WorldWideScience

Sample records for controlling insect pests

  1. Companion and refuge plants to control insect pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci and aphids are major pests of crops in the southeast USA. An environmentally-friendly management strategy is “push-pull” technology which combines the use of repellent (“push”) and trap crops (“pull”) for insect pest control. The repellent crop,...

  2. The use of insecticides to control insect pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Wojciechowska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used as plants protection products. Among those, insecticides serve as agents to control insects. When incorrectly applied, however these substances may negatively affect people's health and natural environment. Administration routes of insecticides depend on many factors and vary from spraying to fertilizers. These different methods influence how insects prey and how pests develop. Additionally, too frequent use of the same chemicals can lead to development of resistance of insects to these insecticides. In order to prevent occurrence of negative effects of insecticides on surroundings, the effects of these compounds should be studied

  3. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease to... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants...

  4. Factors determining the use of botanical insect pest control methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2009-05-16

    May 16, 2009 ... production and protection challenges such as diseases, insect pests ... Pest management innovations are ... The botanicals and other indigenous products locally used by small ..... Credit Constraints as a Barrier to Technology.

  5. Identification and Control of Common Insect Pests of Ornamental Shrubs and Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Stanley G.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University introduces the identification and control of common ornamental insect pests. For each of the insects or insect groups (i.e. aphids) identified in this publication, information on host plants, pest description, and damage caused by the pest is given. Also a calendar…

  6. Pest control of ligniperdous insects by means of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, M. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung); Kerner, G.; Unger, W. (Amt fuer Standardisierung, Messwesen und Warenpruefung, Berlin (German Democratic Republic)); Koehler, W. (Staatliche Schloesser und Gaerten, Potsdam-Sanssouci (German Democratic Republic). Abt. Restaurierung)

    1983-01-01

    Wooden objects of art and monuments are endangered by wood-destroying insects. The treatment of these objects with ionizing radiation is one way to control these pests. For this purpose the portable HWK-3 high-dose irradiation device was developed. In July 1979, a radiation experiment was made under field conditions in Potsdam-Sanssouci in order to gain experience in the operation and effectiveness of the new device. During the following 18 months the results of this experiment were evaluated by means of the SM 231 vibration measuring instrument. It became evident that a total dose of over 3 kGy would kill all of the death-watch beetles (Anobium punctatum de Geer) and doses down to 0.55 kGy would largely diminish the population, with future damages caused by death-watch beetles being highly unlikely. Delayed damages in the larvae caused by low total doses still add to the effectiveness of the pest control.

  7. Forest insect pests in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The papers presented in this book cover the range of forest insect pest management activities in Canada. The first section contains papers on the current status of insect pests by region, including data on insect populations and extent of defoliation caused by the insect. The next section covers pest management technology, including the use of insecticides, insect viruses, fungal pathogens, growth regulators, antifeedants, pheromones, natural predators, and aerial spraying. The third section contains papers on the application of technology and equipment for forest pest control, and includes papers on the impacts of insecticides on the forest environment. The fourth section describes operational control programs by province. The final paper presents future strategies for the management of forest pests. An author index is included.

  8. Microbial Pest Control Agents: Are they a Specific And Safe Tool for Insect Pest Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshayes, Caroline; Siegwart, Myriam; Pauron, David; Froger, Josy-Anne; Lapied, Bruno; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms (viruses, bacteria and fungi) or their bioactive agents can be used as active substances and therefore are referred as Microbial Pest Control Agents (MPCA). They are used as alternative strategies to chemical insecticides to counteract the development of resistances and to reduce adverse effects on both environment and human health. These natural entomopathogenic agents, which have specific modes of action, are generally considered safer as compared to conventional chemical insecticides. Baculoviruses are the only viruses being used as the safest biological control agents. They infect insects and have narrow host ranges. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most widely and successfully used bioinsecticide in the integrated pest management programs in the world. Bt mainly produces crystal delta-endotoxins and secreted toxins. However, the Bt toxins are not stable for a very long time and are highly sensitive to solar UV. So genetically modified plants that express toxins have been developed and represent a large part of the phytosanitary biological products. Finally, entomopathogenic fungi and particularly, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, are also used for their insecticidal properties. Most studies on various aspects of the safety of MPCA to human, non-target organisms and environment have only reported acute but not chronic toxicity. This paper reviews the modes of action of MPCA, their toxicological risks to human health and ecotoxicological profiles together with their environmental persistence. This review is part of the special issue "Insecticide Mode of Action: From Insect to Mammalian Toxicity". Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Biology and Control of Insect and Related Pests of Livestock in Wyoming. MP-23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John E.

    This document provides information that a potential insecticide applicator can utilize to safely and effectively control insects and related pests of livestock. The first section of the manual discusses the general methods of preparation and application of insecticides. The second section concerns itself with the recognition of insect problems,…

  10. Gene Disruption Technologies Have the Potential to Transform Stored Product Insect Pest Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkin, Lindsey C.; Adrianos, Sherry L.; Oppert, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Stored product insects feed on grains and processed commodities manufactured from grain post-harvest, reducing the nutritional value and contaminating food. Currently, the main defense against stored product insect pests is the pesticide fumigant phosphine. Phosphine is highly toxic to all animals, but is the most effective and economical control method, and thus is used extensively worldwide. However, many insect populations have become resistant to phosphine, in some cases to very high levels. New, environmentally benign and more effective control strategies are needed for stored product pests. RNA interference (RNAi) may overcome pesticide resistance by targeting the expression of genes that contribute to resistance in insects. Most data on RNAi in stored product insects is from the coleopteran genetic model, Tribolium castaneum, since it has a strong RNAi response via injection of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) in any life stage. Additionally, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) technology has been suggested as a potential resource for new pest control strategies. In this review we discuss background information on both gene disruption technologies and summarize the advances made in terms of molecular pest management in stored product insects, mainly T. castaneum, as well as complications and future needs. PMID:27657138

  11. Gene Disruption Technologies Have the Potential to Transform Stored Product Insect Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkin, Lindsey C; Adrianos, Sherry L; Oppert, Brenda

    2016-09-19

    Stored product insects feed on grains and processed commodities manufactured from grain post-harvest, reducing the nutritional value and contaminating food. Currently, the main defense against stored product insect pests is the pesticide fumigant phosphine. Phosphine is highly toxic to all animals, but is the most effective and economical control method, and thus is used extensively worldwide. However, many insect populations have become resistant to phosphine, in some cases to very high levels. New, environmentally benign and more effective control strategies are needed for stored product pests. RNA interference (RNAi) may overcome pesticide resistance by targeting the expression of genes that contribute to resistance in insects. Most data on RNAi in stored product insects is from the coleopteran genetic model, Tribolium castaneum, since it has a strong RNAi response via injection of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) in any life stage. Additionally, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) technology has been suggested as a potential resource for new pest control strategies. In this review we discuss background information on both gene disruption technologies and summarize the advances made in terms of molecular pest management in stored product insects, mainly T. castaneum, as well as complications and future needs.

  12. Gene Disruption Technologies Have the Potential to Transform Stored Product Insect Pest Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey C. Perkin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stored product insects feed on grains and processed commodities manufactured from grain post-harvest, reducing the nutritional value and contaminating food. Currently, the main defense against stored product insect pests is the pesticide fumigant phosphine. Phosphine is highly toxic to all animals, but is the most effective and economical control method, and thus is used extensively worldwide. However, many insect populations have become resistant to phosphine, in some cases to very high levels. New, environmentally benign and more effective control strategies are needed for stored product pests. RNA interference (RNAi may overcome pesticide resistance by targeting the expression of genes that contribute to resistance in insects. Most data on RNAi in stored product insects is from the coleopteran genetic model, Tribolium castaneum, since it has a strong RNAi response via injection of double stranded RNA (dsRNA in any life stage. Additionally, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR technology has been suggested as a potential resource for new pest control strategies. In this review we discuss background information on both gene disruption technologies and summarize the advances made in terms of molecular pest management in stored product insects, mainly T. castaneum, as well as complications and future needs.

  13. Biological control of pests and insects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of biological agents to control insects and pests. Radiation, genetic breeding, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and pheromones are discussed as alternatives to pesticidal management. Methods for monitoring the effectiveness and environmental impact of these agents are reviewed. Population control of fruit flies, spruce sawflies, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, gypsy moths, and other agriculturally-important insects is also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Biological control of pests and insects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of biological agents to control insects and pests. Radiation, genetic breeding, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and pheromones are discussed as alternatives to pesticidal management. Methods for monitoring the effectiveness and environmental impact of these agents are reviewed. Population control of fruit flies, spruce sawflies, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, gypsy moths, and other agriculturally-important insects is also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 190 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Feasibility, limitation and possible solutions of RNAi-based technology for insect pest control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Zhang; Hai-Chao Li; Xue-Xia Miao

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate that target gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi)could lead to insect death.This phenomenon has been considered as a potential strategy for insect pest control,and it is termed RNAi-mediated crop protection.However,there are many limitations using RNAi-based technology for pest control,with the effectiveness target gene selection and reliable double-strand RNA(dsRNA)delivery being two of the major challenges.With respect to target gene selection,at present,the use of homologous genes and genome-scale high-throughput screening are the main strategies adopted by researchers.Once the target gene is identified,dsRNA can be delivered by micro-injection or by feeding as a dietary component.However,micro-injection,which is the most common method,can only be used in laboratory experiments.Expression of dsRNAs directed against insect genes in transgenic plants and spraying dsRNA reagents have been shown to induce RNAi effects on target insects.Hence,RNAi-mediated crop protection has been considered as a potential new-generation technology for pest control,or as a complementary method of existing pest control strategies;however,further development to improve the efficacy of protection and range of species affected is necessary.In this review,we have summarized current research on RNAi-based technology for pest insect management.Current progress has proven that RNAi technology has the potential to be a tool for designing a new generation of insect control measures.To accelerate its practical application in crop protection,further study on dsRNA uptake mechanisms based on the knowledge of insect physiology and biochemistry is needed.

  16. Feasibility, limitation and possible solutions of RNAi-based technology for insect pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Hai-Chao; Miao, Xue-Xia

    2013-02-01

    Numerous studies indicate that target gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) could lead to insect death. This phenomenon has been considered as a potential strategy for insect pest control, and it is termed RNAi-mediated crop protection. However, there are many limitations using RNAi-based technology for pest control, with the effectiveness target gene selection and reliable double-strand RNA (dsRNA) delivery being two of the major challenges. With respect to target gene selection, at present, the use of homologous genes and genome-scale high-throughput screening are the main strategies adopted by researchers. Once the target gene is identified, dsRNA can be delivered by micro-injection or by feeding as a dietary component. However, micro-injection, which is the most common method, can only be used in laboratory experiments. Expression of dsRNAs directed against insect genes in transgenic plants and spraying dsRNA reagents have been shown to induce RNAi effects on target insects. Hence, RNAi-mediated crop protection has been considered as a potential new-generation technology for pest control, or as a complementary method of existing pest control strategies; however, further development to improve the efficacy of protection and range of species affected is necessary. In this review, we have summarized current research on RNAi-based technology for pest insect management. Current progress has proven that RNAi technology has the potential to be a tool for designing a new generation of insect control measures. To accelerate its practical application in crop protection, further study on dsRNA uptake mechanisms based on the knowledge of insect physiology and biochemistry is needed.

  17. Entomopathogenic Nematodes for the Biological Control of Pest Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Ljerka Oštrec

    2001-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are part of 9 families, but only some species of these families: Heterorhabditidae, Mermithidae and Steinernematidae kill insects. Infective juveniles enter the insect host through the cuticle, or through the mouth, anus, etc., to reach the haemocel. The infective juveniles also enter the insect by the foot. After that the nematodes leave the insect who usually dies. The infective juveniles are associated with symbiotic bacterium (Xenorhabdus, Photorhabdus) which h...

  18. Entomopathogenic Nematodes for the Biological Control of Pest Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Ljerka Oštrec

    2001-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are part of 9 families, but only some species of these families: Heterorhabditidae, Mermithidae and Steinernematidae kill insects. Infective juveniles enter the insect host through the cuticle, or through the mouth, anus, etc., to reach the haemocel. The infective juveniles also enter the insect by the foot. After that the nematodes leave the insect who usually dies. The infective juveniles are associated with symbiotic bacterium (Xenorhabdus, Photorhabdus) which h...

  19. Converting pest insects into food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Wiwatwittaya, Decha

    2010-01-01

    Canopy dwelling weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) are used to control a variety of pests in a number of tropical tree crops. What is less familiar is the existence of commercial markets where these ants and their brood are sold for (i) human consumption, (ii) pet food or (iii) traditional medicine...... by pest insects, problematic pests are converted into food and additional earnings. To assess the profitability of providing additional food for the ants, O. smaragdina food conversion efficiency (ECI) was estimated in the laboratory. This estimate suggests the feeding of weaver ants in ant farms...

  20. The insect ecdysone receptor is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rong; Xu, Xinping; Liang, Yongkang; Tian, Honggang; Pan, Zhanqing; Jin, Shouheng; Wang, Na; Zhang, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has great potential for use in insect pest control. However, some significant challenges must be overcome before RNAi-based pest control can become a reality. One challenge is the proper selection of a good target gene for RNAi. Here, we report that the insect ecdysone receptor (EcR) is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice plants. We demonstrated that the use of a 360 bp fragment (NlEcR-c) that is common between NlEcR-A and NlEcR-B for feeding RNAi experiments significantly decreased the relative mRNA expression levels of NlEcR compared with those in the dsGFP control. Feeding RNAi also resulted in a significant reduction in the number of offspring per pair of N. lugens. Consequently, a transgenic rice line expressing NlEcR dsRNA was constructed by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the total copy number of the target gene in all transgenic rice lines was 2. Northern blot analysis showed that the small RNA of the hairpin dsNlEcR-c was successfully expressed in the transgenic rice lines. After newly hatched nymphs of N. lugens fed on the transgenic rice lines, effective RNAi was observed. The NlEcR expression levels in all lines examined were decreased significantly compared with the control. In all lines, the survival rate of the nymphs was nearly 90%, and the average number of offspring per pair in the treated groups was significantly less than that observed in the control, with a decrease of 44.18-66.27%. These findings support an RNAi-based pest control strategy and are also important for the management of rice insect pests.

  1. Construction of ice nucleation active Enterobacter cloacae for control of insect pests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Ice nucleation active (INA) bacteria are the most potent heterogeneous ice nuclei in nature, which have become an important biological resource for diverse applications. Many researches have proved that INA bacteria can raise the supercooling points (SCPs) of insect pests, then reduce their cold hardiness. However, INA bacteria's inefficient colonization on the surface or in the guts of insects, and the high incidence of frost injury induced by their release hampered the application of INA bacteria in controlling insect pests in agricultural fields. In this study, we constructed a recombinant plasmid mob-Tn5-iceA with the ability of broad-host-range conjugal mobilization and integration of the ina gene of iceA into chromosomal DNA of many gram-negative bacteria by Tn5 transposition. In addition, Ent. cloacae strains stably carrying iceA and expressing high ice nucleation activity (INA), even in the absence of antibiotic pressure, were constructed through conjugal mobilization and Tn5 transposition. Ent. cloacae strains have been reported to be able to efficiently colonize in the guts of insects, but have weak plant epiphytic ability. Therefore, these transgenic Ent. cloacae may be promising candidates for control of insect pests in agricultural fields.

  2. The Current Status of Baculovirus and Their Implication for Insect Pest Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Wijonarko

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Baculovirus have been promoted as the promising bioinsecticides for their pest control potential for more than half a century. But only a few have been successful as biological control agent, and almost none has been proven as commercial success, or widely used for large-scale insect pest control. The bioinsecticides currently represent only a small fraction of the world pesticide market. The successful of the Bt crop marked a special achievement in the bioinsecticide market growth. How about the baculoviruses? The main hurdle for baculovirus to be developed as bioinsecticide is its poor performance compare to synthetic chemical ones, include the speed of kill, and host range. It is important to understand the nature of baculovirus, and explore the possibilities to develop new way in applying the baculovirus as bioinsecticides. Key words: current status, baculovirus, insect control

  3. Spider-venom peptides: structure, pharmacology, and potential for control of insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Glenn F; Hardy, Margaret C

    2013-01-01

    Spider venoms are an incredibly rich source of disulfide-rich insecticidal peptides that have been tuned over millions of years to target a wide range of receptors and ion channels in the insect nervous system. These peptides can act individually, or as part of larger toxin cabals, to rapidly immobilize envenomated prey owing to their debilitating effects on nervous system function. Most of these peptides contain a unique arrangement of disulfide bonds that provides them with extreme resistance to proteases. As a result, these peptides are highly stable in the insect gut and hemolymph and many of them are orally active. Thus, spider-venom peptides can be used as stand-alone bioinsecticides, or transgenes encoding these peptides can be used to engineer insect-resistant crops or enhanced entomopathogens. We critically review the potential of spider-venom peptides to control insect pests and highlight their advantages and disadvantages compared with conventional chemical insecticides.

  4. Combining pest control and resistance management: synergy of engineered insects with Bt crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphey, Nina; Bonsall, Michael B; Alphey, Luke

    2009-04-01

    Transgenic crops producing insecticidal toxins are widely used to control insect pests. Their benefits would be lost if resistance to the toxins became widespread in pest populations. The most widely used resistance management method is the high-dose/refuge strategy. This requires toxin-free host plants as refuges near insecticidal crops, and toxin doses intended to be sufficiently high to kill insects heterozygous for a resistant allele, thereby rendering resistance functionally recessive. We have previously shown by mathematical modeling that mass-release of harmless susceptible (toxin-sensitive) insects engineered with repressible female-specific lethality using release of insects carrying a dominant lethal ([RIDL] Oxitec Limited, United Kingdom) technology could substantially delay or reverse the spread of resistance and reduce refuge sizes. Here, we explore this proposal in depth, studying a wide range of scenarios, considering impacts on population dynamics as well as evolution of allele frequencies, comparing with releases of natural fertile susceptible insects, and examining the effect of seasonality. We investigate the outcome for pest control for which the plant-incorporated toxins are not necessarily at a high dose (i.e., they might not kill all homozygous susceptible and all heterozygous insects). We demonstrate that a RIDL-based approach could form an effective component of a resistance management strategy in a wide range of genetic and ecological circumstances. Because there are significant threshold effects for several variables, we expect that a margin of error would be advisable in setting release ratios and refuge sizes, especially as the frequency and properties of resistant alleles may be difficult to measure accurately in the field.

  5. Species and control of insect pests and major diseases of Torreyagrandis Merrillii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhongliang; XU Zhihong; CHEN Xiulong; JIN Guolong; LI Suping; SHEN Yulin; LANG Xuejun; HU Zhongcheng; CHEN Lihong

    2006-01-01

    From January 2001 to December 2004,the investigation on the species of insect pests and diseases in Torreya grandis Merrillii was conducted and integrated control technologies of the main insect pests and diseases were studied in Zhuji,Shaoxin,Shenzhou,Dongyang,and Jiande counties of Zhejiang Province.Via field survey,a system of regular observations,55 species of insectpests belonging to 9 orders and 29 families,and 4 species of diseases were recorded.Among them,Lepteucosma torreyae and Macrolygus torreyae were found to be new species.The biological characteristics of the major insect pests and diseases,such as Rhyncaphytoptus abiesis,Helicobasidium compacum,Erwinia carotovora,Chlorella sp.,Macrolygus torreyae,and Lepteucosma torreyae,were primarily recorded,and their outbreaks and epidemics were researched.The forecasting method for Lepteucosma torreyae was established.Based on strengthening cultivation and management,integrated control measures were put forward including physical,biologic and chemical methods.Medications with higher effect and lower toxicity were screened by comparing the effect of different pesticide treatments.

  6. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  7. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt for the Control of Insect Pests in Stored Tobacco: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanc M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the insect species causing infestations and serious damages to stored commodities, the cigarette beetle, Lasiodermaserricorne (F. and the tobacco moth, Ephestiaelutella (Hübner are the major pests of both raw and manufactured tobacco. Post-harvest tobacco control is achieved through sanitation, insect monitoring, and fumigation with phosphine. However, insect resistance to phosphine and control failures have been reported, and increasing regulatory pressure is being exerted on fumigants. Biological control agents such as Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt appear to be environmentally sound and potentially viable alternatives to chemical control. Bt is a bacterium that produces insecticidal crystal proteins during the sporulation phase and has been, for more than 40 years, the microorganism of choice for the biocontrol of phytophagous insect pests. It produces insecticidal crystal proteins that display specific activity against certain orders of insects and become active upon ingestion by the insect. Our laboratory has conducted extensive research and worldwide surveys to evaluate the presence of Bt in stored tobacco and has confirmed previous findings indicating that Bt may be considered part of the naturally occurring phylloplanemicroflora. Several Bt strains were isolated from tobacco and characterized by DNA and protein profiling. The insecticidal activity of selected strains and of two commercial products against the larvae of L. serricorne was determined by diet incorporation assays. Moreover, the stability of Bt spores and crystal proteins on cured tobacco leaves was assessed over a storage period of time of 30 months. Cigarette prototypes were made with Bt-treated tobacco. Standard cigarette and smoke evaluations did not show any significant difference between the test and control cigarettes. Although the tested Bt strains and products did not yield satisfactory levels of mortality at the required times and doses, the experimental results

  8. Bacillus thuringiensis-based Products for Insect Pest Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maagd, de R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt, as it has become generally known) is one of the oldest and widely used biological control agents and has a long history of use. Bt and a number of related bacteria produce a variety of toxins, mostly—but not exclusively- localized in the parasporal crystals, which are,

  9. Synergistic interactions of ecosystem services: florivorous pest control boosts crop yield increase through insect pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Insect pollination and pest control are pivotal functions sustaining global food production. However, they have mostly been studied in isolation and how they interactively shape crop yield remains largely unexplored. Using controlled field experiments, we found strong synergistic effects of insect pollination and simulated pest control on yield quantity and quality. Their joint effect increased yield by 23%, with synergistic effects contributing 10%, while their single contributions were 7% and 6%, respectively. The potential economic benefit for a farmer from the synergistic effects (12%) was 1.8 times greater than their individual contributions (7% each). We show that the principal underlying mechanism was a pronounced pest-induced reduction in flower lifetime, resulting in a strong reduction in the number of pollinator visits a flower receives during its lifetime. Our findings highlight the importance of non-additive interactions among ecosystem services (ES) when valuating, mapping or predicting them and reveal fundamental implications for ecosystem management and policy aimed at maximizing ES for sustainable agriculture. PMID:26865304

  10. THE INSECT PATHOGENIC FUNGUS Verticillium lecanii (Zimm. Viegas AND ITS USE FOR PESTS CONTROL: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiery B C ALAVO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical insecticides play an important role in the control of plant damage and plant diseases. However, extensive use of these products has led to the disruption of ecosystems because of several reasons such as death of non-target species, accumulation of pesticide residues in the environment and food, and buildup of pesticide resistance in the target species. Biological control is one of the alternatives to chemical pesticides and it can be described as the limitation of the abundance of living organisms and their products by other living organisms. Predators, parasitoids, fungi and other beneficial organisms can be used for the biocontrol of insect pests. The fungus Verticillium lecanii is one of the members of Deuteromycetes and it can be used for crop protection. This paper is a review of the international literature related to V. lecanii for the bio-control of insects of agricultural importance.

  11. Reducing losses inflicted by insect pests on cashew, using weaver ants as a biological control agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anato, Florence; Wargui, Rosine; Sinzogan, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linnaeus) is the largest agricultural export product in Benin. However, yields and quality are lost due to inefficient pest control. Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) may control pests in this crop as they eat and deter pests. In Benin, cashew pest damages...

  12. Reducing losses inflicted by insect pests on cashew, using weaver ants as a biological control agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anato, Florence; Wargui, Rosine; Sinzogan, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linnaeus) is the largest agricultural export product in Benin. However, yields and quality are lost due to inefficient pest control. Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) may control pests in this crop as they eat and deter pests. In Benin, cashew pest damages, ...

  13. An economic comparison of biological and conventional control strategies for insect pests in cashew and mango plantations in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, William Juma; Hella, Joseph; Esbjerg, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare alternative methods of pest control for insect pests in order to determine which methods has the highest efficacy against insect pests and the least detrimental side effects, while maintaining production and profits. The analysis was based on the experimental...... treatment by Tsh. 504 989 and Tsh. 891 297 in cashew and mango plantations. The dominance and MRRanalyses shows that if cashew and mango growers change from conventional agricultural practices to weaver ants, they would earn MRR of 1621% which is above minimum acceptable rate of return (MARR) of 100%. The t...

  14. Pest control and resistance management through release of insects carrying a male-selecting transgene

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Development and evaluation of new insect pest management tools is critical for overcoming over-reliance upon, and growing resistance to, synthetic, biological and plant-expressed insecticides. For transgenic crops expressing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (‘Bt crops’) emergence of resistance is slowed by maintaining a proportion of the crop as non-Bt varieties, which produce pest insects unselected for resistance. While this strategy has been largel...

  15. Role of plants and plant based products towards the control of insect pests and vectors:A novel review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elumalai Kuppusamy; Saranya Jayakumar

    2016-01-01

    Insect pests bear harmful effects causing great loss to the agricultural crops, stored agricultural products and vector mosquitoes can cause diseases to human. Plants possess an array of vast repository of phytochemicals and have been used to cure many diseases and to control the infestation of insect pests from time immemorial. Plants are easily biodegradable and ecologically safe for treating on the stored or on the field crops against pests to prevent from further damage or loss of stored products or preventing human from mosquito bites, thus preventing the spreading of dreadful diseases such as chikungunya and malaria. Hence, this review can give a clear insecticidal, pesticidal and mosquitocidal property of several plants against the insect pests and vectors.

  16. Gene disruption technologies have the potential to transform stored product insect pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stored product insects feed on grains and processed commodities manufactured from grain post-harvest, reducing the nutritional value and contaminating food. Currently, the main defense against stored product insect pests is the pesticide fumigant phosphine. Phosphine is highly toxic to all animals, ...

  17. Damage by insect pests to the Djingarey Ber Mosque in Timbuktu: detection and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Maistrello

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Djingarey Ber Mosque in Timbuktu (Mali is one of the most significant earthen construction in West Africa. Originally constructed in 1327, it was included in 1988 on the World Heritage UNESCO List for its unique architecture and historical importance. During its restoration, recently undertaken by the Aga Khan Trust for Culture, the wooden parts of the roof and architraves showed clear signs of threatening insect presence. In order to identify the pests responsible of the damage, evaluate its extent and suggest a proper control strategy, a detailed survey was performed inside the Mosque complex and in its immediate surroundings. The entomological inspection, performed in the dry-cold season, allowed to detect signs of insect damage in most of the wooden elements, even in the recently replaced beams, but also in walls, pillars and the precious decorated panels. Damages in the wood elements could be attributed to Amitermes evuncifer Silvestri (Termitidae, Bostrychoplites zycheli Marseuli (Bostrichidae and Lyctus africanus Lesne (Lyctidae, which were collected alive on site. Injures in the walls and decorated panels appeared to be performed by hymenopterans such as “plasterer bees” (Colletidae and Sphecidae. From the evaluation of the type and extent of damage in relation to the architecture and materials used in its construction and decoration, the most serious pest and the worse threat for the mosque is represented by termites. Control and preventive measures, in the view of a sustainable, long-lasting integrated management are suggested.

  18. Management of insect pests using semiochemical traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroffio, C. A.; Guibert, V.; Richoz, P.

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of effective control measures, the strawberry blossom weevil (Anthonomus rubi) (SBW) and the raspberry beetle (Byturus tomentosus) (RB) cause large (10 - >80%) losses in yield and quality in organically grown raspberry. Attractive lures for both pests were combined into a single...... multitrap for the economical management of both of these pests at the same time. This is one of the first approaches to pest management of non-lepidopteran insect pests of horticultural crops using semiochemicals in the EU, and probably the first to target multiple species from different insect orders....... The aim is to develop optimized lures and cost-effective trap designs for mass trapping and to determine the optimum density and spatial and temporal patterns of deployment of the traps for controlling these pests by mass trapping. The combination between an aggregation pheromone that attracts Anthonomus...

  19. Mechanisms of dsRNA uptake in insects and potential of RNAi for pest control: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvenne, Hanneke; Smagghe, Guy

    2010-03-01

    RNA interference already proved its usefulness in functional genomic research on insects, but it also has considerable potential for the control of pest insects. For this purpose, the insect should be able to autonomously take up the dsRNA, for example through feeding and digestion in its midgut. In this review we bring together current knowledge on the uptake mechanisms of dsRNA in insects and the potential of RNAi to affect pest insects. At least two pathways for dsRNA uptake in insects are described: the transmembrane channel-mediated uptake mechanism based on Caenorhabditis elegans' SID-1 protein and an 'alternative' endocytosis-mediated uptake mechanism. In the second part of the review dsRNA feeding experiments on insects are brought together for the first time, highlighting the achievement of implementing RNAi in insect control with the first successful experiments in transgenic plants and the diversity of successfully tested insect orders/species and target genes. We conclude with points of discussion and concerns regarding further research on dsRNA uptake mechanisms and the promising application possibilities for RNAi in insect control.

  20. Transgenic plants for insect pest control: a forward looking scientific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, N; Edwards, M G; Gatehouse, J; Capell, T; Christou, P; Gatehouse, A M R

    2006-02-01

    One of the first successes of plant biotechnology has been the creation and commercialisation of transgenic crops exhibiting resistance to major insect pests. First generation products encompassed plants with single insecticidal Bt genes with resistance against major pests of corn and cotton. Modelling studies predicted that usefulness of these resistant plants would be short-lived, as a result of the ability of insects to develop resistance against single insecticidal gene products. However, despite such dire predictions no such collapse has taken place and the acreage of transgenic insect resistance crops has been increasing at a steady rate over the 9 years since the deployment of the first transgenic insect resistant plant. However, in order to assure durability and sustainability of resistance, novel strategies have been contemplated and are being developed. This perspective addresses a number of potentially useful strategies to assure the longevity of second and third generation insect resistant plants.

  1. Modern Stored-Product Insect Pest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagstrum David William

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Stored-product entomologists have a variety of new monitoring, decision-making, biological, chemical, and physical pest management tools available to them. Two types of stored-product insect populations are of interest: insects of immediate economic importance infesting commodities, and insects that live in food residues in equipment and facilities. The sampling and control methods change as grain and grain products move from field to consumer. There are also some changes in the major insect pest species to take into consideration. In this review, we list the primary insect pests at each point of the marketing system, and indicate which sampling methods and control strategies are most appropriate. Economic thresholds for insect infestation levels developed for raw commodity storage, processing plants, and retail business allow sampling-based pest management to be done before insect infestations cause economic injury. Taking enough samples to have a representative sample (20-30 samples will generally provide enough information to classify a population as above or below an economic threshold.

  2. Fungal allelochemicals in insect pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holighaus, Gerrit; Rohlfs, Marko

    2016-07-01

    Interactions between insects and fungi are widespread, and important mediators of these interactions are fungal chemicals that can therefore be considered as allelochemicals. Numerous studies suggest that fungal chemicals can affect insects in many different ways. Here, we apply the terminology established by insect-plant ecologists for categorizing the effect of fungal allelochemicals on insects and for evaluating the application potential of these chemicals in insect pest management. Our literature survey shows that fungal volatile and non-volatile chemicals have an enormous potential to influence insect behavior and fitness. Many of them still remain to be discovered, but some recent examples of repellents and toxins could open up new ways for developing safe insect control strategies. However, we also identified shortcomings in our understanding of the chemical ecology of insect-fungus interactions and the way they have been investigated. In particular, the mode-of-action of fungal allelochemicals has often not been appropriately designated or examined, and the way in which induction by insects affects fungal chemical diversity is poorly understood. This review should raise awareness that in-depth ecological studies of insect-fungus interactions can reveal novel allelochemicals of particular benefit for the development of innovative insect pest management strategies.

  3. Modeling the integration of parasitoid, insecticide, and transgenic insecticidal crop for the long-term control of an insect pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstad, David W; Liu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Mao; Roush, Rick; Shelton, Anthony M

    2013-06-01

    The tools of insect pest management include host plant resistance, biological control, and insecticides and how they are integrated will influence the durability of each. We created a detailed model of the population dynamics and population genetics of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., and its parasitoid, Diadegma insulare (Cresson), to study long-term pest management in broccoli Brassica oleracea L. Given this pest's history of evolving resistance to various toxins, we also evaluated the evolution of resistance to transgenic insecticidal Bt broccoli (expressing Cry1Ac) and two types of insecticides. Simulations demonstrated that parasitism provided the most reliable, long-term control of P. xylostella populations. Use of Bt broccoli with a 10% insecticide-free refuge did not reduce the long-term contribution of parasitism to pest control. Small refuges within Bt broccoli fields can delay evolution of resistance > 30 generations if resistance alleles are rare in the pest population. However, the effectiveness of these refuges can be compromised by insecticide use. Rainfall mortality during the pest's egg and neonate stages significantly influences pest control but especially resistance management. Our model results support the idea that Bt crops and biological control can be integrated in integrated pest management and actually synergistically support each other. However, the planting and maintenance of toxin-free refuges are critical to this integration.

  4. Enhancement of biological control agents for use against forest insect pests and diseases through biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavicek, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Research and development efforts in our research group are focused on the generation of more efficacious biological control agents through the techniques of biotechnology for use against forest insect pests and diseases. Effective biological controls for the gypsy moth and for tree fungal wilt pathogens are under development. The successful use of Gypchek, a formulation of the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV), in gypsy moth control programs has generated considerable interest in that agent. As a consequence of its specificity, LdPNV has negligible adverse ecological impacts compared to most gypsy moth control agents. However, LdNPV is not competitive with other control agents in terms of cost and efficacy. We are investigating several parameters of LdNPV replication and polyhedra production in order to enhance viral potency and efficacy thus mitigating the current disadvantages of LdNPV for gypsy moth control, and have identified LdNPV variants that will facilitate these efforts. Tree endophytic bacteria that synthesize antifungal compounds were identified and an antibiotic compound from one of these bacteria was characterized. The feasibility of developing tree endophytes as biological control agents for tree vascular fungal pathogens is being investigated.

  5. Atoms for pest control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindquist, D.A. (Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, Vienna (Austria)) (and others)

    1984-06-01

    Insects cause losses estimated at between 8% and 20% of total production of crops and livestock throughout the world. With the aim of developing technologies which can reduce such losses, the Insect and Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division actively sponsors projects and conducts research through the Entomology Section of the Agricultural Biotechnology Laboratory at Seibersdorf. In its work, the Section has placed considerable emphasis on the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). This technique involves the sterilization and release of large numbers of insects of the target species into the area where control is to be achieved. There, the sterile insects mate with the fertile wild insects, which produce no progeny: the technique is thus a highly specific form of ''birth control''. It is being used against a number of pest species in several countries.

  6. RNA interference: a new strategy in the evolutionary arms race between human control strategies and insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Vilmar; Rodríguez-García, María Juliana; Sánchez-García, Francisco Javier; Galan, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between humans and the insect pests of cultivated plants may be considered to be an indirect coevolutionary process, i.e., an arms race. Over time, humans have developed several strategies to minimize the negative impacts of insects on agricultural production. However, insects have made adaptive responses via the evolution of resistance to insecticides, and more recently against Bacillus thuriengiensis. Thus, we need to continuously invest resources in the development of new strategies for crop protection. Recent advances in genomics have demonstrated the possibility of a new weapon or strategy in this war, i.e., gene silencing, which involves blocking the expression of specific genes via mRNA inactivation. In the last decade, several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of this strategy in the control of different species of insects. However, several technical difficulties need to be overcome to transform this potential into reality, such as the selection of target genes, the concentration of dsRNA, the nucleotide sequence of the dsRNA, the length of dsRNA, persistence in the insect body, and the life stage of the target species where gene silencing is most efficient. This study analyzes several aspects related to the use of gene silencing in pest control and it includes an overview of the inactivation process, as well as the problems that need to be resolved to transform gene silencing into an effective pest control method.

  7. Converting pest insects into food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Wiwatwittaya, Decha

    2010-01-01

    on management, 32-115 kg ant brood (mainly new queens) was harvested per ha per year without detrimental effect on colony survival and worker ant densities. This suggest that ant biocontrol and ant harvest can be sustainable integrated in plantations and double benefits derived. As ant production is fuelled...... by pest insects, problematic pests are converted into food and additional earnings. To assess the profitability of providing additional food for the ants, O. smaragdina food conversion efficiency (ECI) was estimated in the laboratory. This estimate suggests the feeding of weaver ants in ant farms...

  8. A Stably Transgenic INA Enterobacter cloacae for Control of Insect Pests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin-jian; SUN Fu-zai; ZHAO Ting-chang; DING Ai-yun; TANG Chao-rong

    2003-01-01

    Using the minitransposon pMini-Tn5 and the ice-nucleation active (INA) gene of iceA, a suicide recombinant plasmid pTnice1 was constructed, which has the ability of broad-host-range conjugal mobilization and integration of iceA into chromosomal DNA of many gram-negative bacteria by Tn5 transposition.We used this plasmid to integrate the iceA into chromosomal DNA of Ent. cloacae and obtained the transgentic strain Enc1. 2022ina. In this transgenic Ent. cloacae, iceA would never be transferred elsewhere through transposition, and constantly expressed high ice nucleation activity even in the absence of antibiotic pressure.The transgenic strain was ingested by corn borer larvae. Over the 7 d after ingestion, the mean supercooling points (SCPs) of the larvae was about 10℃ higher than those of larvae treated with distilled water (control).The maintenance of these high SCPs was related to the stable gut colonization of transgenic strain. At 6th day post ingestion, the larva was exposed at - 5 or - 7℃ for 12 h, the percentages of larvae frozen to death were 85and 100%, respectively. In contrast, none or a small proportion of control larvae was frozen to death under the same conditions. Further studies demonstrated that this transgenic strain bore weak epiphytic ability.Therefore, this genetically engineered strain may be a promising candidate for control of insect pests in agricultural fields.

  9. Review of research on the insect pests of kenaf and their control in the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldin, N S; El-Amin, E M

    1981-01-01

    Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus L., is grown in many parts of the Sudan as a fibre plant. During its various stages of growth, 17 different species of insects were detected, out of which only the cotton flea beetle Podagrica puncticollis Weise is of economic importance. The attack by this pest is most serious in the seedling stage; late sowings coupled with early light showers suffer the heaviest damage. In the leaves the beetles eat out round holes ('shot-hole effect'). The entire life cycle takes about 4 to 5 weeks, and about five generations are completed on the plant depending on the weather conditions. Cultural practices incorporating early sowing and eradication of the main host plants, Hibiscus esculentus and Abutilon spp., considerably reduce the size of the initial infestation. Chemicals tested as seed-dressing or sprays for the control of the beetle failed to give good results. However, granular insecticides showed a better performance and longer residual effect. Disyston 5G was effective for six weeks and also improved the general condition of the plants.

  10. Radar, Insect Population Ecology, and Pest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, C. R. (Editor); Wolf, W. (Editor); Klassen, W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Discussions included: (1) the potential role of radar in insect ecology studies and pest management; (2) the potential role of radar in correlating atmospheric phenomena with insect movement; (3) the present and future radar systems; (4) program objectives required to adapt radar to insect ecology studies and pest management; and (5) the specific action items to achieve the objectives.

  11. Recent Advances in Biological Control of Pest Insects by Using Viruses in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-lian SUN; Hui-yin PENG

    2007-01-01

    Insect viruses are attractive as biological control agents and could be a feasible alternative to chemical insecticides in the management of insect infestations. This review describes recent advances in the development of wild-type and genetically modified viruses as insecticides. A new strategy of application of insect viruses in China is reviewed. Also, the assessment of biosafety of genetically modified Helicoverpa armigera Nucleopolyhedovirus (HearNPV) is emphasized as a case-study.

  12. A New Strategy of Insect Pest Control:Down-regulating Cotton Boliworm Gene Expression by Engineering Plant Double Stranded RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Ying-bo; XUE Xue-yi; WANG Ling-jiang; CHEN Xiao-ya

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera ) is an important agricultural pest that causes severeyield loss to crops,particularly to cotton.Transgenic Bt crops have been successful in protectingplants,however,Bt proteins are toxic to all lepidopteran insects but have little effects to sucking pests,such as aphids.Furthermore,the continuous use of Bt crops increases insect resistance.

  13. Integrated pest management: the push-pull approach for controlling insect pests and weeds of cereals, and its potential for other agricultural systems including animal husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanali, Ahmed; Herren, Hans; Khan, Zeyaur R; Pickett, John A; Woodcock, Christine M

    2008-02-12

    This paper describes the 'push-pull' or 'stimulo-deterrent diversionary' strategy in relation to current and potential examples from our own experiences. The push-pull effect is established by exploiting semiochemicals to repel insect pests from the crop ('push') and to attract them into trap crops ('pull'). The systems exemplified here have been developed for subsistence farming in Africa and delivery of the semiochemicals is entirely by companion cropping, i.e. intercropping for the push and trap cropping for the pull. The main target was a series of lepidopterous pests attacking maize and other cereals. Although the area given to the cereal crop itself is reduced under the push-pull system, higher yields are produced per unit area. An important spin-off from the project is that the companion crops are valuable forage for farm animals. Leguminous intercrops also provide advantages with regard to plant nutrition and some of the trap crops help with water retention and in reducing land erosion. A major benefit is that certain intercrop plants provide dramatic control of the African witchweed (striga). Animal husbandry forms an essential part of intensive subsistence agriculture in Africa and developments using analogous push-pull control strategies for insect pests of cattle are exemplified.

  14. Insect parapheromones in olfaction research and semiochemical-based pest control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renou, M; Guerrero, A

    2000-01-01

    The possibility of disrupting the chemical communication of insect pests has initiated the development of new semiochemicals, parapheromones, which are anthropogenic compounds structurally related to natural pheromone components. Modification at the chain and/or at the polar group, isosteric replacements, halogenation or introduction of labeled atoms have been the most common modifications of the pheromone structure. Parapheromones have shown a large variety of effects, and accordingly have been called agonists, pheromone mimics, synergists and hyperagonists, or else pheromone antagonists, antipheromones and inhibitors. Pheromone analogues have been used in quantitative structure-activity relationship studies of insect olfaction, and from a practical point of view they can replace pheromones when these are costly to prepare or unstable under field conditions.

  15. Use of a regulatory mechanism of sex determination in pest insect control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tarig Dafa'alla; Gouliang Fu; Luke Alphey

    2010-09-01

    The sexual development of an insect is defined through a hierarchical control of several sex determining genes. Of these genes, transformer (tra) and doublesex (dsx) are well characterized and functionally conserved, especially dsx. Both genes are regulated at the transcriptional level through sex-specific alternative splicing. Incorporation of a genetically engineered sex-specific splicing module derived from these genes in transgenic systems, such as RIDL (release of insects carrying a dominant lethal), would allow the production of male-only insects for control programmes without any physical intervention.

  16. The use of phytochemicals as fumigants for the control of stored product insect pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Shaaya

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study is aimed to evaluate the potential use of the known isothyiocyanates, as compared to a new isothyiocyanate (ITC isolated from Eruca sativa (salad rocket as fumigants for the control of stored product insects. The biological activity of methyl iodide (CH3I, carbon disulphide (CS2, benzaldehyde (C7H6O and essential oils were also evaluated. The toxicity of the various fumigants was assessed against adults and larvae of a number of major stored product insects. ITCs are known to have high toxicity and only very low concentrations are needed for the control of stored product insects. Eruca sativa is used worldwide as a food supplement. Methylthio butyl ITC, the main bioactive component in this plant has high toxicity against insects, but lower mammalian toxicity as compared to other active ITCs. This makes this compound a potential candidate for insect control. Comparative studies with CH3I, CS2 and C7H6O showed that the first was the most active compound against stored product insects followed by the second and third. C7H6O was found active, but very sorptive; therefore it was less effective against insects. The activity of a large number of essential oils (EOs isolated from aromatic plants was also evaluated.

  17. The novel ABC transporter ABCH1 is a potential target for RNAi-based insect pest control and resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Zhu, Xun; Xia, Jixing; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-09-03

    Insect pests cause serious crop damage and develop high-level resistance to chemical insecticides and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal Cry toxins. A new promising approach for controlling them and overcoming this resistance is RNA interference (RNAi). The RNAi-based insect control strategy depends on the selection of suitable target genes. In this study, we cloned and characterized a novel ABC transporter gene PxABCH1 in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Phylogenetic analysis showed that PxABCH1 is closely related to ABCA and ABCG subfamily members. Spatial-temporal expression detection revealed that PxABCH1 was expressed in all tissues and developmental stages, and highest expressed in head and male adult. Midgut sequence variation and expression analyses of PxABCH1 in all the susceptible and Bt-resistant P. xylostella strains and the functional analysis by sublethal RNAi demonstrated that Cry1Ac resistance was independent of this gene. Silencing of PxABCH1 by a relatively high dose of dsRNA dramatically reduced its expression and resulted in larval and pupal lethal phenotypes in both susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella strains. To our knowledge, this study provides the first insight into ABCH1 in lepidopterans and reveals it as an excellent target for RNAi-based insect pest control and resistance management.

  18. RNAi efficiency, systemic properties, and novel delivery methods for pest insect control : what we know so far

    OpenAIRE

    Joga, Mallikarjuna; Zotti, Moises J.; Smagghe, Guy; Christiaens, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the research on the potential of using RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress crop pests has made an outstanding growth. However, given the variability of RNAi efficiency that is observed in many insects, the development of novel approaches toward insect pest management using RNAi requires first to unravel factors behind the efficiency of dsRNA-mediated gene silencing. In this review, we explore essential implications and possibilities to increase RNAi efficiency by delivery of ...

  19. RNAi efficiency, systemic properties and novel delivery methods for pest insect control: what we know so far.

    OpenAIRE

    Mallikarjuna Reddy Joga; Moises João Zotti; Guy Smagghe; Olivier Christiaens

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the research on the potential of using RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress crop pests has made an outstanding growth. However, given the variability of RNAi efficiency that is observed in many insects, the development of novel approaches towards insect pest management using RNAi requires first to unravel factors behind the efficiency of dsRNA-mediated gene silencing. In this review, we explore essential implications and possibilities to increase RNAi efficiency by delivery of...

  20. The use of phytochemicals as fumigants for the control of stored product insect pests

    OpenAIRE

    Eli Shaaya; Moshe Kostyukovsky

    2011-01-01

    The current study is aimed to evaluate the potential use of the known isothyiocyanates, as compared to a new isothyiocyanate (ITC) isolated from Eruca sativa (salad rocket) as fumigants for the control of stored product insects. The biological activity of methyl iodide (CH3I), carbon disulphide (CS2), benzaldehyde (C7H6O) and essential oils were also evaluated. The toxicity of the various fumigants was assessed against adults and larvae of a number of major stored product insects. ITCs are kn...

  1. Nanoinsecticidas: Nuevas perspectivas para el control de plagas Nanoinsecticides: New perspectives on insect pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Stadler

    2010-12-01

    diatomeas. La masiva aparición de productos a base de nanomateriales en el mercado ha superado la velocidad a la que se evalúa su potencial impacto, de modo que la aplicación avanza por delante de la regulación para su uso. Esto sugiere la urgente necesidad de investigar los potenciales riesgos que surgen del empleo de estos productos en general, de los nanoinsecticidas en particular y sus efectos sobre organismos no blancos, así como sobre las nuevas tecnologías de aplicación más seguras y eficientes. Los actuales niveles de aplicación de nanopartículas y los desarrollos por venir, sugieren que la nanotecnología tendrá un efecto directo sobre las tendencias de la evolución de la agricultura para el control de plagas.Sustainable agriculture demands new environmentally friendly pesticides that adhere to strict international regulations. Part of the research on new biorational pesticides focuses on natural products such as plant extracts, oils, and inorganic insecticides. Insecticidal dusts represent the oldest group of substances used by men for pest management, and their efficacy is based on physical phenomena. With the advent of synthetic pesticides, insecticidal dusts were used as carriers for other active ingredients in formulated insecticides. Organic dusts made a come-back as insecticides with the discovery of hidrophobic kaolin in the 90's. Recently, the discovery of nanoinsecticides brings new alternatives to expand the spectrum of applications of inorganic dusts. Development and registry of nanomaterials is based on the idea that they are not new materials, although they have different properties than the products with the same chemical structure, given that novel properties emerge from products when they are at the nanoscale. For example, reactivity, specific area, electric charge and quantum effects may differ. These substances with new properties are promising as tools for crop protection and food production, opening new frontiers for

  2. Insect Pathogenic Bacteria in Integrated Pest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ruiu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The scientific community working in the field of insect pathology is experiencing an increasing academic and industrial interest in the discovery and development of new bioinsecticides as environmentally friendly pest control tools to be integrated, in combination or rotation, with chemicals in pest management programs. In this scientific context, market data report a significant growth of the biopesticide segment. Acquisition of new technologies by multinational Ag-tech companies is the center of the present industrial environment. This trend is in line with the requirements of new regulations on Integrated Pest Management. After a few decades of research on microbial pest management dominated by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt, novel bacterial species with innovative modes of action are being discovered and developed into new products. Significant cases include the entomopathogenic nematode symbionts Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp., Serratia species, Yersinia entomophaga, Pseudomonas entomophila, and the recently discovered Betaproteobacteria species Burkholderia spp. and Chromobacterium spp. Lastly, Actinobacteria species like Streptomyces spp. and Saccharopolyspora spp. have gained high commercial interest for the production of a variety of metabolites acting as potent insecticides. With the aim to give a timely picture of the cutting-edge advancements in this renewed research field, different representative cases are reported and discussed.

  3. Insect Pathogenic Bacteria in Integrated Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiu, Luca

    2015-04-14

    The scientific community working in the field of insect pathology is experiencing an increasing academic and industrial interest in the discovery and development of new bioinsecticides as environmentally friendly pest control tools to be integrated, in combination or rotation, with chemicals in pest management programs. In this scientific context, market data report a significant growth of the biopesticide segment. Acquisition of new technologies by multinational Ag-tech companies is the center of the present industrial environment. This trend is in line with the requirements of new regulations on Integrated Pest Management. After a few decades of research on microbial pest management dominated by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), novel bacterial species with innovative modes of action are being discovered and developed into new products. Significant cases include the entomopathogenic nematode symbionts Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp., Serratia species, Yersinia entomophaga, Pseudomonas entomophila, and the recently discovered Betaproteobacteria species Burkholderia spp. and Chromobacterium spp. Lastly, Actinobacteria species like Streptomyces spp. and Saccharopolyspora spp. have gained high commercial interest for the production of a variety of metabolites acting as potent insecticides. With the aim to give a timely picture of the cutting-edge advancements in this renewed research field, different representative cases are reported and discussed.

  4. Multifunctional amaranth cystatin inhibits endogenous and digestive insect cysteine endopeptidases: A potential tool to prevent proteolysis and for the control of insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Rodríguez, Silvia; Galván-Ramírez, Juan Pablo; Guerrero-Rangel, Armando; Cedro-Tanda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, the amaranth cystatin was characterized. This cystatin is believed to provide protection from abiotic stress because its transcription is induced in response to heat, drought, and salinity. It has also been shown that recombinant amaranth cystatin inhibits bromelain, ficin, and cysteine endopeptidases from fungal sources and also inhibits the growth of phytopathogenic fungi. In the present study, evidence is presented regarding the potential function of amaranth cystatin as a regulator of endogenous proteinases and insect digestive proteinases. During amaranth germination and seedling growth, different proteolytic profiles were observed at different pH levels in gelatin-containing SDS-PAGE. Most of the proteolytic enzymes detected at pH 4.5 were mainly inhibited by trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucyl amido(4-guanidino)butane (E-64) and the purified recombinant amaranth cystatin. Furthermore, the recombinant amaranth cystatin was active against insect proteinases. In particular, the E-64-sensitive proteolytic digestive enzymes from Callosobruchus maculatus, Zabrotes subfasciatus, and Acanthoscelides obtectus were inhibited by the amaranth cystatin. Taken together, these results suggest multiple roles for cystatin in amaranth, specifically during germination and seedling growth and in the protection of A. hypochondriacus against insect predation. Amaranth cystatin represents a promising tool for diverse applications in the control of insect pest and for preventing undesirable proteolytic activity.

  5. Retrospection of Alien Invasive Forest Insect Pests in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Eleven species of alien invasive forest insect pests have been found since the early time that insect species had been taken recorded in China. Their origins, inland distribution, invasive time, hosts, causing damage are recorded in this paper for the evidence of biological invasion. Their control methods are also studied or discussed.

  6. Insects and Related Pests of Trees, Shrubs, and Lawns. MP-25R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, Everett W.; Lawson, Fred A.

    This document discusses identification and control of the pests of trees and shrubs. The insects are grouped according to feeding habits and the type of damage caused to plants. Categories include the sucking insects and mites, leaf eating insects, pests attacking trunks and branches, and gall causing insects. (CS)

  7. Novel control methods for insect pests: development of a microencapsulation procedure for proteinaceous bioactives intended for oral delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elaine H; Wontner-Smith, Tim; Bradish, Hannah; Dani, M Paulina; Cotterill, Jane V

    2015-09-01

    The objective was to develop an environmentally favourable microcapsule suitable for delivery of proteinaceous bioactive agents ('bioinsecticides') to pest insects. Utilising feeding bioassays, we determined that microspheres made of alginate can be produced in a variety of sizes and are palatable and non-toxic to larvae of the lepidopteran pest Lacanobia oleracea. Dehydrated microspheres were also readily ingested by larvae. Using a novel feeding bioassay and alginate microspheres containing a fluorescent marker material (coumarin 7 encapsulated in styrene maleic anhydride beads), we determined that the microspheres successfully deliver the marker to the insect gut. Moreover, the alginate microspheres rapidly break down in the alkaline conditions of the insect gut and release their contents, the beads passing through the gut in 2-3 h. Using bovine serum albumin as a test protein and western blotting, it was determined that alginate can successfully encapsulate protein, and that the microspheres can be stored in a CaCl2 solution for up to 24 days without extensive leakage. Importantly, it was also determined that alginate and the microsphere-making procedure developed do not inactivate rVPr1 (an insect immunosuppressive protein and potential bioinsecticide). An alginate-based microsphere has potential to deliver the proteinaceous bioactive rVPr1 to pest insects. © 2014 Crown copyright. Pest Management Science © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control. CS-19. Category 7B: Termite Control, CS-20. Category 7C: Food Industry Pest Control, CS-21. Category 7D: Community Insect Control, CS-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Harold J., Ed.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section discusses general and household pest control and is concerned with parasitic pests and man, stored product pests, and irritating vertebrates. Section two is devoted to identifying and controlling structural pests such…

  9. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control. CS-19. Category 7B: Termite Control, CS-20. Category 7C: Food Industry Pest Control, CS-21. Category 7D: Community Insect Control, CS-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Harold J., Ed.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section discusses general and household pest control and is concerned with parasitic pests and man, stored product pests, and irritating vertebrates. Section two is devoted to identifying and controlling structural pests such…

  10. [Bacillus thuringiensis: general aspects. An approach to its use in the biological control of lepidopteran insects behaving as agricultural pests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauka, Diego H; Benintende, Graciela B

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely applied biological pesticide used to control insects that affect agriculture and forestry and which transmit human and animal pathogens. During the past decades B. thuringiensis has been the subject of intensive research. These efforts have yielded considerable data about the relationships between the structure, mechanism of action, and genetics of their pesticidal crystal proteins. As a result, a coherent picture of these relationships has emerged. Other studies have focused on the ecological role of the B. thuringiensis crystal proteins and their performance in agricultural and other natural settings. With this knowledge as background and the help of biotechnological tools, researchers are now reporting promising results in the development of more useful toxins, recombinant bacteria, new formulations and transgenic plants that express pesticidal activity, in order to assure that these products are utilized with the best efficiency and benefit. This article is an attempt to integrate all these recent developments in the study of B. thuringiensis into a context of biological control of lepidopteran insect pest of agricultural importance.

