostered nitrate uptake by plants. In the other riparian zones closer to the river, no significant excess-air formation and corresponding respiration activity was observed. Overall, analyzing the dissolved gases in the groundwater significantly contributed to deciphering biogeochemical processes in

  4. The control of fruiting body formation in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora Auersw. by arginine and biotin: a two-factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molowitz, R; Bahn, M; Hock, B

    1976-01-01

    Fruiting body formation of Sordaria macrospora Auersw. is controlled by L-arginine and biotin when the fungus is grown on a synthetic nutrient medium containing optimal concentrations of fructose, KNO3, KH2PO4, MgSO4, and ZnSO4. Arginine and biotin operate in very low concentrations which exclude unspecific nutrient effects. In spite of the complicated interactions of arginine and biotin which are shown qualitatively (Figs. 3 and 4a) and quantitatively (Figs. 2 and 4b), the following conclusions are reached: 1. In the absence of biotin, the development of Sordaria macrospora is blocked at the stage of small protoperithecia. The external addition of biotin (optimal concentration: 3-12 μg/l) allows the formation of fertile fruiting bodies. This effect cannot be imitated by arginine. The biotin effect is discussed in connection with stimulated RNA synthesis.-2. The developmental velocity is influenced by the external addition of arginine. Without arginine but at permissible biotin concentrations, the total life cycle takes about 10 days, in the presence of arginine (1 mM), however, about 6 days.-3. The hyphal density, as well as the total number of fruiting bodies being produced, is controlled in a similar manner by biotin and arginine. The induction of fruiting body formation obviously takes place after the transgression of a critical hyphal density.

  5. Nanoparticle Surface Specific Adsorption of Zein and Its Self-assembled Behavior of Nanocubes Formation in Relation to On-Off SERS: Understanding Morphology Control of Protein Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navdeep; Banipal, Tarlok Singh; Kaur, Gurinder; Bakshi, Mandeep Singh

    2016-01-27

    Zein, an industrially important protein, is characterized in terms of its food and pharmaceutical coating applications by using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) on Au, Ag, and PbS nanoparticles (NPs). Its specific surface adsorption behavior on Ag NPs produced self-assembled zein nanocubes which demonstrated on and off SERS activity. Both SERS characterization as well as nanocube formation of zein helped us to understand the complex protein aggregation behavior in shape controlled morphologies, a process with significant ramifications in protein crystallization to achieve ordered morphologies. Interestingly, nanocube formation was promoted in the presence of Ag rather than Au or PbS NPs under in situ synthesis and discussed in terms of specific adsorption. Zein fingerprinting was much more clear and enhanced on Au surface in comparison to Ag while PbS did not demonstrate SERS due to its semiconducting nature.

  6. Self-Assembled Amphiphilic Water Oxidation Catalysts: Control of O-O Bond Formation Pathways by Different Aggregation Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Jiang, Xin; Guo, Qing; Lei, Tao; Zhang, Li-Ping; Chen, Bin; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2016-05-17

    The oxidation of water to molecular oxygen is the key step to realize water splitting from both biological and chemical perspective. In an effort to understand how water oxidation occurs on a molecular level, a large number of molecular catalysts have been synthesized to find an easy access to higher oxidation states as well as their capacity to make O-O bond. However, most of them function in a mixture of organic solvent and water and the O-O bond formation pathway is still a subject of intense debate. Herein, we design the first amphiphilic Ru-bda (H2 bda=2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid) water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) of formula [Ru(II) (bda)(4-OTEG-pyridine)2 ] (1, OTEG=OCH2 CH2 OCH2 CH2 OCH3 ) and [Ru(II) (bda)(PySO3 Na)2 ] (2, PySO3 (-) =pyridine-3-sulfonate), which possess good solubility in water. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), critical aggregation concentration (CAC) experiments and product analysis demonstrate that they enable to self-assemble in water and form the O-O bond through different routes even though they have the same bda(2-) backbone. This work illustrates for the first time that the O-O bond formation pathway can be regulated by the interaction of ancillary ligands at supramolecular level. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Controlled formation of emulsion gels stabilized by salted myofibrillar protein under malondialdehyde (MDA)-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feibai; Sun, Weizheng; Zhao, Mouming

