WorldWideScience

Sample records for controlling fusion alpha

  1. Lyman Alpha Control

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Daniel Stefaniak

    2015-01-01

    This document gives an overview of how to operate the Lyman Alpha Control application written in LabVIEW along with things to watch out for. Overview of the LabVIEW code itself as well as the physical wiring of and connections from/to the NI PCI-6229 DAQ box is also included. The Lyman Alpha Control application is the interface between the ALPHA sequencer and the HighFinesse Wavelength Meter as well as the Lyman Alpha laser setup. The application measures the wavelength of the output light from the Lyman Alpha cavity through the Wavelength Meter. The application can use the Wavelength Meter’s PID capabilities to stabilize the Lyman Alpha laser output as well as switch between up to three frequencies.

  2. The controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    After some generalities on particle physics, and on fusion and fission reactions, the author outlines that the fission reaction is easier to obtain than the fusion reaction, evokes the fusion which takes place in stars, and outlines the difficulty to manage and control this reaction: one of its application is the H bomb. The challenge is therefore to find a way to control this reaction and make it a steady and continuous source of energy. The author then presents the most promising way: the magnetic confinement fusion. He evokes its main issues, the already performed experiments (tokamak), and gives a larger presentation of the ITER project. Then, he evokes another way, the inertial confinement fusion, and the two main experimental installations (National Ignition Facility in Livermore, and the Laser Megajoule in Bordeaux). Finally, he gives a list of benefits and drawbacks of an industrial nuclear fusion

  3. Thermonuclear Tokamak plasmas in the presence of fusion alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Hamnen, H.; Lisak, M.

    1988-01-01

    In this overview, we have focused on several results of the thermonuclear plasma research pertaining to the alpha particle physics and diagnostics in a fusion tokamak plasma. As regards the discussion of alpha particle effects, two distinct classes of phenomena have been distinguished: the simpler class containing phenomena exhibited by individual alpha particles under the influence of bulk plasma properties and, the more complex class including collective effects which become important for increasing alpha particle density. We have also discussed several possibilities to investigate alpha particle effects by simulation experiments using an equivalent population of highly energetic ions in the plasma. Generally, we find that the present theoretical knowledge on the role of fusion alpha particles in a fusion tokamak plasma is incomplete. There are still uncertainties and partial lack of quantitative results in this area. Consequently, further theoretical work and, as far a possible, simulation experiments are needed to improve the situation. Concerning the alpha particle diagnostics, the various diagnostic techniques and the status of their development have been discussed in two different contexts: the escaping alpha particles and the confined alpha particles in the fusion plasma. A general conclusion is that many of the different diagnostic methods for alpha particle measurements require further major development. (authors)

  4. Controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanaka, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    A simplified review on the status of the controlled thermonuclear fusion research aiming to present the motivation, objective, necessary conditions and adopted methods to reach the objective. (M.C.K.) [pt

  5. Controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trocheris, M.

    1975-01-01

    An outline is given of the present position of research into controlled fusion. After a brief reminder of the nuclear reactions of fusion and the principle of their use as a source of energy, the results obtained by the method of magnetic confinement are summarized. Among the many solutions that have been imagined and tried out to achieve a magnetic containing vessel capable of holding the thermonuclear plasma, the devices of the Tokamak type have a good lead and that is why they are described in greater detail. An idea is then given of the problems that arise when one intends conceiving the thermonuclear reactor based on the principle of the Tokamaks. The last section deals with fusion by lasers which is a new and most attractive alternative, at least from the viewpoint of basis physics. The report concludes with an indication of the stages to be passed through to reach production of energy on an industrial scale [fr

  6. The light controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, BingXin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This is a new technique for controlled fusion. • There will be an attraction force between the two oscillating nuclei. • The attraction force is greater than the Coulomb repulsion between the two nuclei. • The kinetic energy and the density of the two nuclei can be controlled. • The electric vector and the frequency of the light can be controlled. - Abstract: This is a new technique for controlled fusion. When two nuclei are colliding with each other, light, whose the frequency is higher than the minimal threshold frequency of lithium, will be aimed directly at the two nuclei, the two nuclei will perform the simple harmonic oscillation, the charged particle’s simple harmonic oscillation can be considered as an oscillating electric dipole, and the two oscillating nuclei will radiate the electromagnetic wave. Either of the two oscillating electric dipoles will attract each other, or they will repulse each other. There will be an attraction force between the two oscillating nuclei. When the attraction force is greater than the Coulomb repulsion between the two nuclei, the two nuclei will fuse together. Where the kinetic energy and the density of the two nuclei can be controlled, the electric vector and the frequency of the light can be controlled also and, therefore, the fusion can be controlled

  7. Controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstrom, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Controlled production of energy by fusion of light nuclei has been the goal of a large portion of the physics community since the 1950's. In order for a fusion reaction to take place, the fuel must be heated to a temperature of 100 million degrees Celsius. At this temperature, matter can exist only in the form of an almost fully ionized plasma. In order for the reaction to produce net power, the product of the density and energy confinement time must exceed a minimum value of 10 20 sec m -3 , the so-called Lawson criterion. Basically, two approaches are being taken to meet this criterion: inertial confinement and magnetic confinement. Inertial confinement is the basis of the laser fusion approach; a fuel pellet is imploded by intense laser beams from all sides and ignites. Magnetic confinement devices, which exist in a variety of geometries, rely upon electromagnetic forces on the charged particles of the plasma to keep the hot plasma from expanding. Of these devices, the most encouraging results have been achieved with a class of devices known as tokamaks. Recent successes with these devices have given plasma physicists confidence that scientific feasibility will be demonstrated in the next generation of tokamaks; however, an even larger effort will be required to make fusion power commercially feasible. As a result, emphasis in the controlled thermonuclear research program is beginning to shift from plasma physics to a new branch of nuclear engineering which can be called fusion engineering, in which instrumentation and control engineers will play a major role. Among the new problem areas they will deal with are plasma diagnostics and superconducting coil instrumentation

  8. Fusion alpha loss diagnostic for ITER using activation technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonheure, G.; Hult, M.; González de Orduña, R.; Vermaercke, P.; Murari, A.; Popovichev, S.; Mlynář, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 86, 6-8 (2011), s. 1298-1301 ISSN 0920-3796. [Symposium on Fusion Technology (SOFT) /26th./. Port o, 27.09.2010-01.10.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : ITER * fusion product * burning plasma diagnostics * alpha losses * activation technique Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.490, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379611002778

  9. Alpha Heating and Burning Plasmas in Inertial Confinement Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, R; Christopherson, A R; Spears, B K; Nora, R; Bose, A; Howard, J; Woo, K M; Edwards, M J; Sanz, J

    2015-06-26

    Estimating the level of alpha heating and determining the onset of the burning plasma regime is essential to finding the path towards thermonuclear ignition. In a burning plasma, the alpha heating exceeds the external input energy to the plasma. Using a simple model of the implosion, it is shown that a general relation can be derived, connecting the burning plasma regime to the yield enhancement due to alpha heating and to experimentally measurable parameters such as the Lawson ignition parameter. A general alpha-heating curve is found, independent of the target and suitable to assess the performance of all laser fusion experiments whether direct or indirect drive. The onset of the burning plasma regime inside the hot spot of current implosions on the National Ignition Facility requires a fusion yield of about 50 kJ.

  10. Plasma flow driven by fusion-generated alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1978-05-01

    The confinement of fusion-generated alpha particles will affect the transports of the background plasma particles by the momentum transfer from the energetic alphas. The ions tend to migrate towards the center of plasma (i.e. fuel injection) and electrons towards the plasma periphery. This means the existence of a mechanism which enable to pump out the ashes in the fuel plasma because of the momentum conservation of whole plasma particles. (author)

  11. Controlled nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussard, R.W.; Coppi, B.

    1982-01-01

    A fusion power generating device is disclosed having a relatively small and inexpensive core region which may be contained within an energy absorbing blanket region. The fusion power core region contains apparatus of the toroidal type for confining a high density plasma. The fusion power core is removable from the blanket region and may be disposed and/or recycled for subsequent use within the same blanket region. Thermonuclear ignition of the plasma is obtained by feeding neutral fusible gas into the plasma in a controlled manner such that charged particle heating produced by the fusion reaction is utilized to bootstrap the device to a region of high temperatures and high densities wherein charged particle heating is sufficient to overcome radiation and thermal conductivity losses. The high density plasma produces a large radiation and particle flux on the first wall of the plasma core region thereby necessitating replacement of the core from the blanket region from time to time. A series of potentially disposable and replaceable central core regions are disclosed for a large-scale economical electrical power generating plant

  12. A comprehensive alpha-heating model for inertial confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopherson, A. R.; Betti, R.; Bose, A.; Howard, J.; Woo, K. M.; Campbell, E. M.; Sanz, J.; Spears, B. K.

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive model is developed to study alpha-heating in inertially confined plasmas. It describes the time evolution of a central low-density hot spot confined by a compressible shell, heated by fusion alphas, and cooled by radiation and thermal losses. The model includes the deceleration, stagnation, and burn phases of inertial confinement fusion implosions, and is valid for sub-ignited targets with ≤10 × amplification of the fusion yield from alpha-heating. The results of radiation-hydrodynamic simulations are used to derive realistic initial conditions and dimensionless parameters for the model. It is found that most of the alpha energy (˜90%) produced before bang time is deposited within the hot spot mass, while a small fraction (˜10%) drives mass ablation off the inner shell surface and its energy is recycled back into the hot spot. Of the bremsstrahlung radiation emission, ˜40% is deposited in the hot spot, ˜40% is recycled back in the hot spot by ablation off the shell, and ˜20% leaves the hot spot. We show here that the hot spot, shocked shell, and outer shell trajectories from this analytical model are in good agreement with simulations. A detailed discussion of the effect of alpha-heating on the hydrodynamics is also presented.

  13. The role of alpha particles in magnetically confined fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisak, M.; Wilhelmsson, H.

    1986-01-01

    Recent progress in the confinement of hot plasmas in magnetic fusion experiments throughout the world has intensified interest and research in the physics of D-T burning plasmas especially in the wide range of unresolved theoretical as well as experimental questions associated with the role of alpha particles in such devices. In order to review the state-of-the- art in this field, and to identify new issues and problems for further research, the Symposium on the Role of Alpha Particles in Magnetically Confined Fusion Plasmas was held from 24 to 26 June 1986 at Aspenaesgaarden near Goeteborg, Sweden. About 25 leading experts from nine countries attended the Symposium and gave invited talks. The major part of the programme was devoted to alpha-particle effects in tokamaks but some aspects of open systems were also discussed. The possibilities of obtaining ignition in JET and TFTR as well as physics issues for the compact ignition experiments were considered in particular. A special session was devoted to the diagnostics of alpha particles and other fusion products. In this report are summarised some of the highlights of the symposium. (authors)

  14. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    40 papers are presented at this 21. conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics (JET). Titles are: effects of sawtooth crashes on beams ions and fusion product tritons; beta limits in H-modes and VH-modes; impurity induced neutralization of MeV energy protons in JET plasmas; lost α particle diagnostic for high-yield D-T fusion plasmas; 15-MeV proton emission from ICRF-heated plasmas; pulse compression radar reflectometry for density measurements; gamma-ray emission profile measurements during ICRH discharges; the new JET phase ICRH array; simulation of triton burn-up; parametric dependencies of JET electron temperature profiles; detached divertor plasmas; excitation of global Alfven Eigenmodes by RF heating; mechanisms of toroidal rotation; effect of shear in the radial electric field on confinement; plasma transport properties at the L-H transition; numerical study of plasma detachment conditions in JET divertor plasmas; the SOL width and the MHD interchange instability; non linear magnetic reconnection in low collisionality plasmas; topology and slowing down of high energy ion orbits; sawtooth crashes at high beta; fusion performances and alpha heating in future JET D-T plasmas; a stable route to high-beta plasmas with non-monotonic q-profiles; theory of propagation of changes to confinement; spatial distribution of gamma emissivity and fast ions during ICRF heating; multi-camera soft X-ray diagnostic; radiation phenomena and particle fluxes in the X-event; local measurement of transport parameters for laser injected trace impurities; impurity transport of high performance discharges; negative snakes and negative shear; neural-network charge exchange analysis; ion temperature anisotropy in helium neutral beam fuelling; impurity line emission due to thermal charge exchange in edge plasmas; control of convection by fuelling and pumping; VH mode accessibility and global H-mode properties; ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission; LHCD/ICRH synergy

  15. Investigation of advanced materials for fusion alpha particle diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonheure, G., E-mail: g.bonheure@fz-juelich.de [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Association “Euratom-Belgian State”, Royal Military Academy, Avenue de la Renaissance, 30 Kunstherlevinglaan, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Van Wassenhove, G. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Association “Euratom-Belgian State”, Royal Military Academy, Avenue de la Renaissance, 30 Kunstherlevinglaan, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Hult, M.; González de Orduña, R. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Strivay, D. [Centre Européen d’Archéométrie, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Atomique et de Spectroscopie, Université de Liège (Belgium); Vermaercke, P. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Delvigne, T. [DSI SPRL, 3 rue Mont d’Orcq, Froyennes B-7503 (Belgium); Chene, G.; Delhalle, R. [Centre Européen d’Archéométrie, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Atomique et de Spectroscopie, Université de Liège (Belgium); Huber, A.; Schweer, B.; Esser, G.; Biel, W.; Neubauer, O. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► We examine the feasibility of alpha particle measurements in ITER. ► We test advanced material detectors borrowed from the GERDA neutrino experiment. ► We compare experimental results on TEXTOR tokamak with our detector response model. ► We investigate the detector response in ITER full power D–T plasmas. ► Advanced materials show good signal to noise ratio and alpha particle selectivity. -- Abstract: Fusion alpha particle diagnostics for ITER remain a challenging task. Standard escaping alpha particle detectors in present tokamaks are not applicable to ITER and techniques suitable for fusion reactor conditions need further research and development [1,2]. The activation technique is widely used for the characterization of high fluence rates inside neutron reactors. Tokamak applications of the neutron activation technique are already well developed [3] whereas measuring escaping ions using this technique is a novel fusion plasma diagnostic development. Despite low alpha particle fluence levels in present tokamaks, promising results using activation technique combined with ultra-low level gamma-ray spectrometry [4] were achieved before in JET [5,6]. In this research work, we use new advanced detector materials. The material properties beneficial for alpha induced activation are (i) moderate neutron cross-sections (ii) ultra-high purity which reduces neutron-induced background activation and (iii) isotopic tailoring which increases the activation yield of the measured activation product. Two samples were obtained from GERDA[7], an experiment aimed at measuring the neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. These samples, made of highly pure (9 N) germanium highly enriched to 87% in isotope Ge-76, were irradiated in real D–D fusion plasma conditions inside the TEXTOR tokamak. Comparison of the calculated and the experimentally measured activity shows good agreement. Compared to previously investigated high temperature ceramic material [8

  16. Controlled thermonuclear fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Bobin, Jean Louis

    2014-01-01

    The book is a presentation of the basic principles and main achievements in the field of nuclear fusion. It encompasses both magnetic and inertial confinements plus a few exotic mechanisms for nuclear fusion. The state-of-the-art regarding thermonuclear reactions, hot plasmas, tokamaks, laser-driven compression and future reactors is given.

  17. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  18. Plasma physics for controlled fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2016-01-01

    This new edition presents the essential theoretical and analytical methods needed to understand the recent fusion research of tokamak and alternate approaches. The author describes magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic theories of cold and hot plasmas in detail. The book covers new important topics for fusion studies such as plasma transport by drift turbulence, which depend on the magnetic configuration and zonal flows. These are universal phenomena of microturbulence. They can modify the onset criterion for turbulent transport, instabilities driven by energetic particles as well as alpha particle generation and typical plasma models for computer simulation. The fusion research of tokamaks with various new versions of H modes are explained. The design concept of ITER, the international tokamak experimental reactor, is described for inductively driven operations as well as steady-state operations using non-inductive drives. Alternative approaches of reversed-field pinch and its relaxation process, stellator includi...

  19. Controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebut, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    The author gives a chronological account of the research about thermonuclear fusion and presents the principle of JET thermonuclear reactor based upon the magnetic confinement. The problems of heating and confining a thermonuclear plasma may be regarded as solved. They make possible the definition of the size and geometry needed to realize a next-step tokamak (ITER, NET projects)

  20. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the several speeches that took place during the 22nd European Physical Society conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics in Bournemouth, UK, between the 2nd and 7th July 1995. The talks deal with new experiments carried out on several tokamaks, particularly Tore Supra, concerning plasma confinement and fusion. Some information on specific fusion devices or tokamak devices is provided, as well as results of experiments concerning plasma instability. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the 31 papers in this volume. (TEC)

  1. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This document presents the several speeches that took place during the 22nd European Physical Society conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics in Bournemouth, UK, between the 2nd and 7th July 1995. The talks deal with new experiments carried out on several tokamaks, particularly Tore Supra, concerning plasma confinement and fusion. Some information on specific fusion devices or tokamak devices is provided, as well as results of experiments concerning plasma instability. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the 31 papers in this volume. (TEC).

  2. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document presents the several speeches that took place during the 22nd European Physical Society conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics in Bournemouth, UK, between the 2nd and 7th July 1995. The talks deal with new experiments carried out on several tokamaks, particularly Tore Supra, concerning plasma confinement and fusion. Some information on specific fusion devices or tokamak devices is provided, as well as results of experiments concerning plasma instability. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the 31 papers in this volume. (TEC).

  3. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickerton, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    On JET results were presented on additional heating power, on a recently discovered regime of enhanced pellet performance (PEP), on low-density H-mode plasma confinement with hot ions, bounds on very high electric currents by material limiters, the first experiments on lower hybrid current drive, on the L-H transition threshold dependence on the direction of the gradient-B drift, and on alpha-particle physics issues. The TFTR presentations focused on transport. Particle loss ramifications of the toroidal Alfven eigenmodes were found to be small, while their threshold of excitation is lower than theoretically predicted. On DIII-D a scaling study of transport with gyroradius as the only variable was reported, with approximately Bohm scaling emerging; but the effective heat diffusivity scaling could not be established due to profile consistency effects. While beta-limit investigations with DIII-D generally confirm the ideal, MHD limit found by Troyon, evidence of a reduction of the accessible range for the internal inductance with the safety factor seems to favour current-density control in a steady-state D-T burner. Onset of strongly sheared poloidal rotation in a thin layer during the L-H mode transition was experimentally shown, while a new, so-called VH (''very high'') confinement mode was discovered by boronization of the wall. The JT-90 tokamak has recently been upgraded to JT-60-U. Presentations by the ASDEX team summarized the lack of agreement with theory of L-mode confinement. With TEXTOR, an improved mode (I-mode) of confinement was found by boronization. Finally, reviews are included on the status of impurity transport and helium removal in tokamaks, on stellarators, alternative magnetic confinement systems, inertial confinement, and non-fusion plasma physics. 2 tabs

  4. Plasma physics for controlled fusion. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2016-08-01

    This new edition presents the essential theoretical and analytical methods needed to understand the recent fusion research of tokamak and alternate approaches. The author describes magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic theories of cold and hot plasmas in detail. The book covers new important topics for fusion studies such as plasma transport by drift turbulence, which depend on the magnetic configuration and zonal flows. These are universal phenomena of microturbulence. They can modify the onset criterion for turbulent transport, instabilities driven by energetic particles as well as alpha particle generation and typical plasma models for computer simulation. The fusion research of tokamaks with various new versions of H modes are explained. The design concept of ITER, the international tokamak experimental reactor, is described for inductively driven operations as well as steady-state operations using non-inductive drives. Alternative approaches of reversed-field pinch and its relaxation process, stellator including quasi-symmetric system, open-end system of tandem mirror and inertial confinement are also explained. Newly added and updated topics in this second edition include zonal flows, various versions of H modes, and steady-state operations of tokamak, the design concept of ITER, the relaxation process of RFP, quasi-symmetric stellator, and tandem mirror. The book addresses graduate students and researchers in the field of controlled fusion.

  5. Plasma physics for controlled fusion. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2016-01-01

    This new edition presents the essential theoretical and analytical methods needed to understand the recent fusion research of tokamak and alternate approaches. The author describes magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic theories of cold and hot plasmas in detail. The book covers new important topics for fusion studies such as plasma transport by drift turbulence, which depend on the magnetic configuration and zonal flows. These are universal phenomena of microturbulence. They can modify the onset criterion for turbulent transport, instabilities driven by energetic particles as well as alpha particle generation and typical plasma models for computer simulation. The fusion research of tokamaks with various new versions of H modes are explained. The design concept of ITER, the international tokamak experimental reactor, is described for inductively driven operations as well as steady-state operations using non-inductive drives. Alternative approaches of reversed-field pinch and its relaxation process, stellator including quasi-symmetric system, open-end system of tandem mirror and inertial confinement are also explained. Newly added and updated topics in this second edition include zonal flows, various versions of H modes, and steady-state operations of tokamak, the design concept of ITER, the relaxation process of RFP, quasi-symmetric stellator, and tandem mirror. The book addresses graduate students and researchers in the field of controlled fusion.

  6. Controlled thermonuclear fusion: research on magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, P.J.

    1988-12-01

    Recent progress in thermonuclear fusion research indicates that the scientists' schedule for the demonstration of the scientific feasibility will be kept and that break-even will be attained in the course of the next decade. To see the implementation of ignition, however, the generation of future experiments must be awaited. These projects are currently under study. With technological research going on in parallel, they should at the same time contribute to the design of a reactor. Fusion reactors will be quite different from the fission nuclear reactors we know, and the waste of the plants will also be of a different nature. It is still too early to define the precise design of a fusion reactor. On the basis of a toric machine concept like that of the tokamak, we can, however, envisage that the problems with which we are confronted will be solved one after the other. As we have just seen, these will be the objectives of the future experimental installations where ignition will be possible and where the flux of fast neutrons will be so strong that they will allow the study of low-activation materials which will be used in the structure of the reactor. But this is also a task in which from now onwards numerous laboratories in Europe and in the world participate. The works are in fact punctiform, and often the mutual incidences can only be determined by an approach simulated by numerical codes. (author) 19 figs., 6 tabs., 8 refs

  7. Fusion performances and alpha heating in future JET D-T plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balet, B; Cordey, J G; Gibson, A; Lomas, P; Stubberfield, P M; Thomas, P [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    The new pump divertor installed at JET should allow high performance pulses of a few seconds duration by both preventing the impurity influx and controlling the density evolution. The TRANSP code has been used in a predictive mode to assess the possible fusion performance of such plasmas fuelled with a 50:50 mixture of D and T, and the effect of alpha particles heating on Te and Ti. Several cases are considered: 50:50 D-T mix; 50:50 D-T mix, no C bloom; 50:50 D-T mix, VH phase, density control; 50:50 D-T mix, VH phase, density control, 6 Ma. The predictions show that if the the bloom and MHD instabilities can be controlled at higher plasma currents using a higher toroidal field to keep a reasonable beta value, then a higher fusion performance steady state plasma with Q{sub DT} superior to 2.5 should be possible. The alpha heating power of 4.9 MW would lead to a 74% increase in Te. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Controlled fusion and plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The contributions presented in the 17th European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Heating were focused on Tore Supra investigations. The following subjects were presented: ohmic discharges, lower hybrid experiments, runaway electrons, Thomson scattering, plasma density measurements, magnetic fluctuations, polarization scattering, plasma currents, plasma fluctuation measurements, evaporation of hydrogen pellets in presence of fast electrons, ripple induced stochastic diffusion of trapped particles, tearing mode stabilization, edge effects on turbulence behavior, electron cyclotron heating, micro-tearing modes, divertors, limiters

  9. Thermonuclear controlled fusion: international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conscience, J.-F.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the current worldwide status of research in the field of thermonuclear controlled fusion as well as the international research programme planed for the next decades. The two main projects will be the ITER facility (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) that should produce 10 times more energy than the energy injected, and the IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) designed to study the reactions of materials under intense neutron fluxes. The future of the pioneering JET facility (Joint European Torus) is also discussed. The engagement of the various countries (USA, Japan, Germany, Russian Federation and Canada) and international organisations (EURATOM and IEA) in terms of investment and research is described. Switzerland is involved in this program through an agreement with EURATOM and is mainly dedicated to experimental studies with the TCV machine in Lausanne and numerical studies of plasma configurations. It will participate to the development of the microwave plasma heating system for the ITER machine

  10. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  11. Alpha particle physics experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Nazikian, R.; Stratton, B.C.; Synakowski, E.J.; Taylor, G.

    2000-01-01

    Alpha particle physics experiments were done on TFTR during its DT run from 1993 to 1997. These experiments utilized several new alpha particle diagnostics and hundreds of DT discharges to characterize the alpha particle confinement and wave-particle interactions. In general, the results from the alpha particle diagnostics agreed with the classical single particle confinement model in MHD quiescent discharges. The alpha loss due to toroidal field ripple was identified in some cases, and the low radial diffusivity inferred for high energy alphas was consistent with orbit averaging over small scale turbulence. Finally, the observed alpha particle interactions with sawteeth, toroidal Alfven eigenmodes and ICRF waves were approximately consistent with theoretical modelling. What was learned is reviewed and what remains to be understood is identified. (author)

  12. Impact of ICRH on the measurement of fusion alphas by collective Thomson scattering in ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Eriksson, L.-G.; Bindslev, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) has been proposed for measuring the phase space distributions of confined fast ion populations in ITER plasmas. This study determines the impact of fast ions accelerated by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) on the ability of CTS to diagnose fusion alphas......, corresponding to an off-axis resonance. The sensitivities of the results to the He-3 concentration (0.1-4%) and the heating power (20-40 MW) are considered. Fusion born alphas dominate the total CTS signal for large Doppler shifts of the scattered radiation. The tritons generate a negligible fraction...... perpendicular velocities, it may be difficult to draw conclusions about the physics of alpha particles alone by CTS. With this exception, the CTS diagnostic can reveal the physics of the fusion alphas in ITER even under the presence of fast ions due to ICRH....

  13. Estimation of the {alpha} particles and neutron distribution generated during a fusion reaction; Evaluation de la distribution des particules {alpha} et des neutrons issus de la reaction de fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellacherie, S.

    1997-12-01

    The respective distributions (or density probabilities) of {alpha} particles and neutrons have been modeled using a Monte-Carlo method for the thermonuclear fusion reaction D + T {yields} {alpha} + n + 17.6 MeV. (N.T.).

  14. Alpha-driven magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and MHD-induced alpha loss in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Z.; Nazikian, R.; Fu, G.Y.

    1997-02-01

    Alpha-driven toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) are observed as predicted by theory in the post neutral beam phase in high central q (safety factor) deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The mode location, poloidal structure and the importance of q profile for TAE instability are discussed. So far no alpha particle loss due to these modes was detected due to the small mode amplitude. However, alpha loss induced by kinetic ballooning modes (KBMs) was observed in high confinement D-T discharges. Particle orbit simulation demonstrates that the wave-particle resonant interaction can explain the observed correlation between the increase in alpha loss and appearance of multiple high-n (n ≥ 6, n is the toroidal mode number) modes

  15. Controlled Nuclear Fusion: Status and Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David J.

    1971-01-01

    Presents the history, current concerns and potential developments of nuclear fusion as a major energy source. Controlled fusion research is summarized, technological feasibility is discussed and environmental factors are examined. Relationships of alternative energy sources as well as energy utilization are considered. (JM)

  16. Plasma physics for controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, K.

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this lecture note is to present the theories and experiments of plasma physics for recent activities of controlled fusion research for graduate and senior undergraduate students. Chapters 1-6 describe the basic knowledge of plasma and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). MHD instabilities limit the beta ratio (ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure) of confined plasma. Chapters 7-9 provide the kinetic theory of hot plasma and discuss the wave heating and non-inductive current drive. The dispersion relation derived by the kinetic theory are used to discuss plasma waves and perturbed modes. Landau damping is the essential mechanism of plasma heating and the stabilization of perturbation. Landau inverse damping brings the amplification of waves and the destabilization of perturbed modes. Chapter 10 explains the plasma transport due to turbulence, which is the most important and challenging subject for plasma confinement. Theories and simulations including subject of zonal flow are introduced. Chapters 11, 12 and 13 describe the recent activities of tokamak including ITER as well as spherical tokamak, reversed field pinch (RFP) and stellarator including quasi-symmetric configurations. Emphasis has been given to tokamak research since it made the most remarkable progress and the construction phase of 'International Tokamak Experimental Reactor' called ITER has already started. (author)

  17. Simulations of alpha parameters in a TFTR DT supershot with high fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budny, R.V.; Bell, M.G.; Janos, A.C.

    1995-07-01

    A TFTR supershot with a plasma current of 2.5 MA, neutral beam heating power of 33.7 MW, and a peak DT fusion power of 7.5 MW is studied using the TRANSP plasma analysis code. Simulations of alpha parameters such as the alpha heating, pressure, and distributions in energy and v parallel /v are given. The effects of toroidal ripple and mixing of the fast alpha particles during the sawteeth observed after the neutral beam injection phase are modeled. The distributions of alpha particles on the outer midplane are peaked near forward and backward v parallel /v. Ripple losses deplete the distributions in the vicinity of v parallel /v ∼-0.4. Sawtooth mixing of fast alpha particles is computed to reduce their central density and broaden their width in energy

  18. Fusion instrumentation and control: a development strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.Y.; Greninger, R.C.; Longhurst, G.R.; Madden, P.

    1981-01-01

    We have examined requirements for a fusion instrumentation and control development program to determine where emphasis is needed. The complex, fast, and closely coupled system dynamics of fusion reactors reveal a need for a rigorous approach to the development of instrumentation and control systems. A framework for such a development program should concentrate on three principal need areas: the operator-machine interface, the data and control system architecture, and fusion compatible instruments and sensors. System dynamics characterization of the whole fusion reactor system is also needed to facilitate the implementation process in each of these areas. Finally, the future need to make the instrumentation and control system compatible with the requirements of a commercial plant is met by applying transition technology. These needs form the basis for the program tasks suggested

  19. Breeder control fusion reactor. Topical interview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, A [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching/Muenchen (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-09-01

    The energy sources of the future are extremely controversial. The consumption of fossil fuel shall decrease during the next decades, because exhaustion of the resources, pollution, increase of CO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere and other reasons. But at present the question it not yet settled which alternative energy system should replace the fossil fuel. First of all nuclear energy in the form of fission reactions seems to come into operation to a larger extent. The next step may be the controlled thermonuclear fusion reaction. Furthermore, a comparison between fusion and fission is given which shows that fusion would bring about less risks than the breeders. An advantage of the fusion reactor would be the fact that the fuel cycle is closed. Unfortunately, the physical questions are not as yet satisfactorily clarified so that one cannot be sure whether a fusion reactor can really be built.

  20. Introduction to controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, A.S. de; Rapozo, C.C.

    1988-07-01

    During many centuries the origin of the enormous power output of the sun remained as a mistery. However, in this century, the physicists have discovered that stars get their energy from the fusion of light nuclei (such as deuterons and tritons), and the Einstein's equation, AE = (Am)c 2 , was the way to explain this physical process. (author)

  1. Comparison of fusion alpha performance in JET advanced scenario and H-mode plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asunta, O; Kurki-Suonio, T; Tala, T; Sipilae, S; Salomaa, R [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Otto.Asunta@tkk.fi

    2008-12-15

    Currently, plasmas with internal transport barriers (ITBs) appear the most likely candidates for steady-state scenarios for future fusion reactors. In such plasmas, the broad hot and dense region in the plasma core leads to high fusion gain, while the cool edge protects the integrity of the first wall. Economically desirable large bootstrap current fraction and low inductive current drive may, however, lead to degraded fast ion confinement. In this work the confinement and heating profile of fusion alphas were compared between H-mode and ITB plasmas in realistic JET geometry. The work was carried out using the Monte Carlo-based guiding-center-following code ASCOT. For the same plasma current, the ITB discharges were found to produce four to eight times more fusion power than a comparable ELMy H-mode discharge. Unfortunately, also the alpha particle losses were larger ({approx}16%) compared with the H-mode discharge (7%). In the H-mode discharges, alpha power was deposited to the plasma symmetrically around the magnetic axis, whereas in the current-hole discharge, the power was spread out to a larger volume in the plasma center. This was due to wider particle orbits, and the magnetic structure allowing for a broader hot region in the centre.

  2. Loss of alpha-like MeV fusion products from TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Boivin, R.L.; Diesso, M.; Hayes, S.E.; Hendel, H.W.; Park, H.; Strachan, J.D.

    1990-03-01

    A detailed comparison between the observed and expected loss of alpha-like MeV fusion products in TFTR is presented. The D-D fusion products (mainly the 1 MeV triton) were measured with an 2-D imaging scintillation detector. The expected first-orbit loss was calculated with a simple Lorentz orbit code. In almost all cases the measured loss was consistent with the expected first-orbit loss model. Exceptions are noted for small major radius plasmas and during strong MHD activity. 37 refs., 28 figs

  3. Laser Fusion: status, future, and tritium control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, P.E.

    1978-11-01

    At Livermore the 10 kJ, 20 to 30 TW Shiva facility is now operational and producing regular new fusion results. Design work has begun on a 200 to 300 TW laser designed to carry the program through the first breakeven demonstration experiments in the mid-1980's. Confidence in reaching this goal is based on the significant progress we have made in state-of-the-art, high-power Nd:glass laser technology, in experimental laser fusion and laser plasma interaction physics, and in theoretical and analytical computer codes which reliably model and predict experimental results. For all of these experiments, a variety of fusion targets are being fabricated in the laboratory, and the control and handling of tritium is now a regular and routine part of ongoing inertial fusion experiments. Target design with gains of about 1000 have been studied and the means to mass produce such pellets at low cost are also being developed

  4. Large-scale cryopumping for controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittenger, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Vacuum pumping by freezing out or otherwise immobilizing the pumped gas is an old concept. In several plasma physics experiments for controlled fusion research, cryopumping has been used to provide clean, ultrahigh vacua. Present day fusion research devices, which rely almost universally upon neutral beams for heating, are high gas throughput systems, the pumping of which is best accomplished by cryopumping in the high mass-flow, moderate-to-high vacuum regime. Cryopumping systems have been developed for neutral beam injection systems on several fusion experiments (HVTS, TFTR) and are being developed for the overall pumping of a large, high-throughput mirror containment experiment (MFTF). In operation, these large cryopumps will require periodic defrosting, some schemes for which are discussed, along with other operational considerations. The development of cryopumps for fusion reactors is begun with the TFTR and MFTF systems. Likely paths for necessary further development for power-producing reactors are also discussed

  5. Large-scale cryopumping for controlled fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittenger, L.C.

    1977-07-25

    Vacuum pumping by freezing out or otherwise immobilizing the pumped gas is an old concept. In several plasma physics experiments for controlled fusion research, cryopumping has been used to provide clean, ultrahigh vacua. Present day fusion research devices, which rely almost universally upon neutral beams for heating, are high gas throughput systems, the pumping of which is best accomplished by cryopumping in the high mass-flow, moderate-to-high vacuum regime. Cryopumping systems have been developed for neutral beam injection systems on several fusion experiments (HVTS, TFTR) and are being developed for the overall pumping of a large, high-throughput mirror containment experiment (MFTF). In operation, these large cryopumps will require periodic defrosting, some schemes for which are discussed, along with other operational considerations. The development of cryopumps for fusion reactors is begun with the TFTR and MFTF systems. Likely paths for necessary further development for power-producing reactors are also discussed.

  6. Toroidal electron beam energy storage for controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.; Korn, P.; Mondelli, A.; Rostoker, N.

    1976-01-01

    In the presence of an external magnetic field stable equilibria exist for an unneutralized electron beam with ν/γ >1. As a result, it is in principle, possible to store very large quantities of energy in relatively small volumes by confining an unneutralized electron beam in a Tokamak-like device. The energy is stored principally in the electrostatic and self-magnetic fields associated with the beam and is available for rapid heating of pellets for controlled fusion. The large electrostatic potential well in such a device would be sufficient to contain energetic alpha particles, thereby reducing reactor wall bombardment. This approach also avoids plasma loss and wall bombardment by charge exchange neutrals. The conceptual design of an electrostatic Tokamak fusion reactor (ETFR) is discussed. A small toroidal device (the STP machine) has been constructed to test the principles involved. Preliminary experiments on this device have produced electron densities approximately 10% of those required in a reactor

  7. Real-time control of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, B.; Sousa, J.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2010-01-01

    The next generation fusion experiments, e.g. ITER, will be highly complex and raise new challenges in the field of control and data acquisition systems. The more advanced operation scenarios have to be capable of sustaining long pulse steady-state plasma and to suppress plasma instabilities almost completely. Such scenarios will heavily rely on Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) fast control systems. To ensure safety for the operation these systems have to be robust and resilient to faults while ensuring high availability. Mindful of the importance of such features for future fusion experiments ATCA based systems have been successfully used in fusion experiment as MIMO fast controller. This is the most promising architecture to substantially enhance the performance and capability of existing standard systems delivering well high throughput as well as high availability. The real-time control needs of a fusion experiment, the rational for the presently pursued solutions, the existing problems and the broad scientific and technical questions that need to be addressed on the path to a fusion power plant will be discussed.

  8. History of controlled nuclear fusion in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Eisui; Nishio, Shigeko; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    2001-01-01

    A research development of nuclear fusion was divided four periods: the first period as prehistory (until about 1955), the second period as begin of research (1955 to 1969), the third as the growth period (1970 to 1985) and the forth as the large tokamak age. In this paper I explained the second period, because general physicists and young plasma and controlled nuclear fusion researcher did not know about this period. The controlled nuclear fusion research was begun by the experiment of hydrogen bomb by USA and USSR in 1952 and 1953. In Japan, on the basis of many societies, 'The Controlled Nuclear Fusion Meeting' was established as an independent system and KAKEA (Journal of Fusion Research) was published in 1958. Japan government began to make the system by the Nuclear Commission in 1957. The main research devices in 1962 were linear pinch, mirror device, toroidal pinch, helical system, plasma gun and plasma measurement. USSR showed the excellent results of tokamak device in 1968. Ookawa spoke the effect of the average minimum-B, the best report in this period, at the second IAEA meeting, 1965. JAERI constructed JFT-1 and JFT-2, the latter was the first class device in the world and made the first step of Japanese research into the world, for examples, to attain the equilibrium of divertor plasma and to control impurity. Many research centers of controlled fusion were established in many universities in Japan from 1966 to 1980. Cooperation researchs between Japan and USA, USSR and many countries has been carried out after 1978: JIFT (Joint Institute for Fusion Theory) and FPPC (Fusion Power Coordinating Committee). The important results increased in this period. After 1985, the research activities are processing and data increased very fast depend on the larger devices and system, good measurement system and development of information system. JT-60 in JAERI opened to the large tokamak period. It led controlled fusion researchs in the world the same as TFTR (US

  9. Statistical process control for alpha spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, W; Majoras, R E [Oxford Instruments, Inc. P.O. Box 2560, Oak Ridge TN 37830 (United States); Joo, I O; Seymour, R S [Accu-Labs Research, Inc. 4663 Table Mountain Drive, Golden CO 80403 (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Statistical process control(SPC) allows for the identification of problems in alpha spectroscopy processes before they occur, unlike standard laboratory Q C which only identifies problems after a process fails. SPC tools that are directly applicable to alpha spectroscopy include individual X-charts and X-bar charts, process capability plots, and scatter plots. Most scientists are familiar with the concepts the and methods employed by SPC. These tools allow analysis of process bias, precision, accuracy and reproducibility as well as process capability. Parameters affecting instrument performance are monitored and analyzed using SPC methods. These instrument parameters can also be compared to sampling, preparation, measurement, and analysis Q C parameters permitting the evaluation of cause effect relationships. Three examples of SPC, as applied to alpha spectroscopy , are presented. The first example investigates background contamination using averaging to show trends quickly. A second example demonstrates how SPC can identify sample processing problems, analyzing both how and why this problem occurred. A third example illustrates how SPC can predict when an alpha spectroscopy process is going to fail. This allows for an orderly and timely shutdown of the process to perform preventative maintenance, avoiding the need to repeat costly sample analyses. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Statistical process control for alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, W.; Majoras, R.E.; Joo, I.O.; Seymour, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    Statistical process control(SPC) allows for the identification of problems in alpha spectroscopy processes before they occur, unlike standard laboratory Q C which only identifies problems after a process fails. SPC tools that are directly applicable to alpha spectroscopy include individual X-charts and X-bar charts, process capability plots, and scatter plots. Most scientists are familiar with the concepts the and methods employed by SPC. These tools allow analysis of process bias, precision, accuracy and reproducibility as well as process capability. Parameters affecting instrument performance are monitored and analyzed using SPC methods. These instrument parameters can also be compared to sampling, preparation, measurement, and analysis Q C parameters permitting the evaluation of cause effect relationships. Three examples of SPC, as applied to alpha spectroscopy , are presented. The first example investigates background contamination using averaging to show trends quickly. A second example demonstrates how SPC can identify sample processing problems, analyzing both how and why this problem occurred. A third example illustrates how SPC can predict when an alpha spectroscopy process is going to fail. This allows for an orderly and timely shutdown of the process to perform preventative maintenance, avoiding the need to repeat costly sample analyses. 7 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendrih, Ph.; Becoulet, M.; Costanzo, L.

    2000-07-01

    This report brings together all the contributions of EURATOM/CEA association to the 14. international conference on plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices. 24 papers are presented and they deal mainly with the ergodic divertor and the first wall of Tore-supra tokamak

  12. Plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghendrih, Ph.; Becoulet, M.; Costanzo, L. [and others

    2000-07-01

    This report brings together all the contributions of EURATOM/CEA association to the 14. international conference on plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices. 24 papers are presented and they deal mainly with the ergodic divertor and the first wall of Tore-supra tokamak.

  13. The ORNL Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, D.R.; Krstic, P.S.; Ownby, F.M.; Meyer, F.W.; Havener, C.C.; Bannister, M.E.; Liu, W.; Jeffery, D.J.; Stancil, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    The principal mission of the Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center is the collection evaluation, and dissemination of atomic collision data relevant to fusion energy development. With the advent of the widespread use of the World Wide Web, the data center's resources are being placed on-line to facilitate their use by end-users (cf. http://www-cfadc.phy.ornl.gov/). As this development continues, initially disparate, individually compiled resources will be transformed into integrated tools for retrieving recommended data, or displaying and manipulating the information available. The data center's present capabilities, recent data production/evaluation efforts, and goals for future development are highlighted here

  14. Computer applications in controlled fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    1975-02-01

    The role of Nuclear Engineering Education in the application of computers to controlled fusion research can be a very important one. In the near future the use of computers in the numerical modelling of fusion systems should increase substantially. A recent study group has identified five categories of computational models to study the physics of magnetically confined plasmas. A comparable number of types of models for engineering studies are called for. The development and application of computer codes to implement these models is a vital step in reaching the goal of fusion power. In order to meet the needs of the fusion program the National CTR Computer Center has been established at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. A large central computing facility is linked to smaller computing centers at each of the major CTR laboratories by a communications network. The crucial element that is needed for success is trained personnel. The number of people with knowledge of plasma science and engineering that are trained in numerical methods and computer science is quite small, and must be increased substantially in the next few years. Nuclear Engineering departments should encourage students to enter this field and provide the necessary courses and research programs in fusion computing. (U.S.)

  15. The development of controlled nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    The high temperature conditions needed in a controlled nuclear fusion reactor are now being approached in experiments using magnetic fields to confine and isolate the plasma, especially in systems of the tokamak type. The underlying reasons for the successes are discussed and it is concluded that the remaining advances needed in temperature and thermal insulation may well be achieved in new large tokamak experiments now under construction. Comparable progress is being made also in inertial confinement systems; key experiments on achieving the required super-high densities with high-powered pulsed laser systems are about to commence. To achieve fusion reactors will require the combination of three major disciplines: plasma physics, electromechanical engineering and nuclear engineering. Proposals have been made for an international study group to be set up under the IAEA auspices to consider technical objectives and the nature of the next large fusion device which could be constructed internationally, and in which this synthesis could be attempted. (author)

  16. Maryland controlled fusion research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, H.R.; Liu, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize the technical progress in four major areas of tokamak research: (a) L/H transition and edge turbulence and transport; (b) active control of microturbulence and transport; (c) major disruptions; and (d) the sawtooth crash

  17. Computer applications in controlled fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    1975-01-01

    The application of computers to controlled thermonuclear research (CTR) is essential. In the near future the use of computers in the numerical modeling of fusion systems should increase substantially. A recent panel has identified five categories of computational models to study the physics of magnetically confined plasmas. A comparable number of types of models for engineering studies is called for. The development and application of computer codes to implement these models is a vital step in reaching the goal of fusion power. To meet the needs of the fusion program the National CTR Computer Center has been established at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. A large central computing facility is linked to smaller computing centers at each of the major CTR Laboratories by a communication network. The crucial element needed for success is trained personnel. The number of people with knowledge of plasma science and engineering trained in numerical methods and computer science must be increased substantially in the next few years. Nuclear engineering departments should encourage students to enter this field and provide the necessary courses and research programs in fusion computing

  18. Quasi-linear absorption of lower hybrid waves by fusion generated alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbato, E.; Santini, F.

    1991-01-01

    Lower hybrid waves are expected to be used in a steady state reactor to produce current and to control the current profile and the stability of internal modes. In the ignition phase, however, the presence of energetic alpha particles may prevent wave-electron interaction, thus reducing the current drive efficiency. This is due to the very high birth energy of the alpha particles that may absorb much of the lower hybrid wave power. This unfavourable effect is absent at high frequencies (∼ 8 GHz for typical reactor parameters). Nevertheless, because of the technical difficulties involved in using such high frequencies, it is very important to investigate whether power absorption by alpha particles would be negligible also at relatively low frequencies. Such a study has been carried out on the basis of the quasi-linear theory of wave-alpha particle interaction, since the distortion of the alpha distribution function may enhance the radiofrequency absorption above the linear level. New effects have been found, such as local alpha concentration and acceleration. The model for alpha particles is coupled with a 1-D deposition code for lower hybrid waves to calculate the competition in the power absorption between alphas and electrons as the waves propagate into the plasma core for typical reactor (ITER) parameters. It is shown that at a frequency as low as 5 GHz, power absorption by alpha particles is negligible for conventional plasma conditions and realistic alpha particle concentrations. In more ''pessimistic'' and severe conditions, negligible absorption occurs at 6 GHz. (author). 19 refs, 11 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Sawtooth control in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, J P; Angioni, C; Budny, R V; Buttery, R J; Coda, S; Eriksson, L-G; Gimblett, C G; Goodman, T P; Hastie, R J; Henderson, M A; Koslowski, H R; Mantsinen, M J; Martynov, An; Mayoral, M-L; Mueck, A; Nave, M F F; Sauter, O; Westerhof, E

    2005-01-01

    Clear observations of early triggering of neo-classical tearing modes by sawteeth with long quiescent periods have motivated recent efforts to control, and in particular destabilize, sawteeth. One successful approach explored in TCV utilizes electron cyclotron heating in order to locally increase the current penetration time in the core. The latter is also achieved in various machines by depositing electron cyclotron current drive or ion cyclotron current drive close to the q = 1 rational surface. Crucially, localized current drive also succeeds in destabilizing sawteeth which are otherwise stabilized by a co-existing population of energetic trapped ions in the core. In addition, a recent reversed toroidal field campaign at JET demonstrates that counter-neutral beam injection (NBI) results in shorter sawtooth periods than in the Ohmic regime. The clear dependence of the sawtooth period on the NBI heating power and the direction of injection also manifests itself in terms of the toroidal plasma rotation, which consequently requires consideration in the theoretical interpretation of the experiments. Another feature of NBI, expected to be especially evident in the negative ion based neutral beam injection (NNBI) heating planned for ITER, is the parallel velocity asymmetry of the fast ion population. It is predicted that a finite orbit effect of asymmetrically distributed circulating ions could strongly modify sawtooth stability. Furthermore, NNBI driven current with non-monotonic profile could significantly slow down the evolution of the safety factor in the core, thereby delaying sawteeth

  20. Sawtooth control in fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, J. P.; Angioni, C.; Budny, R. V.; Buttery, R. J.; Coda, S.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Gimblett, C. G.; Goodman, T. P.; Hastie, R. J.; Henderson, M. A.; Koslowski, H. R.; Mantsinen, M. J.; Martynov, An; Mayoral, M.-L.; Mück, A.; Nave, M. F. F.; Sauter, O.; Westerhof, E.; Contributors, JET–EFDA

    2005-12-01

    Clear observations of early triggering of neo-classical tearing modes by sawteeth with long quiescent periods have motivated recent efforts to control, and in particular destabilize, sawteeth. One successful approach explored in TCV utilizes electron cyclotron heating in order to locally increase the current penetration time in the core. The latter is also achieved in various machines by depositing electron cyclotron current drive or ion cyclotron current drive close to the q = 1 rational surface. Crucially, localized current drive also succeeds in destabilizing sawteeth which are otherwise stabilized by a co-existing population of energetic trapped ions in the core. In addition, a recent reversed toroidal field campaign at JET demonstrates that counter-neutral beam injection (NBI) results in shorter sawtooth periods than in the Ohmic regime. The clear dependence of the sawtooth period on the NBI heating power and the direction of injection also manifests itself in terms of the toroidal plasma rotation, which consequently requires consideration in the theoretical interpretation of the experiments. Another feature of NBI, expected to be especially evident in the negative ion based neutral beam injection (NNBI) heating planned for ITER, is the parallel velocity asymmetry of the fast ion population. It is predicted that a finite orbit effect of asymmetrically distributed circulating ions could strongly modify sawtooth stability. Furthermore, NNBI driven current with non-monotonic profile could significantly slow down the evolution of the safety factor in the core, thereby delaying sawteeth.

  1. Remote control of a fusion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schissel, D.P. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)], E-mail: schissel@fusion.gat.com; Abla, G.; Humphreys, D.A.; Penaflor, B.G.; Sammuli, B.S.; Walker, M.L. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Magnetic fusion experiments keep growing in size and complexity resulting in a concurrent growth in collaboration between experimental sites and laboratories worldwide. This scientific collaboration activity is strong at existing experimental sites, is a major element of machines just coming on line, and is also a thrust of experiments that will come on line in the next decade. Computer science research into enhancing the ability to scientifically participate in a fusion experiment remotely has been growing in size in an attempt to better address the needs of fusion scientists worldwide. The natural progression of this research is to examine how to move from remote scientific participation to remote hardware control. This paper examines the challenges associated with remote experimental device control and proposes a solution based on a semantic approach that defines a Gatekeeper software system that will be the only channel of interaction for incoming requests to the experimental site. The role of the Gatekeeper is to validate the identification and access privilege of the requestor and to ensure the validity of the proposed request. The Gatekeeper will be a modular system, transparent to end-users, and allow a high volume of activity.

  2. Remote control of a fusion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schissel, D.P.; Abla, G.; Humphreys, D.A.; Penaflor, B.G.; Sammuli, B.S.; Walker, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic fusion experiments keep growing in size and complexity resulting in a concurrent growth in collaboration between experimental sites and laboratories worldwide. This scientific collaboration activity is strong at existing experimental sites, is a major element of machines just coming on line, and is also a thrust of experiments that will come on line in the next decade. Computer science research into enhancing the ability to scientifically participate in a fusion experiment remotely has been growing in size in an attempt to better address the needs of fusion scientists worldwide. The natural progression of this research is to examine how to move from remote scientific participation to remote hardware control. This paper examines the challenges associated with remote experimental device control and proposes a solution based on a semantic approach that defines a Gatekeeper software system that will be the only channel of interaction for incoming requests to the experimental site. The role of the Gatekeeper is to validate the identification and access privilege of the requestor and to ensure the validity of the proposed request. The Gatekeeper will be a modular system, transparent to end-users, and allow a high volume of activity.

  3. Surface effects in controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, M.

    1975-08-01

    During the operation of large size plasma facilities and future controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors the surfaces of such major components as container walls, beam limiters, diverter walls and beam-dump walls of the injector region will be exposed to particle and photon bombardment from primary plasma radiations and from secondary radiations. Such radiations can cause, for example, physical and chemical sputtering, blistering, particle- and photon-impact induced desorption, secondary electron and x-ray emission, backscattering, nuclear reactions, photo-decomposition of surface compounds, photocatalysis, and vaporization. Such effects in turn can (a) seriously damage and erode the bombarded surface and (b) release major quantities of impurities which will contaminate the plasma. The effects of some of the major surface phenomena on the operation of plasma facilities and future fusion reactors are discussed

  4. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1988. V.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Volume 3 of the proceedings of the twelfth international conference on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion, held in Nice, France, 12-19 October, 1988, contains papers presented on inertial fusion. Direct and indirect laser implosion experiments, programs of laser construction, computer modelling of implosions and resulting plasmas, and light ion beam fusion experiments are discussed. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Plasma Surface interaction in Controlled fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    The subjects presented in the 9th conference on plasma surface interaction in controlled fusion devices were: the modifications of power scrape-off-length and power deposition during various configurations in Tore Supra plasmas; the effects observed in ergodic divertor experiments in Tore-Supra; the diffuse connexion induced by the ergodic divertor and the topology of the heat load patterns on the plasma facing components in Tore-Supra; the study of the influence of air exposure on graphite implanted by low energy high density deuterium plasma

  6. Generalized liquid drop model and fission, fusion, alpha and cluster radioactivity and superheavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, G.

    2012-01-01

    A particular version of the liquid drop model taking into account both the mass and charge asymmetries, the proximity energy, the rotational energy, the shell and pairing energies and the temperature has been developed to describe smoothly the transition between one and two-body shapes in entrance and exit channels of nuclear reactions. In the quasi-molecular shape valley where the proximity energy is optimized, the calculated l-dependent fusion and fission barriers, alpha and cluster radioactivity half-lives as well as actinide half-lives are in good agreement with the available experimental data. In this particular deformation path, double-humped potential barriers begin to appear even macroscopically for heavy nuclear systems due to the influence of the proximity forces and, consequently, quasi-molecular isomeric states can survive in the second minimum of the potential barriers in a large angular momentum range

  7. Dispersion interferometer for controlled fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drachev, V.P.; Krasnikov, Yu.I.; Bagryansky, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    A common feature in interferometry is the presence of two independent optical channels. Since wave phase in a medium depends on the geometrical path, polarization and radiation frequency, respectively, one can distinguish three types of interferometric schemes when the channels are geometrically separated, or separation occurs in polarizations or radiation frequencies. We have developed a measurement scheme based on a dispersion interferometer (DI) for plasma diagnostics in the experiments on controlled fusion. DI optical channels have the same geometrical path and are separated in radiation frequency. Use of a common optical path causes the main advantage of the DI technique - low sensitivity to vibrations of optical elements. The use of the DI technique for diagnostics of a laser spark in air and of arc discharges has shown its essential advantages as compared to classical interferometers. Interest in the DI technique from the viewpoint of its application in controlled fusion devices is determined also generated by the possibility of developing a compact multichannel interferometer not requiring a vibration isolation structure. (author) 14 refs., 3 figs

  8. Modular control of fusion power heating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demers, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    This work is motivated by the growing demand for auxiliary heating on small and large machines worldwide. Numerous present and planned RF experiments (EBW, Lower Hybrid, ICRF, and ECH) are increasingly complex systems. The operational challenges are indicative of a need for components of real-time control that can be implemented with a moderate amount of effort in a time- and cost-effective fashion. Such a system will improve experimental efficiency, enhance experimental quality, and expedite technological advancements. The modular architecture of this control-suite serves multiple purposes. It facilitates construction on various scales from single to multiple controller systems. It enables expandability of control from basic to complex via the addition of modules with varying functionalities. It simplifies the control implementation process by reducing layers of software and electronic development. While conceived with fusion applications in mind, this suite has the potential to serve a broad range of scientific and industrial applications. During the Phase-I research effort we established the overall feasibility of this modular control-suite concept. We developed the fundamental modules needed to implement open-loop active-control and demonstrated their use on a microwave power deposition experiment

  9. Operating large controlled thermonuclear fusion research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Tarrh, J.M.; Post, R.S.; Thomas, P.