  11. RNAi Efficiency, Systemic Properties, and Novel Delivery Methods for Pest Insect Control: What We Know So Far.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joga, Mallikarjuna R; Zotti, Moises J; Smagghe, Guy; Christiaens, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the research on the potential of using RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress crop pests has made an outstanding growth. However, given the variability of RNAi efficiency that is observed in many insects, the development of novel approaches toward insect pest management using RNAi requires first to unravel factors behind the efficiency of dsRNA-mediated gene silencing. In this review, we explore essential implications and possibilities to increase RNAi efficiency by delivery of dsRNA through non-transformative methods. We discuss factors influencing the RNAi mechanism in insects and systemic properties of dsRNA. Finally, novel strategies to deliver dsRNA are discussed, including delivery by symbionts, plant viruses, trunk injections, root soaking, and transplastomic plants.

  12. RNAi Efficiency, Systemic Properties, and Novel Delivery Methods for Pest Insect Control: What We Know So Far

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joga, Mallikarjuna R.; Zotti, Moises J.; Smagghe, Guy; Christiaens, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the research on the potential of using RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress crop pests has made an outstanding growth. However, given the variability of RNAi efficiency that is observed in many insects, the development of novel approaches toward insect pest management using RNAi requires first to unravel factors behind the efficiency of dsRNA-mediated gene silencing. In this review, we explore essential implications and possibilities to increase RNAi efficiency by delivery of dsRNA through non-transformative methods. We discuss factors influencing the RNAi mechanism in insects and systemic properties of dsRNA. Finally, novel strategies to deliver dsRNA are discussed, including delivery by symbionts, plant viruses, trunk injections, root soaking, and transplastomic plants. PMID:27909411

  13. 莫桑比克腰果病虫害种类及其防治%Diseases and Insect Pests of Cashew in Mozambique and Their Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁李宏; 张中润; Americo Uaciquete; 黄海杰

    2011-01-01

    The category and damage of diseases and insect pests of cashew in Nampula, Inhambane, Gaza and Maputo provinces in Mozambique were studied, 8 species of diseases and 39 species of insect pests were identified. The major diseases were powdery mildew and anthracnose, and the major insect pests were tea mosquito bug (Helopeltis schoutedeni Reuter and Helopeltis anacardii Miller), coconut bug (Pseudothe rap tits wayi Brown), cashew weevil (Mecocorynus loripes Chevrolat) and red-banded thrip (Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Ciard)). Control measures for major diseases and insect pests of cashew in Mozambique were also given in this paper.%在莫桑比克楠普拉省、伊尼扬巴内省、加扎省和马普托省对腰果病虫害进行了系统的调查,发现为害腰果的病害8种,害虫39种.其中主要病害有白粉病和炭疽病,主要害虫有棉角盲蝽、安氏角盲蝽、椰缘蝽、腰果鹰嘴象甲和红带蓟马.并对莫桑比克主要腰果病虫害提出了相应的防治措施.

  14. Impact of climate change on insect pests of trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraal, L.G.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, L.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    There are many interactions and it is exetremely difficult to predict the impact of climate change on insect pests in the future, but we may expect an increase of certain primary pests as well as secondary pests and invasive species

  15. Low cost production of nematodes for biological control of insect pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are produced in two ways: in artificial media using liquid or solid fermentation methods (in vitro) or by mass producing insect hosts to be artificially exposed to mass infection by nematodes (in vivo). The yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) is a good host for in vivo nema...

  16. Insecticidal, repellent, antimicrobial activity and phytotoxicity of essential oils: With special reference to limonene and its suitability for control of insect pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. IBRAHIM

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the use of monoterpenes for insect pest and pathogen control originates from the need for pesticide products with less negative environmental and health impacts than highly effective synthetic pesticides. The expanding literature on the possibility of the use of these monoterpenes is reviewed and focused on the effects of limonene on various bioorganisms. Limonene is used as insecticide to control ectoparasites of pet animals, but it has activity against many insects, mites, and microorganisms. Possible attractive effects of limonene to natural enemies of pests may offer novel applications to use natural compounds for manipulation of beneficial animals in organic agriculture. However, in few cases limonene-treated plants have become attractive to plant damaging insects and phytotoxic effects on cultivated plants have been observed. As a plant-based natural product limonene and other monoterpenes might have use in pest and weed control in organic agriculture after phytotoxicity on crop plants and, effects on non-target soil animals and natural enemies of pest have been investigated

  17. Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. Bulletin 764.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Timothy H.; And Others

    This manual gives descriptions of and methods for control of diseases and insect pests of ornamental plants, weeds, and diseases and insect pests of turf plants. Included are diseases caused by fungi such as cankers, leaf galls, and rust; diseases caused by bacteria such as bacterial blight and crown gall; and diseases caused by nematodes and…

  18. Integrated pest management: the push–pull approach for controlling insect pests and weeds of cereals, and its potential for other agricultural systems including animal husbandry

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanali, Ahmed; Herren, Hans; Khan, Zeyaur R; Pickett, John A.; Woodcock, Christine M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the ‘push–pull’ or ‘stimulo-deterrent diversionary’ strategy in relation to current and potential examples from our own experiences. The push–pull effect is established by exploiting semiochemicals to repel insect pests from the crop (‘push’) and to attract them into trap crops (‘pull’). The systems exemplified here have been developed for subsistence farming in Africa and delivery of the semiochemicals is entirely by companion cropping, i.e. intercropping for the push an...

  19. [Insect pests dissemination by extruded starch packages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Felipe B; Alencar, Isabel D C C; Tavares, Marcelo T

    2009-01-01

    We observed the viability of extruded starch products used as impact protector for fragile packing as a food source of the following stored grains pests: Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), Lasioderma serricorne (Fabr.), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera). Cryptolestes ferrugineus, L. serricorne and T. castaneum were found in these products, which are used by them as shelter and food. Under experimentation, we observed the development of O. surinamensis, S. oryzae and P. interpunctella feeding on this food source. Thus, it is recorded the viability of such material to be a potential dispersal vehicle to spread insect pests.

  20. Mass Releases of Genetically Modified Insects in Area-Wide Pest Control Programs and Their Impact on Organic Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Guy Reeves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mass release of irradiated insects to reduce the size of agricultural pest populations of the same species has a more than 50-year record of success. Using these techniques, insect pests can be suppressed without necessarily dispersing chemical insecticides into the environment. Ongoing release programs include the suppression of medfly at numerous locations around the globe (e.g., California, Chile and Israel and the pink bollworm eradication program across the southern USA and northern Mexico. These, and other successful area-wide programs, encompass a large number of diverse organic farms without incident. More recently, mass release techniques have been proposed that involve the release of genetically modified insects. Given that the intentional use of genetically modified organisms by farmers will in many jurisdictions preclude organic certification, this prohibits the deliberate use of this technology by organic farmers. However, mass releases of flying insects are not generally conducted by individual farmers but are done on a regional basis, often without the explicit consent of all situated farms (frequently under the auspices of government agencies or growers’ collectives. Consequently, there exists the realistic prospect of organic farms becoming involved in genetically modified insect releases as part of area-wide programs or experiments. Herein, we describe genetically modified insects engineered for mass release and examine their potential impacts on organic farmers, both intended and unintended. This is done both generally and also focusing on a hypothetical organic farm located near an approved experimental release of genetically modified (GM diamondback moths in New York State (USA.

  1. Breeding Food Legumes for Resistance to Storage Insect Pests: Potential and Limitations

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Storage insect pests cause significant losses of food legumes particularly in the Tropics and the Sub-tropics. The most important species of storage insect pests of food legumes include Callosobruchus chinensis , C. maculatus , C. analis , Acanthoscelides obtectus , Bruchus incarnatus , B. rufimanus , B. dentipes , B. quinqueguttatus , B. emarginatus , B. ervi , B. lentis and B. pisorum . Effective post-harvest insect pest control measures should constitute part of the overall crop husbandry ...

  2. Game theory as a conceptual framework for managing insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joel S; Staňková, Kateřina

    2017-06-01

    For over 100 years it has been recognized that insect pests evolve resistance to chemical pesticides. More recently, managers have advocated restrained use of pesticides, crop rotation, the use of multiple pesticides, and pesticide-free sanctuaries as resistance management practices. Game theory provides a conceptual framework for combining the resistance strategies of the insects and the control strategies of the pest manager into a unified conceptual and modelling framework. Game theory can contrast an ecologically enlightened application of pesticides with an evolutionarily enlightened one. In the former case the manager only considers ecological consequences whereas the latter anticipates the evolutionary response of the pests. Broader applications of this game theory approach include anti-biotic resistance, fisheries management and therapy resistance in cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Industrial and Institutional Pest Control. Sale Publication 4073.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide gives information needed to meet Environmental Protection Agency standards on industrial and institutional pest control, and to help prepare for certification. It gives descriptions and pictures of general insect pests, parasitic pests of man, occasional invaders, wood-destroying pests, stored product pests, vertebrates, and weeds. The…

  4. Biological pest control in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C; Rodríguez-del-Bosque, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Mexico is a megadiverse country that forms part of the Mesoamerican biological corridor that connects North and South America. Mexico's biogeographical situation places it at risk from invasive exotic insect pests that enter from the United States, Central America, or the Caribbean. In this review we analyze the factors that contributed to some highly successful past programs involving classical biological control and/or the sterile insect technique (SIT). The present situation is then examined with reference to biological control, including SIT programs, targeted at seven major pests, with varying degrees of success. Finally, we analyze the current threats facing Mexico's agriculture industry from invasive pests that have recently entered the country or are about to do so. We conclude that despite a number of shortcomings, Mexico is better set to develop biological control-based pest control programs, particularly on an area-wide basis, than many other Latin American countries are. Classical and augmentative biological control and SIT-based programs are likely to provide effective and sustainable options for control of native and exotic pests, particularly when integrated into technology packages that meet farmers' needs across the great diversity of production systems in Mexico.

  5. Formulation to Enhance the Insecticidal Activity of Entomopathogenic Nematodes for Control of Insect Pests of Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extended shelf life and rapid dispersion of entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) infective juveniles (IJs) in spray suspensions were the principal objectives of earlier EPN formulation development. Subsequently, formulation of EPNs for enhanced insecticidal control in greenhouses and field has been inves...

  6. Application of some insecticides and plant crude extracts for controlling insect pests in yard long bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipawadee Chamnan

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Tests on plant crude extracts of neem seeds, galanga and citronella grass at the rates of 200 ml/20 L of water together with synthetic insecticides, cypermethrin, methamidophos, carbosulfan and carbofuran, at the recommended rates showed that none of the treatments was effective in controlling plant damage caused by adult of bean fly (Ophiomyia phaseoli Tryon. The application of the synthetic insecticide, methamidophos, and plant crude extracts of neem seeds + galanga + citronella grass provided the highest effectiveness tocontrol aphids (Aphis craccivora Koch. Control of A. craccivora was not significantly different between the synthetic insecticide and plant crude extracts, except methamidophos. Pod damage caused by pod borer (Maruca testulalis Geyer and yields were also not significantly different among treatments. However, the highest yield of 1,224.7 kg/rai was recorded in plots treated with neem seed extracts and the synthetic insecticide, carbosulfan. In untreated plots, the lowest yield of 587.3 kg/rai was collected.

  7. Application of some insecticides and plant crude extracts for controlling insect pests in yard long bean

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Tests on plant crude extracts of neem seeds, galanga and citronella grass at the rates of 200 ml/20 L of water together with synthetic insecticides, cypermethrin, methamidophos, carbosulfan and carbofuran, at the recommended rates showed that none of the treatments was effective in controlling plant damage caused by adult of bean fly (Ophiomyia phaseoli Tryon). The application of the synthetic insecticide, methamidophos, and plant crude extracts of neem seeds + galanga + citronella grass prov...

  8. Insect Control (1): Use of Pheromones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Jean L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses current research relating to the use of pheromones as a means of controlling insect pests. These chemicals, which are secreted by insects to affect the behavior of other individuals of the same species, may be used to eliminate pests without destroying their predators and other beneficial insects. (JR)

  9. Insect Control (1): Use of Pheromones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Jean L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses current research relating to the use of pheromones as a means of controlling insect pests. These chemicals, which are secreted by insects to affect the behavior of other individuals of the same species, may be used to eliminate pests without destroying their predators and other beneficial insects. (JR)

  10. Ecological interaction between insect pests, climatic factors and plant traits on abundance of beneficial insects in paddy field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norazliza, R.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The presences of beneficial insects in the paddy field are very important for the ecological systems of paddy field as those insects could help managing the population of the pests. Hence, it will reduce the dependence on pesticides usage to combat the population of insect pests. This study was aimed to study on ecological interaction between environmental factors such as insect pests, plant height, rainfall, temperature and humidity with abundance of beneficial insects in paddy field of Sungai Burong, Tanjung Karang, Selangor for two seasons of paddy planting. Low number of insects composition were recorded in paddy field at Sungai Burong during the vegetative phase and highest during the reproductive and maturity phases for two seasons of paddy planting. The trend of mean composition of insects were gradually increasing from vegetative to maturity phases while, the ecological interaction between insect pests, climatic factors and plant traits were acceptable as good predictor for all beneficial insects collected in this study namely Zygoptera, Gerridae, Coccinellidae and Staphylinidae except for Anisoptera. Therefore, consideration on several stated factors by maintaining or conserving ecology and controlling practices in good manner in paddy field has high potential and more reliable to control insect pests effectively using beneficial insects.

  11. Control Effects of Two-Batch-Duck Raising with Rice Framing on Rice Diseases, Insect Pests and Weeds in Paddy Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-ming Liang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice-duck farming system is one of the means of organic rice farming, in which the weeds, diseases and insects could be effectively controlled with minimal or no pesticide and herbicide application. Whereas in conventional rice-duck farming system the controlling effect on diseases, insect pests and weeds was slowly disappeared after the rice heading stage at which ducks were driven out of the paddy field. To fill up the blank period of pasture activities of ducks, this study put forward two new rice-duck farming systems innovated from the conventional rice-duck farming system, in these new systems, two batches of ducks were raised with rice within one rice planting season. The results revealed that the overall controlling effect of ducks on rice diseases, insect pest and weeds was significantly enhanced in the two new rice-duck farming systems without agrochemicals application. It might be suggested that these two new systems have potential application as biocontrol agent for the organic rice agriculture.

  12. Efficacy of Intercropping as a Management Tool for the Control on Insect Pests of Cabbage in Ghana 1H m 2m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timbilla, JA.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of intercropping cabbage with other vegetables and herbs as a management tool in migitating insect pests problems of cabbage was investigated in the field at Kwadaso, Kumasi during a three season period in the forest region of Ghana. The results showed that Plutella xylostella could be effectively controlled when cabbage is intercropped with onion, spearmint and tomato. However, there is the need to control Hellula undalis in endemie areas with pesticides up to six weeks after transplanting. Both Karate (cyhalothrin and Dipel 2X (the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki were effective in mitigating the problem of H. undalis in the intercropping experiments and both are recommended.

  13. Knockdown of genes in the Toll pathway reveals new lethal RNA interference targets for insect pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingsohn, L; Knorr, E; Billion, A; Narva, K E; Vilcinskas, A

    2017-02-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising alternative strategy for ecologically friendly pest management. However, the identification of RNAi candidate genes is challenging owing to the absence of laboratory strains and the seasonality of most pest species. Tribolium castaneum is a well-established model, with a strong and robust RNAi response, which can be used as a high-throughput screening platform to identify potential RNAi target genes. Recently, the cactus gene was identified as a sensitive RNAi target for pest control. To explore whether the spectrum of promising RNAi targets can be expanded beyond those found by random large-scale screening, to encompass others identified using targeted knowledge-based approaches, we constructed a Cactus interaction network. We tested nine genes in this network and found that the delivery of double-stranded RNA corresponding to fusilli and cactin showed lethal effects. The silencing of cactin resulted in 100% lethality at every developmental stage from the larva to the adult. The knockdown of pelle, Dorsal-related immunity factor and short gastrulation reduced or even prevented egg hatching in the next generation. The combination of such targets with lethal and parental RNAi effects can now be tested against different pest species in field studies.

  14. Optimal sterile insect release for area-wide integrated pest management in a density regulated pest population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Luis F

    2014-06-01

    To determine optimal sterile insect release policies in area-wide integrated pest management is a challenge that users of this pest control method inevitably confront. In this note we provide approximations to best policies of release through the use of simulated annealing. The discrete time model for the population dynamics includes the effects of sterile insect release and density dependence in the pest population. Spatial movement is introduced through integrodifference equations, which allow the use of the stochastic search in cases where movement is described through arbitrary dispersal kernels. As a byproduct of the computations, an assessment of appropriate control zone sizes is possible.

  15. Urban warming drives insect pest abundance on street trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K Meineke

    Full Text Available Cities profoundly alter biological communities, favoring some species over others, though the mechanisms that govern these changes are largely unknown. Herbivorous arthropod pests are often more abundant in urban than in rural areas, and urban outbreaks have been attributed to reduced control by predators and parasitoids and to increased susceptibility of stressed urban plants. These hypotheses, however, leave many outbreaks unexplained and fail to predict variation in pest abundance within cities. Here we show that the abundance of a common insect pest is positively related to temperature even when controlling for other habitat characteristics. The scale insect Parthenolecanium quercifex was 13 times more abundant on willow oak trees in the hottest parts of Raleigh, NC, in the southeastern United States, than in cooler areas, though parasitism rates were similar. We further separated the effects of heat from those of natural enemies and plant quality in a greenhouse reciprocal transplant experiment. P. quercifex collected from hot urban trees became more abundant in hot greenhouses than in cool greenhouses, whereas the abundance of P. quercifex collected from cooler urban trees remained low in hot and cool greenhouses. Parthenolecanium quercifex living in urban hot spots succeed with warming, and they do so because some demes have either acclimatized or adapted to high temperatures. Our results provide the first evidence that heat can be a key driver of insect pest outbreaks on urban trees. Since urban warming is similar in magnitude to global warming predicted in the next 50 years, pest abundance on city trees may foreshadow widespread outbreaks as natural forests also grow warmer.

  16. The Sterile Insect Technique as a method of pest control; La Tecnica del Insecto Esteril como metodo de lucha contra plagas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argiles Herrero, R.

    2011-07-01

    In the Valencia community is doing one of the most ambitious project in the field of plant protection at European level: the fight against fruit fly, one of the most damaging pests of citrus and fruit; by Insect Technique Sterile. This technique consists of laboratory breeding and release into the fields of huge quantities of insects of the pest species that have previously been sterilized. Sterile insect looking for wild individuals of the same species to mate with them and the result is a clutch of viable eggs, causing a decrease in pest populations. After three years of application of the technique on an area of 150,000 hectares, the pest populations have been reduced by 90%. Other benefits have been the reduced used of insecticides and improved the quality of exported fruit. (Author)

  17. Genetics and biology of Anastrepha fraterculus: research supporting the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Two species of true fruit flies (taxonomic family Tephritidae) are considered pests of fruit and vegetable production in Argentina: the cosmopolitan Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) and the new world South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The distribution of these two species in Argentina overlaps north of the capital, Buenos Aires. Regarding the control of these two pests, the varied geographical fruit producing regions in Argentina are in different fly control situations. One part is under a programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the eradication of C. capitata, because A. fraterculus is not present in this area. The application of the SIT to control C. capitata north of the present line with the possibility of A. fraterculus occupying the niche left vacant by C. capitata becomes a cause of much concern. Only initial steps have been taken to investigate the genetics and biology of A. fraterculus. Consequently, only fragmentary information has been recorded in the literature regarding the use of SIT to control this species. For these reasons, the research to develop a SIT protocol to control A. fraterculus is greatly needed. In recent years, research groups have been building a network in Argentina in order to address particular aspects of the development of the SIT for Anastrepha fraterculus. The problems being addressed by these groups include improvement of artificial diets, facilitation of insect mass rearing, radiation doses and conditions for insect sterilisation, basic knowledge supporting the development of males-only strains, reduction of male maturation time to facilitate releases, identification and isolation of chemical communication signals, and a good deal of population genetic studies. This paper is the product of a concerted effort to gather all this knowledge scattered in numerous and often hard-to-access reports and papers and summarize their basic conclusions in a single publication

  18. Genetics and biology of Anastrepha fraterculus: research supporting the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladera, Jorge L; Vilardi, Juan C; Juri, Marianela; Paulin, Laura E; Giardini, M Cecilia; Gómez Cendra, Paula V; Segura, Diego F; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B

    2014-01-01

    Two species of true fruit flies (taxonomic family Tephritidae) are considered pests of fruit and vegetable production in Argentina: the cosmopolitan Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) and the new world South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The distribution of these two species in Argentina overlaps north of the capital, Buenos Aires. Regarding the control of these two pests, the varied geographical fruit producing regions in Argentina are in different fly control situations. One part is under a programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the eradication of C. capitata, because A. fraterculus is not present in this area. The application of the SIT to control C. capitata north of the present line with the possibility of A. fraterculus occupying the niche left vacant by C. capitata becomes a cause of much concern. Only initial steps have been taken to investigate the genetics and biology of A. fraterculus. Consequently, only fragmentary information has been recorded in the literature regarding the use of SIT to control this species. For these reasons, the research to develop a SIT protocol to control A. fraterculus is greatly needed. In recent years, research groups have been building a network in Argentina in order to address particular aspects of the development of the SIT for Anastrepha fraterculus. The problems being addressed by these groups include improvement of artificial diets, facilitation of insect mass rearing, radiation doses and conditions for insect sterilisation, basic knowledge supporting the development of males-only strains, reduction of male maturation time to facilitate releases, identification and isolation of chemical communication signals, and a good deal of population genetic studies. This paper is the product of a concerted effort to gather all this knowledge scattered in numerous and often hard-to-access reports and papers and summarize their basic conclusions in a single publication.

  19. Coconut leaf bioactivity toward generalist maize insect pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical plants are often more resistant to insects than temperate plants due to evolution of robust defenses to cope with a more constant insect threat. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) has very few chewing leaf feeding insect pests and was tested against two omnivorous leaf feeding caterpillar species,...

  20. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Home, Yard, and Garden. Circular 900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication lists certain insecticides to control insect pests of food, fabrics, structures, man and animals, lawns, shrubs, trees, flowers and vegetables. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to combat infestation. (CS)

  1. Forest Insect Pest Management and Forest Management in China: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaowei; An, Linli

    2011-12-01

    According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004-2008), China's forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36% of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects, plant diseases, rodents and lagomorphs, and hazardous plants. Among them, 300 species are considered as economically or ecologically important, and half of these are serious pests, including 86 species of insects. Forest management and utilization have a considerable influence on the stability and sustainability of forest ecosystems. At the national level, forestry policies always play a major role in forest resource management and forest health protection. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of both achievements and challenges in forest management and insect pest control in China. First, we summarize the current status of forest resources and their pests in China. Second, we address the theories, policies, practices and major national actions on forestry and forest insect pest management, including the Engineering Pest Management of China, the National Key Forestry Programs, the Classified Forest Management system, and the Collective Forest Tenure Reform. We analyze and discuss three representative plantations— Eucalyptus, poplar and Masson pine plantations—with respect to their insect diversity, pest problems and pest management measures.

  2. Farmer’s Knowledge and Perceptions on Rice Insect Pests and Their Management in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Alibu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice is a new crop in Uganda, but has quickly grown in importance. Between 2000 and 2010, total area under rice cultivation in the country grew by 94% from 140,000 ha. Changes in the agro ecosystem due to expansion in rice area may have altered the pest status of rice insect pests. However, far too little attention has been paid to assessing the prevalence and importance of rice insect-pests in Uganda. In this study, we interviewed 240 lowland-rice farming households from eight districts within the north, east and central regions of Uganda about their perceived insect-pest problems and control measures employed, if any. A semi-structured questionnaire was used. The farmers ranked rice insect pests as the most important biotic constraint in rice production, with stem borers and the African rice gall midge (AfRGM perceived to be the 1st and 2nd most detrimental insect pests, respectively. In spite of this, only 36% of the respondents could positively identify symptoms of AfRGM damage on rice plants, while 64% were familiar with stem borer damage. Over 60% of interviewed farmers expressed confidence in the effectiveness of insecticides for controlling rice insect pests. Cultural control measures were not popular among the farmers.

  3. Delivery of intrahemocoelic peptides for insect pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonning, Bryony C; Chougule, Nanasaheb P

    2014-02-01

    The extensive use of chemical insecticides for insect pest management has resulted in insecticide resistance now being recorded in >500 species of insects and mites. Although gut-active toxins such as those derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been successfully used for insect pest management, a diverse range of insect-specific insecticidal peptides remains an untapped resource for pest management efforts. These toxins act within the insect hemocoel (body cavity) and hence require a delivery system to access their target site. Here, we summarize recent developments for appropriate delivery of such intrahemocoelic insect toxins, via fusion to a second protein such as a plant lectin or a luteovirus coat protein for transcytosis across the gut epithelium, or via entomopathogenic fungi.

  4. How to produce male-only progeny in pest insects for SIT: a biotech approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Petrella, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Insects represent the most abundant group of animals on earth, comprising about 800,000 described species, and approximately 10,000 of these species can be actually destructive for human activities. Pest control interventions, alternative to pesticides, are increasingly being implemented within the concept of Integrated Pest Management, involving the biological control to eradicate a pest from the area of interest. This concept has been recently extended also to those hemathoph...

  5. Disease and Insect Pest Control Technical of Rosa roxburghii Tratt%刺梨病虫害防治技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶光伟; 李淼; 王德敏

    2014-01-01

    介绍了刺梨的形态特征和生物学特性,并针对其病虫害,包括白粉病、褐斑病、烟煤病、梨小食心虫、食叶害虫、月季长管蚜、白粉虱等分别总结防治技术,以期为刺梨高产栽培提供参考。%Morphological characteristics and biological characteristics of Rosa roxburghii Tratt were introduced.Disease and pest control techniques of Rosa roxburghii Tratt were summarized,including powdery mildew,brown blotch,dark mildew,oriental fruit moth,defoliator,Macrosiphum rosirvorum Zhang and Trialeurodes vaporariorum,so as to provide the reference for the high-yield cultivation of Rosa roxburghii Tratt.

  6. Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovskii, Sergei; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Bearup, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Pest insects pose a significant threat to food production worldwide resulting in annual losses worth hundreds of billions of dollars. Pest control attempts to prevent pest outbreaks that could otherwise destroy a sward. It is good practice in integrated pest management to recommend control actions (usually pesticides application) only when the pest density exceeds a certain threshold. Accurate estimation of pest population density in ecosystems, especially in agro-ecosystems, is therefore very important, and this is the overall goal of the pest insect monitoring. However, this is a complex and challenging task; providing accurate information about pest abundance is hardly possible without taking into account the complexity of ecosystems' dynamics, in particular, the existence of multiple scales. In the case of pest insects, monitoring has three different spatial scales, each of them having their own scale-specific goal and their own approaches to data collection and interpretation. In this paper, we review recent progress in mathematical models and methods applied at each of these scales and show how it helps to improve the accuracy and robustness of pest population density estimation.

  7. Pest control: A modelling approach. Comment on “Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: Random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks” by S. Petrovskii, N. Petrovskaya and D. Bearup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Rebecca C.

    2014-09-01

    Successful food production results in the delivery to market of beautiful produce, free of damage from insects. All of that produce however, is an excellent and plentiful food source, and nature has evolved a multitude of insects that compete with humans for access. There exist a number of management strategies to combat pests, including traditional crop rotation and companion planting techniques, as well as more sophisticated techniques including mating disruption using pheromones and the application of chemical sprays. Chemical sprays are extremely effective, and are in widespread use around the globe [1,12,20]. Indeed, pesticides are the dominant form of pest management in current use [10,20].

  8. Insect pest management decisions in food processing facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest management decision making in food processing facilities such as flour mills, rice mills, human and pet food manufacturing facilities, distribution centers and warehouses, and retail stores is a challenging undertaking. Insect pest management programs require an understanding of the food facili...

  9. 1976 Commercial Vegetable Pest Control Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNab, A. A.; And Others

    This guide contains pest control information for commercial vegetable production. It was prepared for agricultural supply dealers, extension agents, fieldmen, and growers. It gives general precautions, information on seed treatment, growing disease-free seedlings and transplants, general soil insect control, general weed control, and spraying…

  10. Second-generation sequencing supply an effective way to screen RNAi targets in large scale for potential application in pest insect control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yubing; Zhang, Hao; Li, Haichao; Miao, Xuexia

    2011-04-11

    The key of RNAi approach success for potential insect pest control is mainly dependent on careful target selection and a convenient delivery system. We adopted second-generation sequencing technology to screen RNAi targets. Illumina's RNA-seq and digital gene expression tag profile (DGE-tag) technologies were used to screen optimal RNAi targets from Ostrinia furnalalis. Total 14690 stage specific genes were obtained which can be considered as potential targets, and 47 were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Ten larval stage specific expression genes were selected for RNAi test. When 50 ng/µl dsRNAs of the genes DS10 and DS28 were directly sprayed on the newly hatched larvae which placed on the filter paper, the larval mortalities were around 40∼50%, while the dsRNAs of ten genes were sprayed on the larvae along with artificial diet, the mortalities reached 73% to 100% at 5 d after treatment. The qRT-PCR analysis verified the correlation between larval mortality and the down-regulation of the target gene expression. Topically applied fluorescent dsRNA confirmed that dsRNA did penetrate the body wall and circulate in the body cavity. It seems likely that the combination of DGE-tag with RNA-seq is a rapid, high-throughput, cost less and an easy way to select the candidate target genes for RNAi. More importantly, it demonstrated that dsRNAs are able to penetrate the integument and cause larval developmental stunt and/or death in a lepidopteron insect. This finding largely broadens the target selection for RNAi from just gut-specific genes to the targets in whole insects and may lead to new strategies for designing RNAi-based technology against insect damage.

  11. Bt resistance in Australian insect pest species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Sharon; Walsh, Tom; Tay, Wee Tek

    2016-06-01

    Bt cotton was initially deployed in Australia in the mid-1990s to control the polyphagous pest Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) which was intractably resistant to synthetic chemistries. A conservative strategy was enforced and resistance to first generation single toxin technology was managed. A decade later, shortly after the release of dual toxin cotton, high baseline frequencies of alleles conferring resistance to one of its components prompted a reassessment of the thinking behind the potential risks to this technology. Several reviews detail the characteristics of this resistance and the nuances of deploying first and second generation Bt cotton in Australia. Here we explore recent advances and future possibilities to estimate Bt resistance in Australian pest species and define what we see as the critical data for enabling effective pre-emptive strategies. We also foreshadow the imminent deployment of three toxin (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Vip3A) Bollgard 3 cotton, and examine aspects of resistance to its novel component, Vip3A, that we believe may impact on its stewardship.

  12. Insecticide resistance and its molecular basis in urban insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqqash, Muhammad Nadir; Gökçe, Ayhan; Bakhsh, Allah; Salim, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Insecticide resistance is one of the most important evolutionary phenomena for researchers. Overuse of chemicals has induced resistance in insect pests that ultimately has led to the collapse of disease control programs in many countries. The erroneous and inappropriate management of insect vectors has resulted in dissemination of many vector-borne diseases like dengue, malaria, diarrhea, leishmaniasis, and many others. In most cases, the emergence of new diseases and the revival of old ones can be related with ecological changes that have favored rapid growth of vector densities. Understanding molecular mechanisms in resistant strains can assist in the development of management programs to control the development and spread of resistant insect populations. The dominant, recessive, and co-dominant forms of genes encoding resistance can be investigated, and furthermore, resistance development can be addressed either by the release of susceptible strains or timely insecticide rotation. The present review discusses the resistance level in all important insect vectors of human diseases; the molecular basis of evolvement of resistance has also been discussed.

  13. Fusion proteins containing insect-specific toxins as pest control agents: snowdrop lectin delivers fused insecticidal spider venom toxin to insect haemolymph following oral ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitches, Elaine; Edwards, Martin G; Mee, Christopher; Grishin, Eugene; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Edwards, John P; Gatehouse, John A

    2004-01-01

    The mannose-specific snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin: GNA), when fed to insects, binds to the gut epithelium and passes into the haemolymph. The ability of GNA to act as a carrier protein to deliver an insecticidal spider venom neurotoxin (Segestria florentina toxin 1: SFI1) to the haemolymph of lepidopteran larvae was investigated. Constructs encoding SFI1 and an SFI1/GNA fusion protein were expressed in Pichia pastoris. The insecticidal activity of purified recombinant proteins on injection was found to be comparable to published values for SfI1 purified from spider venom [Toxicon 40 (2002) 125]. Whereas neither GNA nor SFI1 alone showed acute toxicity when fed to larvae of tomato moth (Lacanobia oleracea), feeding SFI1/GNA fusion at 2.5% of dietary proteins was insecticidal to first stadium larvae, causing 100% mortality after 6 days. The protein also showed a significant, dose dependent, toxicity towards fourth and fifth stadium larvae, with growth reduced by up to approximately 90% over a 4-day assay period compared to controls. Delivery of intact SFI1/GNA to the haemolymph in these insects was shown by western blotting; haemolymph samples from fusion-fed larvae contained a GNA-immunoreactive protein of the same molecular weight as the SFI1/GNA fusion. SFI1/GNA and similar fusion proteins offer a novel and effective approach for delivering haemolymph active toxins by oral administration, which could be used in crop protection by expression in transgenic plants.

  14. Breeding Food Legumes for Resistance to Storage Insect Pests: Potential and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kifle Dagne

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Storage insect pests cause significant losses of food legumes particularly in the Tropics and the Sub-tropics. The most important species of storage insect pests of food legumes include Callosobruchus chinensis, C. maculatus, C. analis, Acanthoscelides obtectus, Bruchus incarnatus, B. rufimanus, B. dentipes, B. quinqueguttatus, B. emarginatus, B. ervi, B. lentis and B. pisorum. Effective post-harvest insect pest control measures should constitute part of the overall crop husbandry practices for preserving the quality of produce. Storage insect pests are commonly controlled using chemical insecticides which, however, bear many drawbacks related to high cost, environmental pollution and food safety risks. Breeding legume crops to improve their resistance against storage insect pests, although having technical limitations, is the best way of overcoming these disadvantages in an environment-friendly manner. In this paper, we present the findings of our extensive reviews on the potential of breeding resistant varieties of food legumes against storage insect pests along with the major technical limitations one would likely encounter and the prospective ways of tackling them.

  15. Viral Delivery of dsRNA for Control of Insect Agricultural Pests and Vectors of Human Disease: Prospects and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolliopoulou, Anna; Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Smagghe, Guy; Swevers, Luc

    2017-01-01

    RNAi is applied as a new and safe method for pest control in agriculture but efficiency and specificity of delivery of dsRNA trigger remains a critical issue. Various agents have been proposed to augment dsRNA delivery, such as engineered micro-organisms and synthetic nanoparticles, but the use of viruses has received relatively little attention. Here we present a critical view of the potential of the use of recombinant viruses for efficient and specific delivery of dsRNA. First of all, it requires the availability of plasmid-based reverse genetics systems for virus production, of which an overview is presented. For RNA viruses, their application seems to be straightforward since dsRNA is produced as an intermediate molecule during viral replication, but DNA viruses also have potential through the production of RNA hairpins after transcription. However, application of recombinant virus for dsRNA delivery may not be straightforward in many cases, since viruses can encode RNAi suppressors, and virus-induced silencing effects can be determined by the properties of the encoded RNAi suppressor. An alternative is virus-like particles that retain the efficiency and specificity determinants of natural virions but have encapsidated non-replicating RNA. Finally, the use of viruses raises important safety issues which need to be addressed before application can proceed. PMID:28659820

  16. 频振式杀虫灯在烟草害虫防治中的应用研究%The Application Research of Frequency Trembler Lamp in Control of Tobacco Insect Pest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔凡全; 朱列书

    2012-01-01

    为了探索云南烟叶生产中害虫防治的有效方法,在火木龙现代烟草示范区利用频振式杀虫灯开展了烟草主要害虫防治示范试验,结果表明:该杀虫灯把杀虫工作日常化,能有效防止爆发大面积虫害;对蚜茧蜂、食蚜、蝇草蛉等天敌有一定的保护作用,对烟青虫、斜纹夜蛾、金龟子等害虫防效显著;投入成本低,控制面积大,操作简便;通过物理方法诱杀害虫,大大减少农药用量,同时不会使害虫产生抗药性,降低了烟叶农药残留,提高烟叶品质,减少对环境的污染,避免人畜中毒事件发生.这说明频振式杀虫灯具有较好的经济效益、社会效益和生态效益,可在烟草害虫防治中大面积推广使用.%In order to find effective method for controlling insect pests during production of tobacco leaves, a demonstrating experiment for controlling insect pests of tobacco by using frequency trembler lamp were conducted in Huomulong modern tobacco test area. The results showed that this frequency trembler lamp makes the killing insect pests to be routinized, and it can prevent the occurrence of large scale insect pests efficiently. The lamp has certain protection effect for the natural enemy of tobacco insect pests, such as Aphid, Syrphidae and Chrysopidae; meanwhile, it has significant control effect on tobacco insect pests, such as Heliothis assulta Guenee, Prodenia litura and Cheirotonus. The lamp has lots of good characteristics, such as low input and cost, large controlling area, easy use, etc. Using this frequency trembler lamp is a physical way to trapping and killing insect pests, so it will help to reduce pesticide consumption and pesticide residue greatly, and the insects would not have drug resistance, therefore, it can improve tobacco quality, reduce contamination on environment, and avoid poisoning of human and livestock. Therefore, the frequency trembler lamp can be popularized in a large scale for it has good

  17. Information on Pests in Schools and Their Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pests such as insects, rodents, fungi, and weeds can affect the school environment and the people who work and learn there. These pests can cause human health problems, and structural and plant damage. Know what pests you face before deciding on control.

  18. Compendium of sunflower disease and insect pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Compendium of Sunflower Diseases and Pests is a new addition to the popular APS Press series of plant disease compendia. This will be the most comprehensive guide to sunflower diseases and pests in the world. The introduction contains brief histories of sunflower use and production, botany of th...

  19. Pest persistence and eradication conditions in a deterministic model for sterile insect release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Luis F

    2015-01-01

    The release of sterile insects is an environment friendly pest control method used in integrated pest management programmes. Difference or differential equations based on Knipling's model often provide satisfactory qualitative descriptions of pest populations subject to sterile release at relatively high densities with large mating encounter rates, but fail otherwise. In this paper, I derive and explore numerically deterministic population models that include sterile release together with scarce mating encounters in the particular case of species with long lifespan and multiple matings. The differential equations account separately the effects of mating failure due to sterile male release and the frequency of mating encounters. When insects spatial spread is incorporated through diffusion terms, computations reveal the possibility of steady pest persistence in finite size patches. In the presence of density dependence regulation, it is observed that sterile release might contribute to induce sudden suppression of the pest population.

  20. 害虫遗传防治的研究历史与现状%History and status of the genetic control of insect pest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严盈; 万方浩

    2015-01-01

    作为防治或根除重大害虫最为有效的手段之一,害虫遗传防治在世界范围内被广泛采用并取得了巨大成功。本文综述了不育昆虫技术、雌性致死系统和昆虫显性致死技术等经典害虫遗传防治策略的发展历史、技术特点和应用情况。近年来,许多新的分子生物手段被不断提出并整合到害虫遗传防治策略中,包括归巢核酸内切酶基因、锌指核酸酶、转录激活因子样效应因子核酸酶、CRISPR/Cas9系统、Medea元件、Killer-Rescue系统、Wolbachia-细胞质不亲和性系统等。基于这些新的工具手段,许多国家已经在不同程度上启动了下一代害虫遗传防治项目。而我国在该领域的研究相对薄弱,需要在借鉴国外成功经验的同时,进一步加强害虫遗传防治的基础和应用研究,从而实现本地有害生物的可持续治理和外来入侵生物的有效狙击,确保我国未来的粮食和生态安全。%Genetic pest management ( GPM) is one of the most efficient methods to control or eradicate insect pests and has been carried out worldwide with notable successes. Some classic GPM strategies including the sterile insect technology ( SIT) , female kill-ing system ( FKS) and release of insects carrying dominant lethality ( RIDL) are reviewed here. The development history, technical characters and application of SIT, FKS and RIDL technologies are introduced. In recent years, many new molecular or biological tools like the homing endonuclease gene, zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, CRISPR/Cas9 sys-tem, medea element, the killer-rescue system and the Wolbachia-cytoplasmic incompatibility system were proposed to improve GPM efficiency. Some new tools were already used in control programs as next generation GPM strategies in some countries. The GPM practice in China is limited, and both basic and applied research on GPM should be enhanced, as the GPM

  1. Sequencing and structural homology modeling of the ecdysone receptor in two chrysopids used in biological control of pest insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, Moises João; Christiaens, Olivier; Rougé, Pierre; Grutzmacher, Anderson Dionei; Zimmer, Paulo Dejalma; Smagghe, Guy

    2012-04-01

    In insects, the process of molting and metamorphosis are mainly regulated by a steroidal hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and its analogs (ecdysteroids) that specifically bind to the ecdysone receptor ligand-binding domain (EcR-LBD). Currently, several synthetic non-steroidal ecdysone agonists, including tebufenozide, are commercially available as insecticides. Tebufenozide exerts its activity by binding to the 20E-binding site and thus activating EcR permanently. It appears that subtle differences in the architecture among LBDs may underpin the differential binding affinity of tebufenozide across taxonomic orders. In brief, first we demonstrated the harmlessness of tebufenozide towards Chrysoperla externa (Ce). Then, a molecular analysis of EcR-LBD of two neuropteran insects Chrysoperla carnea and Ce was presented. Finally, we constructed a chrysopid in silico homology model docked ponasterone A (PonA) and tebufenozide into the binding pocket and analyzed the amino acids indentified as critical for binding to PonA and tebufenozide. Due to a restrict extent in the cavity at the bottom of the ecdysone-binding pocket a steric clash occurred upon docking of tebufenozide. The absence of harm biological effect and the docking results suggest that tebufenozide is prevented of any deleterious effects on chrysopids.

  2. Advances in organic insect pest management in pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecans are economically the most important native nut crop in the USA. The market for organic pecans has been growing. However, in the Southeastern USA, there are a number of insect pests and plant diseases that challenge the ability of growers to produce organic pecans in an economically sound ma...

  3. Transgenic avidin maize is resistant to storage insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, K J; Morgan, T D; Throne, J E; Dowell, F E; Bailey, M; Howard, J A

    2000-06-01

    Avidin is a glycoprotein found in chicken egg white, that sequesters the vitamin biotin. Here we show that when present in maize at levels of > or =100 p.p.m., avidin is toxic to and prevents development of insects that damage grains during storage. Insect toxicity is caused by a biotin deficiency, as shown by prevention of toxicity with biotin supplementation. The avidin maize is not, however, toxic to mice when administered as the sole component of their diet for 21 days. These dates suggest that avidin expression in food or feed grain crops can be used as a biopesticide against a spectrum of stored-produce insect pests.

  4. 茶树病虫害智能化防治专家系统研究与应用%Study and Application of the Intelligentized Controlled Expert System on the Tea Plant Diseases and Insect Pests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪辉进

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of the biological characteristics of tea plant diseases and insect pests in the south of Anhui province, and the relevant knowledge of artificial intelligence, the intelligentized controlled expert system was studied, so as to explore a new technology for the intelligentized control of tea plant diseases and insect pests.%根据皖南茶区茶树病虫害的生物学特点,依据人工智能化的相关知识,开展茶树病虫害智能化防治专家系统的研究,力求为我国茶园病虫害智能化防治探索一种新技术.

  5. 无公害鲜食葡萄病虫害综合防治新技术%New Technologies for the Prevention and Control of Diseases and Insect Pests of Pollution-free Table Grapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张飞跃

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide usage of production of pollution-free table grapes were introduced,critical period and key measures to prevent and control of diseases and insect pests of table grapes were analyzed.New technologies for the prevention and control of diseases and insect pests of pollution-free table grapes were summarized,so as to provide the reference for the cultivation of pollution-free table grapes.%介绍了无公害葡萄生产中的农药使用方法,分析了葡萄病虫害的关键期和关键防治措施,并总结了无公害鲜食葡萄病虫害综合防治技术,以期为无公害鲜食葡萄的栽培提供参考。

  6. Insect pest management in tropical Asian irrigated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, P C

    2000-01-01

    Abundant natural enemies in tropical Asian irrigated rice usually prevent significant insect pest problems. Integrated pest management (IPM) extension education of depth and quality is required to discourage unnecessary insecticide use that upsets this natural balance, and to empower farmers as expert managers of a healthy paddy ecosystem. Farmers' skill and collaboration will be particularly important for sustainable exploitation of the potential of new, higher-yielding and pest-resistant rice. IPM "technology transfer" through training and visit (T&V) extension systems failed, although mass media campaigns encouraging farmer participatory research can reduce insecticide use. The "farmer first" approach of participatory nonformal education in farmer field schools, followed by community IPM activities emphasizing farmer-training-farmer and research by farmers, has had greater success in achieving IPM implementation. Extension challenges are a key topic for rice IPM research, and new pest management technology must promote, rather than endanger, ecological balance in rice paddies.

  7. Landscape changes have greater effects than climate changes on six insect pests in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zihua; Sandhu, Hardev S; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, global changes are the major causes of frequent, widespread outbreaks of pests in mosaic landscapes, which have received substantial attention worldwide. We collected data on global changes (landscape and climate) and economic damage caused by six main insect pests during 1951-2010 in China. Landscape changes had significant effects on all six insect pests. Pest damage increased significantly with increasing arable land area in agricultural landscapes. However, climate changes had no effect on damage caused by pests, except for the rice leaf roller (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee) and armyworm (Mythimna separate (Walker)), which caused less damage to crops with increasing mean temperature. Our results indicate that there is slight evidence of possible offset effects of climate changes on the increasing damage from these two agricultural pests. Landscape changes have caused serious outbreaks of several species, which suggests the possibility of the use of landscape design for the control of pest populations through habitat rearrangement. Landscape manipulation may be used as a green method to achieve sustainable pest management with minimal use of insecticides and herbicides.

  8. RNA interference: Applications and advances in insect toxicology and insect pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ho; Soumaila Issa, Moustapha; Cooper, Anastasia M W; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2015-05-01

    Since its discovery, RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized functional genomic studies due to its sequence-specific nature of post-transcriptional gene silencing. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the recent literature and summarize the current knowledge and advances in the applications of RNAi technologies in the field of insect toxicology and insect pest management. Many recent studies have focused on identification and validation of the genes encoding insecticide target proteins, such as acetylcholinesterases, ion channels, Bacillus thuringiensis receptors, and other receptors in the nervous system. RNAi technologies have also been widely applied to reveal the role of genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, carboxylesterases, and glutathione S-transferases in insecticide detoxification and resistance. More recently, studies have focused on understanding the mechanism of insecticide-mediated up-regulation of detoxification genes in insects. As RNAi has already shown great potentials for insect pest management, many recent studies have also focused on host-induced gene silencing, in which several RNAi-based transgenic plants have been developed and tested as proof of concept for insect pest management. These studies indicate that RNAi is a valuable tool to address various fundamental questions in insect toxicology and may soon become an effective strategy for insect pest management.

  9. Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querner, Pascal

    2015-06-16

    Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species), the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum), the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp.), moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella), Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) and booklice (Psocoptera) can damage materials, objects or building parts. They are the most common pests found in collections in central Europe, but most of them are distributed all over the world. In tropical countries, termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher damage of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this short review, an introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in museums is given, the most valuable collections, preventive measures, monitoring in museums, staff responsible for the IPM and chemical free treatment methods are described. In the second part of the paper, the most important insect pests occurring in museums, archives, libraries and historic buildings in central Europe are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. Some information on their phenology and biology are highlighted as they can be used in the IPM concept against them.

  10. Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Querner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species, the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum, the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne, different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp., moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella, Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina and booklice (Psocoptera can damage materials, objects or building parts. They are the most common pests found in collections in central Europe, but most of them are distributed all over the world. In tropical countries, termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher damage of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this short review, an introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM in museums is given, the most valuable collections, preventive measures, monitoring in museums, staff responsible for the IPM and chemical free treatment methods are described. In the second part of the paper, the most important insect pests occurring in museums, archives, libraries and historic buildings in central Europe are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. Some information on their phenology and biology are highlighted as they can be used in the IPM concept against them.

  11. Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Querner

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species), the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum), the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp.), moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella), Silverfish (Lepisma sacc...

  12. Agricultural disease and insect-pest control via agro-ecological landscape construction%以病虫害控制为中心的农业生态景观建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段美春; 刘云慧; 张鑫; 曾为刚; 宇振荣

    2012-01-01

    Chemical pesticides for controlling plant diseases and insect-pests in farmlands cause a series of serious problems including residue effects, environmental pollution, etc. Bio-pesticides and bio-controls are, on the other hand, slowly effective, high cost, and, always with certain targets. Integrated, high-efficient and environment-friendly disease and insect-pest control measures are in increasing demand today. Landscape ecological research has shown that the populations of pathogenic bacteria, pests and their natural enemies are largely affected by landscape patterns. This has provided a new insight into plant disease and insect-pest control. Rational planning of agro-landscape patterns at landscape scale and reasonable arrangement of planting structures and farming activities constituted a beneficial control of agricultural diseases and insect-pests in farmlands. This paper discussed control measures of agricultural diseases and insect-pests from the point of view of agro-landscape at the landscape, field and farm management levels. At the landscape level, control measures of plant diseases and insect-pests included increasing area portions of semi-natural habitats, enriching semi-natural and farm crop habitats and enhancing heterogeneity of landscape structures. It was also necessary to keep the degree of connections among landscapes so as to maintain a balanced migration of natural enemies and prevention of the spread of plant diseases and insect-pests. Low-quality semi-natural habitat plaques also needed to be unproved. At the field level, original farmland boundaries needed to be preserved. Also building of new farmland buffers were needed to control plant diseases and insect-pests in adjacent farmlands. Constructed farmland buffers needed to be integrated into original semi-natural habitat and farmland boundaries. Furthermore, it was important that farmland buffers were rationally configured for plant species, weeding,fertilization, spray pesticide and

  13. A Fungal Insecticide Engineered for Fast Per Os Killing of Caterpillars Has High Field Efficacy and Safety in Full-Season Control of Cabbage Insect Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Jie; Liu, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Fungal insecticides developed from filamentous pathogens of insects are notorious for their slow killing action through cuticle penetration, depressing commercial interest and practical application. Genetic engineering may accelerate their killing action but cause ecological risk. Here we show that a Beauveria bassiana formulation, HV8 (BbHV8), engineered for fast per os killing of caterpillars by an insect midgut-acting toxin (Vip3Aa1) overexpressed in conidia has both high field efficacy and safety in full-season protection of cabbage from the damage of an insect pest complex dominated by Pieris rapae larvae, followed by Plutella xylostella larvae and aphids. In two fields repeatedly sprayed during summer, BbHV8 resulted in overall mean efficacies of killing of 71% and 75%, which were similar or close to the 70% and 83% efficacies achieved by commercially recommended emamectin benzoate but much higher than the 31% and 48% efficacies achieved by the same formulation of the parental wild-type strain (WT). Both BbHV8 and WT sprays exerted no adverse effect on a nontarget spider community during the trials, and the sprays did not influence saprophytic fungi in soil samples taken from the field plots during 4 months after the last spray. Strikingly, BbHV8 and the WT showed low fitness when they were released into the environment because both were decreasingly recovered from the field lacking native B. bassiana strains (undetectable 5 months after the spray), and the recovered isolates became much less tolerant to high temperature and UV-B irradiation. Our results highlight for the first time that a rationally engineered fungal insecticide can compete with a chemical counterpart to combat insect pests at an affordable cost and with low ecological risk. PMID:23956386

  14. An economic comparison of biological and conventional control strategies for insect pests in cashew and mango plantations in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, William Juma; Hella, Joseph; Esbjerg, Lars

    2013-01-01

    budget analysis shows that a change from chemical insecticides treatment to weaver ants returned net benefits greater than zero by Tsh. 692 923 and Tsh.1019665 in cashew and mango plantations respectively. Similarly, positive net benefits was obtained when growers change from control to weaver ants...... treatment by Tsh. 504 989 and Tsh. 891 297 in cashew and mango plantations. The dominance and MRRanalyses shows that if cashew and mango growers change from conventional agricultural practices to weaver ants, they would earn MRR of 1621% which is above minimum acceptable rate of return (MARR) of 100%. The t...

  15. An integrated pest management program as a pests control strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phukubje, Justice

    identify high risk areas within collection and the surrounding ... that integrated pest management strategies should be augmented ... Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) publication .... of pests control, financial challenges, lack of policies ...

  16. Research Progress of Ap-plication of Insect Mi-crosporidia in Biological Control of Agricultural Pests%微孢子虫在害虫生物防治中的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉强

    2015-01-01

    昆虫微孢子虫能引起昆虫的流行病,是一种很有应用潜力的微生物杀虫剂。综述昆虫微孢子虫在防治蝗虫、红火蚁、棉铃虫、玉米螟、云南松毛虫等农业害虫上的研究进展,并对目前存在的问题及其应用前景进行了展望。%The insect microsporidia may cause epizootics of insects, they are the potential microbial insecticides. The research progress of insect microsporidia controlling agricultural pests, such as grasshopper, red fire ant, cotton boll-worm, corn borer, Yunnan pine caterpil-lar were summarized, the current prob-lems and theirs application prospect were also described.