    2015-04-15

    This study presented the cold-set gelation of emulsions stabilized by salted myofibrillar protein (MP) under oxidative stress originated from malondialdehyde (MDA). Gel properties were compared over a range of MDA/NaCl concentrations including gel viscoelastic properties, strength, water-holding capacity (WHC), amount of protein entrapped, and microstructure. The oxidative stability of emulsion gels as indicated by lipid hydroperoxide was further determined and compared. Results indicated that emulsion stabilized by MP at swollen state under certain ionic strengths (0.2-0.6 M) was the premise of gel formation under MDA. In the presence of intermediate MDA concentrations (2.5-10 mM), the emulsion gels showed an improved elasticity, strength, WHC, and oxidative stability. This improvement should be mainly attributed to the enhanced protein-protein cross-linkings via MDA, which were homogeneously formed among absorbed and/or unabsorbed proteins, entrapping a greater amount and fractions of protein within network. Therefore, the oil droplets were better adherent to the gel matrix. Nevertheless, addition of high MDA concentrations (25-50 mM) led to the formation of excessive covalent bonds, which might break protein-protein bonds and trigger the desorption of protein from the interface. This ultimately caused "oil leak" phenomena as well as the collapse of gel structure and, thus, overall decreased gel properties and oxidative stability.

  8. Controlling the formation and stability of ultra-thin nickel silicides - An alloying strategy for preventing agglomeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenen, F. A.; van Stiphout, K.; Nanakoudis, A.; Bals, S.; Vantomme, A.; Jordan-Sweet, J.; Lavoie, C.; Detavernier, C.

    2018-02-01

    The electrical contact of the source and drain regions in state-of-the-art CMOS transistors is nowadays facilitated through NiSi, which is often alloyed with Pt in order to avoid morphological agglomeration of the silicide film. However, the solid-state reaction between as-deposited Ni and the Si substrate exhibits a peculiar change for as-deposited Ni films thinner than a critical thickness of tc = 5 nm. Whereas thicker films form polycrystalline NiSi upon annealing above 450 ° C , thinner films form epitaxial NiSi2 films that exhibit a high resistance toward agglomeration. For industrial applications, it is therefore of utmost importance to assess the critical thickness with high certainty and find novel methodologies to either increase or decrease its value, depending on the aimed silicide formation. This paper investigates Ni films between 0 and 15 nm initial thickness by use of "thickness gradients," which provide semi-continuous information on silicide formation and stability as a function of as-deposited layer thickness. The alloying of these Ni layers with 10% Al, Co, Ge, Pd, or Pt renders a significant change in the phase sequence as a function of thickness and dependent on the alloying element. The addition of these ternary impurities therefore changes the critical thickness tc. The results are discussed in the framework of classical nucleation theory.

  9. The transcriptional regulator, CosR, controls compatible solute biosynthesis and transport, motility and biofilm formation in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikuma, Nicholas J; Davis, Kimberly R; Fong, Jiunn N C; Yildiz, Fitnat H

    2013-05-01

    Vibrio cholerae inhabits aquatic environments and colonizes the human digestive tract to cause the disease cholera. In these environments, V. cholerae copes with fluctuations in salinity and osmolarity by producing and transporting small, organic, highly soluble molecules called compatible solutes, which counteract extracellular osmotic pressure. Currently, it is unclear how V. cholerae regulates the expression of genes important for the biosynthesis or transport of compatible solutes in response to changing salinity or osmolarity conditions. Through a genome-wide transcriptional analysis of the salinity response of V. cholerae, we identified a transcriptional regulator we name CosR for compatible solute regulator. The expression of cosR is regulated by ionic strength and not osmolarity. A transcriptome analysis of a ΔcosR mutant revealed that CosR represses genes involved in ectoine biosynthesis and compatible solute transport in a salinity-dependent manner. When grown in salinities similar to estuarine environments, CosR activates biofilm formation and represses motility independently of its function as an ectoine regulator. This is the first study to characterize a compatible solute regulator in V. cholerae and couples the regulation of osmotic tolerance with biofilm formation and motility. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Effect of basic physical parameters to control plasma meniscus and beam halo formation in negative ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, K. [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan); Okuda, S.; Nishioka, S.; Hatayama, A. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2013-09-14