    1987-01-01

    The MIT Tara Tandem Mirror is a large, state of the art controlled thermonuclear fusion research facility. Over the six years of its design, implementation, and operation, every effort was made to minimize cost and maximize performance by using the best and latest hardware, software, and scientific and operational techniques. After reviewing all major DOE fusion facilities, an independent DOE review committee concluded that the Tara operation was the most automated and efficient of all DOE facilities. This paper includes a review of the key elements of the Tara design, construction, operation, management, physics milestones, and funding that led to this success. The authors emphasize a chronological description of how the system evolved from the proposal stage to a mature device with an emphasis on the basic philosophies behind the implementation process. This description can serve both as a qualitative and quantitative database for future large experiment planning. It includes actual final costs and manpower spent as well as actual run and maintenance schedules, number of data shots, major system failures, etc. The paper concludes with recommendations for the next generation of facilities

  10. Operating large controlled thermonuclear fusion research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Tarrh, J.M.; Post, R.S.; Thomas, P.

    1987-10-01

    The MIT Tara Tandem Mirror is a large, state of the art controlled thermonuclear fusion research facility. Over the six years of its design, implementation, and operation, every effort was made to minimize cost and maximize performance by using the best and latest hardware, software, and scientific and operational techniques. After reviewing all major DOE fusion facilities, an independent DOE review committee concluded that the Tara operation was the most automated and efficient of all DOE facilities. This paper includes a review of the key elements of the Tara design, construction, operation, management, physics milestones, and funding that led to this success. We emphasize a chronological description of how the system evolved from the proposal stage to a mature device with an emphasis on the basic philosophies behind the implementation process. This description can serve both as a qualitative and quantitative database for future large experiment planning. It includes actual final costs and manpower spent as well as actual run and maintenance schedules, number of data shots, major system failures, etc. The paper concludes with recommendations for the next generation of facilities. 13 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Francis F

    1984-01-01

    This complete introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion by one of the pioneering scientists in this expanding field offers both a simple and intuitive discussion of the basic concepts of this subject and an insight into the challenging problems of current research. In a wholly lucid manner the work covers single-particle motions, fluid equations for plasmas, wave motions, diffusion and resistivity, Landau damping, plasma instabilities and nonlinear problems. For students, this outstanding text offers a painless introduction to this important field; for teachers, a large collection of problems; and for researchers, a concise review of the fundamentals as well as original treatments of a number of topics never before explained so clearly. This revised edition contains new material on kinetic effects, including Bernstein waves and the plasma dispersion function, and on nonlinear wave equations and solitons.

  12. Status report on controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The International Fusion Research Council has prepared this report on the current status of fusion, an update of its 1978 report, at the request of the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The report consists of an introductory note by the Director General, an Executive Summary and General Overview published in this document, and a series of technical reports. The background of fusion as an energy source is documented and compared with fission. The two approaches to thermonuclear fusion, magnetic confinement and inertial confinement, are discussed. The viability with respect to economic, environmental, and safety aspects is discussed. Fusion programs in the European Community, Japan, the USSR, the USA, as well as smaller programs in other countries are described. The status of fusion physics and technology is elucidated, and future directions and plans are indicated. 5 refs, 6 figs

  13. Closed loop control of the sawtooth instability in nuclear fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvoet, G.; Steinbuch, M.; Westerhof, E.; Doelman, N.J.; Baar, de M.R.

    2010-01-01

    In nuclear fusion the sawtooth instability is an important plasma phenomenon, having both positive and negative effects on the tokamak plasma. Control of its period is essential in future nuclear fusion reactors. This paper presents a control oriented model of the sawtooth instability, with current

  14. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} enhanced fusions between oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and endothelial cells via VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kai; Zhu, Fei; Zhang, Han-zhong [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST), Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Shang, Zheng-jun, E-mail: shangzhengjun@hotmail.com [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST), Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); First Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)

    2012-08-15

    Fusion between cancer cells and host cells, including endothelial cells, may strongly modulate the biological behavior of tumors. However, no one is sure about the driving factors and underlying mechanism involved in such fusion. We hypothesized in this study that inflammation, one of the main characteristics in tumor microenvironment, serves as a prominent catalyst for fusion events. Our results showed that oral cancer cells can fuse spontaneously with endothelial cells in co-culture and inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) increased fusion of human umbilical vein endothelium cells and oral cancer cells by up to 3-fold in vitro. Additionally, human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and 35 out of 50 (70%) oral squamous carcinoma specimens express VLA-4, an integrin, previously implicated in fusions between human peripheral blood CD34-positive cells and murine cardiomyocytes. Expression of VCAM-1, a ligand for VLA-4, was evident on vascular endothelium of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Moreover, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis revealed that expression of VCAM-1 increased obviously in TNF-{alpha}-stimulated endothelial cells. Anti-VLA-4 or anti-VCAM-1 treatment can decrease significantly cancer-endothelial adhesion and block such fusion. Collectively, our results suggested that TNF-{alpha} could enhance cancer-endothelial cell adhesion and fusion through VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathway. This study provides insights into regulatory mechanism of cancer-endothelial cell fusion, and has important implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for prevention of metastasis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spontaneous oral cancer-endothelial cell fusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} enhanced cell fusions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VCAM-1/VLA-4 expressed in oral cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} increased expression of VCAM-1 on endothelial cells. Black

  15. Genetically Controlled Fusion, Exocytosis and Fission of Artificial Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bönzli, Eva; Hadorn, Maik; De Lucrezia, Davide

    if a special class of viral proteins, termed fusogenic peptides, were added to the external medium. In the present work, we intend to develop genetically controlled fusion, fission and exocytosis of vesicles by the synthesis of peptides within vesicles. First, we enclosed synthesized peptides in vesicles...... to induce in a next step fusion of adjacent vesicles, fission and exocytosis of nested vesicles. Second, we will replace the peptides by an enclosed cell-free expression system to internally synthesize fusion peptides. To control the gene expression, different mechanisms are available, e.g. addition...... fusion, fission and exocytosis....

  16. Controlled thermonuclear fusion power apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussard, R.W.; Coppi, B.

    1982-01-01

    This invention provides a modular fusion reactor system containing several fusion power cores, each of relatively small size and low cost. Energy from the cores is absorbed in the core structure and within a surrounding blanket, and the cores themselves may be individually removed from the blanket and replaced as they deteriorate from high radiation flux damage

  17. Fusion Control of Flexible Logic Control and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the basic physical meaning of error E and error variety EC, this paper analyzes the logical relationship between them and uses Universal Combinatorial Operation Model in Universal Logic to describe it. Accordingly, a flexible logic control method is put forward to realize effective control on multivariable nonlinear system. In order to implement fusion control with artificial neural network, this paper proposes a new neuron model of Zero-level Universal Combinatorial Operation in Universal Logic. And the artificial neural network of flexible logic control model is implemented based on the proposed neuron model. Finally, stability control, anti-interference control of double inverted-pendulum system, and free walking of cart pendulum system on a level track are realized, showing experimentally the feasibility and validity of this method.

  18. Status report on controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The International Fusion Research Council (IFRC), an advisory body to the International Atomic Energy Agency, reports on the current status of fusion; this report updates its 1978 status report. This report contains a General Overview and Executive Summary, and reports on all current approaches to fusion throughout the world; a series of technical reports is to be published elsewhere. This report is timely in that it not only shows progress which has occurred over the past, but interfaces with possible future devices, in particular the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), whose conceptual design phase is nearing completion. 5 refs, 6 figs

  19. Control of tritium permeation through fusion reactor strucural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroni, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to provide a brief synopsis of the status of understanding and technology pertaining to the dissolution and permeation of tritium in fusion reactor materials. The following sections of this paper attempt to develop a simple perspective for understanding the consequences of these phenomena and the nature of the technical methodology being contemplated to control their impact on fusion reactor operation. Considered in order are: (1) the occurrence of tritium in the fusion fuel cycle, (2) a set of tentative criteria to guide the analysis of tritium containment and control strategies, (3) the basic mechanisms by which tritium may be released from a fusion plant, and (4) the methods currently under development to control the permeation-related release mechanisms. To provide background and support for these considerations, existing solubility and permeation data for the hydrogen isotopes are compared and correlated under conditions to be expected in fusion reactor systems

  20. Introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Francis F

    2016-01-01

    The third edition of this classic text presents a complete introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion, written by one of the pioneering scientists in this expanding field.  It offers both a simple and intuitive discussion of the basic concepts of the subject matter and an insight into the challenging problems of current research. This outstanding text offers students a painless introduction to this important field; for teachers, a large collection of problems; and for researchers, a concise review of the fundamentals as well as original treatments of a number of topics never before explained so clearly.  In a wholly lucid manner the second edition covered charged-particle motions, plasmas as fluids, kinetic theory, and nonlinear effects.  For the third edition, two new chapters have been added to incorporate discussion of more recent advances in the field.  The new chapter 9 on Special Plasmas covers non-neutral plasmas, pure electron plasmas, solid and ultra-cold plasmas, pair-ion plasmas, d...

  1. Binding of ADAM12, a marker of skeletal muscle regeneration, to the muscle-specific actin-binding protein, alpha -actinin-2, is required for myoblast fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galliano, M F; Huet, C; Frygelius, J

    2000-01-01

    ADAM12 belongs to the transmembrane metalloprotease ADAM ("a disintegrin and metalloprotease") family. ADAM12 has been implicated in muscle cell differentiation and fusion, but its precise function remains unknown. Here, we show that ADAM12 is dramatically up-regulated in regenerated, newly formed...... of differentiation. Using the yeast two-hybrid screen, we found that the muscle-specific alpha-actinin-2 strongly binds to the cytoplasmic tail of ADAM12. In vitro binding assays with GST fusion proteins confirmed the specific interaction. The major binding site for alpha-actinin-2 was mapped to a short sequence...... in a dominant negative fashion by inhibiting fusion of C2C12 cells, whereas expression of a cytosolic ADAM12 lacking the major alpha-actinin-2 binding site had no effect on cell fusion. Our results suggest that interaction of ADAM12 with alpha-actinin-2 is important for ADAM12 function....

  2. Controlled thermonuclear fusion. Present state and prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consoli, T.

    1976-01-01

    The interest of thermonuclear fusion for energy production is underlined. The present state of the research in this field is presented, emphasis being given to Tokamak configurations. The problems concerning confinement and additional heating in these devices are presented [fr

  3. Developments in plasma physics and controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    Some developments in plasma physics over the past twenty years are considered from the theoretical physics standpoint under the headings; oscillations, waves and instabilities, plasma turbulence, basic kinetic theory, and developments in fusion. (UK)

  4. The European programme for controlled nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This illustrated document is intended for information only and should not be used as a technical reference. The nuclear fusion reactors are presented with the two approaches: magnetic confinement and inertial confinement; are described: the place of fusion in the world energy scene and its importance for Europe, how research is at present organized, and the European programme with this next stage: the JET (Joint European Torus), the largest tokamak machine in Europe

  5. Final Report (1994 to 1996) Diagnostic of the Spatial and Velocity Distribution of Alpha Particles in Tokamak Fusion Reactor using Beat-wave Generated Lower Hybrid Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D.Q.; Horton, R.D.; Evans, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The alpha particles in a fusion reactor play a key role in the sustaining the fusion reaction. It is the heating provided by the alpha particles that help a fusion reactor operating in the ignition regime. It is, therefore, essential to understand the behavior of the alpha population both in real space and velocity space in order to design the optimal confinement device for fusion application. Moreover, the alphas represent a strong source of free energy that may generate plasma instabilities. Theoretical studies has identified the Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode (TAE) as an instability that can be excited by the alpha population in a toroidal device. Since the alpha has an energy of 3.5 MeV, a good confinement device will retain it in the interior of the plasma. Therefore, alpha measurement system need to probe the interior of a high density plasma. Due to the conducting nature of a plasma, wave with frequencies below the plasma frequency can not penetrate into the interior of the plasma where the alphas reside. This project uses a wave that can interact with the perpendicular motion of the alphas to probe its characteristics. However, this wave (the lower hybrid wave) is below the plasma frequency and can not be directly launched from the plasma edge. This project was designed to non-linearly excite the lower hybrid in the interior of a magnetized plasma and measure its interaction with a fast ion population

  6. Stability of the Global Alfven Eigenmode in the presence of fusion alpha particles in an ignited tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, G.Y.; Van Dam, J.W.

    1989-05-01

    The stability of the Global Alfven Eigenmodes is investigated in the presence of super-Alfvenic energetic particles, such as the fusion-product alpha particles in an ignited deuterium-tritium tokamak plasma. Alpha particles tend to destabilize these modes when ω *α > ω A , where ω A is the shear-Alfven modal frequency and ω *α is the alpha particle diamagnetic drift frequency. This destabilization due to alpha particles is found to be significantly enhanced when the alpha particles are modeled with a slowing-down distribution function rather than with a Maxwellian. However, previously neglected electron damping due to the magnetic curvature drift is found to be comparable in magnitude to the destabilizing alpha particle term. Furthermore, the effects of toroidicity are also found to be stabilizing, since the intrinsic toroidicity induces poloidal mode coupling, which enhances the parallel electron damping from the sideband shear-Alfven Landau resonance. In particular, for the parameters of the proposed Compact Ignition Tokamak, the Global Alfven Eigenmodes are found to be completely stabilized by either the electron damping that enters through the magnetic curvature drift or the damping introduced by finite toroidicity. 29 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  7. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Full text: During the last decade, growing efforts have been devoted to studying the possible forms an electricity-producing thermonuclear reactor might take and the various technical problems that will have to be overcome. Previous IAEA Conferences took place in Salzburg (1961), Culham (1965), Novosibirsk (1968), Madison (1971), Tokyo (1974), Berchtesgaden (1976) and Innsbruck (1978) The exchange of information that has characterized this series of meetings is an important example of international co-operation and has contributed substantially to progress in controlled fusion research. The results of experiments in major research establishments, as well as the growing scientific insights in the field of plasma physics, give hope that the realization of nuclear fusion will be made possible on a larger scale and beyond the laboratory stage by the end of this century. The increase of the duration of existing tokamak discharges requires solution of the impurity control problem. First results from the new big machines equipped with the poloidal divertor recently came into operation. PDX (USA) and ASDEX (F.R. of Germany) show that various divertor configurations can be established and maintained and that the divertors function in the predicted manner. The reduction of high-Z impurities on these machines by a factor 10 was achieved. As a result of extensive research on radio-frequency (RF) plasma heating on tokamaks: PLT (USA), TFR (France), JFT-2 (Japan), the efficiency of this attractive method of plasma heating comparable to neutral beam heating was demonstrated. It was shown that the density of the input power of about 5-10 kW/cm 2 is achievable and this limit is high enough for application to reactor-like machines. One of the inspiring results reported at the conference was the achievement of value (the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic field pressure) of ∼ 3% on tokamaks T-11 (USSR) and ISX-B (USA). It is important to note that this value exceeds the

  8. Vesicle fusion with bilayer lipid membrane controlled by electrostatic interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azusa Oshima

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The fusion of proteoliposomes is a promising approach for incorporating membrane proteins in artificial lipid membranes. In this study, we employed an electrostatic interaction between vesicles and supported bilayer lipid membranes (s-BLMs to control the fusion process. We combined large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs containing anionic lipids, which we used instead of proteoliposomes, and s-BLMs containing cationic lipids to control electrostatic interaction. Anionic LUVs were never adsorbed or ruptured on the SiO2 substrate with a slight negative charge, and selectively fused with cationic s-BLMs. The LUVs can be fused effectively to the target position. Furthermore, as the vesicle fusion proceeds and some of the positive charges are neutralized, the attractive interaction weakens and finally the vesicle fusion saturates. In other words, we can control the number of LUVs fused with s-BLMs by controlling the concentration of the cationic lipids in the s-BLMs. The fluidity of the s-BLMs after vesicle fusion was confirmed to be sufficiently high. This indicates that the LUVs attached to the s-BLMs were almost completely fused, and there were few intermediate state vesicles in the fusion process. We could control the position and amount of vesicle fusion with the s-BLMs by employing an electrostatic interaction.

  9. Energy balance of controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, M.; Staudenmaier, G.

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that a discrepancy and incompatibility persist between basic physics and fusion-literature regarding the radiation losses from a thermonuclear plasma. Whereas the fusion-literature neglects the excitation or line radiation completely, according to basic physics it depends upon the prevailing conditions and cannot be neglected in general. Moreover, for a magnetized plasma, while the fusion-literature assumes a self-absorption or reabsorption of cyclotron or synchrotron radiation emitted by the electrons spiraling along the magnetic field, the basic physics does not allow any effective reabsorption of cyclotron or synchrotron radiation. As is demonstrated, fallacious assumptions and notions, which somehow or other crept into the fusion-literature, are responsible for this discrepancy. In the present work, the theory is corrected. On the grounds of basic physics, a complete energy balance of magnetized and non-magnetized plasmas is presented for pulsed, stationary and self-sustaining operations by taking into account the energy release by reactions of light nuclei as well as different kinds of diffusive (conduction) and radiative (bremsstrahlung, cyclotron or synchrotron radiation and excitation radiation) energy losses. Already the energy losses by radiation make the energy balance negative. Hence, a fusion reactor-an energy producing device-seems to be beyond the realms of realization. (orig.)

  10. Plasma physics and controlled fusion research during half a century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Bo

    2001-06-01

    A review is given on the historical development of research on plasma physics and controlled fusion. The potentialities are outlined for fusion of light atomic nuclei, with respect to the available energy resources and the environmental properties. Various approaches in the research on controlled fusion are further described, as well as the present state of investigation and future perspectives, being based on the use of a hot plasma in a fusion reactor. Special reference is given to the part of this work which has been conducted in Sweden, merely to identify its place within the general historical development. Considerable progress has been made in fusion research during the last decades. Temperatures above the limit for ignition of self-sustained fusion reactions, i.e. at more than hundred million degrees, have been reached in large experiments and under conditions where the fusion power generation is comparable to the power losses. An energy producing fusion reactor could in principle be realized already today, but it would not become technically and economically efficient when being based on the present state of art. Future international research has therefore to be conducted along broad lines, with necessary ingredients of basic investigations and new ideas.

  11. Plasma physics and controlled fusion research during half a century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, Bo

    2001-06-01

    A review is given on the historical development of research on plasma physics and controlled fusion. The potentialities are outlined for fusion of light atomic nuclei, with respect to the available energy resources and the environmental properties. Various approaches in the research on controlled fusion are further described, as well as the present state of investigation and future perspectives, being based on the use of a hot plasma in a fusion reactor. Special reference is given to the part of this work which has been conducted in Sweden, merely to identify its place within the general historical development. Considerable progress has been made in fusion research during the last decades. Temperatures above the limit for ignition of self-sustained fusion reactions, i.e. at more than hundred million degrees, have been reached in large experiments and under conditions where the fusion power generation is comparable to the power losses. An energy producing fusion reactor could in principle be realized already today, but it would not become technically and economically efficient when being based on the present state of art. Future international research has therefore to be conducted along broad lines, with necessary ingredients of basic investigations and new ideas

  12. Controlled nuclear fusion, a challenging task with a big payoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noterdaeme, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    Controlled thermonuclear fusion carries the promise of providing the world with a new source of energy, the same energy that powers the stars. Research in this area has progressed steadily for several decades now, and is ready to move into a new phase. The probability is high that a new international experimental machine (ITER) which will prove the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy, will be built. This paper introduces nuclear fusion for people familiar with the fission process. It starts from the basic principles common to fusion and fission. It moves on to point out the differences, explains the reasons for those differences and the consequences. Controlled thermonuclear fusion can be obtained in several ways, which have led to different research lines. One line, on which this talk focuses, is by confining the reacting particles with magnetic fields. Another, which is the subject of a different talk, relies on the inertia of the particles to create the conditions necessary for fusion. The progress of the magnetic confinement research is shown, with examples of major hurdles, which have occurred and have been overcome. Recent results, which make us optimistic that the next machine can prove the feasibility of fusion energy, are highlighted. The talk also addresses the challenges that remain before us, and suggests that the promise of fusion energy opens up new perspectives and opportunities for the development and the use of fission energy. (author)

  13. Brazilian programme for plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chian, A.C.L.; Reusch, M.F.; Nascimento, I.C.; Pantuso-Sudano, J.

    1992-01-01

    A proposal for a National Programme of Plasma Physics and Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion in Brazil is presented, aimimg the dissemination of the researchers thought in plasma physics for the national authorities and the scientific community. (E.O.)

  14. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tetsuya

    1993-05-01

    The report contains the proceedings of a conference on plasma physics. A fraction of topics included MHD instabilities, magnetic confinement and plasma heating in the field of fusion plasmas, in 8 papers falling in the INIS scope have been abstracted and indexed for the INIS database. (K.A.)

  15. Optimal control theory applied to fusion plasma thermal stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, G.; Miley, G.; Maya, I.

    1985-01-01

    Many authors have investigated stability characteristics and performance of various burn control schemes. The work presented here represents the first application of optimal control theory to the problem of fusion plasma thermal stabilization. The objectives of this initial investigation were to develop analysis methods, demonstrate tractability, and present some preliminary results of optimal control theory in burn control research

  16. American research programs on controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    At a time when the site of the European JET project has been decided, this study proposes to highlight the American effort in this field over the last five years. The Federal Civil Research and Development budget assigned to Energy has been multiplied by 6.3 and inside this budget the portion allocated to fusion has been multiplied by a factor of 6, in value. Two avenues have been explored; magnetic confinement and inertial confinement but one reaction only has been considered, namely D + T fusion. In magnetic confinement, the first operational reactor is being contemplated for around the year 2012. Three technologies have been explored in inertial confinement: by laser beams, electron beams and ion beams [fr

  17. BOOK REVIEW: Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, F.

    2007-07-01

    This new book by Kenro Miyamoto provides an up-to-date overview of the status of fusion research and the important parts of the underlying plasma physics at a moment where, due to the start of ITER construction, an important step in fusion research has been made and many new research workers will enter the field. For them, and also for interested graduate students and physicists in other fields, the book provides a good introduction into fusion physics as, on the whole, the presentation of the material is quite appropriate for getting acquainted with the field on the basis of just general knowledge in physics. There is overlap with Miyamoto's earlier book Plasma Physics for Nuclear Fusion (MIT Press, Cambridge, USA, 1989) but only in a few sections on subjects which have not evolved since. The presentation is subdivided into two parts of about equal length. The first part, following a concise survey of the physics basis of thermonuclear fusion and of plasmas in general, covers the various magnetic configurations studied for plasma confinement (tokamak; reversed field pinch; stellarator; mirror-type geometries) and introduces the specific properties of plasmas in these devices. Plasma confinement in tokamaks is treated in particular detail, in compliance with the importance of this field in fusion research. This includes a review of the ITER concept and of the rationale for the choice of ITER's parameters. In the second part, selected topics in fusion plasma physics (macroscopic instabilities; propagation of waves; kinetic effects such as energy transfer between waves and particles including microscopic instabilities as well as plasma heating and current drive; transport phenomena induced by turbulence) are presented systematically. While the emphasis is on displaying the essential physics, deeper theoretical analysis is also provided here. Every chapter is complemented by a few related problems, but only partial hints for their solution are given. A selection of

  18. The history of controlled fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trocheris, M.

    1980-01-01

    The idea of using nuclear reaction between light elements to produce energy for peaceful objectives originated towards the mid-forties. In this work, the author traces the various stages of reserach undertaken in this field from the first fusion experiments to the projects now in course of production. Research scientists have travelled a long, hard road to reach a new development phase during which technological problems will play a prominent part [fr

  19. Tritium containment of controlled thermonuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Tsukumo, Kiyohiko; Suzuki, Tatsushi

    1979-01-01

    It is well known that tritium is used as the fuel for nuclear fusion reactors. The neutrons produced by the nuclear fusion reaction of deuterium and tritium react with lithium in blankets, and tritium is produced. The blankets reproduce the tritium consumed in the D-T reaction. Tritium circulates through the main cooling system and the fuel supply and evacuation system, and is accumulated. Tritium is a radioactive substance emitting β-ray with 12.6 year half-life, and harmful to human bodies. It is an isotope of hydrogen, and apt to diffuse and leak. Especially at high temperature, it permeates through materials, therefore it is important to evaluate the release of tritium into environment, to treat leaked tritium to reduce its release, and to select the method of containing tritium. The permeability of tritium and its solubility in structural materials are discussed. The typical blanket-cooling systems of nuclear fusion reactors are shown, and the tungsten coating of steam generator tubes and tritium recovery system are adopted for reducing tritium leak. In case of the Tokamak type reactor of JAERI, the tritium recovery system is installed, in which the tritium gas produced in blankets is converted to tritium steam with a Pd-Pt catalytic oxidation tower, and it is dehydrated and eliminated with a molecular sieve tower, then purified and recovered. (Kako, I.)

  20. Radiation control in fusion plasmas by magnetic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dachicourt, R.

    2012-10-01

    The present work addresses two important issues for the industrial use of fusion: plasma radiation control, as a part of the more general power handling issue, and high density tokamak operation. These two issues will be most critical in the demonstration reactor, called DEMO, intermediate step between ITER and a future commercial reactor. For DEMO, the need to radiate a large fraction of the power so as to limit the peak power load on the divertor will be a key constraint. High confinement will have to be combined with high radiated power fraction, and the required level of plasma purity. The main achievement of this thesis is to have shown experimental evidence of the existence of a stable plasma regime meeting the most critical requirements of a DEMO scenario: an electron density up to 40% above the Greenwald value, together with a fraction of radiated power close to 80%, with a good energy confinement and limited dilution. The plasma is additionally heated with ion cyclotron waves in a central electron heating scenario, featuring alpha particle heating. The original observations reported in this work bring highly valuable new pieces of information both to the physics of the tokamak edge layer and to the construction of an 'integrated operational scenario' required to successfully operate fusion devices. In the way for getting high density plasmas, the new observations involve the following topics. First, the formation of a poloidal asymmetry in the edge electron density profile, with a maximum density located close to toroidal pumped limiter. This asymmetry occurs inside the separatrix, with a constant plasma pressure on magnetic surfaces. Secondly, a correlative decrease of the electron temperature in the same edge region. Thirdly, the excellent coupling capabilities of the ICRH waves, up to a central line averaged electron density of 1.4 times the Greenwald density. Fourthly, a poloidally asymmetric edge radiation region, providing the dissipation of 80% of

  1. A New Interpretation of Alpha-particle-driven Instabilities in Deuterium-Tritium Experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Nazikian; G.J. Kramer; C.Z. Cheng; N.N. Gorelenkov; H.L. Berk; S.E. Sharapov

    2003-01-01

    The original description of alpha-particle-driven instabilities in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) in terms of Toroidal Alfvin Eigenmodes (TAEs) remained inconsistent with three fundamental characteristics of the observations: (i) the variation of the mode frequency with toroidal mode number, (ii) the chirping of the mode frequency for a given toroidal mode number, and (iii) the anti-ballooning density perturbation of the modes. It is now shown that these characteristics can be explained by observing that cylindrical-like modes can exist in the weak magnetic shear region of the plasma that then make a transition to TAEs as the central safety factor decreases in time

  2. Biodistribution analysis of 125I-albumin-IFN-alpha2b fusion protein in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yaoyuan; Zhang Rongjun; Cai Gangming; Gu Xiaobo; Jiang Mengjun; Zhang Bo; Yang Min; Cao Guoxian; Yang Jianliang

    2009-01-01

    125 I-albumin-IFN-alpha2b was prepared with the methods of Ch-T and purified with PD-10 column. The radiochemical purity was measured with TCA (trichloroacetic acid) precipitation. The antiviral activities of 125 I-albumin-IFN-alpha2b and albumin-IFN-alpha2b were compared with WISH/VSV system in vitro. SD rats were injected with 125 I-albumin-IFN-alpha2b subcutaneously and sacrificed at 0.5, 2, 6, 24, 48, 90, 180 and 300 h post-injection. Selected organs were dissected, weighed and their radioactivity was measured using γ-counter. The accumulated radioactivity in the tissues was calculated in terms of percentage of injected dose per gram organ (%ID·g -1 ). The labeling yield was 82.72%. The radiochemical purity of 125 I-albumin-IFN-alpha2b was 95.53%, and its radioactivity was 0.26 MBq/μg. The antiviral bioactivities of albumin-IFN-alpha2b and 125 I-albumin- IFN-alpha2b did not change. Biodistribution analysis of 125 I-albumin-IFN-alpha2b in rats showed that concentrated 125 I-albumin-IFN-alpha2b in blood reached maximum at 6 h post injection, and eliminated slowly. No specific accumulation was seen in other tissues. 125 I-albumin-IFN-alpha2b could maintain in peripheral blood for a long time and it meant albumin-IFN-alpha2b would be an effective long-term interferon. (authors)

  3. State of controlled nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo, A.B.

    1978-04-01

    The development of a commercial fusion reactor requires an adequate solution to the problems of heating and confinement of the nuclear fuel, as well as a considerable effort in materials technology and reactor engineering. A general discussion is presented of the status of the research connected with the most advanced concepts, indicating in each case the present situation and the main problems that must be solved to meet the requeriments estimated for power reactors. In particular, the laser-inertial concept is reviewed in detail. (author) [es

  4. Maryland controlled fusion research program. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This renewal proposal describes the University of Maryland research program on Magnetic Fusion Energy for a three-year period beginning January 1, 1986. This program consists of five tasks: (I) Plasma Theory; (II) Electron Cyclotron Emission Diagnostics for Mirror Machines; (III) Electron Cyclotron Emission Diagnostics on TFTR; (IV) Atomic Physics; and (V) Magnetic Field Measurement by Ion Beams. The four separate tasks of continuing research (Tasks I to IV) and the new experimental task (Task V) are described in detail. The task descriptions contain estimated budgets for CY 86, 87, and 88

  5. The tritium and the controlled fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, D.; Rouyer, J.L.

    1986-04-01

    It is shown how tritium is used how it is circulating in a fusion reactor. The great functions of tritium circuits are detailed: reprocessing of burnt gases, reprocessing of gases coming from neutral injectors, reprocessing from gaseous wastes, detritiation of cooling fluids. Current technologic developments are quoted. Then tritium confinement and containment, in normal or accidental situations, are displayed. Limitation devices of effluents and release for normal operating (noticeably the reprocessing systems of atmosphere) and safety and protection systems in case of accident are described [fr

  6. ORNL's Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, C.F.; Gregory, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Data Center maintains a detailed bibliography of atomic data measurements and calculations for processes of interest to the fusion community. One hundred nineteen journals are regularly searched for papers of interest, including back issues to 1950. Entries are categorized by author, process, reactants, energy range, and theory/experiment. Complete bibliographies have been published since 1978 and a computerized data retrieval system is available. In addition, an updated and extended multi-volume critical compilation of cross sections (the ORNL Redbooks) is under way

  7. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  8. Anomalous loss of DT alpha particles in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Hans W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1997-09-01

    An escaping alpha collector probe has been developed for TFTR`s DT phase. Energy distributions of escaping alphas have been determined by measuring the range of α-particles implanted into nickel foils located within the alpha collector. Results at 1.0 MA of plasma current are in good agreement with predictions for first orbit alpha loss. Results at 1.8 MA, however, show a significant anomalous loss of partially thermalized alphas (in addition to the expected first orbit loss), which is not observed with the lost alpha scintillator detectors in DT plasmas, but does resemble the anomalous delayed loss seen in DD plasmas. None of the candidate explanations proposed thus far are fully consistent with the anomalous loss observations. An experiment designed to study the effect of plasma major radius shifts on α-particle loss has led to a better understanding of α-particle dynamics in tokamaks. Intuitively, one might suppose that confined marginally passing α-particles forced to move toward higher magnetic field during an inward major radius shift (i.e., compression) would mirror and become trapped particles, leading to increased alpha loss. Such an effect was looked for during the shift experiment, however, no significant changes in alpha loss to the 90° lost alpha scintillator detector were observed during the shifts. It is calculated that the energy gained by an α-particle during the inward shift is sufficient to explain this result. However, an unexpected loss of partially thermalized α-particles near the passing/trapped boundary was observed to occur between inward and outward shifts at an intermediate value of plasma current (1.4 MA). This anomalous loss feature is not yet understood.

  9. Fundamentals of plasma physics and controlled fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2000-10-01

    The present lecture note was written to fill a gap between text books for undergraduates and specific review articles written by specialists for their young colleagues. The note may be divided in three parts. The first part is on basic characteristics of a plasma in a magnetic field. The second part describes plasma confinement and heating with an emphasis on magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. In addition, propagation of plasma waves, plasma heating by electromagnetic waves are given. The third part is devoted to various specific concepts of nuclear fusion. Emphases are placed on toroidal devices, especially on tokamak devices and stellarators. One might feel heavy mathematics glimpsing the present note, especially in the part treating magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. (author)

  10. Controlled thermonuclear fusion power apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussaro, R.W.; Coppi, B.

    1977-01-01

    A fusion power device is described comprising: a) a plurality of plasma containment means for containing fusible plasma within a region, b) blanket means surrounding a substantial portion of each of the plurality of containment means, c) means for feeding a fusible fuel into each of the plurality of containment means for forming the plasma, d) each of the plurality of containment means separable from the blanket means for replacement of the containment means by other containment means, and e) means connected to at least one of each of the plurality of plasma containment means and the blanket means for extracting thermal energy therefrom and for converting same into electrical energy and/or into mechanical energy

  11. Controlled nuclear fusion. Theoretical and technical-physical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donne, T.; Oomens, N.

    1995-01-01

    It is stated that the realization of controlled fusion is not only a matter of solving technical problems. Also theoretical research in the field of plasma physics is required. A brief state-of-the-art is given of theoretical and technical-physical aspects of nuclear fusion. Attention is paid to magnetic confinement, the importance of theoretical research, plasma heating, plasma diagnostics, and the control of plasma transport. Throughout the article special attention is paid to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project. 5 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs

  12. Saturation of alpha particle driven instability in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelenkov, N.N.; Chen, Y.; White, R.B.; Berk, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    A nonlinear theory of kinetic instabilities near threshold [Berk et al., Plasma Phys. Rep. 23, 842 (1997)] is applied to calculate the saturation level of toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE), and to be compared with the predictions of δf method calculations (Y. Chen, Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, 1998). Good agreement is observed between the predictions of both methods and the predicted saturation levels are comparable to experimentally measured amplitudes of the TAE oscillations in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor [D. J. Grove and D. M. Meade, Nucl. Fusion 25, 1167 (1985)]. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  13. General distributed control system for fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingner, P.L.; Levings, S.J.; Wilkins, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    A general control system using distributed LSI-11 microprocessors is being developed. Common software residues in each LSI-11 and is tailored to an application by control specifications downloaded from a host computer. The microprocessors, their control interfaces, and the micro-to-host communications are CAMAC based. The host computer also supports an operator interface, coordination of multiple microprocessors, and utilities to create and maintain the control specifications. Typical applications include monitoring safety interlocks as well as controlling vacuum systems, high voltage charging systems, and diagnostics

  14. The effect of controlled shot peening on fusion welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lah, Nur Azida Che; Ali, Aidy; Ismail, Napsiah; Chai, Lim Poon; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz

    2010-01-01

    This work examines the effect of controlled shot peening (CSP) treatment on the fatigue strength of an ASTM A516 grade 70 carbon steel welded joint. Metallurgical modifications, hardness, elemental compositions, and internal discontinuities, such as porosity, inclusions, lack of penetration, and undercut found in treated and untreated fusion welded joints, were characterized. The fatigue results of as-welded and peened skimmed joints were compared. It was observed that the effect of the CSP and skimming processes improved the fatigue life of the fusion weld by 50% on MMA-welded, 63% on MIG-welded, and 60% on TIG-welded samples.

  15. Particle and impurity control in toroidal fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    A review of working particle and impurity control techniques used in and proposed for magnetic fusion devices is presented. The requirements of both present-day machines and envisaged fusion reactors are considered. The various techniques which have been proposed are characterized by whether they affect sources, sinks, or fluxes; in many cases a particular method or device can appear in more than one category. Examples are drawn from published results. The solutions proposed for the large devices which will be operating during the next 5 years are discussed

  16. The impact of PDF and alphas uncertainties on Higgs Production in gluon fusion at hadron colliders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demartin, Federico; Forte, Stefano; Mariani, Elisa; Rojo, Juan; Vicini, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    We present a systematic study of uncertainties due to parton distributions and the strong coupling on the gluon-fusion production cross section of the Standard Model Higgs at the Tevatron and LHC colliders. We compare procedures and results when three recent sets of PDFs are used, CTEQ6.6, MSTW08

  17. Development of thin foil Faraday collector as a lost alpha particle diagnostic for high yield D-T tokamak fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Belle, P; Jarvis, O N; Sadler, G J [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Cecil, F E [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Alpha particle confinement is necessary for ignition of a D-T tokamak fusion plasma and for first wall protection. Due to high radiation backgrounds and temperatures, scintillators and semiconductor detectors may not be used to study alpha particles which are lost to the first wall during the D-T programs on JET and ITER. An alternative method of charged particle spectrometry capable of operation in these harsh environments, is proposed: it consists of thin foils of electrically isolated conductors with the flux of alpha particles determined by the positive current flowing from the foils. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  18. A thin foil Faraday collector as a lost alpha detector for high yield d-t tokamak fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecil, F. Ed

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishment of sixteen years of work toward the development of thin foil Faraday collectors as a lost energetic ion diagnostic for high temperature magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. Following initial, proof of principle accelerator based studies, devices have been tested on TFTR, NSTX, ALCATOR, DIII-D, and JET (KA-1 and KA-2). The reference numbers refer to the attached list of publications. The JET diagnostic KA-2 continues in operation and hopefully will provide valuable diagnostic information during a possible d-t campaign on JET in the coming years. A thin Faraday foil spectrometer, by virtue of its radiation hardness, may likewise provide a solution to the very challenging problem of lost alpha particle measurements on ITER and other future burning plasma machines.

  19. Control of Internal Transport Barriers in Magnetically Confined Fusion Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panta, Soma; Newman, David; Sanchez, Raul; Terry, Paul

    2016-10-01

    In magnetic confinement fusion devices the best performance often involves some sort of transport barriers to reduce the energy and particle flow from core to edge. Those barriers create gradients in the temperature and density profiles. If gradients in the profiles are too steep that can lead to instabilities and the system collapses. Control of these barriers is therefore an important challenge for fusion devices (burning plasmas). In this work we focus on the dynamics of internal transport barriers. Using a simple 7 field transport model, extensively used for barrier dynamics and control studies, we explore the use of RF heating to control the local gradients and therefore the growth rates and shearing rates for barrier initiation and control in self-heated fusion plasmas. Ion channel barriers can be formed in self-heated plasmas with some NBI heating but electron channel barriers are very sensitive. They can be formed in self-heated plasmas with additional auxiliary heating i.e. NBI and radio-frequency(RF). Using RF heating on both electrons and ions at proper locations, electron channel barriers along with ion channel barriers can be formed and removed demonstrating a control technique. Investigating the role of pellet injection in controlling the barriers is our next goal. Work supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-04ER54741.

  20. Atomic and molecular physics of controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joachain, C.J.; Post, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    This book attempts to provide a comprehensive introduction to the atomic and molecular physics of controlled thermonuclear fusion, and also a self-contained source from which to start a systematic study of the field. Presents an overview of fusion energy research, general principles of magnetic confinement, and general principles of inertial confinement. Discusses the calculation and measurement of atomic and molecular processes relevant to fusion, and the atomic and molecular physics of controlled thermonuclear research devices. Topics include recent progress in theoretical methods for atomic collisions; current theoretical techniques for electron-atom and electronion scattering; experimental aspects of electron impact ionization and excitation of positive ions; the theory of charge exchange and ionization by heavy particles; experiments on electron capture and ionization by multiply charged ions; Rydberg states; atomic and molecular processes in high temperature, low-density magnetically confined plasmas; atomic processes in high-density plasmas; the plasma boundary region and the role of atomic and molecular processes; neutral particle beam production and injection; spectroscopic plasma diagnostics; and particle diagnostics for magnetic fusion experiments

  1. Accurate alpha sticking fractions from improved calculations relevant for muon catalyzed fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szalewicz, K.

    1990-05-01

    Recent experiments have shown that under proper conditions a single muon may catalyze almost two hundred fusions in its lifetime. This process proceeds through formation of muonic molecular ions. Properties of these ions are central to the understanding of the phenomenon. Our work included the most accurate calculations of the energy levels and Coulombic sticking fractions for tdμ and other muonic molecular ions, calculations of Auger transition rates, calculations of corrections to the energy levels due to interactions with the most molecule, and calculation of the reactivation of muons from α particles. The majority of our effort has been devoted to the theory and computation of the influence of the strong nuclear forces on fusion rates and sticking fractions. We have calculated fusion rates for tdμ including the effects of nuclear forces on the molecular wave functions. We have also shown that these results can be reproduced to almost four digit accuracy by using a very simple quasifactorizable expression which does not require modifications of the molecular wave functions. Our sticking fractions are more accurate than any other theoretical values. We have used a more sophisticated theory than any other work and our numerical calculations have converged to at least three significant digits

  2. Physics of plasma-wall interactions in controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, D.E.; Behrisch, R.

    1984-01-01

    In the areas of plasma physics, atomic physics, surface physics, bulk material properties and fusion experiments and theory, the following topics are presented: the plasma sheath; plasma flow in the sheath and presheath of a scrape-off layer; probes for plasma edge diagnostics in magnetic confinement fusion devices; atomic and molecular collisions in the plasma boundary; physical sputtering of solids at ion bombardment; chemical sputtering and radiation enhanced sublimation of carbon; ion backscattering from solid surfaces; implantation, retention and release of hydrogen isotopes; surface erosion by electrical arcs; electron emission from solid surfaces;l properties of materials; plasma transport near material boundaries; plasma models for impurity control experiments; neutral particle transport; particle confinement and control in existing tokamaks; limiters and divertor plates; advanced limiters; divertor tokamak experiments; plasma wall interactions in heated plasmas; plasma-wall interactions in tandem mirror machines; and impurity control systems for reactor experiments

  3. Atomic data for controlled fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, C.F.; Ray, J.A.; Ricci, E.; Wilker, M.I.; McDaniel, E.W.; Thomas, E.W.; Gilbody, H.B.

    1977-02-01

    Presented is an evaluated graphical and tabular compilation of atomic and molecular cross sections of interest to controlled thermonuclear research. The cross sections are tabulated and graphed as a function of energy for collision processes involving heavy particles, electrons, and photons with atoms and ions. Also included are sections on data for particle penetration through macroscopic matter, particle transport properties, particle interactions with surfaces, and pertinent charged particle nuclear cross sections and reaction rates. In most cases estimates have been made of the data accuracy

  4. Improved Controls for Fusion RF Systems. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    We have addressed the specific requirements for the integrated systems controlling an array of klystrons used for Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD). The immediate goal for our design was to modernize the transmitter protection system (TPS) for LHCD on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center (MIT-PSFC). Working with the Alcator C-Mod team, we have upgraded the design of these controls to retrofit for improvements in performance and safety, as well as to facilitate the upcoming expansion from 12 to 16 klystrons. The longer range goals to generalize the designs in such a way that they will be of benefit to other programs within the international fusion effort was met by designing a system which was flexible enough to address all the MIT system requirements, and modular enough to adapt to a large variety of other requirements with minimal reconfiguration

  5. Improved Controls for Fusion RF Systems. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Jeffrey A. [Rockfield Research Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2011-11-08

    We have addressed the specific requirements for the integrated systems controlling an array of klystrons used for Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD). The immediate goal for our design was to modernize the transmitter protection system (TPS) for LHCD on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center (MIT-PSFC). Working with the Alcator C-Mod team, we have upgraded the design of these controls to retrofit for improvements in performance and safety, as well as to facilitate the upcoming expansion from 12 to 16 klystrons. The longer range goals to generalize the designs in such a way that they will be of benefit to other programs within the international fusion effort was met by designing a system which was flexible enough to address all the MIT system requirements, and modular enough to adapt to a large variety of other requirements with minimal reconfiguration.

  6. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1990. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Volume 1 of the Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research contains papers given in two of the sessions: A and E. Session A contains the Artsimovich Memorial Lecture and papers on tokamaks; session E papers on plasma heating and current drive. The titles and authors of each paper are listed in the Contents. Abstracts accompany each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Charge-exchange diagnostic of fusion alpha particles and ICRF driven minority ions in MeV energy range in JET plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izvozchikov, A.B.; Khudoleev, A.V.; Petrov, M.P.; Petrov, S.Ya.; Kozlovskij, S.S.; Corti, S.; Gondahalekar, A.

    1991-12-01

    An important concern in alpha particle heating physics is that fusion alpha particles will be lost before giving all their energy to heat the plasma. In other words, that the radial diffusion time of the alphas may be shorter than their slowing down time in the plasma core. Therefore radially resolved measurements of density and energy spectrum of slowing-down alphas confined in the plasma are high priority diagnostic objectives. In this report application of Charge Exchange Neutral Particle Analysis on Joint European Torus will be discussed. After a description of physical principles of the method a suitable Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) will be described in detail and estimates of measurement performance made for different plasma heating and confinement modes in JET. (author)

  8. Stripping of two protons and one alpha particle transfer reactions for 16 O + A Sm and their influence on the fusion cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, A.M.M.; Gomes, P.R.S.

    1995-01-01

    Transfer cross section angular distribution data for the stripping of two protons and one alpha particle are studied for the 16 O + A Sm systems (A=144, 148, 150, 152 and 154), at near barrier energies. A semiclassical formalism is used to derive the corresponding transfer form factors. For only one channel the analysis shows evidences that the transfer reaction mechanism at backward angles - corresponding to small distances, may behave as a multi-step process leading to fusion. Simplified coupled channel calculations including transfer channels are performed for the study of the sub-barrier of these systems. The influence of short distance transfer reactions on the fusion is discussed. (author)

  9. Burn Control in Fusion Reactors via Nonlinear Stabilization Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, Eugenio; Krstic, Miroslav; Tynan, George

    2003-01-01

    Control of plasma density and temperature magnitudes, as well as their profiles, are among the most fundamental problems in fusion reactors. Existing efforts on model-based control use control techniques for linear models. In this work, a zero-dimensional nonlinear model involving approximate conservation equations for the energy and the densities of the species was used to synthesize a nonlinear feedback controller for stabilizing the burn condition of a fusion reactor. The subignition case, where the modulation of auxiliary power and fueling rate are considered as control forces, and the ignition case, where the controlled injection of impurities is considered as an additional actuator, are treated separately.The model addresses the issue of the lag due to the finite time for the fresh fuel to diffuse into the plasma center. In this way we make our control system independent of the fueling system and the reactor can be fed either by pellet injection or by puffing. This imposed lag is treated using nonlinear backstepping.The nonlinear controller proposed guarantees a much larger region of attraction than the previous linear controllers. In addition, it is capable of rejecting perturbations in initial conditions leading to both thermal excursion and quenching, and its effectiveness does not depend on whether the operating point is an ignition or a subignition point.The controller designed ensures setpoint regulation for the energy and plasma parameter β with robustness against uncertainties in the confinement times for different species. Hence, the controller can increase or decrease β, modify the power, the temperature or the density, and go from a subignition to an ignition point and vice versa

  10. Heavy-quark pair production in gluon fusion at next-to-next-to-leading O({alpha}{sup 4}{sub s}) order. One-loop squared contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Merebashvili, Z. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Koerner, J.G. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Rogal, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    We calculate the next-to-next-to-leading order O({alpha}{sup 4}{sub s}) one-loop squared corrections to the production of heavy quark pairs in the gluon-gluon fusion process. Together with the previously derived results on the q anti q production channel the results of this paper complete the calculation of the oneloop squared contributions of the next-to-next-to-leading order O({alpha}{sup 4}{sub s}) radiative QCD corrections to the hadroproduction of heavy flavours. Our results, with the full mass dependence retained, are presented in a closed and very compact form, in dimensional regularization. (orig.)

  11. Hemi-fused structure mediates and controls fusion and fission in live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-Dong; Hamid, Edaeni; Shin, Wonchul; Wen, Peter J; Krystofiak, Evan S; Villarreal, Seth A; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng; Kachar, Bechara; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2016-06-23

    Membrane fusion and fission are vital for eukaryotic life. For three decades, it has been proposed that fusion is mediated by fusion between the proximal leaflets of two bilayers (hemi-fusion) to produce a hemi-fused structure, followed by fusion between the distal leaflets, whereas fission is via hemi-fission, which also produces a hemi-fused structure, followed by full fission. This hypothesis remained unsupported owing to the lack of observation of hemi-fusion or hemi-fission in live cells. A competing fusion hypothesis involving protein-lined pore formation has also been proposed. Here we report the observation of a hemi-fused Ω-shaped structure in live neuroendocrine chromaffin cells and pancreatic β-cells, visualized using confocal and super-resolution stimulated emission depletion microscopy. This structure is generated from fusion pore opening or closure (fission) at the plasma membrane. Unexpectedly, the transition to full fusion or fission is determined by competition between fusion and calcium/dynamin-dependent fission mechanisms, and is notably slow (seconds to tens of seconds) in a substantial fraction of the events. These results provide key missing evidence in support of the hemi-fusion and hemi-fission hypothesis in live cells, and reveal the hemi-fused intermediate as a key structure controlling fusion and fission, as fusion and fission mechanisms compete to determine the transition to fusion or fission.

  12. Status report on controlled nuclear fusion as a source of hydrogen energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.

    1975-01-01

    The present status of controlled fusion research is reviewed. Possible future reseach is also described. Tokamak systems using both fusion and fissionable fuels are discussed. Various aspects of hydrogen production by fusion reactors are described according to cost and economics. auth)

  13. Control of alpha particle transport by spatially inhomogeneous ion cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.S.; Imre, K.; Weitzner, H.; Colestock, P.

    1990-02-01

    Control of the radial alpha particle transport by using Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency waves is investigated in a large-aspect-ratio tokamak geometry. It is shown that spatially inhomogeneous ICRF-wave energy with properly selected frequencies and wave numbers can induce fast convective transport of alpha particles at the speed of order υ alpha ∼ (P RF /n α ε 0 ) ρ p , where P RF is the ICRF-wave power density, n α is the alpha density, ε 0 is the alpha birth energy, and ρ p is the poloidal gyroradius of alpha particles at the birth energy. Application to ITER plasmas is studied and possible antenna designs to control alpha particle flux are discussed. 8 refs., 3 figs

  14. Application of controlled thermonuclear reactor fusion energy for food production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.

    1975-06-01

    Food and energy shortages in many parts of the world in the past two years raise an immediate need for the evaluation of energy input in food production. The present paper investigates systematically (1) the energy requirement for food production, and (2) the provision of controlled thermonuclear fusion energy for major energy intensive sectors of food manufacturing. Among all the items of energy input to the ''food industry,'' fertilizers, water for irrigation, food processing industries, such as beet sugar refinery and dough making and single cell protein manufacturing, have been chosen for study in detail. A controlled thermonuclear power reactor was used to provide electrical and thermal energy for all these processes. Conceptual design of the application of controlled thermonuclear power, water and air for methanol and ammonia synthesis and single cell protein production is presented. Economic analysis shows that these processes can be competitive. (auth)

  15. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion - Synthesis report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werthmueller, A.

    2009-06-01

    Switzerland is associated to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project carried out in the framework of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The current stage includes on-site civil engineering works. The Variable Configuration Tokamak (TCV) of the 'Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas' (CRPP) of the EPFL will remain an important recognized research facility until the start of the ITER operation foreseen in 2018. At the European level, the whole fusion research is coordinated and partly financed by the Joint Undertaking Fusion for Energy (JU F4E). The large flexibility of the TCV design and operation modus allow the creation and control of plasmas of various shapes, what is a very useful option to verify the results of numerical simulations. Besides, the hyper-frequency power density injected into the plasma is the highest ever recorded in the world. Research topics studied with the TCV include the stationary regimes in the tokamaks; a plasma current of more than 70 kA could be maintained, what represents an improvement by a factor of 3 to 4 of the confinement quality. For the first time in the world a configuration of the 'snowflake' type could be created and the power density on the wall of the vacuum chamber could be reduced accordingly. Numerical models allowed the analysis of turbulence and heat transport, of the magneto-hydrodynamic stability of the tokamaks and stellarators as well as the optimization of the magnetic confinement. Results concerning the so-called 'saw teeth' instability were experimentally confirmed on the Joint European Torus (JET). Theoretical researches were carried out on the fluctuations, turbulence and transport phenomena in the magnetized toric plasmas. At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) the effect of the fast neutrons emitted by the fusion reactions on the walls of the fusion reactors was investigated. Irradiation simulations were carried out by means of the Swiss Spallation Neutron Source

  16. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion. Synthesis report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaucher, C.; Tran, M. Q.; Villard, L.; Marot, L.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1978, research on thermonuclear fusion in Switzerland is closely related to the research programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The Swiss projects tackle aspects of plasma physics and fusion technology. Switzerland participates to the construction and operation of the Joint European Torus (JET), which started operation again in 2011. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is the last step before DEMO, a prototype fusion reactor able to deliver electricity and demonstrate the economic viability of fusion energy. The 'Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas' (CRPP) of the EPFL went on with its participation to the scientific and technological programme of EURATOM. Researches are carried out essentially on 2 sites: (i) at EPFL, where topics dealt with include the physics of magnetic confinement studied using the Variable Configuration Tokamak (TCV), the basic experiment TORPEX, theory and numerical modelling, and the technology of plasma heating and current generation by hyper-frequency waves; (ii) at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), where activities are devoted to superconductivity and structure materials. Thanks to the large flexibility of the TCV design and operation modus, plasmas of different shapes can be created and controlled, what is a very useful option to verify numerical simulation results. Besides, the injection of millimetre waves allows directing the injected power according to specific profiles. In the TCV it could be demonstrated for the first time that the injection of Electronic Cyclotronic Heating (ECH) waves is able to double the frequency of so-called 'Edge Localized Modes' (ELM), reducing by a factor of 2 the energy expelled by each ELM. In particular, it was possible to considerably reduce the statistical dispersion of the repetition frequency of ELM, and to avoid the appearance of gigantic ELM that are particularly harmful for reactor operation. The effect of plasma internal relaxation

  17. Overproduction, purification and characterization of human interferon alpha2a-human serum albumin fusion protein produced in methilotropic yeast Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningrum, R. A.; Santoso, A.; Herawati, N.