  17. Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Bulletin 763.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John C.; And Others

    This manual gives general information on plant pests and pesticides. First, the life-cycle and habits of some common insect pests are given. These include caterpillars, beetles and beetle larvae, and sucking insects. Next, plant diseases such as leaf diseases, wilts, root and crown rots, stem cankers, fruit rots, seed and seedling diseases, and…

  18. Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Bulletin 763.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John C.; And Others

    This manual gives general information on plant pests and pesticides. First, the life-cycle and habits of some common insect pests are given. These include caterpillars, beetles and beetle larvae, and sucking insects. Next, plant diseases such as leaf diseases, wilts, root and crown rots, stem cankers, fruit rots, seed and seedling diseases, and…

  19. Insect Pests of Shade Trees and Shrubs: A Guide for Commercial Nurserymen and Arborists. Publication E-41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuder, Donald L.

    This guide presents information on controlling insect pests of ornamental trees and shrubs. It is organized for easy reference by nurserymen, arborists, and others desirous of controlling insect damage. General information given includes notes on spraying and sprayers, insecticides, general purpose sprays, phytotoxicity, and health precautions.…

  20. Dynamic models of pest propagation and pest control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Ming; Lin Zhen-Quan; Ke Jian-Hong

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a pest propagation model to investigate the evolution behaviours of pest aggregates.A pest aggregate grows by self-monomer birth,and it may fragment into two smaller ones.The kinetic evolution behaviours of pest aggregates are investigated by the rate equation approach based on the mean-field theory.For a system with a self-birth rate kernel I(k)= Ik and a fragmentation rate kernel L(i,j)= L,we find that the total number M0A(t)and the total mass of the pest aggregates M1A(t)both increase exponentially with time if L≠0.Furthermore,we introduce two catalysis-driven monomer death mechanisms for the former pest propagation model to study the evolution behaviours of pest aggregates under pesticide and natural enemy controlled pest propagation.In the pesticide controlled model with a catalyzed monomer death rate kernel J1(k)= J1k,it is found that only when I pests be killed off.Otherwise,the pest aggregates can survive.In the model of pest control with a natural enemy,a pest aggregate loses one of its individuals and the number of natural enemies increases by one.For this system,we find that no matter how many natural enemies there are at the beginning,pests will be eliminated by them eventually.

  1. Should I fight or should I flight? How studying insect aggression can help integrated pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Aggression plays a key role all across the animal kingdom, as it allows the acquisition and/or defence of limited resources (food, mates and territories) in a huge number of species. A large part of our knowledge on aggressive behaviour has been developed on insects of economic importance. How can this knowledge be exploited to enhance integrated pest management? Here, I highlight how knowledge on intraspecific aggression can help IPM both in terms of insect pests (with a focus on the enhancement of the sterile insect technique) and in terms of biological control agents (with a focus on mass-rearing optimisation). Then, I examine what implications for IPM can be outlined from knowledge about interspecific aggressive behaviour. Besides predator-pest aggressive interactions predicted by classic biological control, I focus on what IPM can learn from (i) interspecific aggression among pest species (with special reference to competitive displacement), (ii) defensive behaviour exhibited by prey against predaceous insects and (iii) conflicts among predaceous arthropods sharing the same trophic niche (with special reference to learning/sensitisation practices and artificial manipulation of chemically mediated interactions).

  2. A BRIEF REVIEW ON ABUNDANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF MAJOR INSECT PESTS OF BRINJAL ( SOLANUM MELONGENA L .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Omprakash

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brinjal (SolanummelongenaL. occupies a distinct place in the realm of vegetable crops. It is a bushy plant, commonly known as egg plant. It is one of the most popular and important vegetable crops grown in India and many parts of the world. It is native of Indian sub-continent, with India as the probable centre of origin (Gleddieet al., 1986. In the world, brinjal occupies an area of 1.72 m ha with a production of 43.17 m MT with an average productivity of 25 MT per ha (FAOSTAT, 2011. In India brinjal is grown throughout the year in almost all parts of the country. Although brinjal is widely grown, it is subjected to severe damage by different insect pests leading to significant loss in yield. There are 26 insect pests species and few non insect pest species infesting brinjal of which the shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodesorbonalis(Guen.; whitefly, Bemisiatabaci(Genn.; leafhopper, Amarascadevastans(Distant; epilachna beetle, Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (Fab.; aphid, Aphis gossypii(Glover.; mealy bug, Centroccocusinsolitus(Guen.; lace wing bug, Urentiushystricellus(Richt. and non insect pest, red spider mite, Tetranichusmacfurlanei(Andrecause severe damage, necessitating initiation of control measures quite frequently(Vevai,1970. Infestation due to leafhopper, whitefly and shoot and fruit borer results in about 70-92 per cent loss in yield of brinjal (Rosaiah, 2001. Dhankaret al.1997 recorded 63 per cent yield loss due to shoot and fruit borer alone.As brinjal is a vegetable crop and harvesting of fruits is done at regular short intervals, safer and effective insecticides are needed for controlling the insect pest complex. At present synthetic pyrethroids are regularly used for the control of shoot and fruit borer and their indiscriminate use, leading to whitefly, aphid and mite resurgence is well documented (Reddy and Srinivas, 2005. The present day need emphasizes not only the use of different groups of chemicals that are eco-friendly but

  3. Development of reference transcriptomes for the major field insect pests of cowpea: a toolbox for insect pest management approaches in west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P; Pittendrigh, Barry R

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa.

  4. Application of insect sex pheromone in pest control of fruit trees in Gutian County%昆虫性信息素在防治果树害虫上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁旭升

    2015-01-01

    Insect sex pheromones can be used to predict and control the pests in fruit trees easily and effectively with no tox-icity residue,no environment pollution,no drug resistance from pests,and safety for human and livestock. In this research, the applying ways of insect sex pheromone in fruit trees of Gutian were introduced,including the pest monitoring,mating dis-ruption and trapping method.%利用昆虫性信息素进行果树害虫测报和防治,具有操作简便、高效、无残毒、不污染环境、不会引起害虫产生抗药性、对人畜安全等优点。介绍昆虫性信息素在古田县果树害虫上的应用方法,包括虫情监测、迷向法及诱杀法。

  5. Entomopathogenic Fungi Associated with Exotic Invasive Insect Pests in Northeastern Forests of the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce L. Parker

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycopathogens of economically important exotic invasive insects in forests of northeastern USA have been the subject of research at the Entomology Research Laboratory, University of Vermont, for the last 20 years. Elongate hemlock scale, European fruit lecanium, hemlock woolly adelgid and pear thrips were analyzed for the presence of mycopathogens, in order to consider the potential for managing these pests with biological control. Fungal cultures isolated from insects with signs of fungal infection were identified based on morphological characters and DNA profiling. Mycopathogens recovered from infected insects were subdivided into three groups, i.e., specialized entomopathogenic; facultative entomopathogens; ubiquitous opportunistic contaminants. Epizootics were caused by fungi in the specialized group with the exception of M. microspora, P. marquandii and I. farinosa. Inoculation of insects in laboratory and field conditions with B. bassiana, L. muscarium and Myriangium sp. caused insect mortality of 45 to 95%. Although pest populations in the field seemed severely compromised after treatment, the remnant populations re-established themselves after the winter. Although capable of inducing high mortality, a single localized aerial application of a soil-dwelling fungus does not maintain long-time suppression of pests. However, it can halt their range expansion and maintain populations below the economic threshold level without the use of expensive insecticides which have a negative impact on the environment.

  6. Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

    This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

  7. Occurrence and control techniques of major diseases and insect pests of bitter gourd in Hainan Province%海南苦瓜主要病虫害的发生及防治技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子记; 杨衍

    2012-01-01

    Hainan Province is one of the most important export bases for cucurbits and vegetables in China; bitter gourd is one of the main winter-planting cucurbit and vegetable types, but continuous cropping of bitter gourd, high temperature , and humid climate conditions in Hainan Province can easily attract diseases and insect pests against bitter gourd growth. The present study focused on the occurrence characteristics and control methods of major diseases and insect pests of bitter gourd in Hainan Province. Comprehensive prevention and control measures should be adopted in the production of bitter gourd to promote the sustainable development in cucurbits and vegetables production of Hainan Province. The production measures included breeding and planting high-resistant and fine-quality bitter gourd varieties, strengthening the cultivation management, improving the cultivation level, adjusting crop production structure, avoiding continuous cropping, and using physical control on diseases and insect pests.%海南省是我国最重要的外运型瓜菜基地之一,苦瓜是其中的主要冬种瓜菜种类,苦瓜连作及海南地区高温高湿的气候条件容易造成苦瓜病虫害的发生与蔓延.文章介绍了海南苦瓜主要病虫害的发生特点及防治方法,提出在苦瓜病虫害防治中应重点采取培育和种植高抗、优质苦瓜品种,加强栽培管理、提高栽培水平,调整种植结构,避免瓜类作物连作和病虫害物理防治等措施,以促进海南省瓜菜生产的可持续发展.

  8. Warming and drought combine to increase pest insect fitness on urban trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Adam G; Frank, Steven D

    2017-01-01

    Urban habitats are characterized by impervious surfaces, which increase temperatures and reduce water availability to plants. The effects of these conditions on herbivorous insects are not well understood, but may provide insight into future conditions. Three primary hypotheses have been proposed to explain why multiple herbivorous arthropods are more abundant and damaging in cities, and support has been found for each. First, less complex vegetation may reduce biological control of pests. Second, plant stress can increase plant quality for pests. And third, urban warming can directly increase pest fitness and abundance. These hypotheses are not mutually exclusive, and the effects of temperature and plant stress are particularly related. Thus, we test the hypothesis that urban warming and drought stress combine to increase the fitness and abundance of the scale insect, Melanaspis tenebricosa, an urban tree pest that is more abundant in urban than rural areas of the southeastern U.S. We did this by manipulating drought stress across an existing mosaic of urban warming. We found support for the additive effect of temperature and drought stress such that female embryo production and body size increased with temperature and was greater on drought-stressed than watered trees. This study provides further evidence that drivers of pest insect outbreaks act in concert, rather than independently, and calls for more research that manipulates multiple abiotic factors related to urbanization and climate change to predict their effects on ecological interactions. As cities expand and the climate changes, warmer temperatures and drought conditions may become more widespread in the native range of this pest. These changes have direct physiological benefits for M. tenebricosa, and potentially other pests, that may increase their fitness and abundance in urban and natural forests.

  9. Warming and drought combine to increase pest insect fitness on urban trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Steven D.

    2017-01-01

    Urban habitats are characterized by impervious surfaces, which increase temperatures and reduce water availability to plants. The effects of these conditions on herbivorous insects are not well understood, but may provide insight into future conditions. Three primary hypotheses have been proposed to explain why multiple herbivorous arthropods are more abundant and damaging in cities, and support has been found for each. First, less complex vegetation may reduce biological control of pests. Second, plant stress can increase plant quality for pests. And third, urban warming can directly increase pest fitness and abundance. These hypotheses are not mutually exclusive, and the effects of temperature and plant stress are particularly related. Thus, we test the hypothesis that urban warming and drought stress combine to increase the fitness and abundance of the scale insect, Melanaspis tenebricosa, an urban tree pest that is more abundant in urban than rural areas of the southeastern U.S. We did this by manipulating drought stress across an existing mosaic of urban warming. We found support for the additive effect of temperature and drought stress such that female embryo production and body size increased with temperature and was greater on drought-stressed than watered trees. This study provides further evidence that drivers of pest insect outbreaks act in concert, rather than independently, and calls for more research that manipulates multiple abiotic factors related to urbanization and climate change to predict their effects on ecological interactions. As cities expand and the climate changes, warmer temperatures and drought conditions may become more widespread in the native range of this pest. These changes have direct physiological benefits for M. tenebricosa, and potentially other pests, that may increase their fitness and abundance in urban and natural forests. PMID:28278206

  10. CONTROL EFFECTS OF INERT DUST AGAINST STORED-GRAIN INSECT PESTS IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF GRANARIES%不同仓型惰性粉防治储粮害虫效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶磊; 徐威; 曹阳; 李燕羽

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the control effects of inert dust against stored-grain insect pests in different types of granaries, by mixing 50 cm thick grain on the surface with the inert dust, the test has been carried out in the com and wheat loaded recently in the large granary, squat silo and silo respectively. The results showed that the inert duct could prevent effectively insect pests occurrence in grain hulks for a longer period, and delay the occurrence time and density of insect. There were no effects on temperature, humidity of the granary and grain quality, instead of the usual chemicals to some extent.%为了评价惰性粉杀虫剂在不同仓型中杀虫应用效果,采用粮堆表层至50 cm处拌粮的方法对高大平房仓、浅圆仓、立筒仓内新入库的玉米和小麦进行试验研究.结果表明:此种惰性粉杀虫剂能在较长的一段时间有效防治粮堆内的害虫发生,并延迟了害虫的发生时间和密度,对仓内温、湿度、粮食品质基本无影响,可以部分取代目前使用的化学防护剂.

  11. Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) and RNA interference in insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; Fonseca, Fernando Campos de Assis; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Coelho, Roberta Ramos; Antonino de Souza, José Dijair; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas-Jr, Georgios Joannis; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Engler, Gilbert; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi) as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.

  12. Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis and RNA interference in insect pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Augusto Pereira Firmino

    Full Text Available Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.

  13. Integrating insect-resistant GM Crops in pest management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2006, GM cotton and maize with insect resistance were grown on 12.1 and 20.1 million hectares in 9 and 13 countries, respectively. These insect resistant GM crops produce various Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and provide highly selective and effective control of lepidopteran and col...

  14. Impact of insect-resistant transgenic rice on target insect pests and non-target arthropods in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO CHEN; JIAN-ZHOU ZHAO; GONG-YIN YE; QIANG FU; ANTHONY M.SHELTON

    2006-01-01

    Progress on the research and development of insect-resistant transgenic rice,especially expressing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt),in China has been rapid in recent years. A number of insect-resistant transgenic rice lines/varieties have passed restricted and enlarged field testing,and several have been approved for productive testing since 2002 in China,although none was approved for commercial use until 2006.Extensive laboratory and field trials have been conducted for evaluation of the efficiency of transgenic rice on target lepidoteran pests and potential ecological risks on non-target arthropods. The efficacy of a number of transgenic rice lines currently tested in China was excellent for control of the major target insect pests,the rice stem borers (Chilo suppressalis,Scirpophaga incertulas,Sesamia inferens) and leaffolder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis),and was better than most insecticides extensively used by millions of farmers at present in China.No significantly negative or unintended effects of transgenic rice on non-target arthropods were found compared with non-transgenic rice. In contrast,most of the current insecticides used for the control of rice stem borers and leaffolders proved harmful to natural enemies,and some insecticides may directly induce resurgence of rice planthoppers. Studies for developing a proactive insect resistance management of transgenic rice in the future are discussed to ensure the sustainable use of transgenic rice.

  15. 噻虫啉防治板栗主要害虫技术研究%Research on Technology of Using Thiacloprid MSP to Control the Main Insect Pests of Chinese Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐同冰

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,researches were made on using 2% thiacloprid MSP to control the five main Chinese chestnut pests,including Dryocosmus kuriphilus,Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee,Curculio davidi Fairmaire,Characoma ruficirra Hampson and Cryllorhynobites ursulus Roelots.They belonged to the three kinds of pests,which were leaf pests,seed pests and branch tip pests.Using the method of spraying MSP among the mountains could achieve a lot of advantages,such as a lasting efficacy,reducing pesticide times,preventing many kinds of insects,low cost,and good effect.In these tests,different doses of 1.5 kg,3.0 kg and 4.5 kg per hectare were adopted and their average control effect ranged between 60.69% and 94.71%.%2%噻虫啉微胶囊粉剂防治叶部害虫、种实害虫和枝梢害虫3个类群中的栗瘿蜂、桃蛀螟、栗实象、栗皮夜蛾和剪枝象甲等5种板栗主要害虫,采取山间雾化喷粉的施药方法,药效持续期长,减少施药次数,一药兼防多虫,成本低效果好。试验采用每公顷1.5 kg、3.0 kg和4.5 kg不同剂量配方施药,平均防治效果在60.69%~94.71%之间。

  16. Microbial control of arthropod pests of tropical tree fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinski, Claudia; Lacey, Lawrence A

    2007-01-01

    A multitude of insects and mites attack fruit crops throughout the tropics. The traditional method for controlling most of these pests is the application of chemical pesticides. Growing concern on the negative environmental effects has encouraged the development of alternatives. Inundatively and inoculatively applied microbial control agents (virus, bacteria, fungi, and entomopathogenic nematodes) have been developed as alternative control methods of a wide variety of arthropods including tropical fruit pests. The majority of the research and applications in tropical fruit agroecosystems has been conducted in citrus, banana, coconut, and mango. Successful microbial control initiatives of citrus pests and mites have been reported. Microbial control of arthropod pests of banana includes banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (with EPNs and fungi) among others Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) is one of the most important pests of coconut and one of the most successful uses of non-occluded virus for classical biological control. Key pests of mango that have been controlled with microbial control agents include fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) (with EPNs and fungi), and other pests. Also successful is the microbial control of arthropod pests of guava, papaya and pineapple. The challenge towards a broader application of entomopathogens is the development of successful combinations of entomopathogens, predators, and parasitoids along with other interventions to produce effective and sustainable pest management.

  17. Sampling stored product insect pests: a comparison of four statistical sampling models for probability of pest detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statistically robust sampling strategies form an integral component of grain storage and handling activities throughout the world. Developing sampling strategies to target biological pests such as insects in stored grain is inherently difficult due to species biology and behavioral characteristics. ...

  18. Modeling resistance to genetic control of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphey, Nina; Bonsall, Michael B; Alphey, Luke

    2011-02-07

    The sterile insect technique is an area-wide pest control method that reduces pest populations by releasing mass-reared sterile insects which compete for mates with wild insects. Modern molecular tools have created possibilities for improving and extending the sterile insect technique. As with any new insect control method, questions arise about potential resistance. Genetic RIDL(®)(1) (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) technology is a proposed modification of the technique, releasing insects that are homozygous for a repressible dominant lethal genetic construct rather than being sterilized by irradiation. Hypothetical resistance to the lethal mechanism is a potential threat to RIDL strategies' effectiveness. Using population genetic and population dynamic models, we assess the circumstances under which monogenic biochemically based resistance could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of releases for population control. We assume that released insects would be homozygous susceptible to the lethal genetic construct and therefore releases would have a built-in element of resistance dilution. We find that this effect could prevent or limit the spread of resistance to RIDL constructs; the outcomes are subject to competing selective forces deriving from the fitness properties of resistance and the release ratio. Resistance that is spreading and capable of having a significant detrimental impact on population reduction is identifiable, signaling in advance a need for mitigating action.

  19. 9 CFR 3.84 - Cleaning, sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and pest control. 3.84 Section 3.84 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control. (a) Cleaning of primary enclosures. Excreta and food waste must... from becoming soiled, and to reduce disease hazards, insects, pests, and odors. Dirt floors,...

  20. 9 CFR 3.11 - Cleaning, sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and pest control. 3.11 Section 3.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control. (a) Cleaning of primary enclosures. Excreta and food waste must... contained in the primary enclosures, and to reduce disease hazards, insects, pests and odors. When steam...

  1. Electrostatic Insect Sweeper for Eliminating Whiteflies Colonizing Host Plants: A Complementary Pest Control Device in An Electric Field Screen-Guarded Greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takikawa, Yoshihiro; Matsuda, Yoshinori; Kakutani, Koji; Nonomura, Teruo; Kusakari, Shin-Ichi; Okada, Kiyotsugu; Kimbara, Junji; Osamura, Kazumi; Toyoda, Hideyoshi

    2015-05-12

    Our greenhouse tomatoes have suffered from attacks by viruliferous whiteflies Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) over the last 10 years. The fundamental countermeasure was the application of an electric field screen to the greenhouse windows to prevent their entry. However, while the protection was effective, it was incomplete, because of the lack of a guard at the greenhouse entrance area; in fact, the pests entered from the entrance door when workers entered and exited. To address this, we developed a portable electrostatic insect sweeper as a supplementary technique to the screen. In this sweeper, eight insulated conductor wires (ICWs) were arranged at constant intervals along a polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipe and covered with a cylindrical stainless net. The ICWs and metal net were linked to a DC voltage generator (operated by 3-V alkaline batteries) inside the grip and oppositely electrified to generate an electric field between them. Whiteflies on the plants were attracted to the sweeper that was gently slid along the leaves. This apparatus was easy to operate on-site in a greenhouse and enabled capture of the whiteflies detected during the routine care of the tomato plants. Using this apparatus, we caught all whiteflies that invaded the non-guarded entrance door and minimized the appearance and spread of the viral disease in tomato plants in the greenhouse.

  2. Electrostatic Insect Sweeper for Eliminating Whiteflies Colonizing Host Plants: A Complementary Pest Control Device in An Electric Field Screen-Guarded Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Takikawa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Our greenhouse tomatoes have suffered from attacks by viruliferous whiteflies Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae over the last 10 years. The fundamental countermeasure was the application of an electric field screen to the greenhouse windows to prevent their entry. However, while the protection was effective, it was incomplete, because of the lack of a guard at the greenhouse entrance area; in fact, the pests entered from the entrance door when workers entered and exited. To address this, we developed a portable electrostatic insect sweeper as a supplementary technique to the screen. In this sweeper, eight insulated conductor wires (ICWs were arranged at constant intervals along a polyvinylchloride (PVC pipe and covered with a cylindrical stainless net. The ICWs and metal net were linked to a DC voltage generator (operated by 3-V alkaline batteries inside the grip and oppositely electrified to generate an electric field between them. Whiteflies on the plants were attracted to the sweeper that was gently slid along the leaves. This apparatus was easy to operate on-site in a greenhouse and enabled capture of the whiteflies detected during the routine care of the tomato plants. Using this apparatus, we caught all whiteflies that invaded the non-guarded entrance door and minimized the appearance and spread of the viral disease in tomato plants in the greenhouse.

  3. Nitric oxide fumigation for postharvest pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitric oxide fumigation is effective against all arthropod pests at various life stages tested. Nine insect pests at various life stages and bulb mites were subjected to nitric oxide fumigation treatments under ultralow oxygen conditions of =50 ppm O2 in 1.9L glass jars as fumigation chambers. The ...

  4. Integrated flora management and pest control in short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sage, R.; Tucker, K. [Game Conservancy Trust (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Weeds and insect pests can reduce yields and hence the profitability of short rotation coppice crops. Control becomes prudent when the cost of controlling the pests is exceeded by the yield loss (the economic threshold). This frequently happens when establishing the crop because of weed competition. Economic yield losses due to insect pest damage and weed competition in established SRC plots are less obvious but probably still occur. Traditional methods of control using pesticides is often logistically difficult and expensive. However there may be opportunities for controlling pest populations through cultural practices as part of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy. Insect pests have a range of natural enemy species that could be encouraged through habitat and crop manipulations while the occurrence of weeds could be reduced by providing a ground cover of other less competitive plants. These cultural practices can lead to environmental benefits by reducing chemical applications and mechanical movements and increasing floral diversity, wildlife use and the landscape and amenity value of the crop. (Author)

  5. Main Diseases and Insect Pests of Euonymus japonicus and Their Con-trol in Longnan City%陇南市大叶黄杨主要病虫害及其防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王让军; 赵淑玲; 张少飞

    2015-01-01

    Euonymus japonicus is the main tree species in parks, gardens and urban streets of Longnan City. In this pa-per, through study the occurrence of ma-jor diseases and insect pests of E. Japon-icus,such as brown spot,anthracnose, powdery mildew,Eutetranychus orientalis, Dynaspidiotus britannicus (Newestead), Unaspis euonymi (Comstock) and Drosicha corpulenta(kuwana),it presents comprehensive control measures of E. japonicus diseases and insect pests.%大叶黄杨是陇南市公园、庭院和城镇街道主要绿化树种。通过对大叶黄杨主要病虫害,如褐斑病、炭疽病、白粉病、东方真叶螨(Eutetranychus orientalis)、冬青狭腹盾蚧[Dynas-pidiotus britannicus(Newestead)]、卫矛矢尖蚧[Unaspis euonymi (Comstock)]、草履蚧[Drosicha corpulenta(kuwana)]发生情况的研究,提出了大叶黄杨病虫害的综合防治措施。

  6. 7 CFR 305.40 - Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and pathogens. 305.40 Section 305.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL... Garbage § 305.40 Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and pathogens. (a) T415-a, heat...

  7. Exploitation of insect vibrational signals reveals a new method of pest management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Eriksson

    Full Text Available Food production is considered to be the main source of human impact on the environment and the concerns about detrimental effects of pesticides on biodiversity and human health are likely to lead to an increasingly restricted use of chemicals in agriculture. Since the first successful field trial, pheromone based mating disruption enabled sustainable insect control, which resulted in reduced levels of pesticide use. Organic farming is one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture and with the continuously growing public concern about use of pesticides, the main remaining challenge in increasing the safety of the global food production is to identify appropriate alternative mating disruption approaches for the numerous insect pests that do not rely on chemical communication. In the present study, we show for the first time that effective mating disruption based on substrate-borne vibrational signals can be achieved in the field. When disruptive vibrational signals were applied to grapevine plants through a supporting wire, mating frequency of the leafhopper pest Scaphoideus titanus dropped to 9 % in semi-field conditions and to 4 % in a mature vineyard. The underlying mechanism of this environmentally friendly pest-control tactic is a masking of the vibrational signals used in mate recognition and location. Because vibrational communication is widespread in insects, mating disruption using substrate vibrations can transform many open field and greenhouse based farming systems.

  8. Activity of an essential oil derived from Chenopodium ambrosioides on greenhouse insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Chiasson, Helene

    2007-04-01

    This study involved both greenhouse and laboratory experiments evaluating the effect of an essential oil product (QRD 400) derived from Chenopodium ambrosioides variety nr. Ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) on greenhouse insect pests that feed on different plant parts: citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso); longtailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti); western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). Treatments were applied to coleus, Solenostemon scutellarioides plants; transvaal daisy, Gerbera jamesonii flowers; or growing medium, depending on the insect pest. The essential oil was most effective, based on adult emergence, on both the second and third instars of the fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila when applied as a drench to growing medium. In addition, there was a significant rate response for QRD 400 on fungus gnats. The QRD 400 treatment had the highest percentage of mortality on longtailed mealybug (55%) compared with the other treatments. However, the essential oil was less effective against citrus mealybug (3% mortality) and western flower thrips adults (18-34% mortality) compared with standard insecticides, such as acetamiprid (TriStar) and spinosad (Conserve), which are typically used by greenhouse producers. This lack of efficacy may be associated with volatility and short residual properties of the essential oil or with the essential oil taking longer to kill insect pests. Other insecticides and miticides evaluated, including sesame oil, garlic, paraffinic oil, and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, provided minimal control of the designated insect pests. In addition, adult rove beetle Atheta coriaria Kraatz adults were not effective in controlling the larval instars of fungus gnats when applied at a rate of five adults per container.

  9. Nitric oxide as a potent fumigant for postharvest pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a great demand for safe and effective alternative fumigants to replace methyl bromide and other toxic fumigants for pest control. Nitric oxide, a common signal molecule in biological systems, was found to be effective and safe to control insects under ultralow oxygen conditions. Fumigatio...

  10. Dynamics of the endosymbiont Rickettsia in an insect pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, Bodil N; Yallouz, Rachel; Bondy, Elizabeth C; Mozes-Daube, Netta; Horowitz, A Rami; Kelly, Suzanne E; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Hunter, Martha S

    2015-07-01

    A new heritable bacterial association can bring a fresh set of molecular capabilities, providing an insect host with an almost instantaneous genome extension. Increasingly acknowledged as agents of rapid evolution, inherited microbes remain underappreciated players in pest management programs. A Rickettsia bacterium was tracked sweeping through populations of an invasive whitefly provisionally described as the "B" or "MEAM1" of the Bemisia tabaci species complex, in the southwestern USA. In this population, Rickettsia provides strong fitness benefits and distorts whitefly sex ratios under laboratory conditions. In contrast, whiteflies in Israel show few apparent fitness benefits from Rickettsia under laboratory conditions, only slightly decreasing development time. A survey of B. tabaci B samples revealed the distribution of Rickettsia across the cotton-growing regions of Israel and the USA. Thirteen sites from Israel and 22 sites from the USA were sampled. Across the USA, Rickettsia frequencies were heterogeneous among regions, but were generally very high, whereas in Israel, the infection rates were lower and declining. The distinct outcomes of Rickettsia infection in these two countries conform to previously reported phenotypic differences. Intermediate frequencies in some areas in both countries may indicate a cost to infection in certain environments or that the frequencies are in flux. This suggests underlying geographic differences in the interactions between bacterial symbionts and this serious agricultural pest.

  11. Effect of volatile constituents from Securidaca longepedunculata on insect pests of stored grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekara, Thamara K; Stevenson, Philip C; Hall, David R; Belmain, Steven R

    2005-02-01

    Securidaca longepedunculata Fers (Polygalaceae) is commonly used as a traditional medicine in many parts of Africa as well as against a number of invertebrate pests, including insects infesting stored grain. The present study showed that S. longepedunculata root powder, its methanol extract, and the main volatile component, methyl salicylate, exhibit repellent and toxic properties to Sitophilus zeamais adults. Adult S. zeamais that were given a choice between untreated maize and maize treated with root powder, extract, or synthetic methyl salicylate in a four-way choice olfactometer significantly preferred the control maize. Methyl salicylate vapor also had a dose-dependant fumigant effect against S. zeamais, Rhyzopertha dominica, and Prostephanus truncates, with a LD100 achieved with a 60microl dose in a 1-l container against all three insect species after 24 hr of exposure. Probit analyses estimated LD50 values between 34 and 36 microl (95% CI) for all insect species. Furthermore, prolonged exposure for 6 days showed that lower amounts (30 microl) of methyl salicylate vapor were able to induce 100% adult mortality of the three insect species. The implications are discussed in the context of improving stored product pest control by small-scale subsistence farmers in Africa.

  12. Potential use of a serpin from Arabidopsis for pest control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alvarez-Alfageme

    Full Text Available Although genetically modified (GM plants expressing toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt protect agricultural crops against lepidopteran and coleopteran pests, field-evolved resistance to Bt toxins has been reported for populations of several lepidopteran species. Moreover, some important agricultural pests, like phloem-feeding insects, are not susceptible to Bt crops. Complementary pest control strategies are therefore necessary to assure that the benefits provided by those insect-resistant transgenic plants are not compromised and to target those pests that are not susceptible. Experimental GM plants producing plant protease inhibitors have been shown to confer resistance against a wide range of agricultural pests. In this study we assessed the potential of AtSerpin1, a serpin from Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh., for pest control. In vitro assays were conducted with a wide range of pests that rely mainly on either serine or cysteine proteases for digestion and also with three non-target organisms occurring in agricultural crops. AtSerpin1 inhibited proteases from all pest and non-target species assayed. Subsequently, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval and the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris were fed on artificial diets containing AtSerpin1, and S. littoralis was also fed on transgenic Arabidopsis plants overproducing AtSerpin1. AtSerpin1 supplied in the artificial diet or by transgenic plants reduced the growth of S. littoralis larvae by 65% and 38%, respectively, relative to controls. Nymphs of A. pisum exposed to diets containing AtSerpin1 suffered high mortality levels (LC(50 = 637 µg ml(-1. The results indicate that AtSerpin1 is a good candidate for exploitation in pest control.

  13. Guidelines for the use of mathematics in operational area-wide integrated pest management programs using the sterile insect technique with a special focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest control managers can benefit from using mathematical approaches, particularly models, when implementing area-wide pest control programs that include sterile insect technique (SIT), especially when these are used to calculate required rates of sterile releases to result in suppression or eradica...

  14. Alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for pest control: case studies in agriculture and forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Lorenzo; Kreutzweiser, David

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used for control of insect pests around the world and are especially pervasive in agricultural pest management. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that the broad-scale and prophylactic uses of neonicotinoids pose serious risks of harm to beneficial organisms and their ecological function. This provides the impetus for exploring alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for controlling insect pests. We draw from examples of alternative pest control options in Italian maize production and Canadian forestry to illustrate the principles of applying alternatives to neonicotinoids under an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy. An IPM approach considers all relevant and available information to make informed management decisions, providing pest control options based on actual need. We explore the benefits and challenges of several options for management of three insect pests in maize crops and an invasive insect pest in forests, including diversifying crop rotations, altering the timing of planting, tillage and irrigation, using less sensitive crops in infested areas, applying biological control agents, and turning to alternative reduced risk insecticides. Continued research into alternatives is warranted, but equally pressing is the need for information transfer and training for farmers and pest managers and the need for policies and regulations to encourage the adoption of IPM strategies and their alternative pest control options.

  15. Application of Plant Growth Regulators in Control of Insect Pests%植物生长调节剂在害虫生物防治中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈媛; 董红霞; 郑福山

    2011-01-01

    Plant growth regulator is a kind of organic compounds, which could regulate and control plant growth and development and various physiological activities. While plant growth regulators could induce plants to produce secondary metabolite on insect growth inhibition, defense and repellent and so on. The characteristics, classification of plant growth regulators were summarized. And the application of plant growth regulators in biological control of insect pests was introduced.%植物生长调节剂是一类调节和控制植物生长发育及各种生理活动的有机化合物,同时它能诱导植物产生一些次生物质对害虫产生生长抑制、防御和驱避等作用。概述植物生长调节剂的种类和作用特点,并对其在害虫生物防治中的应用进行介绍。

  16. Y-Linked markers for improved population control of the tephritid fruit fly pest, Anastrepha suspensa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pest control programs incorporating the sterile insect technique (SIT) rely on the mass production and release of sterilized insects to reduce the wild-type population through infertile matings. Most effective programs release only males to avoid any crop damage caused by female fruit flies o...

  17. 两种仓型惰性粉防治储粮害虫效果研究%Control Effects of Inert Dust Agsinst Stored-Grain Insect Pests in Two Types of Granaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶磊; 徐威; 李燕羽; 刘天德; 李建智; 杨路加; 赵士远; 郑劲

    2011-01-01

    为了评价惰性粉杀虫剂在东北地区高大平房仓、立筒仓2种仓型中杀虫应用效果,采用粮堆表层50cm处拌粮的方法对新入库的玉米和小麦进行试验研究。结果表明:惰性粉杀虫剂能在较长一段时间有效防治粮堆内的虫害发生,并延迟了害虫的发生时间和密度,对仓内温、湿度和储粮品质等基本无影响,可以部分取代目前使用的化学防护剂。%In order to evaluate the control effects of inert dust against stored-grain insect pests in different types of granaries, by mixing 50 cm thick grain on the surface with the inert dust ,the test has been carried out in the corn and wheat loaded recently in the large granary and silo respectively.The results showed that the inert dust could prevent effectively in- sect pests occurrence in grain bulks for a longer period, and delay the occurrence time and density of insect. There were no effects on temperature, humidity of the granary and grain quality, instead of the usual chemicals to some extent.

  18. Advances in RNA interference: dsRNA treatment in trees and grapevines for insect pest population suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a breakthrough technology that has significantly impacted contemporary approaches to control the damage caused by insect pests. Most well-known RNAi studies continue to rely on injecting the dsRNA molecules directly into the organism; this approach is not suitable for use...

  19. General Pest Control - Industrial. Manual 95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general pest control category. The text discusses general, parasitic and miscellaneous pests such as ants, ticks, and spiders; fabric, wood-destroying, and grain pests such as beetles, termites, and…

  20. Green Control Techniques of Diseases and Insect Pests of Citrus%柑橘病虫害绿色防控技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕辉; 彭昌家; 苟建华; 李鸿韬

    2014-01-01

    Introduced the quarantine control (including the strict implementation of quarantine mea⁃sures,new citrus orchard location need to consult thelocal station of plant protection or plant quarantine station quarantine shall consult opinions,establish the risk of harmful biological monitoring,timely sam⁃pling inspection,do a good job of citrus canker blockade control),agricultural control and prevention (in⁃cluding choosing superior resistant rootstock varieties and virus-free seedling,science and pruning,improv⁃ing ventilation condition,big fruit fly on early removal of tangerine trees fruit,winter, spring gar⁃den,cleaning tillage,conservation and utilization of natural enemies,strengthen the cultivation and man⁃agement,fruit bagging,trunk white-washed,suitable harvest),physical prevention and control (includ⁃ing light trapping,artificial to kill), physical and chemical induced control (including the yellow board trap,sexual trapping agent booby trap,food trapping agent) the scope of application of green control tech⁃niques and various technical and scientific medication and other citrus pests etc.%介绍了检疫控制(包括严格执行检疫措施、新柑橘园选址须征询当地植保植检站或植物检疫站意见、建立检疫性和外来危险性有害生物监测点,及时抽样送检、切实搞好柑橘溃疡病的封锁控制)、农业防控(包括选用优良抗性砧木品种和无病毒苗木、科学修剪,改善通风条件、及早摘除橘树上大实蝇有虫果、冬、春清园、翻耕、保护利用天敌、加强栽培管理、果实套袋、主干刷白、适期采收)、物理防控(包括灯光诱杀、人工捕杀)、理化诱控(包括黄板诱杀、性诱剂诱杀、食诱剂诱杀)和科学用药等柑橘病虫害绿色防控技术及各项技术的适用范围。

  1. A Study on the Effects of Insect Pests and Diseases on Intensively Managed Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Basedon the results of monitoring the environment of China National Afforestation Project (NAP) and the investigation on insect pests and diseases in 1.2 million ha of plantations, the author elaborates the areas, species and causes of insect pests and diseases occurring in the project's areas and provides fundamental theory for guiding environmental protection and plantation establishment in a sound way. Since the project's activities strictly follovved the guideline of environmental protection in past...

  2. Pest insects at tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) in Strumica region, Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Spasov, Dusan; Spasova, Dragica; Atanasova, Biljana; Serafimova, Mimoza

    2013-01-01

    The studies that were conducted in 2011 and 2012 about the pest insects at tobacco, at four localities in Strumica region, showed that the most important insect pests that cause damage to tobacco leaves are: the green peach aphid – Myzus persicae Sulz. (Homoptera: Aphididae), the onion trips – Thrips tabaci Lind. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and the tobacco flea beetle – Epitrix hirtipennis Melsh. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). In both years of research the greatest number showed Myzus persica...

  3. Oviposition Deterrents in Herbivorous Insects and their potential use in Integrated Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Archana; Kaushik, Nutan

    2016-03-01

    In the life cycle of insects, oviposition is an important phenomenon, and it is influenced by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, especially in relation to suitable hosts for completion of their life-cycle. Oviposition deterrents which deter an insect from laying eggs are important in the management of insect pests. Proper understanding of these deterrents shall provide necessary insight into new vistas for Insect Pest Management. Chemicals from plants and insects play an important role in attracting phytophagous insects for selecting host for oviposition. Considerable research has been done on oviposition deterrents and their mode of actions. In the present review, we have consolidated the updated information on this important aspect of insect behavior.

  4. Crop domestication, global human-mediated migration, and the unresolved role of geography in pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda H. Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ecological pest management seeks to improve pest control through the manipulation of ecological processes that promote natural enemies and suppress pests. These approaches can involve cultural practices such as reduced tillage, increased use of non-crop plants that provide food and shelter for natural enemies, and intercropping to enhance the abundance and diversity of natural enemies. A major assumption of ecological pest management is that these activities can be equally effective for all insect herbivores. Here, I propose that these strategies may only be effective for a subset of pests and geographic regions because most insect pests have complex evolutionary histories that make them difficult to manage. I discuss how crop domestication and human-mediated migration are major evolutionary events that shape the geography of interactions between plants, herbivores, and natural enemies. Insect herbivores can evolve to be pests through three major modes: 1 herbivores associated with the crop wild ancestor may shift onto the domesticated crop, 2 herbivores may host-shift from native host plants onto an introduced crop, or 3 human-mediated migration can introduce insect pests into new cropping regions. The resulting geographic structure can influence the success of pest management by altering ecological factors such as: species distributions, patterns of biodiversity, community structure, and natural enemy attack rates. I discuss how the different modes of insect pest evolution structure a set of relevant questions and approaches for ecological pest management. By acknowledging how agricultural history and geography shape the ecology and evolution of insect pests, we may collectively develop a better capacity to identify where and how ecological pest management approaches can be most broadly effective.

  5. An implicit approach to model plant infestation by insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Christelle; Spataro, Thierry; Doursat, Christophe; Lapchin, Laurent; Arditi, Roger

    2007-09-07

    Various spatial approaches were developed to study the effect of spatial heterogeneities on population dynamics. We present in this paper a flux-based model to describe an aphid-parasitoid system in a closed and spatially structured environment, i.e. a greenhouse. Derived from previous work and adapted to host-parasitoid interactions, our model represents the level of plant infestation as a continuous variable corresponding to the number of plants bearing a given density of pests at a given time. The variation of this variable is described by a partial differential equation. It is coupled to an ordinary differential equation and a delay-differential equation that describe the parasitized host population and the parasitoid population, respectively. We have applied our approach to the pest Aphis gossypii and to one of its parasitoids, Lysiphlebus testaceipes, in a melon greenhouse. Numerical simulations showed that, regardless of the number and distribution of hosts in the greenhouse, the aphid population is slightly larger if parasitoids display a type III rather than a type II functional response. However, the population dynamics depend on the initial distribution of hosts and the initial density of parasitoids released, which is interesting for biological control strategies. Sensitivity analysis showed that the delay in the parasitoid equation and the growth rate of the pest population are crucial parameters for predicting the dynamics. We demonstrate here that such a flux-based approach generates relevant predictions with a more synthetic formalism than a common plant-by-plant model. We also explain how this approach can be better adapted to test different management strategies and to manage crops of several greenhouses.

  6. Redirect research to control coffee pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coff...

  7. Frequency of infection with A and B supergroup Wolbachia in insects and pests associated with mulberry and silkworm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B M Prakash; H P Puttaraju

    2007-06-01

    Wolbachia is a ubiquitous, Gram-negative, vertically transmitted, alpha-proteobacterium that causes an array of reproductive abnormalities including cytoplasmic incompatibility, feminization of genetic males, parthenogenesis in a number of insect species, among others. Wolbachia is now being exploited as an agent for pest and vector control. Previous surveys indicated that it is commonly seen in 16–76% of arthropods. In this paper, using polymerase chain reaction assay based on specific amplification of the ftsZ-A and -B supergroup Wolbachia gene fragments, we found that 30% of insects and pests screened were positive for Wolbachia. Among them 66.7% harbour double Wolbachia infection, while 33.3% harbour single Wolbachia infection. These results indicate widespread infection with both double and single Wolbachia, and provide a wealth of information to exploit this endobacterium for the management of pests and vectors.

  8. Transgenic organisms expressing genes from Bacillus thuringiensis to combat insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaritsky, Arieh; Ben-Dov, Eitan; Borovsky, Dov; Boussiba, Sammy; Einav, Monica; Gindin, Galina; Horowitz, A Rami; Kolot, Mikhail; Melnikov, Olga; Mendel, Zvi; Yagil, Ezra

    2010-01-01

    Various subspecies (ssp.) of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are considered the best agents known so far to control insects, being highly specific and safe, easily mass produced and with long shelf life.1 The para-crystalline body that is produced during sporulation in the exosporium includes polypeptides named δ-endotoxins, each killing a specific set of insects. The different entomopathogenic toxins of various Bt ssp. can be manipulated genetically in an educated way to construct more efficient transgenic bacteria or plants that express combinations of toxin genes to control pests.2 Joint research projects in our respective laboratories during the last decade demonstrate what can be done by implementing certain ideas using molecular biology with Bt ssp. israelensis (Bti) as a model system. Here, we describe our progress achieved with Gram-negative bacterial species, including cyanobacteria, and some preliminary experiments to form transgenic plants, mainly to control mosquitoes (Diptera), but also a particular Lepidopteran and Coleopteran pest species. In addition, a system is described by which environment-damaging genes can be removed from the recombinants thus alleviating procedures for obtaining permits to release them in nature.

  9. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Fruit Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on fruit pest control. Sections included are: (1) Causes of fruit diseases; (2) Fruit fungicides and bactericides; (3) Insect and mite pests; (4) Insecticides and miticides;…

  10. Can Prunus serotina be genetically engineered for reproductive sterility and insect pest resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Wang; Paula M. Pijut

    2014-01-01

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina) is a valuable hardwood timber species, and its value highly depends on the wood quality which is often threatened by insect pests. Transgenic black cherry plants that are more resistant to cambial-mining insects may reduce the occurrence of gummosis and have great economic benefits to landowners and the forest products...

  11. A survey of some insect pests of cultivated vegetables in three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    different sites, which was used in computing insect pest density. Six vegetable types ... (Thysanoptera). There was significant difference between number of insects per sites (P<0.05). ... The first is damage due to biting and chewing of plant ...

  12. Development of reference transcriptomes for the major insect pests of cowpea: a toolbox for insect pest management approaches in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea crops are widely cultivated and a major nutritional source of protein for indigenous human populations in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include Anoplocnemis curvipes, Aphis craccivora, Cl...

  13. 水稻病虫害专业化统防统治的防控效果%Control Effect of Specialized System Prevention and Control of Rice Diseases and Insect Pests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 刘红梅; 何海永; 蒋勇; 先丹; 黎藜

    2012-01-01

    为弄清贵州省水稻病虫害专业化统防统治效果,2011年在贵州省毕节市金沙县的5个村寨进行了水稻痛虫害专业化统防统治与农民自防区防效对比试验.结果表明,与农民自防区相比,专业化统防统治区对稻瘟病、稻纵卷叶螟和稻飞虱的防治效果均达到80%以上,平均分别提高16.18%、12.52%和9.46%,差异显著.每667m2平均挽回产量损失65 kg以上,增产率18.72%以上,减少施药1.34次,减少农药量307.34g,减幅达65.86%,减少农药和劳工支出60.67元,达到了增加产量、减少防控成本投入和安全生产的效果.%To gain a clear idea of the control effect of specialized system prevention and control for rice diseases and insect pests in Guizhou, a contrast test was conducted in 2011 between the specialized system prevention and control area and farmer self-prevention areas among five villages in Guizhou. The results showed that compared to the farmer self-prevention areas, the control effect of specialized system prevention and control of rice blast, rice leaf roller and rice fulgorid reached more than 80 %, increased by 16. 18%, 12. 52% and 9. 46% respectively. The difference was significant. The average production loss retrieved was 65 kg/667mz, increased by 18.72%. Beside, the times of applying farm chemical was reduced by 1. 34, the dosage reduced by 307. 34 g with the decreasing amplitude of 65.86%. Consequently, 60. 67 Yuan of farm chemical and labor cost was saved. The results of increasing production, safe production and reducing input in prevention and control were achieved.

  14. Phylogeny of economically important insect pests that infesting several crops species in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Siti Zafirah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.; Yaakop, Salmah

    2014-09-01

    This paper reported molecular data on insect pests of commercial crops in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifteen insect pests (Metisa plana, Calliteara horsefeldii, Cotesia vestalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera latifrons, Conopomorpha cramella, Sesamia inferens, Chilo polychrysa, Rhynchophorus vulneratus, and Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) of nine crops were sampled (oil palm, coconut, paddy, cocoa, starfruit, angled loofah, guava, chili and mustard) and also four species that belong to the fern's pest (Herpetogramma platycapna) and storage and rice pests (Tribolium castaneum, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Cadra cautella). The presented phylogeny summarized the initial phylogenetic hypothesis, which concerning by implementation of the economically important insect pests. In this paper, phylogenetic relationships among 39 individuals of 15 species that belonging to three orders under 12 genera were inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial marker, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear marker, ribosomal DNA 28S D2 region. The phylogenies resulted from the phylogenetic analyses of both genes are relatively similar, but differ in the sequence of evolution. Interestingly, this most recent molecular data of COI sequences data by using Bayesian Inference analysis resulted a more-resolved phylogeny that corroborated with traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships based on traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships and most of recently molecular study compared to 28S sequences. This finding provides the information on relationships of pests species, which infested several crops in Malaysia and also estimation on Holometabola's order relationships. The identification of the larval stages of insect pests could be done accurately, without waiting the emergence of adults and supported by the phylogenetic tree.

  15. 药剂浸泡种茎对布朗山区木薯地下害虫的防效评价%Control Effect of Soaking the Stems to Cassava Soil Insect Pests in BULANG Mountain Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽霞; 罗健; 阮静元; 陈青; 卢辉; 卢芙萍; 梁晓; 刘光华; 宋记明

    2016-01-01

    为了有效防控云南布朗山区木薯重要地下害虫的发生与危害,本试验针对性地开展种茎无害化药剂处理的防效评价研究.结果表明:选用环保型杀虫剂48%乐斯本乳油1000倍液和1.8%阿维菌素乳油2000倍液的1:1混合液浸泡木薯种茎5和10 min后种植效果最好,平均出苗率分别由无任何处理对照的62.5%及清水对照的75.0%和75.6%显著提高到96.5%和97.0%,平均虫害率分别由无任何处理对照的56.8%及清水对照的45.0%和44.8%显著下降到6.3%和5.5%,平均产量分别由无任何处理对照的1112.5 kg/667 m2及清水对照的1376.5和1393.3 kg/667 m2显著提高到2113.3和2135.2 kg/667 m2.此结果说明,种茎无害化药剂处理不仅可显著降低虫害率,而且可显著提高出苗率和产量.%To effectively control cassava important soil insect pests in Bulang mountain area of Yunnan province, control effect of soaking the stems with harmless insecticides on cassava soil insect pests was conducted. The results showed that, soaking the stems with the water mixture of 48% chlorpyrifos EC 1000 times and 1.8% abamectin EC 2000 times for 5 min and 10 min were the most effective for cassava planting. the average germination rates significantly increased to 96.5% and 97.0% from 62.5%of non-treatment and 75.0% and 75.6% of water treatments, respectively; the average pest rates significantly decreased to 6.3% and 5.5% from 56.8% of non-treatment and 45.0% and 44.8% of water treatments, respectively; the average yields significantly increased to 2113.3 kg/667 m2 and 2135.2 kg/667 m2 from 1112.5 kg/667 m2 of non-treatment and 1376.5 kg/667 m2 and 1393.3 kg/667 m2 of water treatments, respectively. The results above indicated that soaking stems would not noly significantly decrease the pest rate, but also significantly increase the germination rate and yield, which will support the steady and sustainable development of cassava industry in Bulang mountain area of Yunnan

  16. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Field and Forage Crops. Circular 899.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of field crop pests. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests in field corn, alfalfa and clover, small grains, soybeans and grain sorghum. (CS)

  17. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Field and Forage Crops. Circular 899.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of field crop pests. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests in field corn, alfalfa and clover, small grains, soybeans and grain sorghum. (CS)

  18. Pest insect olfaction in an insecticide-contaminated environment : info-disruption or hormesis effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène eTricoire-Leignel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Most animals, including pest insects, live in an odour world and depend strongly on chemical stimuli to get information on their biotic and abiotic environment. Although integrated pest management strategies including the use of insect growth regulators (IGRs are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on neurotoxic chemicals. These molecules are known to disrupt synaptic transmission, affecting therefore sensory systems. The wide-spread use of neurotoxic insecticides and the growing use of IGRs result in residual accumulation of low concentrations in the environment. These insecticide residues could act as an info-disruptor by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decrease chances of reproduction in target insects. However, residues can also induce a non-expected hormesis effect by enhancing reproduction abilities. Low insecticide doses might thus induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway of target insects, favouring the development of resistance. The effect of sublethal doses of insecticides has mainly been studied in beneficial insects such as honeybees. We review here what is known on the effects of sublethal doses of insecticides on the olfactory system of insect pests.

  19. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crop: an environment friendly insect-pest management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Chandra, Amaresh; Pandey, K C

    2008-09-01

    Introduction of DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) and following move towards indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical insecticides led to the contamination of water and food sources, poisoning of non-target beneficial insects and development of insect-pests resistant to the chemical insecticides. Increased public concems about the adverse environmental effects of indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides prompted search of altemative methods for insect-pest control. One of the promising alternatives has been the use of biological control agents. There is well-documented history of safe application of Bt (B. thuringiensis, a gram positive soil bacterium) as effective biopesticides and a number of reports of expression of delta-endotoxin gene(s) in crop plants are available. Only a few insecticidal sprays are required on Bt transgenic crops, which not only save cost and time, but also reduce health risks. Insects exhibit remarkable ability to develop resistance to different insecticidal compounds, which raises concern about the unsystematic use of Bt transgenic technology also. Though resistance to Bt products among insect species under field conditions has been rare, laboratory studies show that insects are capable of developing high levels of resistance to one ormore Cry proteins. Now it is generally agreed that 'high-dose/refuge strategy' is the most promising and practical approach to prolong the effectiveness of Bt toxins. Although manybiosafety concerns, ethical and moral issues exist, area under Bt transgenic crops is rapidly increasing and they are cultivated on more than 32 million hectares world over Even after reservation of European Union (EU) for acceptance of geneticaly modified (GM) crops, 6 out of 25 countries have already adopted Bt crops and many otherindustrial countries will adopt Bt transgenic crops in near future. While the modem biotechnology has been recognized to have a great potential for the promotion of human well-being, adoption

  20. Training for Certification: Demonstration & Research Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on agricultural pest control, this publication includes a full range of topics from uses of pesticides for agricultural animal pest control to the toxicity of common pesticides to fish and bees.…

  1. Prospects for repellent in pest control: current developments and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall interest for environmentally safe pest control methods and the increased frequency of insecticide resistance in pest populations have stimulated research on insect repellents in the recent decades in medical and agricultural entomology. However, there remains a great deal of work to be ...

