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Sample records for controlling fitness pleiotropy

  1. Pleiotropy in the wild: the dormancy gene DOG1 exerts cascading control on life cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, George C K; Barua, Deepak; Dittmar, Emily; Kramer, Elena M; de Casas, Rafael Rubio; Donohue, Kathleen

    2013-03-01

    In the wild, organismal life cycles occur within seasonal cycles, so shifts in the timing of developmental transitions can alter the seasonal environment experienced subsequently. Effects of genes that control the timing of prior developmental events can therefore be magnified in the wild because they determine seasonal conditions experienced by subsequent life stages, which can influence subsequent phenotypic expression. We examined such environmentally induced pleiotropy of developmental-timing genes in a field experiment with Arabidopsis thaliana. When studied in the field under natural seasonal variation, an A. thaliana seed-dormancy gene, Delay Of Germination 1 (DOG1), was found to influence not only germination, but also flowering time, overall life history, and fitness. Flowering time of the previous generation, in turn, imposed maternal effects that altered germination, the effects of DOG1 alleles, and the direction of natural selection on these alleles. Thus under natural conditions, germination genes act as flowering genes and potentially vice versa. These results illustrate how seasonal environmental variation can alter pleiotropic effects of developmental-timing genes, such that effects of genes that regulate prior life stages ramify to influence subsequent life stages. In this case, one gene acting at the seed stage impacted the entire life cycle.

  2. Antagonistic pleiotropy and fitness trade-offs reveal specialist and generalist traits in strains of canine distemper virus.

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    Nikolin, Veljko M; Osterrieder, Klaus; von Messling, Veronika; Hofer, Heribert; Anderson, Danielle; Dubovi, Edward; Brunner, Edgar; East, Marion L

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, homogeneous environments favor the evolution of specialists whereas heterogeneous environments favor generalists. Canine distemper is a multi-host carnivore disease caused by canine distemper virus (CDV). The described cell receptor of CDV is SLAM (CD150). Attachment of CDV hemagglutinin protein (CDV-H) to this receptor facilitates fusion and virus entry in cooperation with the fusion protein (CDV-F). We investigated whether CDV strains co-evolved in the large, homogeneous domestic dog population exhibited specialist traits, and strains adapted to the heterogeneous environment of smaller populations of different carnivores exhibited generalist traits. Comparison of amino acid sequences of the SLAM binding region revealed higher similarity between sequences from Canidae species than to sequences from other carnivore families. Using an in vitro assay, we quantified syncytia formation mediated by CDV-H proteins from dog and non-dog CDV strains in cells expressing dog, lion or cat SLAM. CDV-H proteins from dog strains produced significantly higher values with cells expressing dog SLAM than with cells expressing lion or cat SLAM. CDV-H proteins from strains of non-dog species produced similar values in all three cell types, but lower values in cells expressing dog SLAM than the values obtained for CDV-H proteins from dog strains. By experimentally changing one amino acid (Y549H) in the CDV-H protein of one dog strain we decreased expression of specialist traits and increased expression of generalist traits, thereby confirming its functional importance. A virus titer assay demonstrated that dog strains produced higher titers in cells expressing dog SLAM than cells expressing SLAM of non-dog hosts, which suggested possible fitness benefits of specialization post-cell entry. We provide in vitro evidence for the expression of specialist and generalist traits by CDV strains, and fitness trade-offs across carnivore host environments caused by antagonistic

  3. Antagonistic pleiotropy and fitness trade-offs reveal specialist and generalist traits in strains of canine distemper virus.

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    Veljko M Nikolin

    Full Text Available Theoretically, homogeneous environments favor the evolution of specialists whereas heterogeneous environments favor generalists. Canine distemper is a multi-host carnivore disease caused by canine distemper virus (CDV. The described cell receptor of CDV is SLAM (CD150. Attachment of CDV hemagglutinin protein (CDV-H to this receptor facilitates fusion and virus entry in cooperation with the fusion protein (CDV-F. We investigated whether CDV strains co-evolved in the large, homogeneous domestic dog population exhibited specialist traits, and strains adapted to the heterogeneous environment of smaller populations of different carnivores exhibited generalist traits. Comparison of amino acid sequences of the SLAM binding region revealed higher similarity between sequences from Canidae species than to sequences from other carnivore families. Using an in vitro assay, we quantified syncytia formation mediated by CDV-H proteins from dog and non-dog CDV strains in cells expressing dog, lion or cat SLAM. CDV-H proteins from dog strains produced significantly higher values with cells expressing dog SLAM than with cells expressing lion or cat SLAM. CDV-H proteins from strains of non-dog species produced similar values in all three cell types, but lower values in cells expressing dog SLAM than the values obtained for CDV-H proteins from dog strains. By experimentally changing one amino acid (Y549H in the CDV-H protein of one dog strain we decreased expression of specialist traits and increased expression of generalist traits, thereby confirming its functional importance. A virus titer assay demonstrated that dog strains produced higher titers in cells expressing dog SLAM than cells expressing SLAM of non-dog hosts, which suggested possible fitness benefits of specialization post-cell entry. We provide in vitro evidence for the expression of specialist and generalist traits by CDV strains, and fitness trade-offs across carnivore host environments caused by

  4. The role of population size, pleiotropy and fitness effects of mutations in the evolution of overlapping gene functions.

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    Wagner, A

    2000-03-01

    Sheltered from deleterious mutations, genes with overlapping or partially redundant functions may be important sources of novel gene functions. While most partially redundant genes originated in gene duplications, it is much less clear why genes with overlapping functions have been retained, in some cases for hundreds of millions of years. A case in point is the many partially redundant genes in vertebrates, the result of ancient gene duplications in primitive chordates. Their persistence and ubiquity become surprising when it is considered that duplicate and original genes often diversify very rapidly, especially if the action of natural selection is involved. Are overlapping gene functions perhaps maintained because of their protective role against otherwise deleterious mutations? There are two principal objections against this hypothesis, which are the main subject of this article. First, because overlapping gene functions are maintained in populations by a slow process of "second order" selection, population sizes need to be very high for this process to be effective. It is shown that even in small populations, pleiotropic mutations that affect more than one of a gene's functions simultaneously can slow the mutational decay of functional overlap after a gene duplication by orders of magnitude. Furthermore, brief and transient increases in population size may be sufficient to maintain functional overlap. The second objection regards the fact that most naturally occurring mutations may have much weaker fitness effects than the rather drastic "knock-out" mutations that lead to detection of partially redundant functions. Given weak fitness effects of most mutations, is selection for the buffering effect of functional overlap strong enough to compensate for the diversifying force exerted by mutations? It is shown that the extent of functional overlap maintained in a population is not only independent of the mutation rate, but also independent of the average fitness

  5. The Apolipoprotein E Antagonistic Pleiotropy Hypothesis: Review and Recommendations

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    Elizabeth R. Tuminello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on apolipoprotein E (APOE has consistently revealed a relationship between the gene's ε4 allele and risk for development of Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, research with younger populations of ε4 carriers has suggested that the APOE ε4 allele may in fact be beneficial in earlier ages and may only confer risk of cognitive decline later in life. Accordingly, we and others have proposed that APOE may represent an example of antagonistic pleiotropy. Antagonistic pleiotropy is an evolutionary biology concept that proposes certain genes or alleles that may differentially impact fitness during different life stages. We critically review this hypothesis in light of new research of the impact of APOE on cognition and neural integrity across the lifespan. We provide recommendations for the revision of the antagonistic pleiotropy hypothesis of APOE and suggest important avenues for future research in this area.

  6. Why organisms age: Evolution of senescence under positive pleiotropy?

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    Maklakov, Alexei A; Rowe, Locke; Friberg, Urban

    2015-07-01

    Two classic theories maintain that aging evolves either because of alleles whose deleterious effects are confined to late life or because of alleles with broad pleiotropic effects that increase early-life fitness at the expense of late-life fitness. However, empirical studies often reveal positive pleiotropy for fitness across age classes, and recent evidence suggests that selection on early-life fitness can decelerate aging and increase lifespan, thereby casting doubt on the current consensus. Here, we briefly review these data and promote the simple argument that aging can evolve under positive pleiotropy between early- and late-life fitness when the deleterious effect of mutations increases with age. We argue that this hypothesis makes testable predictions and is supported by existing evidence. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The influence of pleiotropy between viability and pollen fates on mating system evolution.