    2017-05-01

    Human interferon alpha2a (hIFNα2a) is a therapeutic protein that used in cancer and hepatitis B/C therapy. The main problem of using hIFNα-2a is its short elimination half life due to its low molecular weight. Development of higher molecular weight protein by albumin fusion technology is a rational strategy to solve the problem. In our previous research we constructed an open reading frame (ORF) encoding hIFNα2a-human serum albumin (HSA) fusion protein that expressed in Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) protease deficient strain SMD1168. This research was performed to overproduce, purify and characterize the fusion protein. To overproduce the protein, cultivation was performed in buffered complex medium containing glyserol (BMGY) for 24 h and protein overproduction was applied in buffered complex medium containing methanol (BMMY) for 48 hours at 30°C. The fusion protein was purified by blue sepharose affinity chromatography. Molecular weight characterization by SDS PAGE corresponds with its theoretical size, 85 kDa. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the fusion protein was recognized by anti hIFNα2 and anti HSA monoclonal antibody as well. Amino acid sequence of the fusion protein was determined by LC MS/MS2 mass spectrometry with trypsin as proteolitic enzyme. There were three fragments that identified as hIFNα2a and seven fragments that identified as HSA. Total identified amino acids were 150 residues with 20% coverage from total residues. To conclude, hIFNα2a-HSA fusion protein was overproduced, purified and characterized. Characterization based on molecular weight, antibody recognition and amino acid sequence confirmed that the fusion protein has correct identity as theoretically thought.

  18. Overproduction, purification and characterization of human interferon alpha2a-human serum albumin fusion protein produced in methilotropic yeast Pichia pastoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ningrum, R A; Santoso, A; Herawati, N

    2017-01-01

    Human interferon alpha2a (hIFNα2a) is a therapeutic protein that used in cancer and hepatitis B/C therapy. The main problem of using hIFNα-2a is its short elimination half life due to its low molecular weight. Development of higher molecular weight protein by albumin fusion technology is a rational strategy to solve the problem. In our previous research we constructed an open reading frame (ORF) encoding hIFNα2a-human serum albumin (HSA) fusion protein that expressed in Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) protease deficient strain SMD1168. This research was performed to overproduce, purify and characterize the fusion protein. To overproduce the protein, cultivation was performed in buffered complex medium containing glyserol (BMGY) for 24 h and protein overproduction was applied in buffered complex medium containing methanol (BMMY) for 48 hours at 30°C. The fusion protein was purified by blue sepharose affinity chromatography. Molecular weight characterization by SDS PAGE corresponds with its theoretical size, 85 kDa. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the fusion protein was recognized by anti hIFNα2 and anti HSA monoclonal antibody as well. Amino acid sequence of the fusion protein was determined by LC MS/MS2 mass spectrometry with trypsin as proteolitic enzyme. There were three fragments that identified as hIFNα2a and seven fragments that identified as HSA. Total identified amino acids were 150 residues with 20% coverage from total residues. To conclude, hIFNα2a-HSA fusion protein was overproduced, purified and characterized. Characterization based on molecular weight, antibody recognition and amino acid sequence confirmed that the fusion protein has correct identity as theoretically thought. (paper)

  19. Research program. Controlled thermonuclear fusion. Synthesis report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villard, L.; Marot, L.; Soom, P.

    2016-01-01

    In 1961, 3 years after the 2 nd International Conference on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy, the Research Centre on Plasma Physics (CRPP) was created as a department of the Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne (Switzerland). From 1979, CRPP collaborates to the European Program on fusion research in the framework of EURATOM. In 2015 its name was changed to Swiss Plasma Centre (SPC). The advantages of fusion are remarkable: the fuel is available in great quantity all over the world; the reactor is intrinsically safe; the reactor material, activated during operation, loses practically all its activity within about 100 years. But the working up of the controlled fusion necessitates extreme technological conditions. In 1979, the Joint European Torus (JET) began its operation; today it is still the most powerful tokamak in the world, in which an energy yield Q of 0.65 could be obtained. In 2015, the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7X), the largest in the world, was set into operation. The progress realized in the framework of EURATOM has led to the planning of the experimental reactor ITER which is being built at Cadarache (France). ITER is designed to reach a Q-value largely above 1. The future prototype reactor DEMO is foreseen in 2040-2050. It should demonstrate the ability of a fusion reactor to inject permanently electricity into the grid. In 2015, SPC participated in the works on ITER in the framework of the Fusion for Energy (F4E) agency. At EPFL the research concerns the physics of the magnetic confinement with experiments on the tokamak TCV (variable configuration tokamak), the numerical simulations, the plasma heating and the generation of current by hyper frequency radio waves. At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), research is devoted to the superconductivity; at the Basel University the studies get on interactions between the plasma and the tokamak walls. The large flexibility of TCV allows creating and controlling plasmas of different shapes which

  20. Synthetic report 2012. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaucher, C.; Tran, M. Q.; Villard, L.; Marot, L.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1961, Switzerland participates in the research on thermonuclear fusion thanks to the creation of the Research Centre in Plasma Physics. In 1979 it entered into partnership with the European programme on fusion through its adhesion to EURATOM. The thermonuclear fusion is an interesting energy source because the basic fuel is practically inexhaustible and its use does not release any significant CO 2 quantity and very little radioactive residues. But its working up faces enormous physical and technological difficulties. The International Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER), presently in construction, has to demonstrate the technological feasibility of the controlled fusion. Il will be followed by DEMO, foreseen for 2040-2050, which must guarantee the economical rentability. At CRPP the research projects are partitioned onto several sites: at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne, they concern the physics of the magnetic confinement with the Variable Geometry Tokamak (TCV), the development of theoretical models and the numerical simulation, the plasma heating and the generation of hyper frequency waves; the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) studies the superconductivity and the materials; the interactions between the plasma and the Tokamak walls are studied at the Basel University for the structures of ITER. Thanks to its large flexibility, TCV allows the creation and the control of plasmas of very different forms. The injection system of millimetric waves allows orienting the injected power according to specific profiles. By using the asymmetry of the flow in the toroidal sense, the plasma rotation could be measured with a much better accuracy than before. In TCV, by playing on the form of the plasma, it was possible to strongly reduce the energy quantity which is expelled by the Edge Localized Modes (ELM) onto the wall of the vacuum chamber. The ‘snowflake’ configuration created in TCV allows distributing the ELM energy onto several impact

  1. Line-Tension Controlled Mechanism for Influenza Fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risselada, Herre Jelger; Marelli, Giovanni; Fuhrmans, Marc; Smirnova, Yuliya G.; Grubmueller, Helmut; Marrink, Siewert Jan; Mueller, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Our molecular simulations reveal that wild-type influenza fusion peptides are able to stabilize a highly fusogenic pre-fusion structure, i.e. a peptide bundle formed by four or more trans-membrane arranged fusion peptides. We rationalize that the lipid rim around such bundle has a non-vanishing rim

  2. Research program. Controlled thermonuclear fusion. Synthesis report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villard, L.; Marot, L.

    2014-01-01

    In 1961, 3 years after the 2 nd International Conference on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy, the Research Centre on Plasma Physics (CRPP) was created as a department of the Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne (Switzerland). From 1979, CRPP collaborates to the European Program on fusion research in the framework of EURATOM. The advantages of fusion are remarkable: the fuel is available in great quantity all over the world; the reactor is intrinsically safe; the reactor material, activated during operation, loses practically all its activity within about 100 years. But the working up of the controlled fusion necessitates extreme technological conditions. The progress realized in the framework of EURATOM has led to the design of the experimental reactor ITER which is being built at Cadarache (France). The future prototype reactor DEMO is foreseen in 2040-2050. In 2013, CRPP participated in the works on ITER in the framework of the Fusion for Energy (F4E) agency. At EPFL the research concerns the physics of the magnetic confinement with experiments on the tokamak TCV (variable configuration tokamak), the numerical simulations, the plasma heating and the generation of current by hyper frequency radio waves. At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), research is devoted to the superconductivity. At the Basel University the studies get on interactions between the plasma and the tokamak walls. A new improved confinement regime, called IN-mode, was discovered on TCV. The theory and numerical simulation group interprets the experimental results and foresees those of futures machines. It requires very high performance computers. The Gyrotron group develops radiofrequency sources in the mm range for heating the TCV plasma as well as for ITER and the Wendelstein-7 stellarator. Concerning superconductivity, tests are conducted at PSI on toroidal cables of ITER. The development of conductors and coils for the DEMO reactor has been pursued. In the context of international

  3. Research program. Controlled thermonuclear fusion. Synthesis report 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villard, L.; Marot, L.; Fiocco, D.

    2015-01-01

    In 1961, 3 years after the 2 nd International Conference on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy, the Research Centre on Plasma Physics (CRPP) was created as a department of the Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne (Switzerland). From 1979, CRPP collaborates to the European Program on fusion research in the framework of EURATOM. The advantages of fusion are remarkable: the fuel is available in great quantity all over the world; the reactor is intrinsically safe; the reactor material, activated during operation, loses practically all its activity within about 100 years. But the working up of the controlled fusion necessitates extreme technological conditions. In 1979, the Joint European Torus (JET) began its operation; today it is still the most powerful tokamak in the world; its energy yield Q reached 0.65. The progress realized in the framework of EURATOM has led to the planning of the experimental reactor ITER which is being built at Cadarache (France). ITER is designed to reach a Q-value largely above 1. The future prototype reactor DEMO is foreseen in 2040-2050. It should demonstrate the ability of a fusion reactor to inject electricity into the grid for long term. In 2014, CRPP participated in the works on ITER in the framework of the Fusion for Energy (F4E) agency. At EPFL the research concerns the physics of the magnetic confinement with experiments on the tokamak TCV (variable configuration tokamak), the numerical simulations, the plasma heating and the generation of current by hyper frequency radio waves. At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), research is devoted to the superconductivity. At the Basel University the studies get on interactions between the plasma and the tokamak walls. The large flexibility of TCV allows creating and controlling plasmas of different shapes which are necessary to optimise the core geometry of future reactors. Moreover, the plasma heating by mm radio waves allows guiding the injected power according to specific

  4. Controlled energy generation from nuclear fusion. 60th year atw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Georg [Pintsch Bamag AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Prospects increase, that with a controlled process of nuclear fusion one day an additional nuclear energy source will be commercially exploitable. In what follows, scientific principles according to the most recent research will be presented. Since approximately 30 years we are aware of the fact, that energy in form of light and heat provided by the sun and other fixed stars since over four billions years resulted from reactions of atomic nuclei. A series of such reactions became known which are considered for 'thermonuclear' processes, for example the carbon cycle by Bethe, where hydrogen is converted into helium. Most of the reflections and experiments dealt until 1938 with the reaction between nuclei of light elements. The possibility of splitting heavy nuclei was not anticipated. Its discovery by Hahn and Strassmann was a complete surprise - so to speak a rash reaction to release energy at the end of the element row. This 'way out' captured the interest of nuclear physicist for more than a decade. Only today, by starting to construct big nuclear power plants - only today, being able to assess the possibilities and limitations of this technology, the idea of energy generation through nuclear fusion steps into the foreground of nuclear research.

  5. Formation of visual memories controlled by gamma power phase-locked to alpha oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyojin; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Hahm, Jarang; Kim, June Sic; Chung, Chun Kee; Jiang, Haiteng; Gross, Joachim; Jensen, Ole

    2016-06-01

    Neuronal oscillations provide a window for understanding the brain dynamics that organize the flow of information from sensory to memory areas. While it has been suggested that gamma power reflects feedforward processing and alpha oscillations feedback control, it remains unknown how these oscillations dynamically interact. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data was acquired from healthy subjects who were cued to either remember or not remember presented pictures. Our analysis revealed that in anticipation of a picture to be remembered, alpha power decreased while the cross-frequency coupling between gamma power and alpha phase increased. A measure of directionality between alpha phase and gamma power predicted individual ability to encode memory: stronger control of alpha phase over gamma power was associated with better memory. These findings demonstrate that encoding of visual information is reflected by a state determined by the interaction between alpha and gamma activity.

  6. Control of alpha-particle transport by ion cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.S.; Imre, K.; Weitzner, H.; Colestock, P.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper control of radial alpha-particle transport by using ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) waves is investigated in a large-aspect-ratio tokamak geometry. Spatially inhomogeneous ICRF wave energy with properly selected frequencies and wave numbers can induce fast convective transports of alpha particles at the speed of order v α ∼ (P RF /n α ε 0 )ρ p , where R RF is the ICRF wave power density, n α is the alpha-particle density, ε 0 is the alpha-particle birth energy, and ρ p is the poloidal gyroradius of alpha particles at the birth energy. Application to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plasma is studied and possible antenna designs to control alpha-particle flux are discussed

  7. Synergetic fMRI-EEG brain mapping in alpha-rhythm voluntary control mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtark, M B; Verevkin, E G; Kozlova, L I; Mazhirina, K G; Pokrovskii, M A; Petrovskii, E D; Savelov, A A; Starostin, A S; Yarosh, S V

    2015-03-01

    For the first time in neurobiology-related issues, the synergistic spatial dynamics of EEG and fMRI (BOLD phenomenon) was studied during cognitive alpha biofeedback training in the operant conditioning mode (acoustic reinforcement of alpha-rhythm development and stability). Significant changes in alpha-rhythm intensity were found in T6 electrode area (Brodmann area 37). Brodmann areas related to solving alpha-training tasks and maximally involved in the formation of new neuronal network were middle and superior temporal gyri (areas 21, 22, and 37), fusiform gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus (areas 4, 6, and 46), anterior cingulate gyrus (areas 23 and 24), cuneus, and precuneus (area 7). Wide involvement of Brodmann areas is determined by psychological architecture of alpha-rhythm generating system control that includes complex cognitive activities: decision making, retrieval of long-term memory, evaluation of the reward and control efficiency during alpha-EEG biofeedback.

  8. BOOK REVIEW: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Marco

    1998-04-01

    Professor Kenro Miyamoto, already well known for his textbook Plasma Physics for Nuclear Fusion (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1976; revised edition 1989), has now published a new book entitled Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (Iwanami Book Service Center, Tokyo, 1997). To a large extent, the new book is a somewhat shortened and well reorganized version of its predecessor. The style, concise and matter of fact, clearly shows the origin of the text in lectures given by the author to graduate students. As announced by the title, the book is divided into two parts: the first part (about 250 pages) is a general introduction to the physics of plasmas, while the second, somewhat shorter, part (about 150 pages), is devoted to a description of the most important experimental approaches to achieving controlled thermonuclear fusion. Even in the first part, moreover, the choice of subjects is consistently oriented towards the needs of fusion research. Thus, the introduction to the behaviour of charged particles (particle motion, collisions, etc.) and to the collective description of plasmas is quite short, although the reader will get a flavour of all the most important topics and will find a number of examples chosen for their relevance to fusion applications (only the presentation of the Vlasov equation, in the second section of Chapter 4, might be criticized as so concise as to be almost misleading, since the difference between microscopic and macroscopic fields is not even mentioned). Considerably more space is devoted to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description of equilibrium and stability. This part includes the solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation for circular tokamaks, a brief discussion of Pfirsch-Schlüter, neoclassical and anomalous diffusion, and two relatively long chapters on the most important ideal and resistive MHD instabilities of toroidal plasmas; drift and ion temperature gradient driven instabilities are also briefly presented. The

  9. FRIENDLY regulates mitochondrial distribution, fusion, and quality control in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zawily, Amr M; Schwarzländer, Markus; Finkemeier, Iris; Johnston, Iain G; Benamar, Abdelilah; Cao, Yongguo; Gissot, Clémence; Meyer, Andreas J; Wilson, Ken; Datla, Raju; Macherel, David; Jones, Nick S; Logan, David C

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondria are defining components of most eukaryotes. However, higher plant mitochondria differ biochemically, morphologically, and dynamically from those in other eukaryotes. FRIENDLY, a member of the CLUSTERED MITOCHONDRIA superfamily, is conserved among eukaryotes and is required for correct distribution of mitochondria within the cell. We sought to understand how disruption of FRIENDLY function in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leads to mitochondrial clustering and the effects of this aberrant chondriome on cell and whole-plant physiology. We present evidence for a role of FRIENDLY in mediating intermitochondrial association, which is a necessary prelude to mitochondrial fusion. We demonstrate that disruption of mitochondrial association, motility, and chondriome structure in friendly affects mitochondrial quality control and leads to mitochondrial stress, cell death, and strong growth phenotypes. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Control and data management for a large fusion laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.W.; Holloway, F.W.

    1975-01-01

    SHIVA is a powerful (10-kJ 25 TW) neodymium glass laser system to be used (in 1977) for target irradiation in fusion research. SHIVA is also a development project in that it is pushing the state of the art in laser and optical technology. The present design calls for 20 parallel laser amplification chains whose light output is pointed and focused at a small (100 μ) target within a chamber from semi-equally spaced three-dimensional directions. It is probable that SHIVA will be upgraded to as many as 42 chains in the next few years. Each chain of SHIVA contains 7 high energy laser amplifiers and perhaps 20 other major optical components, many of which send and receive control and measurement information. Again future expansion may add additional elements. Each chain has also associated 10 gimbal or translation motions for beam assignment from the oscillator onto the target

  11. Diagnostic of the spatial and velocity distribution of alpha particles in tokamak fusion reactor using beat-wave generated lower hybrid wave. Progress report, 1994-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D.Q.; Horton, R.D.; Evans, R.

    1995-01-01

    The alpha particle population from fusion reactions in a DT tokamak reactor can have dramatic effects on the pressure profiles, energetic particle confinement, and the overall stability of the plasma; thus leading to important design consideration of a fusion reactor based on the tokamak concept. In order to fully understand the effects of the alpha population, a non-invasive diagnostic technique suitable for use in a reacting plasma environment needs to be developed to map out both the spatial and velocity distribution of the alphas. The proposed experimental goals for the eventual demonstration of LH wave interaction with a fast ion population is given in the reduced 3 year plan in table 1. At present time the authors are approaching the 8th month in their first year of this project. Up to now, their main effort has been concentrated in the operation of the two beat wave sources in burst mode. The second priority in the experimental project is the probe diagnostics and computer aided data acquisition system. The progress made so far is given, and they are ready to perform the beat-wave generated lower hybrid wave experiment. Some theoretical calculation had been reported at APS meetings. More refined theoretical models are being constructed in collaboration with Drs. J. Rogers and E. Valeo at PPPL

  12. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion - Synthesis report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaucher, C.; Tran, M. Q.; Villard, L.; Marot, L.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1978, research on thermonuclear fusion in Switzerland is closely related to the research programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The Swiss projects tackle aspects of plasma physics and fusion technology. Switzerland participates to the construction and operation of the Joint European Torus (JET). The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is being built; the first plasma is expected in 2019. The 'Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas' (CRPP) of the EPFL participates to EURATOM scientific and technological projects in magnetic confinement physics, through an experimental contribution (the Variable Configuration Tokamak, TCV) and theoretical studies. Thanks to the large flexibility of the TCV design and operation modus, plasmas of different shapes can be created and controlled, what is a very useful option to verify numerical simulation results. Besides, the injection of millimetre waves allows directing the injected power according to specific profiles. A configuration of type 'snowflakes' could be created, reducing the power deposition at the edge of the plasma. Theoretical studies on turbulence have improved the plasma stability in the TCV. For the first time in the world, TCV could reach a stable plasma, the plasma current being generated using the so-called 'bootstrap' phenomenon. Besides turbulence, studies were focused on heat and particle transport in tokamaks, on an analysis of the equilibrium and magneto-hydrodynamic stability of tokamaks and stellarators, on the application of radiofrequency waves and on the optimization of new confinement configurations. Experiments in the JET facility confirmed the numerical results of theoretical simulations. The TORPEX facility, which is simpler than TCV, allows high space-temporal resolution measurements for the study of turbulences and plasma threads ('blobs'). At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), research topics include superconductivity and materials. The Fusion

  13. Information Fusion-Based Optimal Attitude Control for an Alterable Thrust Direction Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyang Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Attitude control is the inner-loop and the most important part of the automatic flight control system of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. The information fusion-based optimal control method is applied in a UAV flight control system in this work. Firstly, a nonlinear model of alterable thrust direction UAV (ATD-UAV is established and linearized for controller design. The longitudinal controller and lateral controller are respectively designed based on information fusion-based optimal control, and then the information fusion flight control system is built up. Finally, the simulation of a nonlinear model described as ATD-UAV is carried out, the results of which show the superiority of the information fusion-based control strategy when compared to the single-loop design method. We also show that the ATD technique improves the anti-disturbance capacity of the UAV.

  14. Stripping of two protons and one alpha particle transfer reactions for {sup 16} O + {sup A} Sm and their influence on the fusion cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel, A.M.M.; Gomes, P.R.S

    1995-12-31

    Transfer cross section angular distribution data for the stripping of two protons and one alpha particle are studied for the {sup 16} O + {sup A} Sm systems (A=144, 148, 150, 152 and 154), at near barrier energies. A semiclassical formalism is used to derive the corresponding transfer form factors. For only one channel the analysis shows evidences that the transfer reaction mechanism at backward angles - corresponding to small distances, may behave as a multi-step process leading to fusion. Simplified coupled channel calculations including transfer channels are performed for the study of the sub-barrier of these systems. The influence of short distance transfer reactions on the fusion is discussed. (author) 16 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Controllers for high-performance nuclear fusion plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, de M.R.

    2012-01-01

    A succesful nuclear fusion reactor will confine plasma at hig temperatures and densities, with low thermal losses. The workhorse of the nuclear fusion community is the tokamak, a toroidal device in which plasmas are confined by poloidal and toroidal magnetic fields. Ideally, the confirming magnetic

  16. Design of a Fast Neutral He Beam System for Feasibility Study of Charge-Exchange Alpha-Particle Diagnostics in a Thermonuclear Fusion Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Shinto, Katsuhiro; Kitajima, Sumio; Kiyama, Satoru; Nishiura, Masaki; Sasao, Mamiko; Sugawara, Hiroshi; Takenaga, Mahoko; Takeuchi, Shu; Wada, Motoi

    2005-01-01

    For alpha-particle diagnostics in a thermonuclear fusion reactor, neutralization using a fast (~2 MeV) neutral He beam produced by the spontaneous electron detachment of a He- is considered most promising. However, the beam transport of produced fast neutral He has not been studied, because of difficulty for producing high-brightness He- beam. Double-charge-exchange He- sources and simple beam transport systems were developed and their results were reported in the PAC99* and other papers.** To accelerate an intense He- beam and verify the production of the fast neutral He beam, a new test stand has been designed. It consists of a multi-cusp He+

  17. Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1971. Vol. III. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The ultimate goal of controlled nuclear fusion research is to make a new energy source available to mankind, a source that will be virtually unlimited and that gives promise of being environmentally cleaner than the sources currently exploited. This goal has stimulated research in plasma physics over the past two decades, leading to significant advances in the understanding of matter in its most common state as well as to progress in the confinement and heating of plasma. An indication of this progress is that in several countries considerable effort is being devoted to design studies of fusion reactors and to the technological problems that will be encountered in realizing these reactors. This range of research, from plasma physics to fusion reactor engineering, is shown in the present three-volume publication of the Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research. The Conference was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency and was held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA from 17 to 23 June 1971. The enthusiastic co-operation of the University of Wisconsin and of the United States Atomic Energy Commission in the organization of the Conference is gratefully acknowledged. The Conference was attended by over 500 scientists from 24 countries and 3 international organizations, and 143 papers were presented. These papers are published here in the original language; English translations of the Russian papers will be published in a Special Supplement to the journal Nuclear Fusion. The series of conferences on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research has become a major international forum for the presentation and discussion of results in this important and challenging field. In addition to sponsoring these conferences, the International Atomic Energy Agency supports controlled nuclear fusion research by publishing the journal Nuclear Fusion, and has recently established an International Fusion Research Council

  18. Control of ITBs in Fusion Self-Heated Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panta, Soma; Newman, David; Terry, Paul; Sanchez, Raul

    2015-11-01

    Simple dynamical models have been able to capture a remarkable amount of the dynamics of the transport barriers found in many devices, including the often disconnected nature of the electron thermal transport channel sometimes observed in the presence of a standard (``ion channel'') barrier. By including in this rich though simple dynamic transport model an evolution equation for electron fluctuations we have previously investigated the interaction between the formation of the standard ion channel barrier and the somewhat less common electron channel barrier. The electron channel formation and evolution is even more sensitive to the alignment of the various gradients making up the sheared radial electric field then the ion barrier is. Because of this sensitivity and coupling of the barrier dynamics, the dynamic evolution of the fusion self-heating profile can have a significant impact on the barrier location and dynamics. To investigate this, self-heating has been added this model and the impact of the self-heating on the formation and controllability of the various barriers is explored. It has been found that the evolution of the heating profiles can suppress or collapse the electron channel barrier. NBI and RF schemes will be investigated for profile/barrier control.

  19. Remotely controlled fusion of selected vesicles and living cells: a key issue review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Azra; Moreno-Pescador, Guillermo; Oddershede, Lene B.; Bendix, Poul M.

    2018-03-01

    Remote control over fusion of single cells and vesicles has a great potential in biological and chemical research allowing both transfer of genetic material between cells and transfer of molecular content between vesicles. Membrane fusion is a critical process in biology that facilitates molecular transport and mixing of cellular cytoplasms with potential formation of hybrid cells. Cells precisely regulate internal membrane fusions with the aid of specialized fusion complexes that physically provide the energy necessary for mediating fusion. Physical factors like membrane curvature, tension and temperature, affect biological membrane fusion by lowering the associated energy barrier. This has inspired the development of physical approaches to harness the fusion process at a single cell level by using remotely controlled electromagnetic fields to trigger membrane fusion. Here, we critically review various approaches, based on lasers or electric pulses, to control fusion between individual cells or between individual lipid vesicles and discuss their potential and limitations for present and future applications within biochemistry, biology and soft matter.

  20. Local control station for development, testing and maintenance of mirror fusion facility subsystem controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ables, E.; Kelly, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    A Local Control Station (LCS) was designed and built to provide a simplified ad easily configurable means of controlling any Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) subsystem for the purpose of development, testing and maintenance of the subsystem. All MFTF-B Subsystems incorporate at least one Local Control Computer (LCC) that is connected to and accepts high level commands from one of the Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System (SCDS) computers. The LCS connects directly to the LCC in place of SCDS. The LCS communicates with the subsystem hardware using the same SCDS commands that the local control computer recognizes and as such requires no special configuration of the LCC

  1. High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) longitudinal controller: Design, analyses, and simulation resultss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Proffitt, Melissa S.; Brown, Philip W.; Phillips, Michael R.; Rivers, Robert A.; Messina, Michael D.; Carzoo, Susan W.; Bacon, Barton J.; Foster, John F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the design, analysis, and nonlinear simulation results (batch and piloted) for a longitudinal controller which is scheduled to be flight-tested on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The HARV is an F-18 airplane modified for and equipped with multi-axis thrust vectoring. The paper includes a description of the facilities, a detailed review of the feedback controller design, linear analysis results of the feedback controller, a description of the feed-forward controller design, nonlinear batch simulation results, and piloted simulation results. Batch simulation results include maximum pitch stick agility responses, angle of attack alpha captures, and alpha regulation for full lateral stick rolls at several alpha's. Piloted simulation results include task descriptions for several types of maneuvers, task guidelines, the corresponding Cooper-Harper ratings from three test pilots, and some pilot comments. The ratings show that desirable criteria are achieved for almost all of the piloted simulation tasks.

  2. Effect of alpha amylase on early childhood caries: a matched case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Mojarad, Farzad; Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan; Fazlollahifar, Samira; Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan; Poorolajal, Jalal; Research Center for Health Sciences, Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan; Hajilooi, Mehrdad; Department of Pathology, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: There are a few studies addressing the relationship between salivary alpha-amylase and dental caries. This study was implemented in order to investigate the effect of salivary alpha-amylase level on early childhood caries (ECC).Materials and Methods: In this matched case-control study, which was carried out from November 2011 to March 2012 in Hamadan City, the west of Iran, mean levels of salivary alpha-amylase of 84 ECC-active cases were compared to that of 84 ECC-free controls u...

  3. Circumferential fusion is dominant over posterolateral fusion in a long-term perspective: cost-utility evaluation of a randomized controlled trial in severe, chronic low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soegaard, Rikke; Bünger, Cody E; Christiansen, Terkel

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Cost-utility evaluation of a randomized, controlled trial with a 4- to 8-year follow-up. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incremental cost per quality-adjusted-life-year (QALY) when comparing circumferential fusion to posterolateral fusion in a long-term, societal perspective. SUMMARY...... OF BACKGROUND DATA: The cost-effectiveness of circumferential fusion in a long-term perspective is uncertain but nonetheless highly relevant as the ISSLS prize winner 2006 in clinical studies reported the effect of circumferential fusion superior to the effect of posterolateral fusion. A recent trial found...... no significant difference between posterolateral and circumferential fusion reporting cost-effectiveness from a 2-year viewpoint. METHODS: A total of 146 patients were randomized to posterolateral or circumferential fusion and followed 4 to 8 years after surgery. The mean age of the cohort was 46 years (range...

  4. Controlled Nuclear Fusion by Magnetic Confinement and ITER

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Alvarez-Gaumé, Luís

    2005-01-01

    For may years harnessing fusion energy was considered the final solution to the world's energy crisis. ITER is the last step in the elusive quest. This presentation will provide in its various acientific, technological and political aspects.

  5. Introduction to the controlled nuclear fusion (magnetic containment systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, J.A.; Guasp, J.; Martin, R.

    1975-01-01

    The magnetic containment systems, their more important features, and their potentiality to became thermonuclear reactors is described. The work is based upon the first part of a set of lectures dedicated to Plasma and Fusion Physics. (author)

  6. 50 years of controlled nuclear fusion in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenplas, P.; Wolf, G.H.

    2008-01-01

    The author presents the history of fusion energy since its official birth in 1955 during the first conference on the peaceful uses of atomic energy to the expectations put on the ITER project. Nuclear fusion became a major component of the newly created European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The milestones that were: magnetic mirror machines, pinch versions, stellarators and tokamaks are examined. The construction of the first fusion machines were decisive and gave fusion energy enough momentum to overcome greater and greater technological difficulties. At the scale of the world, major machines that were built like TFTR, Princeton (1974), JET, Culham (1977) or JT60, Tokai (1977), appear like a scientific and necessary strategy towards the demonstration reactor. The ITER project is detailed

  7. Fast computational scheme for feedback control of high current fusion tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, J.Q.; Khayrutdinov, R.; Azizov, E.; Jardin, S.

    1992-01-01

    An accurate and fast numerical model of tokamak plasma evolution is presented. In this code (DINA) the equilibrium problem of plasmas with free boundaries in externally changing magnetic fields is solved simultaneously with the plasma transport equation. The circuit equations are solved for the vacuum vessel and passive and active coils. The code includes pellet injection, neutral beam heating, auxiliary heating, and alpha particle heating. Bootstrap and beam-driven plasma currents are accounted for. An inverse variable technique is utilized to obtain the coordinates of the equilibrium magnetic surfaces. This numerical algorithm permits to determine the flux coordinates very quickly and accurately. The authors show that using the fully resistive MHD analysis the region of stability (to vertical motions) is wider than using the rigid displacement model. Comparing plasma motions with the same gain, it is seen that the plasma oscillates more in the rigid analysis than in the MHD analysis. They study the influence of the pick up coil's location and the possibility of control of the plasma vertical position. They use a simple modification of the standard control law that enables the control of the plasma with pick up coils located at any position. This flexibility becomes critical in the design of future complex high current tokamak systems. The fully resistive MHD model permits to obtain accurate estimates of the plasma response. This approach yields computational time savings of one to two orders of magnitude with respect to other existing MHD models. In this sense, conventional numerical algorithms do not provide suitable models for application of modern control techniques into real time expert systems. The proposed inverse variable technique is rather suitable for incorporation in a comprehensive expert system for feedback control of fusion tokamaks in real time

  8. Brain Computer Interface-Controlling Devices Utilizing The Alpha Brain Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Hundia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the development and testing of an interface system whereby one can control external devices by voluntarily controlling alpha waves that is through eye movement. Such a system may be used for the control of prosthetics robotic arms and external devices like wheelchairs using the alpha brain waves and the Mu rhythm. The response generated through the movement of the eye detecting and controlling the amplitude of the alpha brain waves is interfaced and processed to control Robotic systems and smart home control. In order to measure the response of alpha waves over different lobes of the brain initially I measured these signals over 32 regions using silver chloride plated electrodes. By the opening and the closure of the eyes and the movement in the up-down left-right directions and processing these movements measuring them over the occipital region I was able to differentiate the amplitude of the alpha waves generated due to these several movements. In the First session testing period subjects were asked to close and open their eyes and they were able to control limited movements of a Robot and a prosthetic arm. In the Second 2session the movement of the eyes was also considered left-right up-down along with the opening and closure during this time span they were able to control more dimensions of the robot several devices at the same time using different eye movements.

  9. Contributions to the 7th International Conference on plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The report contains three papers presented in the 7th International Conference on plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices held in Princeton (USA) 5-9 May 1986, all referred to the FT Tokamak

  10. Invited and contributed papers presented at the 22. EPS conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    In this report one invited and fifteen contributed papers by researchers of the `Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasmas`, Lausanne, to the 22. EPS Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics are assembled. figs., tabs., refs.

  11. Genetically controlled fusion, exocytosis and fission of artificial vesicles-a roadmap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bönzli, Eva; Hadorn, Maik; de Lucrezia, Davide

    2011-01-01

    were shown to fuse if a special class of viral proteins, termed fusogenic peptides, were added to the external medium (Nomura et al. 2004). In the present work, we intend to develop genetically controlled fusion, fission and exocytosis of vesicles by the synthesis of peptides within vesicles. First, we...... enclosed synthesized peptides in vesicles to induce in a next step fusion of adjacent vesicles, fission and exocytosis of nested vesicles. Second, we will replace the peptides by an enclosed cell-free expression system to internally synthesize fusion peptides. To control the gene expression, different...

  12. Frontal Alpha Oscillations and Attentional Control: A Virtual Reality Neurofeedback Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Anna M; Davelaar, Eddy J

    2018-05-15

    Two competing views about alpha oscillations suggest that cortical alpha reflect either cortical inactivity or cortical processing efficiency. We investigated the role of alpha oscillations in attentional control, as measured with a Stroop task. We used neurofeedback to train 22 participants to increase their level of alpha amplitude. Based on the conflict/control loop theory, we selected to train prefrontal alpha and focus on the Gratton effect as an index of deployment of attentional control. We expected an increase or a decrease in the Gratton effect with increase in neural learning depending on whether frontal alpha oscillations reflect cortical idling or enhanced processing efficiency, respectively. In order to induce variability in neural learning beyond natural occurring individual differences, we provided half of the participants with feedback on alpha amplitude in a 3-dimensional (3D) virtual reality environment and the other half received feedback in a 2D environment. Our results showed variable neural learning rates, with larger rates in the 3D compared to the 2D group, corroborating prior evidence of individual differences in EEG-based learning and the influence of a virtual environment. Regression analyses revealed a significant association between the learning rate and changes on deployment of attentional control, with larger learning rates being associated with larger decreases in the Gratton effect. This association was not modulated by feedback medium. The study supports the view of frontal alpha oscillations being associated with efficient neurocognitive processing and demonstrates the utility of neurofeedback training in addressing theoretical questions in the non-neurofeedback literature. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Applications of intelligent-measurement systems in controlled-fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.; Lindquist, W.B.; Peterson, R.L.; Wyman, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The paper describes the control and instrumentation for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, USA. This large-scale scientific experiment in controlled thermonuclear fusion, which is currently being expanded, originally had 3000 devices to control and 7000 sensors to monitor. A hierarchical computer control system, is used with nine minicomputers forming the supervisory system. There are approximately 55 local control and instrumentation microcomputers. In addition, each device has its own monitoring equipment, which in some cases consists of a small computer. After describing the overall system a more detailed account is given of the control and instrumentation for two large superconducting magnets

  14. Robust adaptive control of the sawtooth instability in nuclear fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolder, J.J.; Witvoet, G.; Baar, de M.R.; Wouw, van de N.; Haring, M.A.M.; Westerhof, E.; Doelman, N.J.; Steinbuch, M.

    2012-01-01

    The sawtooth instability is a repetitive phenomenon occurring in plasmas of tokamak nuclear fusion reactors. Experimental studies of these instabilities and the effect they have on the plasma (notably the drive of secondary instabilities and consequent performance reduction) for a wide variety of

  15. Fundamentals of plasma physics and controlled fusion. The third edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2011-06-01

    Primary objective of this lecture note is to provide a basic text for the students to study plasma physics and controlled fusion researches. Secondary objective is to offer a reference book describing analytical methods of plasma physics for the researchers. This was written based on lecture notes for a graduate course and an advanced undergraduate course those have been offered at Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo. In ch.1 and 2, basic concept of plasma and its characteristics are explained. In ch.3, orbits of ion and electron are described in several magnetic field configurations. Chapter 4 formulates Boltzmann equation of velocity space distribution function, which is the basic relation of plasma physics. From ch.5 to ch.9, plasmas are described as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid. MHD equation of motion (ch.5), equilibrium (ch.6) and diffusion and confinement time of plasma (ch.7) are described by the fluid model. Chapters 8 and 9 discuss problems of MHD instabilities whether a small perturbation will grow to disrupt the plasma or will damp to a stable state. The basic MHD equation of motion can be derived by taking an appropriate average of Boltzmann equation. This mathematical process is described in appendix A. The derivation of useful energy integral formula of axisymmetric toroidal system and the analysis of high n ballooning mode are described in app. B. From ch.10 to ch.14, plasmas are treated by kinetic theory. This medium, in which waves and perturbations propagate, is generally inhomogeneous and anisotropic. It may absorb or even amplify the wave. Cold plasma model described in ch.10 is applicable when the thermal velocity of plasma particles is much smaller than the phase velocity of wave. Because of its simplicity, the dielectric tensor of cold plasma can be easily derived and the properties of various wave can be discussed in the case of cold plasma. If the refractive index becomes large and the phase velocity of the

  16. PGC-1alpha Deficiency Causes Multi-System Energy Metabolic Derangements: Muscle Dysfunction, Abnormal Weight Control and Hepatic Steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leone Teresa C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The gene encoding the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha was targeted in mice. PGC-1alpha null (PGC-1alpha-/- mice were viable. However, extensive phenotyping revealed multi-system abnormalities indicative of an abnormal energy metabolic phenotype. The postnatal growth of heart and slow-twitch skeletal muscle, organs with high mitochondrial energy demands, is blunted in PGC-1alpha-/- mice. With age, the PGC-1alpha-/- mice develop abnormally increased body fat, a phenotype that is more severe in females. Mitochondrial number and respiratory capacity is diminished in slow-twitch skeletal muscle of PGC-1alpha-/- mice, leading to reduced muscle performance and exercise capacity. PGC-1alpha-/- mice exhibit a modest diminution in cardiac function related largely to abnormal control of heart rate. The PGC-1alpha-/- mice were unable to maintain core body temperature following exposure to cold, consistent with an altered thermogenic response. Following short-term starvation, PGC-1alpha-/- mice develop hepatic steatosis due to a combination of reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity and an increased expression of lipogenic genes. Surprisingly, PGC-1alpha-/- mice were less susceptible to diet-induced insulin resistance than wild-type controls. Lastly, vacuolar lesions were detected in the central nervous system of PGC-1alpha-/- mice. These results demonstrate that PGC-1alpha is necessary for appropriate adaptation to the metabolic and physiologic stressors of postnatal life.

  17. PGC-1alpha deficiency causes multi-system energy metabolic derangements: muscle dysfunction, abnormal weight control and hepatic steatosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa C Leone

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The gene encoding the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha was targeted in mice. PGC-1alpha null (PGC-1alpha(-/- mice were viable. However, extensive phenotyping revealed multi-system abnormalities indicative of an abnormal energy metabolic phenotype. The postnatal growth of heart and slow-twitch skeletal muscle, organs with high mitochondrial energy demands, is blunted in PGC-1alpha(-/- mice. With age, the PGC-1alpha(-/- mice develop abnormally increased body fat, a phenotype that is more severe in females. Mitochondrial number and respiratory capacity is diminished in slow-twitch skeletal muscle of PGC-1alpha(-/- mice, leading to reduced muscle performance and exercise capacity. PGC-1alpha(-/- mice exhibit a modest diminution in cardiac function related largely to abnormal control of heart rate. The PGC-1alpha(-/- mice were unable to maintain core body temperature following exposure to cold, consistent with an altered thermogenic response. Following short-term starvation, PGC-1alpha(-/- mice develop hepatic steatosis due to a combination of reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity and an increased expression of lipogenic genes. Surprisingly, PGC-1alpha(-/- mice were less susceptible to diet-induced insulin resistance than wild-type controls. Lastly, vacuolar lesions were detected in the central nervous system of PGC-1alpha(-/- mice. These results demonstrate that PGC-1alpha is necessary for appropriate adaptation to the metabolic and physiologic stressors of postnatal life.

  18. Macrophage fusion is controlled by the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-PEST/PTPN12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Inmoo; Davidson, Dominique; Souza, Cleiton Martins; Vacher, Jean; Veillette, André

    2013-06-01

    Macrophages can undergo cell-cell fusion, leading to the formation of multinucleated giant cells and osteoclasts. This process is believed to promote the proteolytic activity of macrophages toward pathogens, foreign bodies, and extracellular matrices. Here, we examined the role of PTP-PEST (PTPN12), a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase, in macrophage fusion. Using a macrophage-targeted PTP-PEST-deficient mouse, we determined that PTP-PEST was not needed for macrophage differentiation or cytokine production. However, it was necessary for interleukin-4-induced macrophage fusion into multinucleated giant cells in vitro. It was also needed for macrophage fusion following implantation of a foreign body in vivo. Moreover, in the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line, PTP-PEST was required for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-triggered macrophage fusion into osteoclasts. PTP-PEST had no impact on expression of fusion mediators such as β-integrins, E-cadherin, and CD47, which enable macrophages to become fusion competent. However, it was needed for polarization of macrophages, migration induced by the chemokine CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), and integrin-induced spreading, three key events in the fusion process. PTP-PEST deficiency resulted in specific hyperphosphorylation of the protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2 and the adaptor paxillin. Moreover, a fusion defect was induced upon treatment of normal macrophages with a Pyk2 inhibitor. Together, these data argue that macrophage fusion is critically dependent on PTP-PEST. This function is seemingly due to the ability of PTP-PEST to control phosphorylation of Pyk2 and paxillin, thereby regulating cell polarization, migration, and spreading.

  19. Some introductory notes on the problem of nuclear energy by controlled fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedretti, E.

    1988-01-01

    Written for scientists and technologist interested in, but unfamiliar with nuclear energy by controlled fusion reactions, this ''sui generis'' review paper attempts to provide the reader, as shortly as possible, with a general idea of the main issues at stake in nuclear fusion research. With the purpose of keeping this paper within a reasonable length, the various subjects are only outlined in their essence, basic features, underlying principles, etc., without entering into details, which are left to the quoted literature. Due to the particular readership of this journal, vacuum problems and/or aspects of fusion research anyhow related with vacuum science and technology are evidentiated. After reviewing fusion reactions' cross sections, fusion by accelerators and muon catalyzed fusion are described, followed by mention of Lawson's criteria and of plasma confinement features. Then, inertial confinement fusion is dealt with, also including one example of laser system (Nova), one of accelerator facility (PBFA-II) and some guesses on the classified Centurion-Halite program. Magnetic confinement fusion research is also reviewed, in particulary reporting one example of linear machine (MFTF-B), two examples of toroidal machines other than Tokamak (ATF and Eta-Beta-II) and various examples of Tokamaks, including PBX and PBX-M; TFTR, JET, JT-60, T-15 and Tore-Supra (large machines); Alcator A, FT, Alcator C/MTX, Alcator C-Mod and T-14 (compact high field machines). Tokamaks under design for ignition experiments (Ignitor, CIT, Ignitex and NET) are also illustrated. Thermal conversion of fusion power and direct generation of electricity are mentioned; conceptual design of fusion power plants are considered and illustrated by four examples (STARFIRE, WILDCAT, MARS and CASCADE). The D 3 He fuel cycle is discussed as an alternative more acceptable than Deuterium-Tritium, and thw Candor proposal is reported. After recalling past experience of the fission power development, some

  20. Controlled Fusion with Hot-ion Mode in a Degenerate Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Son and N.J. Fisch

    2005-01-01

    In a Fermi-degenerate plasma, the rate of electron physical processes is much reduced from the classical prediction, possibly enabling new regimes for controlled nuclear fusion, including the hot-ion mode, a regime in which the ion temperature exceeds the electron temperature. Previous calculations of these processes in dense plasmas are now corrected for partial degeneracy and relativistic effects, leading to an expanded regime of self-sustained fusion

  1. 10th International Conference and School on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2004-01-01

    About 240 abstracts by Ukrainian and foreign authors submitted to 10-th International Conference and School on Plasma Physics and Controlled fusion have been considered by Conference Program Committee members. All the abstracts have been divided into 8 groups: magnetic confinement systems: stellarators, tokamaks, alternative conceptions; ITER and Fusion reactor aspects; basic plasma physics; space plasma; plasma dynamics and plasma-wall interaction; plasma electronics; low temperature plasma and plasma technologies; plasma diagnostics

  2. Twentyseventh European physical society conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igitkhanov, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The twentyseventh European physical society conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics was held in Budapest, 12-16 June 2000. About 10 invited papers were presented, covering a wide range of problems in plasma physics, including confinement and transport issues in fusion devices, astrophysics and industrial application of plasmas. More than 100 papers were presented on plasma theory and experiments from tokamaks and stellarators. Some of the ITER-relevant issues covered are described in this newsletter

  3. Implications of the second law for future directions in controlled fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.R.; Miley, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Many existing energy related technologies have developed under the influence of social, economic, or state of the art constraints, and they cannot be viewed as optimum systems according to the second law of thermodynamics. Controlled fusion research presents an opportunity to optimize a nascent technology with respect to second law considerations in order to develop a practical energy source. In its present state of development, fusion research offers several independent approaches that may result in a net power producing fusion reactor. This paper discusses how second law considerations might be used to narrow the range of choices that must be made among various fusion fuel cycles. From a second law point of view, the most desirable fusion reactors are those for which the energy of charged particles can be converted directly into d.c. electrical power, while still allowing the energy that could be recovered by an efficient high-temperature 'blanket' to be transported largely by radiation. Fusion research in all major industrialized countries is developing the deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel cycle for first-generation fusion power plants. It will be shown that other fuel cycles have significant advantages over the D-T fuel cycle according to second law principles. (author)

  4. Identification and quantification of N alpha-acetylated Y. pestis fusion protein F1-V expressed in Escherichia coli using LCMS E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariola, Pauline A; Russell, Brett A; Monahan, Steven J; Stroop, Steven D

    2007-05-31

    N-terminal acetylation in E coli is a rare event catalyzed by three known N-acetyl-transferases (NATs), each having a specific ribosomal protein substrate. Multiple, gram-scale lots of recombinant F1-V, a fusion protein constructed from Y. Pestis antigens, were expressed and purified from a single stably transformed E. coli cell bank. A variant form of F1-V with mass increased by 42-43 Da was detected in all purified lots by electrospray orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS). Peptide mapping LCMS localized the increased mass to an N-terminal Lys-C peptide, residues 1-24, and defined it as +42.0308+/-0.0231 Da using a LockSpray exact mass feature and a leucine enkaphalin mass standard. Sequencing of the variant 1-24 peptide by LCMS and high-energy collision induced dissociation (LCMS(E)) further localized the modification to the amino terminal tri-peptide ADL and identified the modification as N(alpha)-acetylation. The average content of N(alpha)-acetylated F1-V in five lots was 24.7+/-2.6% indicating that a stable acetylation activity for F1-V was established in the E. coli expression system. Alignment of the F1-V N-terminal sequence with those of other known N(alpha)-acetylated ectopic proteins expressed in E. coli reveals a substrate motif analogous to the eukaryote NatA' acetylation pathway and distinct from endogenous E. coli NAT substrates.

  5. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion. Synthesis report 2011; Programme de recherche Fusion thermonucleaire controlee. Rapport de synthese 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaucher, C. [Secretariat d' Etat a l' education et a la recherche, Berne (Switzerland); Tran, M. Q.; Villard, L. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Marot, L. [University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Since 1978, research on thermonuclear fusion in Switzerland is closely related to the research programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The Swiss projects tackle aspects of plasma physics and fusion technology. Switzerland participates to the construction and operation of the Joint European Torus (JET), which started operation again in 2011. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is the last step before DEMO, a prototype fusion reactor able to deliver electricity and demonstrate the economic viability of fusion energy. The 'Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas' (CRPP) of the EPFL went on with its participation to the scientific and technological programme of EURATOM. Researches are carried out essentially on 2 sites: (i) at EPFL, where topics dealt with include the physics of magnetic confinement studied using the Variable Configuration Tokamak (TCV), the basic experiment TORPEX, theory and numerical modelling, and the technology of plasma heating and current generation by hyper-frequency waves; (ii) at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), where activities are devoted to superconductivity and structure materials. Thanks to the large flexibility of the TCV design and operation modus, plasmas of different shapes can be created and controlled, what is a very useful option to verify numerical simulation results. Besides, the injection of millimetre waves allows directing the injected power according to specific profiles. In the TCV it could be demonstrated for the first time that the injection of Electronic Cyclotronic Heating (ECH) waves is able to double the frequency of so-called 'Edge Localized Modes' (ELM), reducing by a factor of 2 the energy expelled by each ELM. In particular, it was possible to considerably reduce the statistical dispersion of the repetition frequency of ELM, and to avoid the appearance of gigantic ELM that are particularly harmful for reactor operation. The effect of plasma

  6. New concepts for controlled fusion reactor blanket design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Avci, H.; El-Maghrabi, M.

    1975-01-01

    Several new concepts for fusion reactor blanket design based on the idea of shifting, or tailoring, the neutron spectrum incident on the first structural wall are presented. The spectral shifter is a nonstructural element which can be made of graphite, silicon carbide, or three dimensionally woven carbon fibers (and containing other materials as appropriate) placed between the neutron source and the first structural wall. The softened neutron spectrum incident on the structural components leads to lower gas production and atom displacement rates than in more standard fusion blanket designs. In turn, this results in longer anticipated lifetimes for the structural materials and can significantly reduce radioactivity and afterheat levels. In addition, the neutron spectrum in the first structural wall can be made to approach the flux shape in fast breeder reactors. Such spectral softening means that existing radiation facilities may be more profitably used to provide relevant materials radiation damage data for the structural materials in these fusion blanket designs. This general class of blanket concepts are referred to as internal spectral shifter and energy converter, or ISSEC concepts. These specific design concepts fall into three main categories: ISSEC/EB concepts based on utilizing existing designs which breed tritium behind the first structural wall; ISSEC/IB concepts based on breeding tritium inside the first vacuum wall; and ISSEC/Bu concepts based on using boron, carbon, and perhaps, beryllium to obtain an energy multiplier and converter design that does not attempt to breed tritium or utilize lithium. The detailed analyses relate specifically to the nuclear performance of ISSEC systems and to a discussion of materials radiation damage problems in the structural material.(U.S.)

  7. Controlled nuclear fusion, a challenge on the engineer. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, H.

    1978-01-01

    A very important and complex subject, on which the engineer together with the physicist must meditate very intensely, concerns the practicableness, the operation safety and the economy of the electrotechnical components and systems as are required in the actual reactor scale. There upon it depends essentially according to which plasma-physical concept - magnetic inclusion or inertia inclusion - a fusion reactor could work in the future. The blanket structure, the breeding of the tritium connected therewith and the electrotechnical problems, which are recognized at the transmission of plasma-physical concepts into actual reactor scales and at the adaptation to reactor requirements are discussed in this contribution. (orig.) 891 HP 892 AG [de

  8. Computational and biological characterization of fusion proteins of two insecticidal proteins for control of insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Shaista; Naz, Sehrish; Amin, Imran; Jander, Georg; Ul-Haq, Zaheer; Mansoor, Shahid

    2018-03-19

    Sucking pests pose a serious agricultural challenge, as available transgenic technologies such as Bacillus thuringiensis crystal toxins (Bt) are not effective against them. One approach is to produce fusion protein toxins for the control of these pests. Two protein toxins, Hvt (ω-atracotoxin from Hadronyche versuta) and onion leaf lectin, were translationally fused to evaluate the negative effects of fusion proteins on Phenacoccus solenopsis (mealybug), a phloem-feeding insect pest. Hvt was cloned both N-terminally (HL) and then C-terminally (LH) in the fusion protein constructs, which were expressed transiently in Nicotiana tabacum using a Potato Virus X (PVX) vector. The HL fusion protein was found to be more effective against P. solenopsis, with an 83% mortality rate, as compared to the LH protein, which caused 65% mortality. Hvt and lectin alone caused 42% and 45%, respectively, under the same conditions. Computational studies of both fusion proteins showed that the HL protein is more stable than the LH protein. Together, these results demonstrate that translational fusion of two insecticidal proteins improved the insecticidal activity relative to each protein individually and could be expressed in transgenic plants for effective control of sucking pests.

  9. Detection of {alpha} particles using semiconductors. Application to the control of plutonium extraction; Detection des particules {alpha} par semiconducteurs application au controle de l'extraction du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-03-01

    A study is made of a particles produced by thick sources, using either diffused junction or surface barrier semiconductor detectors for controlling continuously the plutonium extraction process. For this, a presenting apparatus is described in which the solutions to be analyzed flow in contact with the detector protected by a thin mica membrane. A method is described which gives a precise recording of the spectra and which thus allows the separation of two or more {alpha} emitters present in the same solution. This method has been applied to the measurement of {sup 239}Pu in the the presence of {sup 241}Am with an accuracy of {+-}5 per cent. In the second part of the report is considered the detection of plutonium in solutions of {beta} - {gamma} emitting fission products. Pile-up is reduced by using a fast amplification chain associated to totally depleted thin detectors. Under these conditions a few mg of {sup 239}Pu can be detected in solutions of fission products having an activity of 100 curies/liter. A method is given for discriminating {alpha} and {beta} particles, it is based on the difference in the collection times for the charges liberated by these particles in the detector. (author) [French] On etudie la detection de particules {alpha} issues de sources epaisses par detecteurs semiconducteurs a jonction diffusee ou a barriere de surface pour le controle continu du procede d'extraction du plutonium. A cet effet on decrit un appareil presentateur dans lequel les solutions a analyser circulent au contact du detecteur protege par une membrane mince de mica. On decrit une methode qui permet par le trace precis des spectres de separer deux ou plusieurs emetteurs {alpha} presents dans une meme solution. Cette methode a ete appliquee a la mesure du {sup 239}Pu en presence de {sup 241}Am avec une precision de {+-} 5 pour cent. Dans la deuxieme partie on traite de la detection du plutonium dans des solutions de produits de fission emetteurs {beta} and {gamma}. On

  10. Control oriented modeling and simulation of the sawtooth instability in nuclear fusion tokamak plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvoet, G.; Westerhof, E.; Steinbuch, M.; Doelman, N.J.; Baar, de M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Tokamak plasmas in nuclear fusion are subject to various instabilities. A clear example is the sawtooth instability, which has both positive and negative effects on the plasma. To optimize between these effects control of the sawtooth period is necessary. This paper presents a simple control

  11. An advanced computer-controlled automatic alpha-beta air sample counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, W.P.; Bruinekool, D.J.; Stapleton, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    An improved computer-controlled automatic alpha-beta air sample counter was developed, based upon an earlier automatic air sample counter design. The system consists of an automatic sample changer, an electronic counting system utilizing a large silicon diode detector, a small desk-type microcomputer, a high-speed matrix printer and the necessary data interfaces. The system is operated by commands from the keyboard and programs stored on magnetic tape cassettes. The programs provide for background counting, Chi 2 test, radon subtraction and sample counting for sample periods of one day to one week. Output data are printed by the matrix printer on standard multifold paper. The data output includes gross beta, gross alpha and plutonium results. Data are automatically corrected for background, counter efficiency, and in the gross alpha and plutonium channels, for the presence of radon

  12. Advanced computer-controlled automatic alpha-beta air sample counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, W.P.; Bruinekool, D.J.; Stapleton, E.E.