    Our previous study shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources: the negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. In this article, the detail physics of the plasma meniscus and beam halo formation is investigated with two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. It is shown that the basic physical parameters such as the H{sup −} extraction voltage and the effective electron confinement time significantly affect the formation of the plasma meniscus and the resultant beam halo since the penetration of electric field for negative ion extraction depends on these physical parameters. Especially, the electron confinement time depends on the characteristic time of electron escape along the magnetic field as well as the characteristic time of electron diffusion across the magnetic field. The plasma meniscus penetrates deeply into the source plasma region when the effective electron confinement time is short. In this case, the curvature of the plasma meniscus becomes large, and consequently the fraction of the beam halo increases.

  11. Effect of basic physical parameters to control plasma meniscus and beam halo formation in negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, K.; Okuda, S.; Nishioka, S.; Hatayama, A.

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources: the negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. In this article, the detail physics of the plasma meniscus and beam halo formation is investigated with two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. It is shown that the basic physical parameters such as the H − extraction voltage and the effective electron confinement time significantly affect the formation of the plasma meniscus and the resultant beam halo since the penetration of electric field for negative ion extraction depends on these physical parameters. Especially, the electron confinement time depends on the characteristic time of electron escape along the magnetic field as well as the characteristic time of electron diffusion across the magnetic field. The plasma meniscus penetrates deeply into the source plasma region when the effective electron confinement time is short. In this case, the curvature of the plasma meniscus becomes large, and consequently the fraction of the beam halo increases

  12. Concept of formation of agricultural and ecological information control subsystem for the programme aimed at eliminating the after effects of the Chernobyl nuclear power station failure in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravel', V.I.; Prosyannikov, E.V.; Zenin, A.G.; Vishnyakov, V.A.; Prosyannikova, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    A concept of formation of agricultural and ecological information control subsystem is presented. The subsystem is considered to perform information and control functions. To the information function refer: processing of initial data; input of data and modification in the data base; presentation of information; mapping of radioactive contamination; calculation of soil radioactive index. To the control function belong: possibility of utilization of agricultural products; estimation of possible utilization of arable lands; estimation of necessary of decontamination; estimation of necessity of agrochemical measures; taking decisions as to the change of agricultural technology; taking decisions as to the use of meat and milk by the population. A conceptual model the agricultural soil radioecological data base is presented. 10 refs.; 1 figs