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    Jordan, Crispin Y

    2015-02-01

    Floral displays are functionally and genetically integrated structures, so modifications to display will likely affect multiple fitness components (pleiotropy), including pollen export and self-pollination, and therefore selfing rate. Consequently, the great diversities of floral displays and of mating systems found among angiosperms have likely co-evolved. I extend previous models of mating system evolution to determine how pleiotropy that links viability (e.g., probability of survival to reproduction) and the allocation of pollen for export and selfing affects the evolution of selfing, outcrossing, and in particular, mixed mating. I show that the outcome depends on how pollen shifts from being exported, unused, or used for selfing. Furthermore, pleiotropy that affects viability can explain observations not addressed by previous theory, including the evolution of mixed mating despite high inbreeding depression in the absence of pollen-limitation. Therefore, pleiotropy may play a key role in explaining selfing rates for such species that exhibit otherwise enigmatic mating systems.

  8. Systematic analysis of pleiotropy in C. elegans early embryogenesis.

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    Lihua Zou

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Pleiotropy refers to the phenomenon in which a single gene controls several distinct, and seemingly unrelated, phenotypic effects. We use C. elegans early embryogenesis as a model to conduct systematic studies of pleiotropy. We analyze high-throughput RNA interference (RNAi data from C. elegans and identify "phenotypic signatures", which are sets of cellular defects indicative of certain biological functions. By matching phenotypic profiles to our identified signatures, we assign genes with complex phenotypic profiles to multiple functional classes. Overall, we observe that pleiotropy occurs extensively among genes involved in early embryogenesis, and a small proportion of these genes are highly pleiotropic. We hypothesize that genes involved in early embryogenesis are organized into partially overlapping functional modules, and that pleiotropic genes represent "connectors" between these modules. In support of this hypothesis, we find that highly pleiotropic genes tend to reside in central positions in protein-protein interaction networks, suggesting that pleiotropic genes act as connecting points between different protein complexes or pathways.

  9. Contrast Gain Control Model Fits Masking Data

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    Watson, Andrew B.; Solomon, Joshua A.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We studied the fit of a contrast gain control model to data of Foley (JOSA 1994), consisting of thresholds for a Gabor patch masked by gratings of various orientations, or by compounds of two orientations. Our general model includes models of Foley and Teo & Heeger (IEEE 1994). Our specific model used a bank of Gabor filters with octave bandwidths at 8 orientations. Excitatory and inhibitory nonlinearities were power functions with exponents of 2.4 and 2. Inhibitory pooling was broad in orientation, but narrow in spatial frequency and space. Minkowski pooling used an exponent of 4. All of the data for observer KMF were well fit by the model. We have developed a contrast gain control model that fits masking data. Unlike Foley's, our model accepts images as inputs. Unlike Teo & Heeger's, our model did not require multiple channels for different dynamic ranges.

  10. Condition-dependence, pleiotropy and the handicap principle of sexual selection in melanin-based colouration.

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    Roulin, Alexandre

    2016-05-01

    The signalling function of melanin-based colouration is debated. Sexual selection theory states that ornaments should be costly to produce, maintain, wear or display to signal quality honestly to potential mates or competitors. An increasing number of studies supports the hypothesis that the degree of melanism covaries with aspects of body condition (e.g. body mass or immunity), which has contributed to change the initial perception that melanin-based colour ornaments entail no costs. Indeed, the expression of many (but not all) melanin-based colour traits is weakly sensitive to the environment but strongly heritable suggesting that these colour traits are relatively cheap to produce and maintain, thus raising the question of how such colour traits could signal quality honestly. Here I review the production, maintenance and wearing/displaying costs that can generate a correlation between melanin-based colouration and body condition, and consider other evolutionary mechanisms that can also lead to covariation between colour and body condition. Because genes controlling melanic traits can affect numerous phenotypic traits, pleiotropy could also explain a linkage between body condition and colouration. Pleiotropy may result in differently coloured individuals signalling different aspects of quality that are maintained by frequency-dependent selection or local adaptation. Colouration may therefore not signal absolute quality to potential mates or competitors (e.g. dark males may not achieve a higher fitness than pale males); otherwise genetic variation would be rapidly depleted by directional selection. As a consequence, selection on heritable melanin-based colouration may not always be directional, but mate choice may be conditional to environmental conditions (i.e. context-dependent sexual selection). Despite the interest of evolutionary biologists in the adaptive value of melanin-based colouration, its actual role in sexual selection is still poorly understood.

  11. Functional pleiotropy and mating system evolution in plants: frequency-independent mating.

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    Jordan, Crispin Y; Otto, Sarah P

    2012-04-01

    Mutations that alter the morphology of floral displays (e.g., flower size) or plant development can change multiple functions simultaneously, such as pollen export and selfing rate. Given the effect of these various traits on fitness, pleiotropy may alter the evolution of both mating systems and floral displays, two characters with high diversity among angiosperms. The influence of viability selection on mating system evolution has not been studied theoretically. We model plant mating system evolution when a single locus simultaneously affects the selfing rate, pollen export, and viability. We assume frequency-independent mating, so our model characterizes prior selfing. Pleiotropy between increased viability and selfing rate reduces opportunities for the evolution of pure outcrossing, can favor complete selfing despite high inbreeding depression, and notably, can cause the evolution of mixed mating despite very high inbreeding depression. These results highlight the importance of pleiotropy for mating system evolution and suggest that selection by nonpollinating agents may help explain mixed mating, particularly in species with very high inbreeding depression. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Automated Model Fit Method for Diesel Engine Control Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seykens, X.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kuijpers, B.; Rietjens, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automated fit for a control-oriented physics-based diesel engine combustion model. This method is based on the combination of a dedicated measurement procedure and structured approach to fit the required combustion model parameters. Only a data set is required that is consider

  13. Automated Model Fit Method for Diesel Engine Control Development

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    Seykens, X.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kuijpers, B.; Rietjens, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automated fit for a control-oriented physics-based diesel engine combustion model. This method is based on the combination of a dedicated measurement procedure and structured approach to fit the required combustion model parameters. Only a data set is required that is

  14. Improving health-related fitness in adolescents: the CrossFit Teens™ randomised controlled trial.

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    Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip James; Lubans, David Revalds

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and feasibility of the CrossFit Teens™ resistance training programme for improving health-related fitness and resistance training skill competency in adolescents. This assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted in one secondary school in the Hunter Region, Australia, from July to September 2013. Ninety-six (96) students (age = 15.4 (.5) years, 51.5% female) were randomised into intervention (n = 51) or control (n = 45) conditions for 8-weeks (60 min twice per week). Waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), BMI-Z score (primary outcomes), cardiorespiratory fitness (shuttle run test), muscular fitness (standing jump, push-up, handgrip, curl-up test), flexibility (sit and reach) and resistance training skill competency were measured at baseline and immediate post-intervention. Feasibility measures of recruitment, retention, adherence and satisfaction were assessed. Significant group-by-time intervention effects were found for waist circumference [-3.1 cm, P CrossFit Teens™ is a feasible and efficacious programme for improving health-related fitness in adolescents.