    1983-01-01

    An improved computer controlled automatic alpha-beta air sample counter was developed, based upon an earlier automatic air sample counter design. The system consists of an automatic sample changer, an electronic counting system utilizing a large silicon diode detector, a small desk-type microcomputer, a high speed matrix printer, and the necessary data interfaces. The system is operated by commands from the keyboard and programs stored on magnetic tape cassettes. The programs provide for background counting, Chi 2 test, radon subtraction, and sample counting for sample periods of one day to one week. Output data are printed by the matrix printer on standard multifold paper. The data output includes gross beta, gross alpha, and plutonium results. Data are automatically corrected for background, counter efficiency, and in the gross alpha and plutonium channels, for the presence of radon

  13. A Bayesian sequential design using alpha spending function to control type I error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Han; Yu, Qingzhao

    2017-10-01

    We propose in this article a Bayesian sequential design using alpha spending functions to control the overall type I error in phase III clinical trials. We provide algorithms to calculate critical values, power, and sample sizes for the proposed design. Sensitivity analysis is implemented to check the effects from different prior distributions, and conservative priors are recommended. We compare the power and actual sample sizes of the proposed Bayesian sequential design with different alpha spending functions through simulations. We also compare the power of the proposed method with frequentist sequential design using the same alpha spending function. Simulations show that, at the same sample size, the proposed method provides larger power than the corresponding frequentist sequential design. It also has larger power than traditional Bayesian sequential design which sets equal critical values for all interim analyses. When compared with other alpha spending functions, O'Brien-Fleming alpha spending function has the largest power and is the most conservative in terms that at the same sample size, the null hypothesis is the least likely to be rejected at early stage of clinical trials. And finally, we show that adding a step of stop for futility in the Bayesian sequential design can reduce the overall type I error and reduce the actual sample sizes.

  14. rhBMP-2 for posterolateral instrumented lumbar fusion: a multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, R John; Alexander, David; Bailey, Stewart; Mahood, James; Abraham, Ed; McBroom, Robert; Jodoin, Alain; Fisher, Charles

    2013-12-01

    Multicenter randomized controlled trial. To evaluate the effect of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) on radiographical fusion rate and clinical outcome for surgical lumbar arthrodesis compared with iliac crest autograft. In many types of spinal surgery, radiographical fusion is a primary outcome equally important to clinical improvement, ensuring long-term stability and axial support. Biologic induction of bone growth has become a commonly used adjunct in obtaining this objective. We undertook this study to objectify the efficacy of rhBMP-2 compared with traditional iliac crest autograft in instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion. Patients undergoing 1- or 2-level instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion were randomized to receive either autograft or rhBMP-2 for their fusion construct. Clinical and radiographical outcome measures were followed for 2 to 4 years postoperatively. One hundred ninety seven patients were successfully randomized among the 8 participating institutions. Adverse events attributable to the study drug were not significantly different compared with controls. However, the control group experienced significantly more graft-site complications as might be expected. 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, Oswestry Disability Index, and leg/back pain scores were comparable between the 2 groups. After 4 years of follow-up, radiographical fusion rates remained significantly higher in patients treated with rhBMP-2 (94%) than those who received autograft (69%) (P = 0.007). The use of rhBMP-2 for instrumented posterolateral lumbar surgery significantly improves the chances of radiographical fusion compared with the use of autograft. However, there is no associated improvement in clinical outcome within a 4-year follow-up period. These results suggest that use of rhBMP-2 should be considered in cases where lumbar arthrodesis is of primary concern.

  15. Reaching to a featured formula to deduce the energy of the heaviest particles producing from the controlled thermonuclear fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Raad H.; Oudah, Osamah N.

    2018-05-01

    Thermonuclear fusion reaction plays an important role in developing and construction any power plant system. Studying the physical behavior for the possible mechanism governed energies released by the fusion products to precise understanding the related kinematics. In this work a theoretical formula controlled the general applied thermonuclear fusion reactions is achieved to calculating the fusion products energy depending upon the reactants physical properties and therefore, one can calculate other parameters governed a given reaction. By using this formula, the energy spectrum of 4He produced from T-3He fusion reaction has been sketched with respect to reaction angle and incident energy ranged from (0.08-0.6) MeV.

  16. Controlled-air incineration of alpha-bearing solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.A.; Draper, W.E.; Neuls, A.S.; Newmyer, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is completing a study of controlled-air incineration (CAI) as a technique for volume reduction and stabilization of combustible transuranic-contaminated solid wastes. To demonstrate feasibility, a process has been assembled and operated on synthetic and contaminated combustibles. This paper summarizes the CAI project history, process design, provisions for radioactive operation, experimental results to date, and future plans. Achievements include operation at the design feed rate as well as combustion of separate feed compositions including cellulosics, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and latex rubber. Refractory life has been satisfactory to date, with studies continuing. The offgas cleanup system has proven to be extremely effective; the final high-efficiency filters showing virtually no pressure drop increase. The ability of the system to process high concentrations of PVC has been demonstrated with no chloride-induced degradation detected. Chloride and sulfate removal from the offgas has been excellent with concentrations reaching 8 and 10 ppM maximum, respectively, in the process condensate

  17. Italy, EURATOM and Early Research on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (1957-1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curli, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter traces the early origins of European collaboration in controlled thermonuclear fusion research, within the larger picture of Cold War nuclear policy in the late 1950s-early 1960s, and as a consequence of the signing of the EURATOM treaty in 1957. It then presents some preliminary findings on the Association contract which was signed in 1960 between EURATOM and Italy, in order to carry out research in controlled thermonuclear fusion at the then newly created 'Laboratori nazionali di Frascati', near Rome, within the framework of the Comitato Nazionale Energia Nucleare (CNEN), the Italian civilian nuclear energy agency.

  18. Study of the application of advanced control systems to fusion experiments and reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-05-01

    The work accomplished to date toward the formulation of an advanced control system concept for large-scale magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion devices is summarized. The work was concentrated in three major areas: (1) general control studies and identification of control issues, (2) exploration of possible direct interactions with AEC National Laboratories, and (3) identification of simulation requirements to support control studies. (U.S.)

  19. Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, September 1965: Review Of Experimental Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzer, Lyman Jr. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1966-04-15

    To my way of thinking the most significant milestone of the present meeting is the substantial body of evidence that has been presented on the hydromagnetic stabilization of open-ended systems. The success of minimum magnetic-field ('minimum-B') configurations in stabilizing a plasma marks one more area where theory and experiment in the field of plasma physics have been brought together with gratifying results. Let me go back a little into history and discuss the gradual growth of our information on hydromagnetic instabilities generally. Many of you will remember that hydromagnetic theory was applied to the self-pinched discharge in the early years of the controUed fusion programme. The predictions of this theory were very shortly fulfilled by the observations; the effects were so unmistakable that it was not difficult to compare the theory with the observations. On the streak pictures of the linear or toroidal discharges that were obtained in those early years one saw clearly the diffuse plasma column, which first contracted to a narrow filament and then started to distort and kink until finally it hit the wall. Under some conditions the plasma was observed to break up into a series of blobs like a string of sausages. Since the behaviour was exactly what the theory had predicted, it took no very great experimental wisdom to conclude that observations had confirmed theory.

  20. Current control of superconducting coils for fusion experimental facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ise, T.; Etou, D.; Chikaraishi, H.; Takami, S.; Inoue, T.

    2003-01-01

    The LHD (Large Helical Device) has twelve superconducting coils and six dc power supplies, and following specifications are required for its control system; each coil current must be controlled independently, the steady state control error is less than 0.01% of the reference value, the current settling time for 0.1% of control error is less than 1 second, and the control system must be robust against turbulence caused by appearance and disappearance of the plasma, parameter errors and external electro-magnetic noises. In this paper, the design and test results of the coil current control system for the LHD are described. The good response and robustness are in the relation of trade off each other. H-infinity controller is one of schemes to guarantee robustness for stability. However, the independent responses of six coils were impossible by the H-infinity controller only. To resolve this problem, we applied a feed-forward control with the H-infinity control. Moreover, the advanced design method of H-infinity controller using μ-synthesis was applied to guarantee the control performance in the whole operating condition. As a result, good control results were obtained by experiments. (author)

  1. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion - Synthesis report 2010; Programme de recherche Fusion thermonucleaire controlee. Rapport de synthese 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaucher, C. [Secretariat d' Etat a l' education et a la recherche, Berne (Switzerland); Tran, M. Q.; Villard, L. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Marot, L. [University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    Since 1978, research on thermonuclear fusion in Switzerland is closely related to the research programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The Swiss projects tackle aspects of plasma physics and fusion technology. Switzerland participates to the construction and operation of the Joint European Torus (JET). The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is being built; the first plasma is expected in 2019. The 'Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas' (CRPP) of the EPFL participates to EURATOM scientific and technological projects in magnetic confinement physics, through an experimental contribution (the Variable Configuration Tokamak, TCV) and theoretical studies. Thanks to the large flexibility of the TCV design and operation modus, plasmas of different shapes can be created and controlled, what is a very useful option to verify numerical simulation results. Besides, the injection of millimetre waves allows directing the injected power according to specific profiles. A configuration of type 'snowflakes' could be created, reducing the power deposition at the edge of the plasma. Theoretical studies on turbulence have improved the plasma stability in the TCV. For the first time in the world, TCV could reach a stable plasma, the plasma current being generated using the so-called 'bootstrap' phenomenon. Besides turbulence, studies were focused on heat and particle transport in tokamaks, on an analysis of the equilibrium and magneto-hydrodynamic stability of tokamaks and stellarators, on the application of radiofrequency waves and on the optimization of new confinement configurations. Experiments in the JET facility confirmed the numerical results of theoretical simulations. The TORPEX facility, which is simpler than TCV, allows high space-temporal resolution measurements for the study of turbulences and plasma threads ('blobs'). At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), research topics include

  2. Abstracts of the 23rd European physical society conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutych, I F; Gresillon, D; Sitenko, A G

    1997-12-31

    This document contains the abstracts of the invited and contributed papers presented at 23 EPS conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics. The main contents are: tokamaks, stellarators; alternative magnetic confinement; plasma edge physics; plasma heating and current drive; plasma diagnostics; basic collisionless plasma physics; high intensity laser produced plasmas and inertial confinement; low-temperature plasmas.

  3. Abstracts of the 23rd European physical society conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutych, I.F.; Gresillon, D.; Sitenko, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    This document contains the abstracts of the invited and contributed papers presented at 23 EPS conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics. The main contents are: tokamaks, stellarators; alternative magnetic confinement; plasma edge physics; plasma heating and current drive; plasma diagnostics; basic collisionless plasma physics; high intensity laser produced plasmas and inertial confinement; low-temperature plasmas

  4. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1994. V. 3. Proceedings of the fifteenth international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This is the third volume of the proceedings of the 15th International Atomic Energy Agency Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research held in Seville, Spain, from 26 September - 1 October 1994. Contained in it are 29 papers on inertial confinement and 46 papers on magnetic confinement. Refs, figs, tabs

  5. Anomaly Detection for Resilient Control Systems Using Fuzzy-Neural Data Fusion Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic; Timothy R. McJunkin

    2011-08-01

    Resilient control systems in critical infrastructures require increased cyber-security and state-awareness. One of the necessary conditions for achieving the desired high level of resiliency is timely reporting and understanding of the status and behavioral trends of the control system. This paper describes the design and development of a neural-network based data-fusion system for increased state-awareness of resilient control systems. The proposed system consists of a dedicated data-fusion engine for each component of the control system. Each data-fusion engine implements three-layered alarm system consisting of: (1) conventional threshold-based alarms, (2) anomalous behavior detector using self-organizing maps, and (3) prediction error based alarms using neural network based signal forecasting. The proposed system was integrated with a model of the Idaho National Laboratory Hytest facility, which is a testing facility for hybrid energy systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the implemented data fusion system provides timely plant performance monitoring and cyber-state reporting.

  6. Heterologous expression of Homo sapiens alpha-folate receptors in E. coli by fusion with a trigger factor for enhanced solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Beatriz Nogueira Messias; Fotoran, Wesley Luzetti; Canduri, Fernanda; Souza, Dulce Helena Ferreira; Wunderlich, Gerhard; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2018-02-01

    The role of Alpha folate receptors (FRα) in folate metabolism and cancer development has been extensively studied. The reason for this is not only associated to its direct relation to disease development but also to its potential use as a highly sensitive and specific biomarker for cancers therapies. Over the recent years, the crystal structures of human FRα complexed with different ligands were described relying on an expensive and time-consuming production process. Here, we constructed an efficient system for the expression and purification of a human FRα in E. coli. Unlike a conventional expression method we used a specific protein fusion expressing the target protein together with a trigger factor (TF). This factor is a chaperone from E. coli that assists the correct folding of newly synthesized polypeptide chains. The activity of rTFFRα was comparable to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored proteins extracted from HeLa tumor cells. Our work demonstrates a straightforward and versatile approach for the production of active human FRα by heterologous expression; this approach further enhances the development of inhibition studies and biotechnological applications. The purified product was then conjugated to liposomes, obtaining a 35% higher signal from densitometry measurement on the immunoblotting assay in the contruct containing the Ni-NTA tag, as a mimesis of an exosome, which is of vital importance to nanotherapeutic techniques associated to treatment and diagnosis of tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Buffett's Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting...

  8. Perceptual relearning of binocular fusion after hypoxic brain damage: four controlled single-case treatment studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaadt, Anna-Katharina; Schmidt, Lena; Kuhn, Caroline; Summ, Miriam; Adams, Michaela; Garbacenkaite, Ruta; Leonhardt, Eva; Reinhart, Stefan; Kerkhoff, Georg

    2014-05-01

    Hypoxic brain damage is characterized by widespread, diffuse-disseminated brain lesions, which may cause severe disturbances in binocular vision, leading to diplopia and loss of stereopsis, for which no evaluated treatment is currently available. The study evaluated the effects of a novel binocular vision treatment designed to improve binocular fusion and stereopsis as well as to reduce diplopia in patients with cerebral hypoxia. Four patients with severely reduced convergent fusion, stereopsis, and reading duration due to hypoxic brain damage were treated in a single-subject baseline design, with three baseline assessments before treatment to control for spontaneous recovery (pretherapy), an assessment immediately after a treatment period of 6 weeks (posttherapy), and two follow-up tests 3 and 6 months after treatment to assess stability of improvements. Patients received a novel fusion and dichoptic training using 3 different devices designed to slowly increase fusional and disparity angle. After the treatment, all 4 patients improved significantly in binocular fusion, subjective reading duration until diplopia emerged, and 2 of 4 patients improved significantly in local stereopsis. No significant changes were observed during the pretherapy baseline period and the follow-up period, thus ruling out spontaneous recovery and demonstrating long-term stability of treatment effects. This proof-of-principle study indicates a substantial treatment-induced plasticity after hypoxia in the relearning of binocular vision and offers a viable treatment option. Moreover, it provides new hope and direction for the development of effective rehabilitation strategies to treat neurovisual deficits resulting from hypoxic brain damage.

  9. Risk assessment of computer-controlled safety systems for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryer, M.O.; Bruske, S.Z.

    1983-01-01

    The complexity of fusion reactor systems and the need to display, analyze, and react promptly to large amounts of information during reactor operation will require a number of safety systems in the fusion facilities to be computer controlled. Computer software, therefore, must be included in the reactor safety analyses. Unfortunately, the science of integrating computer software into safety analyses is in its infancy. Combined plant hardware and computer software systems are often treated by making simple assumptions about software performance. This method is not acceptable for assessing risks in the complex fusion systems, and a new technique for risk assessment of combined plant hardware and computer software systems has been developed. This technique is an extension of the traditional fault tree analysis and uses structured flow charts of the software in a manner analogous to wiring or piping diagrams of hardware. The software logic determines the form of much of the fault trees

  10. Large distributed control system using Ada in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Arsdall, P J; Woodruff, J P.

    1998-01-01

    Construction of the National Ignition Facility laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory features a distributed control system that uses object-oriented software engineering techniques. Control of 60,000 devices is effected using a network of some 500 computers. The software is being written in Ada and communicates through CORBA. Software controls are implemented in two layers: individual device controllers and a supervisory layer. The software architecture provides services in the form of frameworks that address issues common to event-driven control systems. Those services are allocated to levels that strictly prescribe their interdependency so the levels are separately reusable. The project has completed its final design review. The delivery of the first increment takes place in October 1998. Keywords Distributed control system, object-oriented development, CORBA, application frameworks, levels of abstraction

  11. Fusion Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Lackner, Karl; Tran, Minh Quang [eds.

    2012-09-15

    Recreating the energy production process of the Sun - nuclear fusion - on Earth in a controlled fashion is one of the greatest challenges of this century. If achieved at affordable costs, energy supply security would be greatly enhanced and environmental degradation from fossil fuels greatly diminished. Fusion Physics describes the last fifty years or so of physics and research in innovative technologies to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion for energy production. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been involved since its establishment in 1957 in fusion research. It has been the driving force behind the biennial conferences on Plasma Physics and Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion, today known as the Fusion Energy Conference. Hosted by several Member States, this biennial conference provides a global forum for exchange of the latest achievements in fusion research against the backdrop of the requirements for a net energy producing fusion device and, eventually, a fusion power plant. The scientific and technological knowledge compiled during this series of conferences, as well as by the IAEA Nuclear Fusion journal, is immense and will surely continue to grow in the future. It has led to the establishment of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which represents the biggest experiment in energy production ever envisaged by humankind.

  12. Expert system to control a fusion energy experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.R.; Canales, T.; Lager, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a system that automates neutral beam source conditioning. The system achieves this with artificial intelligence techniques by encoding the behavior of several experts as a set of if-then rules in an expert system. One of the functions of the expert system is to control an adaptive controller that, in turn, controls the neutral beam source. The architecture of the system is presented followed by a description of its performance.

  13. Expert system to control a fusion energy experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.R.; Canales, T.; Lager, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a system that automates neutral beam source conditioning. The system achieves this with artificial intelligence techniques by encoding the behavior of several experts as a set of if-then rules in an expert system. One of the functions of the expert system is to control an adaptive controller that, in turn, controls the neutral beam source. The architecture of the system is presented followed by a description of its performance

  14. Frontal eye fields control attentional modulation of alpha and gamma oscillations in contralateral occipitoparietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Tom R; O'Shea, Jacinta; Jensen, Ole; Bergmann, Til O

    2015-01-28

    Covertly directing visuospatial attention produces a frequency-specific modulation of neuronal oscillations in occipital and parietal cortices: anticipatory alpha (8-12 Hz) power decreases contralateral and increases ipsilateral to attention, whereas stimulus-induced gamma (>40 Hz) power is boosted contralaterally and attenuated ipsilaterally. These modulations must be under top-down control; however, the control mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Here we investigated the causal contribution of the human frontal eye field (FEF) by combining repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with subsequent magnetoencephalography. Following inhibitory theta burst stimulation to the left FEF, right FEF, or vertex, participants performed a visual discrimination task requiring covert attention to either visual hemifield. Both left and right FEF TMS caused marked attenuation of alpha modulation in the occipitoparietal cortex. Notably, alpha modulation was consistently reduced in the hemisphere contralateral to stimulation, leaving the ipsilateral hemisphere relatively unaffected. Additionally, right FEF TMS enhanced gamma modulation in left visual cortex. Behaviorally, TMS caused a relative slowing of response times to targets contralateral to stimulation during the early task period. Our results suggest that left and right FEF are causally involved in the attentional top-down control of anticipatory alpha power in the contralateral visual system, whereas a right-hemispheric dominance seems to exist for control of stimulus-induced gamma power. These findings contrast the assumption of primarily intrahemispheric connectivity between FEF and parietal cortex, emphasizing the relevance of interhemispheric interactions. The contralaterality of effects may result from a transient functional reorganization of the dorsal attention network after inhibition of either FEF. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351638-10$15.00/0.

  15. NATO Advanced Study Institute entitled Physics of Plasma-Wall Interactions in Controlled Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Behrisch, R; Physics of plasma-wall interactions in controlled fusion

    1986-01-01

    Controlled thermonuclear fusion is one of the possible candidates for long term energy sources which will be indispensable for our highly technological society. However, the physics and technology of controlled fusion are extremely complex and still require a great deal of research and development before fusion can be a practical energy source. For producing energy via controlled fusion a deuterium-tritium gas has to be heated to temperatures of a few 100 Million °c corres­ ponding to about 10 keV. For net energy gain, this hot plasma has to be confined at a certain density for a certain time One pro­ mising scheme to confine such a plasma is the use of i~tense mag­ netic fields. However, the plasma diffuses out of the confining magnetic surfaces and impinges on the surrounding vessel walls which isolate the plasma from the surrounding air. Because of this plasma wall interaction, particles from the plasma are lost to the walls by implantation and are partially reemitted into the plasma. In addition, wall...

  16. Top-Down Control of Visual Alpha Oscillations: Sources of Control Signals and Their Mechanisms of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Rajagovindan, Rajasimhan; Han, Sahng-Min; Ding, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    Alpha oscillations (8–12 Hz) are thought to inversely correlate with cortical excitability. Goal-oriented modulation of alpha has been studied extensively. In visual spatial attention, alpha over the region of visual cortex corresponding to the attended location decreases, signifying increased excitability to facilitate the processing of impending stimuli. In contrast, in retention of verbal working memory, alpha over visual cortex increases, signifying decreased excitability to gate out stimulus input to protect the information held online from sensory interference. According to the prevailing model, this goal-oriented biasing of sensory cortex is effected by top-down control signals from frontal and parietal cortices. The present study tests and substantiates this hypothesis by (a) identifying the signals that mediate the top-down biasing influence, (b) examining whether the cortical areas issuing these signals are task-specific or task-independent, and (c) establishing the possible mechanism of the biasing action. High-density human EEG data were recorded in two experimental paradigms: a trial-by-trial cued visual spatial attention task and a modified Sternberg working memory task. Applying Granger causality to both sensor-level and source-level data we report the following findings. In covert visual spatial attention, the regions exerting top-down control over visual activity are lateralized to the right hemisphere, with the dipoles located at the right frontal eye field (FEF) and the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) being the main sources of top-down influences. During retention of verbal working memory, the regions exerting top-down control over visual activity are lateralized to the left hemisphere, with the dipoles located at the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) being the main source of top-down influences. In both experiments, top-down influences are mediated by alpha oscillations, and the biasing effect is likely achieved via an inhibition

  17. Design of power control system using SMES and SVC for fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niiyama, K; Yagai, T; Tsuda, M; Hamajima, T

    2008-01-01

    A SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage System) system with converter composed of self-commutated valve devices such as GTO and IGBT is available to control active and reactive power simultaneously. A SVC (Static Var Compensators) or STATCOM (Static Synchronous Compensator) is widely employed to reduce reactive power in power plants and substations. Owing to progress of power electronics technology using GTO and IGBT devices, power converters in the SMES system and the SVC can easily control power flow in few milliseconds. Moreover, since the valve devices for the SMES are equivalent to those for the SVC, the device cost must be reduced. In this paper the basic control system combined with the SMES and SVC is designed for large pulsed loads of a nuclear fusion power plant. This combined system largely expands the reactive power control region as well as the active one. The simulation results show that the combined system is effective and prospective for the nuclear fusion power plant

  18. Sensor fusion control system for computer integrated manufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumile, CM

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available -floor control using sensors previously missing in manufacturing research. The contribution is in the ease and the elegance that the concept provides finite state/ automata activities as well as the production engineering elements such as planning...

  19. Conceptual requirements for large fusion experiment control, data, robotics, and management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Sullivan, J.D.

    1987-05-01

    The conceptual system requirements for the control, data, robotics, and project management (CDRM) system for the next generation of fusion experiments are developed by drawing on the success of the Tara control and data system. The requirements are described in terms of an integrated but separable matrix of well-defined interfaces among the various systems and subsystems. The study stresses modularity, performance, cost effectiveness, and exportability

  20. Distributed intelligence in a LAN architecture increases the flexibility in control systems for fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenten, W.; Fuss, L.; Hoge, W.

    1987-01-01

    The control system for the TEXTOR Neutral Beam Injectors is designed implementing approved concepts and techniques. A powerful super mini computer serves as a central node between the operators console and the experimental process. Devices form a console for suitable man machine interaction. The link to the process is mainly based on communication with a network of industry standard programmable controllers. A distinction is made between the functionally dedicated and in most cases locally distributed logic controllers, a central controller and the computerized console level. Introduction of such networks in control system for fusion experiments results in a number of advantages

  1. Hybrid intelligent control concepts for optimal data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinas, James

    1994-02-01

    In the post-Cold War era, Naval surface ship operations will be largely conducted in littoral waters to support regional military missions of all types, including humanitarian and evacuation activities, and amphibious mission execution. Under these conditions, surface ships will be much more isolated and vulnerable to a variety of threats, including maneuvering antiship missiles. To deal with these threats, the optimal employment of multiple shipborne sensors for maximum vigilance is paramount. This paper characterizes the sensor management problem as one of intelligent control, identifies some of the key issues in controller design, and presents one approach to controller design which is soon to be implemented and evaluated. It is argued that the complexity and hierarchical nature of problem formulation demands a hybrid combination of knowledge-based methods and scheduling techniques from 'hard' real-time systems theory for its solution.

  2. A Multiple Data Fusion Approach to Wheel Slip Control for Decentralized Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejun Yin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, active safety control methods for cars, i.e., the antilock braking system (ABS, the traction control system (TCS, and electronic stability control (ESC, govern the wheel slip control based on the wheel slip ratio, which relies on the information from non-driven wheels. However, these methods are not applicable in the cases without non-driven wheels, e.g., a four-wheel decentralized electric vehicle. Therefore, this paper proposes a new wheel slip control approach based on a novel data fusion method to ensure good traction performance in any driving condition. Firstly, with the proposed data fusion algorithm, the acceleration estimator makes use of the data measured by the sensor installed near the vehicle center of mass (CM to calculate the reference acceleration of each wheel center. Then, the wheel slip is constrained by controlling the acceleration deviation between the actual wheel and the reference wheel center. By comparison with non-control and model following control (MFC cases in double lane change tests, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed control method has significant anti-slip effectiveness and stabilizing control performance.

  3. Reduced optical transmission of SiO2 fibers used in controlled fusion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, A.T.; Adler, H.G.; Hill, K.W.

    1993-02-01

    We have subjected a silica core fiber optic cable to 4 years of low-level neutron and gamma radiation from Princeton's TFTR controlled fusion experiment The accumulated dose was 200 Gy. As a result of the radiation, we have measured increased attenuations of 100--300 db/km in the visible part of the spectrum, and a decrease of the numerical aperture. An attempt to decrease this damage by photobleaching failed. We argue that this failure is not unexpected, since the rate of damage is so slow and the time scale so long that the self-annealing process keeps the residual damage at the irreducible level seen in other experiments. The implications of these findings for controlled fusion diagnostics during upcoming experiments with highly reactive deuterium-tritium plasmas are discussed

  4. Diagnostics considerations for the inertial confinement approach to controlled thermonuclear fusion power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, L.

    1978-01-01

    It is concluded that although the challenges facing diagnosticians working on the inertial confinement approach to controlled fusion are large and varied, the means potentially available to meet them are more than adequate. No new instrumentation fields need be opened; rather, substantial extensions of those already being explored by workers in ICF will suffice. Also, large contributions may be expected from other technological applications thrusts, as well as from the general, currently rapid advance of the entire physical technology base

  5. Control of plasma layer in a fusion reactor correlated to DC motor control using PSO-ANFIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapatra, Sakuntala; Daniel, Raju; Dey, Deep Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Plasma position and shape control is very crucial for the overall performance of the fusion reactor such as Tokamak. The quality of the discharge in the Saskatchewan TORus-Modified (STOR-M) tokamak is strongly related to the position of the plasma column within the discharge vessel. If the plasma column approaches too near the wall, then either minor or complete disruption occurs. Consequently it is necessary to be able to control dynamically the position of the plasma column throughout the entire discharge. Now a day's most fusion reactor employs the traditional PID controller for the confinement of plasma layer. Fuzzy logic is used for the control of Plasma layer. In this paper we have used the hybrid of PSO-ANFIS technique to control the speed of a DC motor. We have used two input parameters like speed, torque and output is firing angle. In our work first order Sugeno fuzzy model is taken with three rules and the parameters of Gaussian membership function is controlled by the PSO technique. PSO-ANFIS speed controller obtains better dynamic behavior and superior performance of the DC motor speed control. Similar approach can be correlated to the control of plasma layer. For the plasma control two inputs can be taken as plasma position ΔH and the plasma current and the single output, the control decision u(t). (author)

  6. Controlled alpha-sexithiophene nanostructure formation in standard and inverted configuration organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Goszczak, Arkadiusz Jaroslaw; Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis

    -type domains in the active organic layer. The molecular packing in these is of same importance, as it strongly affects the carrier transport in the cells. In this work, we present the study of alpha-sexithiophene (α 6T) temperature dependent growth for standard, on gold anodes, and inverted, on electron...... accepting C60 layers, solar cell configurations. Furthermore, a comparative study of the correlation between the α-6T morphology and device performance parameters for standard and inverted solar cell configurations is presented. The morphology of the α 6T layer is controlled by means of the substrate...

  7. Argonne National Laboratory papers presented at third ANS topical meeting on the technology of controlled nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The 9 papers included in this Technical Memorandum were presented at the Third ANS Topical Meeting on the Technology of Controlled Nuclear Fusion that was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico on May 9-11, 1978

  8. Evaluation of efficacy of a new hybrid fusion device: a randomized, two-centre controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewe, Jan; Bredow, Jan; Oppermann, Johannes; Koy, Timmo; Delank, Stefan; Knoell, Peter; Eysel, Peer; Sobottke, Rolf; Zarghooni, Kourosh; Röllinghoff, Marc

    2014-09-05

    The 360° fusion of lumbar segments is a common and well-researched therapy to treat various diseases of the spine. But it changes the biomechanics of the spine and may cause adjacent segment disease (ASD). Among the many techniques developed to avoid this complication, one appears promising. It combines a rigid fusion with a flexible pedicle screw system (hybrid instrumentation, "topping off"). However, its clinical significance is still uncertain due to the lack of conclusive data. The study is a randomized, therapy-controlled, two-centre trial conducted in a clinical setting at two university hospitals. If they meet the criteria, outpatients presenting with degenerative disc disease, facet joint arthrosis or spondylolisthesis will be included in the study and randomized into two groups: a control group undergoing conventional fusion surgery (PLIF - posterior lumbar intervertebral fusion), and an intervention group undergoing fusion surgery using a new flexible pedicle screw system (PLIF + "topping off"), which was brought on the market in 2013. Follow-up examination will take place immediately after surgery, after 6 weeks and after 6, 12, 24 and 36 months. An ongoing assessment will be performed every year.Outcome measurements will include quality of life and pain assessments using validated questionnaires (ODI - Ostwestry Disability Index, SF-36™ - Short Form Health Survey 36, COMI - Core Outcome Measure Index). In addition, clinical and radiologic ASD, sagittal balance parameters and duration of work disability will be assessed. Inpatient and 6-month mortality, surgery-related data (e.g., intraoperative complications, blood loss, length of incision, surgical duration), postoperative complications (e.g. implant failure), adverse events, and serious adverse events will be monitored and documented throughout the study. New hybrid "topping off" systems might improve the outcome of lumbar spine fusion. But to date, there is a serious lack of and a great need

  9. Base isolation technique for tokamak type fusion reactor using adaptive control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, T.; Tsujiuchi, N.; Kishimoto, F.; Iida, H.; Fujita, T.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper relating to the isolation device of heavy structure such as nuclear fusion reactor, a control rule for reducing the response acceleration and relative displacement simultaneously was formulated, and the aseismic performance was improved by employing the adaptive control method of changing the damping factors of the system adaptively every moment. The control rule was studied by computer simulation, and the aseismic effect was evaluated in an experiment employing a scale model. As a results, the following conclusions were obtained. (1) By employing the control rule presented in this paper, both absolute acceleration and relative displacement can be reduced simultaneously without making the system unstable. (2) By introducing this control rule in a scale model assuming the Tokamak type fusion reactor, the response acceleration can be suppressed down to 78 % and also the relative displacement to 79 % as compared with the conventional aseismic method. (3) The sensitivities of absolute acceleration and relative displacement with respect to the control gain are not equal. However, by employing the relative weighting factor between the absolute acceleration and relative displacement, it is possible to increase the control capability for any kind of objective structures and appliances. (author)

  10. v-SNAREs control exocytosis of vesicles from priming to fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisovska, Maria; Zhao, Ying; Tsytsyura, Yaroslav; Glyvuk, Nataliya; Takamori, Shigeo; Matti, Ulf; Rettig, Jens; Südhof, Thomas; Bruns, Dieter

    2005-06-15

    SNARE proteins (soluble NSF-attachment protein receptors) are thought to be central components of the exocytotic mechanism in neurosecretory cells, but their precise function remained unclear. Here, we show that each of the vesicle-associated SNARE proteins (v-SNARE) of a chromaffin granule, synaptobrevin II or cellubrevin, is sufficient to support Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis and to establish a pool of primed, readily releasable vesicles. In the absence of both proteins, secretion is abolished, without affecting biogenesis or docking of granules indicating that v-SNAREs are absolutely required for granule exocytosis. We find that synaptobrevin II and cellubrevin differentially control the pool of readily releasable vesicles and show that the v-SNARE's amino terminus regulates the vesicle's primed state. We demonstrate that dynamics of fusion pore dilation are regulated by v-SNAREs, indicating their action throughout exocytosis from priming to fusion of vesicles.

  11. Controlled thermonuclear fusion and the latest progress on China's HT-7 superconducting tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiangang; Yang Yu

    2003-01-01

    After 50 years of research on controlled thermonuclear fusion, a new stage will be reached in 2003, when a site for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project will be chosen to start the construction. Scientists hope that this project could herald a new era in which the energy problem will be solved completely. The great progress made on the HT-7 superconducting tokamak in China has provided positive and powerful support for fusion research. The HT-7 is one of the only two superconducting tokamaks in the world that can carry out minute-scale high temperature plasma research, and has achieved a duration of 63.95s for the hot plasma discharge. This is a major step towards real steady-state operation of the tokamak configuration. We present an overview of the latest progress on the tokamak experiments in the Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences

  12. Extending the capabilities of the DIII-D Plasma Control System for worldwide fusion research collaborations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penaflor, B.G.; Ferron, J.R.; Walker, M.L.; Humphreys, D.A.; Leuer, J.A.; Piglowski, D.A.; Johnson, R.D.; Xiao, B.J.; Hahn, S.H.; Gates, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will discuss the recent enhancements which have been made to the DIII-D Plasma Control System (PCS) in order to further extend its usefulness as a shared tool for worldwide fusion research. The PCS developed at General Atomics is currently being used in a number of fusion research experiments worldwide, including the DIII-D Tokamak Facility in San Diego, and most recently the KSTAR Tokamak in South Korea. A number of enhancements have been made to support the ongoing needs of the DIII-D Tokamak in addition to meeting the needs of other PCS users worldwide. Details of the present PCS hardware and software architecture along with descriptions of the latest enhancements will be given.

  13. Papers presented at the fourteenth international conference on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains the contributions of the CIEMAT's Fusion Unit to the 14th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research that was held by the International Atomic Energy Agency in Wurzburg, Germany from 30 September to 7 October 1992. Three papers were presented that summarized the main lines of work done in the Unit during the previous two years: The first one on the theoretical advances in the understanding of the Flexible Heliac TJ-II under construction, the second on the confinement studies performed in the operating TJ-I Tokamak and the third one on the description of the physical properties of the soon to be started TJ-IU Torsatron. (Author) 25 refs

  14. Annual report of the Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusin Working Group (FWG))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion [Fusion Working Group (FWG)] was established in 1983 in response to the Declaration of the Heads of State and Government at the Versailles Economic Summit meeting of 1982, and in response to the subsequent report of the Working Group in Technology, Growth and Employment (TGE) as endorsed at the Williamsburg Summit meeting, 1983. This document contains the complete written record of each of the three FWG meetings which include the minutes, lists of attendees, agendas, statements, and summary conclusions as well as the full reports of the Technical Working Party. In addition, there is a pertinent exchange of correspondence between FWG members on the role of the Technical Working Party and a requested background paper on the modalities associated with a possible future ETR project

  15. Expression of human lymphotoxin alpha in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krasevec, N.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van de; Komel, R.

    2000-01-01

    A gene-fusion expression strategy was applied for heterologous expression of human lymphotoxin alpha (LTα) in the Aspergillus niger AB1.13 protease-deficient strain. The LTα gene was fused with the A. niger glucoamylase GII-form as a carrier-gene, behind its transcription control and secretion

  16. Genetic evidence that HNF-1alpha-dependent transcriptional control of HNF-4alpha is essential for human pancreatic beta cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sara K; Párrizas, Marcelina; Jensen, Maria L

    2002-01-01

    Mutations in the genes encoding hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF-4alpha) and HNF-1alpha impair insulin secretion and cause maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). HNF-4alpha is known to be an essential positive regulator of HNF-1alpha. More recent data demonstrates that HNF-4alpha...... in human islets and exocrine cells is primarily mediated by the P2 promoter. Furthermore, we describe a G --> A mutation in a conserved nucleotide position of the HNF-1alpha binding site of the P2 promoter, which cosegregates with MODY. The mutation results in decreased affinity for HNF-1alpha...

  17. Alpha lipoic acid efficacy in burning mouth syndrome. A controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Sánchez, Begoña; Cerero-Lapiedra, Rocío; Llamas-Martínez, Silvia; Esparza-Gómez, Germán

    2015-01-01

    Background A double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) and determine the statistical significance of the outcome variables. Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is defined as an oral burning sensation in the absence of clinical signs which could justify the syndrome. Recent studies suggest the existence of neurological factors as a possible cause of the disease. Material and Methods 60 patients with BMS, in two groups: case group with 600 mg/day and placebo as control group; with follow up of 2 months. Results 64% of ALA patients reported some level of improvement, with a level of maintenance of 68.75% one month after treatment. 27.6% of the placebo group also demonstrated some reduction in BMS symptoms. Conclusions Long-term evolution and the intensity of symptoms are variables that reduce the probability of improvement with ALA treatment. Key words: Burning mouth syndrome, neuropathy, alpha lipoic acid. PMID:26034927

  18. Effective radiological contamination control and monitoring techniques in high alpha environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Kevin C

    2003-02-01

    In the decommissioning of a highly contaminated alpha environment, such as the one at Hanford's 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility, one of the key elements of a successful radiological control program is an integrated safety approach. This approach begins with the job-planning phase where the scope of the work is described. This is followed by a brainstorming session involving engineering and craft to identify how to perform the work in a logical sequence of events. Once the brainstorming session is over, a Job Hazard Analysis is performed to identify any potential problems. Mockups are utilized to enable the craft to get hands on experience and provide feedback and ideas to make the job run smoother. Ideas and experience gained during mockups are incorporated into the task instruction. To assure appropriate data are used in planning and executing the job, our principal evaluation tools included lapel and workplace air sampling, plus continuous air monitors and frequent surveys to effectively monitor job progress. In this highly contaminated alpha environment, with contamination levels ranging from 0.3 Bq cm-2 to approximately 100,000 Bq cm-2 (2,000 dpm per 100 cm2 to approximately 600 million dpm per 100 cm2), with average working levels of 1,600-3,200 Bq cm-2 (10-20 million dpm per 100 cm2) without concomitant ambient radiation levels, control of the spread of contamination is key to keeping airborne levels As Low As Reasonably Achievable.

  19. The use of industrial type control and monitoring components for a large fusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemming, O.N.; Manduchi, G.; Luchetta, A.; Schmidt, V.; Vitturi, S.

    1994-01-01

    RFX is one of the large nuclear fusion experiments within the framework of the co-ordinated nuclear fusion research programme of the European Community. During the control system design phase in 1986, the increase in power and flexibility of industrial type programmable controllers lead to the decision for a complete physical split of control, monitoring and data acquisition functions according to speed requirements, allowing the exploitation of the relative advantages of both CAMAC and programmable controllers. The 'slow' control and monitoring functions (for about 4000 digital and 200 analog I/O signals with scanning times of similar 1 second) have been implemented using a series of networked industrial PLCs and personal computers. This has allowed us to choose from a wide range of off-the-shelf hardware and software components for the plant interface and to utilize specialized expertise from the industrial field for the application software implementation. The paper gives the expectations and results gained from this design choice and how it has influenced the decisions for the evolution of the system over the next few years with the utilization of new industrial hardware components. Details are also given regarding the system integration (via the Ethernet network) with the VAX-based CAMAC frontend fast control and data-acquisition system. ((orig.))

  20. High-Alpha Research Vehicle Lateral-Directional Control Law Description, Analyses, and Simulation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, John B.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Lallman, Frederick J.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Bacon, Barton J.

    1998-01-01

    This report contains a description of a lateral-directional control law designed for the NASA High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The HARV is a F/A-18 aircraft modified to include a research flight computer, spin chute, and thrust-vectoring in the pitch and yaw axes. Two separate design tools, CRAFT and Pseudo Controls, were integrated to synthesize the lateral-directional control law. This report contains a description of the lateral-directional control law, analyses, and nonlinear simulation (batch and piloted) results. Linear analysis results include closed-loop eigenvalues, stability margins, robustness to changes in various plant parameters, and servo-elastic frequency responses. Step time responses from nonlinear batch simulation are presented and compared to design guidelines. Piloted simulation task scenarios, task guidelines, and pilot subjective ratings for the various maneuvers are discussed. Linear analysis shows that the control law meets the stability margin guidelines and is robust to stability and control parameter changes. Nonlinear batch simulation analysis shows the control law exhibits good performance and meets most of the design guidelines over the entire range of angle-of-attack. This control law (designated NASA-1A) was flight tested during the Summer of 1994 at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center.

  1. Tools and methods for implementing the control systems on the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor, E.G.; Labiak, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Installation of the major hardware subsystems for MFTF is nearing completion. These subsystems include the Fusion Chamber System, the eighty KV Neutral Beam System, the Superconducting Magnet System, and the Personnel Safety System. The Local Controls group has undertaken a uniform aproach to implementing the control systems for all of these hardware subsystems. This approach has two major aspects: (1) to provide a stand-alone computer control system with a remote, portable terminal so that computer control can be provided at the site of the hardware for initial testing, (2) to provide hardware simulators so that the complicated MFTF computer control system can be tested independent of the hardware. The software and hardware tools which were developed to carry out this plan will be described. Our experiences with bringing up subsystems containing up to 900 separate channels of control and status will also be described

  2. Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research. Vol. II. Proceedings of a Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Physics Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    Research on controlled nuclear fusion was first disclosed at the Second United Nations Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, held at Geneva in 1958. From the information given, it was evident that a better understanding of the behaviour of hot dense plasmas was needed before the goal of economic energy release from nuclear fusion could be reached. The fact that research since then has been most complex and costly has enhanced the desirability of international co-operation and exchange of information and experience. Having organized its First Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research at Salzburg in 1961, the International Atomic Energy Agency again provided the means for such cooperation in organizing its Second Conference on this subject on 6-10 September, 1965, at Culham, Abingdon, Berks, England. The meeting was arranged with the generous help of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority at their Culham Laboratory, where the facilities and assistance of the staff were greatly appreciated. At the meeting, which was attended by 268 participants from 26 member states and three international organizations, significant results from many experiments, including those from the new and larger machines, became available. It has now become feasible to intercorrelate data obtained from a number of similar machines; this has led to a more complete understanding of plasma behaviour. No breakthrough was reported nor had been expected towards the economical release of the energy from fusion, but there was increased understanding of the problems of production, control and containment of high-density and high-temperature plasmas

  3. Sensor fusion IV: Control paradigms and data structures; Proceedings of the Meeting, Boston, MA, Nov. 12-15, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Paul S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Various papers on control paradigms and data structures in sensor fusion are presented. The general topics addressed include: decision models and computational methods, sensor modeling and data representation, active sensing strategies, geometric planning and visualization, task-driven sensing, motion analysis, models motivated biology and psychology, decentralized detection and distributed decision, data fusion architectures, robust estimation of shapes and features, application and implementation. Some of the individual subjects considered are: the Firefly experiment on neural networks for distributed sensor data fusion, manifold traversing as a model for learning control of autonomous robots, choice of coordinate systems for multiple sensor fusion, continuous motion using task-directed stereo vision, interactive and cooperative sensing and control for advanced teleoperation, knowledge-based imaging for terrain analysis, physical and digital simulations for IVA robotics.

  4. Multi-agent control system with information fusion based comfort model for smart buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhu; Wang, Lingfeng; Dounis, Anastasios I.; Yang, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Proposed a model to manage indoor energy and comfort for smart buildings. ► Developed a control system to maximize comfort with minimum energy consumption. ► Information fusion with ordered weighted averaging aggregation is used. ► Multi-agent technology and heuristic intelligent optimization are deployed in developing the control system. -- Abstract: From the perspective of system control, a smart and green building is a large-scale dynamic system with high complexity and a huge amount of information. Proper combination of the available information and effective control of the overall building system turns out to be a big challenge. In this study, we proposed a building indoor energy and comfort management model based on information fusion using ordered weighted averaging (OWA) aggregation. A multi-agent control system with heuristic intelligent optimization is developed to achieve a high level of comfort with the minimum power consumption. Case studies and simulation results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  5. Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program.

  6. Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program

  7. Fusion plasma theory project summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at U.S. government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the U.S. Fusion Energy Program.

  8. Design concept of control system for cryogenic distillation columns of fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Okuno, Kenji

    1993-09-01

    Control systems were designed for cryogenic distillation columns in the main fuel cycle and the breeder blanket interface systems of fusion reactors. Three basic control modes were proposed for the column whose top product was more important; the column whose bottom product is more important; and the column having a feed back stream. The key component in the important product stream was selected for each column, and the analysis method for measurement of this key component was discussed. Some of the columns need the gas chromatography as the analysis instrument of the control system. The time required for the measurement of product purity by the gas chromatography considerably affects the stability of the control system. A significant conclusion is that permissible time is about 20 min. It is possible to complete the measurement within 20 minute by the gas chromatography. The gas chromatography is applicable for the control system of the column. (author)

  9. Estrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphism and endometrial cancer risk – a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedrén, Sara; Stiger, Fredrik; Persson, Ingemar; Baron, John A; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lovmar, Lovisa; Humphreys, Keith; Magnusson, Cecilia; Melhus, Håkan; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Kindmark, Andreas; Landegren, Ulf; Fermér, Maria Lagerström

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen is an established endometrial carcinogen. One of the most important mediators of estrogenic action is the estrogen receptor alpha. We have investigated whether polymorphic variation in the estrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) is associated with endometrial cancer risk. In 702 cases with invasive endometrial cancer and 1563 controls, we genotyped five markers in ESR1 and used logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95 percent confidence intervals (CI). We found an association between rs2234670, rs2234693, as well as rs9340799, markers in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD), and endometrial cancer risk. The association with rs9340799 was the strongest, OR 0.75 (CI 0.60–0.93) for heterozygous and OR 0.53 (CI 0.37–0.77) for homozygous rare compared to those homozygous for the most common allele. Haplotype models did not fit better to the data than single marker models. We found that intronic variation in ESR1 was associated with endometrial cancer risk

  10. Design of a Quality Control Program for the Measurement of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Activities (LMPR-CIEMAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, A.; Yague, L.; Gasco, C.; Navarro, N.; Higueras, E.; Noguerales, C.

    2010-01-01

    In accordance with international standards, general requirements for testing laboratories have to include a quality system for planning, implementing, and assessing the work performed by the organization and for carrying out required quality assurance and quality control. The purpose of internal laboratory quality control is to monitor performance, identify problems, and initiate corrective actions. This report describes the internal quality control to monitor the gross alpha and beta activities determination. Identification of specific performance indicators, the principles that govern their use and statistical means of evaluation are explained. Finally, calculation of alpha and beta specific activities, uncertainties and detection limits are performed. (Author) 10 refs.

  11. Demonstrating electromagnetic control of free-surface, liquid-metal flows relevant to fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvasta, M. G.; Kolemen, E.; Fisher, A. E.; Ji, H.

    2018-01-01

    Plasma-facing components (PFC’s) made from solid materials may not be able to withstand the large heat and particle fluxes that will be produced within next-generation fusion reactors. To address the shortcomings of solid PFC’s, a variety of liquid-metal (LM) PFC concepts have been proposed. Many of the suggested LM-PFC designs rely on electromagnetic restraint (Lorentz force) to keep free-surface, liquid-metal flows adhered to the interior surfaces of a fusion reactor. However, there is very little, if any, experimental data demonstrating that free-surface, LM-PFC’s can actually be electromagnetically controlled. Therefore, in this study, electrical currents were injected into a free-surface liquid-metal that was flowing through a uniform magnetic field. The resultant Lorentz force generated within the liquid-metal affected the velocity and depth of the flow in a controllable manner that closely matched theoretical predictions. These results show the promise of electromagnetic control for LM-PFC’s and suggest that electromagnetic control could be further developed to adjust liquid-metal nozzle output, prevent splashing within a tokamak, and alter heat transfer properties for a wide-range of liquid-metal systems.

  12. Advanced real-time control systems for magnetically confined fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, B.; Sousa, J.; Fernandes, H.; Rodrigues, A.P.; Carvalho, B.B.; Neto, A.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Real-time control of magnetically confined plasmas is a critical issue for the safety, operation and high performance scientific exploitation of the experimental devices on regimes beyond the current operation frontiers. The number of parameters and the data volumes used for the plasma properties identification scale normally not only with the machine size but also with the technology improvements, leading to a great complexity of the plant system. A strong computational power and fast communication infrastructure are needed to handle in real-time this information, allowing just-in-time decisions to achieve the fusion critical plasma conditions. These advanced control systems require a tiered infrastructure including the hardware layer, the signal-processing middleware, real-time timing and data transport, the real-time operating system tools and drivers, the framework for code development, simulation, deployment and experiment parameterization and the human real-time plasma condition monitoring and management. This approach is being implemented at CFN by offering a vertical solution for the forthcoming challenges, including ITER, the first experimental fusion reactor. A given set of tools and systems are described on this paper, namely: (i) an ATCA based hardware multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) platform, PCI and PCIe acquisition and control modules; (ii) FPGA and DSP parallelized signal processing algorithms; (iii) a signal data and event distribution system over a 2.5/10Gb optical network with sub-microsecond latencies; (iv) RTAI and Linux drivers; and (v) the FireSignal, FusionTalk, SDAS FireCalc application tools. (author)

  13. ENEA-Frascati inertial confinement fusion: Multi-channel digitizer control, acquisition and analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, A.; Strangio, C.; Elman, G.; Hugh, J. Mc; Rogers, G.; Pastina, E.; Raimondi, F.; Umbro, A.

    1991-09-01

    The ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) data acquisition and analysis system described in this paper incorporates digitizer channels, signal switching, an instrument controller, a graphic hardcopy unit, laser printer and software. The digitizers, signal switching and instrument controller are standard components appropriate to acquire the single fast shot signals (rise-time: from about 100 picoseconds to nanoseconds). The input signals are switched to the digitizers through the TSI-8150 test system interface by TSS40 switch controller cards and TSS46 18GHz microwave switches. Graphic hardcopy is accomplished using either a 4693PX colour hardcopy unit or a laser printer connected through a printer spooler/multiplexer. The software is based on an existing package from Ressler called RAI/DAC reviewed by Fus-Inerz and Tektronix-Italy to define the modifications needed for data acquisition and handling. The adopted software solution is based on an IBM PC compatible instrument controller running software developed by Ressler Associates.