  13. Spatial control of bone formation using a porous polymer scaffold co-delivering anabolic rhBMP-2 and anti-resorptive agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NYC Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current clinical delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (rhBMPs utilises freeze-dried collagen. Despite effective new bone generation, rhBMP via collagen can be limited by significant complications due to inflammation and uncontrolled bone formation. This study aimed to produce an alternative rhBMP local delivery system to permit more controllable and superior rhBMP-induced bone formation. Cylindrical porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA scaffolds were manufactured by thermally-induced phase separation. Scaffolds were encapsulated with anabolic rhBMP-2 (20 µg ± anti-resorptive agents: zoledronic acid (5 µg ZA, ZA pre-adsorbed onto hydroxyapatite microparticles, (5 µg ZA/2 % HA or IkappaB kinase (IKK inhibitor (10 µg PS-1145. Scaffolds were inserted in a 6-mm critical-sized femoral defect in Wistar rats, and compared against rhBMP-2 via collagen. The regenerate region was examined at 6 weeks by 3D microCT and descriptive histology. MicroCT and histology revealed rhBMP-induced bone was more restricted in the PLGA scaffolds than collagen scaffolds (-92.3 % TV, p < 0.01. The regenerate formed by PLGA + rhBMP-2/ZA/HA showed comparable bone volume to rhBMP-2 via collagen, and bone mineral density was +9.1 % higher (p < 0.01. Local adjunct ZA/HA or PS-1145 significantly enhanced PLGA + rhBMP-induced bone formation by +78.2 % and +52.0 %, respectively (p ≤ 0.01. Mechanistically, MG-63 human osteoblast-like cells showed cellular invasion and proliferation within PLGA scaffolds. In conclusion, PLGA scaffolds enabled superior spatial control of rhBMP-induced bone formation over clinically-used collagen. The PLGA scaffold has the potential to avoid uncontrollable bone formation-related safety issues and to customise bone shape by scaffold design. Moreover, local treatment with anti-resorptive agents incorporated within the scaffold further augmented rhBMP-induced bone formation.

  14. In-plane pitch control of cholesteric liquid crystals by formation of artificial domains via patterned photopolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Miura, Yusuke; Tokuoka, Kazuki; Suzuki, Satoshi; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2008-11-10

    A controlled helix pitch modulation in the in-plane direction of a planarly aligned cholesteric liquid crystal cell is demonstrated by using photopolymerizable cholesteric liquid crystals. By fabricating artificial domains with a closed volume via two-photon excitation laser-lithography, the degree of pitch modulation could be controlled by adjusting the surface area to volume ratio of the domain. A pitch modulation of over 60 nm was realized by designing the shape of the artificial domain.

  15. Effect of two types of control questions and two question formats on the outcomes of polygraph examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Frank; Palmatier, John J

    2008-07-01

    Two major variations of polygraph "Control Question" testing, the Zone Comparison (ZoC) and the Modified General Question Test (MGQT) were evaluated. Within each, the type of control question, Exclusive or "time bar" (e.g., "Before you were 21, did you ever...") and Nonexclusive or "no time bar" (e.g., "Did you ever....?") was manipulated in a mock theft scenario, with 80 male and 40 female subjects randomly assigned to be either innocent or guilty. Polygraphic data collected by experienced field examiners were numerically scored by an evaluator blind to all aspects of the study. Decision accuracy was not related to the type of procedure (ZoC/MGQT) used or the subject's sex. Accuracy was significantly related to the type of control question [chi(2) (2) = 11.46, p = 0.003; tau c = 0.29]. Nonexclusive control questions produced greater accuracy than Exclusive control questions on both innocent and guilty subjects. These results and subjects' self-reports support the general "theory" on which control question (CQ) testing is based. The need for better empirical support of accepted dogma and current field practices is strongly indicated by these findings.

  16. Evidence for the control of phytolith formation in Cucurbita fruits by the hard rind (Hr) genetic locus: Archaeological and ecological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperno, Dolores R.; Holst, Irene; Wessel-Beaver, Linda; Andres, Thomas C.

    2002-01-01

    Many angiosperms, both monocotyledons and dicotyledons, heavily impregnate their vegetative and reproductive organs with solid particles of silicon dioxide (SiO2) known as opaline phytoliths. The underlying mechanisms accounting for the formation of phytoliths in plants are poorly understood, however. Using wild and domesticated species in the genus Cucurbita along with their F1 and F2 progeny, we have demonstrated that the production of large diagnostic phytoliths in fruit rinds exhibits a one-to-one correspondence to the lignification of these structures. We propose that phytolith formation in Cucurbita fruits is primarily determined by a dominant genetic locus, called hard rind (Hr), previously shown to code for lignin deposition. If true, this evidence represents a demonstration of genetic control over phytolith production in a dicotyledon and provides considerable support to hypotheses that silica phytoliths constitute another important system of mechanical defense in plants. Our research also identifies Hr as another single locus controlling more than one important phenotypic difference between wild and domesticated plants, and establishes rind tissue cell structure and hardness under the effects of Hr as an important determinant of phytolith morphology. When recovered from pre-Columbian archaeological sites, Cucurbita phytoliths represent genetically controlled fossil markers of exploitation and domestication in this important economic genus. PMID:12149443