  15. Genome-wide Pleiotropy Between Parkinson Disease and Autoimmune Diseases.

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    Witoelar, Aree; Jansen, Iris E; Wang, Yunpeng; Desikan, Rahul S; Gibbs, J Raphael; Blauwendraat, Cornelis; Thompson, Wesley K; Hernandez, Dena G; Djurovic, Srdjan; Schork, Andrew J; Bettella, Francesco; Ellinghaus, David; Franke, Andre; Lie, Benedicte A; McEvoy, Linda K; Karlsen, Tom H; Lesage, Suzanne; Morris, Huw R; Brice, Alexis; Wood, Nicholas W; Heutink, Peter; Hardy, John; Singleton, Andrew B; Dale, Anders M; Gasser, Thomas; Andreassen, Ole A; Sharma, Manu

    2017-07-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and pathway analyses supported long-standing observations of an association between immune-mediated diseases and Parkinson disease (PD). The post-GWAS era provides an opportunity for cross-phenotype analyses between different complex phenotypes. To test the hypothesis that there are common genetic risk variants conveying risk of both PD and autoimmune diseases (ie, pleiotropy) and to identify new shared genetic variants and their pathways by applying a novel statistical framework in a genome-wide approach. Using the conjunction false discovery rate method, this study analyzed GWAS data from a selection of archetypal autoimmune diseases among 138 511 individuals of European ancestry and systemically investigated pleiotropy between PD and type 1 diabetes, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, psoriasis, and multiple sclerosis. NeuroX data (6927 PD cases and 6108 controls) were used for replication. The study investigated the biological correlation between the top loci through protein-protein interaction and changes in the gene expression and methylation levels. The dates of the analysis were June 10, 2015, to March 4, 2017. The primary outcome was a list of novel loci and their pathways involved in PD and autoimmune diseases. Genome-wide conjunctional analysis identified 17 novel loci at false discovery rate less than 0.05 with overlap between PD and autoimmune diseases, including known PD loci adjacent to GAK, HLA-DRB5, LRRK2, and MAPT for rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease. Replication confirmed the involvement of HLA, LRRK2, MAPT, TRIM10, and SETD1A in PD. Among the novel genes discovered, WNT3, KANSL1, CRHR1, BOLA2, and GUCY1A3 are within a protein-protein interaction network with known PD genes. A subset of novel loci was significantly associated with changes in methylation or expression levels of adjacent genes. The study findings provide novel mechanistic

  16. Improving health-related fitness in children: the fit-4-Fun randomized controlled trial study protocol

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    Eather Narelle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Declining levels of physical fitness in children are linked to an increased risk of developing poor physical and mental health. Physical activity programs for children that involve regular high intensity physical activity, along with muscle and bone strengthening activities, have been identified by the World Health Organisation as a key strategy to reduce the escalating burden of ill health caused by non-communicable diseases. This paper reports the rationale and methods for a school-based intervention designed to improve physical fitness and physical activity levels of Grades 5 and 6 primary school children. Methods/Design Fit-4-Fun is an 8-week multi-component school-based health-related fitness education intervention and will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. Primary schools from the Hunter Region in NSW, Australia, will be invited to participate in the program in 2011 with a target sample size of 128 primary schools children (age 10-13. The Fit-4-Fun program is theoretically grounded and will be implemented applying the Health Promoting Schools framework. Students will participate in weekly curriculum-based health and physical education lessons, daily break-time physical activities during recess and lunch, and will complete an 8-week (3 × per week home activity program with their parents and/or family members. A battery of six health-related fitness assessments, four days of pedometery-assessed physical activity and a questionnaire, will be administered at baseline, immediate post-intervention (2-months and at 6-months (from baseline to determine intervention effects. Details of the methodological aspects of recruitment, inclusion criteria, randomization, intervention program, assessments, process evaluation and statistical analyses are described. Discussion The Fit-4-Fun program is an innovative school-based intervention targeting fitness improvements in primary school children. The program will

  17. Improved detection of common variants associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using pleiotropy-informed conditional false discovery rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Ole A; Thompson, Wesley K; Schork, Andrew J;

    2013-01-01

    are currently lacking. Here, we use a genetic pleiotropy-informed conditional false discovery rate (FDR) method on GWAS summary statistics data to identify new loci associated with schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorders (BD), two highly heritable disorders with significant missing heritability....... Epidemiological and clinical evidence suggest similar disease characteristics and overlapping genes between SCZ and BD. Here, we computed conditional Q-Q curves of data from the Psychiatric Genome Consortium (SCZ; n = 9,379 cases and n = 7,736 controls; BD: n = 6,990 cases and n = 4,820 controls) to show...... associated with both SCZ and BD (conjunction FDR). Together, these findings show the feasibility of genetic pleiotropy-informed methods to improve gene discovery in SCZ and BD and indicate overlapping genetic mechanisms between these two disorders....

  18. Evidence that a mitochondrial death spiral underlies antagonistic pleiotropy.

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    Stern, Michael

    2017-06-01

    The antagonistic pleiotropy (AP) theory posits that aging occurs because alleles that are detrimental in older organisms are beneficial to growth early in life and thus are maintained in populations. Although genes of the insulin signaling pathway likely participate in AP, the insulin-regulated cellular correlates of AP have not been identified. The mitochondrial quality control process called mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy), which is inhibited by insulin signaling, might represent a cellular correlate of AP. In this view, rapidly growing cells are limited by ATP production; these cells thus actively inhibit mitophagy to maximize mitochondrial ATP production and compete successfully for scarce nutrients. This process maximizes early growth and reproduction, but by permitting the persistence of damaged mitochondria with mitochondrial DNA mutations, becomes detrimental in the longer term. I suggest that as mitochondrial ATP output drops, cells respond by further inhibiting mitophagy, leading to a further decrease in ATP output in a classic death spiral. I suggest that this increasing ATP deficit is communicated by progressive increases in mitochondrial ROS generation, which signals inhibition of mitophagy via ROS-dependent activation of insulin signaling. This hypothesis clarifies a role for ROS in aging, explains why insulin signaling inhibits autophagy, and why cells become progressively more oxidized during aging with increased levels of insulin signaling and decreased levels of autophagy. I suggest that the mitochondrial death spiral is not an error in cell physiology but rather a rational approach to the problem of enabling successful growth and reproduction in a competitive world of scarce nutrients. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Synthetic control of a fitness tradeoff in yeast nitrogen metabolism

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    Lee Jack J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial communities are involved in many processes relevant to industrial and medical biotechnology, such as the formation of biofilms, lignocellulosic degradation, and hydrogen production. The manipulation of synthetic and natural microbial communities and their underlying ecological parameters, such as fitness, evolvability, and variation, is an increasingly important area of research for synthetic biology. Results Here, we explored how synthetic control of an endogenous circuit can be used to regulate a tradeoff between fitness in resource abundant and resource limited environments in a population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that noise in the expression of a key enzyme in ammonia assimilation, Gdh1p, mediated a tradeoff between growth in low nitrogen environments and stress resistance in high ammonia environments. We implemented synthetic control of an endogenous Gdh1p regulatory network to construct an engineered strain in which the fitness of the population was tunable in response to an exogenously-added small molecule across a range of ammonia environments. Conclusion The ability to tune fitness and biological tradeoffs will be important components of future efforts to engineer microbial communities.

  20. Synthetic control of a fitness tradeoff in yeast nitrogen metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Jack J; Beisel Chase L; Hoff Kevin G; Bayer Travis S; Smolke Christina D

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Microbial communities are involved in many processes relevant to industrial and medical biotechnology, such as the formation of biofilms, lignocellulosic degradation, and hydrogen production. The manipulation of synthetic and natural microbial communities and their underlying ecological parameters, such as fitness, evolvability, and variation, is an increasingly important area of research for synthetic biology. Results Here, we explored how synthetic control of an endogeno...

  1. Genepleio Software for Effective Estimation of Gene Pleiotropy from Protein Sequences

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    Wenhai Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Though pleiotropy, which refers to the phenomenon of a gene affecting multiple traits, has long played a central role in genetics, development, and evolution, estimation of the number of pleiotropy components remains a hard mission to accomplish. In this paper, we report a newly developed software package, Genepleio, to estimate the effective gene pleiotropy from phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences. Since this estimate can be interpreted as the minimum pleiotropy of a gene, it is used to play a role of reference for many empirical pleiotropy measures. This work would facilitate our understanding of how gene pleiotropy affects the pattern of genotype-phenotype map and the consequence of organismal evolution.

  2. Cell size control - a mechanism for maintaining fitness and function.

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    Miettinen, Teemu P; Caldez, Matias J; Kaldis, Philipp; Björklund, Mikael

    2017-09-01

    The maintenance of cell size homeostasis has been studied for years in different cellular systems. With the focus on 'what regulates cell size', the question 'why cell size needs to be maintained' has been largely overlooked. Recent evidence indicates that animal cells exhibit nonlinear cell size dependent growth rates and mitochondrial metabolism, which are maximal in intermediate sized cells within each cell population. Increases in intracellular distances and changes in the relative cell surface area impose biophysical limitations on cells, which can explain why growth and metabolic rates are maximal in a specific cell size range. Consistently, aberrant increases in cell size, for example through polyploidy, are typically disadvantageous to cellular metabolism, fitness and functionality. Accordingly, cellular hypertrophy can potentially predispose to or worsen metabolic diseases. We propose that cell size control may have emerged as a guardian of cellular fitness and metabolic activity. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Causes of comorbidity: pleiotropy or causality? Shared genetic and environmental influences on migraine and neuroticism.