  14. Supervisory control and diagnostics system for the mirror fusion test facility: overview and status 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGoldrick, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is a complex facility requiring a highly-computerized Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System (SCDS) to monitor and provide control over ten subsystems; three of which require true process control. SCDS will provide physicists with a method of studying machine and plasma behavior by acquiring and processing up to four megabytes of plasma diagnostic information every five minutes. A high degree of availability and throughput is provided by a distributed computer system (nine 32-bit minicomputers on shared memory). Data, distributed across SCDS, is managed by a high-bandwidth Distributed Database Management System. The MFTF operators' control room consoles use color television monitors with touch sensitive screens; this is a totally new approach. The method of handling deviations to normal machine operation and how the operator should be notified and assisted in the resolution of problems has been studied and a system designed

  15. ASDEX contributions to the 17th European conference on controlled fusion and plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The 'ASDEX contributions to the 17th European conference on controlled fusion and plasma heating' (Amsterdam, June 25-29, 1990) hold one invited paper (Physics of enhanced confinement with peaked and board density profiles) and 12 chapters containing 44 contributed papers dealing with the following topics: Lower hybrid current drive and heating; Ion cyclotron heating; General confinement studies; Fluctuation studies; Direct measurement of transport coefficients; H-mode studies; Pellet studies; Divertor and SOL-studies; Impurity and impurity transport studies; Density limit studies; MHD studies; Diagnostic development. (orig./AH)

  16. Control of activation levels to simplify waste management of fusion reactor ferritic steel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiffen, F.W.; Santoro, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    Activation characteristics of a material for service in the neutron flux of a fusion reactor first wall fall into three areas: waste management, reactor maintenance and repair, and safety. Of these, the waste management area is the most likely to impact the public acceptance of fusion reactors for power generation. The decay of the activity in steels within tens of years could lead to simplified waste disposal or possibly even to materials recycle. Whether or not these can be achieved will be controlled by (1) selection of alloying elements, (2) control of critical impurity elements, and (3) control of cross contamination from other reactor components. Several criteria can be used to judge the acceptability of potential alloying elements in iron, and to define the limits on content of critical impurity elements. One approach is to select and limit alloying additions on the basis of the activity. If material recycle is a goal, N, Al, Ni, Cu, Nb, and Mo must be excluded. If simplified waste storage by shallow land burial is the goal, regulations limit the concentration of only a few isotopes. For first-wall material that will be exposed to 9 MW-y/m 2 service, allowable initial concentration limits include (in at. ppM) Ni < 20,000; Mo < 3650; N < 3650, Cu < 2400; and Nb < 1.0. The other constituent elements of ferritic steels will not be limited. Possible substitutes for the molybdenum normally used to strengthen the steels include W, Ta, Ti, and V

  17. A neutron poison tritium breeding controller applied to a water cooled fusion reactor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, L.W.G.; Packer, L.W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The issue of a potentially producing a large tritium surplus inventory, within a solid breeder, is addressed. • A possible solution to this problem is presented in the form of a neutron poison based tritium production controller. • The tritium surplus inventory has been modelled by the FATI code for a simplified WCCB model and as a function of time. • It has been demonstrated that the tritium surplus inventory can be managed, which may impact on safety considerations. - Abstract: The generation of tritium in sufficient quantities is an absolute requirement for a next step fusion device such as DEMO due to the scarcity of tritium sources. Although the production of sufficient quantities of tritium will be one of the main challenges for DEMO, within an energy economy featuring several fusion power plants the active control of tritium production may be required in order to manage surplus tritium inventories at power plant sites. The primary reason for controlling the tritium inventory in such an economy would therefore be to minimise the risk and storage costs associated with large quantities of surplus tritium. In order to ensure that enough tritium will be produced in a reactor which contains a solid tritium breeder, over the reactor's lifetime, the tritium breeding rate at the beginning of its lifetime is relatively high and reduces over time. This causes a large surplus tritium inventory to build up until approximately halfway through the lifetime of the blanket, when the inventory begins to decrease. This surplus tritium inventory could exceed several tens of kilograms of tritium, impacting on possible safety and licensing conditions that may exist. This paper describes a possible solution to the surplus tritium inventory problem that involves neutron poison injection into the coolant, which is managed with a tritium breeding controller. A simple PID controller and is used to manage the injection of the neutron absorbing compounds into

  18. A neutron poison tritium breeding controller applied to a water cooled fusion reactor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, L.W.G., E-mail: Lee.Morgan@CCFE.ac.uk; Packer, L.W.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The issue of a potentially producing a large tritium surplus inventory, within a solid breeder, is addressed. • A possible solution to this problem is presented in the form of a neutron poison based tritium production controller. • The tritium surplus inventory has been modelled by the FATI code for a simplified WCCB model and as a function of time. • It has been demonstrated that the tritium surplus inventory can be managed, which may impact on safety considerations. - Abstract: The generation of tritium in sufficient quantities is an absolute requirement for a next step fusion device such as DEMO due to the scarcity of tritium sources. Although the production of sufficient quantities of tritium will be one of the main challenges for DEMO, within an energy economy featuring several fusion power plants the active control of tritium production may be required in order to manage surplus tritium inventories at power plant sites. The primary reason for controlling the tritium inventory in such an economy would therefore be to minimise the risk and storage costs associated with large quantities of surplus tritium. In order to ensure that enough tritium will be produced in a reactor which contains a solid tritium breeder, over the reactor's lifetime, the tritium breeding rate at the beginning of its lifetime is relatively high and reduces over time. This causes a large surplus tritium inventory to build up until approximately halfway through the lifetime of the blanket, when the inventory begins to decrease. This surplus tritium inventory could exceed several tens of kilograms of tritium, impacting on possible safety and licensing conditions that may exist. This paper describes a possible solution to the surplus tritium inventory problem that involves neutron poison injection into the coolant, which is managed with a tritium breeding controller. A simple PID controller and is used to manage the injection of the neutron absorbing compounds into

  19. Multilayer mirror based monitors for impurity controls in large fusion reactor type devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, S.P.; May, M.J.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Finkenthal, M.; Moos, H.W.

    1995-01-01

    Multilayer Mirror (MLM) based monitors are compact, high throughput diagnostics capable of extracting XUV emissions (the wavelength range including the soft-x-ray and the extreme ultraviolet, 10 angstrom to 304 angstrom) of impurities from the harsh environment of large fusion reactor type devices. For several years the Plasma Spectroscopy Group at Johns Hopkins University has investigated the application of MLM based XUV spectroscopic diagnostics for magnetically confined fusion plasmas. MLM based monitors have been constructed for and extensively used on DIII-D, Alcator C-mod, TEXT, Phaedrus-T, and CDX-U tokamaks to study the impurity behavior of elements ranging from He to Mo. On ITER MLM based devices would be used to monitor the spectral line emissions from Li I-like to F I-like charge states of Fe, Cr, and Ni, as well as extractors for the bands of emissions from high Z elements such as Mo or W for impurity controls of the fusion plasma. In addition to monitoring the impurity emissions from the main plasma, MLM based devices can also be adapted for radiation measurements of low Z elements in the divertor. The concepts and designs of these MLM based monitors for impurity controls in ITER will be presented. The results of neutron irradiation experiments of the MLMs performed in the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory will also be discussed. These preliminary neutron exposure studies show that the dispersive and reflective qualities of the MLMs were not affected in a significant manner

  20. The role of multisensor data fusion in neuromuscular control of a sagittal arm with a pair of muscles using actor-critic reinforcement learning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkhou, V; Parnianpour, M; Lucas, C

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we consider the role of multisensor data fusion in neuromuscular control using an actor-critic reinforcement learning method. The model we use is a single link system actuated by a pair of muscles that are excited with alpha and gamma signals. Various physiological sensor information such as proprioception, spindle sensors, and Golgi tendon organs have been integrated to achieve an oscillatory movement with variable amplitude and frequency, while achieving a stable movement with minimum metabolic cost and coactivation. The system is highly nonlinear in all its physical and physiological attributes. Transmission delays are included in the afferent and efferent neural paths to account for a more accurate representation of the reflex loops. This paper proposes a reinforcement learning method with an Actor-Critic architecture instead of middle and low level of central nervous system (CNS). The Actor in this structure is a two layer feedforward neural network and the Critic is a model of the cerebellum. The Critic is trained by the State-Action-Reward-State-Action (SARSA) method. The Critic will train the Actor by supervisory learning based on previous experiences. The reinforcement signal in SARSA is evaluated based on available alternatives concerning the concept of multisensor data fusion. The effectiveness and the biological plausibility of the present model are demonstrated by several simulations. The system showed excellent tracking capability when we integrated the available sensor information. Addition of a penalty for activation of muscles resulted in much lower muscle coactivation while keeping the movement stable.

  1. Fusion of hard and soft control strategies for the robotic hand

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Cheng-Hung

    2018-01-01

    Long considered the stuff of science fiction, a prosthetic hand capable of fully replicating all of that appendage's various functions is closer to becoming reality than ever before. This book provides a comprehensive report on exciting recent developments in hybrid control techniques—one of the most crucial hurdles to be overcome in creating smart prosthetic hands. Coauthored by two of the world's foremost pioneering experts in the field, Fusion of Hard and Soft Control Strategies for the Robotic Hand treats robotic hands for multiple applications. It begins with an overview of advances in main control techniques that have been made over the past decade before addressing the military context for affordable robotic hand technology with tactile and/or proprioceptive feedback for hand amputees. Kinematics, homogene us transformations, inverse and differential kinematics, trajectory planning, and dynamic models of two-link thumb and three-link index finger are discussed in detail. The remainder of the book is...

  2. Alpha particles (citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base). Report for 1974-July 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauk, S.C.

    1979-09-01

    This bibliography of citations to the international literature covers various aspects of alpha particles as applied to controlled fusion devices, solar activity, and geomagnetically trapped particles. Included are articles concerning Tokamak devices, plasma heating and control, plasma-particle interactions, solar particles, solar wind, solar flares, energy spectra, and magnetohydrodynamic stability. Articles concerning effects of alpha particles on different kinds of devices are also included

  3. Contributions to the 20. EPS conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-15

    The Conference covers research on different aspects of plasma physics and fusion technology, like technical aspects of Tokamak devices; plasma instabilities and impurities, development and testing of materials for fusion reactors etc.

  4. Control of a laser inertial confinement fusion-fission power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Edward I.; Latkowski, Jeffery F.; Kramer, Kevin J.

    2015-10-27

    A laser inertial-confinement fusion-fission energy power plant is described. The fusion-fission hybrid system uses inertial confinement fusion to produce neutrons from a fusion reaction of deuterium and tritium. The fusion neutrons drive a sub-critical blanket of fissile or fertile fuel. A coolant circulated through the fuel extracts heat from the fuel that is used to generate electricity. The inertial confinement fusion reaction can be implemented using central hot spot or fast ignition fusion, and direct or indirect drive. The fusion neutrons result in ultra-deep burn-up of the fuel in the fission blanket, thus enabling the burning of nuclear waste. Fuels include depleted uranium, natural uranium, enriched uranium, spent nuclear fuel, thorium, and weapons grade plutonium. LIFE engines can meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the highly undesirable stockpiles of depleted uranium, spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials.

  5. The ORNL Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center: Overview of Activities 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    The Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center (CFADC) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory continued operation aimed at collecting, evaluating, and disseminating atomic, molecular, and particle-surface interaction (AM and PSI) data needed by both the U.S. and international plasma science communities. This work has been carried out within an overarching atomic physics research group which produces much of the required data through an active experimental and theoretical science program. The production of an annotated bibliography of AM and PSI literature relevant to plasma science continues to be among the most important activities of the data center, forming the basis for the CFADC on-line bibliographic search engine and a significant part of the IAEA A+M Data Unit's 'International Bulletin on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion.' Also chief among the data center's activities are responses to specific data requests from the plasma science community, leading to either rapid feedback using existing data resources or long term data production projects, as well as participation in IAEA Coordinated Research Programs including recently 'Data for Surface Composition Dynamics Relevant to Erosion Processes' and 'Atomic and Molecular Data for Plasma Modeling.' Highlights of recent data production projects include the following: Experimental and theoretical data for inelastic electron-hydrocarbon reactions, large scale computational results for particle reflection from surfaces, measurements of chemical sputtering from carbon, inaugural experiments considering molecular ion collisions with neutral hydrogen, and expansion of the database of elastic and related transport cross sections calculated for intrinsic and extrinsic impurities in hydrogen plasmas. Progress is being hampered owing to news from the US Department of Energy that it plans to close out the program after a ramp down of funding in 2012, following a distinguished 52 year history of contributions to the US and

  6. Human Factors and Data Fusion as Part of Control Systems Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David I. Gertman

    2009-05-01

    Human performance and human decision making is counted upon as a crucial aspect of overall system resilience. Advanced control systems have the potential to provide operators and asset owners a wide range of data, deployed at different levels that can be used to support operator situation awareness. However, the sheer amount of data available can make it challenging for operators to assimilate information and respond appropriately. This paper reviews some of the challenges and issues associated with providing operators with actionable state awareness and argues for the over arching importance of integrating human factors as part of intelligent control systems design and implementation. It is argued that system resilience is improved by implementing human factors in operations and maintenance. This paper also introduces issues associated with resilience and data fusion and highlights areas in which human factors including field studies hold promise.

  7. Control characteristics of cryogenic distillation column with a feedback stream for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Okuno, Kenji

    1997-01-01

    The control characteristics of the cryogenic distillation column with a feedback stream have been discussed based on computer simulation results. This column plays an important role in fusion reactor. A new control system was proposed from the simulation results. The flow rate of top product is determined from the composition and flow rate of a main feed stream by a feedforward control loop. The flow rates of the feedback stream and vapor stream within the column are proportionally changed with a corresponding change of feed flow rate. The flow rate of vapor stream within the column is further adjusted to maintain product purity by a feedback control loop. The proposed system can control the product purity for a large fluctuation of feed composition, a change of feed flow rate, and an increase or decrease of the number of total theoretical stages of the column. The control system should be designed for each column by considering its operating conditions and function. The present study gives us a basic procedure for the design method of the control system of the cryogenic distillation column. (author)

  8. Towards control of aggregational behaviour of alpha-lactalbumin at acidic pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jane B; Fojan, Peter; Sorensen, John; Petersen, Steffen B

    2006-07-01

    alpha-Lactalbumin (alpha-La) undergoes considerable structural changes upon loss of bound Ca2+ at acidic pH, leaving alpha-La in a molten globule structure. Using fluorescence the present work provides more insight into the structural transition of alpha-La at acidic pH leading to protein aggregation, most likely caused by a combination of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. The rate of aggregation is determined by the protein concentration and temperature applied. Availability of Ca2+ stabilises the protein, and thus prevent aggregation at pH values as low as pH 2.9. In contrast, presence of Cu2+ induces a destabilisation of the protein, which can be explained by a binding to the Zn2+ binding site in alpha-La, possibly resulting in structural alterations of the protein. In general, presence of anions destabilize alpha-La at pH values below pI, with SO4(2-) exhibiting the strongest effect on the protein stability, thus correlating well with the Hofmeister series. At more acidic pH values far from pI, alpha-La becomes more stable towards ion induced aggregation, since higher ion activity is required to efficiently screen the charges on the protein surface. The results presented in this paper provide detailed knowledge on the external parameters leading to aggregation of alpha-La at acidic pH, thus permitting rational design of the aggregation process.

  9. Annual progress report 1993. Work in controlled thermonuclear fusion research performed in the fusion research unit under the contract of association between Euratom and Risoe National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom-Risoe National Laboratory covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics group has activities within (a) studies of nonlinear dynamical processes in magnetized plasmas, (b) development of pellet injectors for fusion experiments, and (c) development of diagnostics for fusion plasmas. The activities in technology cover radiation damage of fusion reactor materials. A summary of the activities in 1993 is presented. (au) (4 tabs., 21 ills., 64 refs.)

  10. The alpha channeling effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.

  11. Modulation of Posterior Alpha Activity by Spatial Attention Allows for Controlling A Continuous Brain-Computer Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horschig, J.M.; Oosterheert, W.; Oostenveld, R.; Jensen, O.

    2015-01-01

    Here we report that the modulation of alpha activity by covert attention can be used as a control signal in an online brain-computer interface, that it is reliable, and that it is robust. Subjects were instructed to orient covert visual attention to the left or right hemifield. We decoded the

  12. Mode-selective symmetry control for indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion hohlraums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesey, R. A.; Slutz, S. A.; Herrmann, M. C.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Campbell, R. B.

    2008-01-01

    Achieving a high degree of radiation symmetry is a critical feature of target designs for indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion. Typically, the radiation flux incident on the capsule is required to be uniform to 1% or better. It is generally possible to design a hohlraum that provides low values of higher-order asymmetry (Legendre mode P 10 and above) due to geometric averaging effects. Because low-order intrinsic asymmetry (e.g., Legendre modes P 2 and P 4 ) are less strongly reduced by geometric averaging alone, the development of innovative control techniques has been an active area of research in the inertial fusion community over the years. Shields placed inside the hohlraum are one example of a technique that has often been proposed and incorporated into hohlraum target designs. Simple mathematical considerations are presented indicating that radiation shields may be designed to specifically tune lower-order modes (e.g., P 4 ) without deleterious effects on the higher order modes. Two-dimensional view factor and radiation-hydrodynamics simulations confirm these results and support such a path to achieving a highly symmetric x-ray flux. The term ''mode-selective'' is used because these shields, essentially ring structures offset from the capsule, are designed to affect only a specific Legendre mode (or multiple modes) of interest

  13. R-spondin1 Controls Muscle Cell Fusion through Dual Regulation of Antagonistic Wnt Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriane Lacour

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wnt-mediated signals are involved in many important steps in mammalian regeneration. In multiple cell types, the R-spondin (Rspo family of secreted proteins potently activates the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Here, we identify Rspo1 as a mediator of skeletal muscle tissue repair. First, we show that deletion of Rspo1 results in global alteration of muscle regeneration kinetics following acute injury. We find that muscle progenitor cells lacking Rspo1 show delayed differentiation due to reduced activation of Wnt/β-catenin target genes. Furthermore, muscle cells lacking Rspo1 have a fusion phenotype leading to larger myotubes containing supernumerary nuclei both in vitro and in vivo. The increase in muscle fusion was dependent on downregulation of Wnt/β-catenin and upregulation of non-canonical Wnt7a/Fzd7/Rac1 signaling. We conclude that reciprocal control of antagonistic Wnt signaling pathways by Rspo1 in muscle stem cell progeny is a key step ensuring normal tissue architecture restoration following acute damage.

  14. Cell fusion in osteoclasts plays a critical role in controlling bone mass and osteoblastic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Ryotaro; Ninomiya, Ken; Miyamoto, Kana; Suzuki, Toru; Sato, Yuiko

    2008-01-01

    The balance between osteoclast and osteoblast activity is central for maintaining the integrity of bone homeostasis. Here we show that mice lacking dendritic cell specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), an essential molecule for osteoclast cell-cell fusion, exhibited impaired bone resorption and upregulation of bone formation by osteoblasts, which do not express DC-STAMP, which led to increased bone mass. On the contrary, DC-STAMP over-expressing transgenic (DC-STAMP-Tg) mice under the control of an actin promoter showed significantly accelerated cell-cell fusion of osteoclasts and bone resorption, with decreased osteoblastic activity and bone mass. Bone resorption and formation are known to be regulated in a coupled manner, whereas DC-STAMP regulates bone homeostasis in an un-coupled manner. Thus our results indicate that inhibition of a single molecule provides both decreased osteoclast activity and increased bone formation by osteoblasts, thereby increasing bone mass in an un-coupled and a tissue specific manner.

  15. Fusion reactor design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmert, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Santarius, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the ARIES tokamak: systems; plasma power balance; impurity control and fusion ash removal; fusion product ripple loss; energy conversion; reactor fueling; first wall design; shield design; reactor safety; and fuel cost and resources

  16. Nanoparticles with entrapped {alpha}-tocopherol: synthesis, characterization, and controlled release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigoneanu, Imola Gabriela [101 E B Doran Building, BAE Department, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Astete, Carlos Ernesto [110 E B Doran Building, BAE Department, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Sabliov, Cristina Mirela [141 E B Doran Building, BAE Department, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)], E-mail: csabliov@lsu.edu

    2008-03-12

    An emulsion evaporation method was used to synthesize spherical poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles with entrapped {alpha}-tocopherol. Two different surfactants were used: sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). For SDS nanoparticles, the size of the nanoparticles decreased significantly with the entrapment of {alpha}-tocopherol in the PLGA matrix, while the size of PVA nanoparticles remained unchanged. The polydispersity index after synthesis was under 0.100 for PVA nanoparticles and around 0.150 for SDS nanoparticles. The zeta potential was negative for all PVA nanoparticles. The entrapment efficiency of {alpha}-tocopherol in the polymeric matrix was approximately 89% and 95% for nanoparticles with 8% and 16% {alpha}-tocopherol theoretical loading, respectively. The residual PVA associated with the nanoparticles after purification was approximately 6% ( w/w relative to the nanoparticles). The release profile showed an initial burst followed by a slower release of the {alpha}-tocopherol entrapped inside the PLGA matrix. The release for nanoparticles with 8% {alpha}-tocopherol theoretical loading (86% released in the first hour) was faster than the release for the nanoparticles with 16% {alpha}-tocopherol theoretical loading (34% released in the first hour)

  17. Modeling and control simulation of an electromechanical mm-wave launching system for thermonuclear fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsironis, Christos, E-mail: ctsiron@mail.ntua.gr [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 157 73 Athens (Greece); Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54 136 Thessaloniki (Greece); Giannopoulos, Iordanis K.; Vasileiadou, Soultana; Kakogiannos, Ioannis D.; Kalligeropoulos, Dimitrios [Department of Automation, Technological Education Institute of Piraeus, 122 44 Piraeus (Greece)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Open-loop modeling and control simulation of an electromechanical mm-wave launcher. • Simulations of the experiment without employing the real (hardware) system. • Launcher mirror dynamics correspond to a second-order weakly-nonlinear system. • Closed-loop control design in terms of cascade PIDs achieves required performance. - Abstract: Controlled thermonuclear fusion via magnetic confinement, still in experimental stage, has the potential to become a viable and environment-friendly solution to the energy problem, especially for the high-power needs of modern industry. In order to optimize the operation of devices based on the tokamak principle, automatic control systems are envisaged to fulfill the requirements for the magnetic equilibrium and plasma stability, with copper coils, neutral gas injectors and microwave sources used as actuators. In present-day experiments, the implemented control loops are simple and practical, however in future devices like ITER (presently under construction) more sophisticated control design will be required, based on realistic closed-loop simulations with efficient computational tools and real-time diagnosing. For magnetohydrodynamic instability control, the system should include physics/engineering models for the plasma dynamics, the wave actuation and the diagnostic sensors, as well as controllers based on classical or modern principles. In this work, we present a model for a specific design of a controlled electromechanical millimeter-wave launcher, which executes the major part of the wave actuation, and perform numerical simulations of its open-loop dynamics and closed-loop control for scenarios relevant to tearing mode stabilization in medium-sized tokamaks.

  18. Cables1 controls p21/Cip1 protein stability by antagonizing proteasome subunit alpha type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Z; Li, Z; Li, Z J; Cheng, K; Du, Y; Fu, H; Khuri, F R

    2015-05-07

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor 1A, p21/Cip1, is a vital cell cycle regulator, dysregulation of which has been associated with a large number of human malignancies. One critical mechanism that controls p21 function is through its degradation, which allows the activation of its associated cell cycle-promoting kinases, CDK2 and CDK4. Thus delineating how p21 is stabilized and degraded will enhance our understanding of cell growth control and offer a basis for potential therapeutic interventions. Here we report a novel regulatory mechanism that controls the dynamic status of p21 through its interaction with Cdk5 and Abl enzyme substrate 1 (Cables1). Cables1 has a proposed role as a tumor suppressor. We found that upregulation of Cables1 protein was correlated with increased half-life of p21 protein, which was attributed to Cables1/p21 complex formation and supported by their co-localization in the nucleus. Mechanistically, Cables1 interferes with the proteasome (Prosome, Macropain) subunit alpha type 3 (PSMA3) binding to p21 and protects p21 from PSMA3-mediated proteasomal degradation. Moreover, silencing of p21 partially reverses the ability of Cables1 to induce cell death and inhibit cell proliferation. In further support of a potential pathophysiological role of Cables1, the expression level of Cables1 is tightly associated with p21 in both cancer cell lines and human lung cancer patient tumor samples. Together, these results suggest Cables1 as a novel p21 regulator through maintaining p21 stability and support the model that the tumor-suppressive function of Cables1 occurs at least in part through enhancing the tumor-suppressive activity of p21.

  19. Experimental investigation of the confinement of d(He-3,p)alpha and d(d,p)t fusion reaction products in JET

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonheure, G.; Hult, M.; González de Orduña, R.; Arnold, D.; Dombrowski, H.; Laubenstein, M.; Wieslander, E.; Vidmar, T.; Vermaercke, P.; Von Thun, C.P.; Reich, M.; Jachmich, S.; Murari, A.; Popovichev, S.; Mlynář, Jan; Salmi, A.; Asunta, O.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Pinches, S.; Koslowski, R.; Nielsen, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 8 (2012), s. 083004 ISSN 0029-5515 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Tokamak * activation * diagnostics * fusion * confinement Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.734, year: 2012 http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/52/8/083004?fromSearchPage=true

  20. Using plasma waves to create in tokamaks the necessary quasi-stationary conditions for controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, D.

    1993-04-01

    It is studied, on the one hand, how using hybrid waves with frequency near from lower hybrid frequency in fusion plasma. Works about coupling waves in plasma (chap.I), their propagation and response of the plasma to the absorption of the waves (chap.II). This method is the most effective until today. Because of limits, it has been investigated, on the other hand, fast magnetosonic wave to control current density in the centre of the discharge in a reactor or a very hot plasma. Theoretical study (chap.III) and experimental results (chap.IV) are presented. Experiments are in progress or planned in following tokamaks: D3-D (USA), JET (Europe), TORE SUPRA (France), JT-60 (Japan). figs. refs. tabs

  1. Thermoplastic fusion bonding using a pressure-assisted boiling point control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Taehyun; Song, In-Hyouk; Park, Daniel S; You, Byoung Hee; Murphy, Michael C

    2012-08-21

    A novel thermoplastic fusion bonding method using a pressure-assisted boiling point (PABP) control system was developed to apply precise temperatures and pressures during bonding. Hot embossed polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) components containing microchannels were sealed using the PABP system. Very low aspect ratio structures (AR = 1/100, 10 μm in depth and 1000 μm in width) were successfully sealed without collapse or deformation. The integrity and strength of the bonds on the sealed PMMA devices were evaluated using leakage and rupture tests; no leaks were detected and failure during the rupture tests occurred at pressures greater than 496 kPa. The PABP system was used to seal 3D shaped flexible PMMA devices successfully.

  2. Control of molten salt corrosion of reduced activation steel for fusion applications by metallic beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderoni, P.; Sharpe, P.; Nishimura, H.; Terai, T.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In 2001 the INL started a research program as a part of the 2. Japan/US Program on Irradiation Tests for Fusion Energy Research (JUPITER-II collaboration) aimed at the characterization of the 2LiF-BeF2 (Flibe) molten salt as a breeder and coolant material for fusion applications. A key objective of the work was to demonstrate chemical compatibility between Flibe and potential fusion structural materials once suitable fluoride potential control methods are established. A series of tests performed at INL demonstrated that this can be achieved by contacting the salt with metallic beryllium, and the results have been published in recent years. A further step was to expose two specimens of low activation ferritic/martensitic steel 9Cr-2W JLF-1 to static corrosion tests that include an active corrosion agent (hydrofluoric gas) and fluoride potential control (metallic Be) at 530 C, and the results of the tests are presented in this paper. The specimen and a beryllium rod were simultaneously immersed in the molten salt through gas tight fittings mounted on risers extending from the top lid of the test vessel; the beryllium rod was extracted after 5 hours, while the sample was left in the salt for 250 hours during which salt samples were withdrawn from the melt at fixed intervals. A diagnostic system based on the measurement of reacting HF through on-line titration was coupled with the analysis of metallic components in the salt samples that were dissolved and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Impurity levels of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon were determined from pieces of the solidified melt using Leco analytical systems. The results confirmed the expected correlation of the HF recovery with the concentration of metallic elements dissolved in the salt because of specimen corrosion. The metals concentration falls below the detectable limit when the beryllium rod is inserted and increases when the

  3. ATCA/AXIe compatible board for fast control and data acquisition in nuclear fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, A.J.N.; Leong, C.; Bexiga, V.; Rodrigues, A.P.; Combo, A.; Carvalho, B.B.; Fortunato, J.; Correia, M.; Teixeira, J.P.; Teixeira, I.C.; Sousa, J.; Gonçalves, B.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► High performance board for fast control and data acquisition. ► Large IO channel number per board with galvanic isolation. ► Optimized for high reliability and availability. ► Targeted for nuclear fusion experiments with long duration discharges. ► To be used on the ITER Fast Plant System Controller prototype. - Abstract: An in-house development of an Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) board for fast control and data acquisition, with Input/Output (IO) processing capability, is presented. The architecture, compatible with the ATCA (PICMG 3.4) and ATCA eXtensions for Instrumentation (AXIe) specifications, comprises a passive Rear Transition Module (RTM) for IO connectivity to ease hot-swap maintenance and simultaneously to increase cabling life cycle. The board complies with ITER Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) guidelines for rear IO connectivity and redundancy, in order to provide high levels of reliability and availability to the control and data acquisition systems of nuclear fusion devices with long duration plasma discharges. Simultaneously digitized data from all Analog to Digital Converters (ADC) of the board can be filtered/decimated in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), decreasing data throughput, increasing resolution, and sent through Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) Express to multi-core processors in the ATCA shelf hub slots. Concurrently the multi-core processors can update the board Digital to Analog Converters (DAC) in real-time. Full-duplex point-to-point communication links between all FPGAs, of peer boards inside the shelf, allow the implementation of distributed algorithms and Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) systems. Support for several timing and synchronization solutions is also provided. Some key features are onboard ADC or DAC modules with galvanic isolation, Xilinx Virtex 6 FPGA, standard Dual Data Rate (DDR) 3 SODIMM memory, standard CompactFLASH memory card, Intelligent

  4. Comparison of total disc replacement with lumbar fusion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, H.

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate whether a beneficial clinical effect of the Total Disc Replacement (TDR) over lumbar fusion for the treatment of patients with Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD). An electronic search of PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and EMBASE from their inception to 2012 was completed, and we assessed risk bias and retrieved relevant data, and meta-analysis was performed, if appropriate. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Visual Analog Score (VAS), patient satisfaction or VAS patient satisfaction, narcotic use, overall success rate, reoperation rate, work status, surgery again, complications and radiographic outcomes were evaluated. Six RCTs were included in this meta-analysis. At 2 years, TDR was demonstrated to be more beneficial for patients compared to lumbar fusion in the following outcomes, including ODI scores (MD: -4.87, 95% CI: -7.77 to -1.97, p=0.001), patient satisfaction (OR:1.91, 95% CI: 1.27 to 2.86, p=0.002) and VAS patient satisfaction (MD:9.10, 95% CI: 3.20 to 14.99, p=0.002), the percentage of using narcotics (OR=0.54, 95%CI: 0.31 to 0.96, p=0.03), overall success rate (OR:1.68, 95% CI: 1.26 to 2.25, p=0.005), the rate of patients to chose the same surgical treatment again (OR:2.38, 95% CI: 1.72 to 3.28, p < 0.001), and complications (OR=0.50, 95% CI: 0.29 to 0.84, p=0.008). Other outcomes, including re-operation rate (OR:0.62, 95% CI: 0.36 to 1.06, p=0.08) and work status (OR=1.05, 95% CI: 0.75 to 1.47, p=0.80), were demonstrated to be no differences between the two groups. In a long-term of follow-up (2 years), TDR shows a significant superiority for the treatment of lumbar DDD compared with fusion. (author)

  5. 2001 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2002-01-01

    The year 2001 activities of the controlled thermonuclear fusion research line of the Plasma Associated Laboratory at the National Institute for Space Research - Brazil are reported. The report approaches the staff, participation in congresses, goals for the year 2002 and papers on Tokamak plasmas, plasma diagnostic, bootstraps, plasma equilibrium and diagnostic

  6. 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2004-01-01

    This document represents the 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory - Brazil, approaching the areas of toroidal systems for magnetic confinement, plasma heating, current generation and high temperature plasma diagnostic

  7. Tritium control in fusion reactor materials: A model for Tritium Extracting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchetti, Massimo [DENERG, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Utili, Marco, E-mail: marco.utili@enea.it [ENEA UTIS – C.R. Brasimone, Bacino del Brasimone, Camugnano, BO (Italy); Nicolotti, Iuri [DENERG, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Ying, Alice [University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA (United States); Franza, Fabrizio [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Abdou, Mohamed [University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A modeling work has been performed to address these issues in view of its utilization for the TES (Tritium Extraction System), in the case of the HCPB TBM and for a Molecular sieve as adsorbent material. • A computational model has been setup and tested in this paper. • The results of experimental measurement of fundamental parameters such as mass transfer coefficients have been implemented in the model. • It turns out the capability to model the extraction process of gaseous tritium compounds and to estimate the breakthrough curves of the two main tritium gaseous species (H2 and HT). - Abstract: In fusion reactors, tritium is bred by lithium isotopes inside the blanket and then extracted. However, tritium can contaminate the reactor structures, and can be eventually released into the environment. Tritium in reactor components should therefore be kept under close control throughout the fusion reactor lifetime, bearing in mind the risk of accidents, the need for maintenance and the detritiation of dismantled reactor components before their re-use or disposal. A modeling work has been performed to address these issues in view of its utilization for the TES (Tritium Extraction System), in the case of the HCPB TBM and for a molecular sieve as adsorbent material. A computational model has been setup and tested. The results of experimental measurement of fundamental parameters such as mass transfer coefficients have been implemented in the model. It turns out the capability of the model to describe the extraction process of gaseous tritium compounds and to estimate the breakthrough curves of the two main tritium gaseous species (H2 and HT).

  8. Tritium control in fusion reactor materials: A model for Tritium Extracting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, Massimo; Utili, Marco; Nicolotti, Iuri; Ying, Alice; Franza, Fabrizio; Abdou, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A modeling work has been performed to address these issues in view of its utilization for the TES (Tritium Extraction System), in the case of the HCPB TBM and for a Molecular sieve as adsorbent material. • A computational model has been setup and tested in this paper. • The results of experimental measurement of fundamental parameters such as mass transfer coefficients have been implemented in the model. • It turns out the capability to model the extraction process of gaseous tritium compounds and to estimate the breakthrough curves of the two main tritium gaseous species (H2 and HT). - Abstract: In fusion reactors, tritium is bred by lithium isotopes inside the blanket and then extracted. However, tritium can contaminate the reactor structures, and can be eventually released into the environment. Tritium in reactor components should therefore be kept under close control throughout the fusion reactor lifetime, bearing in mind the risk of accidents, the need for maintenance and the detritiation of dismantled reactor components before their re-use or disposal. A modeling work has been performed to address these issues in view of its utilization for the TES (Tritium Extraction System), in the case of the HCPB TBM and for a molecular sieve as adsorbent material. A computational model has been setup and tested. The results of experimental measurement of fundamental parameters such as mass transfer coefficients have been implemented in the model. It turns out the capability of the model to describe the extraction process of gaseous tritium compounds and to estimate the breakthrough curves of the two main tritium gaseous species (H2 and HT).

  9. Control of molten salt corrosion of fusion structural materials by metallic beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderoni, P.; Sharpe, P.; Nishimura, H.; Terai, T.

    2009-01-01

    A series of tests have been performed between 2001 and 2006 at the Safety and Tritium Applied Research facility of the Idaho National Laboratory to demonstrate chemical compatibility between the molten salt flibe (2LiF + BeF 2 in moles) and fusion structural materials once suitable fluoride potential control methods are established. The tests adopted metallic beryllium contact as main fluoride potential control, and the results have been published in recent years. A further step was to expose two specimens of low activation ferritic/martensitic steel 9Cr-2W to static corrosion tests that include an active corrosion agent (hydrofluoric gas) in controlled conditions at 530 deg. C, and the results of the tests are presented in this paper. The results confirmed the expected correlation of the HF recovery with the concentration of metallic impurities dissolved in the salt because of specimen corrosion. The metals concentration dropped to levels close to the detectable limit when the beryllium rod was inserted and increased once the content of excess beryllium in the system had been consumed by HF reduction and specimen corrosion progressed. Metallographic analysis of the samples after 500 h exposure in reactive conditions showed evidence of the formation of unstable chromium oxide layers on the specimen's surface.

  10. Suppression of hydrogenated carbon film deposition by scavenger techniques and their application to the tritium inventory control of fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabares, F.L.; Tafalla, D.; Tanarro, I.; Herrero, V.J.; Islyaikin, A.; Maffiotte, C.

    2002-01-01

    The well-known radical and ion scavenger techniques of application in amorphous hydrogenated carbon film deposition studies are investigated in relation to the mechanism of tritium and deuterium co-deposition in carbon-dominated fusion devices. A particularly successful scheme results from the injection of nitrogen into methane/hydrogen plasmas for conditions close to those prevailing in the divertor region of present fusion devices. A complete suppression of the a-C : H film deposition has been achieved for N 2 /CH 4 ratios close to one in methane (5%)/hydrogen DC plasma. The implications of these findings in the tritium retention control in future fusion reactors are addressed. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  11. ITER Plasma at Ion Cyclotron Frequency Domain: The Fusion Alpha Particles Diagnostics Based on the Stimulated Raman Scattering of Fast Magnetosonic Wave off High Harmonic Ion Bernstein Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2014-10-01

    A novel method for alpha particle diagnostics is proposed. The theory of stimulated Raman scattering, SRS, of the fast wave and ion Bernstein mode, IBM, turbulence in multi-ion species plasmas, (Stefan University Press, La Jolla, CA, 2008). is utilized for the diagnostics of fast ions, (4)He (+2), in ITER plasmas. Nonlinear Landau damping of the IBM on fast ions near the plasma edge leads to the space-time changes in the turbulence level, (inverse alpha particle channeling). The space-time monitoring of the IBM turbulence via the SRS techniques may prove efficient for the real time study of the fast ion velocity distribution function, spatial distribution, and transport. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs., La Jolla, CA 92037.

  12. Index of Theta/Alpha Ratio of the Quantitative Electroencephalogram in Alzheimer's Disease: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahimi, Golshan; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmoud; Fahimi, Elnaz; Rajebi, Hamid

    2017-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder in human beings associated with cognitive, behavioral and motor impairments. The main symptom of AD is dementia, which causes difficulties in carrying out daily practices. Brain waves are altered in people with AD. Relative indices of brain waves can be beneficial in the diagnosis of AD. In this case-control study, 50 patients with AD and 50 matched healthy individuals were enrolled in case and control groups respectively. With recording and analyzing of brain waves with the utilization of quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG), index of theta/alpha ratio was assessed in both groups. The index of theta/alpha ratio was significantly higher in patients with AD in comparison to healthy individuals (Pratio obtained by QEEG provides a non-invasive diagnostic marker of AD, which may be helpful in identification of non-advanced disease in susceptible individuals.

  13. Towards a new generation of control and data acquisition systems for thermonuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Haren, P.C.

    1993-01-01

    Because of the complexity of thermonuclear fusion test reactors, control systems are indispensable. The physical properties of the reactor medium, i.e. the plasma, are still not well understood. Therefore, many diagnostic techniques are applied to investigate the plasma and to discover its properties. As a consequence, data acquisition systems play an important role in thermonuclear fusion research. This thesis reports on three projects that were carried out in the field of control and data acquisition. The target experiment is the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project (RTP), a medium-sized experiment dedicated to studies of transport in the reactor medium. One of the projects is aimed at the development of a new Plasma Position and Current Control feedback System (PPCCS). This system evaluates signals of a large (about 20) number of sensors, computes the actual state of the plasma from these signals and generates command signals for the power supplies that govern the plasma position. The most ambitious project described in this thesis is the development of a data acquisition system, called TRAMP (Transient Recorders and Amoeba Multi Processor), that aims to be a testbed for smart data acquisition strategies. TRAMP attempts to acquire and store temporarily all possible data at a high sampling frequency from a single RTP pulse, and accommodates for a resampling in software prior to transferring the data to a mass storage facility. The software resampling frequency can be tuned by analysis of the acquired data and, in that way, only interesting data will be stored. In the course of the development of both the above-mentioned systems it turned out that the existing database format applied for managing experimental data provided many hurdles in the realization of efficient solutions. Consequently, a new database format was developed together with software to deal with it. This new database, called DOM4 (Data Organization and Management), is now applied at all data acquisition

  14. International research co-operation in the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conscience, J.-F.

    2003-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Education and Science presents a review of activities carried out in 2002 within the framework of the International Experimental Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER) project that involves contributions from Canada, Japan, the Russian Federation and the European Union. Further agreements on the development of a fusion reactor with other countries, including Switzerland, the USA and China, are mentioned. The first chapter describes the current state of research on electricity production using nuclear fusion and discusses feasibility, safety, environmental, fuel supply and economic aspects. A second chapter reviews global efforts in the fusion area, including ITER and EURATOM projects and the activities running under the European Fusion Development Agreement EFDA and the JET Implementing Agreement. Finally, a third chapter deals with fusion research activities in Switzerland and the contributions made to international research by Swiss universities and institutes

  15. Sensor fusion: lane marking detection and autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baret, Marc; Baillarin, S.; Calesse, C.; Martin, Lionel

    1995-12-01

    In the past few years MATRA and RENAULT have developed an Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) system based on a LIDAR sensor. This sensor incorporating a charge coupled device was designed to acquire pulsed laser diode emission reflected by standard car reflectors. The absence of moving mechanical parts, the large field of view, the high measurement rate and the very good accuracy for distance range and angular position of targets make this sensor very interesting. It provides the equipped car with the distance and the relative speed of other vehicles enabling the safety distance to be controlled by acting on the throttle and the automatic gear box. Experiments in various real traffic situations have shown the limitations of this kind of system especially on bends. All AICC sensors are unable to distinguish between a bend and a change of lane. This is easily understood if we consider a road without lane markings. This fact has led MATRA to improve its AICC system by providing the lane marking information. Also in the scope of the EUREKA PROMETHEUS project, MATRA and RENAULT have developed a lane keeping system in order to warn of the drivers lack of vigilance. Thus, MATRA have spread this system to far field lane marking detection and have coupled it with the AICC system. Experiments will be carried out on roads to estimate the gain in performance and comfort due to this fusion.

  16. EURATOM-CEA Association Contributions to the 16. European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The contributions to the 16th European Conference on controlled fusion and Plasma Physics are presented. The following subjects, concerning Tore Supra, are discussed: runaway electrons dynamics and confinement; spectroscopic studies of plasma surface interactions; ergodic divertor experiments; magnetic field structure and transport induced by the ergodic divertor; fast ions losses during neutral beam injection; current profile control by electron-cyclotron and lower-hybrid waves; and electromagnetic analysis of the lower hybrid system. The report also includes studies on: a possible explanation for the runaway energy limit (resonant interaction with the ripple field); thermal equilibrium of the edge plasma with an ergodic divertor; neutral confinement in pump limiter with a throat; microtearing turbulence and heat transport; toroidal coupling and frequency spectrum of tearing modes; collisionless fast ion dynamics in tokamaks; variational description of lower hybrid wave propagation and absorption in tokamaks; magnetodrift turbulence and disruptions; specific turbulence associated with sawtooth relaxations in TFR plasmas; detailed structure of the q profile around q = 1 in JET; turbulence propagation during pellet injection; tokamak reactor concept with 100% bootstrap current; optimization of a steady state tokamak driven by lower hybrid waves; and thermodesorption of graphite exposed to a deuterium plasma

  17. Accurate alpha sticking fractions from improved three-body calculations relevant for muon catalyzed fusion. Progress report, September 1, 1985-August 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szalewicz, K.; Monkhorst, H.J.

    1986-04-01

    A solution of the Coulomb three-body problem is the beginning point for calculations of sticking fractions in muon catalyzed fusion. The basis set is constructed from the following functions xi/sup r/n/sup s/e/sup - αxi - β n/R/sup -3 /2//H/sub eta/(x)exp(-x 2 /2), where xi and eta are elliptic coordinates of muon, R is the internuclear distance, H/sub eta/ is the nth Hermite polynomial, and x = γ (R-R/sub e/). The nonlinear parameters α, β, γ, and R/sub e/ are to be optimized. 21 refs., 1 tab

  18. Plasma Equilibrium Control in Nuclear Fusion Devices 2. Plasma Control in Magnetic Confinement Devices 2.1 Plasma Control in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Takeshi

    The plasma control technique for use in large tokamak devices has made great developmental strides in the last decade, concomitantly with progress in the understanding of tokamak physics and in part facilitated by the substantial advancement in the computing environment. Equilibrium control procedures have thereby been established, and it has been pervasively recognized in recent years that the real-time feedback control of physical quantities is indispensable for the improvement and sustainment of plasma performance in a quasi-steady-state. Further development is presently undertaken to realize the “advanced plasma control” concept, where integrated fusion performance is achieved by the simultaneous feedback control of multiple physical quantities, combined with equilibrium control.

  19. Frontal eye fields control attentional modulation of alpha and gamma oscillations in contralateral occipitoparietal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, T.R.; O'Shea, J.; Jensen, O.; Bergmann, T.O.

    2015-01-01

    Covertly directing visuospatial attention produces a frequency-specific modulation of neuronal oscillations in occipital and parietal cortices: anticipatory alpha (8-12 Hz) power decreases contralateral and increases ipsilateral to attention, whereas stimulus-induced gamma (>40 Hz) power is boosted

  20. Gamma activity coupled to alpha phase as a mechanism for top-down controlled gating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnefond, M.; Jensen, O.

    2015-01-01

    Coupling between neural oscillations in different frequency bands has been proposed to coordinate neural processing. In particular, gamma power coupled to alpha phase is proposed to reflect gating of information in the visual system but the existence of such a mechanism remains untested. Here, we

  1. Immunity to alpha-Gal: The Opportunity for Malaria and Tuberculosis Control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; de la Fuente, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, DEC 4 (2017), č. článku 1733. ISSN 1664-3224 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : alpha-Gal * blood groups * infectious diseases * probiotic * vaccine Subject RIV: EC - Immunology OBOR OECD: Immunology Impact factor: 6.429, year: 2016

  2. Redesign of a Variable-Gain Output Feedback Longitudinal Controller Flown on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a redesigned longitudinal controller that flew on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) during calendar years (CY) 1995 and 1996. Linear models are developed for both the modified controller and a baseline controller that was flown in CY 1994. The modified controller was developed with three gain sets for flight evaluation, and several linear analysis results are shown comparing the gain sets. A Neal-Smith flying qualities analysis shows that performance for the low- and medium-gain sets is near the level 1 boundary, depending upon the bandwidth assumed, whereas the high-gain set indicates a sensitivity problem. A newly developed high-alpha Bode envelope criterion indicates that the control system gains may be slightly high, even for the low-gain set. A large motion-base simulator in the United Kingdom was used to evaluate the various controllers. Desired performance, which appeared to be satisfactory for flight, was generally met with both the low- and medium-gain sets. Both the high-gain set and the baseline controller were very sensitive, and it was easy to generate pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) in some of the target-tracking maneuvers. Flight target-tracking results varied from level 1 to level 3 and from no sensitivity to PIO. These results were related to pilot technique and whether actuator rate saturation was encountered.

  3. Multi-rate sensor fusion-based adaptive discrete finite-time synergetic control for flexible-joint mechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Guang-Yue; Ren Xue-Mei; Xia Yuan-Qing

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive discrete finite-time synergetic control (ADFTSC) scheme based on a multi-rate sensor fusion estimator for flexible-joint mechanical systems in the presence of unmeasured states and dynamic uncertainties. Multi-rate sensors are employed to observe the system states which cannot be directly obtained by encoders due to the existence of joint flexibilities. By using an extended Kalman filter (EKF), the finite-time synergetic controller is designed based on a sensor fusion estimator which estimates states and parameters of the mechanical system with multi-rate measurements. The proposed controller can guarantee the finite-time convergence of tracking errors by the theoretical derivation. Simulation and experimental studies are included to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. (general)

  4. ADAM12 and alpha9beta1 integrin are instrumental in human myogenic cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafuste, Peggy; Sonnet, Corinne; Chazaud, Bénédicte

    2005-01-01

    of alpha9 parallels that of ADAM12 and culminates at time of fusion. alpha9 and ADAM12 coimmunoprecipitate and participate to mpc adhesion. Inhibition of ADAM12/alpha9beta1 integrin interplay, by either ADAM12 antisense oligonucleotides or blocking antibody to alpha9beta1, inhibited overall mpc fusion...

  5. Modulation of Posterior Alpha Activity by Spatial Attention Allows for Controlling A Continuous Brain-Computer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horschig, Jörn M; Oosterheert, Wouter; Oostenveld, Robert; Jensen, Ole

    2015-11-01

    Here we report that the modulation of alpha activity by covert attention can be used as a control signal in an online brain-computer interface, that it is reliable, and that it is robust. Subjects were instructed to orient covert visual attention to the left or right hemifield. We decoded the direction of attention from the magnetoencephalogram by a template matching classifier and provided the classification outcome to the subject in real-time using a novel graphical user interface. Training data for the templates were obtained from a Posner-cueing task conducted just before the BCI task. Eleven subjects participated in four sessions each. Eight of the subjects achieved classification rates significantly above chance level. Subjects were able to significantly increase their performance from the first to the second session. Individual patterns of posterior alpha power remained stable throughout the four sessions and did not change with increased performance. We conclude that posterior alpha power can successfully be used as a control signal in brain-computer interfaces. We also discuss several ideas for further improving the setup and propose future research based on solid hypotheses about behavioral consequences of modulating neuronal oscillations by brain computer interfacing.

  6. Randomized controlled trial of postoperative exercise rehabilitation program after lumbar spine fusion: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarnanen Sami

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lumbar spine fusion (LSF effectively decreases pain and disability in specific spinal disorders; however, the disability rate following surgery remains high. This, combined with the fact that in Western countries the number of LSF surgeries is increasing rapidly it is important to develop rehabilitation interventions that improve outcomes. Methods/design In the present RCT-study we aim to assess the effectiveness of a combined back-specific and aerobic exercise intervention for patients after LSF surgery. One hundred patients will be randomly allocated to a 12-month exercise intervention arm or a usual care arm. The exercise intervention will start three months after surgery and consist of six individual guidance sessions with a physiotherapist and a home-based exercise program. The primary outcome measures are low back pain, lower extremity pain, disability and quality of life. Secondary outcomes are back function and kinesiophobia. Exercise adherence will also be evaluated. The outcome measurements will be assessed at baseline (3 months postoperatively, at the end of the exercise intervention period (15 months postoperatively, and after a 1-year follow-up. Discussion The present RCT will evaluate the effectiveness of a long-term rehabilitation program after LSF. To our knowledge this will be the first study to evaluate a combination of strength training, control of the neutral lumbar spine position and aerobic training principles in rehabilitation after LSF. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00834015

  7. Design of Lamifuse: a randomised, multi-centre controlled trial comparing laminectomy without or with dorsal fusion for cervical myeloradiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grotenhuis J André

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background laminectomy is a valuable surgical treatment for some patients with a cervical radiculomyelopathy due to cervical spinal stenosis. More recently attention has been given to motion of the spinal cord over spondylotic spurs as a cause of myelopathic changes. Immobilisation by fusion could have a positive effect on the recovery of myelopathic signs or changes. This has never been investigated in a prospective, randomised trial. Lamifuse is an acronyme for laminectomy and fusion. Methods/Design Lamifuse is a multicentre, randomised controlled trial comparing laminectomy with and without fusion in patients with a symptomatic cervical canal stenosis. The study population will be enrolled from patients that are 60 years or older with myelopathic signs and/or symptoms due to a cervical canal stenosis. A kyphotis shape of the cervical spine is an exclusion criterium. Each treatment arm needs 30 patients. Discussion This study will contribute to the discussion whether additional fusion after a cervical laminectomy results in a better clinical outcome. ISRCT number ISRCTN72800446

  8. Detection of {alpha} particles using semiconductors. Application to the control of plutonium extraction; Detection des particules {alpha} par semiconducteurs application au controle de l'extraction du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-03-01

    A study is made of a particles produced by thick sources, using either diffused junction or surface barrier semiconductor detectors for controlling continuously the plutonium extraction process. For this, a presenting apparatus is described in which the solutions to be analyzed flow in contact with the detector protected by a thin mica membrane. A method is described which gives a precise recording of the spectra and which thus allows the separation of two or more {alpha} emitters present in the same solution. This method has been applied to the measurement of {sup 239}Pu in the the presence of {sup 241}Am with an accuracy of {+-}5 per cent. In the second part of the report is considered the detection of plutonium in solutions of {beta} - {gamma} emitting fission products. Pile-up is reduced by using a fast amplification chain associated to totally depleted thin detectors. Under these conditions a few mg of {sup 239}Pu can be detected in solutions of fission products having an activity of 100 curies/liter. A method is given for discriminating {alpha} and {beta} particles, it is based on the difference in the collection times for the charges liberated by these particles in the detector. (author) [French] On etudie la detection de particules {alpha} issues de sources epaisses par detecteurs semiconducteurs a jonction diffusee ou a barriere de surface pour le controle continu du procede d'extraction du plutonium. A cet effet on decrit un appareil presentateur dans lequel les solutions a analyser circulent au contact du detecteur protege par une membrane mince de mica. On decrit une methode qui permet par le trace precis des spectres de separer deux ou plusieurs emetteurs {alpha} presents dans une meme solution. Cette methode a ete appliquee a la mesure du {sup 239}Pu en presence de {sup 241}Am avec une precision de {+-} 5 pour cent. Dans la deuxieme partie on traite de la detection du plutonium dans des solutions de produits de fission emetteurs {beta} and {gamma

  9. Control of silicification by genetically engineered fusion proteins: Silk–silica binding peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shun; Huang, Wenwen; Belton, David J.; Simmons, Leo O.; Perry, Carole C.; Wang, Xiaoqin; Kaplan, David L.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, an artificial spider silk gene, 6mer, derived from the consensus sequence of Nephila clavipes dragline silk gene, was fused with different silica-binding peptides (SiBPs), A1, A3 and R5, to study the impact of the fusion protein sequence chemistry on silica formation and the ability to generate a silk–silica composite in two different bioinspired silicification systems: solution–solution and solution– solid. Condensed silica nanoscale particles (600–800 nm) were formed in the presence of the recombinant silk and chimeras, which were smaller than those formed by 15mer-SiBP chimeras [1], revealing that the molecular weight of the silk domain correlated to the sizes of the condensed silica particles in the solution system. In addition, the chimeras (6mer-A1/A3/R5) produced smaller condensed silica particles than the control (6mer), revealing that the silica particle size formed in the solution system is controlled by the size of protein assemblies in solution. In the solution–solid interface system, silicification reactions were performed on the surface of films fabricated from the recombinant silk proteins and chimeras and then treated to induce β-sheet formation. A higher density of condensed silica formed on the films containing the lowest β-sheet content while the films with the highest β-sheet content precipitated the lowest density of silica, revealing an inverse correlation between the β-sheet secondary structure and the silica content formed on the films. Intriguingly, the 6mer-A3 showed the highest rate of silica condensation but the lowest density of silica deposition on the films, compared with 6mer-A1 and -R5, revealing antagonistic crosstalk between the silk and the SiBP domains in terms of protein assembly. These findings offer a path forward in the tailoring of biopolymer–silica composites for biomaterial related needs. PMID:25462851

  10. Magnetohydrodynamic modes analysis and control of Fusion Advanced Studies Torus high-current scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villone, F.; Mastrostefano, S. [Euratom-ENEA-CREATE Ass., DIEI, Univ. di Cassino e Lazio Merid., Cassino (Italy); Calabrò, G.; Vlad, G.; Crisanti, F.; Fusco, V. [C. R. Frascati, Euratom-ENEA Ass., Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Marchiori, G.; Bolzonella, T.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, P. [Cons. RFX, Euratom-ENEA-RFX Ass., Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Liu, Y. Q. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Mantica, P. [IFP-CNR, Euratom-ENEA-CNR Ass. Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    One of the main FAST (Fusion Advanced Studies Torus) goals is to have a flexible experiment capable to test tools and scenarios for safe and reliable tokamak operation, in order to support ITER and help the final DEMO design. In particular, in this paper, we focus on operation close to a possible border of stability related to low-q operation. To this purpose, a new FAST scenario has then been designed at I{sub p} = 10 MA, B{sub T} = 8.5 T, q{sub 95} ≈ 2.3. Transport simulations, carried out by using the code JETTO and the first principle transport model GLF23, indicate that, under these conditions, FAST could achieve an equivalent Q ≈ 3.5. FAST will be equipped with a set of internal active coils for feedback control, which will produce magnetic perturbation with toroidal number n = 1 or n = 2. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mode analysis and feedback control simulations performed with the codes MARS, MARS-F, CarMa (both assuming the presence of a perfect conductive wall and using the exact 3D resistive wall structure) show the possibility of the FAST conductive structures to stabilize n = 1 ideal modes. This leaves therefore room for active mitigation of the resistive mode (down to a characteristic time of 1 ms) for safety purposes, i.e., to avoid dangerous MHD-driven plasma disruption, when working close to the machine limits and magnetic and kinetic energy density not far from reactor values.