  2. Pesticide Applicator Certification Training, Manual No. 1a: Agricultural Pest Control. a. Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, W. A.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the minimum standards for certification as an applicator of pesticides in the agricultural plant pest control category. Adapted for the State of Virginia, the text discusses: (1) the basics of insecticides; (2) insect pests; (3) selection and calibration of applicator equipment; and (4) the proper…

  3. DIETARY SILVER NANOPARTICLES REDUCE FITNESS IN A BENEFICIAL, BUT NOT PEST, INSECT SPECIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrasiabi, Zahra; Popham, Holly J R; Stanley, David; Suresh, Dhananjay; Finley, Kristen; Campbell, Jonelle; Kannan, Raghuraman; Upendran, Anandhi

    2016-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have antimicrobial and insecticidal properties and they have been considered for their potential use as insecticides. While they do, indeed, kill some insects, two broader issues have not been considered in a critical way. First, reports of insect-lethal AgNPs are often based on simplistic methods that yield nanoparticles of nonuniform shapes and sizes, leaving questions about the precise treatments test insects experienced. Second, we do not know how AgNPs influence beneficial insects. This work addresses these issues. We assessed the influence of AgNPs on life history parameters of two agricultural pest insect species, Heliothis virescens (tobacco budworm) and Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper) and a beneficial predatory insect species, Podisus maculiventris (spined soldier bug), all of which act in agroecosystems. Rearing the two pest species on standard media amended with AgNPs led to negligible influence on developmental times, pupal weights, and adult emergence, however, they led to retarded development, reductions in adult weight and fecundity, and increased mortality in the predator. These negative effects on the beneficial species, if also true for other beneficial insect species, would have substantial negative implications for continued development of AgNPs for insect pest management programs.

  4. Resistance of the packing to attack of insects pest in irradiated ration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Suely S.H., E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente; Franco, Jose G.; Villavicencio, Anna L.H.C., E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br, E-mail: villavic@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The pests as beetles, acarids, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal rations, spices, dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting the deterioration of the products. The objective of the research was use the gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 in the disinfestation of some types of rations used for feeding of animals of small size. In the experiment packing measuring 10 cm x 20 cm with capacity of 70 grams of substrate (ration) with 4 types of existent marks in the trade: (1), (2), (3) and (4) of free samples were used. Each treatment had 10 repetitions, that were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy, to do the disinfestation of the ration samples. After the irradiation all the packing and the control were conditioned in plastic boxes of 80 cm x 50 cm with cover, where the insects: Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and S. oryzae were liberated, in a total of 400 for each box. The boxes were maintained at room acclimatized with 27 ± 2 deg C and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%. The counting of the number of insects and holes in the packing were made after 60 days. The results showed that only the package of the ration type number 4, was susceptive to the attack of the species of insects. (author)

  5. Effects of insecticide spray application on insect pest infestation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... schedules as in the tropical agro-ecosystems has been conducted, especially for the arid grassland agro- ecological zone of the Transkei where subsistence and ... empirical decision for cowpea pest management in the.

  6. New dispenser types for integrated pest management of agriculturally significant insect pests: an algorithm with specialized searching capacity in electronic data bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, H E; Eisinger, M T; Hein, D F; Breuer, M; Schmid, S; Leithold, G

    2012-01-01

    Pheromone effects discovered some 130 years, but scientifically defined just half a century ago, are a great bonus for basic and applied biology. Specifically, pest management efforts have been advanced in many insect orders, either for purposes or monitoring, mass trapping, or for mating disruption. Finding and applying a new search algorithm, nearly 20,000 entries in the pheromone literature have been counted, a number much higher than originally anticipated. This compilation contains identified and thus synthesizable structures for all major orders of insects. Among them are hundreds of agriculturally significant insect pests whose aggregated damages and costly control measures range in the multibillions of dollars annually. Unfortunately, and despite a lot of effort within the international entomological scene, the number of efficient and cheap engineering solutions for dispensing pheromones under variable field conditions is uncomfortably lagging behind. Some innovative approaches are cited from the relevant literature in an attempt to rectify this situation. Recently, specifically designed electrospun organic nanofibers offer a lot of promise. With their use, the mating communication of vineyard insects like Lobesia botrana (Lep.: Tortricidae) can be disrupted for periods of seven weeks.

  7. Cascade effects of crop species richness on the diversity of pest insects and their natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, PeiJian; Hui, Cang; Men, XingYuan; Zhao, ZiHua; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng; Jin, XianShi; Cao, HaiFeng; Li, B Larry

    2014-07-01

    Understanding how plant species richness influences the diversity of herbivorous and predatory/parasitic arthropods is central to community ecology. We explore the effects of crop species richness on the diversity of pest insects and their natural enemies. Using data from a four-year experiment with five levels of crop species richness, we found that crop species richness significantly affected the pest species richness, but there were no significant effects on richness of the pests' natural enemies. In contrast, the species richness of pest insects significantly affected their natural enemies. These findings suggest a cascade effect where trophic interactions are strong between adjacent trophic levels, while the interactions between connected but nonadjacent trophic levels are weakened by the intermediate trophic level. High crop species richness resulted in a more stable arthropod community compared with communities in monoculture crops. Our results highlight the complicated cross-trophic interactions and the crucial role of crop diversity in the food webs of agro-ecosystems.

  8. Plant tolerance: A unique approach to control hemipteran pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant tolerance to insect pests has been indicated to be a unique category of resistance, however, very little information is available on the mechanism of tolerance against insect pests. Tolerance is distinctive in terms of the plant’s ability to withstand or recover from herbivore injury through g...

  9. Mimetic analogs of three insect neuropeptide classes for pest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuropeptides are potent regulators of critical life processes in insects, but are subjected to rapid degradation by peptidases in the hemolymph (blood), tissues and gut. This limitation can be overcome via replacement of peptidase susceptible portions of the insect neuropeptides to create analogs w...

  10. Future pest status of an insect pest in museums, Attagenus smirnovi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Stengård; Åkerlund, Monika; Grøntoft, Terje

    2012-01-01

    The brown carpet beetle Attagenus smirnovi, Zhantiev 1973 (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) is an important pest of objects of organic origin in museums of cultural and natural history in Europe. Future climate changes are expected to lead to increasing temperatures, which will affect the pest status of ...

  11. Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) for Biological Control of Soil Pests

    OpenAIRE

    HAZIR, Selçuk; Kaya, Harry K.; Stock, S. Patricia; KESKİN, Nevin

    2014-01-01

    Several species of entomopathogenic nematodes in the families Steinernematidae (Steinernema) and Heterorhabditidae (Heterorhabditis) are being produced commercially and used as biological control agents against many soil insect pests and insects in cryptic habitats in many parts of the world. These nematodes, which are mutualistically associated with bacteria (Steinernema with Xenorhabdus bacteria and Heterorhabditis with Photorhabdus bacteria), offer a number of advantages because they have ...

  12. Mella (Olax zeylanica Leaves as an Eco-friendly Repellent for Storage Insect Pest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. D. Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the cereals, rice is the most important staple food supplying energy requirements for mostof the worlds’ population. However during storage a loss of about 10-20% rice grains occurs due to storedgrain pests. Repellents are considered as the best source of protection against insect attack upon storedproducts as they have potential for the exclusion of stored product pests from grain, and therebypreventing insect feeding and oviposition on food materials. Various plant materials have been utilizedeffectively through time as safe and ecofriendly insect pest control measures due to their repellentactivity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of powdered leaves and leaf extractsof Olax zeylanica as repellents against the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae. All the experiments were carriedout under laboratory conditions using 1-7 day old unsexed adults. Four different doses (1.0g, 3.0g, 5.0gand 7.0g.of powdered leaves were tested for fumigant repellency in a dual-choice bio-assay apparatus.Repellent action of leaf extracts was evaluated by means of an area preference test using methanol,ethanol and n- hexane as solvents. Repellent effect of powdered leaves against the adult rice weevils wasfound to be significantly high (P< 0.05 at all doses. The highest repellent effect was produced by 7.0g ofleaf powder resulting in repellency of 97%, while the lowest dose (1.0g also elicited more than 50%repellency in weevils indicating a very strong repellent action of the powdered leaves. In comparison,methanol extract of leaves produced the highest repellent effect (96% on weevils whereas n-hexaneextract elicited the lowest. Nevertheless, at higher concentrations all three extracts produced more or lesssignificantly similar repellent effect on the weevils. The findings of the present study suggest that certainactive materials of Olax zeylanica leaves have potential to act as a grain protectant and may be exploitedfor the control of

  13. Pest control of aphids depends on landscape complexity and natural enemy interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Martin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aphids are a major concern in agricultural crops worldwide, and control by natural enemies is an essential component of the ecological intensification of agriculture. Although the complexity of agricultural landscapes is known to influence natural enemies of pests, few studies have measured the degree of pest control by different enemy guilds across gradients in landscape complexity. Here, we use multiple natural-enemy exclosures replicated in 18 fields across a gradient in landscape complexity to investigate (1 the strength of natural pest control across landscapes, measured as the difference between pest pressure in the presence and in the absence of natural enemies; (2 the differential contributions of natural enemy guilds to pest control, and the nature of their interactions across landscapes. We show that natural pest control of aphids increased up to six-fold from simple to complex landscapes. In the absence of pest control, aphid population growth was higher in complex than simple landscapes, but was reduced by natural enemies to similar growth rates across all landscapes. The effects of enemy guilds were landscape-dependent. Particularly in complex landscapes, total pest control was supplied by the combined contribution of flying insects and ground-dwellers. Birds had little overall impact on aphid control. Despite evidence for intraguild predation of flying insects by ground-dwellers and birds, the overall effect of enemy guilds on aphid control was complementary. Understanding pest control services at large spatial scales is critical to increase the success of ecological intensification schemes. Our results suggest that, where aphids are the main pest of concern, interactions between natural enemies are largely complementary and lead to a strongly positive effect of landscape complexity on pest control. Increasing the availability of seminatural habitats in agricultural landscapes may thus benefit not only natural enemies, but also the

  14. Pest control of aphids depends on landscape complexity and natural enemy interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily A; Reineking, Björn; Seo, Bumsuk; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2015-01-01

    Aphids are a major concern in agricultural crops worldwide, and control by natural enemies is an essential component of the ecological intensification of agriculture. Although the complexity of agricultural landscapes is known to influence natural enemies of pests, few studies have measured the degree of pest control by different enemy guilds across gradients in landscape complexity. Here, we use multiple natural-enemy exclosures replicated in 18 fields across a gradient in landscape complexity to investigate (1) the strength of natural pest control across landscapes, measured as the difference between pest pressure in the presence and in the absence of natural enemies; (2) the differential contributions of natural enemy guilds to pest control, and the nature of their interactions across landscapes. We show that natural pest control of aphids increased up to six-fold from simple to complex landscapes. In the absence of pest control, aphid population growth was higher in complex than simple landscapes, but was reduced by natural enemies to similar growth rates across all landscapes. The effects of enemy guilds were landscape-dependent. Particularly in complex landscapes, total pest control was supplied by the combined contribution of flying insects and ground-dwellers. Birds had little overall impact on aphid control. Despite evidence for intraguild predation of flying insects by ground-dwellers and birds, the overall effect of enemy guilds on aphid control was complementary. Understanding pest control services at large spatial scales is critical to increase the success of ecological intensification schemes. Our results suggest that, where aphids are the main pest of concern, interactions between natural enemies are largely complementary and lead to a strongly positive effect of landscape complexity on pest control. Increasing the availability of seminatural habitats in agricultural landscapes may thus benefit not only natural enemies, but also the effectiveness of

  15. New pheromones and insect control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Guerrero, Angel

    2010-01-01

    A survey of the new environmentally safe strategies used for insect control is presented. The survey includes mating disruption, pheromone antagonists as chemical communication inhibitors, pheromones and plant-based volatiles, attractant-and-kill, and push-pull strategies. Important successes have been obtained, particularly in mating disruption with significant reduction in pesticide use in low to moderate pest infestations. One important factor of concern is the high cost of semiochemicals and formulations containing them in comparison to the conventional insecticide treatments, and a combined effort by scientists, producers, and farmers should be made to reduce the cost of application of these semiochemicals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Australian endemic pest tephritids: genetic, molecular and microbial tools for improved Sterile Insect Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Kathryn A; Shearman, Deborah C A; Gilchrist, A Stuart; Sved, John A; Morrow, Jennifer L; Sherwin, William B; Riegler, Markus; Frommer, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Among Australian endemic tephritid fruit flies, the sibling species Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera neohumeralis have been serious horticultural pests since the introduction of horticulture in the nineteenth century. More recently, Bactrocera jarvisi has also been declared a pest in northern Australia. After several decades of genetic research there is now a range of classical and molecular genetic tools that can be used to develop improved Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) strains for control of these pests. Four-way crossing strategies have the potential to overcome the problem of inbreeding in mass-reared strains of B. tryoni. The ability to produce hybrids between B. tryoni and the other two species in the laboratory has proved useful for the development of genetically marked strains. The identification of Y-chromosome markers in B. jarvisi means that male and female embryos can be distinguished in any strain that carries a B. jarvisi Y chromosome. This has enabled the study of homologues of the sex-determination genes during development of B jarvisi and B. tryoni, which is necessary for the generation of genetic-sexing strains. Germ-line transformation has been established and a draft genome sequence for B. tryoni released. Transcriptomes from various species, tissues and developmental stages, to aid in identification of manipulation targets for improving SIT, have been assembled and are in the pipeline. Broad analyses of the microbiome have revealed a metagenome that is highly variable within and across species and defined by the environment. More specific analyses detected Wolbachia at low prevalence in the tropics but absent in temperate regions, suggesting a possible role for this endosymbiont in future control strategies.

  17. Development of mimetic analogs of pyrokinin-like neuropeptides to disrupt pest insect physiology/behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrokinin (FXPRLamide) neuropeptides regulate a variety of critical processes and behaviors in insects, though they are unsuitable as tools to arthropod endocrinologists and/or as pest management agents due to sub-optimal biostability and/or bioavailability characteristics. Peptidomimetic analogs c...

  18. Beta vulgaris L. serine proteinase inhibitor gene expression correlates to insect pest resistance in sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analyzing genes that can be used for improving sugar beet resistance to the sugar beet root maggot (SBRM, Tetanops myopaeformis Roder), one of the most destructive insect pests of sugar beet in North America, was a major goal in our investigation. We report on the expression patterns of a sugar beet...

  19. A maize defensin active against maize ear insect and fungal pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identification of genes responsible for pest resistance in maize will assist with breeding attempts to reduced crop losses, and hazards due to toxins produced by molds infecting ears. The same genes may be responsible for producing proteins active against both insects and plant pathogens. A gene cod...

  20. Broad sprectrum potential of Isaria fumosorosea on insect pests of citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria fumosorosea, Ifr, =Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, successfully increased insect pest mortality. Spraying the Ifr containing product, PFR97 TM, on citrus seedlings was used to screen efficacy for the management of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri; glassy-winge...

  1. Gut microbiota mediate caffeine detoxification in the primary insect pest of coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide. It infests crops in most coffee producing countries, and is of particular concern in developing countries where coffee comprises a significant component of gross domestic product. Of more than 850 i...

  2. The insect pest complex and related problems of lowland rice cultivation in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halteren, van P.

    1979-01-01

    CHAPTER 1.The Department of Entomology of the Research Institute for Agriculture at Maros is concerned with insect pests of food crops, and serves the needs of farmers, most of them living near subsistance level, and of extension workers.South Sulawesi, formerly known as South Celebes, is a major ri

  3. RNAi for insect control: current perspective and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, Rajan; Sethi, Amit; Thakur, Neelam; Murdock, Larry L

    2013-10-01

    The research on the RNA interference (RNAi) for the control of insect pests has made significant growth in recent years. The availability of the genomic sequences of insects has further widened the horizons for the testing of this technology to various insect groups. Different modes of application of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) have been tested; however, the practicability of delivery of dsRNA in insects still remains the biggest challenge. Till date, the oral delivery of dsRNA in insects is one of the efficient approaches for the practical application of this technique. The uptake of dsRNA from the insect gut is mediated either by SID-1/SID-2 transmembrane proteins or by endocytosis; however, the systemic RNAi machinery still remains to be revealed in insect species. The RNAi-mediated gene knockdown has shown striking results in different insect groups, pointing it to be the upcoming technique for insect control. However, before the successful application of this technique for insect control, some potential issues need to be resolved. This review presents the account of prospects and challenges for the use of this technology for insect control.

  4. Phytopesticidal effects of Spilanthes acmella (L.) Murr. leaves on three economically important lepidopteran insect pests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manickam Pavunraj; Kathirvelu Baskar; Sundaram Janarthanan; Munusamy Arumugam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antifeedant and larvicidal activities of dichloromethane (DCM), acetone, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and aqueous extracts of Spilanthes acmella (S. acmella) leaves against Earias vitella, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura.Methods:DCM, acetone, DMSO and aqueous extracts were studied using fruit and leaf discs no-choice method at 0.625%, 1.25%, 2.5% and 5% concentration. Results: All the extracts showed antifeedant and larvicidal activities against all the tested insects. However, maximum antifeedant activity was detected in DCM extract of S. acmella against all tested pest, followed by acetone, DMSO and aqueous extracts at 5% concentration. The leaves extract of S. acmella also showed larvicidal activity; maximum larval mortality was observed in DCM extract against Helicoverpa armigera (48.88%), Spodoptera litura (44.88%) and Earias vitella (75.11%) followed by acetone, DMSO and aqueous extracts at 5% concentration.Conclusions:DCM extract of S. acmella could be further purified to develop a formulation for eco-friendly pest control agent.

  5. Modelling mortality of a stored grain insect pest with fumigation: probit, logistic or Cauchy model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Mingren; Renton, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Computer simulation models can provide a relatively fast, safe and inexpensive means to judge and weigh the merits of various pest control management options. However, the usefulness of such simulation models relies on the accurate estimation of important model parameters, such as the pest mortality under different treatments and conditions. Recently, an individual-based simulation model of population dynamics and resistance evolution has been developed for the stored grain insect pest Rhyzopertha dominica, based on experimental results showing that alleles at two different loci are involved in resistance to the grain fumigant phosphine. In this paper, we describe how we used three generalized linear models, probit, logistic and Cauchy models, each employing two- and four-parameter sub-models, to fit experimental data sets for five genotypes for which detailed mortality data was already available. Instead of the usual statistical iterative maximum likelihood estimation, a direct algebraic approach, generalized inverse matrix technique, was used to estimate the mortality model parameters. As this technique needs to perturb the observed mortality proportions if the proportions include 0 or 1, a golden section search approach was used to find the optimal perturbation in terms of minimum least squares (L2) error. The results show that the estimates using the probit model were the most accurate in terms of L2 errors between observed and predicted mortality values. These errors with the probit model ranged from 0.049% to 5.3%, from 0.381% to 8.1% with the logistic model and from 8.3% to 48.2% with the Cauchy model. Meanwhile, the generalized inverse matrix technique achieved similar results to the maximum likelihood estimation ones, but is less time consuming and computationally demanding. We also describe how we constructed a two-parameter model to estimate the mortalities for each of the remaining four genotypes based on realistic genetic assumptions.

  6. Optical characterization of agricultural pest insects: a methodological study in the spectral and time domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. Y.; Zhang, H.; Duan, Z.; Lian, M.; Zhao, G. Y.; Sun, X. H.; Hu, J. D.; Gao, L. N.; Feng, H. Q.; Svanberg, S.

    2016-08-01

    Identification of agricultural pest insects is an important aspect in insect research and agricultural monitoring. We have performed a methodological study of how spectroscopic techniques and wing-beat frequency analysis might provide relevant information. An optical system based on the combination of close-range remote sensing and reflectance spectroscopy was developed to study the optical characteristics of different flying insects, collected in Southern China. The results demonstrate that the combination of wing-beat frequency assessment and reflectance spectral analysis has the potential to successfully differentiate between insect species. Further, studies of spectroscopic characteristics of fixed specimen of insects, also from Central China, showed the possibility of refined agricultural pest identification. Here, in addition to reflectance recordings also laser-induced fluorescence spectra were investigated for all the species of insects under study and found to provide complementary information to optically distinguish insects. In order to prove the practicality of the techniques explored, clearly fieldwork aiming at elucidating the variability of parameters, even within species, must be performed.

  7. Training for Certification: Aquatic Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial applicators. Weed control, vertebrate pest control, and environmental considerations and restrictions are the three major parts of the document. The weed control section discusses non-pesticide, mechanical, and biological control as…

  8. A theoretical approach on controlling agricultural pest by biological controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Prasanta Kumar; Jana, Soovoojeet; Kar, T K

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we propose and analyze a prey-predator type dynamical system for pest control where prey population is treated as the pest. We consider two classes for the pest namely susceptible pest and infected pest and the predator population is the natural enemy of the pest. We also consider average delay for both the predation rate i.e. predation to the susceptible pest and infected pest. Considering a subsystem of original system in the absence of infection, we analyze the existence of all possible non-negative equilibria and their stability criteria for both the subsystem as well as the original system. We present the conditions for transcritical bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation in the disease free system. The theoretical evaluations are demonstrated through numerical simulations.

  9. Entomopatogenic fungi as an alternative for biological pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrés Motta Delgado

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The entomopatogenic fungi are a diverse group of microorganisms that provide multiple services to agroecological systems. Among those the capacity to regulate the pests to keep them in suitable levels stands out. The present paper shows a description of the entomopatogenic fungi of most extensively used for the biological control of pests, their mechanism of action on their host, and also investigations about the in vitro and in situ behavior of the mostly used fungi for the control of some insects. Also, the formulations that are used for the development of this biotechnology in the field are described. In the development of bioinsecticides the entomopatogenic fungi are a viable option to minimize environmental damage.

  10. Engineered repressible lethality for controlling the pink bollworm, a lepidopteran pest of cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil I Morrison

    Full Text Available The sterile insect technique (SIT is an environmentally friendly method of pest control in which insects are mass-produced, irradiated and released to mate with wild counterparts. SIT has been used to control major pest insects including the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders, a global pest of cotton. Transgenic technology has the potential to overcome disadvantages associated with the SIT, such as the damaging effects of radiation on released insects. A method called RIDL (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal is designed to circumvent the need to irradiate insects before release. Premature death of insects' progeny can be engineered to provide an equivalent to sterilisation. Moreover, this trait can be suppressed by the provision of a dietary antidote. In the pink bollworm, we generated transformed strains using different DNA constructs, which showed moderate-to-100% engineered mortality. In permissive conditions, this effect was largely suppressed. Survival data on cotton in field cages indicated that field conditions increase the lethal effect. One strain, called OX3402C, showed highly penetrant and highly repressible lethality, and was tested on host plants where its larvae caused minimal damage before death. These results highlight a potentially valuable insecticide-free tool against pink bollworm, and indicate its potential for development in other lepidopteran pests.

  11. Abiotic Factors Affecting Canola Establishment and Insect Pest Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nansen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canola is grown mainly as an oil-seed crop, but recently the interest in canola has increased due to its potential as a biodiesel crop. The main objectives of this paper were to evaluate effects of abiotic factors and seed treatment on canola plant establishment and pest pressure in the Southern High Plains of Texas. Data was collected at two field locations during the first seven months of two field seasons. Based on multi-regression analysis, we demonstrated that precipitation was positively associated with ranked plant weight, daily minimum relative humidity and maximum temperature were negatively associated with plant weight, and that there may be specific optimal growth conditions regarding cumulative solar radiation and wind speed. The outlined multi-regression approach may be considered appropriate for ecological studies of canola establishment and pest communities elsewhere and therefore enable identification of suitable regions for successful canola production. We also demonstrated that aphids were about 35% more abundant on non-treated seeds than on treated seeds, but the sensitivity to seed treatment was only within four months after plant emergence. On the other hand, seed treatment had negligible effect on presence of thrips.

  12. The use of floral homeotic mutants as a novel way to obtain durable resistance to insect pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kater, M.M.; Franken, J.; Inggamer, H.; Gretenkort, M.; Tunen, van A.J.; Mollema, C.; Angenent, G.C.

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a novel strategy for the introduction of durable insect resistance in crops. This strategy was based on intervention in the natural relationship between plants and insects. For many insects, including pests such as thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), the flower is an important fac

  13. 1977 Kansas Field Crop Insect Control Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Leroy; Gates, Dell E.

    This publication is prepared to aid producers in selecting methods of insect population management that have proved effective under Kansas conditions. Topics covered include insect control on alfalfa, soil insects attacking corn, insects attacking above-ground parts of corn, and sorghum, wheat, and soybean insect control. The insecticides…

  14. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Commercial Vegetable Crops and Greenhouse Vegetables. Circular 897.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of pests by commercial vegetable farmers. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests of cabbage and related crops, beans, cucumbers and other vine crops, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, corn, and onions. (CS)

  15. Cycad Aulacaspis Scale, a Newly Introduced Insect Pest in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATALIA VON ELLENRIEDER

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cycad aulacaspis scale (Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi (Hemiptera: Diaspididae is native to Thailand and Vietnam. Since the early 1990s it has been spreading around the world due to the trade in cycad plants for ornamental use. Infestation by this scale can kill cycads in only a few months. Its accidental introduction to Florida endangered the ornamental cycad-growing industry; and in Guam and Taiwan, endemic cycads (Cycas micronesica and C. taitungensis, respectively are currently threatened with extinction by cycad aulacaspis scale. In November 2011, an introduced scale was discovered damaging cycads in the Bogor Botanic Garden. Samples from Bogor were taken for identification of the scale, and the material was kept for some time to rear out any insect parasitoids that were present. Both the scale insects and parasitoids were prepared on microscope slides and studied microscopically for authoritative identification. The scale was confirmed as A. yasumatsui. The parasitoid Arrhenophagus chionaspidis Aurivillius (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae and the hyperparasitoid Signiphora bifasciata Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Signiphoridae were identified from the samples. Unless immediate remedial measures are taken, several endemic species of cycad in Indonesia may be endangered by infestation by cycad aulacaspis scale.

  16. Study on the Diseases and Insect Pests of Peach Tree in the Greenhouse%大棚温室桃树病虫害研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国英

    2015-01-01

    The kinds and characteristics of diseases and insect pests on the peach tree cultivated in the greenhouse are different from that in the orchard .Through the investigation of diseases and insect pests on the peach tree in the green‐house ,the author found out the kinds and occurrence characteristics of main diseases and insect pests and provided evi‐dence for control .Survey results showed that the main diseases and insect pests of peach tree in the greenhouse is 20 spe‐cies which included 6 kinds of diseases and 14 kinds of insect pests;The main diseases and insect pests must be controlled including 8 kinds ,which were peach bacterial shot hole ,peach gummosis ,peach crown gall ,Myzus persicae ,Hyaloptera amygdale ,Tetyanyhus viennensis ,Lyonetia clerkella ,Empoasca flavescens .Through observing occurrence regularity of the main diseases and insect pests ,the author summed up the characteristics of occurrence of the main diseases and insect pests of peach tree in the greenhouse .%大棚内栽培桃树与露地果园生长的桃树病虫害种类与发生特点有所不同,通过对大棚栽培桃树病虫害调查,查明主要病虫害的种类与发生特点,为防治工作提供依据。结果表明,大棚桃树主要病虫害种类共有20种,其中病害6种,虫害14种,主要的必须进行防治的病虫害有桃细菌性穿孔病、桃流胶病、桃根癌病、桃蚜、桃粉大尾蚜、山楂红蜘蛛、桃潜蛾、小绿叶蝉8种。通过对主要病虫害的发生危害规律的观察,总结出发生特点。

  17. Monitoring pest insect traps by means of low-power image sensor technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Otoniel; Rach, Miguel Martinez; Migallon, Hector; Malumbres, Manuel P; Bonastre, Alberto; Serrano, Juan J

    2012-11-13

    Monitoring pest insect populations is currently a key issue in agriculture and forestry protection. At the farm level, human operators typically must perform periodical surveys of the traps disseminated through the field. This is a labor-, time- and cost-consuming activity, in particular for large plantations or large forestry areas, so it would be of great advantage to have an affordable system capable of doing this task automatically in an accurate and a more efficient way. This paper proposes an autonomous monitoring system based on a low-cost image sensor that it is able to capture and send images of the trap contents to a remote control station with the periodicity demanded by the trapping application. Our autonomous monitoring system will be able to cover large areas with very low energy consumption. This issue would be the main key point in our study; since the operational live of the overall monitoring system should be extended to months of continuous operation without any kind of maintenance (i.e., battery replacement). The images delivered by image sensors would be time-stamped and processed in the control station to get the number of individuals found at each trap. All the information would be conveniently stored at the control station, and accessible via Internet by means of available network services at control station (WiFi, WiMax, 3G/4G, etc.).

  18. Monitoring Pest Insect Traps by Means of Low-Power Image Sensor Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Serrano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring pest insect populations is currently a key issue in agriculture and forestry protection. At the farm level, human operators typically must perform periodical surveys of the traps disseminated through the field. This is a labor-, time- and cost-consuming activity, in particular for large plantations or large forestry areas, so it would be of great advantage to have an affordable system capable of doing this task automatically in an accurate and a more efficient way. This paper proposes an autonomous monitoring system based on a low-cost image sensor that it is able to capture and send images of the trap contents to a remote control station with the periodicity demanded by the trapping application. Our autonomous monitoring system will be able to cover large areas with very low energy consumption. This issue would be the main key point in our study; since the operational live of the overall monitoring system should be extended to months of continuous operation without any kind of maintenance (i.e., battery replacement. The images delivered by image sensors would be time-stamped and processed in the control station to get the number of individuals found at each trap. All the information would be conveniently stored at the control station, and accessible via Internet by means of available network services at control station (WiFi, WiMax, 3G/4G, etc..

  19. Natural products for pest control: an analysis of their role, value and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwick, B Clifford; Sparks, Thomas C

    2014-08-01

    Natural products (NPs) have long been used as pesticides and have broadly served as a source of inspiration for a great many commercial synthetic organic fungicides, herbicides and insecticides that are in the market today. In light of the continuing need for new tools to address an ever-changing array of fungal, weed and insect pests, NPs continue to be a source of models and templates for the development of new pest control agents. Interestingly, an examination of the literature suggests that NP models exist for many of the pest control agents that were discovered by other means, suggesting that, had circumstances been different, these NPs could have served as inspiration for the discovery of a great many more of today's pest control agents. Here, an attempt is made to answer questions regarding the existence of an NP model for existing classes of pesticides and what is needed for the discovery of new NPs and NP models for pest control agents.

  20. Insect pests associated with cowpea – sorghum intercropping system by considering the phenological stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana González Aguiar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to determine the main insect pest populations and their behavior in the combination cowpea - sorghum. This work took into account the phenology of each crop. The study was conducted on a Cambisol soil from the Basic Unit of Cooperative Production “Día y Noche”, which belongs to the Basic Unit of Cooperative Production “28 de Octubre”, Santa Clara municipality, Villa Clara province, Cuba. The experimental design was a random blocks included four treatments and four repetitions. The first arrangement consisted of two rows of cowpea for each row of sorghum; the second one included three rows of cowpea and one row of sorghum. The other treatments were the monocultures of cowpea and sorghum. The methodology included visual observations of plants with a weekly frequency until crop harvest to detect the presence of the insects. Also, the phenology of each crop was considered. The phytophagous insects quantified in the cowpea crop belong to the families Chrysomelidae, Pyralidae, Cicadellidae, while in the sorghum crop, these insects belong to the families Noctuidae and Aphididae. Finally, the results showed the positive effects of both spatial arrangements with a smaller incidence of insect pest populations.

  1. Engineered Repressible Lethality for Controlling the Pink Bollworm, a Lepidopteran Pest of Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Neil I.; Simmons, Gregory S.; Fu, Guoliang; O’Connell, Sinead; Walker, Adam S.; Dafa’alla, Tarig; Walters, Michelle; Claus, John; Tang, Guolei; Jin, Li; Marubbi, Thea; Epton, Matthew J.; Harris, Claire L.; Staten, Robert T.; Miller, Ernest; Miller, Thomas A.; Alphey, Luke

    2012-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environmentally friendly method of pest control in which insects are mass-produced, irradiated and released to mate with wild counterparts. SIT has been used to control major pest insects including the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders), a global pest of cotton. Transgenic technology has the potential to overcome disadvantages associated with the SIT, such as the damaging effects of radiation on released insects. A method called RIDL (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) is designed to circumvent the need to irradiate insects before release. Premature death of insects’ progeny can be engineered to provide an equivalent to sterilisation. Moreover, this trait can be suppressed by the provision of a dietary antidote. In the pink bollworm, we generated transformed strains using different DNA constructs, which showed moderate-to-100% engineered mortality. In permissive conditions, this effect was largely suppressed. Survival data on cotton in field cages indicated that field conditions increase the lethal effect. One strain, called OX3402C, showed highly penetrant and highly repressible lethality, and was tested on host plants where its larvae caused minimal damage before death. These results highlight a potentially valuable insecticide-free tool against pink bollworm, and indicate its potential for development in other lepidopteran pests. PMID:23226548

  2. Improvement of pest resistance in transgenic tobacco plants expressing dsRNA of an insect-associated gene EcR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Qi Zhu

    Full Text Available The adoption of pest-resistant transgenic plants to reduce yield loss and pesticide utilization has been successful in the past three decades. Recently, transgenic plant expressing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA targeting pest genes emerges as a promising strategy for improving pest resistance in crops. The steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E, predominately controls insect molting via its nuclear receptor complex, EcR-USP. Here we report that pest resistance is improved in transgenic tobacco plants expressing dsRNA of EcR from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, a serious lepidopteran pest for a variety of crops. When H. armigera larvae were fed with the whole transgenic tobacco plants expressing EcR dsRNA, resistance to H. armigera was significantly improved in transgenic plants. Meanwhile, when H. armigera larvae were fed with leaves of transgenic tobacco plants expressing EcR dsRNA, its EcR mRNA level was dramatically decreased causing molting defects and larval lethality. In addition, the transgenic tobacco plants expressing H. armigera EcR dsRNA were also resistant to another lepidopteran pest, the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, due to the high similarity in the nucleotide sequences of their EcR genes. This study provides additional evidence that transgenic plant expressing dsRNA targeting insect-associated genes is able to improve pest resistance.

  3. Demonstration and Research Pest Control. Manual 91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the demonstration and research pest control category. The text discusses pesticide-organism interactions such as penetration, transport, accumulation, and biological magnification. Integrating pesticides…

  4. Development of a Microbial-Based Integrated Pest Management Program for Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Beneficial Insects on Conventional Cotton Crops in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Robert K; Young, Alison; Rood-England, Leah

    2015-04-09

    Entomopathogenic fungi, when used as a microbial control agent against cotton pests, such as Helicoverpa spp., may have the potential to establish and spread in the environment and to have an impact on both pests and beneficial insects. Information on the effect of entomopathogenic fungi on pests and beneficial insects is crucial for a product to be registered as a biopesticide. The effect of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639 (Aspergillus sp.) against Helicoverpa spp. and beneficial insects (mostly predatory insects) was studied in the laboratory and in cotton field trials. The results show that when Helicoverpa spp. second instar larvae were exposed to increasing concentrations (from 10² to 10⁸) of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639, the optimum dose required to kill over 50% of the insects was 1.0 ´ 10⁷ spores/mL. In the field trials, the number of Helicoverpa spp. per metre on plots treated with 1.0 or 0.50 L/ha of BC 639 was the same as on plots treated with the recommended rate of the commercial insecticide, Indoxacarb. However, when plots were treated with 0.25 L/ha of BC 639, this was not as effective at controlling Helicoverpa spp. as 1.0 or 0.5 L/ha BC 639 or Indoxacarb. BC 639 had less effect on predatory insects when applied at lower rates (0.50 and 0.25 L/ha) than at higher rates (1.0 L/ha). Thus, BC 639 was more selective against predators when applied at lower rates than at the higher rate, but was also more selective than Indoxacarb. Thus, the ability of BC 639 to control Helicoverpa spp. effectively with a minimal effect on predatory insects indicates its potential for enhancing integrated pest management programs and to sustain cotton production.

  5. Development of a Microbial-Based Integrated Pest Management Program for Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and Beneficial Insects on Conventional Cotton Crops in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Mensah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic fungi, when used as a microbial control agent against cotton pests, such as Helicoverpa spp., may have the potential to establish and spread in the environment and to have an impact on both pests and beneficial insects. Information on the effect of entomopathogenic fungi on pests and beneficial insects is crucial for a product to be registered as a biopesticide. The effect of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639 (Aspergillus sp. against Helicoverpa spp. and beneficial insects (mostly predatory insects was studied in the laboratory and in cotton field trials. The results show that when Helicoverpa spp. second instar larvae were exposed to increasing concentrations (from 102 to 109 of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639, the optimum dose required to kill over 50% of the insects was 1.0 ´ 107 spores/mL. In the field trials, the number of Helicoverpa spp. per metre on plots treated with 1.0 or 0.50 L/ha of BC 639 was the same as on plots treated with the recommended rate of the commercial insecticide, Indoxacarb. However, when plots were treated with 0.25 L/ha of BC 639, this was not as effective at controlling Helicoverpa spp. as 1.0 or 0.5 L/ha BC 639 or Indoxacarb. BC 639 had less effect on predatory insects when applied at lower rates (0.50 and 0.25 L/ha than at higher rates (1.0 L/ha. Thus, BC 639 was more selective against predators when applied at lower rates than at the higher rate, but was also more selective than Indoxacarb. Thus, the ability of BC 639 to control Helicoverpa spp. effectively with a minimal effect on predatory insects indicates its potential for enhancing integrated pest management programs and to sustain cotton production.

  6. First results of the application of a new Neemazal powder formulation in hydroponics against different pest insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Edmund; Kleeberg, Hubertus

    2002-01-01

    NeemAzal PC (0.5% Azadirachtin) is a new standardised powder formulation from the seed kernels of the tropical Neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) with an inert carrier. First experiments with beans--as a model-system for hydroponics--show that active ingredient is taken up by the plants through the roots and is transported efficiently with the plant sap to the leaves. After application of NeemAzal PC solution (0.01-1%) to the roots sucking (Aphis fabae Hom., Aphididae) and free feeding (Heliothis armigera Lep., Noctuidae) pest insects can be controlled efficiently. The effects are concentration and time dependent.

  7. Use of biorational for the vegetable pest control in the north of Sinaloa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Berenice González Maldonado

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Sinaloa the vegetable and cucurbits production are important agricultural activities, so each year a high volume of chemicalinsecticides are applied to pest control that attack these crops. This paper present the main pests insects in the region, as wellas an analysis about effects of biorational insecticides on these pests. Was found that for control of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is used Neem oil 0.2%., for kill nymphs of Bactericera cockerelli Sulc. (Homoptera: Psyllidae soursop Annona muricata L. (Annonales: Annonaceae at doses of 2500-5000 mg/L., for Liriomyza trifolii Burgess (Diptera: Agromyzidae neem seeds 2%., to Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae rapeseed oil at doses 920 g/L (2% v/v., to Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae spinosad (Conserve® 48-60 mg/L., and for Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae granular viruses (105 OBs/mL combined with neem (DalNeem TM emulsifiable oil and NeemAzal TM -T/S at doses of 8 mg/L, everyone. The use of these products and the dose depends on the type of pest and crop. In general these products cause insect mortality greater than 95%, besides having low toxicity on natural enemies, so that these can be used individually or in combination in integrated pest control schemes against vegetable pests, and also for disease vectors insects in the northern of Sinaloa.

  8. Effect of gaseous ozone for control of stored product pests at low and high temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Stengård; Hansen, Peer; Vagn Jensen, Karl-Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous ozone (O3) has shown potential for control of insects in stored grain. A previous laboratory study determined doses of ozone necessary to control freely exposed and internal stages of eleven stored product pest species at 20 C. In this study the impact of temperature on the effect of ozon...

  9. Engineered female-specific lethality for control of pest Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li; Walker, Adam S; Fu, Guoliang; Harvey-Samuel, Timothy; Dafa'alla, Tarig; Miles, Andrea; Marubbi, Thea; Granville, Deborah; Humphrey-Jones, Nerys; O'Connell, Sinead; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke

    2013-03-15

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a pest control strategy involving the mass release of radiation-sterilized insects, which reduce the target population through nonviable matings. In Lepidoptera, SIT could be more broadly applicable if the deleterious effects of sterilization by irradiation could be avoided. Moreover, male-only release can improve the efficacy of SIT. Adequate methods of male-only production in Lepidoptera are currently lacking, in contrast to some Diptera. We describe a synthetic genetic system that allows male-only moth production for SIT and also replaces radiation sterilization with inherited female-specific lethality. We sequenced and characterized the doublesex (dsx) gene from the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella). Sex-alternate splicing from dsx was used to develop a conditional lethal genetic sexing system in two pest moths: the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and pink bollworm. This system shows promise for enhancing existing pink bollworm SIT, as well as broadening SIT-type control to diamondback moth and other Lepidoptera.

  10. Citizen's Guide to Pest Control and Pesticide Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaches consumers how to control pests, choose, use, store, and dispose pesticides safely, reduce exposure when others use pesticides, prevent pesticide poisoning, handle an emergency, and how to choose a pest control company.

  11. Plant Tolerance: A Unique Approach to Control Hemipteran Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Kyle G.; Chapman, Kaitlin; Louis, Joe; Heng-Moss, Tiffany; Sarath, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Plant tolerance to insect pests has been indicated to be a unique category of resistance, however, very little information is available on the mechanism of tolerance against insect pests. Tolerance is distinctive in terms of the plant’s ability to withstand or recover from herbivore injury through growth and compensatory physiological processes. Because plant tolerance involves plant compensatory characteristics, the plant is able to harbor large numbers of herbivores without interfering with the insect pest’s physiology or behavior. Some studies have observed that tolerant plants can compensate photosynthetically by avoiding feedback inhibition and impaired electron flow through photosystem II that occurs as a result of insect feeding. Similarly, the up-regulation of peroxidases and other oxidative enzymes during insect feeding, in conjunction with elevated levels of phytohormones can play an important role in providing plant tolerance to insect pests. Hemipteran insects comprise some of the most economically important plant pests (e.g., aphids, whiteflies), due to their ability to achieve high population growth and their potential to transmit plant viruses. In this review, results from studies on plant tolerance to hemipterans are summarized, and potential models to understand tolerance are presented. PMID:27679643

  12. Mechanisms for flowering plants to benefit arthropod natural enemies of insect pests: prospects for enhanced use in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhong-Xian; Zhu, Ping-Yang; Gurr, Geoff M; Zheng, Xu-Song; Read, Donna M Y; Heong, Kong-Luen; Yang, Ya-Jun; Xu, Hong-Xing

    2014-02-01

    Reduction of noncrop habitats, intensive use of pesticides and high levels of disturbance associated with intensive crop production simplify the farming landscape and bring about a sharp decline of biodiversity. This, in turn, weakens the biological control ecosystem service provided by arthropod natural enemies. Strategic use of flowering plants to enhance plant biodiversity in a well-targeted manner can provide natural enemies with food sources and shelter to improve biological control and reduce dependence on chemical pesticides. This article reviews the nutritional value of various types of plant-derived food for natural enemies, possible adverse effects on pest management, and the practical application of flowering plants in orchards, vegetables and field crops, agricultural systems where most research has taken place. Prospects for more effective use of flowering plants to maximize biological control of insect pests in agroecosystem are good but depend up on selection of optimal plant species based on information on the ecological mechanisms by which natural enemies are selectively favored over pest species.

  13. Species, control status and outbreak causes of main pest insects in mangrove ecosystems in China%中国红树林生态系统主要害虫种类、防控现状及成灾原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志刚; 戴建青; 叶静文; 徐华林; 韩诗畴

    2012-01-01

    Mangrove wetlands are one of the key ecosystems in southeast coast of China. A lot of pest outbreaks have occurred in mangroves in recent years, and thus sustainable uses of mangrove wetlands face serious challenges. Species and control status of main pest insects in mangrove ecosystems in China are summarized in this article. The main pest insects include Acrobasis sp., Lasiognatha cellifera, Latoia lepida, Chalioides kondonis, Chalia larminati, Acanthopsyche subferalbata, etc. Biological control, including biological insecticide, insect growth regulators, and natural enemies are the major measures at Dreliminarilv in terms of ecosvstem health present. The outbreak causes of main pest insects are discussed and diversity of insect community. Furthermore, in order to achieve the goal of sustainable pest control, the strategies of habitat regulation in mangrove ecosystem are proposed, which would provide important theoretical references and scientific guidance for improving the level of pest management of mangrove wetlands as well as promoting the sustainable development of mangrove.%红树林湿地是中国东南沿海的关键生态系统之一.近年来,我国红树林陆续出现多种害虫种群暴发成灾的现象,使红树林湿地的可持续利用面临严重挑战.本文归纳了近20年来中国红树林生态系统的主要害虫种类,危害较严重的有海榄雌瘤斑螟Acrobasis sp.,毛颚小卷蛾Lasiognatha cellifera,丽绿刺蛾Latoia lepida,白囊袋蛾Chalioides kondonis,蜡彩袋蛾Chalia larminati和小袋蛾Acanthopsyche subferalbata等;对红树林虫害的防控现状进行总结,目前开展的防控工作主要以生物农药、昆虫生长调节剂、昆虫天敌等生物防治方法为主,结合灯光诱杀等物理防治手段的运用,对暴发期的害虫种群可以取得较好的控制效果;并从红树林生态系统健康水平和昆虫群落多样性等方面对害虫种群的成灾原因进行初步探讨;最终提出

  14. Organically Grown Soybean Production in the USA: Constraints and Management of Pathogens and Insect Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen L. Hartman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is the most produced and consumed oil seed crop worldwide. In 2013, 226 million metric tons were produced in over 70 countries. Organically produced soybean represents less than 0.1% of total world production. In the USA, the certified organic soybean crop was grown on 53 thousand ha or 0.17% of the total soybean acreage in the USA (32 million ha in 2011. A gradual increase in production of organically grown soybean has occurred since the inception of organic labeling due to increased human consumption of soy products and increased demand for organic soybean meal to produce organic animal products. Production constraints caused by pathogens and insect pests are often similar in organic and non-organic soybean production, but management between the two systems often differs. In general, the non-organic, grain-type soybean crop are genetically modified higher-yielding cultivars, often with disease and pest resistance, and are grown with the use of synthetic pesticides. The higher value of organically produced soybean makes production of the crop an attractive option to some farmers. This article reviews production and uses of organically grown soybean in the USA, potential constraints to production caused by pathogens and insect pests, and management practices used to reduce the impact of these constraints.

  15. When ecosystem services interact: crop pollination benefits depend on the level of pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Ola; Smith, Henrik G.; Rundlöf, Maj; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Pollination is a key ecosystem service which most often has been studied in isolation although effects of pollination on seed set might depend on, and interact with, other services important for crop production. We tested three competing hypotheses on how insect pollination and pest control might jointly affect seed set: independent, compensatory or synergistic effects. For this, we performed a cage experiment with two levels of insect pollination and simulated pest control in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) grown for seed. There was a synergistic interaction between the two services: the gain in seed set obtained when simultaneously increasing pollination and pest control outweighed the sum of seed set gains obtained when increasing each service separately. This study shows that interactions can alter the benefits obtained from service-providing organisms, and this needs to be considered to properly manage multiple ecosystem services. PMID:23269852

  16. Optimal Control Policies of Pests for Hybrid Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baolin Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We improve the traditional integrated pest management (IPM control strategies and formulate three specific management strategies, which can be described by hybrid dynamical systems. These strategies can not only effectively control pests but also reduce the abuse of pesticides and protect the natural enemies. The aim of this work is to study how the factors, such as natural enemies optimum choice in the two kinds of different pests, timings of natural enemy releases, dosages and timings of insecticide applications, and instantaneous killing rates of pesticides on both pests and natural enemies, can affect the success of IPM control programmes. The results indicate that the pests outbreak period or frequency largely depends on the optimal selective feeding of the natural enemy between one of the pests and the control tactics. Ultimately, we obtain the only pest needs to be controlled below a certain threshold while not supervising pest .

  17. 闽东南沿海中部地区青花菜田间害虫发生动态及其可持续控制技术研究%Dynamics of Insect Pests in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var.italica) Field in Middle Southeast Coastal Region of Fujian Province and Its Sustainable Control Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王再兴; 官德义; 刘志钦; 陈桂信; 何水林

    2011-01-01

    青花菜是近年闽东南沿海地区发展迅速的一种出口蔬菜,但其病虫害发生过重,农残超标已严重制约了该地区青花菜的可持续发展,因此,建立并推广应用可持续病虫控制技术已势在必行.本研究以福建省惠安县青花菜生产田块为研究对象,在跟踪监测种植季节(9月份到翌年3月份)主要虫害发生动态并确立重点防治对象及其关键时期的基础上,研究了灯诱、性诱和高效低毒农药对其主要虫害的防治效果,从而建立起一套青花菜田间虫害的可持续控制技术.这一研究成果对闽东南沿海青花菜及类似十字花科蔬菜生产的可持续发展具有一定的指导意义.%Broccoli is one of the most important vegetables for export that have expanded rapidly in the past decades in the southeast costal region of Fujian Province. Excessive pesticide residues due to the inappropriate usage of pesticides has become a big problem for the sustainable development of broccoli in this area, and the development of sustainable pests and diseases control techniques is currently an urgent task. In this project, study on the dynamics of insect pests in the field of broccoli and its control were carried out in Huian County, which located in the middle part of southeast costal region of Fujian Province. The dynamics of pests in broccoli fields from September to March of next year was monitored, the main insect pests and the key period for their control were determined. The effect of light trap and sexual attraction as well as the effect of environment friendly pesticides on the main pests of broccoli were determined, and a sustainable control technique was consequently established. The results of this study are important for the pollution free production of broccoli as well as other brassicaceous vegetables in southeast coastal region of Fujian.

  18. Delivery of Nucleic Acids through Embryo Microinjection in the Worldwide Agricultural Pest Insect, Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca

    2016-10-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a pest species with extremely high agricultural relevance. This is due to its reproductive behavior: females damage the external surface of fruits and vegetables when they lay eggs and the hatched larvae feed on their pulp. Wild C. capitata populations are traditionally controlled through insecticide spraying and/or eco-friendly approaches, the most successful being the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The SIT relies on mass-rearing, radiation-based sterilization and field release of males that retain their capacity to mate but are not able to generate fertile progeny. The advent and the subsequent rapid development of biotechnological tools, together with the availability of the medfly genome sequence, has greatly boosted our understanding of the biology of this species. This favored the proliferation of new strategies for genome manipulation, which can be applied to population control. In this context, embryo microinjection plays a dual role in expanding the toolbox for medfly control. The ability to interfere with the function of genes that regulate key biological processes, indeed, expands our understanding of the molecular machinery underlying medfly invasiveness. Furthermore, the ability to achieve germ-line transformation facilitates the production of multiple transgenic strains that can be tested for future field applications in novel SIT settings. Indeed, genetic manipulation can be used to confer desirable traits that can, for example, be used to monitor sterile male performance in the field, or that can result in early life-stage lethality. Here we describe a method to microinject nucleic acids into medfly embryos to achieve these two main goals.

  19. Agricultural pest control programmes, food security and safety | Eze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural pest control programmes, food security and safety. ... of some of the pests to the chemical pesticides, coupled with potential health hazards on the ... or post harvest treatments and basic information regarding the individual farmer or ...

  20. Influence of cover crops on insect pests and predators in conservation tillage cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Glynn; Schomberg, Harry; Phatak, Sharad; Mullinix, Benjamin; Lachnicht, Sharon; Timper, Patricia; Olson, Dawn

    2004-08-01

    In fall 2000, an on-farm sustainable agricultural research project was established for cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in Tift County, Georgia. The objective of our 2-yr research project was to determine the impact of several cover crops on pest and predator insects in cotton. The five cover crop treatments included 1) cereal rye, Secale cereale L., a standard grass cover crop; 2) crimson clover, Trifolium incarnatum L., a standard legume cover crop; 3) a legume mixture of balansa clover, Trifolium michelianum Savi; crimson clover; and hairy vetch, Vicia villosa Roth; 4) a legume mixture + rye combination; and 5) no cover crop in conventionally tilled fields. Three main groups or species of pests were collected in cover crops and cotton: 1) the heliothines Heliothis virescens (F.) and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie); 2) the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois); and 3) stink bugs. The main stink bugs collected were the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.); the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say); and the green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say). Cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover, were collected only on cotton. For both years of the study, the heliothines were the only pests that exceeded their economic threshold in cotton, and the number of times this threshold was exceeded in cotton was higher in control cotton than in crimson clover and rye cotton. Heliothine predators and aphidophagous lady beetles occurred in cover crops and cotton during both years of the experiment. Geocoris punctipes (Say), Orius insidiosus (Say), and red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren were relatively the most abundant heliothine predators observed. Lady beetles included the convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville; the sevenspotted lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L.; spotted lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer); and the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas). Density of G. punctipes was

  1. Development of an organic integrated pest management (ipm module against insect-pests of muskmelon in arid region of Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shravan M Haldhar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Four different muskmelon production systems (two conventional, one conventional IPM, and one organic IPM were compared in field experiments at the Central Institute for Arid Horticulture, Bikaner for two years. The organic IPM system proved to be the most effective and economical approach (B: C ratio 8.80:1 against melon aphid (Aphis gossypii, leaf eating caterpillar (Diaphania indica, hadda beetle (Epilachna vigintiopunctata and cucurbit fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae in which the lowest incidence was recorded as compared to other modules. The organic IPM module-III comprised of growing resistant genotype (RM-50, spray of neem oil at 20 DAS, installation of pheromone trap (10/ hectare at 42 DAS, spray of tumba fruit extract (TFE 5% at 50 DAS and spray of spinosad 46 SC at 60 DAS was the most effective. The conventional I (farmer’s practices was the second most effective system against major pests during both years. The benefit-cost ratio of the tested muskmelon production systems in the control of insect-pests decreased in the following order: module-III (B: C ratio 8.80:1> module-I (B: C ratio 7.74:1> module-IV (B: C ratio 6.60:1> module-II (B: C ratio 3.56:1.

  2. In-Field Habitat Management to Optimize Pest Control of Novel Soil Communities in Agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten A. Pearsons

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of managing agroecosystems on a landscape scale and the novel structure of soil communities in agroecosystems both provide reason to focus on in-field management practices, including cover crop adoption, reduced tillage, and judicial pesticide use, to promote soil community diversity. Belowground and epigeal arthropods, especially exotic generalist predators, play a significant role in controlling insect pests, weeds, and pathogens in agroecosystems. However, the preventative pest management tactics that dominate field-crop production in the United States do not promote biological control. In this review, we argue that by reducing disturbance, mitigating the effects of necessary field activities, and controlling pests within an Integrated Pest Management framework, farmers can facilitate the diversity and activity of native and exotic arthropod predators.