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    Ligthart, Lannie; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2012-04-01

    Comorbidity - the clustered occurrence of two traits or disorders - may be studied in genetically informative designs such as the classical twin study, to test whether genetic and/or environmental factors underlying the two disorders are correlated. When a genetic correlation is found, this can be explained by several mechanisms, including pleiotropy (the same genes influencing multiple traits), and causality (one trait causing the other). With a cotwin control design, it can be investigated which scenario is most plausible. In this design, monozygotic twin pairs discordant for the first trait (i.e., one twin is affected, the other is not) are compared in terms of their risk for the second trait: under a causal model, only the twins affected for the first trait will be at increased risk for the second trait. Under genetic pleiotropy, this risk will be increased in both twins because they share the same risk genes. We first discuss the cotwin control design and then illustrate its application with data on migraine and neuroticism that were collected in 5,200 Dutch twins, including 1,648 complete twin pairs (981 monozygotic and 667 dizygotic pairs). There was a significant association between migraine and neuroticism, which could be attributed to genetic and environmental correlations (rG = .27 and rE = .19). In monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs discordant for neuroticism, the risk of migraine was significantly higher in the twins with a high neuroticism score. This pattern of results is consistent with a causal relationship, suggesting that neuroticism increases the risk of migraine.

  4. The Genomic Landscape and Evolutionary Resolution of Antagonistic Pleiotropy in Yeast

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    Wenfeng Qian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Antagonistic pleiotropy (AP, or genetic tradeoff, is an important concept that is frequently invoked in theories of aging, cancer, genetic disease, and other common phenomena. However, the prevalence of AP, which genes are subject to AP, and to what extent and how AP may be resolved remain unclear. By measuring the fitness difference between the wild-type and null alleles of ∼5,000 nonessential genes in yeast, we found that in any given environment, yeast expresses hundreds of genes that harm rather than benefit the organism, demonstrating widespread AP. Nonetheless, under sufficient selection, AP is often resolvable through regulatory evolution, primarily by trans-acting changes, although in one case we also detected a cis-acting change and localized its causal mutation. However, AP is resolved more slowly in smaller populations, predicting more unresolved AP in multicellular organisms than in yeast. These findings provide an empirical foundation for AP-dependent theories and have broad biomedical and evolutionary implications.

  5. Improved detection of common variants associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using pleiotropy-informed conditional false discovery rate.

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    Ole A Andreassen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence suggest that genome-wide association studies (GWAS have the potential to explain more of the "missing heritability" of common complex phenotypes. However, reliable methods to identify a larger proportion of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that impact disease risk are currently lacking. Here, we use a genetic pleiotropy-informed conditional false discovery rate (FDR method on GWAS summary statistics data to identify new loci associated with schizophrenia (SCZ and bipolar disorders (BD, two highly heritable disorders with significant missing heritability. Epidemiological and clinical evidence suggest similar disease characteristics and overlapping genes between SCZ and BD. Here, we computed conditional Q-Q curves of data from the Psychiatric Genome Consortium (SCZ; n = 9,379 cases and n = 7,736 controls; BD: n = 6,990 cases and n = 4,820 controls to show enrichment of SNPs associated with SCZ as a function of association with BD and vice versa with a corresponding reduction in FDR. Applying the conditional FDR method, we identified 58 loci associated with SCZ and 35 loci associated with BD below the conditional FDR level of 0.05. Of these, 14 loci were associated with both SCZ and BD (conjunction FDR. Together, these findings show the feasibility of genetic pleiotropy-informed methods to improve gene discovery in SCZ and BD and indicate overlapping genetic mechanisms between these two disorders.

  6. Fitting method for hybrid temperature control in smart home environment

    OpenAIRE

    CHENG, Zhuo; TAN, Yasuo; Lim, Azman Osman

    2014-01-01

    The design of control system is crucial for improving the comfort level of home environment. Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) can offer numerous opportunities to design high efficient control systems. In this paper, we focus on the design of temperature control systems. By using the idea of CPS, a hybrid temperature control (HTC) system is proposed. It combines supervisory and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers. Through an energy efficient temperature control (EETC) algorithm, HT...

  7. Fitness and ERP indices of cognitive control mode during task preparation in preadolescent children

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    Keita Kamijo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies conducted over the past decade have demonstrated that greater aerobic fitness is associated with superior cognitive control in preadolescent children. Several studies have suggested that the relationship between fitness and cognitive control may be attributed to differential reliance on proactive versus reactive cognitive control modes. However, this contention has remained speculative, and further studies are needed to better elucidate this relationship. We designed the present study to test the hypothesis that use of cognitive control modes would differ as a function of childhood fitness. We compared performance of lower-fit and higher-fit children on a modified AX-continuous performance task, commonly used to examine shifts in the use of proactive and reactive control, along with cue-P3 and contingent negative variation (CNV of event-related brain potentials (ERPs. Results indicated that higher-fit children exhibited greater response accuracy for BX (nontarget cue - target probe relative to AY (target cue - nontarget probe trials, whereas lower-fit children had comparable response accuracies for AY and BX trials. Because enhanced BX performance and impaired AY performance may be attributed to the proactive use of context information, these results suggest that greater childhood fitness is associated with more effective utilization of proactive control. Higher-fit children also exhibited larger cue-P3 amplitude and smaller CNV amplitude for BX relative to AY trials, with no such effect of trial type in lower-fit children. These ERP results suggest that greater fitness is associated with more effective utilization of cue information and response preparation more appropriate to trial type, supporting the behavioral findings. The present study provides novel insights into the relationship between fitness and cognition from the perspective of cognitive control mode during task preparation.

  8. Self-Control Is Associated with Physical Activity and Fitness among Young Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Marja Ilona; Suihko, Johanna; Hankonen, Nelli; Absetz, Pilvikki; Jallinoja, Piia

    2012-01-01

    The personality trait self-control has been associated with various adaptive outcomes. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to explore whether self-control is associated with self-reported leisure time physical activity (LTPA), Body Mass Index (BMI), muscle-fitness and aerobic fitness among young men. Participants (482 male conscripts;…

  9. Work, Family and Life-Course Fit: Does Control over Work Time Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin; Huang, Qinlei

    2008-01-01

    This study moves from "work-family" to a multi-dimensional "life-course fit" construct (employees' cognitive assessments of resources, resource deficits, and resource demands), using a combined work-family, demands-control and ecology of the life course framing. It examined (1) impacts of job and home ecological systems on fit dimensions, and (2)…

  10. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and the Flexible Modulation of Cognitive Control in Preadolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Johnson, Christopher R.; Chaddock, Laura; Voss, Michelle W.; Cohen, Neal J.; Kramer, Arthur F.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on the modulation of cognitive control was assessed in preadolescent children separated into higher- and lower-fit groups. Participants completed compatible and incompatible stimulus-response conditions of a modified flanker task, consisting of congruent and incongruent arrays, while ERPs and task…

  11. Canonical correlation analysis for gene-based pleiotropy discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A Seoane

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have identified a wealth of genetic variants involved in complex traits and multifactorial diseases. There is now considerable interest in testing variants for association with multiple phenotypes (pleiotropy and for testing multiple variants for association with a single phenotype (gene-based association tests. Such approaches can increase statistical power by combining evidence for association over multiple phenotypes or genetic variants respectively. Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA measures the correlation between two sets of multidimensional variables, and thus offers the potential to combine these two approaches. To apply CCA, we must restrict the number of attributes relative to the number of samples. Hence we consider modules of genetic variation that can comprise a gene, a pathway or another biologically relevant grouping, and/or a set of phenotypes. In order to do this, we use an attribute selection strategy based on a binary genetic algorithm. Applied to a UK-based prospective cohort study of 4286 women (the British Women's Heart and Health Study, we find improved statistical power in the detection of previously reported genetic associations, and identify a number of novel pleiotropic associations between genetic variants and phenotypes. New discoveries include gene-based association of NSF with triglyceride levels and several genes (ACSM3, ERI2, IL18RAP, IL23RAP and NRG1 with left ventricular hypertrophy phenotypes. In multiple-phenotype analyses we find association of NRG1 with left ventricular hypertrophy phenotypes, fibrinogen and urea and pleiotropic relationships of F7 and F10 with Factor VII, Factor IX and cholesterol levels.