  11. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This textbook covers the physics and technology upon which future fusion power reactors will be based. It reviews the history of fusion, reaction physics, plasma physics, heating, and confinement. Descriptions of commercial plants and design concepts are included. Topics covered include: fusion reactions and fuel resources; reaction rates; ignition, and confinement; basic plasma directory; Tokamak confinement physics; fusion technology; STARFIRE: A commercial Tokamak fusion power plant. MARS: A tandem-mirror fusion power plant; and other fusion reactor concepts

  12. Atomic physics issues in fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    Atomic physics issues have played a large role in controlled fusion research. A general introduction to the present role of atomic processes in both inertial and magnetic controlled fusion work is presented. (Auth.)

  13. Bringing fusion electric power closer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kintner, E.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the controlled fusion research program is given. The tokamak research program is described. Beam injection heating, control systems, and the safety of fusion reactors are topics that are also discussed

  14. Tritium control and capture in salt-cooled fission and fusion reactors: Status, challenges, and path forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Lam, Stephen; Carpenter, David M.; Whyte, Dennis G.; Scarlat, Raluca

    2017-01-01

    Three advanced nuclear power systems use liquid salt coolants that generate tritium and thus face the common challenges of containing and capturing tritium to prevent its release to the environment. The Fluoride-salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) uses clean fluoride salt coolants and the same graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel as high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Molten salt reactors (MSRs) dissolve the fuel in a fluoride or chloride salt with release of fission product tritium into the salt. In most FHR and MSR systems, the base-line salts contain lithium where isotopically separated "7Li is proposed to minimize tritium production from neutron interactions with the salt. The Chinese Academy of Science plans to start operation of a 2-MWt molten salt test reactor by 2020. For high-magnetic-field fusion machines, the use of lithium enriched in "6Li is proposed to maximize tritium generation the fuel for a fusion machine. Advances in superconductors that enable higher power densities may require the use of molten lithium salts for fusion blankets and as coolants. Recent technical advances in these three reactor classes have resulted in increased government and private interest and the beginning of a coordinated effort to address the tritium control challenges in 700 °C liquid salt systems. We describe characteristics of salt-cooled fission and fusion machines, the basis for growing interest in these technologies, tritium generation in molten salts, the environment for tritium capture, models for high-temperature tritium transport in salt systems, alternative strategies for tritium control, and ongoing experimental work. Several methods to control tritium appear viable. Finally, limited experimental data is the primary constraint for designing efficient cost-effective methods of tritium control.

  15. Participation of the Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais in the national program for plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is a report concerning the participation of the Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais in the national program for plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear fusion. The report lists all the personnel enroled in research activities, both theoretical and experimental. The research subjects are the following: relativistic electron beams; plasma produced by laser; plasma theory; quiescent plasma; plasma centrifugal; ionic propulsion. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  16. International research co-operation in the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 26th report by the Swiss Federal Office for Education and Science presents a review of work done in Swiss institutes in 2003 as part of international research into thermonuclear fusion. A broad outline of the project and of its significance within the wider field of thermonuclear fusion research is given. This is followed by a review of the significant events in the world of fusion research, with emphasis placed on ITER and on the EURATOM fusion programme. A further chapter summarises events in Switzerland in 2003 and the report closes with a list of contacts for more information. Three annexes provide information on the current situation in fusion research, as well as scientific and technical highlights of the work performed in 2003 at the Plasma Physics Research Centre CRPP at the Federal Institute of Technology EPFL in Lausanne, Switzerland. Annex 3 reports on results obtained at the Physics Institute of the University of Basle. The annexes are for the benefit of the technically and scientifically versed reader, and brief summaries of them are given in the main body of the report

  17. Cell fusions in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Lars-Inge; Bjerregaard, Bolette; Talts, Jan Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Cell fusions are important to fertilization, placentation, development of skeletal muscle and bone, calcium homeostasis and the immune defense system. Additionally, cell fusions participate in tissue repair and may be important to cancer development and progression. A large number of factors appear...... to regulate cell fusions, including receptors and ligands, membrane domain organizing proteins, proteases, signaling molecules and fusogenic proteins forming alpha-helical bundles that bring membranes close together. The syncytin family of proteins represent true fusogens and the founding member, syncytin-1......, has been documented to be involved in fusions between placental trophoblasts, between cancer cells and between cancer cells and host ells. We review the literature with emphasis on the syncytin family and propose that syncytins may represent universal fusogens in primates and rodents, which work...

  18. Prospects of the practical use of controlled fusion with plasma magnetic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovin, I.N.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of energy power development reveals, that fossil fuel - gas, oil, coal - will be depleted in the coming century. To-day there are still no ways of economically efficient full-scale usage of solar energy. Energy power based on division of heavy nuclei causes concern linked with unavoidable accumulation of long-lived radioactive wastes. Thermonuclear power is essentially safe, but application of deuterium fusion with tritium faces invincible difficulties linked with radiation damages of materials. Deuterium fusion with helium-3 solves this problem and opens favourable horizon for development of energy power, which is by 10 5 -10 6 time safer, than modern nuclear reactors. Author does not see any other way to provide mankind with fuel for coming centuries than, to mine helium-3 in the Moon which is technically workable and attracts attenuation to urgency of comprehensive - theoretical, experimental, design -development of efforts linked with D 3 He thermonuclear fusion

  19. Contributions to 28th European physical society conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics (Madeira Tecnopolo, Funchal, Portugal, 18-22 June 2001) from LHD experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The LHD experimental group has presented nineteen papers at the 28th European Physical Society Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics (Madeira Tecnopolo, Funchal, Portugal, 18-22 June 2001). The contributed papers are collected in this report. (author)

  20. Proceedings of the second United Nations international conference on the peaceful uses of atomic energy. V. 31. Theoretical and experimental aspects of controlled nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    The main topics covered by the Conference are: possibility of controlled fusion and status of the research programmes in different countries (USSR, Germany, USA, UK); theoretical aspects of plasma physics; experimental aspects of plasma physics

  1. Contributions to 30th European Physical Society conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics (St. Petersburg, Russia, 7-11 July 2003) from NIFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    25 contributed papers to the 30th European Physical Society Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics (St. Petersburg, Russia, 7-11 July 2003) from the activity of NIFS are collected in this report. (author)

  2. The activity of barley alpha-amylase on starch granules is enhanced by fusion of a starch binding domain from Aspergillus niger glucoamylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juge, N.; Nøhr, J.; Le Gal-Coëffet, M.-F.

    2006-01-01

    High affinity for starch granules of certain amylolytic enzymes is mediated by a separate starch binding domain (SBD). In Aspergillus niger glucoamylase (GA-I), a 70 amino acid O-glycosylated peptide linker connects SBD with the catalytic domain. A gene was constructed to encode barley alpha......-amylase 1 (AMY1) fused C-terminally to this SBD via a 37 residue GA-I linker segment. AMY1-SBD was expressed in A. niger, secreted using the AMY1 signal sequence at 25 mg x L(-1) and purified in 50% yield. AMY1-SBD contained 23% carbohydrate and consisted of correctly N-terminally processed multiple forms...... in A. niger). AMY1-SBD showed a 2-fold increased activity for soluble starch at low (0.5%) but not at high (1%) concentration. AMY1-SBD hydrolysed amylose DP440 with an increased degree of multiple attack of 3 compared to 1.9 for rAMY1. Remarkably, at low concentration (2 nM), AMY1-SBD hydrolysed...

  3. Annual report of the Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusin Working Group (FWG))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1987-04-01

    The Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusion Working Group (FWG)) was established in 1983 in response to the Declaration of the Heads of State and Government at the Versailles Economic Summit meeting of 1982, and in response to the subsequent report of the Working Group in Technology, Growth and Employment (TGE) as endorsed at the Williamsburg Summit meeting, 1983. This document contains the complete written record of each of the three FWG meetings which include the minutes, lists of attendees, agendas, statements, and summary conclusions as well as the full reports of the Technical Working Party. In addition, there is a pertinent exchange of correspondence between FWG members on the role of the Technical Working Party and a requested background paper on the modalities associated with a possible future ETR project.

  4. The effect of combining recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha with local radiation on tumor control probability of a human glioblastoma multiforme xenograft in nude mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Peigen; Allam, Ayman; Perez, Luis A; Taghian, Alphonse; Freeman, Jill; Suit, Herman D

    1995-04-30

    Purpose: To evaluate the antitumor activity of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rHuTNF-{alpha}) on a human glioblastoma multiforme (U87) xenograft in nude mice, and to study the effect of combining rHuTNF-{alpha} with local radiation on the tumor control probability of this tumor model. Methods and Materials: U87 xenograft was transplanted SC into the right hindleg of NCr/Sed nude mice (7-8 weeks old, male). When tumors reached a volume of about 110 mm{sup 3}, mice were randomly assigned to treatment: rHuTNF-{alpha} alone compared with normal saline control; or local radiation plus rHuTNF-{alpha} vs. local radiation plus normal saline. Parameters of growth delay, volume doubling time, percentage of necrosis, and cell loss factor were used to assess the antitumor effects of rHuTNF-{alpha} on this tumor. The TCD{sub 50} (tumor control dose 50%) was used as an endpoint to determine the effect of combining rHuTNF-{alpha} with local radiation. Results: Tumor growth in mice treated with a dose of 150 {mu}g/kg body weight rHuTNF-{alpha}, IP injection daily for 7 consecutive days, was delayed about 8 days compared to that in controls. Tumors in the treatment group had a significantly longer volume doubling time, and were smaller in volume and more necrotic than matched tumors in control group. rHuTNF-{alpha} also induced a 2.3 times increase of cell loss factor. The administration of the above-mentioned dose of rHuTNF-{alpha} starting 24 h after single doses of localized irradiation under hypoxic condition, resulted in a significant reduction in TCD{sub 50} from the control value of 60.9 Gy to 50.5 Gy (p < 0.01). Conclusion: rHuTNF-{alpha} exhibits an antitumor effect against U87 xenograft in nude mice, as evidenced by an increased delay in tumor growth as well as cell loss factor. Also, there was an augmentation of tumor curability when given in combination with radiotherapy, resulting in a significantly lower TCD{sub 50} value in the treatment vs. the

  5. Control of silicification by genetically engineered fusion proteins: silk-silica binding peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shun; Huang, Wenwen; Belton, David J; Simmons, Leo O; Perry, Carole C; Wang, Xiaoqin; Kaplan, David L

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, an artificial spider silk gene, 6mer, derived from the consensus sequence of Nephila clavipes dragline silk gene, was fused with different silica-binding peptides (SiBPs), A1, A3 and R5, to study the impact of the fusion protein sequence chemistry on silica formation and the ability to generate a silk-silica composite in two different bioinspired silicification systems: solution-solution and solution-solid. Condensed silica nanoscale particles (600-800 nm) were formed in the presence of the recombinant silk and chimeras, which were smaller than those formed by 15mer-SiBP chimeras, revealing that the molecular weight of the silk domain correlated to the sizes of the condensed silica particles in the solution system. In addition, the chimeras (6mer-A1/A3/R5) produced smaller condensed silica particles than the control (6mer), revealing that the silica particle size formed in the solution system is controlled by the size of protein assemblies in solution. In the solution-solid interface system, silicification reactions were performed on the surface of films fabricated from the recombinant silk proteins and chimeras and then treated to induce β-sheet formation. A higher density of condensed silica formed on the films containing the lowest β-sheet content while the films with the highest β-sheet content precipitated the lowest density of silica, revealing an inverse correlation between the β-sheet secondary structure and the silica content formed on the films. Intriguingly, the 6mer-A3 showed the highest rate of silica condensation but the lowest density of silica deposition on the films, compared with 6mer-A1 and -R5, revealing antagonistic crosstalk between the silk and the SiBP domains in terms of protein assembly. These findings offer a path forward in the tailoring of biopolymer-silica composites for biomaterial related needs. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Different slopes for different folks: alpha and delta EEG power predict subsequent video game learning rate and improvements in cognitive control tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathewson, Kyle E; Basak, Chandramallika; Maclin, Edward L; Low, Kathy A; Boot, Walter R; Kramer, Arthur F; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele

    2012-12-01

    We hypothesized that control processes, as measured using electrophysiological (EEG) variables, influence the rate of learning of complex tasks. Specifically, we measured alpha power, event-related spectral perturbations (ERSPs), and event-related brain potentials during early training of the Space Fortress task, and correlated these measures with subsequent learning rate and performance in transfer tasks. Once initial score was partialled out, the best predictors were frontal alpha power and alpha and delta ERSPs, but not P300. By combining these predictors, we could explain about 50% of the learning rate variance and 10%-20% of the variance in transfer to other tasks using only pretraining EEG measures. Thus, control processes, as indexed by alpha and delta EEG oscillations, can predict learning and skill improvements. The results are of potential use to optimize training regimes. Copyright © 2012 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Atomic data for controlled fusion research. Volume III. Particle interactions with surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E.W.

    1985-02-01

    This report provides a handbook of data concerning particle solid interactions that are relevant to plasma-wall interactions in fusion devices. Published data have been collected, assessed, and represented by a single functional relationship which is presented in both tabular and graphical form. Mechanisms reviewed here include sputtering, secondary electron emission, particle reflection, and trapping

  8. Electrostatic levitation, control and transport in high rate, low cost production of inertial confinement fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.; Johnson, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion requires production of power plant grade targets at high rates and process yield. A review of present project specifications and techniques to produce targets is discussed with special emphasis on automating the processes and combining them with an electrostatic transport and suspension system through the power plant target factory

  9. New ALPHA-2 magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 21 June, members of the ALPHA collaboration celebrated the handover of the first solenoid designed for the ALPHA-2 experiment. The magnet has since been successfully installed and is working well.   Khalid Mansoor, Sumera Yamin and Jeffrey Hangst in front of the new ALPHA-2 solenoid. “This was the first of three identical solenoids that will be installed between now and September, as the rest of the ALPHA-2 device is installed and commissioned,” explains ALPHA spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst. “These magnets are designed to allow us to transfer particles - antiprotons, electrons and positrons - between various parts of the new ALPHA-2 device by controlling the transverse size of the particle bunch that is being transferred.” Sumera Yamin and Khalid Mansoor, two Pakistani scientists from the National Centre for Physics in Islamabad, came to CERN in February specifically to design and manufacture these magnets. “We had the chance to work on act...

  10. Fusion spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, N.J.

    1995-09-01

    This article traces developments in the spectroscopy of high temperature laboratory plasma used in controlled fusion research from the early 1960's until the present. These three and a half decades have witnessed many orders of magnitude increase in accessible plasma parameters such as density and temperature as well as particle and energy confinement timescales. Driven by the need to interpret the radiation in terms of the local plasma parameters, the thrust of fusion spectroscopy has been to develop our understanding of (i) the atomic structure of highly ionised atoms, usually of impurities in the hydrogen isotope fuel; (ii) the atomic collision rates and their incorporation into ionization structure and emissivity models that take into account plasma phenomena like plasma-wall interactions, particle transport and radiation patterns; (iii) the diagnostic applications of spectroscopy aided by increasingly sophisticated characterisation of the electron fluid. These topics are discussed in relation to toroidal magnetically confined plasmas, particularly the Tokamak which appears to be the most promising approach to controlled fusion to date. (author)

  11. Buffett’s Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting...

  12. Alpha heating in toroidal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    Ignition (or near-ignition) by alpha heating is a key objective for the achievement of economic fusion reactors. While good confinement of high-energy alphas appears possible in larger reactors, near-term tokamak-type ignition experiments as well as some concepts for small reactors (e.g., the Field-Reversed Mirror or FRM) potentially face marginal situations. Consequently, there is a strong motivation to develop methods to evaluate alpha losses and heating profiles in some detail. Such studies for a TFTR-size tokamak and for a small FRM are described here

  13. Magnetic fusion technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Fusion Technology describes the technologies that are required for successful development of nuclear fusion power plants using strong magnetic fields. These technologies include: ? magnet systems, ? plasma heating systems, ? control systems, ? energy conversion systems, ? advanced materials development, ? vacuum systems, ? cryogenic systems, ? plasma diagnostics, ? safety systems, and ? power plant design studies. Magnetic Fusion Technology will be useful to students and to specialists working in energy research.

  14. Improving Vehicle Ride and Handling Using LQG CNF Fusion Control Strategy for an Active Antiroll Bar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zulkarnain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses a comparison of performance for an active antiroll bar (ARB system using two types of control strategy. First of all, the LQG control strategy is investigated and then a novel LQG CNF fusion control method is developed to improve the performances on vehicle ride and handling for an active antiroll bar system. However, the ARB system has to balance the trade-off between ride and handling performance, where the CNF consists of a linear feedback law and a nonlinear feedback law. Typically, the linear feedback is designed to yield a quick response at the initial stage, while the nonlinear feedback law is used to smooth out overshoots in the system output when it approaches the target reference. The half car model is combined with a linear single track model with roll dynamics which are used for the analysis and simulation of ride and handling. The performances of the control strategies are compared and the simulation results show the LQG CNF fusion improves the performances in vehicle ride and handling.

  15. Metal vapor micro-jet controls material redistribution in laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Sonny; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Khairallah, Saad A.; Guss, Gabe; Matthews, Manyalibo J.

    2017-01-01

    The results of detailed experiments and finite element modeling of metal micro-droplet motion associated with metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes are presented. Ultra high speed imaging of melt pool dynamics reveals that the dominant mechanism leading to micro-droplet ejection in a laser powder bed fusion AM is not from laser induced recoil pressure as is widely believed and found in laser welding processes, but rather from vapor driven entrainment of micro-particles by an ambient gas...

  16. Consumer-oriented social data fusion: controlled learning in social environments, social advertising, and more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, L.

    2013-05-01

    This paper explores the current practices in social data fusion and analysis as it applies to consumer-oriented applications in a slew of areas including business, economics, politics, sciences, medicine, education and more. A categorization of these systems is proposed and contributions to each area are explored preceded by a discussion of some special issues related to social data and networks. From this work, future paths of consumer-based social data analysis research and current outstanding problems are discovered.

  17. Evaluation of salivary tumor necrosis factor-alpha in patients with the chronic periodontitis: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefimanesh, Hojatollah; Maryam, Robati; Mahmoud, Jahangirnezhad; Mehri, Ghafourian Boroujerdnia; Mohsen, Taghipour

    2013-11-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic infectious disease that leads to inflammation of the tissues supporting the teeth, bone loss, attachment loss progressively. In chronic periodontitis for starting the host response and inflammatory reaction, the presence of the infectious agent is necessary. One of inflammatory factors is tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) that appear to be important in the destruction of periodontal tissues that were examined in this study. This study was performed in the laboratory and case-control study. The samples of study collected from 30 individuals with chronic periodontitis and 30 healthy controls that matched for age and sex, together. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from patients and then TNF-α level were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and were compared with the control group. In this study for statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney was used. There were differences in mean salivary concentrations of TNF-α in controls and patients. The average concentration in the case group was 9.1 (pg/ml) and the control group was 8.7 (pg/ml), but there was no significant difference between case and control groups (P > 0.05). The results of this analysis showed no significant relationship between two groups TNF-α concentration. This biomarker can not seem to be a good index to evaluate or predict periodontal disease.

  18. Evaluation of salivary tumor necrosis factor-alpha in patients with the chronic periodontitis: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatollah Yousefimanesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Periodontitis is a chronic infectious disease that leads to inflammation of the tissues supporting the teeth, bone loss, attachment loss progressively. In chronic periodontitis for starting the host response and inflammatory reaction, the presence of the infectious agent is necessary. Aims: One of inflammatory factors is tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α that appear to be important in the destruction of periodontal tissues that were examined in this study. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in the laboratory and case-control study. The samples of study collected from 30 individuals with chronic periodontitis and 30 healthy controls that matched for age and sex, together. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from patients and then TNF-α level were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and were compared with the control group. Statistical Analysis Used: In this study for statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney was used. Results: There were differences in mean salivary concentrations of TNF-α in controls and patients. The average concentration in the case group was 9.1 (pg/ml and the control group was 8.7 (pg/ml, but there was no significant difference between case and control groups (P > 0.05. Conclusions: The results of this analysis showed no significant relationship between two groups TNF-α concentration.This biomarker can not seem to be a good index to evaluate or predict periodontal disease.

  19. A Shot Parameter Specification Subsystem for automated control of PBFA [Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator] II accelerator shots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiller, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Shot Parameter Specification Subsystem (SPSS) is an integral part of the automatic control system developed for the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) by the Control Monitor (C/M) Software Development Team. This system has been designed to fully utilize the accelerator by tailoring shot parameters to the needs of the experimenters. The SPSS is the key to this flexibility. Automatic systems will be required on many pulsed power machines for the fastest turnaround, the highest reliability, and most cost effective operation. These systems will require the flexibility and the ease of use that is part of the SPSS. The PBFA II control system has proved to be an effective modular system, flexible enough to meet the demands of both the fast track construction of PBFA II and the control needs of Hermes III at the Simulation Technology Laboratory. This system is expected to meet the demands of most future machine changes

  20. The plasma-wall interaction region: a key low temperature plasma for controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counsell, G F

    2002-01-01

    The plasma-wall interaction region of a fusion device provides the interface between the hot core plasma and the material surfaces. To obtain acceptably low levels of erosion from these surfaces requires most of the power leaving the core to be radiated. This is accomplished in existing devices by encouraging plasma detachment, in which the hot plasma arriving in the region is cooled by volume recombination and ion-neutral momentum transfer with a dense population of neutrals recycled from the surface. The result is a low temperature (1 eV e e >10 19 m -3 ) but weakly ionized (n 0 >10 20 m -3 , n e /n 0 <0.1) plasma found nowhere else in the fusion environment. This plasma provides many of the conditions found in industrial plasmas exploiting plasma chemistry and the presence of carbon in the region (in the form of carbon-fibre composite used in the plasma facing materials) can result in the formation of deposited hydrocarbon films. The plasma-wall interaction region is therefore among the most difficult in fusion to model, requiring an understanding of atomic, molecular and surface physics issues

  1. Cryogenic hydrogen fuel for controlled inertial confinement fusion (formation of reactor-scale cryogenic targets)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksandrova, I. V.; Koresheva, E. R., E-mail: elena.koresheva@gmail.com; Krokhin, O. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Osipov, I. E. [Power Efficiency Centre, Inter RAO UES (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    In inertial fusion energy research, considerable attention has recently been focused on low-cost fabrication of a large number of targets by developing a specialized layering module of repeatable operation. The targets must be free-standing, or unmounted. Therefore, the development of a target factory for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is based on methods that can ensure a cost-effective target production with high repeatability. Minimization of the amount of tritium (i.e., minimization of time and space at all production stages) is a necessary condition as well. Additionally, the cryogenic hydrogen fuel inside the targets must have a structure (ultrafine layers—the grain size should be scaled back to the nanometer range) that supports the fuel layer survivability under target injection and transport through the reactor chamber. To meet the above requirements, significant progress has been made at the Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI) in the technology developed on the basis of rapid fuel layering inside moving free-standing targets (FST), also referred to as the FST layering method. Owing to the research carried out at LPI, unique experience has been gained in the development of the FST-layering module for target fabrication with an ultrafine fuel layer, including a reactor- scale target design. This experience can be used for the development of the next-generation FST-layering module for construction of a prototype of a target factory for power laser facilities and inertial fusion power plants.

  2. Characteristics of a high-power RF source of negative hydrogen ions for neutral beam injection into controlled fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdrashitov, G. F.; Belchenko, Yu. I.; Gusev, I. A.; Ivanov, A. A.; Kondakov, A. A.; Sanin, A. L.; Sotnikov, O. Z., E-mail: O.Z.Sotnikov@inp.nsk.su; Shikhovtsev, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    An injector of hydrogen atoms with an energy of 0.5–1 MeV and equivalent current of up to 1.5 A for purposes of controlled fusion research is currently under design at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences. Within this project, a multiple-aperture RF surface-plasma source of negative hydrogen ions is designed. The source design and results of experiments on the generation of a negative ion beam with a current of >1 A in the long-pulse mode are presented.

  3. Long-term planning frame of controlled fusion research in the Federal Republic of Germany and within the scope of EURATOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Current R and D activities in the field of controlled nuclear fusion are investigating physics and technological problems rather than economic efficiency aspects of future fusion reactor systems. The report in hand compares the long-term plans and programmes set up on the European level with other countries' programmes, explains the international cooperative framework and activities, and goes into details of the Federal German research programme. Aspects of safety and environmental impacts are discussed. (HP) [de

  4. Alushta-2012. International Conference-School on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion and the Adjoint Workshop 'Nano-and micro-sized structures in plasmas'. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlaj, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    The Conference was devoted to a new valuable information about the present status of plasma physics and controlled fusion research. The main topics was : magnetic confinement systems; plasma heating and current drive; ITER and fusion reactor aspects; basic plasma physics; space plasma; plasma dynamics and plasma-wall interaction; plasma electronics; low temperature plasma and plasma technologies; plasma diagnostics; formation of nano-and micro-sized structures in plasmas; properties of plasmas with nano- and micro- objects

  5. Decree 2805 by means of which the National Accounting and Control of Basic Nuclear Materials and Special Fusionable Materials System, is established

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This Decree has for object to establish a National Accounting and Control of Basic Nuclear Materials and Special Fusionable Materials System, under the supervision of the National Council for the Nuclear Industry Development. Its aims are to account nuclear materials, to control nuclear activities, to preserve and control nuclear information, to keep technical relationship with specialized organizations, and to garant nuclear safeguards [es

  6. EMP Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    KUNTAY, Isık

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel fusion scheme, called EMP Fusion, which has the promise of achieving breakeven and realizing commercial fusion power. The method is based on harnessing the power of an electromagnetic pulse generated by the now well-developed flux compression technology. The electromagnetic pulse acts as a means of both heating up the plasma and confining the plasma, eliminating intermediate steps. The EMP Fusion device is simpler compared to other fusion devices and this reduces...

  7. Fusion development and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R ampersand D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development

  8. Thalamic gap junctions control local neuronal synchrony and influence macroscopic oscillation amplitude during EEG alpha rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart eHughes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although EEG alpha ( (8-13 Hz rhythms are often considered to reflect an ‘idling’ brain state, numerous studies indicate that they are also related to many aspects of perception. Recently, we outlined a potential cellular substrate by which such aspects of perception might be linked to basic  rhythm mechanisms. This scheme relies on a specialized subset of rhythmically bursting thalamocortical (TC neurons (high-threshold bursting cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN which are interconnected by gap junctions (GJs. By engaging GABAergic interneurons, that in turn inhibit conventional relay-mode TC neurons, these cells can lead to an effective temporal framing of thalamic relay-mode output. Although the role of GJs is pivotal in this scheme, evidence for their involvement in thalamic  rhythms has thus far mainly derived from experiments in in vitro slice preparations. In addition, direct anatomical evidence of neuronal GJs in the LGN is currently lacking. To address the first of these issues we tested the effects of the GJ inhibitors, carbenoxolone (CBX and 18-glycyrrhetinic acid (18-GA, given directly to the LGN via reverse microdialysis, on spontaneous LGN and EEG  rhythms in behaving cats. We also examined the effect of CBX on  rhythm-related LGN unit activity. Indicative of a role for thalamic GJs in these activities, 18-GA and CBX reversibly suppressed both LGN and EEG  rhythms, with CBX also decreasing neuronal synchrony. To address the second point, we used electron microscopy to obtain definitive ultrastructural evidence for the presence of GJs between neurons in the cat LGN. As interneurons show no phenotypic evidence of GJ coupling (i.e. dye-coupling and spikelets we conclude that these GJs must belong to TC neurons. The potential significance of these findings for relating macroscopic changes in  rhythms to basic cellular processes is discussed.

  9. The Antioxidant Cofactor Alpha-Lipoic Acid May Control Endogenous Formaldehyde Metabolism in Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V. Shindyapina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The healthy human body contains small amounts of metabolic formaldehyde (FA that mainly results from methanol oxidation by pectin methylesterase, which is active in a vegetable diet and in the gastrointestinal microbiome. With age, the ability to maintain a low level of FA decreases, which increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease and dementia. It has been shown that 1,2-dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid or alpha lipoic acid (ALA, a naturally occurring dithiol and antioxidant cofactor of mitochondrial α-ketoacid dehydrogenases, increases glutathione (GSH content and FA metabolism by mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 thus manifests a therapeutic potential beyond its antioxidant property. We suggested that ALA can contribute to a decrease in the FA content of mammals by acting on ALDH2 expression. To test this assumption, we administered ALA in mice in order to examine the effect on FA metabolism and collected blood samples for the measurement of FA. Our data revealed that ALA efficiently eliminated FA in mice. Without affecting the specific activity of FA-metabolizing enzymes (ADH1, ALDH2, and ADH5, ALA increased the GSH content in the brain and up-regulated the expression of the FA-metabolizing ALDH2 gene in the brain, particularly in the hippocampus, but did not impact its expression in the liver in vivo or in rat liver isolated from the rest of the body. After ALA administration in mice and in accordance with the increased content of brain ALDH2 mRNA, we detected increased ALDH2 activity in brain homogenates. We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of ALA on patients with Alzheimer's disease may be associated with accelerated ALDH2-mediated FA detoxification and clearance.

  10. Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha activates Src-family kinases and controls integrin-mediated responses in fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, J; Muranjan, M; Sap, J

    1999-01-01

    of tyrosine kinases, the activity of which is tightly controlled by inhibitory phosphorylation of a carboxyterminal tyrosine residue (Tyr527 in chicken c-Src); this phosphorylation induces the kinases to form an inactive conformation. Whereas the identity of such inhibitory Tyr527 kinases has been well...... established, no corresponding phosphatases have been identified that, under physiological conditions, function as positive regulators of c-Src and Fyn in fibroblasts. RESULTS: Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (RPTPalpha) was inactivated by homologous recombination. Fibroblasts derived from...... these RPTPalpha-/- mice had impaired tyrosine kinase activity of both c-Src and Fyn, and this was accompanied by a concomitant increase in c-Src Tyr527 phosphorylation. RPTPalpha-/- fibroblasts also showed a reduction in the rate of spreading on fibronectin substrates, a trait that is a phenocopy of the effect...

  11. International fusion research council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belozerov, A.N.

    1977-01-01

    A brief history of the International Fusion Research Council (IFRC) is given and the minutes of the 1976 meeting in Garching are summarized. At the Garching meeting, the IFRC evaluated the quality of papers presented at recent IAEA conferences on plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear research, and made recommendations on the organization and timing of future meetings on nuclear fusion

  12. Coatings for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Optical coatings are used in lasers systems for fusion research to control beam propagation and reduce surface reflection losses. The performance of coatings is important in the design, reliability, energy output, and cost of the laser systems. Significant developments in coating technology are required for future lasers for fusion research and eventual power reactors

  13. Coatings for fusion reactor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The internal surfaces of a tokamak fusion reactor control the impurity injection and gas recycling into the fusion plasma. Coating of internal surfaces may provide a desirable and possibly necessary design flexibility for achieving the temperatures, ion densities and containment times necessary for net energy production from fusion reactions to take place. In this paper the reactor environments seen by various componentare reviewed along with possible materials responses. Characteristics of coating-substrate systems, important to fusion applications, are delineated and the present status of coating development for fusion applications is reviewed. Coating development for fusion applications is just beginning and poses a unique and important challenge for materials development

  14. Control of activation levels to simplify waste management of fusion reactor ferritic steel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiffen, F.W.; Santoro, R.T.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this work is to examine the restrictions placed on the composition of steels to allow simplified waste management after service in a fusion reactor first wall. Decay of steel activity within tens of years could simplify waste disposal or even permit recycle. For material recycle, N, Al, Ni, Cu, Nb, and Mo must be excluded. For shallow land burial, initial concentration limits include (in at. ppM) Ni, <20,000; Mo, <3650; N, <3650; Cu, <2400; and Nb, <1.0. Other constituents of steels will not be limited

  15. Synchronization in a PLC/VAX-based control and data-acquisition system of a nuclear-fusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, V.; Flor, G.; Hemming, O.N.; Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Vitturi, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the concept and implementation details of the synchronization mechanisms used in the control and data-acquisition system of the RFX (Reversed-Field Experiment) nuclear-fusion experimental device, at present under construction in Padova, Italy, within the framework of the co-ordinated nuclear-fusion research programme of the European Communities. The system employs industrial PLCs for the 'slow' control and monitoring functions, and a VAX-based CAMAC for the 'fast' functions of trigger-signal generation and data acquisition during the experiment pulses. All subsystems communicate via Ethernet, using compatible software protocols. The operational sequence of the complete system is governed by a single state machine implemented on a PLC-based supervisor system. Equivalent 'slave' state machines are implemented on all other subsystems (PLC- and VAX-based). These state machines are synchronized by means of the exchange of messages via Ethernet. This paper deals in detail with the following components which are involved in system synchronization: The Message Exchange System which implements the system-wide exchange of short messages; the Scheduler programs which implement the state machine on the various computing nodes, and which make use of the Message Exchange System. (orig.)

  16. Osteoclast Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marie Julie Møller, Anaïs; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Søe, Kent

    2017-01-01

    on the nuclearity of fusion partners. While CD47 promotes cell fusions involving mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts, syncytin-1 promotes fusion of two multi-nucleated osteoclasts, but also reduces the number of fusions between mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts. Furthermore, CD47 seems to mediate fusion mostly through...... individual fusion events using time-lapse and antagonists of CD47 and syncytin-1. All time-lapse recordings have been studied by two independent observers. A total of 1808 fusion events were analyzed. The present study shows that CD47 and syncytin-1 have different roles in osteoclast fusion depending...... broad contact surfaces between the partners' cell membrane while syncytin-1 mediate fusion through phagocytic-cup like structure. J. Cell. Physiol. 9999: 1-8, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  17. Fusion energy division computer systems network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, C.E.

    1980-12-01

    The Fusion Energy Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operated by Union Carbide Corporation Nuclear Division (UCC-ND) is primarily involved in the investigation of problems related to the use of controlled thermonuclear fusion as an energy source. The Fusion Energy Division supports investigations of experimental fusion devices and related fusion theory. This memo provides a brief overview of the computing environment in the Fusion Energy Division and the computing support provided to the experimental effort and theory research

  18. Feasibility studies on plasma vertical position control by ex-vessel coils in ITER-like tokamak fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Satoshi; Sugihara, Masayoshi; Shimomura, Yasuo

    1993-01-01

    Feasibility of the plasma vertical position control by control coils installed outside the vacuum vessel (ex-vessel) in a tokamak fusion reactor is examined for an ITER-like device. When a pair of ex-vessel control coils is made of normal conductor material and located near the outmost superconducting (SC) poloidal field (PF) coils, the applied voltage of several hundred volts on the control coils is the maximum allowable value which is limited by the maximum allowable induced voltage and eddy current heating on the SC PF coils, under the conditions that the SC PF coils are connected in series and a partitioning connection is employed for each of these PF coils. A proportional and derivative (PD) controller with and without voltage limitation has been employed to examine the feasibility. Indices of settling time and overshoot are introduced to measure the controllability of the control system. Based on these control schemes and indices, higher elongation (κ=2) and moderate elongation (κ=1.6) plasmas are examined for normal and deteriorated (low beta value and peaked current profile) plasma conditions within the restriction of applied voltage and current of control coils. The effect of the time constant of the passive stabilizer is also examined. The major results are: (1) A plasma with an elongation of 2.0 inevitably requires a passive stabilizer close to the plasma surface, (2) in case of a higher elongation than κ=2, even the ex-vessel control coil system is marginally controllable under normal plasma conditions, while it is difficult to control the deteriorated plasma conditions, (3) the time constant of the passive stabilizer is not an essential parameter for the controllability, (4) when the elongation is reduced down to 1.6, the ex-vessel control coil system can control the plasma even under deteriorated plasma conditions. (orig.)

  19. Non-CpG methylation of the PGC-1alpha promoter through DNMT3B controls mitochondrial density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barres, Romain; Osler, Megan E; Yan, Jie

    2009-01-01

    -CpG nucleotides. Non-CpG methylation was acutely increased in human myotubes by exposure to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or free fatty acids, but not insulin or glucose. Selective silencing of the DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B), but not DNMT1 or DNMT3A, prevented palmitate-induced non......-CpG methylation of PGC-1alpha and decreased mtDNA and PGC-1alpha mRNA. We provide evidence for PGC-1alpha hypermethylation, concomitant with reduced mitochondrial content in type 2 diabetic patients, and link DNMT3B to the acute fatty-acid-induced non-CpG methylation of PGC-1alpha promoter....

  20. A study of hydrogen isotopes fuel control by wall effect in magnetic fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motevalli, S.M., E-mail: motavali@umz.ac.ir; Safari, M.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • A particle balance model for the main plasma and wall inventory in magnetic fusion device has been represented. • The dependence of incident particles energy on the wall has been considered in 10–300 eV for the sputtering yield and recycling coefficient. • The effect of fueling methods on plasma density behavior has been studied. - Abstract: Determination of plasma density behavior in magnetic confinement system needs to study the plasma materials interaction in the facing components such as first wall, limiter and divertor. Recycling of hydrogen isotope is an effective parameter in plasma density rate and plasma fueling. Recycling coefficient over the long pulse operation, gets to the unity, so it has a significant effect on steady state in magnetic fusion devices. Typically, sputtered carbon atoms from the plasma facing components form hydrocarbons and they redeposit on the wall. In this case little rate of hydrogen loss occurs. In present work a zero dimensional particle equilibrium model has been represented to determine particles density rate in main plasma and wall inventory under recycling effect and codeposition of hydrogen in case of continues and discontinues fueling methods and effective parameters on the main plasma decay has been studied.

  1. The Efficacy of Vitamin C on Postoperative Outcomes after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gun Woo; Yang, Han Seok; Yeom, Jin S; Ahn, Myun-Whan

    2017-09-01

    Vitamin C has critical features relavant to postoperative pain management and functional improvement; however, no study has yet evaluated the effectiveness of vitamin C on improving the surgical outcomes for spine pathologies. Thus, this study aimed to explore the impact of vitamin C on postoperative outcomes after single-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) for lumbar spinal stenosis in prospectively randomized design. We conducted a 1-year prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study to evaluate the impact of vitamin C on the postoperative outcomes after PLIF surgery. A total of 123 eligible patients were randomly assigned to either group A (62 patients with vitamin C) or group B (61 patients with placebo). Patient follow-up was continued for at least 1 year after surgery. The primary outcome measure was pain intensity in the lower back using a visual analogue scale. The secondary outcome measures were: (1) the clinical outcome assessed using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI); (2) the fusion rate assessed using dynamic radiographs and computed tomography scans; and (3) complications. Pain intensity in the lower back was significantly improved in both groups compared with preoperative pain intensity, but no significant difference was observed between the 2 groups over the follow-up period. The ODI score of group A at the third postoperative month was significantly higher than the score of group B. After the sixth postoperative month, the ODI score of group A was slightly higher than the score of group B; however, this difference was not significant. The fusion rates at 1 year after surgery and the complication rates were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Postoperative pain intensity, the primary outcome measure, was not significantly different at 1 year after surgery between the 2 groups. However, vitamin C may be associated with improving functional status after PLIF surgery, especially during the first 3

  2. Alpha-synuclein is present in dental calculus but not altered in Parkinson's disease patients in comparison to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Sabrina; Goldberg-Bockhorn, Eva; Schwarz, Silke; Rotter, Nicole; Kassubek, Jan; Del Tredici, Kelly; Pinkhardt, Elmar; Otto, Markus; Ludolph, Albert C; Oeckl, Patrick

    2018-06-01

    In autopsy cases staged for sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), the neuropathology is characterized by a preclinical phase that targets the enteric nervous system of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Therefore, the ENS might be a source of potential (presymptomatic) PD biomarkers. In this clinically based study, we examined the alpha-synuclein (αSyn) concentration in an easily accessible protein storage medium of the GIT, dental calculus, in 21/50 patients with PD and 28/50 age- and gender-matched controls using ELISA. αSyn was detectable in dental calculus and the median concentration in the control patients was 8.6 pg/mg calculus (interquartile range 2.6-13.1 pg/mg). αSyn concentrations were significantly influenced by blood contamination and samples with a hemoglobin concentration of > 4000 ng/mL were excluded. There was no significant difference of αSyn concentrations in the dental calculus of PD patients (5.76 pg/mg, interquartile range 2.91-9.74 pg/mg) compared to those in controls (p = 0.40). The total αSyn concentration in dental calculus is not a suitable biomarker for sporadic PD. Disease-related variants such as oligomeric or phosphorylated αSyn in calculus might prove to be more specific.

  3. Alpha Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quickly, but their effects last only a few hours. Long-acting medications take longer to work, but their effects last longer. Which alpha blocker is best for you depends on your health and the condition being treated. Alpha blockers are ...

  4. Cables1 controls p21/Cip1 protein stability by antagonizing proteasome subunit alpha type 3

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Zhi; Li, Zenggang; Li, Zijian; Cheng, Kejun; Du, Yuhong; Fu, Haian; Khuri, Fadlo R.

    2014-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A), p21/Cip1, is a vital cell cycle regulator, dysregulation of which has been associated with a large number of human malignancies. One critical mechanism that controls p21 function is through its degradation, which allows the activation of its associated cell cycle promoting kinases, CDK2 and CDK4. Thus, delineating how p21 is stabilized and degraded will enhance our understanding of cell growth control and offer a basis for potential therapeut...

  5. Fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancox, R.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of fusion power, and its advantages and disadvantages, are outlined. Present research programmes and future plans directed towards the development of a fusion power reactor, are summarized. (U.K.)

  6. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum......This dissertation investigates fusion rings, which are Grothendieck groups of rigid, monoidal, semisimple, abelian categories. Special interest is in rational fusion rings, i.e., fusion rings which admit a finite basis, for as commutative rings they may be presented as quotients of polynomial rings...

  7. Fusion: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2006-01-01

    The article gives an overview and introduction to the activities of SCK-CEN's research programme on fusion. The decision to construct the ITER international nuclear fusion experiment in Cadarache is highlighted. A summary of the Belgian contributions to fusion research is given with particular emphasis on studies of radiation effects on diagnostics systems, radiation effects on remote handling sensing systems, fusion waste management and socio-economic studies

  8. Carbon-carbon composite and copper-composite bond damages for high flux component controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevet, G.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma facing components constitute the first wall in contact with plasma in fusion machines such as Tore Supra and ITER. These components have to sustain high heat flux and consequently elevated temperatures. They are made up of an armour material, the carbon-carbon composite, a heat sink structure material, the copper chromium zirconium, and a material, the OFHC copper, which is used as a compliant layer between the carbon-carbon composite and the copper chromium zirconium. Using different materials leads to the apparition of strong residual stresses during manufacturing, because of the thermal expansion mismatch between the materials, and compromises the lasting operation of fusion machines as damage which appeared during manufacturing may propagate. The objective of this study is to understand the damage mechanisms of the carbon-carbon composite and the composite-copper bond under solicitations that plasma facing components may suffer during their life. The mechanical behaviours of carbon-carbon composite and composite-copper bond were studied in order to define the most suitable models to describe these behaviours. With these models, thermomechanical calculations were performed on plasma facing components with the finite element code Cast3M. The manufacturing of the components induces high stresses which damage the carbon-carbon composite and the composite-copper bond. The damage propagates during the cooling down to room temperature and not under heat flux. Alternative geometries for the plasma facing components were studied to reduce damage. The relation between the damage of the carbon-carbon composite and its thermal conductivity was also demonstrated. (author) [fr

  9. Investigation of high-alpha lateral-directional control power requirements for high-performance aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John V.; Ross, Holly M.; Ashley, Patrick A.

    1993-01-01

    Designers of the next-generation fighter and attack airplanes are faced with the requirements of good high angle-of-attack maneuverability as well as efficient high speed cruise capability with low radar cross section (RCS) characteristics. As a result, they are challenged with the task of making critical design trades to achieve the desired levels of maneuverability and performance. This task has highlighted the need for comprehensive, flight-validated lateral-directional control power design guidelines for high angles of attack. A joint NASA/U.S. Navy study has been initiated to address this need and to investigate the complex flight dynamics characteristics and controls requirements for high angle-of-attack lateral-directional maneuvering. A multi-year research program is underway which includes groundbased piloted simulation and flight validation. This paper will give a status update of this program that will include a program overview, description of test methodology and preliminary results.

  10. Targeting alphas can make coyote control more effective and socially acceptable

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeger, Michael M.; Blejwas, Karen M.; Sacks, Benjamin N.; Neale, Jennifer C. C.; Conner, Mary M.; McCullough, Dale R.

    2001-01-01

    Research at the UC Hopland Research and Extension Center (HREC) has improved our understanding of how to reduce sheep depredation while minimizing the impact on coyotes. Analysis of a 14-year data set of HREC coyote-control efforts found that sheep depredation losses were not correlated with the number of coyotes removed in any of three time scales analyzed (yearly, seasonally and monthly) during corresponding intervals for the next 2 years. Field research using radiotelemetry to track coyote...

  11. Alpha-enolase (ENO1 controls alpha v/beta 3 integrin expression and regulates pancreatic cancer adhesion, invasion, and metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moitza Principe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown that in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA cells, the glycolytic enzyme alpha-enolase (ENO1 also acts as a plasminogen receptor and promotes invasion and metastasis formation. Moreover, ENO1 silencing in PDA cells induces oxidative stress, senescence and profoundly modifies PDA cell metabolism. Although anti-ENO1 antibody inhibits PDA cell migration and invasion, little is known about the role of ENO1 in regulating cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts. We therefore investigated the effect of ENO1 silencing on the modulation of cell morphology, adhesion to matrix substrates, cell invasiveness, and metastatic ability. Methods The membrane and cytoskeleton modifications that occurred in ENO1-silenced (shENO1 PDA cells were investigated by a combination of confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The effect of ENO1 silencing was then evaluated by phenotypic and functional experiments to identify the role of ENO1 in adhesion, migration, and invasion, as well as in senescence and apoptosis. The experimental results were then validated in a mouse model. Results We observed a significant increase in the roughness of the cell membrane due to ENO1 silencing, a feature associated with an impaired ability to migrate and invade, along with a significant downregulation of proteins involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, including alpha v/beta 3 integrin in shENO1 PDA cells. These changes impaired the ability of shENO1 cells to adhere to Collagen I and IV and Fibronectin and caused an increase in RGD-independent adhesion to vitronectin (VN via urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR. Binding of uPAR to VN triggers integrin-mediated signals, which result in ERK1-2 and RAC activation, accumulation of ROS, and senescence. In shENO1 cancer cells, the use of an anti-uPAR antibody caused significant reduction of ROS production and senescence. Overall, a decrease of in vitro and in vivo cell

  12. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  13. Fusion Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  14. Serum concentration of alpha-1 antitrypsin is significantly higher in colorectal cancer patients than in healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Holanda, Sergio; Blanco, Ignacio; Menéndez, Manuel; Rodrigo, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The association between alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency and colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently controversial. The present study compares AAT serum concentrations and gene frequencies between a group of CRC patients and a control group of healthy unrelated people (HUP). 267 CRC subjects (63% males, 72 ± 10 years old) were enlisted from a Hospital Clinic setting in Asturias, Spain. The HUP group comprised 327 subjects (67% males, mean age 70 ± 7.5 years old) from the same geographical region. Outcome measures were AAT serum concentrations measured by nephelometry, and AAT phenotyping characterization by isoelectric focusing. Significantly higher serum concentrations were found among CRC (208 ± 60) than in HUP individuals (144 ± 20.5) (p = 0.0001). No differences were found in the phenotypic distribution of the Pi*S and Pi*Z allelic frequencies (p = 0.639), although the frequency of Pi*Z was higher in CRC (21%) than in HUP subjects (15%). The only statistically significant finding in this study was the markedly higher AAT serum concentrations found in CRC subjects compared with HUP controls, irrespective of whether their Pi* phenotype was normal (Pi*MM) or deficient (Pi*MS, Pi*MZ and Pi*SZ). Although there was a trend towards the more deficient Pi* phenotype the more advanced the tumor, the results were inconclusive due to the small sample size. Consequently, more powerful studies are needed to reach firmer conclusions on this matter

  15. Fluid sensitive nanoscale switching with quantum levitation controlled by $\\alpha$-Sn/$\\beta$-Sn phase transition

    OpenAIRE

    Boström, Mathias; Dou, Maofeng; Malyi, Oleksandr I.; Parashar, Prachi; Parsons, Drew F.; Brevik, Iver; Persson, Clas

    2018-01-01

    We analyze the Lifshitz pressure between silica and tin separated by a liquid mixture of bromobenzene and chlorobenzene. We show that the phase transition from semimetallic α−Sn to metallic β−Sn can switch Lifshitz forces from repulsive to attractive. This effect is caused by the difference in dielectric functions of α−Sn and β−Sn, giving both attractive and repulsive contributions to the total Lifshitz pressure in different frequency regions controlled by the composition of the intervening l...

  16. Control of persistent vesical bleeding due to radiation cytitis by intravesical application of 15(s) 15-methyl prostaglandin F2-alpha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemal, A.K.; Praveen, B.V.; Sankaranarayanan, A.; Vaidyanathan, S.

    1989-01-01

    A 45 year old female who received radiotherapy for stage II-B uterine cervical cancer four and half years ago, presented with persistent hematuria due to radiation cystitis. 15(S) 15-methyl prostaglandin F 2 -alpha (1 mg in 100 ml of normal saline) was instilled into the bladder daily for two days. The severity of bleeding decreased considerably. However, significant hematuria recurred 19 days later which continued despite bladder irrigation with normal saline, 1 mg of 15(S) 15-Me PGF 2 alpha mixed with hydroxyethyl cellulose gel to a volume of 10 ml was then instilled into the urinary bladder daily for three days and macroscopic hematuria ceased. Urinary frequency and urgency were the side effects which lasted for ten days. There has been no recurrence of macroscopic hematuria during the five months followup. In conclusion, 15(S) 15-Me PGF 2 - alpha may be administered intravesically to control moderate hematuria due to radiation cystitis. (author). 5 refs

  17. Remote maintenance of future fusion reactors - a challenge for rad-hard components and smart control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.; Geeter, J. De

    1996-01-01

    The future fusion reactor will need frequent maintenance turns, involving inspection, repair and parts replacement inside the vacuum vessel. These operations will require high payload manipulations in constrained space under very high gamma-radiation dose-rates and temperature. Present research is being undertaken to qualify the components of the handling machine under representative conditions, in the framework of the ITER international consortium. Simultaneously, challenging control strategies will be needed to achieve reliable tasking under very poor viewing conditions and elementary sensing help. The paper reviews the present state of the art on both issues and present results of the ongoing research themes among the partners of the ITER programme. In particular, SCK''centre-dot''CEN coordinates the ITER T252 task on Radiation Tolerance Assessment of Remote Handling Components. (UK)

  18. X-ray spectroscopy of highly ionized heavy ions as an advanced research for controlled nuclear fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zschornack, G.; Musiol, G.

    1988-01-01

    Diagnostics and modelling of nuclear fusion plasmas require a detailed knowledge of atomic and molecular data for highly ionized heavy ions. Experimental verification of atomic data is made on the basis of IAEA recommendations using the method of high-resolution wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in order to obtain contributions extensioning the available atomic data lists. Basic facilities for producing highly charged heavy ions are the electron-ion rings of the heavy ion collective accelerator and the electron beam ion source KRYON-2 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna. For high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy with these sources a computer-aided crystal diffraction spectrometer has been developed the precision of which is achieved by using advanced principles of measurement and control. Relativistic atomic structure calculations have been carried out for a great number of elements and configurations to obtain data in ionization regions heavily accessible to the experiment. (author)

  19. A distributed real-time system for event-driven control and dynamic data acquisition on a fusion plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, J.; Combo, A.; Batista, A.; Correia, M.; Trotman, D.; Waterhouse, J.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2000-01-01

    A distributed real-time trigger and timing system, designed in a tree-type topology and implemented in VME and CAMAC versions, has been developed for a magnetic confinement fusion experiment. It provides sub-microsecond time latencies for the transport of small data objects allowing event-driven discharge control with failure counteraction, dynamic pre-trigger sampling and event recording as well as accurate simultaneous triggers and synchronism on all nodes with acceptable optimality and predictability of timeliness. This paper describes the technical characteristics of the hardware components (central unit composed by one or more reflector crates, event and synchronism reflector cards, event and pulse node module, fan-out and fan-in modules) as well as software for both tests and integration on a global data acquisition system. The results of laboratory operation for several configurations and the overall performance of the system are presented and analysed

  20. Sensor fusion and computer vision for context-aware control of a multi degree-of-freedom prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Marko; Dosen, Strahinja; Popovic, Dejan; Graimann, Bernhard; Farina, Dario

    2015-12-01

    Myoelectric activity volitionally generated by the user is often used for controlling hand prostheses in order to replicate the synergistic actions of muscles in healthy humans during grasping. Muscle synergies in healthy humans are based on the integration of visual perception, heuristics and proprioception. Here, we demonstrate how sensor fusion that combines artificial vision and proprioceptive information with the high-level processing characteristics of biological systems can be effectively used in transradial prosthesis control. We developed a novel context- and user-aware prosthesis (CASP) controller integrating computer vision and inertial sensing with myoelectric activity in order to achieve semi-autonomous and reactive control of a prosthetic hand. The presented method semi-automatically provides simultaneous and proportional control of multiple degrees-of-freedom (DOFs), thus decreasing overall physical effort while retaining full user control. The system was compared against the major commercial state-of-the art myoelectric control system in ten able-bodied and one amputee subject. All subjects used transradial prosthesis with an active wrist to grasp objects typically associated with activities of daily living. The CASP significantly outperformed the myoelectric interface when controlling all of the prosthesis DOF. However, when tested with less complex prosthetic system (smaller number of DOF), the CASP was slower but resulted with reaching motions that contained less compensatory movements. Another important finding is that the CASP system required minimal user adaptation and training. The CASP constitutes a substantial improvement for the control of multi-DOF prostheses. The application of the CASP will have a significant impact when translated to real-life scenarious, particularly with respect to improving the usability and acceptance of highly complex systems (e.g., full prosthetic arms) by amputees.