  17. Multidimensional human capital formation in a developing country: Health, cognition and locus of control in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Kira M

    2017-11-01

    Economic success depends on multiple human capital stocks whose production is interrelated and occurs over many life stages. Yet, much empirical work fails to account for human capital's multidimensional nature and limits its focus to specific childhood stages. Using longitudinal data from the Philippines, I estimate a model of multidimensional human capital formation from birth through adulthood where health, cognitive, and noncognitive dimensions are jointly produced. I examine during which developmental stages parental investment is most influential and address the endogeneity of investment using a policy function where investment depends on child characteristics, exogenous conditions at birth and local prices. Findings imply that not only will early human capital disparities persist into adulthood without early remediation but also that cognitive gains yielded from early remediation will be lost without complementary investment in adolescence. Findings further suggest that interventions will be undervalued if their multidimensional effects are not accounted for. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Signal Formation Processes in Micromegas Detectors and Quality Control for large size Detector Construction for the ATLAS New Small Wheel

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00387450; Rembser, Christoph

    2017-08-04

    The Micromegas technology is one of the most successful modern gaseous detector concepts and widely utilized in nuclear and particle physics experiments. Twenty years of R & D rendered the technology sufficiently mature to be selected as precision tracking detector for the New Small Wheel (NSW) upgrade of the ATLAS Muon spectrometer. This will be the first large scale application of Micromegas in one of the major LHC experiments. However, many of the fundamental microscopic processes in these gaseous detectors are still not fully understood and studies on several detector aspects, like the micromesh geometry, have never been addressed systematically. The studies on signal formation in Micromegas, presented in the first part of this thesis, focuses on the microscopic signal electron loss mechanisms and the amplification processes in electron gas interaction. Based on a detailed model of detector parameter dependencies, these processes are scrutinized in an iterating comparison between exper- imental result...

  19. Do Pleistocene Glacial-Interglacial Cycles Control Methane Hydrate Formation? An Example from Green Canyon, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, B.; Malinverno, A.; Goldberg, D.; Fortin, W.

    2017-12-01

    Well GC955-H was drilled in the Green Canyon region under the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrates Joint Industry Project in 2009. Logging-while-drilling resistivity logs obtained at the well indicate that the saturation of gas hydrate varies between high and low values in an alternating fashion. This trend is observed from 180 to 360mbsf, depths that correspond to the Late Pleistocene. Similar gas hydrate saturation patterns have been observed in other Gulf of Mexico locations (Walker Ridge sites WR313-G and 313-H) in Late Pleistocene sediments. Our hypothesis is that these variations in saturation can be explained by sea level changes through time during glacial-interglacial cycles. A higher amount of organic matter is deposited and buried in the sediment column during glacial intervals when sea level is low. Microbes in the sediment column degrade organic matter and produce methane gas as a byproduct. Higher availability of organic matter in the sediment column can increase the concentration of methane in the sediment pore water and in turn lead to the formation of gas hydrate. We use a time-dependent numerical model of the formation of gas hydrate to test this hypothesis. The model predicts the volume and distribution of gas hydrates using mass balance equations. Model inputs include in situ porosity determined from bulk density logs; local thermal gradient estimated from the depth of the bottom of the gas hydrate stability zone in proximity to the well; and sedimentation rate determined using the biostratigraphy of an industry well in the vicinity of GC955-H. Initial results show a good match between gas hydrate saturation predicted by the model and resistivity logs obtained in the well. We anticipate that this correlation will establish whether a causal link exists between the saturation of gas hydrate in this reservoir and glacioeustatic sea level changes in the Late Pleistocene.