  12. V. The differential association of adiposity and fitness with cognitive control in preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontifex, Matthew B; Kamijo, Keita; Scudder, Mark R; Raine, Lauren B; Khan, Naiman A; Hemrick, Bonnie; Evans, Ellen M; Castelli, Darla M; Frank, Kenneth A; Hillman, Charles H

    2014-12-01

    With the increasing prevalence of sedentary behaviors during childhood, a greater understanding of the extent to which excess adiposity and aerobic fitness relate to cognitive health is of increasing importance. To date, however, the vast majority of research in this area has focused on adiposity or fitness, rather than the possible inter-relationship, as it relates to cognition. Accordingly, this study examined the differential associations between body composition, aerobic fitness, and cognitive control in a sample of 204 (96 female) preadolescent children. Participants completed a modified flanker task (i.e., inhibition) and a switch task (i.e., cognitive flexibility) to assess two aspects of cognitive control. Findings from this study indicate that fitness and adiposity appear to be separable factors as they relate to cognitive control, given that the interaction of fitness and adiposity was observed to be nonsignificant for both the flanker and switch tasks. Fitness exhibited an independent association with both inhibition and cognitive flexibility whereas adiposity exhibited an independent association only with cognitive flexibility. These results suggest that while childhood obesity and fitness appear to both be related to cognitive control, they may be differentially associated with its component processes.

  13. Physical fitness assessment in multiple sclerosis patients: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, E; di Cagno, A; Mancini, P; Sperandii, F; Quaranta, F; Ciminelli, E; Fagnani, F; Giombini, A; Pigozzi, F

    2014-10-01

    There is growing evidence to show the effectiveness of physical exercise for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Aim of this study was to evaluate aerobic capacity, strength, balance, and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) after exercise, in ambulatory patients with mild MS and matched control healthy participants. Seventeen MS patients aged 48.09 ± 10.0 years, with mild MS disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale: EDSS 1.5 to 4.5) and 10 healthy sedentary age matched (41.9 ± 11.2 years) subjects volunteered for the study. MS patients underwent medical examination with resting electrocardiogram, arterial blood pressure, EDSS, and Modified Fatigue Impact Scale-MFIS. Both groups also underwent physical assessment with the Berg Balance Scale(,) test (Berg), Six Minutes Walking Test (6MWT), maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC) of forearm, lower limb, shoulder strength test, and the Borg 10-point scale test. The one-way ANOVA showed significant differences for MFIS (F1.19=9.420; p<0.01), Berg (F1.19=13.125; p<0.01), handgrip MIVC (F1.19=4.567; p<0.05), lower limbs MIVC (F1.19=7.429; p<0.01), and 6MWT (F1.19=28.061; p<0.01) between groups. EDSS, Berg test and Borg scores explained 80% of 6MWT variation. Mild grade EDSS patients exhibited impaired balance, muscle strength, and low self pace-6MWT scores, whereas RPE response after the exercise was similar to that of sedentary individuals. Both groups showed similar global physiological adjustments to exercise.

  14. Allele-specific suppression of the temperature sensitivity of fitA/fitB mutants of Escherichia coli by a new mutation (fitC4): isolation, characterization and its implications in transcription control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Vidya; B Praveen Kamalakar; M Hussain Munavar; L Sathish Kumar; R Jayaraman

    2006-03-01

    The temperature sensitive transcription defective mutant of Escherichia coli originally called fitA76 has been shown to harbour two missense mutations namely pheS5 and fit95. In order to obtain a suppressor of fitA76, possibly mapping in rpoD locus, a Ts+ derivative (JV4) was isolated from a fitA76 mutant. It was found that JV4 neither harbours the lesions present in the original fitA76 nor a suppressor that maps in or near rpoD. We show that JV4 harbours a modified form of fitA76 (designated fitA76*) together with its suppressor. The results presented here indicate that the fit95 lesion is intact in the fitA76* mutant and the modification should be at the position of pheS5. Based on the cotransduction of the suppressor mutation and/or its wild type allele with pps, aroD and zdj-3124::Tn10 kan we have mapped its location to 39⋅01 min on the E. coli chromosome. We tentatively designate the locus defined by this new extragenic suppressor as fitC and the suppressor allele as fitC4. While fitC4 could suppress the Ts phenotype of fitA76* present in JV4, it fails to suppress the Ts phenotype of the original fitA76 mutant (harbouring pheS5 and fit95). Also fitC4 could suppress the Ts phenotype of a strain harbouring only pheS5. Interestingly, the fitC4 Ts phenotype could also be suppressed by fit95. The pattern of decay of pulse labelled RNA in the strains harbouring fitC4 and the fitA76* resembles that of the original fitA76 mutant implying a transcription defect similar to that of fitA76 in both these mutants. The implications of these findings with special reference to transcription control by Fit factors in vivo are discussed.

  15. Implications of pleiotropy: Challenges and opportunities for mining Big Data in Biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can eYang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pleiotropy arises when a locus influences multiple traits. Rich GWAS findings of various traits in the past decade reveal many examples of this phenomenon, suggesting the wide existence of pleiotropic effects. What underlies this phenomenon is the biological connection among seemingly unrelated traits/diseases. Characterizing the molecular mechanisms of pleiotropy not only helps to explain the relationship between diseases, but may also contribute to novel insights concerning the pathological mechanism of each specific disease, leading to better disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment. However, most pleiotropic effects remain elusive because their functional roles have not been systematically examined. A systematic investigation requires availability of qualified measurements at multilayered biological processes (e.g., transcription and translation.The rise of Big Data in biomedicine, such as high-quality multi-omics data, biomedical imaging data and electronic medical records of patients, offers us an unprecedented opportunity to investigate pleiotropy. There will be a great need of computationally efficient and statistically rigorous methods for integrative analysis of these Big Data in biomedicine. In this review, we outline many opportunities and challenges in methodology developments for systematic analysis of pleiotropy, and highlight its implications on disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Fisher's model and the genomics of adaptation: restricted pleiotropy, heterogenous mutation, and parallel evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevin, Luis-Miguel; Martin, Guillaume; Lenormand, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    Genetic theories of adaptation generally overlook the genes in which beneficial substitutions occur, and the likely variation in their mutational effects. We investigate the consequences of heterogeneous mutational effects among loci on the genetics of adaptation. We use a generalization of Fisher's geometrical model, which assumes multivariate Gaussian stabilizing selection on multiple characters. In our model, mutation has a distinct variance-covariance matrix of phenotypic effects for each locus. Consequently, the distribution of selection coefficients s varies across loci. We assume each locus can only affect a limited number of independent linear combinations of phenotypic traits (restricted pleiotropy), which differ among loci, an effect we term "orientation heterogeneity." Restricted pleiotropy can sharply reduce the overall proportion of beneficial mutations. Orientation heterogeneity has little impact on the shape of the genomic distribution, but can substantially increase the probability of parallel evolution (the repeated fixation of beneficial mutations at the same gene in independent populations), which is highest with low pleiotropy. We also consider variation in the degree of pleiotropy and in the mean s across loci. The latter impacts the genomic distribution of s, but has a much milder effect on parallel evolution. We discuss these results in the light of evolution experiments. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Pleiotropy constrains the evolution of protein but not regulatory sequences in a transcription regulatory network influencing complex social behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria eMolodtsova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly apparent that genes and networks that influence complex behaviour are evolutionary conserved, which is paradoxical considering that behaviour is labile over evolutionary timescales. How does adaptive change in behaviour arise if behaviour is controlled by conserved, pleiotropic, and likely evolutionary constrained genes? Pleiotropy and connectedness are known to constrain the general rate of protein evolution, prompting some to suggest that the evolution of complex traits, including behaviour, is fuelled by regulatory sequence evolution. However, we seldom have data on the strength of selection on mutations in coding and regulatory sequences, and this hinders our ability to study how pleiotropy influences coding and regulatory sequence evolution. Here we use population genomics to estimate the strength of selection on coding and regulatory mutations for a transcriptional regulatory network that influences complex behaviour of honey bees. We found that replacement mutations in highly connected transcription factors and target genes experience significantly stronger negative selection relative to weakly connected transcription factors and targets. Adaptively evolving proteins were significantly more likely to reside at the periphery of the regulatory network, while proteins with signs of negative selection were near the core of the network. Interestingly, connectedness and network structure had minimal influence on the strength of selection on putative regulatory sequences for both transcription factors and their targets. Our study indicates that adaptive evolution of complex behaviour can arise because of positive selection on protein-coding mutations in peripheral genes, and on regulatory sequence mutations in both transcription factors and their targets throughout the network.