  3. In-Field Habitat Management to Optimize Pest Control of Novel Soil Communities in Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsons, Kirsten A; Tooker, John F

    2017-08-05

    The challenge of managing agroecosystems on a landscape scale and the novel structure of soil communities in agroecosystems both provide reason to focus on in-field management practices, including cover crop adoption, reduced tillage, and judicial pesticide use, to promote soil community diversity. Belowground and epigeal arthropods, especially exotic generalist predators, play a significant role in controlling insect pests, weeds, and pathogens in agroecosystems. However, the preventative pest management tactics that dominate field-crop production in the United States do not promote biological control. In this review, we argue that by reducing disturbance, mitigating the effects of necessary field activities, and controlling pests within an Integrated Pest Management framework, farmers can facilitate the diversity and activity of native and exotic arthropod predators.

  4. Analysis of sustainable pest control using a pesticide and a screened refuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringland, John; George, Prasanth

    2011-05-01

    We describe and analyze a 'screened refuge' technique for indefinitely sustaining control of insect pests using transgenic pesticidal crops or an applied pesticide, even when resistance is not recessive. The screen is a physical barrier that restricts pest movement. In a deterministic discrete-time model of the use of this technique, we obtain asymptotic analytical formulas for the two important equilibria of the system in terms of the refuge size and the pest fitnesses, mutation rates, and mobility out of and into the refuge. One of the equilibria is stable and is the point at which the pest population is controlled. The other is a saddle whose stable manifold bounds the basin of attraction of the former: its location provides a measure of the tolerance of the control mechanism to perturbations in the resistant allele density.

  5. Parameters for Successful Parental RNAi as An Insect Pest Management Tool in Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Vélez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Parental RNAi (pRNAi is an RNA interference response where the gene knockdown phenotype is observed in the progeny of the treated organism. pRNAi has been demonstrated in female western corn rootworms (WCR via diet applications and has been described as a potential approach for rootworm pest management. However, it is not clear if plant-expressed pRNAi can provide effective control of next generation WCR larvae in the field. In this study, we evaluated parameters required to generate a successful pRNAi response in WCR for the genes brahma and hunchback. The parameters tested included a concentration response, duration of the dsRNA exposure, timing of the dsRNA exposure with respect to the mating status in WCR females, and the effects of pRNAi on males. Results indicate that all of the above parameters affect the strength of pRNAi phenotype in females. Results are interpreted in terms of how this technology will perform in the field and the potential role for pRNAi in pest and resistance management strategies. More broadly, the described approaches enable examination of the dynamics of RNAi response in insects beyond pRNAi and crop pests.

  6. Parameters for Successful Parental RNAi as An Insect Pest Management Tool in Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Ana M; Fishilevich, Elane; Matz, Natalie; Storer, Nicholas P; Narva, Kenneth E; Siegfried, Blair D

    2016-12-24

    Parental RNAi (pRNAi) is an RNA interference response where the gene knockdown phenotype is observed in the progeny of the treated organism. pRNAi has been demonstrated in female western corn rootworms (WCR) via diet applications and has been described as a potential approach for rootworm pest management. However, it is not clear if plant-expressed pRNAi can provide effective control of next generation WCR larvae in the field. In this study, we evaluated parameters required to generate a successful pRNAi response in WCR for the genes brahma and hunchback. The parameters tested included a concentration response, duration of the dsRNA exposure, timing of the dsRNA exposure with respect to the mating status in WCR females, and the effects of pRNAi on males. Results indicate that all of the above parameters affect the strength of pRNAi phenotype in females. Results are interpreted in terms of how this technology will perform in the field and the potential role for pRNAi in pest and resistance management strategies. More broadly, the described approaches enable examination of the dynamics of RNAi response in insects beyond pRNAi and crop pests.

  7. 21 CFR 1250.95 - Insect control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insect control. 1250.95 Section 1250.95 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.95 Insect control. Vessels shall be... generally accepted methods of insect control....

  8. Impacts of transgenic poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems upon target pests and non-target insects under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D J; Liu, J X; Lu, Z Y; Li, C L; Comada, E; Yang, M S

    2015-07-27

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of cotton fields in China. With increasing acres devoted to transgenic insect-resistant poplar and transgenic insect-resistant cotton, studies examining the effects of transgenic plants on target and non-target insects become increasingly important. We systematically surveyed populations of both target pests and non-target insects for 4 different combinations of poplar-cotton eco-systems over 3 years. Transgenic Bt cotton strongly resisted the target insects Fall webworm moth [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)], Sylepta derogata Fabrieius, and American bollworm (Heliothis armigera), but no clear impact on non-target insect cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii). Importantly, intercrops containing transgenic Pb29 poplar significantly increased the inhibitory effects of Bt cotton on Fall webworm moth in ecosystem IV. Highly resistant Pb29 poplar reduced populations of the target pests Grnsonoma minutara Hubner and non-target insect poplar leaf aphid (Chaitophorus po-pulialbae), while Fall webworm moth populations were unaffected. We determined the effects of Bt toxin from transgenic poplar and cotton on target and non-target pests in different ecosystems of cotton-poplar intercrops and identified the synergistic effects of such combinations toward both target and non-target insects.

  9. Investigation and control on diseases and insect pests of‘No. 5 Weiyu’potato under different planting densities%不同种植密度下‘威芋5号’病虫害种类调查及防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杨; 陈祖瑶; 郑元红; 牟东岭

    2014-01-01

    in this investigation 10 types of diseases and insect pests were found, such as Henosepilachna vigintioctomaculata Motschulsky, Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks, Acyrthosiphon solani (Kaltenbach), Chrysomelidae Latreille, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner, Streptomyces scabies (Thaxter) Waks.et Henvici, PVY, Phytophthora infestans Mont, Erwinia carotovora subsp and Alternaria solani Sorauer. Incidence rates of diseases and pests increased with plant density. To realize the high yield and good quality cultivation of the‘No. 5 Weiyu’potato cultivars, it was very important to identify the diseases and insect pests correctly and to adopt the integrated control technology.%本次调查总共发现马铃薯病、虫害共10种。分别是马铃薯28星瓢虫(Henosepilachna vigintioctomaculata Motschulsky)、茶黄螨(Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks)、茄无网蚜(Acyrthosiphon solani Kaltenbach)、叶甲(Chrysomelidae Latreil e)、金针虫(Helicoverpa armigera Hubner)、马铃薯疮痂病(Streptomyces scabies (Thaxter) Waks.et Henvici),马铃薯病毒病(PVY)、马铃薯晚疫病(Phytophthora infestans Mont)、马铃薯软腐病(Erwinia carotovora subsp)和马铃薯早疫病(Alternaria solani Sorauer),病虫害的发生率随着种植密度增大而增加。为保证‘威芋5号’的高产、优产,准确识别病虫害的种类,采用综合防治技术是关键。

  10. Improved quality management to enhance the efficacy of the sterile insect technique for lepidopteran pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepidoptera are among the most severe pests of food and fibre crops in the world and are mainly controlled using broad spectrum insecticides. This does not lead to sustainable control and farmers are demanding alternative control tools which are both effective and friendly to the environment. The st...

  11. Technical Regulation of Diseases and Insect Pests Controlling on the Use Reduction of Pesticides in Protected-cultivation Tomatoes along Chaohu Area%沿巢湖地区设施番茄减量使用农药病虫防治技术规程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾江涛; 章东方; 高同春; 张海珊; 夏必文; 杨学文; 周维平

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to reduce agricultural non-point source pollution, to control the influence of pesticide pollution on the water quality of Chaohu Lake from the source of agricultural production and to push the standardization production of use reduction of pesticide along Chaolu area. [Method]The major diseases and insect pests were controlled by the applictions of control techniques measures. [Result] By the application of agricultural practices, physical control, biological control, chemical control measures and their combinations, the . diseases and insect pests of protected-cultivation tomatoes such as gray moid, drooping, epidemic disease, root rot, virus disease, aphid, whitefly were effectively controlled. [Conclusion]This technical regulation could reach the reduction of pesticide use, high yield and high quality purposes of protected-cultivation tomatoes production.%[目的]减少农业面源污染,从农业生产的源头控制农药时巢湖水质的影响,大力推进沿巢湖地区减量化使用农药标准化生产.[方法]应用病虫防治技术措施,对设施番茄主要病虫害进行防治.[结果]通过农业措施、物理防治、生物防治、药剂防治等措施或组合措施,可有效防治番茄灰霉病、立枯病、疫病、根腐病、病毒病、蚜虫、白粉虱等.[结论]该技术规程可使设施番茄生产达到减量使用农药、高产、优质的目的.

  12. [Occurrence dynamics of migratory pest insects Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Sogatella furcifera in transgenic Bt rice field in Xing'an County of Guangxi Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, He; Li, Zhi-Yi; Xu, Yan-Bo; Han, Chao; Han, Lan-Zhi; Chen, Fa-Jun

    2011-11-01

    An investigation was conducted in Xing' an County of Guangxi Province in 2010 to study the occurrence and damage characteristics of two unique migratory pest insects, rice leaffolder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) and white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera), in a transgenic Bt rice (cv. HH1 with dual Cry1Ab+Cry1Ac genes) field, taking the corresponding non-transgenic parent (cv. MH63) field as the control. No significant differences were observed in the abundance of C. medinalis eggs and larvae in the two fields, but the percentage of fold-leaf plants and the fold-leaf rate per plant were significantly lower in transgenic Bt rice field than in the control, suggesting that transgenic Bt rice had higher resistance against the target pest insect C. medinalis. As for S. furcifera, its occurrence dynamics of nymphs, adults (including macro- and brachypterous forms), and whole population had no significant differences between the two fields, but the abundance of the nymphs and brachypterous adults at the peak stage of S. furcifera occurrence was obviously higher in transgenic Bt rice field than in the control, while the macropterous abundance was in adverse. The sex ratio of female of the macropterous adults at the late growth stage of rice was generally lower in transgenic Bt rice field than in the control. These results suggested that under the background of large area commercial production of transgenic Bt rice, the occurrence and harm of the non-target pest insect S. furcifera could become more complicated.

  13. Establishment of the cytoplasmic incompatibility-inducing Wolbachia strain wMel in an important agricultural pest insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Fei; Li, Zheng-Xi

    2016-01-01

    The wMel Wolbachia strain was known for cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI)-induction and blocking the transmission of dengue. However, it is unknown whether it can establish and induce CI in a non-dipteran host insect. Here we artificially transferred wMel from Drosophila melanogaster into the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation demonstrated that wMel had successfully transfected the new host. Reciprocal crossing was conducted with wMel-transfected and wild-type isofemale lines, indicating that wMel could induce a strong CI without imposing significant cost on host fecundity. We then determined the maternal transmission efficiency of wMel in the offspring generations, showing a fluctuating trend over a period of 12 generations. We thus detected the titre of wMel during different developmental stages and in different generations by using real-time quantitative PCR, revealing a similar fluctuating mode, but it was not significantly correlated with the dynamics of transmission efficiency. These results suggest that wMel can be established in B.tabaci, a distantly related pest insect of agricultural importance; moreover, it can induce a strong CI phenotype in the recipient host insect, suggesting a potential for its use in biological control of B. tabaci. PMID:27982076

  14. The cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae as a new insect pest on tomato plants in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Samah Sayed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae was recorded as a new pest on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill growing in Egypt. The mealybugs specimens were collected from tomato plants in the Qalyoubia governorate during summer season of 2014. The mealybug was identified as P. solenopsis based on the morphological characters and taxonomic key of this species. This study represents the first record of P. solenopsis as a new insect pest attacking tomato plants in Egypt

  15. Classical Biological Control of Invasive Legacy Crop Pests: New Technologies Offer Opportunities to Revisit Old Pest Problems in Perennial Tree Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddle, Mark S; Warner, Keith; Steggall, John; Jetter, Karen M

    2014-12-23

    Advances in scientific disciplines that support classical biological control have provided "new tools" that could have important applications for biocontrol programs for some long-established invasive arthropod pests. We suggest that these previously unavailable tools should be used in biological control programs targeting "legacy pests", even if they have been targets of previously unsuccessful biocontrol projects. Examples of "new tools" include molecular analyses to verify species identities and likely geographic area of origin, climate matching and ecological niche modeling, preservation of natural enemy genetic diversity in quarantine, the use of theory from invasion biology to maximize establishment likelihoods for natural enemies, and improved understanding of the interactions between natural enemy and target pest microbiomes. This review suggests that opportunities exist for revisiting old pest problems and funding research programs using "new tools" for developing biological control programs for "legacy pests" could provide permanent suppression of some seemingly intractable pest problems. As a case study, we use citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum, an invasive legacy pest of California citrus, to demonstrate the potential of new tools to support a new classical biological control program targeting this insect.

  16. Numerical and functional responses of forest bats to a major insect pest in pine plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohan Charbonnier

    Full Text Available Global change is expected to modify the frequency and magnitude of defoliating insect outbreaks in forest ecosystems. Bats are increasingly acknowledged as effective biocontrol agents for pest insect populations. However, a better understanding is required of whether and how bat communities contribute to the resilience of forests to man- and climate-driven biotic disturbances.We studied the responses of forest insectivorous bats to a major pine defoliator, the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa, which is currently expanding its range in response to global warming [corrected]. We used pheromone traps and ultrasound bat recorders to estimate the abundance and activity of moths and predatory bats along the edge of infested pine stands. We used synthetic pheromone to evaluate the effects of experimentally increased moth availability on bat foraging activity. We also evaluated the top-down regulation of moth population by estimating T. pityocampa larval colonies abundance on the same edges the following winter. We observed a close spatio-temporal matching between emergent moths and foraging bats, with bat activity significantly increasing with moth abundance. The foraging activity of some bat species was significantly higher near pheromone lures, i.e. in areas of expected increased prey availability. Furthermore moth reproductive success significantly decreased with increasing bat activity during the flight period of adult moths. These findings suggest that bats, at least in condition of low prey density, exhibit numerical and functional responses to a specific and abundant prey, which may ultimately result in an effective top-down regulation of the population of the prey. These observations are consistent with bats being useful agents for the biocontrol of insect pest populations in plantation forests.

  17. Numerical and functional responses of forest bats to a major insect pest in pine plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Yohan; Barbaro, Luc; Theillout, Amandine; Jactel, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Global change is expected to modify the frequency and magnitude of defoliating insect outbreaks in forest ecosystems. Bats are increasingly acknowledged as effective biocontrol agents for pest insect populations. However, a better understanding is required of whether and how bat communities contribute to the resilience of forests to man- and climate-driven biotic disturbances.We studied the responses of forest insectivorous bats to a major pine defoliator, the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa, which is currently expanding its range in response to global warming [corrected]. We used pheromone traps and ultrasound bat recorders to estimate the abundance and activity of moths and predatory bats along the edge of infested pine stands. We used synthetic pheromone to evaluate the effects of experimentally increased moth availability on bat foraging activity. We also evaluated the top-down regulation of moth population by estimating T. pityocampa larval colonies abundance on the same edges the following winter. We observed a close spatio-temporal matching between emergent moths and foraging bats, with bat activity significantly increasing with moth abundance. The foraging activity of some bat species was significantly higher near pheromone lures, i.e. in areas of expected increased prey availability. Furthermore moth reproductive success significantly decreased with increasing bat activity during the flight period of adult moths. These findings suggest that bats, at least in condition of low prey density, exhibit numerical and functional responses to a specific and abundant prey, which may ultimately result in an effective top-down regulation of the population of the prey. These observations are consistent with bats being useful agents for the biocontrol of insect pest populations in plantation forests.

  18. Eicosanoids: Exploiting Insect Immunity to Improve Biological Control Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, David; Haas, Eric; Miller, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Insects, like all invertebrates, express robust innate, but not adaptive, immune reactions to infection and invasion. Insect immunity is usually resolved into three major components. The integument serves as a physical barrier to infections. Within the hemocoel, the circulating hemocytes are the temporal first line of defense, responsible for clearing the majority of infecting bacterial cells from circulation. Specific cellular defenses include phagocytosis, microaggregation of hemocytes with adhering bacteria, nodulation and encapsulation. Infections also stimulate the humoral component of immunity, which involves the induced expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides and activation of prophenoloxidase. These peptides appear in the hemolymph of challenged insects 6–12 hours after the challenge. Prostaglandins and other eicosanoids are crucial mediators of innate immune responses. Eicosanoid biosynthesis is stimulated by infection in insects. Inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthesis lethally renders experimental insects unable to clear bacterial infection from hemolymph. Eicosanoids mediate specific cell actions, including phagocytosis, microaggregation, nodulation, hemocyte migration, hemocyte spreading and the release of prophenoloxidase from oenocytoids. Some invaders have evolved mechanisms to suppress insect immunity; a few of them suppress immunity by targeting the first step in the eicosanoid biosynthesis pathways, the enzyme phospholipase A2. We proposed research designed to cripple insect immunity as a technology to improve biological control of insects. We used dsRNA to silence insect genes encoding phospholipase A2, and thereby inhibited the nodulation reaction to infection. The purpose of this article is to place our view of applying dsRNA technologies into the context of eicosanoid actions in insect immunity. The long-term significance of research in this area lies in developing new pest management technologies to contribute to food security in

  19. Eicosanoids: Exploiting Insect Immunity to Improve Biological Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Stanley

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Insects, like all invertebrates, express robust innate, but not adaptive, immune reactions to infection and invasion. Insect immunity is usually resolved into three major components. The integument serves as a physical barrier to infections. Within the hemocoel, the circulating hemocytes are the temporal first line of defense, responsible for clearing the majority of infecting bacterial cells from circulation. Specific cellular defenses include phagocytosis, microaggregation of hemocytes with adhering bacteria, nodulation and encapsulation. Infections also stimulate the humoral component of immunity, which involves the induced expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides and activation of prophenoloxidase. These peptides appear in the hemolymph of challenged insects 6–12 hours after the challenge. Prostaglandins and other eicosanoids are crucial mediators of innate immune responses. Eicosanoid biosynthesis is stimulated by infection in insects. Inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthesis lethally renders experimental insects unable to clear bacterial infection from hemolymph. Eicosanoids mediate specific cell actions, including phagocytosis, microaggregation, nodulation, hemocyte migration, hemocyte spreading and the release of prophenoloxidase from oenocytoids. Some invaders have evolved mechanisms to suppress insect immunity; a few of them suppress immunity by targeting the first step in the eicosanoid biosynthesis pathways, the enzyme phospholipase A2. We proposed research designed to cripple insect immunity as a technology to improve biological control of insects. We used dsRNA to silence insect genes encoding phospholipase A2, and thereby inhibited the nodulation reaction to infection. The purpose of this article is to place our view of applying dsRNA technologies into the context of eicosanoid actions in insect immunity. The long-term significance of research in this area lies in developing new pest management

  20. Insect pathogens as biological control agents: Back to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, L A; Grzywacz, D; Shapiro-Ilan, D I; Frutos, R; Brownbridge, M; Goettel, M S

    2015-11-01

    The development and use of entomopathogens as classical, conservation and augmentative biological control agents have included a number of successes and some setbacks in the past 1years. In this forum paper we present current information on development, use and future directions of insect-specific viruses, bacteria, fungi and nematodes as components of integrated pest management strategies for control of arthropod pests of crops, forests, urban habitats, and insects of medical and veterinary importance. Insect pathogenic viruses are a fruitful source of microbial control agents (MCAs), particularly for the control of lepidopteran pests. Most research is focused on the baculoviruses, important pathogens of some globally important pests for which control has become difficult due to either pesticide resistance or pressure to reduce pesticide residues. Baculoviruses are accepted as safe, readily mass produced, highly pathogenic and easily formulated and applied control agents. New baculovirus products are appearing in many countries and gaining an increased market share. However, the absence of a practical in vitro mass production system, generally higher production costs, limited post application persistence, slow rate of kill and high host specificity currently contribute to restricted use in pest control. Overcoming these limitations are key research areas for which progress could open up use of insect viruses to much larger markets. A small number of entomopathogenic bacteria have been commercially developed for control of insect pests. These include several Bacillus thuringiensis sub-species, Lysinibacillus (Bacillus) sphaericus, Paenibacillus spp. and Serratia entomophila. B. thuringiensis sub-species kurstaki is the most widely used for control of pest insects of crops and forests, and B. thuringiensis sub-species israelensis and L. sphaericus are the primary pathogens used for control of medically important pests including dipteran vectors. These pathogens

  1. Integrated Pest Management Practices Reduce Insecticide Applications, Preserve Beneficial Insects, and Decrease Pesticide Residues in Flue-Cured Tobacco Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Jeremy D; Burrack, Hannah J

    2016-09-22

    Integrated pest management (IPM) recommendations, including scouting and economic thresholds (ETs), are available for North Carolina flue-cured tobacco growers, although ETs for key pests have not been updated in several decades. Moreover, reported IPM adoption rates by flue-cured tobacco growers remain low, at pests reached ET (IPM), while the other field was managed per grower discretion (Grower Standard). IPM fields received an average of two fewer insecticide applications without compromising yield. More insecticide applications resulted in higher pesticide residues in cured leaf samples from Grower Standard fields than those from IPM fields. Reductions in insecticides and management intensity also resulted in larger beneficial insect populations in IPM fields.

  2. Book Review: Insect Virology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruses that infect insects have long been of interest both as a means for controlling insect pest populations in an environmentally safe manner, and also as significant threats to beneficial insects of great value, such as honey bees and silkworms. Insect viruses also have been of intrinsic intere...

  3. Biological characteristics of Acanthocinus carinulatus, a new record insect pest in Aershan, Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Fei; LUO You-qing; SHI Juan; Kari KELI(O)VAARA; QI Guo-xin; CHEN Yu-jie; MA Ling-yun

    2008-01-01

    Biological characteristics of a new record pest insect Acanthocinus carinulatus Gebler has been reported in China. During the last few years, outbreaks of this insect in larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) plantations of Aershan, Inner Mongolia have occurred. Each year one generation is born. The insects only damage the phloem in L. gmelinii, overwinter in galleries as larvae and pupate in May of the following year. The pupation culminates in late May. The pupal phase lasts about 45 d. Adults emerge in early June and require nutrition after emergence. Mating and oviposition occur from late June to early August and the adult males and females and may copulate many times in their lifetime. The female adults lay eggs in bark crevices. Oviposition sites with one egg occupy 70.5% of all sites, sites with three eggs occupy 6.8% and 22.7% of all crevices are without eggs. Eggs stay in this stage for a period of 7 to 11 d.Larvae hatch in early July and hibernate in early September. The rate of successful hatching is only 37.8%.

  4. Changing patterns in insect pests on trees in The Netherlands since 1946 in relation to human induced habitat changes and climate factors - an analysis of historical data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraal, L.G.; Jagers Op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In The Netherlands, insect pests on trees and shrubs are being monitored continuously since 1946. During these years, almost all insect pest populations showed marked changes, which may be the result of changes in forest management, shifts in forest composition, climate change and the arrival of new

  5. Promise for plant pest control: root-associated pseudomonads with insecticidal activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eKupferschmied

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Insects are an important and probably the most challenging pest to control in agriculture, in particular when they feed on belowground parts of plants. The application of synthetic pesticides is problematic owing to side effects on the environment, concerns for public health and the rapid development of resistance. Entomopathogenic bacteria, notably Bacillus thuringiensis and Photorhabdus/ Xenorhabdus species, are promising alternatives to chemical insecticides, for they are able to efficiently kill insects and are considered to be environmentally sound and harmless to mammals. However, they have the handicap of showing limited environmental persistence or of depending on a nematode vector for insect infection. Intriguingly, certain strains of plant root-colonizing Pseudomonas bacteria display insect pathogenicity and thus could be formulated to extend the present range of bioinsecticides for protection of plants against root-feeding insects. These entomopathogenic pseudomonads belong to a group of plant-beneficial rhizobacteria that have the remarkable ability to suppress soil-borne plant pathogens, promote plant growth, and induce systemic plant defenses. Here we review for the first time the current knowledge about the occurrence and the molecular basis of insecticidal activity in pseudomonads with an emphasis on plant-beneficial and prominent pathogenic species. We discuss how this fascinating Pseudomonas trait may be exploited for novel root-based approaches to insect control in an integrated pest management framework.

  6. Promise for plant pest control: root-associated pseudomonads with insecticidal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupferschmied, Peter; Maurhofer, Monika; Keel, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Insects are an important and probably the most challenging pest to control in agriculture, in particular when they feed on belowground parts of plants. The application of synthetic pesticides is problematic owing to side effects on the environment, concerns for public health and the rapid development of resistance. Entomopathogenic bacteria, notably Bacillus thuringiensis and Photorhabdus/Xenorhabdus species, are promising alternatives to chemical insecticides, for they are able to efficiently kill insects and are considered to be environmentally sound and harmless to mammals. However, they have the handicap of showing limited environmental persistence or of depending on a nematode vector for insect infection. Intriguingly, certain strains of plant root-colonizing Pseudomonas bacteria display insect pathogenicity and thus could be formulated to extend the present range of bioinsecticides for protection of plants against root-feeding insects. These entomopathogenic pseudomonads belong to a group of plant-beneficial rhizobacteria that have the remarkable ability to suppress soil-borne plant pathogens, promote plant growth, and induce systemic plant defenses. Here we review for the first time the current knowledge about the occurrence and the molecular basis of insecticidal activity in pseudomonads with an emphasis on plant-beneficial and prominent pathogenic species. We discuss how this fascinating Pseudomonas trait may be exploited for novel root-based approaches to insect control in an integrated pest management framework.

  7. Sequence Analysis of Insecticide Action and Detoxification-Related Genes in the Insect Pest Natural Enemy Pardosa pseudoannulata.

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    Xiangkun Meng

    Full Text Available The pond wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata, an important natural predatory enemy of rice planthoppers, is found widely distributed in paddy fields. However, data on the genes involved in insecticide action, detoxification, and response are very limited for P. pseudoannulata, which inhibits the development and appropriate use of selective insecticides to control insect pests on rice. We used transcriptome construction from adult spider cephalothoraxes to analyze and manually identify genes enconding metabolic enzymes and target receptors related to insecticide action and detoxification, including 90 cytochrome P450s, 14 glutathione S-transferases (GSTs, 17 acetylcholinesterases (AChEs, 17 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, and 17 gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA receptors, as well as 12 glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl unigenes. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed the different subclassifications of P450s and GSTs, some important sequence diversities in nAChRs and GABA receptors, polymorphism in AChEs, and high similarities in GluCls. For P450s in P. pseudoannulata, the number of unigenes belonging to the CYP2 clade was much higher than that in CYP3 and CYP4 clades. The results differed from insects in which most P450 genes were in CYP3 and CYP4 clades. For GSTs, most unigenes belonged to the delta and sigma classes, and no epsilon GST class gene was found, which differed from the findings for insects and acarina. Our results will be useful for studies on insecticide action, selectivity, and detoxification in the spider and other related animals, and the sequence differences in target genes between the spider and insects will provide important information for the design of selective insecticides.

  8. Sequence Analysis of Insecticide Action and Detoxification-Related Genes in the Insect Pest Natural Enemy Pardosa pseudoannulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangkun; Zhang, Yixi; Bao, Haibo; Liu, Zewen

    2015-01-01

    The pond wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata, an important natural predatory enemy of rice planthoppers, is found widely distributed in paddy fields. However, data on the genes involved in insecticide action, detoxification, and response are very limited for P. pseudoannulata, which inhibits the development and appropriate use of selective insecticides to control insect pests on rice. We used transcriptome construction from adult spider cephalothoraxes to analyze and manually identify genes enconding metabolic enzymes and target receptors related to insecticide action and detoxification, including 90 cytochrome P450s, 14 glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), 17 acetylcholinesterases (AChEs), 17 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and 17 gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, as well as 12 glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) unigenes. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed the different subclassifications of P450s and GSTs, some important sequence diversities in nAChRs and GABA receptors, polymorphism in AChEs, and high similarities in GluCls. For P450s in P. pseudoannulata, the number of unigenes belonging to the CYP2 clade was much higher than that in CYP3 and CYP4 clades. The results differed from insects in which most P450 genes were in CYP3 and CYP4 clades. For GSTs, most unigenes belonged to the delta and sigma classes, and no epsilon GST class gene was found, which differed from the findings for insects and acarina. Our results will be useful for studies on insecticide action, selectivity, and detoxification in the spider and other related animals, and the sequence differences in target genes between the spider and insects will provide important information for the design of selective insecticides.

  9. Which strategies are used against insect pests: a survey in 120 institutions of public heritage

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    Grazia Nicosia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative survey was conducted to identify the characteristics of infestations in contemporary art institutions. This survey helped us understanding the mechanism of infestation in French heritage institutions according to the type of institution. Our results show a correlation between the nature of the infestation, its understanding and the themes of the collection. This factual study provides a better assessment of institutions‘ risk management and their probable infestation depending on the type institution. Given these data, we are able to observe the typical features of contemporary art collections and their infestation by highlighting the fact that the insect is not only a pest, but is a constituent element of the artwork.

  10. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Herbivores and Its Stimulation to Major Insect Pests in Rice

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    Zhong-xian LU

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is one of the most important factors in development of herbivore populations. The application of nitrogen fertilizer in plants can normally increase herbivore feeding preference, food consumption, survival, growth, reproduction, and population density, except few examples that nitrogen fertilizer reduces the herbivore performances. In most of the rice growing areas in Asia, the great increases in populations of major insect pests of rice, including planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera, leaffolder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, and stem borers (Scirpophaga incertulas, Chilo suppressalis, S. innotata, C. polychrysus and Sesamia inferens were closely related to the long-term excessive application of nitrogen fertilizers. The optimal regime of nitrogen fertilizer in irrigated paddy fields is proposed to improve the fertilizer-nitrogen use efficiency and reduce the environmental pollution.

  11. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Herbivores and Its Stimulation to Major Insect Pests in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhong-xian; YU Xiao-ping; Kong-luen HEONG; HU Cui

    2007-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most important factors in development of herbivore populations. The application of nitrogen fertilizer in plants can normally increase herbivore feeding preference, food consumption, survival, growth, reproduction, and population density, except few examples that nitrogen fertilizer reduces the herbivore performances. In most of the rice growing areas in Asia, the great increases in populations of major insect pests of rice, including planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera), leaffolder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis), and stem borers (Scirpophaga incertulas, Chilo suppressalis, S. innotata, C. polychrysus and Sesamia inferens) were closely related to the long-term excessive application of nitrogen fertilizers. The optimal regime of nitrogen fertilizer in irrigated paddy fields is proposed to improve the fertilizer-nitrogen use efficiency and reduce the environmental pollution.

  12. Improving cluster-based methods for investigating potential for insect pest species establishment: region-specific risk factors

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    Michael J. Watts

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing cluster-based methods for investigating insect species assemblages or profiles of a region to indicate the risk of new insect pest invasion have a major limitation in that they assign the same species risk factors to each region in a cluster. Clearly regions assigned to the same cluster have different degrees of similarity with respect to their species profile or assemblage. This study addresses this concern by applying weighting factors to the cluster elements used to calculate regional risk factors, thereby producing region-specific risk factors. Using a database of the global distribution of crop insect pest species, we found that we were able to produce highly differentiated region-specific risk factors for insect pests. We did this by weighting cluster elements by their Euclidean distance from the target region. Using this approach meant that risk weightings were derived that were more realistic, as they were specific to the pest profile or species assemblage of each region. This weighting method provides an improved tool for estimating the potential invasion risk posed by exotic species given that they have an opportunity to establish in a target region.

  13. Unexpected effects of sublethal doses of insecticide on the peripheral olfactory response and sexual behavior in a pest insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalouette, Lisa; Pottier, Marie-Anne; Wycke, Marie-Anne; Boitard, Constance; Bozzolan, Françoise; Maria, Annick; Demondion, Elodie; Chertemps, Thomas; Lucas, Philippe; Renault, David; Maibeche, Martine; Siaussat, David

    2016-02-01

    Pesticides have long been used as the main solution to limit agricultural pests, but their widespread use resulted in chronic or diffuse environmental pollutions, development of insect resistances, and biodiversity reduction. The effects of low residual doses of these chemical products on organisms that affect both targeted species (crop pests) but also beneficial insects became a major concern, particularly because low doses of pesticides can induce unexpected positive--also called hermetic--effects on insects, leading to surges in pest population growth at greater rate than what would have been observed without pesticide application. The present study aimed to examine the effects of sublethal doses of deltamethrin, one of the most used synthetic pyrethroids, known to present a residual activity and persistence in the environment, on the peripheral olfactory system and sexual behavior of a major pest insect, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis. We highlighted here a hormetic effect of sublethal dose of deltamethrin on the male responses to sex pheromone, without any modification of their response to host-plant odorants. We also identified several antennal actors potentially involved in this hormetic effect and in the antennal detoxification or antennal stress response of/to deltamethrin exposure.

  14. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide, causing millions of dollars in yearly losses to coffee growers. We present the third genomic analysis for a Coleopteran species, a draft genome of female coffee berry borers. The genome s...

  15. Generation of Wood-waste Vinegar and Its Effectiveness as a Plant Growth Regulator and Pest Insect Repellent

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    Budy Rahmat

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood vinegar (WV was obtained from charcoal production byproducts. The increase in demand for WV as an alternative pesticide requires more production of WV independent of conventional charcoal production. This research was intended to commence the production of WV from available furniture wood waste. The study included the following: (i the preparation and performance of a pyrolysis kiln; and (ii the application of the produced WV as a plant growth regulator of papaya plants in the nursery and as a pest insect repellent during maize storage. These experiments were arranged in a randomized block design. The observed variables included pyrolysis rate, the effect of WV on papaya growth in nursery, and the effect of WV in controlling infestation of maize weevils. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and continued with Duncan’s multiple difference test. The results showed that while the production of WV continuously occurred until the 90th min, the maximum (139 mL was reached at the 10th min. Pyrolysis of 1,000 g of chips of wood-planer’s waste yielded WV, tar, bio-oil, and char in quantities of 487.67 mL, 41.76 g, 2.93 mL, and 222 g respectively. The treatment using WV (50 mL/L increased the diameter of papaya stems in the nursery. Mixing and fuming application of 5 mL of WV as a pest insect repellent on 200 g of maize on the storage could increase the number of the dead maize weevil and reduce the damage maize kernel.

  16. A naturally occurring plant cysteine protease possesses remarkable toxicity against insect pests and synergizes Bacillus thuringiensis toxin.

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    Srinidi Mohan

    Full Text Available When caterpillars feed on maize (Zea maize L. lines with native resistance to several Lepidopteran pests, a defensive cysteine protease, Mir1-CP, rapidly accumulates at the wound site. Mir1-CP has been shown to inhibit caterpillar growth in vivo by attacking and permeabilizing the insect's peritrophic matrix (PM, a structure that surrounds the food bolus, assists in digestion and protects the midgut from microbes and toxins. PM permeabilization weakens the caterpillar defenses by facilitating the movement of other insecticidal proteins in the diet to the midgut microvilli and thereby enhancing their toxicity. To directly determine the toxicity of Mir1-CP, the purified recombinant enzyme was directly tested against four economically significant Lepidopteran pests in bioassays. Mir1-CP LC(50 values were 1.8, 3.6, 0.6, and 8.0 ppm for corn earworm, tobacco budworm, fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer, respectively. These values were the same order of magnitude as those determined for the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Bt-CryIIA. In addition to being directly toxic to the larvae, 60 ppb Mir1-CP synergized sublethal concentrations of Bt-CryIIA in all four species. Permeabilization of the PM by Mir1-CP probably provides ready access to Bt-binding sites on the midgut microvilli and increases its activity. Consequently, Mir1-CP could be used for controlling caterpillar pests in maize using non-transgenic approaches and potentially could be used in other crops either singly or in combination with Bt-toxins.

  17. A naturally occurring plant cysteine protease possesses remarkable toxicity against insect pests and synergizes Bacillus thuringiensis toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Srinidi; Ma, Peter W K; Williams, W Paul; Luthe, Dawn S

    2008-03-12

    When caterpillars feed on maize (Zea maize L.) lines with native resistance to several Lepidopteran pests, a defensive cysteine protease, Mir1-CP, rapidly accumulates at the wound site. Mir1-CP has been shown to inhibit caterpillar growth in vivo by attacking and permeabilizing the insect's peritrophic matrix (PM), a structure that surrounds the food bolus, assists in digestion and protects the midgut from microbes and toxins. PM permeabilization weakens the caterpillar defenses by facilitating the movement of other insecticidal proteins in the diet to the midgut microvilli and thereby enhancing their toxicity. To directly determine the toxicity of Mir1-CP, the purified recombinant enzyme was directly tested against four economically significant Lepidopteran pests in bioassays. Mir1-CP LC(50) values were 1.8, 3.6, 0.6, and 8.0 ppm for corn earworm, tobacco budworm, fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer, respectively. These values were the same order of magnitude as those determined for the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Bt-CryIIA. In addition to being directly toxic to the larvae, 60 ppb Mir1-CP synergized sublethal concentrations of Bt-CryIIA in all four species. Permeabilization of the PM by Mir1-CP probably provides ready access to Bt-binding sites on the midgut microvilli and increases its activity. Consequently, Mir1-CP could be used for controlling caterpillar pests in maize using non-transgenic approaches and potentially could be used in other crops either singly or in combination with Bt-toxins.

  18. Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Bulletin 767.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Maxcy P., Jr.

    Included in this training manual are descriptions and pictures of the following agricultural animal pests: mosquitoes, stable flies, horse flies and deer or yellow flies, house flies, horn flies, wound-infesting larvae, lice, mites, ticks, and bots and grubs. Information is given on the life-cycle and breeding habits of the pests. Methods of…

  19. Optimal Application Timing of Pest Control Tactics in Nonautonomous Pest Growth Model

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    Shujuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the effects of the living environment on growth of populations, it is unrealistic to assume that the growth rates of predator and prey are all constants in the models with integrated pest management (IPM strategies. Therefore, a nonautonomous predator-prey system with impulsive effect is developed and investigated in the present work. In order to determine the optimal application timing of IPM tactics, the threshold value which guarantees the stability of pest-free periodic solution has been obtained firstly. The analytical formula of optimal application timings within a given period for different cases has been obtained such that the threshold value is the smallest, which is the most effective in successful pest control. Moreover, extensively numerical investigations have also been confirmed our main results and the biological implications have been discussed in more detail. The main results can guide the farmer to design the optimal pest control strategies.

  20. Eco Control of Agro Pests using Imaging, Modelling & Natural Predators

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    Fina Faithpraise

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Caterpillars in their various forms: size, shape, and colour cause significant harm to crops and humans. This paper offers a solution for the detection and control of caterpillars through the use of a sustainable pest control system that does not require the application of chemical pesticides, which damage human health and destroy the naturally beneficial insects within the environment. The proposed system is capable of controlling 80% of the population of caterpillars in less than 65 days by deploying a controlled number of larval parasitoid wasps (Cotesia Flavipes, Cameron into the crop environment. This is made possible by using a continuous time model of the interaction between the caterpillar and the Cotesia Flavipes (Cameron wasps using a set of simultaneous, non-linear, ordinary differential equations incorporating natural death rates based on the Weibull probability distribution function. A negative binomial distribution is used to model the efficiency and the probability that the wasp will find and parasitize a host larva. The caterpillar is presented in all its life-cycle stages of: egg, larva, pupa and adult and the Cotesia Flavipes (Cameron wasp is present as an adult larval parasitoid. Biological control modelling is used to estimate the quantity of the Cotesia Flavipes (Cameron wasps that should be introduced into the caterpillar infested environment to suppress its population density to an economically acceptable level within a prescribed number of days.

  1. Induced plant resistance as a pest management tactic on piercing sucking insects of sesame crop

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    M. F. Mahmoud

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sesame, Sesamum indicum L. is the most oil seed crop of the world and also a major oil seed crop of Egypt. One of the major constraints in its production the damage caused by insect pests, particularly sucking insects which suck the cell sap from leaves, flowers and capsules. Impact of three levels of potassin-F, salicylic acid and combination between them on reduction infestation of Stink bug Nezara viridula L., Mirid bug Creontiades sp., Green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer, Leafhopper Empoasca lybica de Berg and Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius of sesame crop cultivar Shandawil 3 was carried out during 2010-2011 crop season at Experimental farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt. Also, the impacts of potassin-F and salicylic acid on yield production of sesame were studied. Results indicated that percent of reduction of infestation by N. viridula, M. persicae, Creontiades sp., E. lybicae, B. tabaci and phyllody disease were significantly higher at Level 2 (Potassin-F= 2.5 cm/l, Salicylic acid= 0.001 M and Potassin + Salicylic= 2.5 cm/l + 0.001 M and consequently higher seed yield per plant were obtained.

  2. Use of natural enemies and biorational pest control of corne

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    Cipriano García Gutiérrez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A general analysis of the potential use of natural enemies and biorational insecticides for control of main pests of corn in thestate of Sinaloa is presented. A discuss on their composition, dosage, toxicity and type of effect on beneficial organisms(natural enemies and pollinators is too included. The work revealed that is possible implement the use of these natural enemies and products for the control of neonate larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda fall armyworm (J. E Smith with Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow (Samson; against thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande using the nematodes Steinernema riobravis (Cabanillas and Poinar, S. feltiae (Filipjev and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar at doses of 10,000 IJ (4x10 ~ IJ/m; against the corn silk fly Euxesta stigmatias (Loew encouraging the natural parasitism of Spalangia sp., while for the cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel can be with spinosad (soluble concentrate at doses of 0.123 kg a. i, and to the corn earwormHelicoverpa zea (Boddie using the analog of methoxyfenozide molting hormone (24% at 144 mg of a. i/L. The biorational control agents that not affect significantly to the natural enemies were the nucleopoliedrosis virus SfMNPV and SeMNPV; N. rileyi and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize; Bacillus thuringiensis (Berlinier; the azadirachtin (neem and parasitoids. In the case of products of chemical synthesis: Spinosad, oxymatrine and bifenthrin showed high rates of mortality in the control of corn pests, so these are considered as of high and moderate risk to Aphis mellifera (L. bees, the methoxyfenozide presented relatively low toxicity to natural enemies. In general, biorational products have repellent effect on larvae and adults of these insects, inhibit feeding and induce molting, also causing deformities and impede the development and growth, too interfere with sexual intercourse and copulate, reducing the oviposition, as well as cause sterility of adults, so these may also constitute a risk to

  3. Contact Toxicity and Repellency of the Essential Oil of Liriope muscari (DECN. Bailey against Three Insect Tobacco Storage Pests

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    Yan Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to find and develop new botanical pesticides against tobacco storage pests, bioactivity screening was performed. The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Liriope muscari was investigated by GC/MS and GC/FID. A total of 14 components representing 96.12% of the oil were identified and the main compounds in the oil were found to be methyl eugenol (42.15% and safrole (17.15%, followed by myristicin (14.18% and 3,5-dimethoxytoluene (10.60%. After screening, the essential oil exhibit potential insecticidal activity. In the progress of assay, it showed that the essential oil exhibited potent contact toxicity against Tribolium castaneum, Lasioderma serricorne and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults, with LD50 values of 13.36, 11.28 µg/adult and 21.37 µg/cm2, respectively. The essential oil also exhibited strong repellency against the three stored product insects. At the same concentrations, the essential oil was more repellent to T. castaneum than to L. serricorne adults. The results indicate that the essential oil of Liriope muscari has potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling insects in stored tobacco and traditional Chinese medicinal materials.

  4. Tissue-specific transcriptomics of the exotic invasive insect pest emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis.

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    Omprakash Mittapalli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp. primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248and trypsin (98 domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85 and protein kinase (123 domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis.

  5. Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittapalli, Omprakash; Bai, Xiaodong; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. Methodology and Principal Findings Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248)and trypsin (98) domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85) and protein kinase (123) domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body) and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body) were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. Conclusions and Significance To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis. PMID:21060843

  6. Box Tree Moth (Cydalima perspectalis, Lepidoptera; Crambidae, New Invasive Insect Pest in Croatia

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    Dinka Matošević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Alien invasive species have been described as an outstanding global problem. Hundreds of species are intentionally and unintentionally moved worldwide and and numbers of introductions to new habitats have been accelerated all over the world due to the increasing mobility of people and goods over the past decades. Numerous alien insect species, many of them introduced only in the last 20 years, have become successfully established in various ecosystems in Croatia. Box tree moth (Cydalima perspectalis, Lepidoptera; Crambidae is an invasive pest recently introduced to Europe causing serious damage to ornamental box (Buxus sp. shrubs and trees. The aim of this paper is to describe the biology of box tree moth with prognosis of its future spread and damages in Croatia. Material and Methods: Young larvae (first and second larval stage and adults of box tree moth were collected in August and September 2013 in Arboretum Opeka and in Varaždin. They were brought to the entomological laboratory of Croatian Forest Research Institute where they were reared to pupae and then to moths. Results and Conclusions: The box tree moth was recorded for the first time in North Croatia in August 2013. Larvae were found defoliating box plants (B. sempervirens in Arboretum Opeka, Vinica and they have been identified as C. prespectalis. According to damages it can be assumed that the pest has been introduced to the region earlier (in 2011 or 2012 and that the primary infection has not been detected. At least two generations per year could be assumed in Croatia in 2013. The damage done to box tree plants on the locality of study is serious. The plants have been defoliated, particularly in the lower parts. The defoliation reduced the amenity value of plants. This is the first record of this pest and its damages in Northern Croatia and it can be expected that the pest will rapidly spread to other parts of Croatia seriously damaging box plants

  7. Effect of soybeans, corn and rice configurations on the biological control of pest insects%大豆、玉米与水稻配置对稻田寄生蜂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈林泉; 胡中卫; 吴进才

    2013-01-01

    本文研究了稻田生境和非稻田生境间寄生性天敌的迁移扩散规律及其对水稻主要害虫的控制作用.结果表明,寄生蜂从大豆生境扩散到稻田生境的数量显著高于其从玉米生境扩散到稻田生境,而田埂种植玉米的寄生蜂扩散数量与不种植玉米相比无显著性差异.田埂配置大豆的有机稻田内二化螟Chilo suppressalis、三化螟Tryporyza incertulas、稻纵卷叶螟Cnaphalocrocis medinalis cnienee和褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens的卵寄生率分别为17.8%,20.3%,10.2%和12.4%,与未配置大豆的对照相比分别增加了4.3%,7.5%,2.1%,和3.4%;它们的幼虫寄生率分别为14.7%,31.7%,21.3%,7.3%,与对照相比分别增加了5.3%,9.8%,5.7%和2.8%.而田埂配置玉米的有机稻田的二化螟,三化螟,稻纵卷叶螟和褐飞虱的卵寄生率分别为10.3%,14.4%,8.6%和9.3%;与未配置玉米的对照相比分别降低了3.2%,增加1.6%,0.5%和0.3%;它们的幼虫寄生率分别为10.3%,19.4%,17.5%和2.6%,与对照相比分别增加了0.9%,降低了2.5%,增加了1.9%和降低了1.9%.研究结果可为通过建立合理的水稻邻作模式进行害虫生物防治提供重要科学依据.%The movement of natural enemies into organic rice fields beside a ridge on which soybean and maize were planted was compared to that into a control rice field with no soybean or maize crops nearby.We found that significantly more natural enemies moved into rice fields from soybean than from maize habitat.Parasitism rates of the eggs of Chilo suppressalis,Tryporyza incertulas,Cnaphalocrocis medinalis cnienee,and Nilaparvata lugens in the organic rice field adjacent to soybeans were 17.8%,20.3%,10.2% and 12.4%,respectively,which were 4.3%,7.5%,2.1% and 3.4% higher than those observed in the control.Parasitism rates on eggs of the four pests in the organic rice field adjacent to maize were 10.3%,4.4%,8.6% and

  8. Combination of Methoprene and Controlled Aeration to Manage Insects in Stored Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel S; Arthur, Frank H; VanGundy, Douglas; Phillips, Thomas W

    2016-06-17

    A commercial formulation of the insect growth regulator methoprene was applied to wheat stored in small bins either alone or in combination with controlled aeration of the bins, to lower grain temperature for insect pest management of stored wheat. Grain temperatures were monitored and modified by a computer-controlled thermocouple system that also activated the aeration system at programmed set-points to move cool ambient air through the grain mass to lower grain temperature. Results from sampling insect populations in experimental storage bins along with laboratory mortality bioassays of insects placed on wheat taken from the bins over the course of the storage period showed that methoprene was very effective in controlling infestation by the externally-feeding stored grain insects Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), the Indian meal moth Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), the rusty grain beetle, and also for the internal-feeding pest Rhyzopertha dominica( Fauvel), the lesser grain borer. Methoprene did not give good control of the internal-feeding pest Sitophilus oryzae (L.), the rice weevil. Aeration alone was somewhat effective in suppressing insect population development, while methoprene alone or when combined with aeration greatly enhanced insect control. Commercial grain grading for industry quality standards at the end of the storage period confirmed the impact of insect suppression on maintaining high quality of the stored wheat. This field experiment shows that methoprene combined with aeration to cool grain can be effective for pest management of stored wheat in the southern plains of the United States of America.

  9. Combination of Methoprene and Controlled Aeration to Manage Insects in Stored Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel S. Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A commercial formulation of the insect growth regulator methoprene was applied to wheat stored in small bins either alone or in combination with controlled aeration of the bins, to lower grain temperature for insect pest management of stored wheat. Grain temperatures were monitored and modified by a computer-controlled thermocouple system that also activated the aeration system at programmed set-points to move cool ambient air through the grain mass to lower grain temperature. Results from sampling insect populations in experimental storage bins along with laboratory mortality bioassays of insects placed on wheat taken from the bins over the course of the storage period showed that methoprene was very effective in controlling infestation by the externally-feeding stored grain insects Plodia interpunctella (Hübner, the Indian meal moth Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, the red flour beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens, the rusty grain beetle, and also for the internal-feeding pest Rhyzopertha dominica( Fauvel, the lesser grain borer. Methoprene did not give good control of the internal-feeding pest Sitophilus oryzae (L., the rice weevil. Aeration alone was somewhat effective in suppressing insect population development, while methoprene alone or when combined with aeration greatly enhanced insect control. Commercial grain grading for industry quality standards at the end of the storage period confirmed the impact of insect suppression on maintaining high quality of the stored wheat. This field experiment shows that methoprene combined with aeration to cool grain can be effective for pest management of stored wheat in the southern plains of the United States of America.

  10. Fine-scale geographical origin of an insect pest invading North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Hosokawa

    Full Text Available Invasive species may rapidly spread throughout new areas once introduced, which may potentially lead to serious damage to local fauna and flora. Information on geographical origins, introduction routes, and biology in native regions of such invasive species is of critical importance in identifying means of transport, preventing reintroduction, and establishing control/eradication methods. The plataspid stinkbug Megacopta cribraria, known as kudzu bug, recently invaded North America and now has become not only an agricultural pest of soybean but also a nuisance pest. Here we investigate the geographical origin of the invasive M. cribraria populations. Phylogeographical analyses based on 8.7 kb mitochondrial DNA sequences of the introduced and East Asian native Megacopta populations identified a well-supported clade consisting of the introduced populations and M. punctatissima populations in the Kyushu region of Japan, which strongly suggests that the invading M. cribraria populations are derived from a M. punctatissima population in the Kyushu region. Therefore, the region is proposed as a promising source of natural enemies for biological control of the invasive pest. Based on the phylogenetic information, relationship and treatment of the two Megacopta species are discussed.

  11. Controle de pragas e doenças, maturação e qualidade de maçãs 'imperial gala' submetidas ao ensacamento Control of insect pests and diseases, maturity and quality of 'imperial gala' apples submitted to bagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes embalagens no ensacamento de maçãs para o controle de pragas e doenças, e sua influência na maturação e qualidade dos frutos, em pomar sob sistema orgânico. O experimento foi conduzido em pomar com plantas de dez anos de idade da cultivar Imperial Gala, sobre porta-enxerto 'Marubakaido', com filtro EM-9, localizado no município de São Joaquim-SC, nas safras 2007/2008 e 2008/2009. Os frutos foram ensacados, após o raleio, com embalagens plásticas transparentes microperfuradas ou de tecido não texturizado (TNT. Frutos não ensacados constituíram o tratamento-controle. Na colheita, os frutos foram avaliados quanto aos danos provocados por mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus, mariposa-oriental (Grapholita molesta, lagarta-enroladeira (Bonagota salubricola e pulgão-lanígero (Eriosoma lanigerum, incidência das doenças sarna-da-macieira (Venturia inaequalis e podridão-amarga (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, e atributos físico-químicos de maturação e qualidade e teor de cálcio (Ca nos frutos. O ensacamento, independentemente do tipo de material utilizado, reduziu os danos de insetos-praga, porém não foi eficiente no controle de doenças nos frutos. O ensacamento não comprometeu o desenvolvimento de coloração vermelha na casca e o teor de Ca nos frutos. De modo geral, o ensacamento antecipou o processo de maturação, caracterizado pela redução na firmeza de polpa e na textura da casca e da polpa, e pelo aumento no índice de iodoamido.This work was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of different fruit bagging materials to insect pests and diseases control, and its influence on maturity and quality of the fruits in an organic apple orchard. The experiment was conducted in an orchard with ten years old 'Imperial Gala' apple trees grafted on 'Marubakaido' rootstock (with a filter of EM-9, in São Joaquim, State of Santa Catarina, in 2007/08 and 2008

  12. Biodiversity of insect-parasitic nematodes in soil pest insect (Orthoptera, Gryllidae and Gryllotalpidae) in wheat fields of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Camino, Nora Beatriz; Achinelly, María Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    This work was conducted in wheat fields of the Argentine pampas providing an extensive list of nematodes of soil pest insects. Adults and nymphs of crickets and mole crickets, were found parasited by nematodes. Twenty-four nematode species from six families were registered. Thelastomatid nematodes were the most numerous group while Pseudonimidae, Travassosinematidae and Diplogasteridae families were the least represented. The Pampean region constituted an area with...

  13. Parasitoids as biological control agents of thrips pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, A.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Thysanoptera, Frankliniella occidentalis, Hymenoptera, Ceranisus menes, Ceranisus americensis, biological controlThe thesis presented here is the result of a joint European Research project "Biological Control of Thrips Pests". Specific aims of the project were to collect, evaluate, mass

  14. Comparative evaluation of phenoloxidase in different larval stages of four lepidopteran pests after exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some lepidopteran insects are important agricultural pests, causing serious crop damage. Microbial entomopathogen-based bioinsecticides are considered effective pest control alternatives to synthetic chemicals. However, insects can defend against pathogens by innate mechanisms, including phenoloxi...