  1. Sensor fusion and computer vision for context-aware control of a multi degree-of-freedom prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Marko; Dosen, Strahinja; Popovic, Dejan; Graimann, Bernhard; Farina, Dario

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Myoelectric activity volitionally generated by the user is often used for controlling hand prostheses in order to replicate the synergistic actions of muscles in healthy humans during grasping. Muscle synergies in healthy humans are based on the integration of visual perception, heuristics and proprioception. Here, we demonstrate how sensor fusion that combines artificial vision and proprioceptive information with the high-level processing characteristics of biological systems can be effectively used in transradial prosthesis control. Approach. We developed a novel context- and user-aware prosthesis (CASP) controller integrating computer vision and inertial sensing with myoelectric activity in order to achieve semi-autonomous and reactive control of a prosthetic hand. The presented method semi-automatically provides simultaneous and proportional control of multiple degrees-of-freedom (DOFs), thus decreasing overall physical effort while retaining full user control. The system was compared against the major commercial state-of-the art myoelectric control system in ten able-bodied and one amputee subject. All subjects used transradial prosthesis with an active wrist to grasp objects typically associated with activities of daily living. Main results. The CASP significantly outperformed the myoelectric interface when controlling all of the prosthesis DOF. However, when tested with less complex prosthetic system (smaller number of DOF), the CASP was slower but resulted with reaching motions that contained less compensatory movements. Another important finding is that the CASP system required minimal user adaptation and training. Significance. The CASP constitutes a substantial improvement for the control of multi-DOF prostheses. The application of the CASP will have a significant impact when translated to real-life scenarious, particularly with respect to improving the usability and acceptance of highly complex systems (e.g., full prosthetic arms) by amputees.

  2. Fusion neutronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yican

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and comprehensive introduction to fusion neutronics, covering all key topics from the fundamental theories and methodologies, as well as a wide range of fusion system designs and experiments. It is the first-ever book focusing on the subject of fusion neutronics research. Compared with other nuclear devices such as fission reactors and accelerators, fusion systems are normally characterized by their complex geometry and nuclear physics, which entail new challenges for neutronics such as complicated modeling, deep penetration, low simulation efficiency, multi-physics coupling, etc. The book focuses on the neutronics characteristics of fusion systems and introduces a series of theories and methodologies that were developed to address the challenges of fusion neutronics, and which have since been widely applied all over the world. Further, it introduces readers to neutronics design’s unique principles and procedures, experimental methodologies and technologies for fusion systems...

  3. The IGNITEX fusion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera, R.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the recently proposed fusion ignition experiment, IGNITEX. He emphasizes the basic ideas of this concept rather than the specific details of the physics and engineering aspects of the experiment. This concept is a good example of the importance of maintaining an adequate balance between the basic scientific progress in fusion physics and the new technologies that are becoming available in order to make fusion work. The objective of the IGNITEX project is to produce and control ignited plasmas for scientific study in the simplest and least expensive way possible. Being able to study this not-yet-produced regime of plasma operation is essential to fusion research. Two years after the fission nuclear reaction was discovered, a non-self-sustained fission reaction was produced in a laboratory, and in one more year a self-sustained reaction was achieved at the University of Chicago. However, after almost forty years of fusion research, a self-sustained fusion reaction has yet not been produced in a laboratory experiment. This fact indicates the greater difficulty of the fusion experiment. Because of the difficulty involved in the production of a self-sustained fusion reaction, it is necessary to propose such an experiment with maximum ignition margins, maximum simplicity, and minimum financial risk

  4. The Neuroprotective Role of Protein Quality Control in Halting the Development of Alpha-Synuclein Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Destiny-Love Manecka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Synucleinopathies are a family of neurodegenerative disorders that comprises Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. Each of these disorders is characterized by devastating motor, cognitive, and autonomic consequences. Current treatments for synucleinopathies are not curative and are limited to improvement of quality of life for affected individuals. Although the underlying causes of these diseases are unknown, a shared pathological hallmark is the presence of proteinaceous inclusions containing the α-synuclein (α-syn protein in brain tissue. In the past few years, it has been proposed that these inclusions arise from the self-templated, prion-like spreading of misfolded and aggregated forms of α-syn throughout the brain, leading to neuronal dysfunction and death. In this review, we describe how impaired protein homeostasis is a prominent factor in the α-syn aggregation cascade, with alterations in protein quality control (PQC pathways observed in the brains of patients. We discuss how PQC modulates α-syn accumulation, misfolding and aggregation primarily through chaperoning activity, proteasomal degradation, and lysosome-mediated degradation. Finally, we provide an overview of experimental data indicating that targeting PQC pathways is a promising avenue to explore in the design of novel neuroprotective approaches that could impede the spreading of α-syn pathology and thus provide a curative treatment for synucleinopathies.

  5. Applications of controlled thermonuclear reactor (CTR) fusion power in the steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, R.K.; Steinberg, M.

    1975-03-01

    A review of the process and economics of basic steel production is presented for the purpose of indicating where CTR fusion energy may be applicable. The present conventional air blown blast furnace produces a relatively low Btu value top gas with limited usefulness. The industry consumes relatively large amounts of natural gas for reheating ingots, plates, etc. A concept is presented wherein oxygen is used in the blast furnace which would double the capacity of the furnace and produce a rich carbon monoxide gas stream useful as synthesis gas for methanol and ammonia production. A CTR supplying high energy radiation in a blanket would disproportionate carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and oxygen which could be used at high temperatures in the blast furnace in place of an oxygen supply stream. Coke would be used in this scheme. In a second scheme the oxygen is separated from the disproportioned CO 2 stream and CO is used in a direct reduction furnace which is followed by an electric furnace to refine the reduced product. Other schemes include iron ore reduction with electrolytic hydrogen and the use of thermal energy for reforming coal with steam or CO 2 for production of reducing gas. The electrosmelting of scrap metal using CTR power could become an important operation in the future. A complex of steel, fertilizer, fuel and chemical production is presented. Steel capacity and power requirement data are presented and projected to the year 2020. (U.S.)

  6. Overview of stoppering of open magnetic containment systems for controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinrichs, C.K.; Lichtenberg, A.J.; Dolan, T.J.

    1977-06-01

    Magnetic confinement systems with the field lines leading out of the system are subject to end loss. The rate of end loss must be reduced to a sufficiently small value in a reactor such that fusion energy is generated more rapidly than energy is lost. The basic open ended systems either have too high an end loss to satisfy the reactor criterion (single mirrors and cusps), or are too long to be considered practical (long solenoids). Various end stoppering schemes have been proposed to reduce the end loss of open ended systems, and thus make the energy balance more favorable. The end stoppering techniques reviewed in this paper are electrostatic, r.f., magnetic, material walls, and hybrid systems. We summarize here the more important characteristics and the potentialities of the first three methods of end stoppering. End stoppering with material walls has been insufficiently explored for further comment and hybrid systems, being mainly beyond the scope of this report, have been summarized in the main text

  7. Computation of stationary 3D halo currents in fusion devices with accuracy control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Paolo; Specogna, Ruben

    2014-09-01

    This paper addresses the calculation of the resistive distribution of halo currents in three-dimensional structures of large magnetic confinement fusion machines. A Neumann electrokinetic problem is solved on a geometry so complicated that complementarity is used to monitor the discretization error. An irrotational electric field is obtained by a geometric formulation based on the electric scalar potential, whereas three geometric formulations are compared to obtain a solenoidal current density: a formulation based on the electric vector potential and two geometric formulations inspired from mixed and mixed-hybrid Finite Elements. The electric vector potential formulation is usually considered impractical since an enormous computing power is wasted by the topological pre-processing it requires. To solve this challenging problem, we present novel algorithms based on lazy cohomology generators that enable to save orders of magnitude computational time with respect to all other state-of-the-art solutions proposed in literature. Believing that our results are useful in other fields of scientific computing, the proposed algorithm is presented as a detailed pseudocode in such a way that it can be easily implemented.

  8. Fission-fusion dynamics, behavioral flexibility, and inhibitory control in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amici, Federica; Aureli, Filippo; Call, Josep

    2008-09-23

    The Machiavellian Intelligence or Social Brain Hypothesis explains the evolution of increased brain size as mainly driven by living in complex organized social systems in which individuals represent "moving targets" who can adopt multiple strategies to respond to one another. Frequently splitting and merging in subgroups of variable composition (fission-fusion or FF dynamics) has been proposed as one aspect of social complexity ( compare with) that may be associated with an enhancement of cognitive skills like inhibition, which allows the suppression of prepotent but ineffective responses in a changing social environment. We compared the performance of primates experiencing high levels of FF dynamics (chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans, and spider monkeys) to that of species living in more cohesive groups (gorillas, capuchin monkeys, and long-tailed macaques) on five inhibition tasks. Testing species differing in diet, phylogenetic relatedness, and levels of FF dynamics allowed us to contrast ecological, phylogenetic, and socioecological explanations for interspecific differences. Spider monkeys performed at levels comparable to chimpanzees, bonobos, and orangutans, and better than gorillas. A two-cluster analysis grouped all species with higher levels of FF dynamics together. These findings confirmed that enhanced inhibitory skills are positively associated with FF dynamics, more than to phylogenetic relations or feeding ecology.

  9. Damage of actively cooled plasma facing components of magnetic confinement controlled fusion machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevet, G. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/DRFC, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)], E-mail: gaelle.chevet@cea.fr; Schlosser, J. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/DRFC, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Martin, E.; Herb, V.; Camus, G. [Universite Bordeaux 1, UMR 5801 (CNRS-SAFRAN-CEA-UB1), Laboratoire des Composites Thermostructuraux, F-33600 Pessac (France)

    2009-03-31

    Plasma facing components (PFCs) of magnetic fusion machines have high manufactured residual stresses and have to withstand important stress ranges during operation. These actively cooled PFCs have a carbon fibre composite (CFC) armour and a copper alloy heat sink. Cracks mainly appear in the CFC near the composite/copper interface. In order to analyse damage mechanisms, it is important to well simulate the damage mechanisms both of the CFC and the CFC/Cu interface. This study focuses on the mechanical behaviour of the N11 material for which the scalar ONERA damage model was used. The damage parameters of this model were identified by similarity to a neighbour material, which was extensively analysed, according to the few characterization test results available for the N11. The finite elements calculations predict a high level of damage of the CFC at the interface zone explaining the encountered difficulties in the PFCs fabrication. These results suggest that the damage state of the CFC cells is correlated with a conductivity decrease to explain the temperature increase of the armour surface under fatigue heat load.

  10. Damage of actively cooled plasma facing components of magnetic confinement controlled fusion machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevet, G.; Schlosser, J.; Martin, E.; Herb, V.; Camus, G.

    2009-03-01

    Plasma facing components (PFCs) of magnetic fusion machines have high manufactured residual stresses and have to withstand important stress ranges during operation. These actively cooled PFCs have a carbon fibre composite (CFC) armour and a copper alloy heat sink. Cracks mainly appear in the CFC near the composite/copper interface. In order to analyse damage mechanisms, it is important to well simulate the damage mechanisms both of the CFC and the CFC/Cu interface. This study focuses on the mechanical behaviour of the N11 material for which the scalar ONERA damage model was used. The damage parameters of this model were identified by similarity to a neighbour material, which was extensively analysed, according to the few characterization test results available for the N11. The finite elements calculations predict a high level of damage of the CFC at the interface zone explaining the encountered difficulties in the PFCs fabrication. These results suggest that the damage state of the CFC cells is correlated with a conductivity decrease to explain the temperature increase of the armour surface under fatigue heat load.

  11. Damage of actively cooled plasma facing components of magnetic confinement controlled fusion machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevet, G.; Schlosser, J.; Martin, E.; Herb, V.; Camus, G.

    2009-01-01

    Plasma facing components (PFCs) of magnetic fusion machines have high manufactured residual stresses and have to withstand important stress ranges during operation. These actively cooled PFCs have a carbon fibre composite (CFC) armour and a copper alloy heat sink. Cracks mainly appear in the CFC near the composite/copper interface. In order to analyse damage mechanisms, it is important to well simulate the damage mechanisms both of the CFC and the CFC/Cu interface. This study focuses on the mechanical behaviour of the N11 material for which the scalar ONERA damage model was used. The damage parameters of this model were identified by similarity to a neighbour material, which was extensively analysed, according to the few characterization test results available for the N11. The finite elements calculations predict a high level of damage of the CFC at the interface zone explaining the encountered difficulties in the PFCs fabrication. These results suggest that the damage state of the CFC cells is correlated with a conductivity decrease to explain the temperature increase of the armour surface under fatigue heat load

  12. Assessment of Closed-Loop Control Using Multi-Mode Sensor Fusion For a High Reynolds Number Transonic Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Kerwin; Elhadidi, Basman; Glauser, Mark

    2009-11-01

    Understanding the different noise production mechanisms caused by the free shear flows in a turbulent jet flow provides insight to improve ``intelligent'' feedback mechanisms to control the noise. Towards this effort, a control scheme is based on feedback of azimuthal pressure measurements in the near field of the jet at two streamwise locations. Previous studies suggested that noise reduction can be achieved by azimuthal actuators perturbing the shear layer at the jet lip. The closed-loop actuation will be based on a low-dimensional Fourier representation of the hydrodynamic pressure measurements. Preliminary results show that control authority and reduction in the overall sound pressure level was possible. These results provide motivation to move forward with the overall vision of developing innovative multi-mode sensing methods to improve state estimation and derive dynamical systems. It is envisioned that estimating velocity-field and dynamic pressure information from various locations both local and in the far-field regions, sensor fusion techniques can be utilized to ascertain greater overall control authority.

  13. Operations of the thermal control system for Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer electronics following the beta angle of the International Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kun; Li, Jinbo; Cui, Zheng; Wang, Naihua; Sun, Qie; Cheng, Lin, E-mail: cheng@sdu.edu.cn

    2014-12-11

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) has been running and measuring cosmic rays on the International Space Station (ISS) since May 19, 2011. The thermal control system (TCS) plays an important role in keeping all components and equipment working in an operational temperature range. Since the AMS started working on the ISS, AMS thermal engineers have been monitoring the on-orbit status of the TCS. During normal operation, the local temperature of AMS components regularly varies along with the β angle of the ISS. Based on the collected temperature data, the general characteristics of local temperature variations of TCS for AMS Electronics following the β of the ISS are discussed with the statistics of the orbit-averaged temperature and the orbit standard deviation of temperature. Furthermore some temperature anomalies at specific β are also studied. - Highlights: • The variation of the main radiators temperature is statistically analyzed. • The hot case and cold case for the main radiators are found in normal operations. • The solar illumination falling on the inner sheet of RAM radiator leads to temperature jump. • The temperature anomalies on the WAKE radiator show a uniform trend except WR3 sensor. • The regularity of the temperature variation is described with fitted equations.

  14. Membrane fusion and inverted phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellens, H.; Siegel, D.P.; Alford, D.; Yeagle, P.L.; Boni, L.; Lis, L.J.; Quinn, P.J.; Bentz, J.

    1989-01-01

    We have found a correlation between liposome fusion kinetics and lipid phase behavior for several inverted phase forming lipids. N-Methylated dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE-Me), or mixtures of dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), will form an inverted hexagonal phase (HII) at high temperatures (above TH), a lamellar phase (L alpha) at low temperatures, and an isotropic/inverted cubic phase at intermediate temperatures, which is defined by the appearance of narrow isotropic 31 P NMR resonances. The phase behavior has been verified by using high-sensitivity DSC, 31 P NMR, freeze-fracture electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The temperature range over which the narrow isotropic resonances occur is defined as delta TI, and the range ends at TH. Extruded liposomes (approximately 0.2 microns in diameter) composed of these lipids show fusion and leakage kinetics which are strongly correlated with the temperatures of these phase transitions. At temperatures below delta TI, where the lipid phase is L alpha, there is little or no fusion, i.e., mixing of aqueous contents, or leakage. However, as the temperature reaches delta TI, there is a rapid increase in both fusion and leakage rates. At temperatures above TH, the liposomes show aggregation-dependent lysis, as the rapid formation of HII phase precursors disrupts the membranes. We show that the correspondence between the fusion and leakage kinetics and the observed phase behavior is easily rationalized in terms of a recent kinetic theory of L alpha/inverted phase transitions. In particular, it is likely that membrane fusion and the L alpha/inverted cubic phase transition proceed via a common set of intermembrane intermediates

  15. The fusion-fission hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, E.

    1985-01-01

    As the history of the development of fusion energy shows, a sustained controlled fusion reaction is much more difficult to produce than rapid uncontrolled release of fusion energy. Currently, the ''magnetic bottle'' technique shows sufficient progress that it might applied for the commercial fuel production of /sup 233/U, suitable for use in fission reactors, by developing a fusion-fission hybrid. Such a device would consist of a fusion chamber core surrounded by a region containing cladded uranium pellets cooled by helium, with lithium salts also present to produce tritium to refuel the fusion process. Successful development of this hybrid might be possible within 10 y, and would provide both experience and funds for further development of controlled fusion energy

  16. Fusion reactor control study. Volume 3. Tandem mirror reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, F.R.; DeCanio, F.; Fisher, J.L.; Madden, P.A.

    1982-03-01

    A study of the control requirements of the Tandem Mirror Reactor concept is reported. The study describes the development of a control simulator that is based upon a spatially averaged physics code of the reactor concept. The simulator portrays the evolution of the plasma through the complete reactor operating cycle; it includes models of the control and measurement system, thus allowing the exploration of various strategies for reactor control. Startup, shutdown, and control during the quasi-steady-state power producing phase were explored. Configurations are described which use a variety of control effectors including modulation of the refueling rate, beam current, and electron cyclotron resonance heating. Multivariable design techniques were used to design the control laws and compensators for the feedback controllers and presume the practical measurement of only a subset of the plasma and machine variables. Performance of the various controllers is explored using the nonlinear control simulator. Derivative control strategies using new or developed sensors and effectors appropriate to a power reactor environment are postulated, based upon the results of the control configurations tested. Research and development requirements for these controls are delineated

  17. On the use of polarization modulation in combined interferometry and polarimetry. Corrigendum. 1998 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion, v. 40 p. 153-161

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segre, S.E.

    1998-01-01

    Errors in the main text, the appendix and two curves are corrected in this corrigendum to the paper entitled ''On the use of polarization modulation in combined interferometry and polarimetry'', written by S.E. Segre and published in 1998 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion, v. 40 p. 153-161

  18. Design of a Quality Control Program for the Measurement of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Activities (LMPR-CIEMAT); Diseno del Control de Calidad de las Medidas de Actividad Alfa-Beta Total (LMPR-CIEMAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, A.; Yague, L.; Gasco, C.; Navarro, N.; Higueras, E.; Noguerales, C.

    2010-10-21

    In accordance with international standards, general requirements for testing laboratories have to include a quality system for planning, implementing, and assessing the work performed by the organization and for carrying out required quality assurance and quality control. The purpose of internal laboratory quality control is to monitor performance, identify problems, and initiate corrective actions. This report describes the internal quality control to monitor the gross alpha and beta activities determination. Identification of specific performance indicators, the principles that govern their use and statistical means of evaluation are explained. Finally, calculation of alpha and beta specific activities, uncertainties and detection limits are performed. (Author) 10 refs.

  19. Radiation Tolerance of Controlled Fusion Welds in High Temperature Oxidation Resistant FeCrAl Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussev, Maxim N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    the non-welded specimens to exhibit strain-induced softening (decrease in the true stress level) with increasing plastic strain during tensile testing. Fracture for the weldments was found to occur exclusively within the fusion zone. The mechanical performance of the weldment was speculated to be directly linked to variances in the radiation-induced microstructure including the formation of dislocation loops and precipitation of the Cr-rich α' phase. The localized microstructural variation within the weldments, including grain size, was determined to play a significant role in the radiation-induced microstructure. The results summarized within highlight the need for additional data on the radiation tolerance of weldments as the mechanical performance of the fusion zone was shown to be the limiting factor in the overall performance of the weldments.

  20. Beam dancer fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    To accomplish fusion of two or more fusion fuel elements numerous minute spots of energy or laser light are directed to a micro target area, there to be moved or danced about by a precision mechanical controlling apparatus at the source of the laser light or electromagnetic energy beams, so that merging and coinciding patterns of light or energy beams can occur around the area of the fuel atoms or ions. The projecting of these merging patterns may be considered as target searching techniques to locate responsive clusters of fuel elements and to compress such elements into a condition in which fusion may occur. Computerized programming may be used

  1. Japanese fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, T.

    1987-01-01

    The Japan experience during thirty years in nuclear fusion research is reported, after attending the 1st Geneva Conference in 1955, Osaka University, immedeately began linear pinch study using capacitor bank discharge. Subsequently to his trial several groups were organized to ward fusion R and D at universities in Tokyo, Nagoya, Kyoto, Sendai and son on. Based upon the recommendation of Japan Science Council, Institut of Plasma Physics (IPP) was established at Nagoya University in 1961 When the 1st International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research was held in Saltzburg. The gloomy Bohm barrier had stood in front of many of experiments at that time. (author) [pt

  2. Effects of isotropic alpha populations on tokamak ballooning stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spong, D.A.; Sigmar, D.J.; Tsang, K.T.; Ramos, J.J.; Hastings, D.E.; Cooper, W.A.

    1986-12-01

    Fusion product alpha populations can significantly influence tokamak stability due to coupling between the trapped alpha precessional drift and the kinetic ballooning mode frequency. Careful, quantitative evaluations of these effects are necessary in burning plasma devices such as the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and the Joint European Torus, and we have continued systematic development of such a kinetic stability model. In this model we have considered a range of different forms for the alpha distribution function and the tokamak equilibrium. Both Maxwellian and slowing-down models have been used for the alpha energy dependence while deeply trapped and, more recently, isotropic pitch angle dependences have been examined

  3. EURATOM-CEA association contributions to the 26. EPS conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics, Maastricht

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    This report references the EURATOM-CEA association contributions presented at the 26. EPS conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics, in Maastricht (Netherlands) the 14-18 June 1999. Two invited papers and 24 contributed papers are proposed. They deal with: tokamak devices; particle recirculation in ergodic divertor; current profile control and MHD stability in Tore Supra discharges; edge-plasma control by the ergodic divertor; electron heat transport in stochastic magnetic layer; bolometry and radiated power; particle collection by ergodic divertor; study and simulation of plasma impurities; line shape modelling for plasma edge conditions; dynamical study of the radial structure of the fluctuations measured by reciprocating Langmuir probe in Tore Supra; up-down asymmetry of density fluctuations; Halo currents in a circular tokamak; real time measurement of the position, density, profile and current profile at Tore Supra; poloidal rotation measurement by reflectometry; interpretation of q-profile dependence of the LH power deposition profile during LHCD experiments; ICFR plasma production and optimization; improved core electron confinement; measurement of hard X-ray emission profile; modelling of shear effects on thermal and particles transport; ion turbulence; current drive generation based on autoresonance and intermittent trapping mechanisms. (A.L.B.)

  4. EURATOM-CEA association contributions to the 26. EPS conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics, Maastricht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-15

    This report references the EURATOM-CEA association contributions presented at the 26. EPS conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics, in Maastricht (Netherlands) the 14-18 June 1999. Two invited papers and 24 contributed papers are proposed. They deal with: tokamak devices; particle recirculation in ergodic divertor; current profile control and MHD stability in Tore Supra discharges; edge-plasma control by the ergodic divertor; electron heat transport in stochastic magnetic layer; bolometry and radiated power; particle collection by ergodic divertor; study and simulation of pa impurities; line shape modelling for plasma edge conditions; dynamical study of the radial structure of the fluctuations measured by reciprocating Langmuir probe in Tore Supra; up-down asymmetry of density fluctuations; Halo currents in a circular tokamak; real time measurement of the position, density, profile and current profile at Tore Supra; poloidal rotation measurement by reflectometry; interpretation of q-profile dependence of the LH power deposition profile during LHCD experiments; ICFR plasma production and optimization; improved core electron confinement; measurement of hard X-ray emission profile; modelling of shear effects on thermal and particles transport; ion turbulence; current drive generation based on autoresonance and intermittent trapping mechanisms. (A.L.B.)

  5. Computer control and data acquisition system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating System (ICRH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheshire, D.L.; Thomas, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) large Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) will employ an Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ICRH) system for plasma startup. As the MFTF-B Industrial Participant, TRW has responsibility for the ICRH system, including development of the data acquisition and control system. During the MFTF-B Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System (SCDS). For subsystem development and checkout at TRW, and for verification and acceptance testing at LLNL, the system will be run from a stand-alone computer system designed to simulate the functions of SCDS. The ''SCDS Simulator'' was developed originally for the MFTF-B ECRH System; descriptions of the hardware and software are updated in this paper. The computer control and data acquisition functions implemented for ICRH are described, including development status, and test schedule at TRW and at LLNL. The application software is written for the SCDS Simulator, but it is programmed in PASCAL and designed to facilitate conversion for use on the SCDS computers

  6. Fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs

  7. Fusion Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    If a fusion DEMO reactor can be brought into operation during the first half of this century, fusion power production can have a significant impact on carbon dioxide production during the latter half of the century. An assessment of fusion implementation scenarios shows that the resource demands and waste production associated with these scenarios are manageable factors. If fusion is implemented during the latter half of this century it will be one element of a portfolio of (hopefully) carbon dioxide limiting sources of electrical power. It is time to assess the regional implications of fusion power implementation. An important attribute of fusion power is the wide range of possible regions of the country, or countries in the world, where power plants can be located. Unlike most renewable energy options, fusion energy will function within a local distribution system and not require costly, and difficult, long distance transmission systems. For example, the East Coast of the United States is a prime candidate for fusion power deployment by virtue of its distance from renewable energy sources. As fossil fuels become less and less available as an energy option, the transmission of energy across bodies of water will become very expensive. On a global scale, fusion power will be particularly attractive for regions separated from sources of renewable energy by oceans

  8. Fusion-product ash buildup in tokamak with radial electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downum, W.B.; Choi, C.K.; Miley, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    The buildup of thermalized fusion products (ash) in a tokamak can seriously limit burn times. Prior studies have concentrated on deposition profile effects on alpha particle transport in tokamaks but have not considered the effect on ash of radial electric fields (either created internally, e.g. due to high-energy alpha leakage, or generated externally). The present study focuses on this issue since it appears that electric fields might offer one approach to control of the ash. Approximate field and source profiles are used, based on prior calculations

  9. EURATOM-CEA association. Controlled fusion. Management committee nr 79. Activity report. National collaborations (Universities and CNRS). November 2007 - October 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Benkadda, S.; Ottaviani, M.; Escande, D.; Blum, J.; Brenier, Y.; Lutjens, H.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Lima, R.; Bertrand, P.; Firpo, M.C.

    2005-12-01

    This publication presents several research projects on controlled fusion lead in collaboration by CNRS and academic teams. The general framework of these projects concerns theoretical developments in gyro-kinetics, transport and equilibrium to develop the required tools for the modelling of fusing plasmas. It comprises a study of characterisation and control of turbulent transport in tokamak plasmas, a study on the magnetic self-organisation of fusing plasmas, a gyro-kinetic modelling of tokamak plasmas, a study of identification and optimal control of plasma equilibrium in a tokamak, a gyrokinetic approach to the Vlasov equation, a study of the linear and non linear dynamics of instability modes in a tokamak plasma by using the model of extended magnetohydrodynamics, a study of the control of turbulence in magnetic fusion plasmas, and a study of the non linear regime of the n=1, m=1 mode

  10. Polymorphisms in the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha gene in Mexican patients with preeclampsia: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava-Salazar Sonia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the etiology of preeclampsia is still unclear, recent work suggests that changes in circulating angiogenic factors play a key role in its pathogenesis. In the trophoblast of women with preeclampsia, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α is over-expressed, and induces the expression of non-angiogenic factors and inhibitors of trophoblast differentiation. This observation prompted the study of HIF-1α and its relation to preeclampsia. It has been described that the C1772T (P582S and G1790A (A588T polymorphisms of the HIF1A gene have significantly greater transcriptional activity, correlated with an increased expression of their proteins, than the wild-type sequence. In this work, we studied whether either or both HIF1A variants contribute to preeclampsia susceptibility. Results Genomic DNA was isolated from 150 preeclamptic and 105 healthy pregnant women. Exon 12 of the HIF1A gene was amplified by PCR, and the genotypes of HIF1A were determined by DNA sequencing. In preeclamptic women and controls, the frequencies of the T allele for C1772T were 4.3 vs. 4.8%, and the frequencies of the A allele for G1790A were 0.0 vs. 0.5%, respectively. No significant differences were found between groups. Conclusion The frequency of the C1772T and G1790A polymorphisms of the HIF1A gene is very low, and neither polymorphism is associated with the development of preeclampsia in the Mexican population.

  11. Interaction between alpha 2-adrenergic and angiotensin II systems in the control of glomerular hemodynamics as assessed by renal micropuncture in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, S. C.; Gabbai, F. B.; Tucker, B. J.; Blantz, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis that renal alpha 2 adrenoceptors influence nephron filtration rate (SNGFR) via interaction with angiotensin II (AII) was tested by renal micropuncture. The physical determinants of SNGFR were assessed in adult male Munich Wistar rats 5-7 d after ipsilateral surgical renal denervation (DNX). DNX was performed to isolate inhibitory central and presynaptic alpha 2 adrenoceptors from end-organ receptors within the kidney. Two experimental protocols were employed: one to test whether prior AII receptor blockade with saralasin would alter the glomerular hemodynamic response to alpha 2 adrenoceptor stimulation with the selective agonist B-HT 933 under euvolemic conditions, and the other to test whether B-HT 933 would alter the response to exogenous AII under conditions of plasma volume expansion. In euvolemic rats, B-HT 933 caused SNGFR to decline as the result of a decrease in glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient (LpA), an effect that was blocked by saralasin. After plasma volume expansion, B-HT 933 showed no primary effect on LpA but heightened the response of arterial blood pressure, glomerular transcapillary pressure gradient, and LpA to AII. The parallel results of these converse experiments suggest a complementary interaction between renal alpha 2-adrenergic and AII systems in the control of LpA.

  12. Concomitant production of two proteases and alpha-amylase by a novel strain of Bacillus subtilis in a microprocessor controlled bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mukhtar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the simultaneous production of Bacillus subtilis based proteases and alpha amylase using a computer controlled laboratory scale 7.5 L batch bioreactor. The present strain is the first to be reported that concomitantly produces these two industrially important enzymes. The growth and sporulation of Bacillus subtilis was monitored and maximum production of alkaline protease and alpha amylase was found to coincide with maximum sporulation. Two types of proteases were detected in the fermentation broth; a neutral and an alkaline protease most active in a pH range of 7.0-8.0 and 8.0-10, respectively. Maximum production of proteases was observed at an incubation temperature of 37ºC while that of alpha amylase was observed at 40ºC. The optimum aeration and agitation levels for protease production were 0.6 L/L/min and 200rpm, respectively, and for alpha amylase were 0.6 L/L/min and 150 rpm. The kinetic parameters Yp/x and qp were also found to be significant at the given fermentation conditions.

  13. Heavy ion beam propagation through a gas-filled chamber for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza, N.O.

    1996-10-01

    The work presented here evaluates the dynamics of a beam of heavy ions propagating through a chamber filled with gas. The motivation for this research stems from the possibility of using heavy ion beams as a driver in inertial confinement fusion reactors for the purpose of generating electricity. Such a study is important in determining the constraints on the beam which limit its focus to the small radius necessary for the ignition of thermonuclear microexplosions which are the source of fusion energy. Nuclear fusion is the process of combining light nuclei to form heavier ones. One possible fusion reaction combines two isotopes of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium, to form an alpha particle and a neutron, with an accompanying release of ∼17.6 MeV of energy. Generating electricity from fusion requires that we create such reactions in an efficient and controlled fashion, and harness the resulting energy. In the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) approach to energy production, a small spherical target, a few millimeters in radius, of deuterium and tritium fuel is compressed so that the density and temperature of the fuel are high enough, ∼200 g/cm 3 and ∼20 keV, that a substantial number of fusion reactions occur; the pellet microexplosion typically releases ∼350 MJ of energy in optimized power plant scenarios

  14. Mitochondrial fusion is increased by the nuclear coactivator PGC-1beta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Liesa

    Full Text Available There is no evidence to date on whether transcriptional regulators are able to shift the balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission events through selective control of gene expression.Here, we demonstrate that reduced mitochondrial size observed in knock-out mice for the transcriptional regulator PGC-1beta is associated with a selective reduction in Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2 expression, a mitochondrial fusion protein. This decrease in Mfn2 is specific since expression of the remaining components of mitochondrial fusion and fission machinery were not affected. Furthermore, PGC-1beta increases mitochondrial fusion and elongates mitochondrial tubules. This PGC-1beta-induced elongation specifically requires Mfn2 as this process is absent in Mfn2-ablated cells. Finally, we show that PGC-1beta increases Mfn2 promoter activity and transcription by coactivating the nuclear receptor Estrogen Related Receptor alpha (ERRalpha.Taken together, our data reveal a novel mechanism by which mammalian cells control mitochondrial fusion. In addition, we describe a novel role of PGC-1beta in mitochondrial physiology, namely the control of mitochondrial fusion mainly through Mfn2.

  15. Local Control of Lung Derived Tumors by Diffusing Alpha-Emitting Atoms Released From Intratumoral Wires Loaded With Radium-224

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooks, Tomer; Schmidt, Michael; Bittan, Hadas; Lazarov, Elinor; Arazi, Lior; Kelson, Itzhak; Keisari, Yona

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Diffusing alpha-emitters radiation therapy (DART) is a new form of brachytherapy enabling the treatment of solid tumors with alpha radiation. The present study examines the antitumoral effects resulting from the release of alpha emitting radioisotopes into solid lung carcinoma (LL2, A427, and NCI-H520). Methods and Materials: An in vitro setup tested the dose-dependent killing of tumor cells exposed to alpha particles. In in vivo studies, radioactive wires (0.3 mm diameter, 5 mm long) with 224 Ra activities in the range of 21-38 kBq were inserted into LL/2 tumors in C57BL/6 mice and into human-derived A427 or NCI-H520 tumors in athymic mice. The efficacy of the short-lived daughters of 224 Ra to produce tumor growth retardation and prolong life was assessed, and the spread of radioisotopes inside tumors was measured using autoradiography. Results: The insertion of a single DART wire into the center of 6- to 7-mm tumors had a pronounced retardation effect on tumor growth, leading to a significant inhibition of 49% (LL2) and 93% (A427) in tumor development and prolongations of 48% (LL2) in life expectancy. In the human model, more than 80% of the treated tumors disappeared or shrunk. Autoradiographic analysis of the treated sectioned tissue revealed the intratumoral distribution of the radioisotopes, and histological analysis showed corresponding areas of necrosis. In vitro experiments demonstrated a dose-dependent killing of tumors cells exposed to alpha particles. Conclusions: Short-lived diffusing alpha-emitters produced tumor growth retardation and increased survival in mice bearing lung tumor implants. These results justify further investigations with improved dose distributions.

  16. Monitoring and Control of Urban Critical Infrastructures: A Novel Approach to System Design and Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario La Manna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring and control of urban critical infrastructures consists of the protection of assets such as houses, offices, government and private buildings, with low cost, high quality and high dependability. In order to satisfy all these requirements at the same time, the control of a number of assets has to be performed by means of automated systems based on networks of heterogeneous sensors. This new concept idea is based on the use of unmanned operations at each of the many remote assets (each asset is monitored through a network of sensors and a man-in-the-loop automated control in a central site (Operational Center, which performs alarm detection and system management.

  17. Operation Request Gatekeeper: A software system for remote access control of diagnostic instruments in fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abla, G.; Schissel, D. P.; Fredian, T. W.; Stillerman, J. A.; Greenwald, M. J.; Stepanov, D. N.; Ciarlette, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    Tokamak diagnostic settings are repeatedly modified to meet the changing needs of each experiment. Enabling the remote diagnostic control has significant challenges due to security and efficiency requirements. The Operation Request Gatekeeper (ORG) is a software system that addresses the challenges of remotely but securely submitting modification requests. The ORG provides a framework for screening all the requests before they enter the secure machine zone and are executed by performing user authentication and authorization, grammar validation, and validity checks. A prototype ORG was developed for the ITER CODAC that satisfies their initial requirements for remote request submission and has been tested with remote control of the KSTAR Plasma Control System. This paper describes the software design principles and implementation of ORG as well as worldwide test results.

  18. A Fusion of Sensors Information for Autonomous Driving Control of an Electric Vehicle (EV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haris, Hasri; Wan, Khairunizam; Hazry, D; Razlan, Zuradzman M

    2013-01-01

    The study uses the environment of the road as input variables for the main system to control steering wheel, brake and acceleration pedals. A camera is installed on the roof of the Electric Vehicles (EV) and is used to obtain image information of the road. On the other hand, users or drivers do not have to directly contact with the main system because it will autonomously control the devices by using fuzzy information of the road conditions. A fuzzy information means in the preliminary experiments, reasoning of the various environments will be done by using fuzzy approach. At the end of the study, several existing algorithms for controlling motors and image processing technique could be combined into an algorithm that could be used to move EV without assist from human

  19. Thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisse, J.

    2000-01-01

    This document takes stock of the two ways of thermonuclear fusion research explored today: magnetic confinement fusion and inertial confinement fusion. The basic physical principles are recalled first: fundamental nuclear reactions, high temperatures, elementary properties of plasmas, ignition criterion, magnetic confinement (charged particle in a uniform magnetic field, confinement and Tokamak principle, heating of magnetized plasmas (ohmic, neutral particles, high frequency waves, other heating means), results obtained so far (scale laws and extrapolation of performances, tritium experiments, ITER project), inertial fusion (hot spot ignition, instabilities, results (Centurion-Halite program, laser experiments). The second part presents the fusion reactor and its associated technologies: principle (tritium production, heat source, neutron protection, tritium generation, materials), magnetic fusion (superconducting magnets, divertor (role, principle, realization), inertial fusion (energy vector, laser adaptation, particle beams, reaction chamber, stresses, chamber concepts (dry and wet walls, liquid walls), targets (fabrication, injection and pointing)). The third chapter concerns the socio-economic aspects of thermonuclear fusion: safety (normal operation and accidents, wastes), costs (costs structure and elementary comparison, ecological impact and external costs). (J.S.)

  20. Fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of thermonuclear fusion devices currently under development are reviewed for an electric utilities management audience. Overall design features of laser fusion, tokamak, and magnetic mirror type reactors are described and illustrated. Thrusts and trends in current research on these devices that promise to improve performance are briefly reviewed. Twenty photographs and drawings are included

  1. Fusion research in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoletnik, S.

    2004-01-01

    Hungarian fusion research started in the 1970s, when the idea of installing a small tokamak experiment emerged. In return to computer equipment a soviet tokamak was indeed sent to Hungary and started to operate as MT-1 at the Central Research Institute for Physics (KFKI) in 1979. Major research topics included diagnostic development, edge plasma studies and investigation of disruptions. Following a major upgrade in 1992 (new vacuum vessel, active position control and PC network based data acquisition system) the MT-1M tokamak was used for the study of transport processes with trace impurity injection, micropellet ablation studies, X-ray tomography and laser blow-off diagnostic development. Although funding ceased in the middle of the 90's the group was held alive by collaborations with EU fusion labs: FZ -Juelich, IPP-Garching and CRPP-EPFL Lausanne. In 1998 the machine was dismantled due to reorganization of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. New horizons opened to fusion research from 1999, when Hungary joined EURATOM and a fusion Association was formed. Since then fusion physics studies are done in collaboration with major EU fusion laboratories, Hungarian researchers also play an active role in JET diagnostics upgrade and ITER design. Major topics are pellet ablation studies, plasma turbulence diagnosis using Beam Emission Spectroscopy and other techniques, tomography and plasma diagnostics using various neutral beams. In fusion relevant technology R and D Hungary has less records. Before joining EURATOM some materials irradiation studies were done at the Budapest Research Reactor at KFKI-AEKI. The present day fusion technology programme focuses still on irradiation studies, nuclear material database and electromagnetic testing techniques. Increasing the fusion technology research activities is a difficult task, as the competition in Hungarian industry is very strong and the interest of organizations in long-term investments into R and D is rather weak and

  2. The effects of short-term alpha-ketoisocaproic acid supplementation on exercise performance: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarrow Joshua F

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the efficacy of short-term alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC monotherapy supplementation immediately prior to moderate- and high-intensity single bout exercise performance. Methods Thirteen resistance trained men (22.8 ± 2.5 years; 81.6 ± 12.6 kg participated in a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled crossover experiment. Each subject completed one familiarization and four experimental trials with either 1.5 g or 9.0 g of either KIC or isocaloric placebo control (CONT, following an overnight fast. During the experimental trials, subjects consumed the supplement regimen and then completed leg and chest press repetitions to failure and 30 s of repeated maximal vertical jumping (VJ on a force plate. Results In this treatment regimen, no significant differences (p > 0.05 were observed between dosages or conditions for leg press (low CONT = 19.8 ± 0.4 SEM, low KIC = 21.0 ± 0.5, high CONT = 20.1 ± 0.3, high KIC = 22.4 ± 0.6 or chest press (low CONT = 18.1 ± 0.2, low KIC = 18.5 ± 0.3, high CONT = 17.8 ± 0.3, high KIC = 18.0 ± 0.3 repetitions to failure. Additionally, no significant differences were observed for peak or mean VJ performance (low CONT = 34.6 ± 2.2 cm and 28.6 ± 1.8 cm; low KIC = 35.6 ± 2.0 cm and 29.4 ± 1.6 cm; high CONT = 35.7 ± 2.1 cm and 29.4 ± 1.7 cm; high KIC = 34.8 ± 2.3 cm and 28.3 ± 1.7 cm, respectively. Conclusion Based on our results, we conclude that acute KIC ingestion by itself with no other ergogenic supplement, immediately prior to exercise, did not alter moderate- nor high-intensity single-bout exercise performance in young resistance-trained males. This study addressed single-dose single-bout performance events; the efficacy of KIC monotherapy supplementation on repeated high-intensity exercise bouts and long-term exercise training remains unknown.

  3. Controlled thermonuclear fusion in TOKAMAK type reactors, the European example: Joint European Torus (JET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, P.J.; Yassen, F.; Assis, A.S. de; Raposo, C.

    1988-07-01

    The development of controlled thermonuclear reaction in TOKAMAK type reactors, and the main projects in the world are presented. The main characteristics of the JET (Joint European Torus) program, the perspectives for energy production, and the international cooperation for viable use of the TOKAMAK are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  4. A study on the fusion reactor - Design study for tokamak control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, In Soo; Nam, Kung Won; Cho, Moo Hyun; Kim, Ji Hwa; Kim, Jae Myung; Kim, Sung Chul; Lee, Ki Sun [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-09-01

    Based on the experience accumulated during the construction of Pohang Light Source, we strongly suggest that the control system must have a hierarchical structure linked with multiple ethernets. Some UNIX-based workstation are recommended in the top layer where KSTAR operators are faced with several control/monitoring windows. As a supervisors to individual subsystem, realtime computers such as VME system are recommended. Choice of realtime operating system is up to the actual developer. However, we strongly suggest to use Lynx which is UNIX-based realtime OS and is getting more attentions after its introduction in the market. Graphic interface for operators will be developed by adopting development toolkit such as RTWorks and EPICS. We also recommend to use EPICS because it is introduced by Los Alamos National Laboratory, U. S. A. and several laboratories around world are now adopting it to their control system. This report is also pointing out several key issues relating the system development. Among them are the cabling plan, signal list, and noise suppressions. It is also suggested that early decision of communication protocol will help to integrated control system in the future. 11 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs. (author)

  5. Fusion of adaptive beam steering and optimization-based wavefront control for laser communications in atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulin, Vladimir V.

    2005-10-01

    The performance of mobile laser communication systems operating within Earth's atmosphere is generally limited by the pointing errors due to movement of the platforms and mechanical vibrations. In addition, atmospheric turbulence causes changes of the refractive index along the propagation path, creating random redistribution of the optical energy in the spatial domain. Under adverse conditions these effects lead to increased bit error rate. While traditional approaches provide separate treatment of these problems, suggesting high-bandwidth beam steering systems for tracking and wavefront control for the mitigation of atmospheric effects, the two tasks can be integrated. This paper presents a hybrid laser beam-steering-wavefront-control system comprising an electrically addressed spatial light modulator (SLM) installed on the Omni-Wrist sensor mount. The function of the Omni-Wrist is to provide coarse steering over a wide range of pointing angles, while that of the SLM is twofold: wavefront correction and fine steering. The control law for the Omni-Wrist is synthesized using a decentralized approach that provides independent access to the azimuth and declination channels; calculation of the required phase profile for the SLM is optimization-based. This paper presents the control algorithms, the approach to coordinating the operation of the two systems, and the results.

  6. Use of plasma waves to create in Tokamaks quasi-stationary conditions required for controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, D.

    1993-04-01

    In this thesis are studied the coupling of hybrid waves to the plasma, multijunction antennas, hybrid wave stochastic propagation, fast wave current drive and lower-hybrid current drive experiments in Tore Supra and Jet. The possibility of decoupling current density profile and temperature give one more degree of freedom for the control of plasma in a configuration which is not very flexible

  7. [Dietary supplementation of obese children with 1000 mg alpha-linolenic acid per day: a placebo-controlled double blind study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohner, Szimonetta; Marosvölgyi, Tamás; Burus, István; Schmidt, János; Molnár, Dénes; Decsi, Tamás

    2007-08-12

    Enhanced dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids may benefit persons with increased cardiovascular risk, among them obese subjects. Incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids into the plasma lipids is a prerequisite to achieve the favorable effects; however, only very few data are available on the dose of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in children. The aim of our study was to examine the effects of the consumption of a diet supplemented with 1000 mg alpha-linolenic acid daily on plasma lipids in obese children. In this two times six-week-long, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 9 obese children (age: 13.1 [2.5] years, body mass index: 31.2 [6.2] kg/m 2 ), median [IQR]) incorporated into their diet one egg and one meatball (50 g) per day from hens fed diets containing flaxseed oil, i.e. supplementary dietary intake of 1000 mg alpha-linolenic acid per day was provided. The fatty acid composition of plasma lipids was determined by high-resolution gas-liquid chromatography. Tendencies of increase were observed in the alpha-linolenic acid content of plasma lipids in the phospholipid, triacyl-glycerine and sterol-ester fractions after the supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid. In the non-esterified fatty acid fraction, the values of alpha-linolenic acid were significantly higher after the supplementation (0.11 [0.08] versus 0.14 [0.20], % weight/weight, p < 0.05), indicating the beginning of the accumulation of alpha-linolenic acid in plasma lipids. In obese children a six-week-long supplementation of the diet with 1000 mg alpha-linolenic acid per day increased significantly the contribution of omega-3 fatty acids only to the non-esterified fatty acids of plasma lipids, but had no significant effect on the esterified fractions. Increase of the dose of supplementation may be needed to influence omega-3 fatty acid status in obese children.

  8. Control and data acquisition ATCA/AXIe board designed for high system availability and reliability of nuclear fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, A.J.N.; Leong, C.; Bexiga, V.; Rodrigues, A.P.; Combo, A.; Carvalho, B.B.; Carvalho, P.F.; Fortunato, J.; Santos, B.; Carvalho, P.; Correia, M.; Teixeira, J.P.; Teixeira, I.C.; Sousa, J.; Gonçalves, B.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation and test of a control and data acquisition board designed to be integrated on systems demanding high availability and reliability, foreseen for future experiments like ITER or other long operation fusion devices. The Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard (PICMG 3.0 and 3.4) was selected for board implementation, which has support for the desired system robustness and performance. Some board features such as rear Input/Output (IO) signals connectivity (passive, copper tracks only), cable-less hot-swap maintenance, Intelligent Platform Management Controller (IPMC) and redundancy on timing signals, communications links and power supplies are significant board improvements, relatively to previous control and data acquisition boards, allowing the development of more reliable system architectures. Moreover, the developed board is also compatible with the emerging ATCA eXtensions for Instrumentation (AXIe) specifications, which provides additional timing and synchronization signals on the backplane. ATCA full-mesh, multi-gigabit, full-duplex, point-to-point communication links between Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), of peer boards inside the shelf, allow the implementation of distributed algorithms and development of Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) systems. Up to 48 analog input channels, simultaneously digitized (2 MSPS @ 18-bits), are filtered/decimated by the board FPGA and sent to the ATCA/AXIe host through Peripheral Component Interconnect express (PCIe) using Direct Memory Access (DMA). In real-time, the host can update up to 48 analog output channels (1 MSPS @ 18-bits), per board, through PCIe. Further board characteristics comprise analog IO channels with galvanic isolation and an optional signal chopper mode, for offset compensation over time on digital integration of magnetic signals. Board time synchronization is attained by means of the Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) time-code

  9. Neutronics and mass transport in a chemical reactor associated with controlled thermonuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.; Lazareth, O.W.; Powell, J.R.

    1976-05-01

    The formation of ozone from oxygen and the dissociation carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and oxygen is studied in a gamma-neutron chemical process blanket associated with a controlled thermonuclear reactor. Materials used for reactor tube wall will affect the efficiency of the energy absorption by the reactants and consequently the yield of reaction products. Three kinds of materials, aluminum, stainless steel and fiber (Al 2 O 3 )-aluminium are investigated for the tube wall material in the study

  10. Anticipatory Monitoring and Control of Complex Systems using a Fuzzy based Fusion of Support Vector Regressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miltiadis Alamaniotis; Vivek Agarwal

    2014-10-01

    This paper places itself in the realm of anticipatory systems and envisions monitoring and control methods being capable of making predictions over system critical parameters. Anticipatory systems allow intelligent control of complex systems by predicting their future state. In the current work, an intelligent model aimed at implementing anticipatory monitoring and control in energy industry is presented and tested. More particularly, a set of support vector regressors (SVRs) are trained using both historical and observed data. The trained SVRs are used to predict the future value of the system based on current operational system parameter. The predicted values are then inputted to a fuzzy logic based module where the values are fused to obtain a single value, i.e., final system output prediction. The methodology is tested on real turbine degradation datasets. The outcome of the approach presented in this paper highlights the superiority over single support vector regressors. In addition, it is shown that appropriate selection of fuzzy sets and fuzzy rules plays an important role in improving system performance.

  11. The role and application of ion beam analysis for studies of plasma-facing components in controlled fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubel, Marek, E-mail: Marek.Rubel@ee.kth.se [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Fusion Plasma Physics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Petersson, Per [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Fusion Plasma Physics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Alves, Eduardo [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Brezinsek, Sebastijan [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Institut für Klima- und Energieforschung, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Coad, Joseph Paul [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Heinola, Kalle [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Mayer, Matej [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 85478 Garching (Germany); Widdowson, Anna [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    First wall materials in controlled fusion devices undergo serious modification by several physical and chemical processes arising from plasma–wall interactions. Detailed information is required for the assessment of material lifetime and accumulation of hydrogen isotopes in wall materials. The intention of this work is to give a concise overview of key issues in the characterization of plasma-facing materials and components in tokamaks, especially in JET with an ITER-Like Wall. IBA techniques play a particularly prominent role here because of their isotope selectivity in the low-Z range (1–10), high sensitivity and combination of several methods in a single run. The role of {sup 3}He-based NRA, RBS (standard and micro-size beam) and HIERDA in fuel retention and material migration studies is presented. The use of tracer techniques with rare isotopes (e.g. {sup 15}N) or marker layers on wall diagnostic components is described. Special instrumentation, development of equipment to enhance research capabilities and issues in handling of contaminated materials are addressed.

  12. The role and application of ion beam analysis for studies of plasma-facing components in controlled fusion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Marek; Petersson, Per; Alves, Eduardo; Brezinsek, Sebastijan; Coad, Joseph Paul; Heinola, Kalle; Mayer, Matej; Widdowson, Anna

    2016-03-01

    First wall materials in controlled fusion devices undergo serious modification by several physical and chemical processes arising from plasma-wall interactions. Detailed information is required for the assessment of material lifetime and accumulation of hydrogen isotopes in wall materials. The intention of this work is to give a concise overview of key issues in the characterization of plasma-facing materials and components in tokamaks, especially in JET with an ITER-Like Wall. IBA techniques play a particularly prominent role here because of their isotope selectivity in the low-Z range (1-10), high sensitivity and combination of several methods in a single run. The role of 3He-based NRA, RBS (standard and micro-size beam) and HIERDA in fuel retention and material migration studies is presented. The use of tracer techniques with rare isotopes (e.g. 15N) or marker layers on wall diagnostic components is described. Special instrumentation, development of equipment to enhance research capabilities and issues in handling of contaminated materials are addressed.

  13. Comparison benchmark between tokamak simulation code and TokSys for Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor vertical displacement control design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Qing-Lai; Xiao Bing-Jia; Guo Yong; Liu Lei; Wang Yue-Hang

    2017-01-01

    Vertical displacement event (VDE) is a big challenge to the existing tokamak equipment and that being designed. As a Chinese next-step tokamak, the Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) has to pay attention to the VDE study with full-fledged numerical codes during its conceptual design. The tokamak simulation code (TSC) is a free boundary time-dependent axisymmetric tokamak simulation code developed in PPPL, which advances the MHD equations describing the evolution of the plasma in a rectangular domain. The electromagnetic interactions between the surrounding conductor circuits and the plasma are solved self-consistently. The TokSys code is a generic modeling and simulation environment developed in GA. Its RZIP model treats the plasma as a fixed spatial distribution of currents which couple with the surrounding conductors through circuit equations. Both codes have been individually used for the VDE study on many tokamak devices, such as JT-60U, EAST, NSTX, DIII-D, and ITER. Considering the model differences, benchmark work is needed to answer whether they reproduce each other’s results correctly. In this paper, the TSC and TokSys codes are used for analyzing the CFETR vertical instability passive and active controls design simultaneously. It is shown that with the same inputs, the results from these two codes conform with each other. (paper)

  14. “CLEAR BRANDY” PRODUCTION USING ALPHA ACID EXTRACT FROM HOPS IN THE BIOCIDAL CONTROL OF THE FERMENTATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassiana Amélia de Oliveira e Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The major problem in the production of “clear brandy” is the contamination of the must by bacteria of the species Lactobacillus. To overcome this problem, this work intends to evaluate the usage of the alpha acids from hop extract (Humulus lupulus as antibacterial agent during brandy production. In addition, the maximum cell recycling was evaluated during the clear brandy production. Preliminary experiments using the Sabourand synthetic medium added with 40 ppm of the alpha acids reduced the cell viability of L. casei and L. plantarum bacteria from 108 CFU.mL-1 to 105 CFU.mL-1 and showed no effect in the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These experiments were conducted at 120 rpm and 25°C. The clear brandy production (200 L using the same alpha acids concentration (40 ppm and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell recycling (14 times showed no contamination by bacteria. Then, the clear brandy was distilled in a 160 L cooper distiller. The clear brandy produced with and without alpha acids, was analyzed in the Laboratory of Alcohol and Beverages as well as in the Laboratory of Spectroscopy of the Cuban Research Institute of the Sugarcane Derivatives (ICIDCA in Spanish in Havana and showed similarities in their composition and sensorial chemical analysis.

  15. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockade in severe persistent asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenzel, Sally E.; Barnes, Peter J.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Bousquet, Jean; Busse, William; Dahlén, Sven-Erik; Holgate, Stephen T.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Rabe, Klaus F.; Antczak, Adam; Baker, James; Horvath, Ildiko; Mark, Zsuzsanna; Bernstein, David; Kerwin, Edward; Schlenker-Herceg, Rozsa; Lo, Kim Hung; Watt, Rosemary; Barnathan, Elliot S.; Chanez, Pascal; Chanez, P.; Tunon-de-Lara, M.; Antczak, A.; Pierzchala, W.; Bukowczan, Z.; Trawinska, E.; Baker, J.; Wenzel, S. E.; Katial, R.; Bernstein, D.; Kerwin, E.; Bensch, G.; Castro, M.; Noonan, M.; Nayak, A.; Chupp, G.; Kline, J.; Busse, W.; Kavuru, M. S.; Lang, D.; Wolfe, R.; Baughman, R.; Korenblat, P.; Mansfield, L.; Bleecker, E.; Lisberg, E.; Liu, M.; Panettieri, R.; Spangenthal, S.; Bel, E. H.