  18. Fitness, Balance Efficacy, and Postural Control in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Age-related declines in postural control and physical fitness are strong risk factors for falls in older adults. Balance efficacy has been utilized to identify poor postural control, reduced physical function, and fall risk. However, it is not clear as to whether balance efficacy is truly a better predictor of functional fitness outcomes or postural control. Distinguishing these associations is an important step in the future derivation of physiotherapeutic programming to remediate acute and chronic decline. Therefore, the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to partition which measures are more associated with balance efficacy, fitness, or postural control. One hundred eleven community-dwelling older adults participated and were asked to complete the Balance Efficacy Scale (BES, a functional fitness measure (the Senior Fitness Test [SFT], and a measure of postural control (the Sensory Organization Test [SOT].We found that the SFT was more significantly associated with balance efficacy (R2 = .37 than the SOT (R2 = .08 in older adults. Overall, aerobic endurance, functional mobility in the SFT, and the vestibular score on the SOT were significantly associated with balance efficacy. We concluded that clinicians utilizing the BES as a preliminary screen should recommend physiotherapy follow-up activities that build endurance (walking, lower extremity functional mobility (sit-to-stand, and vestibular function (head movement while walking. Understanding the links between a preliminary screening tool and the physiological needs of the patient will allow for targeted activities to be prescribed.

  19. Pleiotropy between genetic markers of obesity and risk of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Todd L; Giri, Ayush; Motley, Saundra; Duong, Wynne; Fowke, Jay H

    2013-09-01

    To address inconsistent findings of obesity and prostate cancer risk, we analyzed the association between prostate cancer and genetic markers of obesity and metabolism. Analyses included 176,520 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with 23 metabolic traits. We examined the association between SNPs and prostate cancer in 871 cases and 906 controls, including 427 high-grade cases with Gleason ≥ 7. Genetic risk scores (GRS) for body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were also created by summing alleles associated with increasing BMI or WHR. Prostate cancer was associated with five loci, including cyclin M2, with P values less than 1 × 10(-4). In addition, the WHR GRS was associated with high-grade prostate cancer versus controls [OR, 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-1.11; P = 0.048] and high-grade prostate cancer versus low-grade prostate cancer (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01-1.13; P = 0.03). None of these findings exceeds the threshold for significance after correction for multiple testing. Variants in genes known to be associated with metabolism and obesity may be associated with prostate cancer. We show evidence for pleiotropy between WHR GRS and prostate cancer grade. This finding is consistent with the function of several WHR genes and previously described relationships with cancer traits. Limitations in standard obesity measures suggest alternative characterizations of obesity may be needed to understand the role of metabolic dysregulation in prostate cancer. The underlying genetics of WHR or other Metabochip SNPs, while not statistically significant beyond multiple testing thresholds within our sample size, support the metabolic hypothesis of prostate carcinogenesis and warrant further investigation in independent samples. ©2013 AACR.

  20. Efficacy of FIT produce wash and chlorine dioxide on pathogen control in fresh potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, E J; Gray, P M; Oh, S W; Kronenberg, J; Kang, D H

    2008-08-01

    A commercial fresh pack potato operation was used as a model to evaluate FIT fruit and vegetable wash effectiveness in reducing levels of microorganisms on potatoes and in flume water. Fresh potatoes were washed in flume water with or without FIT, or treated with a spray bar utilizing either FIT, 9 ppm chlorine dioxide (CIO2), or a water control. Both flume treatments were also evaluated for APC and Gram-negatives. There were no significant differences in reduction of these microorganisms on treated or control potatoes. However, levels of Gram-negative bacteria in FIT-amended flume water were reduced by 5.95 log CFU/g, and the APC was reduced by 1.43 log CFU/g. To validate plant trial findings, this test was repeated using solutions of sterile potato flume water from the fresh pack operation, containing a typical level of dissolved and suspended solids. Treatment solutions prepared with flume water or deionized water containing FIT, 9 ppm CIO2, or a water control were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, or Pectobacterium carotovorumssp. carotovorum. FIT and ClO2 prepared with deionized water reduced levels of microorganisms by >6.1 to 6.6 log CFU/g to below the detection limit. FIT prepared with flume water reduced levels of all organisms by >6.0 to 6.4 log CFU/g to below the detection limit, whereas ClO2 prepared from flume water reduced bacterial levels of all organisms by only 0.7 to 1.4 log CFU/g. Neither FIT nor ClO2 was particularly efficacious against E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, APC, yeasts, or molds on potato surfaces.

  1. A comparison of physical fitness in patients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Sienaert, Pascal; Wyckaert, Sabine; De Hert, Marc; Soundy, Andrew; Probst, Michel

    2016-10-01

    To compare the physical fitness of inpatients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and healthy controls. Twenty-two inpatients with bipolar disorder, and 22 age-, gender- and body mass index-matched inpatients with schizophrenia and healthy controls were included. All participants performed the Eurofit test battery and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. One way analyses of variance with post hoc Scheffe were applied to examine differences. Both patient groups were significantly more physically inactive and had a significantly impaired speed of limb movement, explosive muscle strength and abdominal muscular endurance compared to the healthy controls. No significant differences between the patient groups were found. The results suggest that physical fitness and physical activity participation are similar among inpatients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia but markedly lower than healthy controls. Chronic inpatients with lower levels of physical activity may particularly benefit from rehabilitation interventions aimed at increasing physical fitness. Implications for Rehabilitation Physical fitness should receive similar attention in the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Sedentary patients with a longer duration of illness need additional support in changing lifestyle behaviours. Rehabilitation should not only consider cardio-respiratory fitness but also muscular endurance, muscular strength and balance.

  2. Pleiotropy analysis of quantitative traits at gene level by multivariate functional linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifan; Liu, Aiyi; Mills, James L; Boehnke, Michael; Wilson, Alexander F; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Xiong, Momiao; Wu, Colin O; Fan, Ruzong

    2015-05-01

    In genetics, pleiotropy describes the genetic effect of a single gene on multiple phenotypic traits. A common approach is to analyze the phenotypic traits separately using univariate analyses and combine the test results through multiple comparisons. This approach may lead to low power. Multivariate functional linear models are developed to connect genetic variant data to multiple quantitative traits adjusting for covariates for a unified analysis. Three types of approximate F-distribution tests based on Pillai-Bartlett trace, Hotelling-Lawley trace, and Wilks's Lambda are introduced to test for association between multiple quantitative traits and multiple genetic variants in one genetic region. The approximate F-distribution tests provide much more significant results than those of F-tests of univariate analysis and optimal sequence kernel association test (SKAT-O). Extensive simulations were performed to evaluate the false positive rates and power performance of the proposed models and tests. We show that the approximate F-distribution tests control the type I error rates very well. Overall, simultaneous analysis of multiple traits can increase power performance compared to an individual test of each trait. The proposed methods were applied to analyze (1) four lipid traits in eight European cohorts, and (2) three biochemical traits in the Trinity Students Study. The approximate F-distribution tests provide much more significant results than those of F-tests of univariate analysis and SKAT-O for the three biochemical traits. The approximate F-distribution tests of the proposed functional linear models are more sensitive than those of the traditional multivariate linear models that in turn are more sensitive than SKAT-O in the univariate case. The analysis of the four lipid traits and the three biochemical traits detects more association than SKAT-O in the univariate case.