  15. Plants attract parasitic wasps to defend themselves against insect pests by releasing hexenol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant volatiles play an important role in defending plants against insect attacks by attracting their natural enemies. For example, green leaf volatiles (GLVs and terpenoids emitted from herbivore-damaged plants were found to be important in the host location of parasitic wasps. However, evidence of the functional roles and mechanisms of these semio-chemicals from a system of multiple plants in prey location by the parasitoid is limited. Little is known about the potential evolutionary trends between herbivore-induced host plant volatiles and the host location of their parasitoids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study includes hierarchical cluster analyses of plant volatile profiles from seven families of host and non-host plants of pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis, and behavioral responses of a naive parasitic wasp, Opius dissitus, to some principal volatile compounds. Here we show that plants can effectively pull wasps, O. dissitus, towards them by releasing a universally induced compound, (Z-3-hexenol, and potentially keep these plants safe from parasitic assaults by leafminer pests, L. huidobrensis. Specifically, we found that volatile profiles from healthy plants revealed a partly phylogenetic signal, while the inducible compounds of the infested-plants did not result from the fact that the induced plant volatiles dominate most of the volatile blends of the host and non-host plants of the leafminer pests. We further show that the parasitoids are capable of distinguishing the damaged host plant from the non-host plant of the leafminers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that, as the most passive scenario of plant involvement, leafminers and mechanical damages evoke similar semio-chemicals. Using ubiquitous compounds, such as hexenol, for host location by general parasitoids could be an adaptation of the most conservative evolution of tritrophic interaction. Although for this, other compounds may be

  16. Classical Biological Control of Invasive Legacy Crop Pests: New Technologies Offer Opportunities to Revisit Old Pest Problems in Perennial Tree Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Hoddle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in scientific disciplines that support classical biological control have provided “new tools” that could have important applications for biocontrol programs for some long-established invasive arthropod pests. We suggest that these previously unavailable tools should be used in biological control programs targeting “legacy pests”, even if they have been targets of previously unsuccessful biocontrol projects. Examples of “new tools” include molecular analyses to verify species identities and likely geographic area of origin, climate matching and ecological niche modeling, preservation of natural enemy genetic diversity in quarantine, the use of theory from invasion biology to maximize establishment likelihoods for natural enemies, and improved understanding of the interactions between natural enemy and target pest microbiomes. This review suggests that opportunities exist for revisiting old pest problems and funding research programs using “new tools” for developing biological control programs for “legacy pests” could provide permanent suppression of some seemingly intractable pest problems. As a case study, we use citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum, an invasive legacy pest of California citrus, to demonstrate the potential of new tools to support a new classical biological control program targeting this insect.

  17. Nitric oxide as a fumigant for postharvest pest control and its safety to postharvest quality of fresh products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitric oxide fumigation under ultralow oxygen atmospheres was discovered recently to be effective for pest control. It is effective against all life stages of insects and mites and against both external and internal feeders. Nitric oxide fumigation comes with additional but acceptable costs associ...

  18. Evolutionary biology and genetic techniques for insect control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leftwich, Philip T; Bolton, Michael; Chapman, Tracey

    2016-01-01

    The requirement to develop new techniques for insect control that minimize negative environmental impacts has never been more pressing. Here we discuss population suppression and population replacement technologies. These include sterile insect technique, genetic elimination methods such as the release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), and gene driving mechanisms offered by intracellular bacteria and homing endonucleases. We also review the potential of newer or underutilized methods such as reproductive interference, CRISPR technology, RNA interference (RNAi), and genetic underdominance. We focus on understanding principles and potential effectiveness from the perspective of evolutionary biology. This offers useful insights into mechanisms through which potential problems may be minimized, in much the same way that an understanding of how resistance evolves is key to slowing the spread of antibiotic and insecticide resistance. We conclude that there is much to gain from applying principles from the study of resistance in these other scenarios - specifically, the adoption of combinatorial approaches to minimize the spread of resistance evolution. We conclude by discussing the focused use of GM for insect pest control in the context of modern conservation planning under land-sparing scenarios.

  19. Biorational agents--mechanism and importance in IPM and IRM programs for controlling agricultural pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaaya, I; Kontsedalov, S; Mazirov, D; Horowitz, A R

    2001-01-01

    Among the new approaches for controlling agricultural pests is the development of novel compounds affecting specific processes in insects such as chitin synthesis inhibitors, juvenile hormone mimics and ecdysone agonists. In addition, efforts have been made to develop compounds acting selectively on groups of insects by inhibiting or enhancing biochemical sites such as respiration (diafenthiuron), the nicotinyl acetylcholine receptors (imidacloprid and acetamiprid), the GABA receptors (avermectins), the salivary glands of sucking pests (pymetrozine) and others. Among the most recent novel insecticides with selective properties are novaluron, thiamethoxam, emamectin and spinosad. Novaluron (Rimon) is a novel chitin synthesis inhibitor that acts by both ingestion and contact. It is a powerful suppressor of lepidopteran larvae such as Spodoptera littoralis and Helicoverpa armigera (by ingestion) and of whiteflies such as Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (by contact). Thiamethoxam (Actarn), a novel neonicotinoid acts specifically on aphids and whiteflies. Emamectin (Proclaim), an avermectin derivative acts on GABA receptor affecting diversity of insects such as mites, lepidopterans and thrips. Spinosad (Tracer) seems to act on both acetylcholine and GABA receptors affecting diversity of insect species and is considered an important agent for controlling the western flower thrips.

  20. Biological control of Otiorhynchus sulcatus by insect parasitic nematodes, Heterorhabditis spp. at low temperatures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    The black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, is an important pest in ornamentals and nursery stock in The Netherlands. The larvae, which feed on the root system of the plant, can be controlled by insect parasitic nematodes, Heterorhabditis. However, the presently available isolates of the nematode

  1. Mechanics and aerodynamics of insect flight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G K

    2001-11-01

    Insects have evolved sophisticated fight control mechanisms permitting a remarkable range of manoeuvres. Here, I present a qualitative analysis of insect flight control from the perspective of flight mechanics, drawing upon both the neurophysiology and biomechanics literatures. The current literature does not permit a formal, quantitative analysis of flight control, because the aerodynamic force systems that biologists have measured have rarely been complete and the position of the centre of gravity has only been recorded in a few studies. Treating the two best-known insect orders (Diptera and Orthoptera) separately from other insects, I discuss the control mechanisms of different insects in detail. Recent experimental studies suggest that the helicopter model of flight control proposed for Drosophila spp. may be better thought of as a facultative strategy for flight control, rather than the fixed (albeit selected) constraint that it is usually interpreted to be. On the other hand, the so-called 'constant-lift reaction' of locusts appears not to be a reflex for maintaining constant lift at varying angles of attack, as is usually assumed, but rather a mechanism to restore the insect to pitch equilibrium following a disturbance. Differences in the kinematic control mechanisms used by the various insect orders are related to differences in the arrangement of the wings, the construction of the flight motor and the unsteady mechanisms of lift production that are used. Since the evolution of insect flight control is likely to have paralleled the evolutionary refinement of these unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms, taxonomic differences in the kinematics of control could provide an assay of the relative importance of different unsteady mechanisms. Although the control kinematics vary widely between orders, the number of degrees of freedom that different insects can control will always be limited by the number of independent control inputs that they use. Control of the moments

  2. Inhibitory activity of Beauveria bassiana and Trichoderma spp. on the insect pests Xylotrechus arvicola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrisomelidae: Bruchinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, Álvaro; Mayo, Sara; González-López, Óscar; Reinoso, Bonifacio; Gutierrez, Santiago; Casquero, Pedro Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Xylotrechus arvicola is an important pest in vineyards (Vitis vinifera) in the main Iberian wine-producing regions, and Acanthoscelides obtectus causes severe post-harvest losses in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Under laboratory conditions with a spray tower, the susceptibility of the immature stages of X. arvicola and A. obtectus against the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and four strains of Trichoderma spp. was evaluated. Both insect pests T. harzianum and B. bassiana showed a good inhibitory activity, accumulating an inhibition on the eggs of values above 85 and 82%, respectively. T. atroviride and T. citrinoviride had a lower inhibitory activity, with inhibition values of 74.1 and 73.3% respectively. These fungi can be considered a highly effective tool for the control during the immature stages of these species.

  3. Applying GIS and population genetics for managing livestock insect pests: case studies of tsetse and screwworm flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, U; Ready, P D

    2014-10-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have supported a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Applying GIS and population genetics for managing livestock insect pests'. This six-year CRP (2008-2013) focused on research aimed at under-pinning the Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) of populations of tsetse and screwworm flies, and this introductory paper to the Special Issue integrates the findings of the CRP participants and discusses them in a broader context. The tools and techniques for mapping and modelling the distributions of genetically-characterised populations of tsetse and screwworm flies are increasingly used by researchers and managers for more effective decision-making in AW-IPM programmes, as illustrated by the reports in this Special Issue. Currently, the insect pests are often characterized only by neutral genetic markers suitable for recognizing spatially isolated populations that are sometimes associated with specific environments. Two challenges for those involved in AW-IPM are the standardization of best practice to permit the efficient application of GIS and genetic tools by regional teams, and the need to develop further the mapping and modelling of parasite and pest phenotypes that are epidemiologically important. Copyright © 2014 International Atomic Energy Agency 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Qualitative Sybr Green real-time detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms responsible for target-site resistance in insect pests: the example of Myzus persicae and Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puggioni, V; Chiesa, O; Panini, M; Mazzoni, E

    2017-02-01

    Chemical insecticides have been widely used to control insect pests, leading to the selection of resistant populations. To date, several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have already been associated with insecticide resistance, causing reduced sensitivity to many classes of products. Monitoring and detection of target-site resistance is currently one of the most important factors for insect pest management strategies. Several methods are available for this purpose: automated and high-throughput techniques (i.e. TaqMan or pyrosequencing) are very costly; cheaper alternatives (i.e. RFLP or PASA-PCRs) are time-consuming and limited by the necessity of a final visualization step. This work presents a new approach (QSGG, Qualitative Sybr Green Genotyping) which combines the specificity of PASA-PCR with the rapidity of real-time PCR analysis. The specific real-time detection of Cq values of wild-type or mutant alleles (amplified used allele-specific primers) allows the calculation of ΔCqW-M values and the consequent identification of the genotypes of unknown samples, on the basis of ranges previously defined with reference clones. The methodology is applied here to characterize mutations described in Myzus persicae and Musca domestica and we demonstrate it represents a valid, rapid and cost-effective technique that can be adopted for monitoring target-site resistance in field populations of these and other insect species.

  5. EVALUATION OF FOUR INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGES FOR CONTROLLING MAIN PESTS OF COTTON IN RAINFED FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurindah Nurindah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cotton production nationally is low due to various constraints, including pests. Two main pests commonly found in cotton plantation in rain fed fields are cotton leafhopper (Amrasca biguttula and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera. The study aimed to evaluate four packages of integrated pest management (IPM techniques to control cotton leafhopper and cotton bollworm in rain fed fields. The experiment was conducted in farmers’ fields at Asembagus, East Java, between January and July 2012. Four packages of IPM evaluated were cotton varieties, i.e. Kanesia 10 or Kanesia 13, and seed treatment with synthetic insecticide (imidacloprid before sowing or spraying molasses (10 ml L-1 water as food for natural enemies. The cotton plants were intercropped with groundnut and sprayed with neem seed extract (NSE at the action threshold level for pest control. These packages were compared among themselves and also with the methods usually used by farmers, i.e. planting cotton variety Kanesia 8 intercropped with groundnut and pest control using synthetic chemical insecticides. Twenty five plants were sampled randomly per plot and measured for their growth, leafhopper and  bollworm populations, as well as cotton seed yield per plot. Observations were made weekly, starting at 30 days after planting (DAP until 120 DAP. The results showed that the use of Kanesia 10 or Kanesia 13 intercropped with groundnut and spraying molasses to conserve natural enemies was the best  pest management practice and superior to farmers’ practices. Conserving natural enemies is not only profitable (saving production cost of IDR1,150,000 to IDR1,500,000 ha-1 season-1, but also safe for the environment (no need to spray chemical insecticides.

  6. A PRINCIPAL-AGENT MODEL FOR REGIONAL PEST CONTROL ADOPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ahouissoussi, Nicolas B.C.

    1995-01-01

    Investigating the underlying producer characteristics associated with regional pest control adoption revealed an interesting proposition. Early adopting producers of firm-specific techniques with characteristics including higher education, more specialized operations, and larger sized business units are dissatisfied with a regional pest control technique. This study provides an explanation of the proposition based on a principal-agent model. Empirical support for the proposition is also prese...

  7. IAEA/FAO interregional training course on use of radiation in insect control and entomology with special emphasis on the sterile insect technique. Final report, May 4--June 15, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The principal focus of the course was the application of Radiation in Entomology to achieve Area Wide Pest Suppression or Eradication. To achieve this objective formal lectures, discussion groups, laboratory exercises and field trips were held covering the details of: (1) principles, programs and research of all aspects of the Sterile Insect Technique; (2) insect biology and control; (3) integrated pest management; (4) population dynamics and models related to the development of SIT and insect population suppression; (5) fundamentals of computers for helping in development of SIT; (6) the importance of economic considerations in formulating area wide pest management programs. The course included tours of local laboratories of the University, USDA, and the State Division of Plant Industry (DPI), and a site visit to a citrus production area in which the pest-free zone concept of pest management for fruit export is utilized.

  8. Irradiation to control insects in fruits and vegetables for export from Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follett, P.A. E-mail: pfollett@pbarc.ars.usda.gov

    2004-10-01

    Phytosanitary or quarantine treatments are often required to disinfest host commodities of economically important arthropod pests before they are moved through market channels to areas where the pest does not occur. Irradiation is an accepted treatment to control quarantine pests in 10 fruits and five vegetables for export from Hawaii to the US mainland. Irradiation is the ideal technology for developing generic quarantine treatments because it is effective against most insect and mite pests at dose levels that do not affect the quality of most commodities. A generic dose of 150 Gy has been proposed for tephritid fruit flies. Contrary to the 150 Gy dose, approved irradiation quarantine treatment doses for Mediterranean fruit fly, melon fly, and oriental fruit fly in Hawaii are 210-250 Gy. Irradiation studies were conducted to determine if the approved doses were unnecessarily high and could be reduced. Irradiation is also a viable alternative to methyl bromide fumigation to disinfest Hawaii sweetpotatoes, and studies are in progress to identify an effective dose for two key sweetpotato insect pests. Results indicate that irradiation doses <150 Gy will control Hawaii's fruit flies, which supports the proposed generic dose. The idea of generic doses is appealing because it would greatly accelerate the process of approving irradiation quarantine treatments for specific crops, and thereby rapidly expand exports. Preliminary results show that 250-300 Gy will control Hawaii's sweetpotato pests.

  9. Rapid genetic turnover in populations of the insect pest Bemisia tabaci Middle East: Asia Minor 1 in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsdale, A; Schellhorn, N A; De Barro, P; Buckley, Y M; Riginos, C

    2012-10-01

    Organisms differ greatly in dispersal ability, and landscapes differ in amenability to an organism's movement. Thus, landscape structure and heterogeneity can affect genetic composition of populations. While many agricultural pests are known for their ability to disperse rapidly, it is unclear how fast and over what spatial scale insect pests might respond to the temporally dynamic agricultural landscapes they inhabit. We used population genetic analyses of a severe crop pest, a member of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodoidea: Aleyrodidea) cryptic species complex known as Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (commonly known as biotype B), to estimate spatial and temporal genetic diversity over four months of the 2006-2007 summer growing season. We examined 559 individuals from eight sites, which were scored for eight microsatellite loci. Temporal genetic structure greatly exceeded spatial structure. There was significant temporal change in local genetic composition from the beginning to the end of the season accompanied by heterozygote deficits and inbreeding. This temporal structure suggests entire cohorts of pests can occupy a large and variable agricultural landscape but are rapidly replaced. These rapid genetic fluctuations reinforce the concept that agricultural landscapes are dynamic mosaics in time and space and may contribute to better decisions for pest and insecticide resistance management.

  10. Gypsy moths: Pest control research. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning control and research regarding gypsy moths or lymantria dispar. Both natural and synthetic controls are discussed, including parasites, viral diseases, fungal diseases, bird predation, bacterial diseases, pheromone trapping, insecticides, and physical and chemical localized protection. Laboratory and field studies on sex pheromones, environmental effects on life cycles, effects of feeding behavior, plant-insect interactions, and other research relating to the control of this forest pest are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Biological pest control in beetle agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanen, Duur K; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J

    2009-05-01

    Bark beetles are among the most destructive tree pests on the planet. Their symbiosis with fungi has consequently been studied extensively for more than a century. A recent study has identified actinomycete bacteria that are associated with the southern pine beetle and produce specific antibiotics against an antagonist of the beetles' mutualistic fungus. In addition to highlighting the ecological complexity of bark-beetle-microbial symbioses, this work reveals a potential source of novel antibiotics.

  12. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition by Biofumigant (Coumaran from Leaves of Lantana camara in Stored Grain and Household Insect Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yallappa Rajashekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies proved that the biofumigants could be an alternative to chemical fumigants against stored grain insect pests. For this reason, it is necessary to understand the mode of action of biofumigants. In the present study the prospectus of utilising Lantana camara as a potent fumigant insecticide is being discussed. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE by Coumaran, an active ingredient extracted from the plant L. camara, was studied. The biofumigant was used as an enzyme inhibitor and acetylthiocholine iodide as a substrate along with Ellman’s reagent to carry out the reactions. The in vivo inhibition was observed in both dose dependent and time dependent in case of housefly, and the nervous tissue (ganglion and the whole insect homogenate of stored grain insect exposed to Coumaran. The possible mode of action of Coumaran as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor is discussed.

  13. Feasibility of Population Ecological Management of Forest Foliage Insect Pest in China%我国森林食叶害虫种群生态控制可行性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志强; 文瑞君; 傅建敏

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of population ecological management of forestfoliage insect pest was discussed through analysis on coevolution between insect and its host plant,the capacity of compensation and super-compensation of trees,the pest population management by natural enemy as well as the use of high technique in pest management,such as genetic engineering,etc.

  14. Pest species diversity enhances control of spider mites and whiteflies by a generalist phytoseiid predator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, G.J.; van Maanen, R.; van Holstein-Saj, R.; Sabelis, M.W.; Janssen, A.

    2010-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that pest species diversity enhances biological pest control with generalist predators, we studied the dynamics of three major pest species on greenhouse cucumber: Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum

  15. New insights into an RNAi approach for plant defence against piercing-sucking and stem-borer insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haichao; Guan, Ruobing; Guo, Huimin; Miao, Xuexia

    2015-11-01

    Insect double-stranded (ds)RNA expression in transgenic crops can increase plant resistance to biotic stress; however, creating transgenic crops to defend against every insect pest is impractical. Arabidopsis Mob1A is required for organ growth and reproduction. When Arabidopsis roots were soaked in dsMob1A, the root lengths and numbers were significantly suppressed and plants could not bolt or flower. Twenty-four hours after rice roots were immersed in fluorescent-labelled dsEYFP (enhanced yellow fluorescent protein), fluorescence was observed in the rice sheath and stem and in planthoppers feeding on the rice. The expression levels of Ago and Dicer in rice and planthoppers were induced by dsEYFP. When rice roots were soaked in dsActin, their growth was also significantly suppressed. When planthoppers or Asian corn borers fed on rice or maize that had been irrigated with a solution containing the dsRNA of an insect target gene, the insect's mortality rate increased significantly. Our results demonstrate that dsRNAs can be absorbed by crop roots, trigger plant and insect RNAi and enhance piercing-sucking and stem-borer insect mortality rates. We also confirmed that dsRNA was stable under outdoor conditions. These results indicate that the root dsRNA soaking can be used as a bioinsecticide strategy during crop irrigation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Applicator Training Manual for: Forest Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Jim

    Described in this manual is the use of insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides in forestry. Both diseases and insects found in hardwoods and conifers are covered. Detailed information is given on methods of herbicide application. Finally, five important environmental considerations are given. (BB)

  17. Chemosterilants for Control of Insects and Insect Vectors of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Richard H G

    2016-10-01

    Both historically and at present, vector control is the most generally effective means of controlling malaria transmission. Insecticides are the predominant method of vector control, but the sterile insect technique (SIT) is a complementary strategy with a successful track record in both agricultural and public health sectors. Strategies of genetic and radiation-induced sterilization of Anopheles have to date been limited by logistical and/or regulatory hurdles. A safe and effective mosquito chemosterilant would therefore be of major utility to future deployment of SIT for malaria control. Here we review the prior and current use of chemosterilants in SIT, and assess the potential for future research. Recent genomic and proteomic studies reveal opportunities for specific targeting of seminal fluid proteins, and the capacity to interfere with sperm motility and storage in the female.

  18. Gamma radiation in the control of insects in animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Suely S.H., E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Franco, Jose G.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br, E-mail: villavic@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C., E-mail: marcia.harder@fatec.sp.gov.br [Centro Paula Souza, Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Biocombustiveis (FATEC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The pests as beetles, acarids, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal feeds, spices and dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting the deterioration of the products. The objective of this study was to use gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 in the disinfestation of some types of commercial feeds used for animals of small size. In the experiment, packages measuring 10 cm x 15 cm, with capacity of 30 grams of substrate with 4 types of trademarks were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 kGy. Each treatment had 10 repetitions, infested with 10 insects for each package with the following species: Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and S. oryzae. After the irradiation, all the packages were maintained at acclimatized room with 27 ± 2ºC and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%. The number of insects and holes in all packages were assessed after 60 days. The results showed that the dose of 0.5 kGy was sufficient to control all the species of insects in the tested feeds. (author)

  19. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    KAUST Repository

    Vega, Fernando E.

    2015-07-31

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide. We present an analysis of the draft genome of the coffee berry borer, the third genome for a Coleopteran species. The genome size is ca. 163 Mb with 19,222 predicted protein-coding genes. Analysis was focused on genes involved in primary digestion as well as gene families involved in detoxification of plant defense molecules and insecticides, such as carboxylesterases, cytochrome P450, gluthathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and a gene that confers resistance to the insecticide dieldrin. A broad range of enzymes capable of degrading complex polysaccharides were identified. We also evaluated the pathogen defense system and found homologs to antimicrobial genes reported in the Drosophila genome. Ten cases of horizontal gene transfer were identified with evidence for expression, integration into the H. hampei genome, and phylogenetic evidence that the sequences are more closely related to bacterial rather than eukaryotic genes. The draft genome analysis broadly expands our knowledge on the biology of a devastating tropical insect pest and suggests new pest management strategies.

  20. Recent advances of rearing cabinet instrumentation and control system for insect stock culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawan, Wawan; Kasmara, Hikmat; Melanie, Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2017-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) is one of a serious pest of horticulture in Indonesia. Helicoverpa armigera Nuclear Polyhedrovirus (HaNPV) has attracted interest for many researchers as a pest control for larvae of this species. Currently, we investigating the agrochemical formulations of HaNPV by introducing nanotechnology. Thus it is required an acceptable efficiency of insect stock cultures equipped with advance instruments to resolve the difficulties on insect stock seasons dependency. In addition, it is important to improve the insect survival with the aid of artificial natural environment and gain high insect production. This paper reports the rearing cabinet used as preparation of stock culture includes air-conditioning system, lighting, i.e. day and night control, and the main principles on recent technical and procedural advances apparatus of the system. The rearing system was moveable, designed and build by allowing air-conditioned cabinet for rearing insects, air motion and distribution as well as temperature and humidity being precisely controlled. The air was heated, humidified, and dehumidified respectively using a heater and ultrasonic nebulizer as actuators. Temperature and humidity can be controlled at any desired levels from room temperature (20°C) to 40 ± 1°C and from 0 to 80% RH with an accuracy of ±3% R.H. It is concluded that the recent design has acceptable performance based on the defined requirement for insect rearing and storage.

  1. Advance in insect pest management in Bt cotton worldwide%Bt棉花害虫综合治理研究前沿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆宴辉

    2012-01-01

    Since 1996, Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton has been increasing adopted worldwide, mainly including the United Slates, Australia, China, India and Pakistan, and the planting proportion of Bt cotton recently amounted to about 60% of the total area of all cotton crops. Vast studies indicate that widespread adoption of Bt cotton effectively suppressed the population of various target insect pests, and then lessened the amount of insecticide use in this crop; but less insecticide application also caused the outbreak of many non-target insect pests. In order to solve the new pest problem in Bt cotton, various measures of cultural control, biological control, chemical control and others have been developed and applied in the major Bt-cotton growing countries.%自1996年以来,全球Bt(Bacillus thuringiensis)棉花应用规模迅速增长,目前已占棉花种植总面积的60%左右,主要种植国家包括美国、澳大利亚、中国、印度和巴基斯坦等.大量研究表明,Bt棉花的大面积种植有效控制了多种靶标害虫的发生危害,从而大幅度减少了化学杀虫剂的使用量;化学杀虫剂的减少使用导致一些非靶标害虫的发生危害明显加重.针对Bt棉花生产中呈现出的害虫新问题,各国分别发展了由农业防治、生物防治、化学防治等不同措施构成的防控技术体系.

  2. Development of Bt Rice and Bt Maize in China and Their Efficacy in Target Pest Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingsong; Hallerman, Eric; Peng, Yufa; Li, Yunhe

    2016-01-01

    Rice and maize are important cereal crops that serve as staple foods, feed, and industrial material in China. Multiple factors constrain the production of both crops, among which insect pests are an important one. Lepidopteran pests cause enormous yield losses for the crops annually. In order to control these pests, China plays an active role in development and application of genetic engineering (GE) to crops, and dozens of GE rice and GE maize lines expressing insecticidal proteins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been developed. Many lines have entered environmental release, field testing, and preproduction testing, and laboratory and field experiments have shown that most of the Bt rice and Bt maize lines developed in China exhibited effective control of major target lepidopteran pests on rice (Chilo suppressalis, Scirpophaga incertulas, and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) and maize (Ostrinia furnacalis), demonstrating bright prospects for application. However, none of these Bt lines has yet been commercially planted through this writing in 2016. Challenges and perspectives for development and application of Bt rice and maize in China are discussed. This article provides a general context for colleagues to learn about research and development of Bt crops in China, and may shed light on future work in this field. PMID:27763554

  3. Development of Bt Rice and Bt Maize in China and Their Efficacy in Target Pest Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice and maize are important cereal crops that serve as staple foods, feed, and industrial material in China. Multiple factors constrain the production of both crops, among which insect pests are an important one. Lepidopteran pests cause enormous yield losses for the crops annually. In order to control these pests, China plays an active role in development and application of genetic engineering (GE to crops, and dozens of GE rice and GE maize lines expressing insecticidal proteins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have been developed. Many lines have entered environmental release, field testing, and preproduction testing, and laboratory and field experiments have shown that most of the Bt rice and Bt maize lines developed in China exhibited effective control of major target lepidopteran pests on rice (Chilo suppressalis, Scirpophaga incertulas, and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and maize (Ostrinia furnacalis, demonstrating bright prospects for application. However, none of these Bt lines has yet been commercially planted through this writing in 2016. Challenges and perspectives for development and application of Bt rice and maize in China are discussed. This article provides a general context for colleagues to learn about research and development of Bt crops in China, and may shed light on future work in this field.

  4. Modelling Aedes aegypti mosquito control via transgenic and sterile insect techniques: endemics and emerging outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seirin Lee, S; Baker, R E; Gaffney, E A; White, S M

    2013-08-21

    The invasion of pest insects often changes or destroys a native ecosystem, and can result in food shortages and disease endemics. Issues such as the environmental effects of chemical control methods, the economic burden of maintaining control strategies and the risk of pest resistance still remain, and mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever prevail in many countries, infecting over 100 million worldwide in 2010. One environmentally friendly method for mosquito control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). This species-specific method of insect control relies on the mass rearing, sterilization and release of large numbers of sterile insects. An alternative transgenic method is the Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL). Our objective is to consider contrasting control strategies for two invasive scenarios via SIT and RIDL: an endemic case and an emerging outbreak. We investigate how the release rate and size of release region influence both the potential for control success and the resources needed to achieve it, under a range of conditions and control strategies, and we discuss advantageous strategies with respect to reducing the release resources and strategy costs (in terms of control mosquito numbers) required to achieve complete eradication of wild-type mosquitoes.

  5. Modelling Aedes aegypti mosquito control via transgenic and sterile insect techniques: Endemics and emerging outbreaks

    KAUST Repository

    Seirin Lee, S.

    2013-08-01

    The invasion of pest insects often changes or destroys a native ecosystem, and can result in food shortages and disease endemics. Issues such as the environmental effects of chemical control methods, the economic burden of maintaining control strategies and the risk of pest resistance still remain, and mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever prevail in many countries, infecting over 100 million worldwide in 2010. One environmentally friendly method for mosquito control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). This species-specific method of insect control relies on the mass rearing, sterilization and release of large numbers of sterile insects. An alternative transgenic method is the Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL). Our objective is to consider contrasting control strategies for two invasive scenarios via SIT and RIDL: an endemic case and an emerging outbreak. We investigate how the release rate and size of release region influence both the potential for control success and the resources needed to achieve it, under a range of conditions and control strategies, and we discuss advantageous strategies with respect to reducing the release resources and strategy costs (in terms of control mosquito numbers) required to achieve complete eradication of wild-type mosquitoes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Lepidopteran HMG-CoA reductase is a potential selective target for pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-mei Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the negative impacts on the environment of some insecticides, discovery of eco-friendly insecticides and target has received global attention in recent years. Sequence alignment and structural comparison of the rate-limiting enzyme HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR revealed differences between lepidopteran pests and other organisms, which suggested insect HMGR could be a selective insecticide target candidate. Inhibition of JH biosynthesis in vitro confirmed that HMGR inhibitors showed a potent lethal effect on the lepidopteran pest Manduca sexta, whereas there was little effect on JH biosynthesis in Apis mellifera and Diploptera punctata. The pest control application of these inhibitors demonstrated that they can be insecticide candidates with potent ovicidal activity, larvicidal activity and insect growth regulatory effects. The present study has validated that Lepidopteran HMGR can be a potent selective insecticide target, and the HMGR inhibitors (especially type II statins could be selective insecticide candidates and lead compounds. Furthermore, we demonstrated that sequence alignment, homology modeling and structural comparison may be useful for determining potential enzymes or receptors which can be eco-friendly pesticide  targets.

  7. Lepidopteran HMG-CoA reductase is a potential selective target for pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-mei; Huang, Juan; Tobe, Stephen S.

    2017-01-01

    As a consequence of the negative impacts on the environment of some insecticides, discovery of eco-friendly insecticides and target has received global attention in recent years. Sequence alignment and structural comparison of the rate-limiting enzyme HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) revealed differences between lepidopteran pests and other organisms, which suggested insect HMGR could be a selective insecticide target candidate. Inhibition of JH biosynthesis in vitro confirmed that HMGR inhibitors showed a potent lethal effect on the lepidopteran pest Manduca sexta, whereas there was little effect on JH biosynthesis in Apis mellifera and Diploptera punctata. The pest control application of these inhibitors demonstrated that they can be insecticide candidates with potent ovicidal activity, larvicidal activity and insect growth regulatory effects. The present study has validated that Lepidopteran HMGR can be a potent selective insecticide target, and the HMGR inhibitors (especially type II statins) could be selective insecticide candidates and lead compounds. Furthermore, we demonstrated that sequence alignment, homology modeling and structural comparison may be useful for determining potential enzymes or receptors which can be eco-friendly pesticide  targets. PMID:28133568

  8. Principal Disease and Insect Pests of Jatropha curcas L. in the Lower Valley of the Senegal River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terren, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas L. seed oil is proven to be toxic to many microorganisms, insects and animals. Despite its toxicity, Jatropha is not pest and disease resistant. The following major pests and diseases affecting Jatropha in the lower valley of the Senegal river have been identified: the leaf miner Stomphastis thraustica (Meyrick, 1908 (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae, the leaf and stem miner Pempelia morosalis (Saalmuller, 1880 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae and the shield-backed bug Calidea panaethiopica (Kirkaldy, 1909 (Heteroptera, Scutelleridae, which can cause flower and fruit abortion. Damage from these pests was particularly great during the second year after the plantations were set up (2009 and before later receding. Nevertheless, the worst attacks were caused by a vascular disease transmitted through the soil, which killed 65% of the plants in four years. It is mainly characterised by collar and root rot, which causes foliage to yellow and wilt, before the plant eventually dies. These threats should increase if larger areas are planted with Jatropha. Considering the scale of the damage caused by these attacks in Bokhol, the development of an integrated pest management programme adapted to the local context should be considered.

  9. Planting sentinel European trees in eastern Asia as a novel method to identify potential insect pest invaders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Roques

    Full Text Available Quarantine measures to prevent insect invasions tend to focus on well-known pests but a large proportion of the recent invaders were not known to cause significant damage in their native range, or were not even known to science before their introduction. A novel method is proposed to detect new potential pests of woody plants in their region of origin before they are introduced to a new continent. Since Asia is currently considered to be the main supplier of insect invaders to Europe, sentinel trees were planted in China during 2007-2011 as an early warning tool to identify the potential for additional Asian insect species to colonize European trees. Seedlings (1-1.5 m tall of five broadleaved (Quercus petraea, Q. suber, Q. ilex, Fagus sylvatica, and Carpinus betulus and two conifer species (Abies alba and Cupressus sempervirens were planted in blocks of 100 seedlings at two widely separated sites (one in a nursery near Beijing and the other in a forest environment near Fuyang in eastern China, and then regularly surveyed for colonization by insects. A total of 104 insect species, mostly defoliators, were observed on these new hosts, and at least six species were capable of larval development. Although a number of the insects observed were probably incidental feeders, 38 species had more than five colonization events, mostly infesting Q. petraea, and could be considered as being capable of switching to European trees if introduced to Europe. Three years was shown to be an appropriate duration for the experiment, since the rate of colonization then tended to plateau. A majority of the identified species appeared to have switched from agricultural crops and fruit trees rather than from forest trees. Although these results are promising, the method is not appropriate for xylophagous pests and other groups developing on larger trees. Apart from the logistical problems, the identification to species level of the specimens collected was a major

  10. Bacillus thuringiensis: generalidades: Un acercamiento a su empleo en el biocontrol de insectos lepidópteros que son plagas agrícolas Bacillus thuringiensis: general aspects: An approach to its use in the biological control of lepidopteran insects behaving as agricultural pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego H. Sauka

    2008-06-01

    in agricultural and other natural settings. With this knowledge as background and the help of biotechnological tools, researchers are now reporting promising results in the development of more useful toxins, recombinant bacteria, new formulations and transgenic plants that express pesticidal activity, in order to assure that these products are utilized with the best efficiency and benefit. This article is an attempt to integrate all these recent developments in the study of B. thuringiensis into a context of biological control of lepidopteran insect pest of agricultural importance.

  11. Systems of organic farming in spring vetch I: Biological response of sucking insect pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Nikolova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Four systems of organic farming and a conventional farming system were studied over the period 2012-2014. The organic system trial variants included: I – an organic farming system without any biological products used (growth under natural soil fertility – Control; II – an organic farming system involving the use of a biological foliar fertilizer and a biological plant growth regulator (Polyversum+Biofa; III – an organic farming system in which a biological insecticide (NeemAzal T/S was used; IV – an organic farming system including a combination of three organic products: the foliar fertilizer, the plant growth regulator and the bioinsecticide (Polyversum+Biofa+NeemAzal T/S. Variant V represented a conventional farming system in which synthetic products were used in combination (foliar fertilizer, plant growth regulator and insecticide: Masterblend+Flordimex 420+Nurelle D. Treatment of vetch plants with the biological insecticide NeemAzal in combination with Biofa and Polyversum resulted in the lowest density of sucking pests, compared to all other organic farming methods tested (i.e. without NeemAzal, with NeemAzal alone, and its combination with Biofa and Polyversum. The greatest reduction in pest numbers during the vegetation period in that variant was observed in species of the order Thysanoptera (36.0-41.4%, followed by Hemiptera, and the families Aphididae (31.6-40.3% and Cicadellidae (27.3-28.6%. This combination showed an efficient synergistic interaction and an increase in biological efficacy as compared to individual application of NeemAzal. The highest toxic impact was found against Thrips tabaci, followed by Acyrthosiphon pisum. An analysis of variance regarding the efficacy against the species A. pisum, E. pteridis and T. tabaci showed that type of treatment had the most dominant influence and statistically significant impact.

  12. First Record Of Clytra Laeviuscula Ratzeburg As Potential Insect Pest Of Energy Willow (Salix Viminalis L. In Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanovska Tatyana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of short rotation coppice energy willow (SRC EW, Salix viminalis L., has a great potential in Ukraine as a source of biomass for biofuel production. Commercial production of this species was recently initiated in the country. The growing of SRC EW in Western and Northern Europe for a long time showed that leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae are key pests causing significant biomass reduction. However, data about the pest complex for energy willow growing in Ukraine is not available. Our three-year experiment in Poltava region, Ukraine showed that foliar damage caused by Clytra laeviuscula Ratzeburg (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae occurred at energy willow plantations in the second year of production, which could have an effect on commercial production. Accordingly, information about seasonal activity, population dynamics, host range and the role of natural enemies in pest regulation are requested for developing pest control program.

  13. Effects of land use on bird populations and pest control services on coffee farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railsback, Steven F.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Global increases in both agriculture and biodiversity awareness raise a key question: Should cropland and biodiversity habitat be separated, or integrated in mixed land uses? Ecosystem services by wildlife make this question more complex. For example, birds benefit agriculture by preying on pest insects, but other habitat is needed to maintain the birds. Resulting land use questions include what areas and arrangements of habitat support sufficient birds to control pests, whether this pest control offsets the reduced cropland, and the comparative benefits of “land sharing” (i.e., mixed cropland and habitat) vs. “land sparing” (i.e., separate areas of intensive agriculture and habitat). Such questions are difficult to answer using field studies alone, so we use a simulation model of Jamaican coffee farms, where songbirds suppress the coffee berry borer (CBB). Simulated birds select habitat and prey in five habitat types: intact forest, trees (including forest fragments), shade coffee, sun coffee, and unsuitable habitat. The trees habitat type appears to be especially important, providing efficient foraging and roosting sites near coffee plots. Small areas of trees (but not forest alone) could support a sufficient number of birds to suppress CBB in sun coffee; the degree to which trees are dispersed within coffee had little effect. In simulations without trees, shade coffee supported sufficient birds to offset its lower yield. High areas of both trees and shade coffee reduced pest control because CBB was less often profitable prey. Because of the pest control service provided by birds, land sharing was predicted to be more beneficial than land sparing in this system. PMID:24711377

  14. Effects of land use on bird populations and pest control services on coffee farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railsback, Steven F; Johnson, Matthew D

    2014-04-22

    Global increases in both agriculture and biodiversity awareness raise a key question: Should cropland and biodiversity habitat be separated, or integrated in mixed land uses? Ecosystem services by wildlife make this question more complex. For example, birds benefit agriculture by preying on pest insects, but other habitat is needed to maintain the birds. Resulting land use questions include what areas and arrangements of habitat support sufficient birds to control pests, whether this pest control offsets the reduced cropland, and the comparative benefits of "land sharing" (i.e., mixed cropland and habitat) vs. "land sparing" (i.e., separate areas of intensive agriculture and habitat). Such questions are difficult to answer using field studies alone, so we use a simulation model of Jamaican coffee farms, where songbirds suppress the coffee berry borer (CBB). Simulated birds select habitat and prey in five habitat types: intact forest, trees (including forest fragments), shade coffee, sun coffee, and unsuitable habitat. The trees habitat type appears to be especially important, providing efficient foraging and roosting sites near coffee plots. Small areas of trees (but not forest alone) could support a sufficient number of birds to suppress CBB in sun coffee; the degree to which trees are dispersed within coffee had little effect. In simulations without trees, shade coffee supported sufficient birds to offset its lower yield. High areas of both trees and shade coffee reduced pest control because CBB was less often profitable prey. Because of the pest control service provided by birds, land sharing was predicted to be more beneficial than land sparing in this system.

  15. Parasitoids as biological control agents of thrips pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, A.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Thysanoptera, Frankliniella occidentalis, Hymenoptera, Ceranisus menes, Ceranisus americensis, biological controlThe thesis presented here is the result of a joint European Research project "Biological Control of Thrips Pests". Specific aims of the project were to collect, evaluate, mass p

  16. Multi-State Dependent Impulsive Control for Pest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huidong Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the integrated pest management strategies, we propose a model for pest control which adopts different control methods at different thresholds. By using differential equation geometry theory and the method of successor functions, we prove the existence of order one periodic solution of such system, and further, the attractiveness of the order one periodic solution by sequence convergence rules and qualitative analysis. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the feasibility of our main results. Our results show that our method used in this paper is more efficient and easier than the existing ones for proving the existence of order one periodic solution.

  17. Incorporating Carbon Storage into the Optimal Management of Forest Insect Pests: A Case Study of the Southern Pine Beetle ( Dendroctonus Frontalis Zimmerman) in the New Jersey Pinelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Rebecca M.; Lutz, David A.; Howarth, Richard B.

    2014-10-01

    Forest insect pest disturbance is increasing in certain areas of North America as many insect species, such as the southern pine beetle, expand their range due to a warming climate. Because insect pests are beginning to occupy forests that are managed for multiple uses and have not been managed for pests before, it is becoming increasingly important to determine how forests should be managed for pests when non-timber ecosystem services are considered in addition to traditional costs and revenues. One example of a service that is increasingly considered in forest management and that may affect forest pest management is carbon sequestration. This manuscript seeks to understand whether the incorporation of forest carbon sequestration into cost-benefit analysis of different forest pest management strategies affects the financially optimal strategy. We examine this question through a case study of the southern pine beetle (SPB) in a new area of SPB expansion, the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve (NJPR). We utilize a forest ecology and economics model and include field data from the NJPR as well as outbreak probability statistics from previous years. We find under the majority of scenarios, incorporating forest carbon sequestration shifts the financially optimal SPB management strategy from preventative thinning toward no management or reactionary management in forest stands in New Jersey. These results contradict the current recommended treatment strategy for SPB and signify that the inclusion of multiple ecosystem services into a cost-benefit analysis may drastically alter which pest management strategy is economically optimal.

  18. Study on Insect-resistant Transgenic Cotton Harbouring Double-gene and Its Resistance to Insect Pests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fu-guang; CUI Jin-jie; LIU Chuan-liang; WU Zhi-xia; LI Feng-lian; ZHOU Yong; LI Xiu-lan; GUO San-dui; CUI Hong-zhi

    2001-01-01

    By using the method of pollen tube pathway, the synthesized GFM CryIA gene and modified CpTI gene were transfered into the elite cotton( Gossypium hirsutun L. ) varieties(lines). Through the field and lab identifications, the insect-resistant transgenic plants were obtained. PCR analysis indicated that both the synthesized GFM CryIA gene and modified CpTI gene presented positive reaction. In R1 the boliworm resistance of each transformant was different, and the insect-resistance of R3 of ZGK9708 was stable.

  19. Identification and Control Methods of the Main Diseases and Insect Pests of Citrus%柑橘几种主要病虫害的识别与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗守进

    2014-01-01

    The symptom and occur-rence regularity of citrus Huanglongbing, anthracnose, scab, leaf miner, arrowhead scales and red mite were introduced. Then the integrated control methods were put forward, which contained measures of agricultural control, physical control, biological control, chemical control and so on.%介绍了柑橘黄龙病、炭疽病、疮痂病和柑橘潜叶蛾、矢尖蚧、全爪螨的危害症状、发生规律,并从农业防治、物理防治、生物防治和化学防治等方面总结了几种病虫害的综合防治方法。

  20. 稻鸭共育对病虫草害及经济效益的影响%Effects of Rice-duck Mutualism on Diseases Insect Pests and Weeds and Economic Benefits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓强辉; 潘晓华

    2008-01-01

    [Objective]Study on the effects of rice-duck mutualism on weeds and insects pests and economic benefits of paddy field.[Method]Comparison of the incidence of weeds,sheath blight and insects pest under rice-duck mutualism,conventional cultivation and control treatment,the yield and economic benefits were analyzed under the 3 treatments.[Result]Average occurrence of weeds in rice-duck mutualism group decreased by 2.33 and 52.08 ind/m2 compared with that in conventional cultivation and control treatment;the control rate of mutualism was up to 75% against rice hopper,but just between 25%-60% against rice leaf miler and Chilo suppressalis.The rates of diseased plant and diseased holl against rice sheath blight were higher and disease indices were lower compared with control group.The yield of mutualism group was identical with conventional cultivation,which was greatly higher than that of control group.The results suggested an higher economic benefits and lower cost benefit ratio for rice-duck mutualism treatment.[Conclusion]Rice-duck mutualism gives birth to a positive effect to control the diseases,insect pests and weeds,as well as to economic benefits,providing basis on extension of rice-duck mutualism system.

  1. Pest repellent properties of ant pheromones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Many ant species are efficient control agents against a wide range of pest insects in many crops. They control pest insects via predation; however, ant communication is based on chemical cues which may be eavesdropped by potential prey and serve as chemical warning signals. Thus, the presence...... of ant pheromones may be sufficient to repel pest insects from ant territories. The study of ant semiochemicals is in its infancy, yet, evidence for their potential use in pest management is starting to build up. Pheromones from four of five tested ant species have been shown to deter herbivorous insect...... prey and competing ant species are also deterred by ant deposits, whereas ant symbionts may be attracted to them. Based on these promising initial findings, it seems advisable to further elucidate the signaling properties of ant pheromones and to test and develop their use in future pest management....

  2. [Research progress in chemical communication among insect-resistant genetically modified plants, insect pests and natural enemies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Song; Li, Yun-He; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2014-08-01

    Semiochemicals released by plants or insects play an important role in the communication among plants, phytophagous insects and their natural enemies. They thus form a chemical information network which regulates intra- and inter-specific behaviors and sustains the composition and structure of plant and insect communities. The application of insect-resistant genetically modified (IRGM) crops may affect the chemical communication within and among the tritrophic levels, and thus cause disturbances to the biotic community structure and the stability of the farmland ecosystem. This has raised concerns about the environmental safety of IRGM crops and triggered research worldwide. In the current article we provided a brief summary of the chemical communication among plants, herbivores and natural enemies; analyzed the potential of IRGM crops to affect the chemical communication between plants and arthropods and the related mechanisms; and discussed the current research progress and the future prospects in this field. We hope that this will promote the research in this field by Chinese scientists and increase our understanding of the potential effects of growing of IRGM crops on the arthropod community structure.

  3. Build-up of insect pests and their natural enemies on rotated and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... food production requires crops to be protected from pests and diseases. ... of chemical pesticides, with its attendant negative effects on humans and the environment. ... Aphids and whiteflies were assessed using a scoring scale from 0 to 5.

  4. Functional invertebrate prey groups reflect dietary responses to phenology and farming activity and pest control services in three sympatric species of aerially foraging insectivorous birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Orłowski

    Full Text Available Farming activity severely impacts the invertebrate food resources of farmland birds, with direct mortality to populations of above-ground arthropods thorough mechanical damage during crop harvests. In this study we assessed the effects of phenological periods, including the timing of harvest, on the composition and biomass of prey consumed by three species of aerial insectivorous birds. Common Swifts Apus apus, Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica and House Martins Delichon urbica breed sympatrically and most of their diet is obtained from agricultural sources of invertebrate prey, especially from oil-seed rape crops. We categorized invertebrate prey into six functional groups, including oil-seed rape pests; pests of other arable crops; other crop-provisioned taxa; coprophilous taxa; and taxa living in non-crop and mixed crop/non-crop habitats. Seasonality impacted functional groups differently, but the general direction of change (increase/decrease of all groups was consistent as indexed by prey composition of the three aerial insectivores studied here. After the oil-seed rape crop harvest (mid July, all three species exhibited a dietary shift from oil-seed rape insect pests to other aerial invertebrate prey groups. However, Common Switfts also consumed a relative large quantity of oil-seed rape insect pests in the late summer (August, suggesting that they could reduce pest insect emigration beyond the host plant/crop. Since these aerially foraging insectivorous birds operate in specific conditions and feed on specific pest resources unavailable to foliage/ground foraging avian predators, our results suggest that in some crops like oil-seed rape cultivations, the potential integration of the insectivory of aerial foraging birds into pest management schemes might provide economic benefits. We advise further research into the origin of airborne insects and the role of aerial insectivores as agents of the biological control of crop insect pests

  5. Functional invertebrate prey groups reflect dietary responses to phenology and farming activity and pest control services in three sympatric species of aerially foraging insectivorous birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz; Karg, Jerzy; Karg, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Farming activity severely impacts the invertebrate food resources of farmland birds, with direct mortality to populations of above-ground arthropods thorough mechanical damage during crop harvests. In this study we assessed the effects of phenological periods, including the timing of harvest, on the composition and biomass of prey consumed by three species of aerial insectivorous birds. Common Swifts Apus apus, Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica and House Martins Delichon urbica breed sympatrically and most of their diet is obtained from agricultural sources of invertebrate prey, especially from oil-seed rape crops. We categorized invertebrate prey into six functional groups, including oil-seed rape pests; pests of other arable crops; other crop-provisioned taxa; coprophilous taxa; and taxa living in non-crop and mixed crop/non-crop habitats. Seasonality impacted functional groups differently, but the general direction of change (increase/decrease) of all groups was consistent as indexed by prey composition of the three aerial insectivores studied here. After the oil-seed rape crop harvest (mid July), all three species exhibited a dietary shift from oil-seed rape insect pests to other aerial invertebrate prey groups. However, Common Switfts also consumed a relative large quantity of oil-seed rape insect pests in the late summer (August), suggesting that they could reduce pest insect emigration beyond the host plant/crop. Since these aerially foraging insectivorous birds operate in specific conditions and feed on specific pest resources unavailable to foliage/ground foraging avian predators, our results suggest that in some crops like oil-seed rape cultivations, the potential integration of the insectivory of aerial foraging birds into pest management schemes might provide economic benefits. We advise further research into the origin of airborne insects and the role of aerial insectivores as agents of the biological control of crop insect pests, especially the

  6. The role of bacillus-based biological control agents in integrated pest management systems: plant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, B J; Zidack, N K; Larson, B J

    2004-11-01

    ABSTRACT Bacillus-based biological control agents (BCAs) have great potential in integrated pest management (IPM) systems; however, relatively little work has been published on integration with other IPM management tools. Unfortunately, most research has focused on BCAs as alternatives to synthetic chemical fungicides or bactericides and not as part of an integrated management system. IPM has had many definitions and this review will use the national coalition for IPM definition: "A sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health and environmental risks." This review will examine the integrated use of Bacillus-based BCAs with disease management tools, including resistant cultivars, fungicides or bactericides, or other BCAs. This integration is important because the consistency and degree of disease control by Bacillus-based BCAs is rarely equal to the control afforded by the best fungicides or bactericides. In theory, integration of several tools brings stability to disease management programs. Integration of BCAs with other disease management tools often provides broader crop adaptation and both more efficacious and consistent levels of disease control. This review will also discuss the use of Bacillus-based BCAs in fungicide resistance management. Work with Bacillus thuringiensis and insect pest management is the exception to the relative paucity of reports but will not be the focus of this review.

  7. 树木-水稻农林系统中害虫的侵害%Infestation of insect pests in tree-rice agroforestry system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of insect pests was studied on rice BR11 (mukta) as understory crop grown in association with 11 years old selected tree species viz, Akashmoni, Jhau and Albida in the field laboratory of the Department of Agroforestry, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh during the period from July to December, 2003. Among the three species Albida and Jhau possessed the largest canopy and there light penetration rate were high. On the other hand, Akashmoni had the lowest canopy but it penetrated low amount of light. Albida-rice association showed the lowest infestation of major rice insects followed by Jhau-rice association, while Akashmoni-rice association showed the highest insect infestation. Light intensity in the control plot (absent of tree species) was maximum and it caused minimum severity of insects infestation as compared to other associations. From the result it appeared that light interception has the relationship with insect population in rice. Therefore, tree species having sparse canopy which allowed easy penetration of sunlight is suitable for tree-rice agroforestry system.%本文比较研究了10种水稻害虫在3个树种(Akashmoni, Jhau 和 Albida)与稻子混栽的农-林复合生态系统中的发生情况,通过3个树种的冠幅大小、透光率以及害虫发生程度相比较,提出农-林复合生态系统中,水稻害虫的发生与树冠的透光率呈密切的负相关关系.图1参13.

  8. Allelopathic effects of essential oil from Eucalyptus grandis × E.urophylla on pathogenic fungi and pest insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This study on the allelopathic effects and chemical components of the essential oil from Eucalyptus grandis × E.urophylla shows that the leaf oil emulsion of E.grandis × E.urophylla can inhibit the proliferation of pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum,Pyriculerie grisea,Glorosprium musa rum and Phytophthora capsici.Pupation and feeding of the pest insects Spodopteralitura Fabricius and Helicoverpa armigera Hubner are shown to be affected with restraining effects which increase with the increasing levels of oil concentration.A GC/MS analysis of the leaf oil indicated that the main components,with a relative content of≥3%,were alloocimene (43.22%),α-pinene (13.63%),γ-terpinene (5.49%),(E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (3.58%),β-fenchyl alcohol (4.58%),and 2-amino-3,5-dicyano-6-(4-methoxyphenoxy)-pyridine (3.67%).Terpenes played an important role in the inhibitory effects of E.grandis × E.urophylla essential oil on pathogenic fungi and pest insects.Poor biodiversity of eucalyptus plantations is a function of allelopathy.

  9. Advances in developing alternative treatments for postharvest pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA-ARS made two significant advances in the last 10 years in the development of alternative treatments for postharvest pest control: oxygenated phosphine fumigation and nitric oxide fumigation. Oxygenated phosphine is phosphine fumigation in an oxygen enriched atmosphere. It is significantly more...

  10. Biopesticides: An option for the biological pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusebio Nava Pérez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides and the problems that its cause to human health, agriculture and the environment is comment, this paper also present general aspects about of biopesticides, and their uses in the biological pest control. By the nature these can be safely used in a sustainable agriculture. An example is the use of botanical pesticides whose active ingredient are the terpenes, alkaloids and phenolics, these have insecticide effects for many agriculture pests; also its are less expensive, are biodegradable and safe for humans and the environment, however havelittle residuality. Microbial pesticides are being introduced successfully to pests control in important crops such as; coffee, sugar cane, beans and corn. These products contain bacteria, fungi, viruses or nematodes. However, few entomopathogenic agents have been developed as effective biocontrol agents, one of them is the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berlinier for control of armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E Smith covering about 74% of the market,fungus 10% , viruses 5% and 11% others. Other upstanding case is the use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamoagainst bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say. Biopesticides have shown that when are used properly in the biological pest control its favor the practice of a sustainable agriculture, with less dependence of chemical insecticides.