    2009-01-01

    RATIONALE: The treatment effect of golimumab, a human monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, in severe persistent asthma is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and efficacy of golimumab in a large population of patients with uncontrolled, severe persistent asthma.

  16. Alpha particle studies during JET DT experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The 1997 DT experiment (DTE1) at the Joint European Torus included studies of the behaviour of alpha particles in high temperature plasmas. Clear alpha particle heating was observed in a series of otherwise similar 10MW hot-ion H-modes by scanning the DT mixture from 0%T to 93%T. Maxima in central temperature and energy content were obtained which corresponded with the maximum in fusion yield. Alfven Eigenmodes (AEs) have been detected in JET, driven by NBI or ICRH fast ions. However, in agreement with theory, no AE activity was observed in DT plasmas which could be attributed to alpha particle drive, except in the afterglow of some Optimised Shear pulses. Ion Cyclotron Emission (ICE) was detected at harmonics of the alpha particle cyclotron frequency at the outer edge of the plasma. The ICE is interpreted as being close to magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability, driven by inverted alpha distributions at the plasma edge. The high-energy neutral particle spectra showed features, which are ascribed to a mixture of alphas, neutralised by helium-like impurities, and deuterons, born from elastic collisions with alpha particles and neutralised by hydrogen-like impurities. The results of all these studies are consistent with classical alpha particle trapping and slowing-down. Future DT experiments will aim to increase alpha particle pressure, so interactions with plasma instabilities can be studied. The measurement of knock-on neutral triton spectra offers a clean way to determine confined alpha densities in these future experiments. (author)

  17. Alpha particle studies during JET DT experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The 1997 DT experiment (DTE1) at the Joint European Torus included studies of the behaviour of alpha particles in high temperature plasmas. Clear alpha particle heating was observed in a series of otherwise similar 10MW hot-ion H-modes by scanning the DT mixture from 0%T to 93%T. Maxima in central temperature and energy content were obtained which corresponded with the maximum in fusion yield. Alfven Eigenmodes (AEs) have been detected in JET, driven by NBI or ICRH fast ions. However, in agreement with theory, no AE activity was observed in DT plasmas which could be attributed to alpha particle drive, except in the afterglow of some Optimised Shear pulses. Ion Cyclotron Emission (ICE) was detected at harmonics of the alpha particle cyclotron frequency at the outer edge of the plasma. The ICE is interpreted as being close to magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability, driven by inverted alpha distributions at the plasma edge. The high-energy neutral particle spectra showed features, which are ascribed to a mixture of alphas, neutralised by helium-like impurities, and deuterons, born from elastic collisions with alpha particles and neutralised by hydrogen-like impurities. The results of all these studies are consistent with classical alpha particle trapping and slowing-down. Future DT experiments will aim to increase alpha particle pressure, so interactions with plasma instabilities can be studied. The measurement of knock-on neutral triton spectra offers a clean way to determine confined alpha densities in these future experiments. (author)

  18. Treatment of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report deals with the current state of the art of alpha waste treatment, which is an integral part of the overall nuclear waste management system. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines alpha bearing waste as 'waste containing one or more alpha emitting radionuclides, usually actinides, in quantities above acceptable limits'. The limits are established by national regulatory bodies. The limits above which wastes are considered as alpha contaminated refer to the concentrations of alpha emitters that need special consideration for occupational exposures and/or potential safety, health, or environmental impact during one or more steps from generation through disposal. Owing to the widespread use of waste segregation by source - that is, based upon the 'suspect origin' of the material - significant volumes of waste are being handled as alpha contaminated which, in fact, do not require such consideration by reason of risk or environmental concern. The quantification of de minimis concepts by national regulatory bodies could largely contribute to the safe reduction of waste volumes and associated costs. Other factors which could significantly contribute to the reduction of alpha waste arisings are an increased application of assaying and sorting, instrumentation and the use of feedback mechanisms to control or modify the processes which generate these wastes. Alpha bearing wastes are generated during fabrication and reprocessing of nuclear fuels, decommissioning of alpha contaminated facilities, and other activities. Most alpha wastes are contact handled, but a small portion may require shielding or remote handling because of high levels of neutron (n), beta (β), or gamma (γ) emissions associated with the waste material. This report describes the sources and characteristics of alpha wastes and strategies for alpha waste management. General descriptions of treatment processes for solid and liquid alpha wastes are included. 71 refs, 14 figs, 9 tabs

  19. Atomic fusion, Gerrard atomic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerrard, T.H.

    1980-01-01

    In the approach to atomic fusion described here the heat produced in a fusion reaction, which is induced in a chamber by the interaction of laser beams and U.H.F. electromagnetic beams with atom streams, is transferred to a heat exchanger for electricity generation by a coolant flowing through a jacket surrounding the chamber. (U.K.)

  20. Can 250+ fusions per muon be achieved?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear fusion of hydrogen isotopes can be induced by negative muons (μ) in reactions such as: μ - + d + t → α + n + μ - . This reaction is analagous to the nuclear fusion reaction achieved in stars in which hydrogen isotopes (such as deuterium, d, and tritium, t) at very high temperatures first penetrate the Coulomb repulsive barrier and then fuse together to produce an alpha particle (α) and a neutron (n), releasing energy. The muon in general reappears after inducing fusion so that the reaction can be repeated many (N) times. Thus, the muon may serve as an effective catalyst for nuclear fusion. Muon-catalozed fusion is unique in that it proceeds rapidly in deuterium-tritium mixtures at relatively cold temperatures, e.g., room temperature. The need for plasma temperatures to initiate fusion is overcome by the presence of the muon

  1. Biologically-inspired robust and adaptive multi-sensor fusion and active control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Deepak; Dow, Paul A.; Huber, David J.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we describe a method and system for robust and efficient goal-oriented active control of a machine (e.g., robot) based on processing, hierarchical spatial understanding, representation and memory of multimodal sensory inputs. This work assumes that a high-level plan or goal is known a priori or is provided by an operator interface, which translates into an overall perceptual processing strategy for the machine. Its analogy to the human brain is the download of plans and decisions from the pre-frontal cortex into various perceptual working memories as a perceptual plan that then guides the sensory data collection and processing. For example, a goal might be to look for specific colored objects in a scene while also looking for specific sound sources. This paper combines three key ideas and methods into a single closed-loop active control system. (1) Use high-level plan or goal to determine and prioritize spatial locations or waypoints (targets) in multimodal sensory space; (2) collect/store information about these spatial locations at the appropriate hierarchy and representation in a spatial working memory. This includes invariant learning of these spatial representations and how to convert between them; and (3) execute actions based on ordered retrieval of these spatial locations from hierarchical spatial working memory and using the "right" level of representation that can efficiently translate into motor actions. In its most specific form, the active control is described for a vision system (such as a pantilt- zoom camera system mounted on a robotic head and neck unit) which finds and then fixates on high saliency visual objects. We also describe the approach where the goal is to turn towards and sequentially foveate on salient multimodal cues that include both visual and auditory inputs.

  2. Quantum control of quasi-collision states: A protocol for hybrid fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela Mendes, R.

    2018-04-01

    When confined to small regions quantum systems exhibit electronic and structural properties different from their free space behavior. These properties are of interest, for example, for molecular insertion, hydrogen storage and the exploration of new pathways for chemical and nuclear reactions. Here, a confined three-body problem is studied, with emphasis on the study of the “quantum scars” associated to dynamical collisions. For the particular case of nuclear reactions, it is proposed that a molecular cage might simply be used as a confining device with the collision states accessed by quantum control techniques.

  3. Peaceful fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englert, Matthias [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Like other intense neutron sources fusion reactors have in principle a potential to be used for military purposes. Although the use of fissile material is usually not considered when thinking of fusion reactors (except in fusion-fission hybrid concepts) quantitative estimates about the possible production potential of future commercial fusion reactor concepts show that significant amounts of weapon grade fissile materials could be produced even with very limited amounts of source materials. In this talk detailed burnup calculations with VESTA and MCMATH using an MCNP model of the PPCS-A will be presented. We compare different irradiation positions and the isotopic vectors of the plutonium bred in different blankets of the reactor wall with the liquid lead-lithium alloy replaced by uranium. The technical, regulatory and policy challenges to manage the proliferation risks of fusion power will be addressed as well. Some of these challenges would benefit if addressed at an early stage of the research and development process. Hence, research on fusion reactor safeguards should start as early as possible and accompany the current research on experimental fusion reactors.

  4. Impurity Control Test Facility (ICTF) for the study of fusion reactor plasma/edge materials interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.N.; Mattas, R.F.; Ehst, D.A.; Boley, C.D.; Hershkowitz, N.

    1984-05-01

    A test facility for investigating many of the impurity control issues associated with the interactions of materials with the plasma edge is outlined. Analysis indicates that the plasma edge conditions expected in TFCX, INTOR, etc. can be readily produced at the end cells of an rf stabilized mirror, similar in some respects to the Phaedrus device at the University of Wisconsin. A steady-state, Impurity Control Test Facility (ICTF) based on such a mirror device is expected to produce a plasma with typical parameters of n/sub e/ approx. 3 x 10 18 m -3 , T/sub e/ = 50 eV, and T/sub i/ = 100 eV at each end cell. A heat load of approx. 2 MW/m 2 over areas of approx. 1600 cm 2 could be produced at each end with 800 kW of ICRH power. These conditions would provide a unique capability for examining issues such as erosion/redeposition behavior, properties of redeposited materials, high recycling regimes, plasma edge operating limits for high-Z materials, and particle pumping efficiencies for limiter and divertor designs

  5. Recoil-alpha-fission and recoil-alpha-alpha-fission events observed in the reaction Ca-48 + Am-243

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forsberg, U.; Rudolph, D.; Andersson, L. -L.; Nitto, A. Di; Düllmann, Ch E.; Gates, J. M.; Golubev, P.; Gregorich, K. E.; Gross, C. J.; Herzberg, R. -D.; Hessberger, F. P.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kratz, J. V.; Rykaczewski, K.; Sarmiento, L. G.; Schädel, M.; Yakushev, A.; Åberg, S.; Ackermann, D.; Block, M.; Brand, H.; Carlsson, B. G.; Cox, D.; Derkx, X.; Dobaczewski, J.; Eberhardt, K.; Even, J.; Fahlander, C.; Gerl, J.; Jäger, E.; Kindler, B.; Krier, J.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Lommel, B.; Mistry, A.; Mokry, C.; Nazarewicz, W.; Nitsche, H.; Omtvedt, J. P.; Papadakis, P.; Ragnarsson, I.; Runke, J.; Schaffner, H.; Schausten, B.; Shi, Y.; Thörle-Pospiech, P.; Torres, T.; Traut, T.; Trautmann, N.; Türler, A.; Ward, A.; Ward, D. E.; Wiehl, N.

    2016-01-01

    Products of the fusion-evaporation reaction Ca-48 + Am-243 were studied with the TASISpec set-up at the gas-filled separator TASCA at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f\\"ur Schwerionenforschung. Amongst the detected thirty correlated alpha-decay chains associated with the production of element Z=115, two

  6. Design Specification for a Thrust-Vectoring, Actuated-Nose-Strake Flight Control Law for the High-Alpha Research Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Barton J.; Carzoo, Susan W.; Davidson, John B.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Lallman, Frederick J.; Messina, Michael D.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Ostroff, Aaron J.; Proffitt, Melissa S.; Yeager, Jessie C.; hide

    1996-01-01

    Specifications for a flight control law are delineated in sufficient detail to support coding the control law in flight software. This control law was designed for implementation and flight test on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), which is an F/A-18 aircraft modified to include an experimental multi-axis thrust-vectoring system and actuated nose strakes for enhanced rolling (ANSER). The control law, known as the HARV ANSER Control Law, was designed to utilize a blend of conventional aerodynamic control effectors, thrust vectoring, and actuated nose strakes to provide increased agility and good handling qualities throughout the HARV flight envelope, including angles of attack up to 70 degrees.

  7. Peaceful Uses of Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, E.

    1958-07-03

    Applications of thermonuclear energy for peaceful and constructive purposes are surveyed. Developments and problems in the release and control of fusion energy are reviewed. It is pointed out that the future of thermonuclear power reactors will depend upon the construction of a machine that produces more electric energy than it consumes. The fuel for thermonuclear reactors is cheap and practically inexhaustible. Thermonuclear reactors produce less dangerous radioactive materials than fission reactors and, when once brought under control, are not as likely to be subject to dangerous excursions. The interaction of the hot plasma with magnetic fields opens the way for the direct production of electricity. It is possible that explosive fusion energy released underground may be harnessed for the production of electricity before the same feat is accomplished in controlled fusion processes. Applications of underground detonations of fission devices in mining and for the enhancement of oil flow in large low-specific-yield formations are also suggested.

  8. Report on the diagnostics for control of the fusion DEMO reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    The range of diagnostics that can be used in DEMO will be severely restricted compared to that used in the current experiments or to be used in ITER. Therefore, a study is planned on the technical feasibility of sensors and diagnostics on the basis of specific tokamak and helical DEMO designs, with the involvement of a wide range of specialists covering reactor design, diagnostics, neutronics, reactor structure, remote maintenance, plasma physics, plasma and machine control, and computer simulation. Topics included typical characteristic times of target plasma behavior, diagnostics tools with their resolution and lifetime, response time of actuators, and plasmas. Through these studies, possible candidates for DEMO diagnostics were identified. The outcome of two years of activities is summarized in this report with a recommendation to the government of Japan. (J.P.N.)

  9. F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) parameter identification flight test maneuvers for optimal input design validation and lateral control effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1995-01-01

    Flight test maneuvers are specified for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The maneuvers were designed for open loop parameter identification purposes, specifically for optimal input design validation at 5 degrees angle of attack, identification of individual strake effectiveness at 40 and 50 degrees angle of attack, and study of lateral dynamics and lateral control effectiveness at 40 and 50 degrees angle of attack. Each maneuver is to be realized by applying square wave inputs to specific control effectors using the On-Board Excitation System (OBES). Maneuver descriptions and complete specifications of the time/amplitude points define each input are included, along with plots of the input time histories.

  10. Applying alpha-channeling to mirror machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhmoginov, A. I.; Fisch, N. J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The {alpha}-channeling effect entails the use of radio-frequency waves to expel and cool high-energetic {alpha} particles born in a fusion reactor; the device reactivity can then be increased even further by redirecting the extracted energy to fuel ions. Originally proposed for tokamaks, this technique has also been shown to benefit open-ended fusion devices. Here, the fundamental theory and practical aspects of {alpha} channeling in mirror machines are reviewed, including the influence of magnetic field inhomogeneity and the effect of a finite wave region on the {alpha}-channeling mechanism. For practical implementation of the {alpha}-channeling effect in mirror geometry, suitable contained weakly damped modes are identified. In addition, the parameter space of candidate waves for implementing the {alpha}-channeling effect can be significantly extended through the introduction of a suitable minority ion species that has the catalytic effect of moderating the transfer of power from the {alpha}-channeling wave to the fuel ions.

  11. Energy from inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This book contains 22 articles on inertial fusion energy (IFE) research and development written in the framework of an international collaboration of authors under the guidance of an advisory group on inertial fusion energy set up in 1991 to advise the IAEA. It describes the actual scientific, engineering and technological developments in the field of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It also identifies ways in which international co-operation in ICF could be stimulated. The book is intended for a large audience and provides an introduction to inertial fusion energy and an overview of the various technologies needed for IFE power plants to be developed. It contains chapters on (i) the fundamentals of IFE; (ii) inertial confinement target physics; (iii) IFE power plant design principles (requirements for power plant drivers, solid state laser drivers, gas laser drivers, heavy ion drivers, and light ion drivers, target fabrication and positioning, reaction chamber systems, power generation and conditioning and radiation control, materials management and target materials recovery), (iv) special design issues (radiation damage in structural materials, induced radioactivity, laser driver- reaction chamber interfaces, ion beam driver-reaction chamber interfaces), (v) inertial fusion energy development strategy, (vi) safety and environmental impact, (vii) economics and other figures of merit; (viii) other uses of inertial fusion (both those involving and not involving implosions); and (ix) international activities. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Fusion Simulation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwald, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Many others in the fusion energy and advanced scientific computing communities participated in the development of this plan. The core planning team is grateful for their important contributions. This summary is meant as a quick overview the Fusion Simulation Program's (FSP's) purpose and intentions. There are several additional documents referenced within this one and all are supplemental or flow down from this Program Plan. The overall science goal of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) research and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. (1). Initial FSP research will focus on two critical Integrated Science Application (ISA) areas: ISA1, the plasma edge; and ISA2, whole device modeling (WDM) including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical

  13. Detective studies of soft X-ray tomography on controlled thermonuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Linzhong; Su Fei

    2004-01-01

    In is necessary to design tomographic detective system with very high accuracy and high quality. It is such a detective system that its five resolutions are all very high quality. The five resolutions are: the radial resolution, the angular resolution, the spatial resolution of detector, the resolution of detector array, and the time resolution. The radial resolution is decided by the number of detectors in detector array. The angular resolutions depend on the number of detector arrays. According to the concrete condition of controlled device, through making special rectangular detector the optimum spatial resolution of detector and the optimum spatial resolution of detector array can be obtained. The high time resolution can be got by making wide-band ampli-filter circuit system. The tomographic system with high quality can use the multi-angle multi-array mode or perfect single array mode. The soft X-ray tomographic system with high sensitivity can measure the stable signal and perform the tomography under the conditions of Te ∼150 eV, ne ∼1013 cm-3 on the small Tokamak devices. (authors)

  14. Low-noise cable for diagnostics, control and instrumentation of the ASDEX tokamak fusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gernhardt, J.

    1988-11-01

    ASDEX (Axially Symmetric Divertor EXperiment) is a large tokamak (R=1.65 m; a=0.4 m) with an air transformer. The relatively large stray field, Bz=10 mT=(100 G); for ρ=5 m, Bz=40 mT=(400 G); for ρ=3 m, BΦ=0.3 T=(3 kG); for ρ=3m, compared with that of an iron transformer, and the cable length 1≤30 m from the experiment to the control room, make mainly the magnetically induced and capacitively coupled noise signal in the cable relatively high. As a result of neutral injection (> 4 MW; 40 kV) and lower hybrid ion cyclotron and Alfven wave heating strong E-fields are produced and noise is coupled into the cables. These magnetic and electric field gradients during the plasma shot vary with time and location. This report tries to show how these noise signals can be reduced without reducing the broadcast frequency of the signal. The Electro Magnetic Compatibility and Interference (EMC, EMI) are discussed. The cost of diagnostic cable, connectors and cable ducts without mounting is approximately DM 700,000.--. (orig.)

  15. Transformer Recharging with Alpha Channeling in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Transformer recharging with lower hybrid waves in tokamaks can give low average auxiliary power if the resistivity is kept high enough during the radio frequency (rf) recharging stage. At the same time, operation in the hot ion mode via alpha channeling increases the effective fusion reactivity. This paper will address the extent to which these two large cost saving steps are compatible.

  16. Research program. Controlled thermonuclear fusion. Synthesis report 2015; Programme de recherche. Fusion thermonucléaire contrôlée -- Rapport de synthèse 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villard, L. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Center for Research In Plasma Physics, CRPP, Lausanne (Switzerland); Marot, L. [University of Basel, Department of Physics, Basel (Switzerland); Soom, P. [Secrétariat d' Etat à la formation., à la recherche et à l' innovation, SEFRI, Berne (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    In 1961, 3 years after the 2{sup nd} International Conference on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy, the Research Centre on Plasma Physics (CRPP) was created as a department of the Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne (Switzerland). From 1979, CRPP collaborates to the European Program on fusion research in the framework of EURATOM. In 2015 its name was changed to Swiss Plasma Centre (SPC). The advantages of fusion are remarkable: the fuel is available in great quantity all over the world; the reactor is intrinsically safe; the reactor material, activated during operation, loses practically all its activity within about 100 years. But the working up of the controlled fusion necessitates extreme technological conditions. In 1979, the Joint European Torus (JET) began its operation; today it is still the most powerful tokamak in the world, in which an energy yield Q of 0.65 could be obtained. In 2015, the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7X), the largest in the world, was set into operation. The progress realized in the framework of EURATOM has led to the planning of the experimental reactor ITER which is being built at Cadarache (France). ITER is designed to reach a Q-value largely above 1. The future prototype reactor DEMO is foreseen in 2040-2050. It should demonstrate the ability of a fusion reactor to inject permanently electricity into the grid. In 2015, SPC participated in the works on ITER in the framework of the Fusion for Energy (F4E) agency. At EPFL the research concerns the physics of the magnetic confinement with experiments on the tokamak TCV (variable configuration tokamak), the numerical simulations, the plasma heating and the generation of current by hyper frequency radio waves. At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), research is devoted to the superconductivity; at the Basel University the studies get on interactions between the plasma and the tokamak walls. The large flexibility of TCV allows creating and controlling plasmas of different shapes

  17. Synthetic report 2012. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion; Rapport de synthèse 2012. Programme de recherche Fusion thermonucléaire contrôlée

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaucher, C. [Secrétariat à l’éducation et à la recherche (SER), Berne (Switzerland); Tran, M. Q.; Villard, L. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Marot, L. [University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    Since 1961, Switzerland participates in the research on thermonuclear fusion thanks to the creation of the Research Centre in Plasma Physics. In 1979 it entered into partnership with the European programme on fusion through its adhesion to EURATOM. The thermonuclear fusion is an interesting energy source because the basic fuel is practically inexhaustible and its use does not release any significant CO{sub 2} quantity and very little radioactive residues. But its working up faces enormous physical and technological difficulties. The International Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER), presently in construction, has to demonstrate the technological feasibility of the controlled fusion. Il will be followed by DEMO, foreseen for 2040-2050, which must guarantee the economical rentability. At CRPP the research projects are partitioned onto several sites: at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne, they concern the physics of the magnetic confinement with the Variable Geometry Tokamak (TCV), the development of theoretical models and the numerical simulation, the plasma heating and the generation of hyper frequency waves; the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) studies the superconductivity and the materials; the interactions between the plasma and the Tokamak walls are studied at the Basel University for the structures of ITER. Thanks to its large flexibility, TCV allows the creation and the control of plasmas of very different forms. The injection system of millimetric waves allows orienting the injected power according to specific profiles. By using the asymmetry of the flow in the toroidal sense, the plasma rotation could be measured with a much better accuracy than before. In TCV, by playing on the form of the plasma, it was possible to strongly reduce the energy quantity which is expelled by the Edge Localized Modes (ELM) onto the wall of the vacuum chamber. The ‘snowflake’ configuration created in TCV allows distributing the ELM energy onto several impact

  18. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik

    1995-02-01

    So called 'cold fusion phenomena' are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording 4 He, 3 He, 3 H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of 4 He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author)

  19. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  20. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, D.E.T.F.

    1976-01-01

    A short survey is given on laser fusion its basic concepts and problems and the present theoretical and experimental methods. The future research program of the USA in this field is outlined. (WBU) [de

  1. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The efforts of the Chemical Technology Division in fusion energy include the areas of fuel handling, processing, and containment. Current studies are concerned largely with the development of vacuum pumps for fusion reactors and experiments and with development and evaluation of techniques for recovering tritium from solid or liquid breeding blankets. In addition, a small effort is devoted to support of the ORNL design of a major Tokamak experiment, The Next Step (TNS)

  2. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.; Oxford Univ.

    1990-04-01

    The use of lasers to drive implosions for the purpose of inertially confined fusion is an area of intense activity where progress compares favourably with that made in magnetic fusion and there are significant prospects for future development. In this brief review the basic concept is summarised and the current status is outlined both in the area of laser technology and in the most recent results from implosion experiments. Prospects for the future are also considered. (author)

  3. An electrolytic route to fusion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    A patent has been granted by the Swedish Patent Authority for a new process to initiate and control energy generation through fusion reactions of hydrogen. According to the patent-holder, the Swedish company AB Technology Development, the fusion power process could be available for commercial applications within 4-5 years if laboratory and pilot plant tests prove successful. The new process employs a high voltage discharge in heavy water to create conditions under which, according to the patent holder, a high probability of fusion is achieved without the extraordinary high temperatures required in a conventional fusion reactor. (author)

  4. Nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-zaelic, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear fusion can be relied on to solve the global energy crisis if the process of limiting the heat produced by the fusion reaction (Plasma) is successful. Currently scientists are progressively working on this aspect whereas there are two methods to limit the heat produced by fusion reaction, the two methods are auto-restriction using laser beam and magnetic restriction through the use of magnetic fields and research is carried out to improve these two methods. It is expected that at the end of this century the nuclear fusion energy will play a vital role in overcoming the global energy crisis and for these reasons, acquiring energy through the use of nuclear fusion reactors is one of the most urge nt demands of all mankind at this time. The conclusion given is that the source of fuel for energy production is readily available and inexpensive ( hydrogen atoms) and whole process is free of risks and hazards, especially to general health and the environment . Nuclear fusion importance lies in the fact that energy produced by the process is estimated to be about four to five times the energy produced by nuclear fission. (author)

  5. Diagnostics developments and applications for laser fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.

    1977-01-01

    Some diagnostics techniques applied to current laser fusion target experiments are reviewed. Specifically, holographic interferometry of target plasmas, coded aperture imaging of thermonuclear alpha-particles and neutron energy spectrum measurements are discussed

  6. Solenoidal fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linlor, W.I.

    1980-01-01

    This invention discloses apparatus and methods to produce nuclear fusion utilizing fusible material in the form of high energy ion beams confined in magnetic fields. For example, beams of deuterons and tritons are injected in the same direction relative to the axis of a vacuum chamber. The ion beams are confined by the magnetic fields of long solenoids. The products of the fusion reactions, such as neutrons and alpha particles, escape to the wall surrounding the vacuum chamber, producing heat. The momentum of the deuterons is approximately equal to the momentum of the tritons, so that both types of ions follow the same path in the confining magnetic field. The velocity of the deuteron is sufficiently greater than the velocity of the triton so that overtaking collisions occur at a relative velocity which produces a high fusion reaction cross section. Electrons for space charge neutralization are obtained by ionization of residual gas in the vacuum chamber, and additionally from solid material (Irradiated with ultra-violet light or other energetic radiation) adjacent to the confinement region. For start-up operation, injected high-energy molecular ions can be dissociated by intense laser beam, producing trapping via change of charge state. When sufficiently intense deuteron and triton beams have been produced, the laser beam can be removed, and subsequent change of charge state can be achieved by collisions

  7. The DD Cold Fusion-Transmutation Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Talbot A.

    2005-12-01

    LENR theory must explain dd fusion, alpha-addition transmutations, radiationless nuclear reactions, and three-body nuclear particle reactions. Reaction without radiation requires many-body D Bloch+ periodicity in both location and internal structure dependencies. Electron scattering leads to mixed quantum states. The radiationless dd fusion reaction is 2-D Bloch+ -> {}4 He Bloch2+. Overlap between {}4 He Bloch2+ and surface Cs leads to alpha absorption. In the Iwamura et al. studies active deuterium is created by scattering at diffusion barriers.

  8. Synthesis of mixed-valent {alpha}- and {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} polymorphs under controlled partial oxygen pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Shaun R.; Blakely, Colin K. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Poltavets, Viktor V., E-mail: poltavets@chemistry.msu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Synthesis of mixed valent compounds, especially when multiple polymorphs exist, requires careful control of the preparation conditions. {alpha}- and {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} polymorphs were synthesized under controlled partial oxygen pressure (pO{sub 2}). pO{sub 2} regions of stability at 850 Degree-Sign C were determined for both phases for the first time. A modified oxygen buffer method was developed for the facile preparation of mixed valent oxides under controlled pO{sub 2}. {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is the only known n=2 member of the AM{sub n}O{sub n+1} (A=alkali metal, M=3d metal) rock-salt related homolog series with layered cation ordering. The possibility of new members of the homolog series with other 3d metals is considered. - Graphical abstract: Schematic section of phase composition vs. partial O{sub 2} pressure diagram at 850 Degree-Sign C for Na/Fe=1/2 and structure models of {alpha}- and {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {alpha}- and {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} polymorphs were synthesized under controlled oxygen pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} has rock-salt related structure with layered cation ordering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Existence of the rock-salt related homolog series AM{sub n}O{sub n+1} is discussed.

  9. Waves for Alpha-Channeling in Mirror Machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhmoginov, A.I.; Fisch, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Alpha-channeling can, in principle, be implemented in mirror machines via exciting weaklydamped modes in the ion cyclotron frequency range with perpendicular wavelengths smaller than the alpha particle gyroradius. Assuming quasi-longitudinal or quasi-transverse wave propagation, we search systematically for suitable modes in mirror plasmas. Considering two device designs, a proof-of-principle facility and a fusion rector prototype, we in fact identify candidate modes suitable for alpha-channeling.

  10. Hillslope characterization: Identifying key controls on local-scale plant communities' distribution using remote sensing and subsurface data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, N.; Wainwright, H. M.; Dafflon, B.; Leger, E.; Peterson, J.; Steltzer, H.; Wilmer, C.; Williams, K. H.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Mountainous watershed systems are characterized by extreme heterogeneity in hydrological and pedological properties that influence biotic activities, plant communities and their dynamics. To gain predictive understanding of how ecosystem and watershed system evolve under climate change, it is critical to capture such heterogeneity and to quantify the effect of key environmental variables such as topography, and soil properties. In this study, we exploit advanced geophysical and remote sensing techniques - coupled with machine learning - to better characterize and quantify the interactions between plant communities' distribution and subsurface properties. First, we have developed a remote sensing data fusion framework based on the random forest (RF) classification algorithm to estimate the spatial distribution of plant communities. The framework allows the integration of both plant spectral and structural information, which are derived from multispectral satellite images and airborne LiDAR data. We then use the RF method to evaluate the estimated plant community map, exploiting the subsurface properties (such as bedrock depth, soil moisture and other properties) and geomorphological parameters (such as slope, curvature) as predictors. Datasets include high-resolution geophysical data (electrical resistivity tomography) and LiDAR digital elevation maps. We demonstrate our approach on a mountain hillslope and meadow within the East River watershed in Colorado, which is considered to be a representative headwater catchment in the Upper Colorado Basin. The obtained results show the existence of co-evolution between above and below-ground processes; in particular, dominant shrub communities in wet and flat areas. We show that successful integration of remote sensing data with geophysical measurements allows identifying and quantifying the key environmental controls on plant communities' distribution, and provides insights into their potential changes in the future

  11. Research program. Controlled thermonuclear fusion. Synthesis report 2013; Programme de recherche. Fusion thermonucléaire contrôlée -- Rapport de synthèse 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villard, L. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Center for Research In Plasma Physics, CRPP, Lausanne (Switzerland); Marot, L. [University of Basel, Department of Physics, Basel (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    In 1961, 3 years after the 2{sup nd} International Conference on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy, the Research Centre on Plasma Physics (CRPP) was created as a department of the Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne (Switzerland). From 1979, CRPP collaborates to the European Program on fusion research in the framework of EURATOM. The advantages of fusion are remarkable: the fuel is available in great quantity all over the world; the reactor is intrinsically safe; the reactor material, activated during operation, loses practically all its activity within about 100 years. But the working up of the controlled fusion necessitates extreme technological conditions. The progress realized in the framework of EURATOM has led to the design of the experimental reactor ITER which is being built at Cadarache (France). The future prototype reactor DEMO is foreseen in 2040-2050. In 2013, CRPP participated in the works on ITER in the framework of the Fusion for Energy (F4E) agency. At EPFL the research concerns the physics of the magnetic confinement with experiments on the tokamak TCV (variable configuration tokamak), the numerical simulations, the plasma heating and the generation of current by hyper frequency radio waves. At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), research is devoted to the superconductivity. At the Basel University the studies get on interactions between the plasma and the tokamak walls. A new improved confinement regime, called IN-mode, was discovered on TCV. The theory and numerical simulation group interprets the experimental results and foresees those of futures machines. It requires very high performance computers. The Gyrotron group develops radiofrequency sources in the mm range for heating the TCV plasma as well as for ITER and the Wendelstein-7 stellarator. Concerning superconductivity, tests are conducted at PSI on toroidal cables of ITER. The development of conductors and coils for the DEMO reactor has been pursued. In the context of

  12. Research program. Controlled thermonuclear fusion. Synthesis report 2014; Programme de recherche. Fusion thermonucléaire contrôlée -- Rapport de synthèse 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villard, L. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Center for Research In Plasma Physics, CRPP, Lausanne (Switzerland); Marot, L. [University of Basel, Department of Physics, Basel (Switzerland); Fiocco, D. [Secrétariat d' Etat à la formation., à la recherche et à l' innovation, SEFRI, Berne (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    In 1961, 3 years after the 2{sup nd} International Conference on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy, the Research Centre on Plasma Physics (CRPP) was created as a department of the Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne (Switzerland). From 1979, CRPP collaborates to the European Program on fusion research in the framework of EURATOM. The advantages of fusion are remarkable: the fuel is available in great quantity all over the world; the reactor is intrinsically safe; the reactor material, activated during operation, loses practically all its activity within about 100 years. But the working up of the controlled fusion necessitates extreme technological conditions. In 1979, the Joint European Torus (JET) began its operation; today it is still the most powerful tokamak in the world; its energy yield Q reached 0.65. The progress realized in the framework of EURATOM has led to the planning of the experimental reactor ITER which is being built at Cadarache (France). ITER is designed to reach a Q-value largely above 1. The future prototype reactor DEMO is foreseen in 2040-2050. It should demonstrate the ability of a fusion reactor to inject electricity into the grid for long term. In 2014, CRPP participated in the works on ITER in the framework of the Fusion for Energy (F4E) agency. At EPFL the research concerns the physics of the magnetic confinement with experiments on the tokamak TCV (variable configuration tokamak), the numerical simulations, the plasma heating and the generation of current by hyper frequency radio waves. At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), research is devoted to the superconductivity. At the Basel University the studies get on interactions between the plasma and the tokamak walls. The large flexibility of TCV allows creating and controlling plasmas of different shapes which are necessary to optimise the core geometry of future reactors. Moreover, the plasma heating by mm radio waves allows guiding the injected power according to specific

  13. Alpha particle losses during sawtooth activity in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Lisak, M.

    1988-01-01

    The time evolution of the direct losses of fusion produced alpha particles in Tokamak plasmas characterized by sawtooth activity is investigated. The alpha particle loss rate during a sawtooth period is predicted to change invertedly with the change in bulk plasma parameters but also to contain a characteristic burst at the sawtooth crash. The spectrum of the lost alpha particles is also discussed. The predictions for the time evolution and the spectrum of the losses are in qualitative agreement with recently obtained losses of 15 MeV fusion produced protons in JET. (authors)

  14. Papers presented at the Fourteenth International conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research. Organization International de la Energia Atomica Wuerzberg, Alemania 30 September - 7 October 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains the contributions of the CIEMAT's Fusion Unit to the 14th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research that was held by the International Atomic Energy Agency in Wuerzberg, Germany from 30 September to 7 October 1992. Three papers were presented that summarized the, main lines of work done in the Unit during the previous two years: The first one on the theoretical advances in the understanding of the Fexible Heliac TJ-II under construction, the second on the confinement studies performed in the operating TJ-I Tokamak and the third one on the description of the physical properties of the soon to be started TJ-IU Torsatron. (Author) 25 refs

  15. Hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP may alter depressive behavior of pregnant and lactating rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Cheryl A; Walf, Alicia A

    2004-07-01

    The 5alpha-reduced metabolite of progesterone (P), 5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP), may mediate progestins' effects to reduce depressive behavior of female rats in part through actions in the hippocampus. To investigate, forced swim test behavior and plasma and hippocampal progestin levels were assessed in groups of rats expected to differ in their 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels due to endogenous differences (pregnant and postpartum), administration of a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor (finasteride; 50 mg/kg sc), and/or gestational stress [prenatal stress (PNS)], an animal model of depression. Pregnant rats had higher plasma and hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and less depressive behavior (decreased immobility, increased struggling and swimming) in the forced swim test than did postpartum rats. Finasteride, compared to vehicle-administration, reduced plasma and hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and increased depressive behavior (increased immobility, decreased struggling and swimming). PNS was associated with lower hippocampal, but not plasma, 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and increased swimming compared to that observed in control rats. Together, these data suggest that 3alpha,5alpha-THP in the hippocampus may mediate antidepressive behavior of female rats.

  16. CONTROLLED NUCLEAR FUSION REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, J.L.; Kruskal, M.; Colgate, S.A.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1962-01-01

    A plasma generating and heating device is described which comprises a ceramic torus with exterior layers of a thick metal membrane and a metallic coil. In operation, the coil generates a B/sub z/ field prior to the formation of an enclosing plasma sheath. Diffusion of the trapped magnetic field outward through the plasma sheath causes enhanced heating, particularly after the sheath has been pinched. (D.L.C.)

  17. Training detector as simulator of alpha detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirosh, D.; Duvniz, E.; Assido, H.; Barak, D.; Paran, J.

    1997-01-01

    Alpha contamination is a common phenomena in radiation research laboratories and other sites. Training staff to properly detect and control alpha contamination, present special problems. In order to train health physics personnel, while using alpha sources, both the trainers and the trainees are inevitably exposed to alpha contamination. This fact of course, comes in conflict with safety principles. In order to overcome these difficulties, a training detector was developed, built and successfully tested. (authors)

  18. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, J.

    1989-01-01

    In this contribution the author the phenomenom of so-called cold fusion, inspired by the memorable lecture of Moshe Gai on his own search for this effect. Thus much of what follows was presented by Dr. Gai; the rest is from independent reading. What is referred to as cold fusion is of course the observation of possible products of deuteron-deuteron (d-d) fusion within deuterium-loaded (dentended) electrodes. The debate over the two vanguard cold fusion experiments has raged under far more public attention than usually accorded new scientific phenomena. The clamor commenced with the press conference of M. Fleishmann and S. Pons on March 23, 1989 and the nearly simultaneous wide circulation of a preprint of S. Jones and collaborators. The majority of work attempting to confirm these observations has at the time of this writing yet to appear in published form, but contributions to conferences and electronic mail over computer networks were certainly filled with preliminary results. To keep what follows to a reasonable length the author limit this discussion to the searches for neutron (suggested by ref. 2) or for excessive heat production (suggested by ref. 1), following a synopsis of the hypotheses of cold fusion

  19. Loss of C/EBP alpha cell cycle control increases myeloid progenitor proliferation and transforms the neutrophil granulocyte lineage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porse, Bo T; Bryder, David; Theilgaard-Mönch, Kim

    2005-01-01

    dissociate the ability of C/EBP alpha to block cell cycle progression through E2F inhibition from its function as a transcriptional activator impair the in vivo development of the neutrophil granulocyte and adipose lineages. We now show that such mutations increase the capacity of bone marrow (BM) myeloid...... progenitors to proliferate, and predispose mice to a granulocytic myeloproliferative disorder and transformation of the myeloid compartment of the BM. Both of these phenotypes were transplantable into lethally irradiated recipients. BM transformation was characterized by a block in granulocyte differentiation...

  20. Fusion environment sensitive flow and fracture processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    As a planning activity, the objectives of the workshop were to list, prioritize and milestone the activities necessary to understand, interpret and control the mechanical behavior of candidate fusion reactor alloys. Emphasis was placed on flow and fracture processes which are unique to the fusion environment since the national fusion materials program must evaluate these effects without assistance from other reactor programs

  1. Thermonuclear fusion power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, B

    1977-01-01

    The present state and future possibilities of controlled-nuclear-fusion research are reviewed, including basic concepts and problems, as well as various approaches based on magnetic- and nonmagnetic-confinement schemes. Considerable progress has so far been made in both plasma physics and fusion-reactor technology, and a closer relationship has been established between theory and experiments. Still, none of the present approaches will, for certain, lead to the final solution of a full-scale reactor. Intensified work along broad lines, with emphasis also on basic research and new ideas, is necessary for future success.

  2. Fusion events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fusion reactions between low energy heavy ions have a very high cross section. First measurements at energies around 30-40 MeV/nucleon indicated no residue of either complete or incomplete fusion, thus demonstrating the disappearance of this process. This is explained as being due to the high amount o energies transferred to the nucleus, what leads to its total dislocation in light fragments and particles. Exclusive analyses have permitted to mark clearly the presence of fusion processes in heavy systems at energies above 30-40 MeV/nucleon. Among the complete events of the Kr + Au reaction at 60 MeV/nucleon the majority correspond to binary collisions. Nevertheless, for the most considerable energy losses, a class of events do occur for which the detected fragments appears to be emitted from a unique source. These events correspond to an incomplete projectile-target fusion followed by a multifragmentation. Such events were singled out also in the reaction Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/nucleon. For the events in which the energy dissipation was maximal it was possible to isolate an isotropic group of events showing all the characteristics of fusion nuclei. The fusion is said to be incomplete as pre-equilibrium Z = 1 and Z = 2 particles are emitted. The cross section is of the order of 25 mb. Similar conclusions were drown for the systems 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. A cross section value of ∼ 20 mb was determined at 55 MeV/nucleon in the first case, while the measurement of evaporation light residues in the last system gave an upper limit of 20-30 mb for the cross section at 50 MeV/nucleon

  3. A proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): a review of clinical studies on weight loss and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Marilyn L; Udani, Jay K

    2011-03-17

    Obesity, and resultant health hazards which include diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, are worldwide medical problems. Control of diet and exercise are cornerstones of the management of excess weight. Foods with a low glycemic index may reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as their complications. As an alternative to a low glycemic index diet, there is a growing body of research into products that slow the absorption of carbohydrates through the inhibition of enzymes responsible for their digestion. These products include alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitors. The common white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) produces an alpha-amylase inhibitor, which has been characterized and tested in numerous clinical studies. A specific and proprietary product named Phase 2® Carb Controller (Pharmachem Laboratories, Kearny, NJ) has demonstrated the ability to cause weight loss with doses of 500 to 3000 mg per day, in either a single dose or in divided doses. Clinical studies also show that Phase 2 has the ability to reduce the post-prandial spike in blood glucose levels. Experiments conducted incorporating Phase 2 into food and beverage products have found that it can be integrated into various products without losing activity or altering the appearance, texture or taste of the food. There have been no serious side effects reported following consumption of Phase 2. Gastro-intestinal side effects are rare and diminish upon extended use of the product. In summary, Phase 2 has the potential to induce weight loss and reduce spikes in blood sugar caused by carbohydrates through its alpha-amylase inhibiting activity.

  4. A proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris: A review of clinical studies on weight loss and glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Marilyn L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity, and resultant health hazards which include diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, are worldwide medical problems. Control of diet and exercise are cornerstones of the management of excess weight. Foods with a low glycemic index may reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as their complications. As an alternative to a low glycemic index diet, there is a growing body of research into products that slow the absorption of carbohydrates through the inhibition of enzymes responsible for their digestion. These products include alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitors. The common white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris produces an alpha-amylase inhibitor, which has been characterized and tested in numerous clinical studies. A specific and proprietary product named Phase 2® Carb Controller (Pharmachem Laboratories, Kearny, NJ has demonstrated the ability to cause weight loss with doses of 500 to 3000 mg per day, in either a single dose or in divided doses. Clinical studies also show that Phase 2 has the ability to reduce the post-prandial spike in blood glucose levels. Experiments conducted incorporating Phase 2 into food and beverage products have found that it can be integrated into various products without losing activity or altering the appearance, texture or taste of the food. There have been no serious side effects reported following consumption of Phase 2. Gastro-intestinal side effects are rare and diminish upon extended use of the product. In summary, Phase 2 has the potential to induce weight loss and reduce spikes in blood sugar caused by carbohydrates through its alpha-amylase inhibiting activity.

  5. Measurements of DT alpha particle loss near the outer midplane of TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Herrmann, H.W.; Redi, M.H.; Schivell, J.; White, R.B.

    1995-07-01

    Measurements of DT alpha particle loss to the outer midplane region of TFTR have been made using a radially movable scintillator detector. The conclusion from this data is that mechanisms determining the DT alpha loss to the outer midplane are not substantially different from those for DD fusion products. Some of these results are compared with a simplified theoretical model for TF ripple-induced alpha loss, which is expected to be the dominant classical alpha loss mechanism near the outer midplane. An example of plasma-driven MHD-induced alpha particle loss is shown, but no signs of any ''collective'' alpha instability-induced alpha loss have yet been observed

  6. Fluorescent Protein Approaches in Alpha Herpesvirus Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian B. Hogue

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the nearly two decades since the popularization of green fluorescent protein (GFP, fluorescent protein-based methodologies have revolutionized molecular and cell biology, allowing us to literally see biological processes as never before. Naturally, this revolution has extended to virology in general, and to the study of alpha herpesviruses in particular. In this review, we provide a compendium of reported fluorescent protein fusions to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 and pseudorabies virus (PRV structural proteins, discuss the underappreciated challenges of fluorescent protein-based approaches in the context of a replicating virus, and describe general strategies and best practices for creating new fluorescent fusions. We compare fluorescent protein methods to alternative approaches, and review two instructive examples of the caveats associated with fluorescent protein fusions, including describing several improved fluorescent capsid fusions in PRV. Finally, we present our future perspectives on the types of powerful experiments these tools now offer.

  7. Fusion, magnetic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or 3 He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied

  8. Challenges of nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1987-01-01

    After 30 years of research and development in many countries, the magnetic confinement fusion experiments finally seem to be getting close to the original first goal: the point of ''scientific break-even''. Plans are being made for a generation of experiments and tests with actual controlled thermonuclear fusion conditions. Therefore engineers and material scientists are hard at work to develop the required technology. In this paper the principal elements of a generic fusion reactor are described briefly to introduce the reader to the nature of the problems at hand. The main portion of the presentation summarises the recent advances made in this field and discusses the major issues that still need to be addressed in regard to materials and technology for fusion power. Specific examples are the problems of the first wall and other components that come into direct contact with the plasma, where both lifetime and plasma contamination are matters of concern. Equally challenging are the demands on structural materials and on the magnetic-field coils, particularly in connection with the neutron-radiation environment of fusion reactors. Finally, the role of ceramics must be considered, both for insulators and for fuel breeding purposes. It is evident that we still have a formidable task before us, but at this point none of the problems seem to be insoluble. (author)

  9. Material for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhishek, Anuj; Ranjan, Prem

    2011-01-01

    To make nuclear fusion power a reality, the scientists are working restlessly to find the materials which can confine the power generated by the fusion of two atomic nuclei. A little success in this field has been achieved, though there are still miles to go. Fusion reaction is a special kind of reaction which must occur at very high density and temperature to develop extremely large amount of energy, which is very hard to control and confine within using the present techniques. As a whole it requires the physical condition that rarely exists on the earth to carry out in an efficient manner. As per the growing demand and present scenario of the world energy, scientists are working round the clock to make effective fusion reactions to real. In this paper the work presently going on is considered in this regard. The progress of the Joint European Torus 2010, ITER 2005, HiPER and minor works have been studied to make the paper more object oriented. A detailed study of the technological and material requirement has been discussed in the paper and a possible suggestion is provided to make a contribution in the field of building first ever nuclear fusion reactor

  10. Ceramics for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a number of applications in fusion devices, among the most critical of which are magnetic coil insulators, windows for RF heating systems, and structural uses. Radiation effects dominate consideration of candidate materials, although good pre-irradiation properties are a requisite. Materials and components can be optimized by careful control of chemical and microstructural content, and application of brittle material design and testing techniques. Future directions for research and development should include further extension of the data base in the areas of electrical, structural, and thermal properties; establishment of a fission neutron/fusion neutron correlation including transmutation gas effects; and development of new materials tailored to meet the specific needs of fusion reactors

  11. Neutral particle kinetics in fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tendler, M.; Heifetz, D.

    1986-05-01

    The theory of neutral particle kinetics treats the transport of mass, momentum, and energy in a plasma due to neutral particles which themselves are unaffected by magnetic fields. This transport affects the global power and particle balances in fusion devices, as well as profile control and plasma confinement quality, particle and energy fluxes onto device components, performance of pumping systems, and the design of diagnostics and the interpretation of their measurements. This paper reviews the development of analytic, numerical, and Monte Carlo methods of solving the time-independent Boltzmann equation describing neutral kinetics. These models for neutral particle behavior typically use adaptations of techniques developed originally for computing neutron transport, due to the analogy between the two phenomena, where charge-exchange corresponds to scattering and ionization to absorption. Progress in the field depends on developing multidimensional analytic methods, and obtaining experimental data for the physical processes of wall reflection, the neutral/plasma interaction, and for processes in fusion devices which are directly related to neutral transport, such as H/sub ..cap alpha../ emission rates, plenum pressures, and charge-exchange emission spectra.

  12. Magneized target fusion: An overview of the concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) seeks to take advantage of the reduction of thermal conductivity through the application of a strong magneticfield and thereby ease the requirements for reaching fusion conditions in a thermonuclear (TN) fusion fuel. A potentially important benefit of the strong field in the partial trapping of energetic charged particles to enhance energy deposition by the TN fusion reaction products. The essential physics is described. MTF appears to lead to fusion targets that require orders of magnitude less power and intensity for fusion ignition than currently proposed (unmagnetized) inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets do, making some very energetic pulsed power drivers attractive for realizing controlled fusion

  13. Effects of alpha populations on tokamak ballooning stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spong, D.A.; Sigmar, D.J.; Tsang, K.T.; Ramos, J.J.; Hastings, D.E.; Cooper, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Fusion product alpha populations can significantly influence tokamak stability due to coupling between the trapped alpha precessional drift and the kinetic ballooning mode frequency. This effect is of particular importance in parameter regimes where the alpha pressure gradient begins to constitute a sizable fraction of the thermal plasma pressure gradient. Careful, quantitative evaluations of these effects are necessary in burning plasma devices such as the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and the Joint European Torus, and we have continued systematic development of such a kinetic stability model. In this model we have considered a range of different forms for the alpha distribution function and the tokamak equilibrium. Both Maxwellian and slowing-down models have been used for the alpha energy dependence while deeply trapped and, more recently, isotropic pitch angle dependence have been examined

  14. Nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of the present state of knowledge in nuclear fusion research. In the first part, potential thermonuclear reactions, basic energy balances of the plasma (Lawson criterion), and the main criteria to be observed in the selection of appropriate thermonuclear reactions are dealt with. This is followed by a discussion of the problems encountered in plasma physics (plasma confinement and heating, transport processes, plasma impurities, plasma instabilities and plasma diagnostics) and by a consideration of the materials problems involved, such as material of the first wall, fuel inlet and outlet, magnetic field generation, as well as repair work and in-service inspections. Two main methods have been developed to tackle these problems: reactor concepts using the magnetic pinch (stellarator, Tokamak, High-Beta reactors, mirror machines) on the one hand, and the other concept using the inertial confinement (laser fusion reactor). These two approaches and their specific problems as well as past, present and future fusion experiments are treated in detail. The last part of the work is devoted to safety and environmental aspects of the potential thermonuclear aspects of the potential thermonuclear reactor, discussing such problems as fusion-specific hazards, normal operation and potential hazards, reactor incidents, environmental pollution by thermal effluents, radiological pollution, radioactive wastes and their disposal, and siting problems. (orig./GG) [de

  15. Short fusion

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    French and UK researchers are perfecting a particle accelerator technique that could aid the quest for fusion energy or make X-rays that are safer and produce higher-resolution images. Led by Dr Victor Malka from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees in Paris, the team has developed a better way of accelerating electrons over short distances (1 page).

  16. Magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project

  17. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Suk Yong; You, Jae Jun

    1996-01-01

    Nearly every technical information is chased in the world. All of them are reviewed and analyzed. Some of them are chosen to study further more to review every related documents. And a probable suggestion about the excitonic process in deuteron absorbed condensed matter is proposed a way to cold fusion. 8 refs. (Author)

  18. Use of controlled thermonuclear reactor fusion power for the production of synthetic methanol fuel from air and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.; Vi Duong Dang.

    1975-04-01

    Methanol synthesis from carbon dioxide, water and nuclear fusion energy is extensively investigated. The entire system is analyzed from the point of view of process design and economic evaluation of various processes. The main potential advantage of a fusion reactor (CTR) for this purpose is that it provides a large source of low cost environmentally acceptable electric power based on an abundant fuel source. Carbon dioxide is obtained by extraction from the atomsphere or from sea water. Hydrogen is obtained by electrolysis of water. Methanol is synthesized by the catalytic reaction of carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The water electrolysis and methanol synthesis units are considered to be technically and commercially available. The benefit of using air or sea water as a source of carbon dioxide is to provide an essentially unlimited renewable and environmentally acceptabe source of hydrocarbon fuel. Extraction of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere also allows a high degree of freedom in plant siting. (U.S.)

  19. Controlled thermonuclear fusion: Tore Supra back bone of the EURATOM-CEA programme for the next ten years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The decision to grant priority operation status to the French Tokamak Tore Supra will make it possible to start on the construction of this large machine and to bring together at the Cadarache Nuclear Study Centre all the facilities of the CEA for their research on fusion by magnetic confinement. The work is scheduled to begin in 1982 and to last until 1985. The financing is indicated and Tore Supra is briefly described [fr

  20. Controlled chondrogenesis from adipose-derived stem cells by recombinant transforming growth factor-β3 fusion protein in peptide scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dong; Dan, Yang; Yang, Shu-hua; Liu, Guo-hui; Shao, Zeng-wu; Yang, Cao; Xiao, Bao-jun; Liu, Xiangmei; Wu, Shuilin; Zhang, Tainjin; Chu, Paul K

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are promising for cartilage repair due to their easy accessibility and chondrogenic potential. Although chondrogenesis of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) mediated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is well established in vitro, clinical tissue engineering requires effective and controlled delivery of TGF-β in vivo. In this work, a self-assembled peptide scaffold was employed to construct cartilages in vivo through the chondrogenesis from ADSCs controlled by recombinant fusion protein LAP-MMP-mTGF-β3 that was transfected by lentiviral vectors. During this course, the addition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) can trigger the release of mTGF-β3 from the recombinant fusion protein of LAP-MMP-mTGF-β3 in the combined scaffolds, thus stimulating the differentiation of ADSCs into chondrogenesis. The specific expression of cartilage genes was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The expression of chondrocytic markers was obviously upregulated to a higher level compared to the one by commonly used TGF-β3 alone. After 3 weeks of in vitro culturing, the hybrids with differentiated chondrogenesis were then injected subcutaneously into nude mice and retrieved after 4 weeks of culturing in vivo. Histological analysis also confirmed that the recombinant fusion protein was more effective for the formation of cartilage matrix than the cases either with TGF-β3 alone or without LAP-MMP-mTGF-β3 (P<0.05). This study demonstrates that controlled local delivery of the LAP-MMP-mTGF-β3 constructs can accelerate differentiation of ADSCs into the cartilage in vivo, which indicates the great potential of this hybrid in rapid therapy of osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.