  3. [Fitness and quality of life in kidney transplant recipients: case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Sánchez, Sonsoles; Carrero, Juan J; García López, David; Herrero Alonso, Juan Azael; Menéndez Alegre, Héctor; Ruiz, Jonatan R

    2016-04-15

    We analyzed the levels of fitness, muscle structure and quality of life of adults after kidney transplant and healthy adults. A total of 16 kidney transplant patients and 21 healthy controls performed several fitness test, isokinetic evaluation of knee flexion and extension and ultrasonography muscle thickness assessment. They also completed the quality of life questionnaire SF-36. Physical fitness, muscle structure and quality of life of the kidney transplant recipients were significantly poorer than the controls. The transplant patients performed less well in the "get up and go" and "sit to stand" test (p<.001) as well as in assessments of muscle structure, strength and power. The patients had a poorer score in their quality of life assessments, differing from the controls in domains of physical function, physical role, general health and social function (p<.001). Fitness, strength and muscle mass are diminished in kidney transplant patients, resulting in a poorer quality of life which might entail an increased risk to their health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic pleiotropy between multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia but not bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, O A; Harbo, H F; Wang, Y

    2014-01-01

    in SNPs associated with SCZ (n=21 856) and multiple sclerosis (MS) (n=43 879), an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Because SCZ and bipolar disorder (BD) show substantial clinical and genetic overlap, we also investigated pleiotropy between BD (n=16 731) and MS. We found...... significant genetic overlap between SCZ and MS and identified 21 independent loci associated with SCZ, conditioned on association with MS. This enrichment was driven by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Importantly, we detected the involvement of the same human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles...... in both SCZ and MS, but with an opposite directionality of effect of associated HLA alleles (that is, MS risk alleles were associated with decreased SCZ risk). In contrast, we found no genetic overlap between BD and MS. Considered together, our findings demonstrate genetic pleiotropy between SCZ and MS...

  5. The genetic architecture of domestication in the chicken: effects of pleiotropy and linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D; Rubin, C-J; Martinez Barrio, A; Schütz, K; Kerje, S; Brändström, H; Kindmark, A; Jensen, P; Andersson, L

    2010-12-01

    The extent of pleiotropy and epistasis in quantitative traits remains equivocal. In the case of pleiotropy, multiple quantitative trait loci are often taken to be pleiotropic if their confidence intervals overlap, without formal statistical tests being used to ascertain if these overlapping loci are statistically significantly pleiotropic. Additionally, the degree to which the genetic correlations between phenotypic traits are reflected in these pleiotropic quantitative trait loci is often variable, especially in the case of antagonistic pleiotropy. Similarly, the extent of epistasis in various morphological, behavioural and life-history traits is also debated, with a general problem being the sample sizes required to detect such effects. Domestication involves a large number of trade-offs, which are reflected in numerous behavioural, morphological and life-history traits which have evolved as a consequence of adaptation to selective pressures exerted by humans and captivity. The comparison between wild and domestic animals allows the genetic analysis of the traits that differ between these population types, as well as being a general model of evolution. Using a large F(2) intercross between wild and domesticated chickens, in combination with a dense SNP and microsatellite marker map, both pleiotropy and epistasis were analysed. The majority of traits were found to segregate in 11 tight 'blocks' and reflected the trade-offs associated with domestication. These blocks were shown to have a pleiotropic 'core' surrounded by more loosely linked loci. In contrast, epistatic interactions were almost entirely absent, with only six pairs identified over all traits analysed. These results give insights both into the extent of such blocks in evolution and the development of domestication itself.

  6. DNA evidence for strong genome-wide pleiotropy of cognitive and learning abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzaskowski, Maciej; Davis, Oliver S P; DeFries, John C; Yang, Jian; Visscher, Peter M; Plomin, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Very different neurocognitive processes appear to be involved in cognitive abilities such as verbal and non-verbal ability as compared to learning abilities taught in schools such as reading and mathematics. However, twin studies that compare similarity for monozygotic and dizygotic twins suggest that the same genes are largely responsible for genetic influence on these diverse aspects of cognitive function. It is now possible to test this evidence for strong pleiotropy using DNA alone from samples of unrelated individuals. Here we used this new method with 1.7 million DNA markers for a sample of 2,500 unrelated children at age 12 to investigate for the first time the extent of pleiotropy between general cognitive ability (aka intelligence) and learning abilities (reading, mathematics and language skills). We also compared these DNA results to results from twin analyses using the same sample and measures. The DNA-based method revealed strong genome-wide pleiotropy: Genetic correlations were greater than 0.70 between general cognitive ability and language, reading, and mathematics, results that were highly similar to twin study estimates of genetic correlations. These results indicate that genes related to diverse neurocognitive processes have general rather than specific effects.

  7. Coevolution trumps pleiotropy: carbon assimilation traits are independent of metabolic network structure in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opulente, Dana A; Morales, Christopher M; Carey, Lucas B; Rest, Joshua S

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic traits may be gained and lost together because of pleiotropy, the involvement of common genes and networks, or because of simultaneous selection for multiple traits across environments (multiple-trait coevolution). However, the extent to which network pleiotropy versus environmental coevolution shapes shared responses has not been addressed. To test these alternatives, we took advantage of the fact that the genus Saccharomyces has variation in habitat usage and diversity in the carbon sources that a given strain can metabolize. We examined patterns of gain and loss in carbon utilization traits across 488 strains of Saccharomyces to investigate whether the structure of metabolic pathways or selection pressure from common environments may have caused carbon utilization traits to be gained and lost together. While most carbon sources were gained and lost independently of each other, we found four clusters that exhibit non-random patterns of gain and loss across strains. Contrary to the network pleiotropy hypothesis, we did not find that these patterns are explained by the structure of metabolic pathways or shared enzymes. Consistent with the hypothesis that common environments shape suites of phenotypes, we found that the environment a strain was isolated from partially predicts the carbon sources it can assimilate.

  8. Coevolution trumps pleiotropy: carbon assimilation traits are independent of metabolic network structure in budding yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana A Opulente

    Full Text Available Phenotypic traits may be gained and lost together because of pleiotropy, the involvement of common genes and networks, or because of simultaneous selection for multiple traits across environments (multiple-trait coevolution. However, the extent to which network pleiotropy versus environmental coevolution shapes shared responses has not been addressed. To test these alternatives, we took advantage of the fact that the genus Saccharomyces has variation in habitat usage and diversity in the carbon sources that a given strain can metabolize. We examined patterns of gain and loss in carbon utilization traits across 488 strains of Saccharomyces to investigate whether the structure of metabolic pathways or selection pressure from common environments may have caused carbon utilization traits to be gained and lost together. While most carbon sources were gained and lost independently of each other, we found four clusters that exhibit non-random patterns of gain and loss across strains. Contrary to the network pleiotropy hypothesis, we did not find that these patterns are explained by the structure of metabolic pathways or shared enzymes. Consistent with the hypothesis that common environments shape suites of phenotypes, we found that the environment a strain was isolated from partially predicts the carbon sources it can assimilate.

  9. Physical fitness in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: comparison with population controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Silje; Vøllestad, Nina K; Fongen, Camilla; Provan, Sella A; Semb, Anne G; Hagen, Kåre B; Dagfinrud, Hanne

    2012-02-01

    Although flexibility traditionally has been the main focus for physical therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), there is now evidence for an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in this group. The purposes of this study were: (1) to compare physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular capacity, flexibility, and balance) in patients with AS and controls and (2) to explore associations between physical fitness and disease activity in the patient group. This was a cross-sectional study. The physical fitness variables were cardiorespiratory fitness (treadmill test for estimation of peak oxygen uptake [V(O(2))peak]), muscular capacity (push-ups test), balance (30-second single-leg stand and walking in a figure-of-eight pattern), and flexibility (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index [BASMI]). The Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) was used to assess disease activity. Group differences and associations were tested with the chi-square test for categorical variables, the Mann-Whitney U test for ordinal variables, and analysis of covariance for continuous variables. One hundred forty-nine of 250 of the invited patients with AS and 133 of 329 of the invited controls were included in the study. The mean ASDAS score of the patient group was 2.3 (range=0.5-4.7), and the median disease duration was 23 years (range=7-55). The patient group had significantly lower V(O(2)) peak values, with a mean difference of -2.7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) (95% confidence interval=-4.3, -1.1), and higher BASMI scores, with a mean difference of 1.6 (95% confidence interval=1.5, 1.8), compared with the control group. No group differences were found in balance or muscular capacity. In the patient group, significant inverse associations were found between ASDAS scores and V(O(2))peak and muscular capacity. The response rate was lower in the control group (40.4%) than in the patient group (59.6%). The lower cardiorespiratory fitness and reduced