  11. Identification and evaluation of Trichogramma parasitoids for biological pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, I.M.M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma are used as biological control agents against lepidopterous pests. From the 180 species described world-wide, only 5 have large scale application. The development of better methods to select other Trichogramma species/strains is necessary for a more effectiv

  12. Dietary silver nanoparticles reduce fitness in a beneficial, but not, pest insect species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have antimicrobial and insecticidal properties and they have been considered for their potential use as insecticides. While they do, indeed, kill some insects, two broader issues have not been considered in a critical way. First, reports of insect-lethal AgNPs are often ...

  13. Temperature stratification and insect pest populations in stored wheat with suction versus pressure aeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    A three-year study was conducted to compare temperature profiles in the headspace and in the bulk mass of wheat aerated through pressure aeration and suction aeration. Insect pitfall traps were used to measure naturally-occurring populations of stored product insects. Results show uniform distributi...

  14. Remote radio control of insect flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hirotaka; Berry, Christopher W; Peeri, Yoav; Baghoomian, Emen; Casey, Brendan E; Lavella, Gabriel; Vandenbrooks, John M; Harrison, Jon F; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through neural stimulus of the brain which elicited, suppressed or modulated wing oscillation. Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles. We characterized the response times, success rates, and free-flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely controlled beetles. We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses.

  15. Remote radio control of insect flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Sato

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through neural stimulus of the brain which elicited, suppressed or modulated wing oscillation. Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles. We characterized the response times, success rates, and free-flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely-controlled beetles. We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses.

  16. A simulation approach to assessing sampling strategies for insect pests: an example with the balsam gall midge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Drew Carleton

    Full Text Available Estimation of pest density is a basic requirement for integrated pest management in agriculture and forestry, and efficiency in density estimation is a common goal. Sequential sampling techniques promise efficient sampling, but their application can involve cumbersome mathematics and/or intensive warm-up sampling when pests have complex within- or between-site distributions. We provide tools for assessing the efficiency of sequential sampling and of alternative, simpler sampling plans, using computer simulation with "pre-sampling" data. We illustrate our approach using data for balsam gall midge (Paradiplosis tumifex attack in Christmas tree farms. Paradiplosis tumifex proved recalcitrant to sequential sampling techniques. Midge distributions could not be fit by a common negative binomial distribution across sites. Local parameterization, using warm-up samples to estimate the clumping parameter k for each site, performed poorly: k estimates were unreliable even for samples of n ∼ 100 trees. These methods were further confounded by significant within-site spatial autocorrelation. Much simpler sampling schemes, involving random or belt-transect sampling to preset sample sizes, were effective and efficient for P. tumifex. Sampling via belt transects (through the longest dimension of a stand was the most efficient, with sample means converging on true mean density for sample sizes of n ∼ 25-40 trees. Pre-sampling and simulation techniques provide a simple method for assessing sampling strategies for estimating insect infestation. We suspect that many pests will resemble P. tumifex in challenging the assumptions of sequential sampling methods. Our software will allow practitioners to optimize sampling strategies before they are brought to real-world applications, while potentially avoiding the need for the cumbersome calculations required for sequential sampling methods.

  17. 长沙烟区天敌昆虫物种多样性及其与主要害虫的消长动态%Species Diversity of Natural Enemy Insects and Population Dynamic of Main Pest Insects in Changsha Tobacco Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾维爱; 郭婷; 李密; 谭琳; 周刚; 李帆; 蔡海林; 何振; 胡秋龙; 颜学武

    2016-01-01

    Species diversity of natural enemy insects and population dynamic of main pest insects in Changsha tobacco areas were studied through wulti-site investigation and focused monitoring from 2014 to 2015. The results showed that 18 species of natural enemy insects were observed, including 5 dominant species, includingHarmonia axyridis, Propylaea japonica,Coccinella septempunctata, Paederus fuscipes andCampoletis chlorideae. The numbers of species and individuals of natural enemy insects were small, and the control capacity against main pest insects was weak. Species diversity of natural enemy insects was the highest in June. The relationship betweenMyzus persicae and its natural enemy insects exhibited a hysteresis phenomenon, while the relationship between Lepidoptera pests and natural enemy insects exhibited a following phenomenon.%采用多点调查和集中监测的方法对长沙烟区烟田天敌昆虫物种多样性及其与主要害虫的消长规律进行了调查和研究。共记录烟田害虫天敌昆虫18种,优势种5种,包括异色瓢虫、龟纹瓢虫、七星瓢虫、隐翅虫和棉铃虫齿唇姬蜂;天敌物种个体数相对较少,对烟田主要害虫的控制能力较弱;烟田天敌昆虫物种多样性系数以每年的6月最大;烟蚜及其天敌发生规律呈滞后现象,而鳞翅目害虫与其天敌主要呈跟随现象。

  18. Integrated Pest Management Plan : Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : November 14, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This integrated pest management (IPM) plan addresses the control and/or elimination of pest plants, fish, and insects at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, Brigham...

  19. Experimental and numerical evaluations on palm microwave heating for Red Palm Weevil pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Rita; Panariello, Gaetano; Pinchera, Daniele; Schettino, Fulvio; Caprio, Emilio; Griffo, Raffaele; Migliore, Marco Donald

    2017-01-01

    The invasive Red Palm Weevil is the major pest of palms. Several control methods have been applied, however concern is raised regarding the treatments that can cause significant environmental pollution. In this context the use of microwaves is particularly attractive. Microwave heating applications are increasingly proposed in the management of a wide range of agricultural and wood pests, exploiting the thermal death induced in the insects that have a thermal tolerance lower than that of the host matrices. This paper describes research aiming to combat the Red Palm pest using microwave heating systems. An electromagnetic-thermal model was developed to better control the temperature profile inside the palm tissues. In this process both electromagnetic and thermal parameters are involved, the latter being particularly critical depending on plant physiology. Their evaluation was carried out by fitting experimental data and the thermal model with few free parameters. The results obtained by the simplified model well match with both that of a commercial software 3D model and measurements on treated Phoenix canariensis palms with a ring microwave applicator. This work confirms that microwave heating is a promising, eco-compatible solution to fight the spread of weevil. PMID:28361964

  20. Experimental and numerical evaluations on palm microwave heating for Red Palm Weevil pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Rita; Panariello, Gaetano; Pinchera, Daniele; Schettino, Fulvio; Caprio, Emilio; Griffo, Raffaele; Migliore, Marco Donald

    2017-03-01

    The invasive Red Palm Weevil is the major pest of palms. Several control methods have been applied, however concern is raised regarding the treatments that can cause significant environmental pollution. In this context the use of microwaves is particularly attractive. Microwave heating applications are increasingly proposed in the management of a wide range of agricultural and wood pests, exploiting the thermal death induced in the insects that have a thermal tolerance lower than that of the host matrices. This paper describes research aiming to combat the Red Palm pest using microwave heating systems. An electromagnetic-thermal model was developed to better control the temperature profile inside the palm tissues. In this process both electromagnetic and thermal parameters are involved, the latter being particularly critical depending on plant physiology. Their evaluation was carried out by fitting experimental data and the thermal model with few free parameters. The results obtained by the simplified model well match with both that of a commercial software 3D model and measurements on treated Phoenix canariensis palms with a ring microwave applicator. This work confirms that microwave heating is a promising, eco-compatible solution to fight the spread of weevil.

  1. Biology of Orb-weaver Spider Araneus ventricosus and Its Role in Insect Pest Control%落叶松人工林重要害虫天敌——大腹圆蛛生物学特性及其对害虫控制作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志明; 刘进宝; 王海峰; 杨彦龙

    2011-01-01

    The life cycle of orb-weaver spider, Araneus ventricosus ( Arachnida: Araneae, Araneidae) takes for two years stretching over three years in Jilin province, China. The spider overwinters in the first to second and the six to seven instars. Except for the egg stage and the first to second instars, the other young instars and the mature spiders spin webs so they can catch insects and other small animals for their food. The spider favorites light place in the habitat, and spin vertical circular nets in the forest edge, forest gap, roadside, resting in the daytime and feeding in the night. Even in the light rain condition they are active normally. The spider can prey directly small insects, however, for large insect they can feed it after web capture silk is twined. The spider feed many latch insect pests, including the moths of Coleophora obducta (Meyrick) , Dendrolimus superans (Butler), Malacosoma neustria testacea Motschulsky, Lymantria dispar L. , Lymantria mathura Moore, Laspeyresia gruneniana ( Ratzburg), Laspeyresia zebeana ( Ratzeburg), and the sawflies of Pachynematus itoi Okutani, Pristiphora erichsonii (Hartig). Thus, the spider potentially becomes an effective natural enemy of larch insect pests.%大腹圆蛛(Araneus ventricosus)在吉林省2年完成1代,跨3个年度,以1~2龄和6~7龄若蛛越冬.该蛛除卵期及1、2龄蛛外,其它龄态的若、成蛛均张网捕食生活.该蛛喜居有光的柄境,在林缘、林窗处、路旁处结圆形垂直网,昼伏夜出,在小雨条件下可以正常活动.大腹圆蛛对小型猎物可直接取食,对中、大型猎物,需缠绕成束的捕获丝缚住再取食.在林间大腹贺蛛可取食多种蛾和叶蜂成虫,包括兴安落叶松鞘蛾、落叶松毛虫、黄褐幕枯叶蛾、舞毒蛾、栎毒蛾、松皮小卷蛾、松廖小卷蛾、伊藤厚丝叶蜂和落叶松叶蜂等多种落叶松害虫,是一种有效的害虫天敌.

  2. Biological activity of ethanolic extract fractions of Dracaena arborea against infestation of stored grains by two storage insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidi, T T; Udo, I O

    2009-07-01

    As part of on-going efforts to use eco-friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides, ethanolic extract of dried leaves of Dracaena arborea (Willd.) Link (Dragon tree; Dracaenaceae) dissolved in distilled water and partitioned between equal volumes of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol was assessed in the laboratory against infestation by Sitophillus zeamais Motsch. and Callosobruchus maculatus Walp. in stored maize and cowpea, respectively. One hundred grams each of maize grains and cowpea seeds were treated with 400 mg kg(-1) of each extract fraction to evaluate contact toxicity, damage assessment, effect on eggs and immature stages and progeny production in both insect species. Contact toxicity by topical application, toxicity upon filter paper application and repellency using area preference method were carried out on the two insect species. Results showed that the extract fraction caused significant (p against S. zeamais. Grain damage was significantly (p grains were inhibited. The extract fractions evoked a strong repellent action against S. zeamais but moderate action against C. maculatus. The full potentials of using extract fractions of D. arborea as grain protectant against infestation by insect pests is discussed.

  3. Nano-particles - A recent approach to insect pest control

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... 2Department of Material Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata-700032, India. 3Biology and Biotechnology Division, Indian ..... Media B.V. p. 243. Guan H, Chi D, Yu J, Li X (2008).

  4. Formation of peste des petits ruminants spikeless virus-like particles by co-expression of M and N proteins in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuxiao; Wu, Xiaodong; Li, Lin; Liu, Zengshan; Wang, Zhiliang

    2014-02-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) has a non-segmented negative sense RNA genome and is classified within the Morbillivirus genus of the Paramyxoviridae. Using the Bac-to-Bac® baculovirus expression system, we constructed recombinant baculoviruses that were able to co-express the PPRV matrix and nucleocapsid proteins in insect cells under the control of the polyhedron and p10 promoters, respectively. The results showed that although both structural proteins were expressed at a relatively low level, the interaction between them caused the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs) by viewing of transmission electron microscopy. The VLPs morphologically resembled authentic PPRVs but lacked spikes protruding from the particulate surfaces. Interestingly, the diameter of PPRV VLPs ranged from 100 to 150 nm, far less than the mean diameter (400-500 nm) of parental virions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biology and management of insect pests in North American intensively managed hardwood forest systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.

    2005-01-01

    Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pest management in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.

  6. Weaver ants convert pest insects into food — prospects for the rural poor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Wiwatwitaya, Decha

    2009-01-01

    harvested and eaten. In this way harmful pests are turned into valuable protein food and crops are protected without chemicals. As the weaver ant distribution envelops most of the worlds hunger hot spots this double utilization of ants for increased food production may benefit the people most...

  7. Moving On: Farmer Education in Integrated Insect Pest and Disease Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiggins, J.L.S.; Mancini, F.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter explores intensive hands-on occupational education for farmers in selected European, African, Latin American countries and in south India. An Indian case study of Farmer Field Schools for Integrated Pest and Production Management (IPPM) to ensure food security and livelihood improvement

  8. Moving On: Farmer Education in Integrated Insect Pest and Disease Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiggins, J.L.S.; Mancini, F.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter explores intensive hands-on occupational education for farmers in selected European, African, Latin American countries and in south India. An Indian case study of Farmer Field Schools for Integrated Pest and Production Management (IPPM) to ensure food security and livelihood improvement

  9. A naturally occurring plant cysteine protease possesses remarkable toxicity against insect pests and synergizes Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    When caterpillars feed on maize (Zea maize L.) lines with native resistance to several Lepidopteran pests, a defensive systeine protease, Mir1-CP, rapidly accumulates at the wound site. Mir1-CP has been shown to inhibit caterpillar growth in vivo by attacking and permeabilizing the insect’s peritro...

  10. Impact of pest control strategies on the arthropodofauna living in bird nests built in nestboxes in pear and apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Lise; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Lavigne, Claire; Galès, Mathieu; Buronfosse, Thierry

    2013-08-01

    Pesticide applications have a strong impact on biodiversity in agroecosystems. The present study aimed to assess the impact of pest control strategies on the arthropodofauna of Parus major nests built within nestboxes installed in orchards. Unlike many studied groups, these arthropod communities are not in direct contact with pesticide sprays (on account of their being sheltered by nestboxes) and are also unable to move away from the treated area. In this pilot study, we estimated the prevalence and the taxonomic and ecological diversities of arthropodofauna sampled in the nests and assessed the extent to which the whole and nest-specific arthropodofauna were affected by pest control strategies. Sixteen different insect and arachnid Primary Taxonomic Groups (PTGs, order level or below) were found in nests. The best represented PTGs (≥10% occurrence in years 2007 and 2008) were Psocoptera (Insecta, detritivorous/saprophagous), detritivorous/saprophagous Astigmata (Acari) and hematophagous Mesostigmata (Acari). Pest control strategies had a large impact on the prevalence of arthropods in nests, with higher proportions of nests hosting arthropods in organic orchards than in conventional orchards and with intermediate proportions in nests in Integrated Pest Management orchards. In contrast, pest control strategies had no significant effect on the composition of the arthropod communities when only nests hosting nidicolous arthropods were considered.

  11. Effect of supplementary feeding of Oecophylla longinoda on their abundance and predatory activities against cashew insect pests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rashid Abdulla, Nassor; Rwegasira, Gration; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have shown the efficiency of using weaver ants (Oecophylla species) as natural bio-control agents against agricultural pests. Supplementary feeding could promote fast growth of this ant's population and discourage them from moving away. However, such artificial feeding might slow dow...

  12. 7 CFR 58.147 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.147 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.147 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control...

  13. 7 CFR 58.247 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.247 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.247 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control program...

  14. 太阳能诱虫灯对烟田害虫的诱杀效果研究%Study on Capturing Effect of Solar Trap Lamp on Insect Pests in Tobacco Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    母婷婷; 高小俊; 秦剑波; 周孚美; 张小易; 徐志海; 庞小妹; 刘琼

    2012-01-01

    The solar trap lamp was tested and applied in the control of insect pests in tobacco field, and its trapping effect on a-dults as well as economic benefit were analyzed. The results indicated that the application of solar trap lamp could significantly reduce the basic quantity of adults, decrease the dosage of pesticide, and destroy the reproduction and oviposition of insect pests. So the solar trap lamp had obvious control effect against insect pests and significant economic benefit, and it was suitable to be widely demonstrated and popularized.%通过太阳能诱虫灯在烟草上的生产应用试验,分析不同发生时期对成虫的诱杀效果及经济效益.结果表明,太阳能诱虫灯有效地减少成虫基数,减少农药用量,同时破坏害虫的繁殖产卵,防虫害效果、经济效益较为显著,有利于大面积示范推广.

  15. Present occurrence of underground insect pests on medicinal plants and their integrated management strategies%药用植物地下害虫发生现状与无公害综合防治策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帅; 尹姣; 曹雅忠; 李克斌

    2016-01-01

    近年来,药用植物地下害虫为害日益突出,严重降低中草药的产量和品质。由于地下害虫在土壤中活动,取食药用植物的地下部分,给防治带来很大的困难。同时,农药的过度使用也给中草药安全带来了隐患。本文对药用植物地下害虫的主要种类、为害特点、发生规律和防治中存在的问题进行了综述,重点阐述了不同药用植物上常见的地下害虫种类,并提出了相应的无公害综合防治措施。%In recent years,Chinese herbal medicines are suffering from underground insect pests severely,which cause decrease in quality and quantity of the herbal medicine.It is difficult to control because of underground in-sect pest living in the soil and feed on the underground part of medicinal plant.Meanwhile,overuse of pesticide poses a threat to the safety of Chinese herbal medicine.This article reviewed main underground pest groups,their damage characteristics,the regularity of outbreak and the questions faced in the present control practice,and pro-posed pollution-free integrated management measures against underground insect pests,specific underground insect species on different medicinal plants were discussed in emphasis.

  16. Using Pesticides: Commercial Applicator Manual, Texas. Agricultural Pest Control - Field Crop Pest Control, Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control, Weed and Brush Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This document is designed to provide commercial pesticide applicators with practical information and regulations required by the Texas Department of Agriculture. The manual includes two major sections. The first section discusses labels and labeling, pesticides, aerial application, ground application, pesticide safety, pests and pest damage,…

  17. Biological control of Otiorhynchus sulcatus by insect parasitic nematodes, Heterorhabditis spp., at low temperatures : a systems analytical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    The black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, is an important pest in ornamentals and nursery stock in The Netherlands. The larvae, which feed on the root system of the plant, can be controlled by insect parasitic nematodes, Heterorhabditis.

  18. Advances and Perspectives of the use of the entomopathogenic fungi beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae for the control of arthropod pests in poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DGP Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Global poultry production is plagued by a wide variety of arthropods. The problems associated with their chemical control have led to an increasing search for control alternatives, and entomopathogenic fungi seem to be a promising strategy. Despite the large number of insects and mites considered as important pests in animal production, studies on the use of entomopathogenic fungi for their control are still scarce compared with agricultural pests, particularly in Brazil. This article reviews some damages and control aspects of the main arthropod pests that affect Brazilian poultry production, including house flies, lesser mealworms, and feather mites, by the use of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Studies published in the last 20 years were reviewed, and the main problems and limitations of that pest-control strategy are discussed.

  19. Biological insect control using Metarhizium anisopliae: morphological, molecular, and ecological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Vieira Tiago

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial control of insects is based on the rational use of pathogens to maintain environmentally balanced pest population levels, and Metarhizium anisopliae has been the most studied and most utilized fungal species for that purpose. The natural genetic variability of entomopathogenic fungi is considered one of the principal advantages of microbial insect control. The inter- and intraspecific variability and the genetic diversity and population structures of Metarhizium and other entomopathogenic fungi have been examined using ITS-RFLP, ISSR, and ISSP molecular markers. The persistence of M. anisopliae in the soil and its possible effects on the structures of resident microbial communities must be considered when selecting isolates for biological insect control.

  20. [Creation of transgenic sugar beet lines expressing insect pest resistance genes cry1C and cry2A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, D I; Sivura, V V; Kurilo, V V; Oleneva, V D; Emets, A I; Blium, Ia B

    2014-01-01

    Impact of insect pests makes a significant limitation of the sugar beet crop yield. Integration of cry-genes of Bacillus thuringiensis into plant genome is one of the promising strategies to ensure plant resistance. The aim of this work was to obtain sugar beet lines (based on the MM 1/2 line) transformed with cry2A and cry1Cgenes. We have optimized transformation protocol and direct plant let regeneration protocol from leaf explants using 1 mg/l benzylaminopurine as well as 0,25 mg/l benzylaminopurine and 0,1 mg/l indole-butyric acid. Consequently, transgenic sugar beet lines transformed with vector constructs pRD400-cry1C and pRD400-cry2A have been obtained. PCR analysis revealed integration of cry2A and cry1C into genome of transgenic lines and expression of these genes in leaf tissues was shown by reverse transcription PCR.

  1. Semiochemicals to monitor insect pests – future opportunities for an effective host plant volatile blend to attract navel orangeworm in pistachio orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) has been a major insect pest of California tree nut orchards for the past five decades. In particular, almond and pistachio orchards suffer major annual economic damage due to both physical and associated fungal damage caused by navel orangeworm larvae. Un...

  2. Moisture content, insect pests and mycotoxin levels of maize at harvest and post-harvest in the Middle Belt of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisture content, insect pest infestation and mycotoxin contamination of maize are challenges to food safety and security, especially in the tropics where maize is a staple grain. However, very little documentation is available on the impact of these factors on maize in Ghana. This study focused on ...

  3. Ecoinformatics for integrated pest management: expanding the applied insect ecologist's tool-kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheim, Jay A; Parsa, Soroush; Forbes, Andrew A; Krimmel, William A; Law, Yao Hua; Segoli, Michal; Segoli, Moran; Sivakoff, Frances S; Zaviezo, Tania; Gross, Kevin

    2011-04-01

    Experimentation has been the cornerstone of much of integrated pest management (IPM) research. Here, we aim to open a discussion on the possible merits of expanding the use of observational studies, and in particular the use of data from farmers or private pest management consultants in "ecoinformatics" studies, as tools that might complement traditional, experimental research. The manifold advantages of experimentation are widely appreciated: experiments provide definitive inferences regarding causal relationships between key variables, can produce uniform and high-quality data sets, and are highly flexible in the treatments that can be evaluated. Perhaps less widely considered, however, are the possible disadvantages of experimental research. Using the yield-impact study to focus the discussion, we address some reasons why observational or ecoinformatics approaches might be attractive as complements to experimentation. A survey of the literature suggests that many contemporary yield-impact studies lack sufficient statistical power to resolve the small, but economically important, effects on crop yield that shape pest management decision-making by farmers. Ecoinformatics-based data sets can be substantially larger than experimental data sets and therefore hold out the promise of enhanced power. Ecoinformatics approaches also address problems at the spatial and temporal scales at which farming is conducted, can achieve higher levels of "external validity," and can allow researchers to efficiently screen many variables during the initial, exploratory phases of research projects. Experimental, observational, and ecoinformatics-based approaches may, if used together, provide more efficient solutions to problems in pest management than can any single approach, used in isolation.

  4. 25 CFR 163.31 - Insect and disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insect and disease control. 163.31 Section 163.31 Indians... Management and Operations § 163.31 Insect and disease control. (a) The Secretary is authorized to protect and preserve Indian forest land from disease or insects (Sept. 20, 1922, Ch. 349, 42 Stat. 857). The...

  5. 20 CFR 654.415 - Insect and rodent control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insect and rodent control. 654.415 Section 654.415 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL... Insect and rodent control. Housing and facilities shall be free of insects, rodents, and other vermin....

  6. Nanosilica-from medicine to pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, T K; Sahu, B; Swain, V

    2008-07-01

    Nanotechnology is a broad interdisciplinary area of research, development, and industrial activity that has been growing rapidly worldwide for the past decade. More ambitious uses of nanoparticles are bioremediation of contaminated environments, controlled release of fragrances, biocides, and antifungals on textiles. Silica nanocomposites have received much attention because of its thermal degradation behavior and applications in chromatography, medicine, optics, etc. Nanobiotech takes agriculture from the battleground of genetically modified organisms to the brave new world of atomically modified organisms where rice has been modified atomically. Silica has been widely applied in various industries. Application of gold-coated silica has been used in the treatment for benign and malignant tumor. Surface-modified hydrophobic as well as lipophilic nanosilica could be effectively used as novel drugs for treatment of chicken malaria and nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV), a scourge in silkworm industry. Here, the authors attempt to provide a review to explain the impact of nanosilica on basic biology, medicine, agro-nanoproducts, and use of amorphous nanosilica as biopesticide.

  7. In situ detection of small-size insect pests sampled on traps using multifractal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chunlei; Lee, Jang-Myung; Li, Yan; Chung, Bu-Keun; Chon, Tae-Soo

    2012-02-01

    We introduce a multifractal analysis for detecting the small-size pest (e.g., whitefly) images from a sticky trap in situ. An automatic attraction system is utilized for collecting pests from greenhouse plants. We applied multifractal analysis to segment action of whitefly images based on the local singularity and global image characteristics. According to the theory of multifractal dimension, the candidate blobs of whiteflies are initially defined from the sticky-trap image. Two schemes, fixed thresholding and regional minima obtainment, were utilized for feature extraction of candidate whitefly image areas. The experiment was conducted with the field images in a greenhouse. Detection results were compared with other adaptive segmentation algorithms. Values of F measuring precision and recall score were higher for the proposed multifractal analysis (96.5%) compared with conventional methods such as Watershed (92.2%) and Otsu (73.1%). The true positive rate of multifractal analysis was 94.3% and the false positive rate minimal level at 1.3%. Detection performance was further tested via human observation. The degree of scattering between manual and automatic counting was remarkably higher with multifractal analysis (R2=0.992) compared with Watershed (R2=0.895) and Otsu (R2=0.353), ensuring overall detection of the small-size pests is most feasible with multifractal analysis in field conditions.

  8. Impact of climate change on voltinism and prospective diapause induction of a global pest insect--Cydia pomonella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckli, Sibylle; Hirschi, Martin; Spirig, Christoph; Calanca, Pierluigi; Rotach, Mathias W; Samietz, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Global warming will lead to earlier beginnings and prolongation of growing seasons in temperate regions and will have pronounced effects on phenology and life-history adaptation in many species. These changes were not easy to simulate for actual phenologies because of the rudimentary temporal (season) and spatial (regional) resolution of climate model projections. We investigate the effect of climate change on the regional incidence of a pest insect with nearly worldwide distribution and very high potential for adaptation to season length and temperature--the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella. Seasonal and regional climate change signals were downscaled to the hourly temporal scale of a pest phenology model and the spatial scale of pest habitats using a stochastic weather generator operating at daily scale in combination with a re-sampling approach for simulation of hourly weather data. Under future conditions of increased temperatures (2045-2074), the present risk of below 20% for a pronounced second generation (peak larval emergence) in Switzerland will increase to 70-100%. The risk of an additional third generation will increase from presently 0-2% to 100%. We identified a significant two-week shift to earlier dates in phenological stages, such as overwintering adult flight. The relative extent (magnitude) of first generation pupae and all later stages will significantly increase. The presence of first generation pupae and later stages will be prolonged. A significant decrease in the length of overlap of first and second generation larval emergence was identified. Such shifts in phenology may induce changes in life-history traits regulating the life cycle. An accordingly life-history adaptation in photoperiodic diapause induction to shorter day-length is expected and would thereby even more increase the risk of an additional generation. With respect to Codling Moth management, the shifts in phenology and voltinism projected here will require adaptations of plant

  9. Impact of climate change on voltinism and prospective diapause induction of a global pest insect--Cydia pomonella (L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Stoeckli

    Full Text Available Global warming will lead to earlier beginnings and prolongation of growing seasons in temperate regions and will have pronounced effects on phenology and life-history adaptation in many species. These changes were not easy to simulate for actual phenologies because of the rudimentary temporal (season and spatial (regional resolution of climate model projections. We investigate the effect of climate change on the regional incidence of a pest insect with nearly worldwide distribution and very high potential for adaptation to season length and temperature--the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella. Seasonal and regional climate change signals were downscaled to the hourly temporal scale of a pest phenology model and the spatial scale of pest habitats using a stochastic weather generator operating at daily scale in combination with a re-sampling approach for simulation of hourly weather data. Under future conditions of increased temperatures (2045-2074, the present risk of below 20% for a pronounced second generation (peak larval emergence in Switzerland will increase to 70-100%. The risk of an additional third generation will increase from presently 0-2% to 100%. We identified a significant two-week shift to earlier dates in phenological stages, such as overwintering adult flight. The relative extent (magnitude of first generation pupae and all later stages will significantly increase. The presence of first generation pupae and later stages will be prolonged. A significant decrease in the length of overlap of first and second generation larval emergence was identified. Such shifts in phenology may induce changes in life-history traits regulating the life cycle. An accordingly life-history adaptation in photoperiodic diapause induction to shorter day-length is expected and would thereby even more increase the risk of an additional generation. With respect to Codling Moth management, the shifts in phenology and voltinism projected here will require

  10. Spatially optimal habitat management for enhancing natural control of an invasive agricultural pest: soybean aphid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Werf, van der W.; Swinton, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    By their direct effects on private profitability, invasive agricultural pests create special incentives for management that set them apart from other categories of invasive species. One attractive nonchemical management approach for agricultural pests relies upon biological control by natural enemie

  11. Pest Control and Related Orchard Practices in Commercial Fruit Plantings. Circular 1151.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, S. M.; And Others

    This circular brings together suggestions from the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station and the Illinois State Natural History Survey relating to orchard practices and pest control. It provides some basic steps in pest control and discusses some specific orchard pests such as grasshoppers, mites, mice, and rabbits. In addition, it gives some…

  12. 1991-2010年中国棉花病虫害经济损失分析%Analysis of economic loss from pest insects and plant disease in cotton of China during 1991-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房雪; GE Saiying; 张永生; 曹婧; 欧阳芳

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cotton is an important economic crop in China. Frequent outbreaks of biological disasters such as plant disease and pest insect has been threatening the cotton production in China since 1991. [Methods] In current study, by using 20 years’ statistical data of cotton protection, cotton yields and occurrence of pathogens and pest insects, we mainly analyzed the potential tendency of occurrence areas, yield enhance after control, actual loss yield after control of cotton pest insect and disease from 1991 to 2010. [Results] Firstly, with respect to the pest insect, the occurrence areas and control areas decreased 24.2% and 15.1% while yield enhance after control, actual loss yield after control increased 25.3% and 22.4%, respectively. With respect to the pathogen disease, the occurrence areas, control areas, yield enhance after control, actual loss yield after control all increased 16.2%, 38.3%, 303.8%and 175.4%, respectively. Secondly, the occurrence areas, control areas, yield enhance after control, actual loss yield after control from pest insect were higher than these from pathogen diseases. Thirdly, although we took a series of control measures, the actual loss yield rate caused by insect pest and pathogen disease were elevated from 4.0% in 1991 to 5.7% in 2010. Specifically, the actual loss yield caused by pest insect and pathogen disease was increased from 19.06 ton and 3.90 ton in 1991 to 23.33 ton and 10.72 ton in 2010, respectively. Finally, pathogen diseases and pest insects of cotton mainly occurred in Middle and Eastern regions as well as Xinjiang’s districts of China. [Conclusion] Pest insects and pathogen disease are still important factors influencing the cotton production in China. In order to effectively reduce the negative effect of cotton pest insect and pathogen disease, we should establish the risk assessment and monitor and warn those biological disasters in time, improve the ecological environment of farmland, increase the

  13. Transcriptome Analysis and Screening for Potential Target Genes for RNAi-Mediated Pest Control of the Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hang; Jiang, Weihua; Zhang, Zan; Xing, Yanru; Li, Fei

    2013-01-01

    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a serious pest worldwide that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, genetic resources for the beet armyworm is extremely scarce. To improve these resources we sequenced the transcriptome of S. exigua representing all stages including eggs, 1(st) to 5(th) instar larvae, pupae, male and female adults using the Illumina Solexa platform. We assembled the transcriptome with Trinity that yielded 31,414 contigs. Of these contigs, 18,592 were annotated as protein coding genes by Blast searches against the NCBI nr database. It has been shown that knockdown of important insect genes by dsRNAs or siRNAs is a feasible mechanism to control insect pests. The first key step towards developing an efficient RNAi-mediated pest control technique is to find suitable target genes. To screen for effective target genes in the beet armyworm, we selected nine candidate genes. The sequences of these genes were amplified using the RACE strategy. Then, siRNAs were designed and chemically synthesized. We injected 2 µl siRNA (2 µg/µl) into the 4(th) instar larvae to knock down the respective target genes. The mRNA abundance of target genes decreased to different levels (∼20-94.3%) after injection of siRNAs. Knockdown of eight genes including chitinase7, PGCP, chitinase1, ATPase, tubulin1, arf2, tubulin2 and arf1 caused a significantly high level of mortality compared to the negative control (Ppest control.

  14. Mobile robot based electrostatic spray system for controlling pests on cotton plants in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mamury, M.; Manivannan, N.; Al-Raweshidy, H.; Balachandran, W.

    2015-10-01

    A mobile robot based electrostatic spray system was developed to combat pest infestation on cotton plants in Iraq. The system consists of a charged spray nozzle, a CCD camera, a mobile robot (vehicle and arm) and Arduino microcontroller. Arduino microcontroller is used to control the spray nozzle and the robot. Matlab is used to process the image from the CCD camera and to generate the appropriate control signals to the robot and the spray nozzle. COMSOL multi-physics FEM software was used to design the induction electrodes to achieve maximum charge transfer onto the fan spray liquid film resulting in achieving the desired charge/mass ratio of the spray. The charged spray nozzle was operated on short duration pulsed spray mode. Image analysis was employed to investigate the spray deposition on improvised insect targets on an artificial plant.

  15. The efficacy of biogas to protect stored grains from insect pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanakya H. N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Stored grains such as rice and wheat (and other grains/pulses are prone to pest infestation mainly by Sitophilus oryzae, Tribolium castaneum and Rhyzopertha dominica in India and more than 30% of harvested grain is lost to stored grain pests. Protection of the grains by creating an oxygen deficit atmosphere by using carbon-dioxide or biogas is an alternative. In this study, biogas was used as a ‘fumigant’ against S .oryzae, T. castaneum and R. dominica reared on rice (Oryza sativa and wheat (Triticum aestivum; Semolina and whole wheat flour grain types, respectively. The optimum biogas flow rate required to remove the oxygen from an empty container and partially grain filled container was found to be 40 ml per minute sustained up to a time leading to an equivalent of three times the volume of the grain container. Using these fumigation conditions 100 % adult mortality was observed in T. castaneum and R. dominica within 24 hours and S. oryzae within 48 hours. Farmers in rural India have been using biogas plants to meet their kitchen energy needs. Some surplus gas could be used for fumigation of stored agro-products making this process inexpensive, environment friendly as well as acceptable to a growing ‘organic food market’.

  16. Selection of entomopathogenic nematodes for enhanced responsiveness to a volatile root signal helps to control a major root pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltpold, Ivan; Baroni, Mariane; Toepfer, Stefan; Kuhlmann, Ulrich; Turlings, Ted C J

    2010-07-15

    The efficacy of natural enemies as biological control agents against insect pests can theoretically be enhanced by artificial selection for high responsiveness to foraging cues. The recent discovery that maize roots damaged by the western corn rootworm (WCR) emit a key attractant for insect-killing nematodes has opened the way to explore whether a selection strategy can improve the control of root pests. The compound in question, (E)-beta-caryophyllene, is only weakly attractive to Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, one of the most infectious nematodes against WCR. To overcome this drawback, we used a six-arm below-ground olfactometer to select for a strain of H. bacteriophora that is more readily attracted to (E)-beta-caryophyllene. After six generations of selection, the selected strain responded considerably better and moved twice as rapidly towards a (E)-beta-caryophyllene source than the original strain. There was a minor trade-off between this enhanced responsiveness and nematode infectiveness. Yet, in subsequent field tests, the selected strain was significantly more effective than the original strain in reducing WCR populations in plots with a maize variety that releases (E)-beta-caryophyllene, but not in plots with a maize variety that does not emit this root signal. These results illustrate the great potential of manipulating natural enemies of herbivores to improve biological pest control.

  17. Virulence of Entomopathogenic Fungi and Bacteria against Stored Product Pests

    OpenAIRE

    Sevim, Ali; Sevim, Elif; Demirci, Meryem

    2015-01-01

    Virulence of Entomopathogenic Fungi and Bacteria against Stored Product PestsEntomopathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes and protozoa play an important role for regulation of insect pest populations and, this leads to use these microorganisms as biological control agents against pest species as an alternative to chemicals insecticides. In this study, we tested different bacteria originated from stored product pests and fungi isolated from different sources agai...

  18. The Red Queen in a potato field: integrated pest management versus chemical dependency in Colorado potato beetle control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyokhin, Andrei; Mota-Sanchez, David; Baker, Mitchell; Snyder, William E; Menasha, Sandra; Whalon, Mark; Dively, Galen; Moarsi, Wassem F

    2015-03-01

    Originally designed to reconcile insecticide applications with biological control, the concept of integrated pest management (IPM) developed into the systems-based judicious and coordinated use of multiple control techniques aimed at reducing pest damage to economically tolerable levels. Chemical control, with scheduled treatments, was the starting point for most management systems in the 1950s. Although chemical control is philosophically compatible with IPM practices as a whole, reduction in pesticide use has been historically one of the main goals of IPM practitioners. In the absence of IPM, excessive reliance on pesticides has led to repeated control failures due to the evolution of resistance by pest populations. This creates the need for constant replacement of failed chemicals with new compounds, known as the 'insecticide treadmill'. In evolutionary biology, a similar phenomenon is known as the Red Queen principle - continuing change is needed for a population to persevere because its competitors undergo constant evolutionary adaptation. The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is an insect defoliator of potatoes that is notorious for its ability to develop insecticide resistance. In the present article, a review is given of four case studies from across the United States to demonstrate the importance of using IPM for sustainable management of a highly adaptable insect pest. Excessive reliance on often indiscriminate insecticide applications and inadequate use of alternative control methods, such as crop rotation, appear to expedite evolution of insecticide resistance in its populations. Resistance to IPM would involve synchronized adaptations to multiple unfavorable factors, requiring statistically unlikely genetic changes. Therefore, integrating different techniques is likely to reduce the need for constant replacement of failed chemicals with new ones.

  19. Models for integrated pest control and their biological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A

    2008-09-01

    Successful integrated pest management (IPM) control programmes depend on many factors which include host-parasitoid ratios, starting densities, timings of parasitoid releases, dosages and timings of insecticide applications and levels of host-feeding and parasitism. Mathematical models can help us to clarify and predict the effects of such factors on the stability of host-parasitoid systems, which we illustrate here by extending the classical continuous and discrete host-parasitoid models to include an IPM control programme. The results indicate that one of three control methods can maintain the host level below the economic threshold (ET) in relation to different ET levels, initial densities of host and parasitoid populations and host-parasitoid ratios. The effects of host intrinsic growth rate and parasitoid searching efficiency on host mean outbreak period can be calculated numerically from the models presented. The instantaneous pest killing rate of an insecticide application is also estimated from the models. The results imply that the modelling methods described can help in the design of appropriate control strategies and assist management decision-making. The results also indicate that a high initial density of parasitoids (such as in inundative releases) and high parasitoid inter-generational survival rates will lead to more frequent host outbreaks and, therefore, greater economic damage. The biological implications of this counter intuitive result are discussed.

  20. Pest Control in the School Environment:Adopting Integrated Pest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about establishing a school IPM program, including developing an official IPM policy statement, setting roles for participants and pest management objectives, inspecting sites, setting action threshold, applying IPM strategies and evaluating results.

  1. Chlorophyll derivatives for pest and disease control: Are they safe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizullah, Azizullah, E-mail: azizswabi@gmail.com; Murad, Waheed

    2015-01-15

    Chlorophyll derivatives are getting widespread acceptance among the researchers as natural photosensitizers for photodynamic control of pests and disease vectors; however, rare attention has been given to evaluation of their toxicity to non-target organisms in the environment. This perspective article highlights that chlorophyll derivatives may not be as safe as believed and can possibly pose risk to non-target organisms in the environment. We invite the attention of environmental biologists, particularly ecotoxicologists, to contribute their role in making the application of chlorophyll derivatives more environmentally friendly and publicly acceptable.

  2. Pheromone use for insect control: present status and prospect in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Azharul Islam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The insect’s world is filled with many odors. Insects use these odors to cue them in a variety of complex social behaviors, including courtship, mating, and egg laying. Scientists and pest control specialists have known about these complex communication systems for decades. The main aim of this study was to visualize the availability, trends and differences in the sources of pheromone control in agricultural growth of Bangladesh. It also concerned on constrains and present use of pheromone and their possible recommendation on behalf of Bangladesh agriculture. It concentrated on the data during last three decades (1980-2010, comprising status of pheromone use in Bangladesh agriculture and its future. Review revealed that Bangladesh has been enormously successful in increasing pheromone use in agricultural production (especially for vegetables. Understanding of the nature of pheromones and their potential for pest control along with the future prospective of pheromone technique in agriculture were stated. Since the pheromone, technologies for control of major crop pests in Bangladesh are still limited. So that this review emphasized on more attention to the authority to increase the research works and project facilities related to develop and promote pheromone techniques. It is highly recommended to increase availability of pheromone in market, more investment in research and development, introduction of newly identified pheromone for specific pest, to assist government and non-government organizations to work with farmers to reduce harmful insecticide use and promote pheromone tactics as one part of integrated crop management (ICM.

  3. Countermeasure against insect pests for comfortable life; Gaichu tono tatakai (kaitekina seikatsu kukan wo mezashite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, M. [Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    Described herein are the current status and development of insecticides for domestic purposes. For aerosol type cockroach-killing insecticides, oily type is predominant in Japan whereas aqueous type in USA and other countries. They are mixtures of knockdown agents and killing agents, the former being used for their immediate and lethal effects whereas the latter for their lethal effect. In 1996, agents showing high knockdown effects, such as pyrethroids, are registered. Fumigants are used in closed spaces, which are ventilated after they are used. Bait agents contain inducing agents. Recently, ticks become social problems as an allergy source. The insecticides are generally used to remove them, although physical methods, such as cleaning and heat treatment, are effective. They are centered by aerosols and fumigants, but insecticidal sheets are used to some extent. Fleas coming from pets also cause problems. Increased resistance of insects to insecticides has led to development of new types of insecticides, such as those based on organophosphates and those aimed at prevention of their metamorphosis. Commercial insecticides are safe, as long as they are produced in compliance with the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law and used correctly. Nevertheless, however, researches for safer countermeasures against insects are needed. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Conservation Biological Control and Pest Performance in Lawn Turf: Does Mowing Height Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Emily K.; Potter, Daniel A.

    2014-03-01

    With >80 million United States households engaged in lawn and gardening activities, increasing sustainability of lawn care is important. Mowing height is an easily manipulated aspect of lawn management. We tested the hypothesis that elevated mowing of tall fescue lawn grass promotes a larger, more diverse community of arthropod natural enemies which in turn provides stronger biological control services, and the corollary hypothesis that doing so also renders the turf itself less suitable for growth of insect pests. Turf-type tall fescue was mowed low (6.4 cm) or high (10.2 cm) for two growing seasons, natural enemy populations were assessed by vacuum sampling, pitfall traps, and ant baits, and predation and parasitism were evaluated with sentinel prey caterpillars, grubs, and eggs. In addition, foliage-feeding caterpillars and root-feeding scarab grubs were confined in the turf to evaluate their performance. Although some predatory groups (e.g., rove beetles and spiders) were more abundant in high-mowed grass, predation rates were uniformly high because ants, the dominant predators, were similarly abundant regardless of mowing height. Lower canopy temperatures in high-mowed grass were associated with slower growth of grass-feeding caterpillars. Higher lawn mowing reduces fuel consumption and yard waste, and promotes a deep, robust root system that reduces need for water and chemical inputs. Although in this study elevated mowing height did not measurably increase the already-high levels of predation, it did suggest additional ways through which bottom-up effects on insect pest growth might interact with natural enemies to facilitate conservation biological control.

  5. Cell-penetrating recombinant peptides for potential use in agricultural pest control applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen R; Dowd, Patrick F; Johnson, Eric T

    2012-09-28

    Several important areas of interest intersect in a class of peptides characterized by their highly cationic and partly hydrophobic structure. These molecules have been called cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) because they possess the ability to translocate across cell membranes. This ability makes these peptides attractive candidates for delivery of therapeutic compounds, especially to the interior of cells. Compounds with characteristics similar to CPPs and that, in addition, have antimicrobial properties are being investigated as antibiotics with a reduced risk of causing resistance. These CPP-like membrane-acting antimicrobial peptides (MAMPs) are α-helical amphipathic peptides that interact with and perturb cell membranes to produce their antimicrobial effects. One source of MAMPs is spider venom. Because these compounds are toxic to insects, they also show promise for development as biological agents for control of insecticide-resistant agricultural pests. Spider venom is a potential source of novel insect-specific peptide toxins. One example is the small amphipathic α-helical peptide lycotoxin-1 (Lyt-1 or LCTX) from the wolf spider (Lycosa carolinensis). One side of the α-helix has mostly hydrophilic and the other mainly hydrophobic amino acid residues. The positive charge of the hydrophilic side interacts with negatively charged prokaryotic membranes and the hydrophobic side associates with the membrane lipid bilayer to permeabilize it. Because the surface of the exoskeleton, or cuticle, of an insect is highly hydrophobic, to repel water and dirt, it would be expected that amphipathic compounds could permeabilize it. Mutagenized lycotoxin 1 peptides were produced and expressed in yeast cultures that were fed to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) larvae to identify the most lethal mutants. Transgenic expression of spider venom toxins such as lycotoxin-1 in plants could provide durable insect resistance.

  6. Cell-Penetrating Recombinant Peptides for Potential Use in Agricultural Pest Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Several important areas of interest intersect in a class of peptides characterized by their highly cationic and partly hydrophobic structure. These molecules have been called cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs because they possess the ability to translocate across cell membranes. This ability makes these peptides attractive candidates for delivery of therapeutic compounds, especially to the interior of cells. Compounds with characteristics similar to CPPs and that, in addition, have antimicrobial properties are being investigated as antibiotics with a reduced risk of causing resistance. These CPP-like membrane-acting antimicrobial peptides (MAMPs are α-helical amphipathic peptides that interact with and perturb cell membranes to produce their antimicrobial effects. One source of MAMPs is spider venom. Because these compounds are toxic to insects, they also show promise for development as biological agents for control of insecticide-resistant agricultural pests. Spider venom is a potential source of novel insect-specific peptide toxins. One example is the small amphipathic α-helical peptide lycotoxin-1 (Lyt-1 or LCTX from the wolf spider (Lycosa carolinensis. One side of the α-helix has mostly hydrophilic and the other mainly hydrophobic amino acid residues. The positive charge of the hydrophilic side interacts with negatively charged prokaryotic membranes and the hydrophobic side associates with the membrane lipid bilayer to permeabilize it. Because the surface of the exoskeleton, or cuticle, of an insect is highly hydrophobic, to repel water and dirt, it would be expected that amphipathic compounds could permeabilize it. Mutagenized lycotoxin 1 peptides were produced and expressed in yeast cultures that were fed to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda larvae to identify the most lethal mutants. Transgenic expression of spider venom toxins such as lycotoxin-1 in plants could provide durable insect resistance.

  7. Effects of a sex-ratio distorting endosymbiont on mtDNA variation in a global insect pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook James M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of mtDNA variation within a species reflect long-term population structure, but may also be influenced by maternally inherited endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia. These bacteria often alter host reproductive biology and can drive particular mtDNA haplotypes through populations. We investigated the impacts of Wolbachia infection and geography on mtDNA variation in the diamondback moth, a major global pest whose geographic distribution reflects both natural processes and transport via human agricultural activities. Results The mtDNA phylogeny of 95 individuals sampled from 10 countries on four continents revealed two major clades. One contained only Wolbachia-infected individuals from Malaysia and Kenya, while the other contained only uninfected individuals, from all countries including Malaysia and Kenya. Within the uninfected group was a further clade containing all individuals from Australasia and displaying very limited sequence variation. In contrast, a biparental nuclear gene phylogeny did not have infected and uninfected clades, supporting the notion that maternally-inherited Wolbachia are responsible for the mtDNA pattern. Only about 5% (15/306 of our global sample of individuals was infected with the plutWB1 isolate and even within infected local populations, many insects were uninfected. Comparisons of infected and uninfected isofemale lines revealed that plutWB1 is associated with sex ratio distortion. Uninfected lines have a 1:1 sex ratio, while infected ones show a 2:1 female bias. Conclusion The main correlate of mtDNA variation in P. xylostella is presence or absence of the plutWB1 infection. This is associated with substantial sex ratio distortion and the underlying mechanisms deserve further study. In contrast, geographic origin is a poor predictor of moth mtDNA sequences, reflecting human activity in moving the insects around the globe. The exception is a clade of Australasian individuals, which may

  8. Effects of weed cover composition on insect pest and natural enemy abundance in a field of Dracaena marginata (Asparagales: Asparagaceae) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadof, Clifford S; Linkimer, Mildred; Hidalgo, Eduardo; Casanoves, Fernando; Gibson, Kevin; Benjamin, Tamara J

    2014-04-01

    Weeds and their influence on pest and natural enemy populations were studied on a commercial ornamental farm during 2009 in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. A baseline survey of the entire production plot was conducted in February, along a 5 by 5 m grid to characterize and map initial weed communities of plants, cicadellids, katydids, and armored scales. In total, 50 plant species from 21 families were found. Seven weed treatments were established to determine how weed manipulations would affect communities of our targeted pests and natural enemies. These treatments were selected based on reported effects of specific weed cover on herbivorous insects and natural enemies, or by their use by growers as a cover crop. Treatments ranged from weed-free to being completely covered with endemic species of weeds. Although some weed treatments changed pest abundances, responses differed among arthropod pests, with the strongest effects observed for Caldwelliola and Empoasca leafhoppers. Removal of all weeds increased the abundance of Empoasca, whereas leaving mostly cyperacaeous weeds increased the abundance of Caldwelliola. Weed manipulations had no effect on the abundance of katydid and scale populations. No weed treatment reduced the abundance of all three of the target pests. Differential responses of the two leafhopper species to the same weed treatments support hypotheses, suggesting that noncrop plants can alter the abundance of pests through their effects on arthropod host finding and acceptance, as well as their impacts on natural enemies.

  9. Investigation on penetration of three conventional foodstuffs packaging polymers with two different thicknesses by larvae and adults of major species of stored-product pest insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahvaisi, Somayeh; Purmirza, Ali Asghar; Safaralizade, Mohamad Hasan

    2009-01-01

    Despite modern methods of packaging, stored agricultural products are still under attack by stored-insect pests. Therefore, determination of the best polymer and appropriate thickness inhibiting the penetration of the insects must be considered. In this study, we investigated the ability of penetration and the rates of contamination by nine important stored product pest insects for three conventional flexible polymers (polyethylene, cellophane and polypropylene) at two thicknesses (16.5 and 29 microm), which are used as pouches for packing of agricultural products. We used adults of T. castaneum (Coleoptera), S. granarius (Coleoptera), R. dominica (Coleoptera), C. maculates (Coleoptera), O. surinamensis (Coleoptera), and larvae of P. interpunctella (Lepidoptera), E. kuehniella (Lepidoptera), S. cerealella (Lepidoptera) and T. granarium (Coleoptera). Results showed that for most of the species penetration occurred between 4 days and 2 weeks, but there were significant differences (p polymers (cellophane, polyethylene and polypropylene) by the insects. Among the polymers, polyethylene with a thickness of 16.5 microm showed the highest degree of penetration and was the most unsuitable polymer for packaging of foodstuffs. Application of this polymer led to a complete infestation of the product and a lot of punctures were created by the insects. In contrast, no penetration was observed in polypropylene polymer with a thickness of 29 microm. Furthermore, adults and larvae of all species showed a much lower penetration when there was no food present in the pouches and this was the case for all polymers tested.

  10. Scale Insects, edition 2, a tool for the identification of potential pest scales at U.S.A. ports-of-entry (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dug Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We provide a general overview of features and technical specifications of an online, interactive tool for the identification of scale insects of concern to the U.S.A. ports-of-entry. Full lists of terminal taxa included in the keys (of which there are four, a list of features used in them, and a discussion of the structure of the tool are provided. We also briefly discuss the advantages of interactive keys for the identification of potential scale insect pests. The interactive key is freely accessible on http://idtools.org/id/scales/index.php

  11. Scale Insects, edition 2, a tool for the identification of potential pest scales at U.S.A. ports-of-entry (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Douglass R; Rung, Alessandra; Parikh, Grishma

    2014-01-01

    We provide a general overview of features and technical specifications of an online, interactive tool for the identification of scale insects of concern to the U.S.A. ports-of-entry. Full lists of terminal taxa included in the keys (of which there are four), a list of features used in them, and a discussion of the structure of the tool are provided. We also briefly discuss the advantages of interactive keys for the identification of potential scale insect pests. The interactive key is freely accessible on http://idtools.org/id/scales/index.php.

  12. Budding of peste des petits ruminants virus-like particles from insect cell membrane based on intracellular co-expression of peste des petits ruminants virus M, H and N proteins by recombinant baculoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuxiao; Wu, Xiaodong; Zhao, Yonggang; Li, Lin; Wang, Zhiliang

    2014-10-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), an etiological agent of peste des petits ruminants (PPR), is classified into the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxovirida. In this study, two full-length open reading frames (ORF) corresponding to the PPRV matrix (M) and haemagglutinin (H) genes underwent a codon-optimization based on insect cells, respectively. Two codon-optimized ORFs along with one native nucleocapsid (N) ORF were used to construct recombinant baculoviruses co-expressing the PPRV M, H and N proteins in insect cells. Analysis of Western blot, immunofluorescence, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry demonstrated co-expression of the three proteins but at different levels in insect cells, and PPR virus-like particles (VLPs) budded further from cell membrane based on self-assembly of the three proteins by viewing of ultrathin section with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Subsequently, a small number of VLPs were purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation for TEM viewing. The PPR VLPs, either purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation or budding from insect cell membrane on ultrathin section, morphologically resembled authentic PPRVs but were smaller in diameter by the TEM examination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of psyllid genomes RNA interference for novel pest control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics has changed the strategies used to manage insects and diseases. The ability to effect a change in proteins, and transcripts, through RNA-interference, RNAi, has produced a rush towards the development of the most state-of-the-art pest suppression strategies available. To rapidly advance the...

  14. Performance of a Genetically Modified Strain of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) for Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management With the Sterile Insect Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Santos, Edwin M; Rendón, Pedro; Ruiz-Montoya, Lorena; Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-12-23

    The genetically modified strain of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) VIENNA 8 1260 has two morphological markers that exhibit fluorescence in body and sperm. To assess the feasibility of its use in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs using the sterile insect technique, its rearing performance and quality control profile under small, medium, and large scales was evaluated, as well as in field cages. The VIENNA 8 1260 strain had a lower yield than the control strains, VIENNA 8 with D53 inversion (VIENNA 8) and without D53 inversion (VIENNA 8 D53-). At mass-rearing scale, yield gradually increased in three generations without reaching the control strain values. The VIENNA 8 1260 strain was stable in the genetic sexing mechanism (>99.9%) and expression of fluorescence (100%). In field cages, the VIENNA 8 1260 males reduced the mating potential of wild males in the same magnitude as the VIENNA 8, when evaluated in independent cage tests. However, the relative sterility index and the strain male relative performance index of VIENNA 8 1260 males were significantly lower than those of the VIENNA 8. There were no significant differences in longevity of these strains. The potential application of the VIENNA 8 1260 in AW-IPM programs is further discussed.

  15. Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov., a xylanolytic, ustilaginomycetous yeast species isolated from an insect pest of sugarcane roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Borges, Thuanny A; Corrêa dos Santos, Renato Augusto; Freitas, Larissa F D; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio

    2014-06-01

    A novel ustilaginomycetous yeast isolated from the intestinal tract of an insect pest of sugarcane roots in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, represents a novel species of the genus Pseudozyma based on molecular analyses of the D1/D2 rDNA large subunit and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1+ITS2) regions. The name Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. is proposed for this species, with GHG001(T) ( = CBS 13268(T) = UFMG-CM-Y307(T)) as the type strain. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is a sister species of Pseudozyma vetiver, originally isolated from leaves of vetiver grass and sugarcane in Thailand. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is able to grow well with xylan as the sole carbon source and produces high levels of an endo-1,4-xylanase that has a higher specific activity in comparison with other eukaryotic xylanases. This enzyme has a variety of industrial applications, indicating the great biotechnological potential of P. brasiliensis.

  16. Genome‐wide transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of bollworm‐infested developing cotton bolls revealed the genes and pathways involved in the insect pest defence mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Saravanan; Kanakachari, Mogilicherla; Gurusamy, Dhandapani; Kumar, Krishan; Narayanasamy, Prabhakaran; Kethireddy Venkata, Padmalatha; Solanke, Amolkumar; Gamanagatti, Savita; Hiremath, Vamadevaiah; Katageri, Ishwarappa S.; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Reddy, Vanga Siva

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is a major insect pest that feeds on cotton bolls causing extensive damage leading to crop and productivity loss. In spite of such a major impact, cotton plant response to bollworm infection is yet to be witnessed. In this context, we have studied the genome‐wide response of cotton bolls infested with bollworm using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches. Further, we have validated this data using semi‐quantitative real‐time PCR. Comparative ana...

  17. Identification and structural characterization of novel cyclotide with activity against an insect pest of sugar cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Michelle F S; Fensterseifer, Isabel C M; Migliolo, Ludovico; Sousa, Daniel A; de Capdville, Guy; Arboleda-Valencia, Jorge W; Colgrave, Michelle L; Craik, David J; Magalhães, Beatriz S; Dias, Simoni C; Franco, Octávio L

    2012-01-02

    Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived cyclic peptides comprising six conserved cysteine residues connected by three intermolecular disulfide bonds that form a knotted structure known as a cyclic cystine knot (CCK). This structural motif is responsible for the pronounced stability of cyclotides against chemical, thermal, or proteolytic degradation and has sparked growing interest in this family of peptides. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel cyclotide from Palicourea rigida (Rubiaceae), which was named parigidin-br1. The sequence indicated that this peptide is a member of the bracelet subfamily of cyclotides. Parigidin-br1 showed potent insecticidal activity against neonate larvae of Lepidoptera (Diatraea saccharalis), causing 60% mortality at a concentration of 1 μm but had no detectable antibacterial effects. A decrease in the in vitro viability of the insect cell line from Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-9) was observed in the presence of parigidin-br1, consistent with in vivo insecticidal activity. Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy of SF-9 cells after incubation with parigidin-br1 or parigidin-br1-fluorescein isothiocyanate, respectively, revealed extensive cell lysis and swelling of cells, consistent with an insecticidal mechanism involving membrane disruption. This hypothesis was supported by in silico analyses, which suggested that parigidin-br1 is able to complex with cell lipids. Overall, the results suggest promise for the development of parigidin-br1 as a novel biopesticide.

  18. Conditional fitness benefits of the Rickettsia bacterial symbiont in an insect pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, Bodil N; Himler, Anna G; Bondy, Elizabeth C; Bergen, Jacquelyn E; Fung, Sierra K; Kelly, Suzanne E; Hunter, Martha S

    2016-01-01

    Inherited bacterial symbionts are common in arthropods and can have strong effects on the biology of their hosts. These effects are often mediated by host ecology. The Rickettsia symbiont can provide strong fitness benefits to its insect host, Bemisia tabaci, under laboratory and field conditions. However, the frequency of the symbiont is heterogeneous among field collection sites across the USA, suggesting that the benefits of the symbiont are contingent on additional factors. In two whitefly genetic lines collected from the same location, we tested the effect of Rickettsia on whitefly survival after heat shock, on whitefly competitiveness at different temperatures, and on whitefly competitiveness at different starting frequencies of Rickettsia. Rickettsia did not provide protection against heat shock nor affect the competitiveness of whiteflies at different temperatures or starting frequencies. However, there was a strong interaction between Rickettsia infection and whitefly genetic line. Performance measures indicated that Rickettsia was associated with significant female bias in both whitefly genetic lines, but in the second whitefly genetic line it conferred no significant fitness benefits nor conferred any competitive advantage to its host over uninfected whiteflies in population cages. These results help to explain other reports of variation in the phenotype of the symbiosis. Furthermore, they demonstrate the complex nature of these close symbiotic associations and the need to consider these interactions in the context of host population structure.

  19. Parameters for Successful Parental RNAi as An Insect Pest Management Tool in Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera

    OpenAIRE

    Vélez, Ana M.; Elane Fishilevich; Natalie Matz; Storer, Nicholas P.; Narva, Kenneth E.; Siegfried, Blair D

    2016-01-01

    Parental RNAi (pRNAi) is an RNA interference response where the gene knockdown phenotype is observed in the progeny of the treated organism. pRNAi has been demonstrated in female western corn rootworms (WCR) via diet applications and has been described as a potential approach for rootworm pest management. However, it is not clear if plant-expressed pRNAi can provide effective control of next generation WCR larvae in the field. In this study, we evaluated parameters required to generate a succ...

  20. Allee effects in tritrophic food chains: some insights in pest biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Michel Iskin da S; Dos Anjos, Lucas

    2016-12-01

    Release of natural enemies to control pest populations is a common strategy in biological control. However, its effectiveness is supposed to be impaired, among other factors, by Allee effects in the biological control agent and by the fact that introduced pest natural enemies interact with some native species of the ecosystem. In this work, we devise a tritrophic food chain model where the assumptions previously raised are proved correct when a hyperpredator attacks the introduced pest natural enemy by a functional response type 2 or 3. Moreover, success of pest control is shown to be related to the release of large amounts (i.e., inundative releases) of natural enemies.

  1. Enabling technologies to improve area-wide integrated pest management programmes for the control of screwworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A S; Vreysen, M J B; Hendrichs, J; Feldmann, U

    2009-06-01

    The economic devastation caused in the past by the New World screwworm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to the livestock industry in the U.S.A., Mexico and the rest of Central America was staggering. The eradication of this major livestock pest from North and Central America using the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programme was a phenomenal technical and managerial accomplishment with enormous economic implications. The area is maintained screwworm-free by the weekly release of 40 million sterile flies in the Darien Gap in Panama, which prevents migration from screwworm-infested areas in Columbia. However, the species is still a major pest in many areas of the Caribbean and South America and there is considerable interest in extending the eradication programme to these countries. Understanding New World screwworm fly populations in the Caribbean and South America, which represent a continuous threat to the screwworm-free areas of Central America and the U.S.A., is a prerequisite to any future eradication campaigns. The Old World screwworm fly Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae) has a very wide distribution ranging from Southern Africa to Papua New Guinea and, although its economic importance is assumed to be less than that of its New World counterpart, it is a serious pest in extensive livestock production and a constant threat to pest-free areas such as Australia. In the 1980s repeated introductions and an expansion of Old World screwworm populations were reported in the Middle East; in the 1990s it invaded Iraq and since late 2007 it has been reported in Yemen, where a severe outbreak of myiasis occurred in 2008. Small-scale field trials have shown the potential of integrating the SIT in the control of this pest and various international organizations are considering using the release of sterile insects as part of an AW-IPM approach on a much wider scale

  2. Effectiveness of Biopesticide Derived fromCassia spectabilis and Nicotiana tabacum Leaves Against the Main Insect Pests of Coffee and Its Effect On Other Arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soekadar Wiryadiputra

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the effectiveness of biopesticide made of ramayana (Cassia spectabilis and tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum it called as Casnic, on Hypothenemus hampeiand Planococcus citriand its effect on the arthropods population fauna in coffee plantation had been conducted in Pest Laboratory of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Researh Institute and Bangelan Plantation in Malang. The treatment consisted of three level concentrations of botanical pesticide(15 ml, 30 ml, and 60 ml/lof water, Beauveria bassiana(at a dose 100 g spore per ha, metidation spraying (2 ml formulation per litre of water and two control treatments (with and without soap. The field experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD with four replications. The results showed that botanical pesticide at the concentration of 30.0 ml stock solution per litre of water and applied four times with monthly interval was effective in controlling coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei and coffee mealy bug (Planococcus citri. The effectiveness was not significantly different compared to metidation and Beauveria bassianaat the dose of 0.8 l and 100 g formulation per ha per application. Application of the botanical pesticide did not show negative effect on the usefull predatory insects and other arthropods population in coffee ecosystem. Key words : Botanical pesticide, Cassia spectabilis, Nicotiana tabacum, Coffee, Hypothenemus hampei, Planococcus citri, Arthropods.

  3. Insect vision: controlling actions through optic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Thomas S

    2002-09-17

    Insects depend upon optic flow to supply much of their information about the three-dimensional structure of the world. Many insects use translational flow to measure the distance of objects from themselves. A recent study has provided new insights into the way Drosophila use optic flow to pick out a close target to approach.

  4. An investigation on the species of Flos Lonicerae diseases, pest insects and predators in Xincheng County, Guangxi Province%广西忻城县山银花病虫害及其天敌昆虫种类调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧善生; 王小欣; 邓玲姣; 苏桂花; 谢恩倍; 覃连红; 简峰; 黄雪兰; 石化玉; 陈彩贤

    2012-01-01

    为明确广西忻城县山银花病虫害及其天敌昆虫种类,为当地山银花病虫害防治和天敌的保护利用提供参考,2008年-2010年系统调查了广西忻城县山银花病虫及主要病虫天敌发生情况,并进行了种类鉴定.结果表明,广西忻城县山银花害虫有35种,病害11种,天敌昆虫28种,其中主要害虫的捕食性天敌有24种,寄生性天敌2种,取食白粉菌的瓢虫有2种.此外,本文还综述了广西忻城县山银花主要病虫害‘三虫一病’的特征、发生规律及防治方法.%In order to delimit the species of diseases, pests and natural enemies of Flos Lonicerae in Guangxi, and offer reference to the control of local diseases and pests and the protection and use of natural enemies, a systematic investigation was conducted, in Xincheng County of Guangxi Province from 2008 to 2010. The results showed that there were 11 species of diseases, 35 species of pest insects and 28 species of natural enemies, mainly including 24 predators, 2 parasitoids, and 2 ladybugs eating Microsphaera lonicerae Wint.. Besides, the features, outbreak regularity and control measures of the main pest insects and diseases of Flos Lonicerae are also introduced in this paper.

  5. Beverton-Holt discrete pest management models with pulsed chemical control and evolution of pesticide resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Pest resistance to pesticides is usually managed by switching between different types of pesticides. The optimal switching time, which depends on the dynamics of the pest population and on the evolution of the pesticide resistance, is critical. Here we address how the dynamic complexity of the pest population, the development of resistance and the spraying frequency of pulsed chemical control affect optimal switching strategies given different control aims. To do this, we developed novel disc...

  6. Beneficial Insects: Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Patterson, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are many beneficial beetles in Utah besides lady beetles or ladybugs. Beetles can significantly reduce common insect and weed problems and in some cases eliminate the need for chemical control. Examples of beneficial beetles include: ground beetles, rove beetles, tiger beetles and tortoise beetles. Many of these beetles are native to Utah, while others have been purposely introduced to help control damage from exotic insect and weed pests.

  7. Dynamic complexities in a pest control model with birth pulse and harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, A., E-mail: goelanju23@gmail.com; Gakkhar, S., E-mail: sungkfma@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India)

    2016-04-06

    In this paper, an impulsive model is discussed for an integrated pest management approach comprising of chemical and mechanical controls. The pesticides and harvesting are used to control the stage-structured pest population. The mature pest give birth to immature pest in pulses at regular intervals. The pest is controlled by spraying chemical pesticides affecting immature as well as mature pest. The harvesting of both immature and mature pest further reduce the pest population. The discrete dynamical system obtained from stroboscopic map is analyzed. The threshold conditions for stability of pest-free state as well as non-trivial period-1 solution is obtained. The effect of pesticide spray timing and harvesting on immature as well as mature pest are shown. Finally, by numerical simulation with MATLAB, the dynamical behaviors of the model is found to be complex. Above the threshold level there is a characteristic sequence of bifurcations leading to chaotic dynamics. Route to chaos is found to be period-doubling. Period halving bifurcations are also observed.

  8. Dynamic complexities in a pest control model with birth pulse and harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, A.; Gakkhar, S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, an impulsive model is discussed for an integrated pest management approach comprising of chemical and mechanical controls. The pesticides and harvesting are used to control the stage-structured pest population. The mature pest give birth to immature pest in pulses at regular intervals. The pest is controlled by spraying chemical pesticides affecting immature as well as mature pest. The harvesting of both immature and mature pest further reduce the pest population. The discrete dynamical system obtained from stroboscopic map is analyzed. The threshold conditions for stability of pest-free state as well as non-trivial period-1 solution is obtained. The effect of pesticide spray timing and harvesting on immature as well as mature pest are shown. Finally, by numerical simulation with MATLAB, the dynamical behaviors of the model is found to be complex. Above the threshold level there is a characteristic sequence of bifurcations leading to chaotic dynamics. Route to chaos is found to be period-doubling. Period halving bifurcations are also observed.

  9. Evolutionary biology and genetic techniques for insect control

    OpenAIRE

    Leftwich, Philip; Bolton, Michael; Chapman, Tracey

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The requirement to develop new techniques for insect control that minimize negative environmental impacts has never been more pressing. Here we discuss population suppression and population replacement technologies. These include sterile insect technique, genetic elimination methods such as the release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), and gene driving mechanisms offered by intracellular bacteria and homing endonucleases. We also review the potential of newer or underutil...

  10. 薄壳山核桃八角主要害虫的天敌类群及其分布%Natural Enemies and Their Distribution of Main Pest Insects of Carya illinoensis and Illicium verum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦晓旭; 陈鹏; 苏一; 杨建华; 段兆尧; 泽桑梓

    2011-01-01

    Natural enemies of main pest insects of Carya illinoensis and Illicium verum were investigated at the main plantation regions of the two economic tree species in Yunnan. Twenty-five parasitoids and forty-five predatory natural enemies of the main pest insects of the two tree species were collected. Distribution features of these natural enemies were analyzed in the paper. The results provided basis data for utilizing natural enemies to control pest insects of the two economic tree species.%在云南省薄壳山核桃和八角主要种植区进行这2种干果经济林主要害虫的天敌类群调查,共获得主要害虫寄生性天敌25种,捕食性天敌45种,对天敌类群的分布规律进行了分析.研究结果表明,云南省薄壳山核桃和八角林内主要害虫的天敌资源比较丰富,天敌的类群及数量与棘木受病虫的危害程度有一定的相关性,即在危害严重的种植园中,天敌的数量也相对较多.利用天敌资源控制主要害虫应是可行的.

  11. A new threat to bees? Entomopathogenic nematodes used in biological pest control cause rapid mortality in Bombus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrea Dutka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is currently a great deal of concern about population declines in pollinating insects. Many potential threats have been identified which may adversely affect the behaviour and health of both honey bees and bumble bees: these include pesticide exposure, and parasites and pathogens. Whether biological pest control agents adversely affect bees has been much less well studied: it is generally assumed that biological agents are safer for wildlife than chemical pesticides. The aim of this study was to test whether entomopathogenic nematodes sold as biological pest control products could potentially have adverse effects on the bumble bee Bombus terrestris. One product was a broad spectrum pest control agent containing both Heterorhabditis sp. and Steinernema sp., the other product was specifically for weevil control and contained only Steinernema kraussei. Both nematode products caused ≥80% mortality within the 96 h test period when bees were exposed to soil containing entomopathogenic nematodes at the recommended field concentration of 50 nematodes per cm2 soil. Of particular concern is the fact that nematodes from the broad spectrum product could proliferate in the carcasses of dead bees, and therefore potentially infect a whole bee colony or spread to the wider environment.

  12. A new threat to bees? Entomopathogenic nematodes used in biological pest control cause rapid mortality in Bombus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutka, Alexandrea; McNulty, Alison; Williamson, Sally M

    2015-01-01

    There is currently a great deal of concern about population declines in pollinating insects. Many potential threats have been identified which may adversely affect the behaviour and health of both honey bees and bumble bees: these include pesticide exposure, and parasites and pathogens. Whether biological pest control agents adversely affect bees has been much less well studied: it is generally assumed that biological agents are safer for wildlife than chemical pesticides. The aim of this study was to test whether entomopathogenic nematodes sold as biological pest control products could potentially have adverse effects on the bumble bee Bombus terrestris. One product was a broad spectrum pest control agent containing both Heterorhabditis sp. and Steinernema sp., the other product was specifically for weevil control and contained only Steinernema kraussei. Both nematode products caused ≥80% mortality within the 96 h test period when bees were exposed to soil containing entomopathogenic nematodes at the recommended field concentration of 50 nematodes per cm(2) soil. Of particular concern is the fact that nematodes from the broad spectrum product could proliferate in the carcasses of dead bees, and therefore potentially infect a whole bee colony or spread to the wider environment.

  13. Manipulating within-orchard and adjacent habitats to provide better pest control in organic orchards. Some elements for modulating “orchard tree-pest-natural enemy” relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, S.; SAUPHANOR, B.; DEFRANCE, H.; Lauri, P.E. (collab.)

    2009-01-01

    The control of pests in organic orchards cannot solely rely on the use of direct control methods. The effect of manipulating the habitat of orchard pests and natural enemies through tree architecture and the increase of plant diversity has been investigated in an experimental organic apple orchard and in a pear orchard, in order to provide information about the potential benefits of these cultural practices. Tree training affected the development of the most detrimental pests of apple trees, ...

  14. Biocontrol: The Potential of Entomophilic Nematodes in Insect Management

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, John M.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the development of entomophilic nematology and a commentary on the potential of entomophilic nematodes in controlling insect pests. The paper considers some of the major contributions to our knowledge of entomophilic nematology; factors involved in insect pest management and how they are applicable to the use of nematodes; nematodes which are most promising as biological control agents; and problems to be solved to facilitate the use of entomophilic nematodes in insect management.

  15. Biocontrol: the potential of entomophilic nematodes in insect management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, J M

    1980-10-01

    A review of the development of entomophilic nematology and a commentary on the potential of entomophilic nematodes in controlling insect pests. The paper considers some of the major contributions to our knowledge of entomophilic nematology; factors involved in insect pest management and how they are applicable to the use of nematodes; nematodes which are most promising as biological control agents; and problems to be solved to facilitate the use of entomophilic nematodes in insect management.

  16. Biocontrol: The Potential of Entomophilic Nematodes in Insect Management

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, John M.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the development of entomophilic nematology and a commentary on the potential of entomophilic nematodes in controlling insect pests. The paper considers some of the major contributions to our knowledge of entomophilic nematology; factors involved in insect pest management and how they are applicable to the use of nematodes; nematodes which are most promising as biological control agents; and problems to be solved to facilitate the use of entomophilic nematodes in insect management.

  17. Industrial - Institutional - Structural and Health Related Pest Control Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. The emphasis of this document is on the identification of wood-destroying pests and the damage caused by them to the structural components of buildings. The pests discussed include termites, carpenter ants, beetles, bees, and wasps and numerous…

  18. Ornamental, Shade Tree, and Turf Pest Control Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; And Others

    This document provides the information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Section one deals with the identification of pests and the diagnosis of pest damage. Section two provides an introduction to weed characteristics and herbicide usage. The application, formulation, effects and safety of herbicides in general…

  19. Industrial - Institutional - Structural and Health Related Pest Control Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. The emphasis of this document is on the identification of wood-destroying pests and the damage caused by them to the structural components of buildings. The pests discussed include termites, carpenter ants, beetles, bees, and wasps and numerous…

  20. Advances in microbial insect control in horticultural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of microbial organisms as biological control agents has progressed significantly since Metschnikoff launched the first attempt at microbial insect control with Metarhizium anisopliae in 1879. Following the lead of Metschnikoff, entomopathogenic nematodes, fungi, bacteria and viruses have b...

  1. Pest control in Albania: an example of collaboration in technical and scientific development in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkelejda Velo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In September 2007, a severe cockroach (Blattella germanica infestation was reported on the premises of the Scutari Regional Hospital. The hospital was infested by cockroaches despite regular insecticide treatment by local pest control officers. The failure of treatment required a careful evaluation of the problem. It also created the opportunity for a more complete analysis of pest control in Albania.

  2. Weather Forecast Based Conditional Pest Management: A Stochastic Optimal Control Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Liang; Elbakidze, Levan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we examine conditional, forecast-based dynamic pest management in agricultural crop production given stochastic pest infestations and stochastic climate dynamics throughout the growing season. Using stochastic optimal control we show that correlation between forecast error for climate prediction and forecast error for pest outbreaks can be used to improve pesticide application efficiency. In the general setting, we apply modified Hamiltonian approach to discuss the steady state...

  3. Discover for Yourself: An Optimal Control Model in Insect Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We describe the enlightening path of self-discovery afforded to the teacher of undergraduate mathematics. This is demonstrated as we find and develop background material on an application of optimal control theory to model the evolutionary strategy of an insect colony to produce the maximum number of queen or reproducer insects in the colony at…

  4. Discover for Yourself: An Optimal Control Model in Insect Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We describe the enlightening path of self-discovery afforded to the teacher of undergraduate mathematics. This is demonstrated as we find and develop background material on an application of optimal control theory to model the evolutionary strategy of an insect colony to produce the maximum number of queen or reproducer insects in the colony at…

  5. Recent developments in the remote radio control of insect flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hirotaka; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2010-01-01

    The continuing miniaturization of digital circuits and the development of low power radio systems coupled with continuing studies into the neurophysiology and dynamics of insect flight are enabling a new class of implantable interfaces capable of controlling insects in free flight for extended periods. We provide context for these developments, review the state-of-the-art and discuss future directions in this field.

  6. Late pest control in determinate tomato cultivars Controle de pragas tardias em cultivares de tomateiro de crescimento determinado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Leal Boiça Júnior

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The usage of insecticidal plants and others insect resistant varieties can be strong allies to the Integrated Pest Management (IPM, being able to reduce the number of insecticides applications and to minimize its effect to the man and the environment.The following control techniques were compared in field conditions, investigating the late pest control of two determinate tomato cultivars: a Conventional - sprayings of metamidophos, buprofezin, acephate, cipermetrin, abamectin, permetrin, teflubenzuron and lufenuron, applied every three to six days; b IPM - action threshold of each pest to the spraying of imidacloprid, triflumuron, lufenuron and abamectin; c IPM - Azadirachta indica (neem - Action threshold of each pest to the spraying of the nim oil (1.2% of azadirachtin at a concentration of 0.5%. The IPM and IPM - Neem control techniques were efficient controlling the late pest of the tomato cultivar, not differing from the conventional treatment that presented the lowest levels of infestation. The conventional control technique, IPM and IPM-neem promoted bigger tomato production with increasements of up to 74%. The number of sprayings was reduced up to 77% with the IPM and IPM - neem techniques, when compared to the conventional method. The neem product may be a promising alternative to the late pest control in the tomato field that adjusts to the IPM.O uso de plantas inseticidas e de variedades pode ser forte aliado ao Manejo Integrado de Pragas (MIP, podendo reduzir o número de aplicações de inseticidas e minimizar seus efeitos ao homem e ao meio ambiente. Em condições de campo, visando o controle de pragas tardias do tomateiro em duas cultivares de crescimento determinado, compararam-se as seguintes táticas de controle: a Convencional - pulverizações com os produtos metamidofós, buprofezin, acefato, cipermetrina, abamectina, permetrina, teflubenzuron e lufenuron, aplicados em intervalos de três a seis dias; b MIP - nível de a

  7. Modeling evolution of insect resistance to genetically modified crops

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for insect control have been planted on more than 200 million ha worldwide since 1996 [1]. Evolution of resistance by insect pests threatens the continued success of Bt crops [2, 3]. To delay pest resistance, refuges of non-Bt crops are planted near Bt crops to allow survival of susceptible pests [4, 5]. We used computer simulations of a population genetic model to determine if predictions from the the...

  8. Mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry and Cyt toxins and their potential for insect control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Alejandra; Gill, Sarjeet S; Soberón, Mario

    2007-03-15

    Bacillus thuringiensis Crystal (Cry) and Cytolitic (Cyt) protein families are a diverse group of proteins with activity against insects of different orders--Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and also against other invertebrates such as nematodes. Their primary action is to lyse midgut epithelial cells by inserting into the target membrane and forming pores. Among this group of proteins, members of the 3-Domain Cry family are used worldwide for insect control, and their mode of action has been characterized in some detail. Phylogenetic analyses established that the diversity of the 3-Domain Cry family evolved by the independent evolution of the three domains and by swapping of domain III among toxins. Like other pore-forming toxins (PFT) that affect mammals, Cry toxins interact with specific receptors located on the host cell surface and are activated by host proteases following receptor binding resulting in the formation of a pre-pore oligomeric structure that is insertion competent. In contrast, Cyt toxins directly interact with membrane lipids and insert into the membrane. Recent evidence suggests that Cyt synergize or overcome resistance to mosquitocidal-Cry proteins by functioning as a Cry-membrane bound receptor. In this review we summarize recent findings on the mode of action of Cry and Cyt toxins, and compare them to the mode of action of other bacterial PFT. Also, we discuss their use in the control of agricultural insect pests and insect vectors of human diseases.

  9. Tsetse flies: their biology and control using area-wide integrated pest management approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreysen, Marc J B; Seck, Momar Talla; Sall, Baba; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2013-03-01

    Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of trypanosomes, the causative agents of 'sleeping sickness' or human African trypanosomosis (HAT) in humans and 'nagana' or African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) in livestock in Sub-saharan Africa. Many consider HAT as one of the major neglected tropical diseases and AAT as the single greatest health constraint to increased livestock production. This review provides some background information on the taxonomy of tsetse flies, their unique way of reproduction (adenotrophic viviparity) making the adult stage the only one easily accessible for control, and how their ecological affinities, their distribution and population dynamics influence and dictate control efforts. The paper likewise reviews four control tactics (sequential aerosol technique, stationary attractive devices, live bait technique and the sterile insect technique) that are currently accepted as friendly to the environment, and describes their limitations and advantages and how they can best be put to practise in an IPM context. The paper discusses the different strategies for tsetse control i.e. localised versus area-wide and focusses thereafter on the principles of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) and the phased-conditional approach with the tsetse project in Senegal as a recent example. We argue that sustainable tsetse-free zones can be created on Africa mainland provided certain managerial and technical prerequisites are in place.

  10. Transcriptome Analysis and Screening for Potential Target Genes for RNAi-Mediated Pest Control of the Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Li

    Full Text Available The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, is a serious pest worldwide that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, genetic resources for the beet armyworm is extremely scarce. To improve these resources we sequenced the transcriptome of S. exigua representing all stages including eggs, 1(st to 5(th instar larvae, pupae, male and female adults using the Illumina Solexa platform. We assembled the transcriptome with Trinity that yielded 31,414 contigs. Of these contigs, 18,592 were annotated as protein coding genes by Blast searches against the NCBI nr database. It has been shown that knockdown of important insect genes by dsRNAs or siRNAs is a feasible mechanism to control insect pests. The first key step towards developing an efficient RNAi-mediated pest control technique is to find suitable target genes. To screen for effective target genes in the beet armyworm, we selected nine candidate genes. The sequences of these genes were amplified using the RACE strategy. Then, siRNAs were designed and chemically synthesized. We injected 2 µl siRNA (2 µg/µl into the 4(th instar larvae to knock down the respective target genes. The mRNA abundance of target genes decreased to different levels (∼20-94.3% after injection of siRNAs. Knockdown of eight genes including chitinase7, PGCP, chitinase1, ATPase, tubulin1, arf2, tubulin2 and arf1 caused a significantly high level of mortality compared to the negative control (P<0.05. About 80% of the surviving insects in the siRNA-treated group of five genes (PGCP, chitinase1, tubulin1, tubulin2 and helicase showed retarded development. In chitinase1-siRNA and chitinase7-siRNA administered groups, 12.5% survivors exhibited "half-ecdysis". In arf1-siRNA and arf2-siRNA groups, the body color of 15% became black 48 h after injections. In summary, the transcriptome could be a valuable genetic resource for identification of genes in S. exigua and this study provided putative targets for RNAi pest

  11. Towards integrated pest management in red clover seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2012-10-01

    The development of integrated pest management is hampered by lack of information on how insect pest abundances relate to yield losses, and how pests are affected by control measures. In this study, we develop integrated pest management tactics for Apion spp. weevils (Coleoptera: Brentidae) in seed production of red clover, Trifolium pratense L. We tested a method to forecast pest damage, quantified the relationship between pest abundance and yield, and evaluated chemical and biological pest control in 29 Swedish red clover fields in 2008 and 2011. Pest inflorescence abundance, which had a highly negative effect on yield, could be predicted with pan trap catches of adult pests. In 2008, chemical control with typically one application of pyrethroids was ineffective both in decreasing pest abundances and in increasing yields. In 2011, when chemical control included applications of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid, pest abundances decreased and yields increased considerably in treated field zones. A post hoc analysis indicated that using pyrethroids in addition to thiacloprid was largely redundant. Infestation rates by parasitoids was higher and reached average levels of around 40% in insecticide treated field zones in 2011, which is a level of interest for biological pest control. Based on the data presented, an economic threshold for chemical control is developed, and guidelines are provided on minimum effective chemical pest control.

  12. Basic factors controlling pest in high temperature systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz-Mattuck, J.; Rossetti, M.

    1971-01-01

    The catastrophic disintegration in air at intermediate temperatures of refractory materials which are very resistant to oxidation at high temperatures is known as pest. A study was undertaken to determine whether the mechanism proposed for pest failure in silicides might also be responsible for pest failure in NbAl3. The aim was to correlate oxidation kinetics in the range where disintegration of NbAl3 is observed with delayed failure data obtained under similar conditions. Studies were also undertaken to develop some understanding of deformation mechanisms in both silicides and aluminides.

  13. Insect-specific irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase in pests including the bed bug, the eastern yellowjacket, German and American cockroaches, and the confused flour beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsinelli, Gregory A; Singh, Sanjay K; Mishra, Rajesh K; Suranyi, Robert; Ragsdale, David W; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2010-09-06

    Insecticides directed against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are facing increased resistance among target species as well as increasing concerns for human toxicity. The result has been a resurgence of disease vectors, insects destructive to agriculture, and residential pests. We previously reported a free cysteine (Cys) residue at the entrance to the AChE active site in some insects but not higher vertebrates. We also reported Cys-targeting methanethiosulfonate molecules (AMTSn), which, under conditions that spared human AChE, caused total irreversible inhibition of aphid AChE, 95% inhibition of AChE from the malaria vector mosquito (Anopheles gambia), and >80% inhibition of activity from the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and northern house mosquito (Culex pipiens). We now find the same compounds inhibit AChE from cockroaches (Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana), the flour beetle (Tribolium confusum), the multi-colored Asian ladybird beetle (Harmonia axyridis), the bed bug (Cimex lectularius), and a wasp (Vespula maculifrons), with IC(50) values of approximately 1-11muM. Our results support further study of Cys-targeting inhibitors as conceptually novel insecticides that may be free of resistance in a range of insect pests and disease vectors and, compared with current compounds, should demonstrate much lower toxicity to mammals, birds, and fish. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. POSSIBILITIES TO USE NATURAL EXTRACTS FROM MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS (MAP LIKE BOTANICAL REPELLENT OR INSECTICIDE COMPOUNDS AGAINST PEST INSECTS IN ECOLOGICAL CROPS (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina IONESCU-MĂLĂNCUŞ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Botanical insecticides have long been touted as attractive alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides for pest management because botanicals reputedly pose little threat to the environment or to human health. The body of scientific literature documenting bioactivity of plant derivatives to arthropods pests continues to expand i.e. repellents based on essential oils extracted from Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Rosmarinus officinalis to mosquitoes, or cinnamon oil, sandalwood oil and turmeric oil are previously reported as insect repellents evaluatede in the laboratory conditions. With the constantly increasing problems of insecticide resistance and increasing public concerns regarding pesticide safety, new, safer active ingredients are becoming necessary to replace existing compounds on the market. The present study carried out in the period 2010-2012 comprises a review of two insect repellents, followed by some new research conducted in our laboratory on plant-derived insect repellents. The two alkaloids tested against the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in laboratory conditions was obtained by water and alchohol extraction from two vegetal species, Cichorium intybus L. (Asterales:Asteraceae and Delphinium consolida L. (Ranales:Ranunculaceae. The tests carried out in laboratory and field experimentally plots under cages permit to evaluate several other compounds for repellent activity of lacctucin alkaloids.

  15. Phylogenetic Relations of Bacillus thuringiensis: Implications for Risks Associated to Its Use as a Microbiological Pest Control Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, N. B.; Hansen, B. M.

    1998-01-01

    6th European Meeting Microbial Control of Pests in Sustainable Agriculture, Copenhagen, (Denmark), 10-15 August 1997.......6th European Meeting Microbial Control of Pests in Sustainable Agriculture, Copenhagen, (Denmark), 10-15 August 1997....

  16. Biological control of pests in protected cultivation: implementation in Latin America and successes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bueno, V.H.P.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2010-01-01

    The area with greenhouse crops is estimated to be around 40,000 hectares in Latin America, of which approximately 60% is occupied with ornamentals. Several pests are responsible for losses in yield or quality of greenhouse crops production and pest control is still mainly by chemicals. However,

  17. Biological control of pests in protected cultivation: implementation in Latin America and successes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bueno, V.H.P.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2010-01-01

    The area with greenhouse crops is estimated to be around 40,000 hectares in Latin America, of which approximately 60% is occupied with ornamentals. Several pests are responsible for losses in yield or quality of greenhouse crops production and pest control is still mainly by chemicals. However, ther

  18. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Agricultural Pest Control -- Animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the common pests of agricultural animals such as flies, ticks, bots, lice and mites. Methods for controlling these pests and appropriate pesticides are discussed. (CS)

  19. Biological Control of Tortricidae in Tea Fields in Japan Using Insect Viruses and Parasitoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madoka Nakai

    2009-01-01

    Tea is a perennial and evergreen plant. Cultivated tea trees provide a habitat for insect pests and their natural enemies. In Japan, granuloviruses (GVs) have successfully controlled two of the most important pests of tea, Adoxophyes honmai and Homona magnanima (Tortricidae: Lepidoptera). The GVs are produced in vivo and a single application sustains pesticidal efficacy throughout a year, which encompasses 4 to 5 discrete generations of both species. A. honmai and H. magnanima also have various natural enemies, especially hymenopteran parasitoids. Such resident natural enemies also play a role in reducing the pest density in virus-controlled fields, but the effect of virus infection on parasitoids sharing the same host larva has not been well studied. Survival of one of the major parasitoids ofA. honmai, Ascogaster reticulata (Braconidae: Hymenoptera), is reduced by virus infection of the host. Viruses, including GV and entomopoxvirus (EPV), and certain koinobiont endoparasitoids, including A. reticulata, are both known to regulate host endocrinology. However, the GV and EPV have distinct host regulation mechanisms, and consequently have different impacts on the survival of A. retuculata, when A. reticulata parasitizes a host that is infected with either GV or EPV. These additional effects on host regulation displayed by both viruses and parasitoids affect the outcome of virus-parasitoid interactions.

  20. Prospects for the use of entomopathogenic fungi for control of stored-product pests%利用昆虫病原真菌防治贮粮害虫展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杰夫· 劳尔德

    2007-01-01

    Only two fungus species,Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae,have been given serious attention as possible microbial controls for stored-product pests.Their host ranges are broad, but their potency for the various target insects varies greatly,and some of the most important pests such as the red flour beetle are very tolerant of fungi.Accordingly, strategies are needed to improve the fungal performance.One such strategy is combination with other environmentally benign treatments such as controlled desiccant dusts and controlled atmospheres. Ironically the relatively dryness of stored-product environments favors fungal efficacy.Desiccation stress renders some insects more vulnerable to fungi.The longevity of fungus spores is also best under dry conditions.The prospects of fungi for control of stored-product pests can be improved by taking advantage of these phenomena and judicious selection of use venues and application strategies.

  1. Study on Integrated Pest Management for Libraries and Archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Thomas A.

    This study addresses the problems caused by the major insect and rodent pests and molds and mildews in libraries and archives; the damage they do to collections; and techniques for their prevention and control. Guidelines are also provided for the development and initiation of an Integrated Pest Management program for facilities housing library…

  2. Multi-objective evolutionary optimization of biological pest control with impulsive dynamics in soybean crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rodrigo T N; da Cruz, André R; Wanner, Elizabeth F; Takahashi, Ricardo H C

    2009-08-01

    The biological pest control in agriculture, an environment-friendly practice, maintains the density of pests below an economic injury level by releasing a suitable quantity of their natural enemies. This work proposes a multi-objective numerical solution to biological pest control for soybean crops, considering both the cost of application of the control action and the cost of economic damages. The system model is nonlinear with impulsive control dynamics, in order to cope more effectively with the actual control action to be applied, which should be performed in a finite number of discrete time instants. The dynamic optimization problem is solved using the NSGA-II, a fast and trustworthy multi-objective genetic algorithm. The results suggest a dual pest control policy, in which the relative price of control action versus the associated additional harvest yield determines the usage of either a low control action strategy or a higher one.

  3. Research on the Application of the Super Capacitor in the Solar LED Pest Control Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tianhua

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the energy storage characteristics of the super-capacitor and solar panels, this study selects the super-capacitor as the storage device to design the solar LED pest control light, which is energy saving, environmentally friendly, safe and reliable. The solar LED pest control light is easy to use and there is no need erecting and maintaining wires. However, the current storage battery is weak in charge control due to the instability of the sun light and this unstable charge state may lead to its premature failure or capacity loss, thus causing the service life of pest control light to be below the designed specification.

  4. 衢州市油茶害虫及天敌种类调查%Insect pests of Camellia oleifera and their natural enemies in Quzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华正媛; 王井田; 刘剑; 王浩杰; 舒金平; 徐天森

    2012-01-01

    油茶Camellia oleifera是中国亚热带地区重要的经济作物之一,现已大面积栽培,但油茶害虫一直未受到充分关注.系统调查了浙江省衢州地区油茶害虫和天敌昆虫的种类,分析了其组成结构.结果表明:在衢州地区油茶上共查有害虫225种,隶属于9目55科,主要种类有油茶织蛾Casmara patrona,茶籽象Curculio chinensis,桃蛀螟Dichocrocis punctiferalis,环茸毒蛾Dasychira dudgeoni,黑跗眼天牛Chrenoma atritarsis,黄翅大白蚁Macrotermes barneyi和黑翅土白蚁Odontotermes fomosanus等,在所有害虫中鳞翅目害虫所占的比例最高;查获油茶害虫天敌昆虫49种,隶属于属于4目11科.表5参23.%Camellia oleifera, which has been widely planted in eastern China, is one of the most important economic trees in subtropical areas of China. In this work, pests of C. oleifera and their natural enemies in Quzhou City of Zhejiang Province were surveyed in the field, collected, and then analyzed. Results revealed 225 pest insects belonging to nine orders in 55 families with seven major insect species: Casmara patrona, Curculio chinemis, Dichocrocis punctiferalis, Dasychira dudgeoni, Chrenoma atritarsis, Macrotermes bar-neyi, and Odontotermes fomosanus. Among the insect pests that damaged C. oleifera trees, Lepidoptera were predominant. Also found were 49 natural enemies belonging to 4 orders and 11 families. [Ch, 5 tab. 23 ref.

  5. 农作物病虫害绿色防控技术应用概况%Advances in the applications of green crop pest control techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵中华; 尹哲; 杨普云

    2011-01-01

    Since the concept of public and green plant protection was proposed at the National Plant Protection Conference in 2006, the development and application of green crop pest control techniques have made significant achievements in China. According to national statistics in 2009, the total application area of green crop pest control techniques was 51 million hm2 times, accounting for 10.4% of the total crop pest control areas in China. In this review, major green pest control techniques including physical control, the application of insect pheromones,natural enemies, bio-pesticides, antibiotics, insect repellents and ecological control were reviewed, and recommendations on the application of green crop pest control techniques were put forward.%自2006年全国植保工作会上提出"公共植保、绿色植保"理念以来,我国农作物病虫害绿色防控技术的研发与应用取得了显著成效.据2009年底初步统计,各种绿色防控技术应用面积累计达5100万h㎡次,约占全国农作物病虫害防治总面积的10.4%.本文就当前生产上主要的物理诱控、昆虫信息素诱控、天敌昆虫、生物农药、农用抗生素、驱避剂、生态控制等绿色防控技术应用情况进行了概述,并提出了绿色防控技术推广应用的建议.

  6. 我国荔枝上的一种新害虫%A new insect pest, Pseudococcus baliteus Lit (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae), discovered on Litchi chinensis (Sapindaceae) from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何衍彪; 詹儒林; 李伟才; 武三安; 许再福

    2011-01-01

    本文简要记述了在广东省廉江市荔枝上发现的一种新害虫——榕树粉蚧Pseudococcus baliteus Lit的形态特征、寄主和分布.这是榕树粉蚧在中国的首次纪录.%A new insect pest, Pseudococcus baliteus Lit, damaged on the fruit of Litchi chinensis from Guangdong, China was found. It is the first record of this species from China. Its characters, host and distribution were presented in the paper.

  7. El control biologico de plagas(Biological control of pests)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work some ecological principles that drive applied biocontrol and agent selection are discussed. Subjects such as specificity evaluations, host shifts and species invasiveness are analyzed under the light of ecological theory. The main assertions are: 1. biological control is a safe and bene...

  8. A transgenic approach to control hemipteran insects by expressing insecticidal genes under phloem-specific promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Shaista; Amin, Imran; Jander, Georg; Mukhtar, Zahid; Saeed, Nasir A.; Mansoor, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    The first generation transgenic crops used strong constitutive promoters for transgene expression. However, tissue-specific expression is desirable for more precise targeting of transgenes. Moreover, piercing/sucking insects, which are generally resistant to insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins, have emerged as a major pests since the introduction of transgenic crops expressing these toxins. Phloem-specific promoters isolated from Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) were used for the expression of two insecticidal proteins, Hadronyche versuta (Blue Mountains funnel-web spider) neurotoxin (Hvt) and onion leaf lectin, in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Here we demonstrate that transgenic plants expressing Hvt alone or in combination with onion leaf lectin are resistant to Phenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug), Myzus persicae (green peach aphids) and Bemisia tabaci (silver leaf whitefly). The expression of both proteins under different phloem-specific promoters resulted in close to 100% mortality and provided more rapid protection than Hvt alone. Our results suggest the employment of the Hvt and onion leaf lectin transgenic constructs at the commercial level will reduce the use of chemical pesticides for control of hemipteran insect pests. PMID:27708374

  9. 大棚与露地豇豆病虫害发生情况比较%Comparison of disease situation and insect-pests incidences in cowpea plantations in greenhouse and open field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗丰; 孔祥义; 刘勇; 肖春雷; 许如意; 曹兵

    2012-01-01

    [目的]对设施大棚与露地栽培条件下豇豆病虫害发生情况进行比较分析,为设施大棚病虫害防治及其在海南省的推广应用提供依据.[方法]2010~2011年冬季和2011年春夏季,分别进行露地与设施大棚豇豆栽培试验,调查记录不同季节大棚及露地豇豆斜纹夜蛾、豆荚螟、斑潜蝇、蓟马、叶螨、白粉病、锈病、轮纹病、煤霉病等病虫害发生情况.[结果]大棚内豇豆斜纹夜蛾、豆荚螟、斑潜蝇、蓟马等虫口数略低于露地,其中蓟马在豇豆整个生育期虫口数较高,是危害豇豆的主要害虫;豇豆病害以锈病和轮纹病为主,其中2011年春夏季种植的豇豆锈病和轮纹病明显比2010~2011年冬季重.[结论]设施大棚对豇豆害虫有一定的隔离作用,达到降低害虫虫口基数的目的;但对于病害,露地与设施大棚豇豆病害总体未见太大差异.%[Objective]The regularity of disease and insect pests incidences in cowpea plantations were compared in greenhouse and open field conditions to develop proper disease and insect pests control measures in Hainan. [Method] Cowpea cultivation experiments were conducted separately in open field and greenhouse during winter in 2010-2011 and spring and summer in 2011 to investigate the presence of diseases and insects pests such as Prodenia lituia, bean-pod borer, Liriomyza sativae, thrip, leaf mite, powdery mildew, rust disease, ring rot, and black leaf mold, etc. [Result]The initial population number of Ptodenia lituia, bean梡od borer, Liriomyza sativae and thrips in greenhouse was lower than those recorded in open field conditions. The initial population number of thrips was high at all growth stages of cowpea, i.e., thrips were the main insect pest which affected cowpea growth and development. Rust and ring rot diseases were identified as the major diseases and these were significantly more severe in cowpea planted during spring and summer of 2011 compared to

  10. Review on Application of Electromagnetic Theory and Technology to Forest Pests Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiangfeng; QU Zhiwei; LIANG Jun

    2006-01-01

    Many domestic and international scholars have done a wide range of researches on electromagnetic theory and technology and have made some achievements. Electromagnetic technology has been used in forest pests control as a convenient and high-efficient physics means. This article summarizes the current study of the electromagnetic biological effect and introduces the application of microwave, pulsed electromagnetic field and electrostatic field to forest pests control. The research direction and prospect of the application of electromagnetic theory and technology to forest pests control are also discussed.

  11. Laser system for identification, tracking, and control of flying insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Emma R; Rutschman, Phillip; Pegram, Nathan; Patt, Joseph M; Adamczyk, John J; Johanson, 3ric

    2016-05-30

    Flying insects are common vectors for transmission of pathogens and inflict significant harm to humans and agricultural production in many parts of the world. We present proof of principle for an optical system capable of highly specific vector control. This system utilizes a combination of optical sources, detectors, and sophisticated software to search, detect, and identify flying insects in real-time, with the capability of eradication using a lethal laser pulse. We present data on two insect species to show species distinction; Diaphorina citri, a vector of the causal agent of citrus greening disease, and Anopheles stephensi, a malaria vector.

  12. Avidin expressed in transgenic rice confers resistance to the stored-product insect pests Tribolium confusum and Sitotroga cerealella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoza, Koh-Ichi; Imamura, Taro; Kramer, Karl J; Morgan, Thomas D; Nakamura, Sumiko; Akiyama, Kohki; Kawasaki, Shinji; Takaiwa, Fumio; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2005-05-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa var. Nipponbare) was transformed with an artificial avidin gene. The features of this construct are as follows: (1) a signal peptide sequence derived from barley alpha amylase was added at the N-terminal region, (2) codon usage of the gene was optimized for rice, and (3) the gene was driven by rice glutelin GluB-1, an endosperm-specific promoter. Avidin was produced in the grain of the transgenic rice but not in the leaves. The concentration of avidin in the kernels was about 1,800 ppm. All larvae of the confused flour beetle (Tribolium confusum) and Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella) died when fed transgenic avidin rice powder or kernels, respectively, whereas most of the test insects developed into adults when they were fed a nontransgenic rice control diet. Avidin extracted from the transgenic rice kernel lost most biotin-binding activity after 5 min heating at 95 degrees C.

  13. Application of Genomics for Understanding Plant Virus-Insect Vector Interactions and Insect Vector Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navneet; Hasegawa, Daniel K; Ling, Kai-Shu; Wintermantel, William M

    2016-10-01

    The relationships between plant viruses and their vectors have evolved over the millennia, and yet, studies on viruses began virus and vector interactions even more recently. The advent of next generation sequencing, including rapid genome and transcriptome analysis, methods for evaluation of small RNAs, and the related disciplines of proteomics and metabolomics offer a significant shift in the ability to elucidate molecular mechanisms involved in virus infection and transmission by insect vectors. Genomic technologies offer an unprecedented opportunity to examine the response of insect vectors to the presence of ingested viruses through gene expression changes and altered biochemical pathways. This review focuses on the interactions between viruses and their whitefly or thrips vectors and on potential applications of genomics-driven control of the insect vectors. Recent studies have evaluated gene expression in vectors during feeding on plants infected with begomoviruses, criniviruses, and tospoviruses, which exhibit very different types of virus-vector interactions. These studies demonstrate the advantages of genomics and the potential complementary studies that rapidly advance our understanding of the biology of virus transmission by insect vectors and offer additional opportunities to design novel genetic strategies to manage insect vectors and the viruses they transmit.

  14. First Record Of Clytra Laeviuscula Ratzeburg As Potential Insect Pest Of Energy Willow (Salix Viminalis L.) In Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanovska Tatyana; Lewis Edwin; Pidlisnyuk Valentina; Smyrnykh Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Cultivation of short rotation coppice energy willow (SRC EW), Salix viminalis L., has a great potential in Ukraine as a source of biomass for biofuel production. Commercial production of this species was recently initiated in the country. The growing of SRC EW in Western and Northern Europe for a long time showed that leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are key pests causing significant biomass reduction. However, data about the pest complex for energy willow growing in Ukraine is not av...

  15. Recent Developments in the Remote Radio Control of Insect Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka eSato

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuing miniaturization of digital circuits and the development of low power radio systems coupled with continuing studies into the neurophysiology and dynamics of insect flight are enabling a new class of implantable interfaces capable of controlling insects in free flight for extended periods. We provide context for these developments, review the state-of-the-art and discuss future directions in this field.

  16. Validating the importance of two acetylcholinesterases in insecticide sensitivities by RNAi in Pardosa pseudoannulata, an important predatory enemy against several insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangkun; Li, Chunrui; Bao, Haibo; Fang, Jichao; Liu, Zewen; Zhang, Yixi

    2015-11-01

    The pond wolf spider (Pardosa pseudoannulata) is an important predatory enemy against several insect pests and showed relative different sensitivities to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides compared to insect pests. In our previous studies, two acetylcholinesterases were identified in P. pseudoannulata and played important roles in insecticide sensitivities. In order to understand the contributions of the two acetylcholinesterases to insecticide sensitivities, we firstly employed the RNAi technology in the spider. For a suitable microinjection RNAi method, the injection site, injection volume and interference time were optimized, which then demonstrated that the injection RNAi method was applicable in this spider. With the new RNAi method, it was revealed that both Pp-AChE1 and Pp-AChE2, encoded by genes Ppace1 and Ppace2, were the targets of organophosphate insecticides, but Pp-AChE1 would be more important. In contrast, the carbamate acted selectively on Pp-AChE1. The results showed that Pp-AChE1 was the major catalytic enzyme in P. pseudoannulata and the major target of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. In a word, an RNAi method was established in the pond wolf spider, which further validated the importance of two acetylcholinesterases in insecticide sensitivities in this spider.

  17. Identifying a Potential Trap Crop for a Novel Insect Pest, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), in Organic Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Anne L; Dively, Galen; Pote, John M; Zinati, Gladis; Mathews, Clarissa

    2016-04-01

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, poses significant risk to organic farming systems because they rely on biological control, nonsynthetic inputs, and cultural tactics for pest management. This study evaluated the potential of five crop plants (sorghum, admiral pea, millet, okra, and sunflower) to be used as trap crops under organic production in four mid-Atlantic states. Stink bug (H. halys and endemic species) densities and host plant phenologies were recorded weekly (mid-June through September). Sorghum attracted significantly more H. halys than the other crops evaluated, followed by sunflower and okra. Seasonal average H. halys density was 1.5-4× higher on sorghum than the other crops (P densities initially higher on sunflower; as the sunflower senesced, sorghum supported significantly higher average H. halys densities. While sunflower and sorghum phenologies differed, these crops together provided a 5-wk attraction period coinciding with peak H. halys activity. The efficacies of pheromone-baited traps, flaming, applying OMRI-approved insecticides (Azera and Venerate), and vacuuming to removing stink bugs were evaluated as a management tactic. Flaming was the most effective treatment against H. halys and endemic stink bugs. Our results suggest that a trap crop composed of sorghum and sunflower may be an effective management tool for the mid-Atlantic stink bug complex, including H. halys. Future research should address the appropriate size and placement of trap crop within the farm.

  18. Beverton-Holt discrete pest management models with pulsed chemical control and evolution of pesticide resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.

    2016-07-01

    Pest resistance to pesticides is usually managed by switching between different types of pesticides. The optimal switching time, which depends on the dynamics of the pest population and on the evolution of the pesticide resistance, is critical. Here we address how the dynamic complexity of the pest population, the development of resistance and the spraying frequency of pulsed chemical control affect optimal switching strategies given different control aims. To do this, we developed novel discrete pest population growth models with both impulsive chemical control and the evolution of pesticide resistance. Strong and weak threshold conditions which guarantee the extinction of the pest population, based on the threshold values of the analytical formula for the optimal switching time, were derived. Further, we addressed switching strategies in the light of chosen economic injury levels. Moreover, the effects of the complex dynamical behaviour of the pest population on the pesticide switching times were also studied. The pesticide application period, the evolution of pesticide resistance and the dynamic complexity of the pest population may result in complex outbreak patterns, with consequent effects on the pesticide switching strategies.

  19. A Module For Thermal Pest Control In Stored Raw Materials Used In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Module For Thermal Pest Control In Stored Raw Materials Used In Feed Mills / Food Manufacturing Industries. ... Journal Home > Vol 3, No 1 (2006) > ... The module is an engineering contraption, which uses steam to raise temperature ...

  20. Genomic approaches for veterinary pest control and eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthropod pests of veterinary importance remain a threat to the health of livestock herds in the United States (US) and contribute to global food insecurity because they impact animal agriculture productivity directly through their parasitic habits and indirectly, in specific cases, due to the disea...