  10. Effect of a primary health-care-based controlled trial for cardiorespiratory fitness in refugee women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Sven-Erik

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Refugee women have a high risk of coronary heart disease with low physical activity as one possible mediator. Furthermore, cultural and environmental barriers to increasing physical activity have been demonstrated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the combined effect of an approximate 6-month primary health care- and community-based exercise intervention versus an individual written prescription for exercise on objectively assessed cardiorespiratory fitness in low-active refugee women. Methods A controlled clinical trial, named "Support for Increased Physical Activity", was executed among 243 refugee women recruited between November 2006 and April 2008 from two deprived geographic areas in southern Stockholm, Sweden. One geographic area provided the intervention group and the other area the control group. The control group was on a higher activity level at both baseline and follow-up, which was taken into consideration in the analysis by applying statistical models that accounted for this. Relative aerobic capacity and fitness level were assessed as the two main outcome measures. Results The intervention group increased their relative aerobic capacity and the percentage with an acceptable fitness level (relative aerobic capacity > 23 O2ml·kg·min-1 to a greater extent than the control group between baseline and the 6-month follow-up, after adjusting for possible confounders (P = 0.020. Conclusions A combined primary health-care and community-based exercise programme (involving non-profit organizations can be an effective strategy to increase cardiorespiratory fitness among low-active refugee women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00747942

  11. Aerobic Fitness and Cognitive Development: Event-Related Brain Potential and Task Performance Indices of Executive Control in Preadolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Charles H.; Buck, Sarah M.; Themanson, Jason R.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between aerobic fitness and executive control was assessed in 38 higher- and lower-fit children (M[subscript age] = 9.4 years), grouped according to their performance on a field test of aerobic capacity. Participants performed a flanker task requiring variable amounts of executive control while event-related brain potential…

  12. PSO-tuned PID controller for coupled tank system via priority-based fitness scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Hazriq Izzuan; Hussien, Sharifah Yuslinda Syed; Selamat, Nur Asmiza; Abidin, Amar Faiz Zainal; Aras, Mohd Shahrieel Mohd; Nasir, Mohamad Na'im Mohd; Bohari, Zul Hasrizal

    2015-05-01

    The industrial applications of Coupled Tank System (CTS) are widely used especially in chemical process industries. The overall process is require liquids to be pumped, stored in the tank and pumped again to another tank. Nevertheless, the level of liquid in tank need to be controlled and flow between two tanks must be regulated. This paper presents development of an optimal PID controller for controlling the desired liquid level of the CTS. Two method of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm will be tested in optimizing the PID controller parameters. These two methods of PSO are standard Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Priority-based Fitness Scheme in Particle Swarm Optimization (PFPSO). Simulation is conducted within Matlab environment to verify the performance of the system in terms of settling time (Ts), steady state error (SSE) and overshoot (OS). It has been demonstrated that implementation of PSO via Priority-based Fitness Scheme (PFPSO) for this system is potential technique to control the desired liquid level and improve the system performances compared with standard PSO.

  13. Effect of Kaempferia parviflora Extract on Physical Fitness of Soccer Players: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Promthep, Kreeta; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn; Chatchawan, Uraiwan

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical fitness is a fundamental prerequisite for soccer players. Kaempferia parviflora is an herbal plant that has been used in some Asian athletes with the belief that it might prevent fatigue and improve physical fitness. This study aimed to determine the effects of Kaempferia parviflora on the physical fitness of soccer players. Material/Methods Sixty soccer players who routinely trained at a sports school participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial and were random...

  14. The negative influence of N-mediated TMV resistance on yield in tobacco: linkage drag versus pleiotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R S; Linger, L R; Wolff, M F; Wernsman, E A

    2007-07-01

    Resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is controlled by the single dominant gene N in Nicotiana glutinosa L. This gene has been transferred to cultivated tobacco (N. tabacum L.) by interspecific hybridization and backcrossing, but has historically been associated with reduced yields and/or quality in flue-cured tobacco breeding materials. Past researchers have suggested the role of pleiotropy and/or linkage drag effects in this unfavorable relationship. Introduction of the cloned N gene into a TMV-susceptible tobacco genotype (cultivar 'K326') via plant transformation permitted investigation of the relative importance of these possibilities. On average, yield and cash return ($ ha(-1)) of 14 transgenic NN lines of K326 were significantly higher relative to an isoline of K326 carrying N introduced via interspecific hybridization and backcrossing. The negative effects of tissue culture-induced genetic variation confounded comparisons with the TMV-susceptible cultivar, K326, however. Backcrossing the original transgenic lines to non-tissue cultured K326 removed many of these unfavorable effects, and significantly improved their performance for yield and cash return. Comparisons of the 14 corresponding transgenic NN backcross-derived lines with K326 indicated that linkage drag is the main factor contributing to reduced yields in TMV-resistant flue-cured tobacco germplasm. On average, these transgenic lines outyielded the conventionally-developed TMV-resistant K326 isoline by 427 kg ha(-1) (P TMV-resistant flue-cured tobacco cultivars.

  15. Genetic pleiotropy explains associations between musical auditory discrimination and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosing, Miriam A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Madison, Guy; Ullén, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Musical aptitude is commonly measured using tasks that involve discrimination of different types of musical auditory stimuli. Performance on such different discrimination tasks correlates positively with each other and with intelligence. However, no study to date has explored these associations using a genetically informative sample to estimate underlying genetic and environmental influences. In the present study, a large sample of Swedish twins (N = 10,500) was used to investigate the genetic architecture of the associations between intelligence and performance on three musical auditory discrimination tasks (rhythm, melody and pitch). Phenotypic correlations between the tasks ranged between 0.23 and 0.42 (Pearson r values). Genetic modelling showed that the covariation between the variables could be explained by shared genetic influences. Neither shared, nor non-shared environment had a significant effect on the associations. Good fit was obtained with a two-factor model where one underlying shared genetic factor explained all the covariation between the musical discrimination tasks and IQ, and a second genetic factor explained variance exclusively shared among the discrimination tasks. The results suggest that positive correlations among musical aptitudes result from both genes with broad effects on cognition, and genes with potentially more specific influences on auditory functions.

  16. GPA: a statistical approach to prioritizing GWAS results by integrating pleiotropy and annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Dongjun; Yang, Can; Li, Cong; Gelernter, Joel; Zhao, Hongyu

    2014-11-01

    Results from Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have shown that complex diseases are often affected by many genetic variants with small or moderate effects. Identifications of these risk variants remain a very challenging problem. There is a need to develop more powerful statistical methods to leverage available information to improve upon traditional approaches that focus on a single GWAS dataset without incorporating additional data. In this paper, we propose a novel statistical approach, GPA (Genetic analysis incorporating Pleiotropy and Annotation), to increase statistical power to identify risk variants through joint analysis of multiple GWAS data sets and annotation information because: (1) accumulating evidence suggests that different complex diseases share common risk bases, i.e., pleiotropy; and (2) functionally annotated variants have been consistently demonstrated to be enriched among GWAS hits. GPA can integrate multiple GWAS datasets and functional annotations to seek association signals, and it can also perform hypothesis testing to test the presence of pleiotropy and enrichment of functional annotation. Statistical inference of the model parameters and SNP ranking is achieved through an EM algorithm that can handle genome-wide markers efficiently. When we applied GPA to jointly analyze five psychiatric disorders with annotation information, not only did GPA identify many weak signals missed by the traditional single phenotype analysis, but it also revealed relationships in the genetic architecture of these disorders. Using our hypothesis testing framework, statistically significant pleiotropic effects were detected among these psychiatric disorders, and the markers annotated in the central nervous system genes and eQTLs from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) database were significantly enriched. We also applied GPA to a bladder cancer GWAS data set with the ENCODE DNase-seq data from 125 cell lines. GPA was able to detect cell lines that are

  17. QTL mapping of fungicide sensitivity reveals novel genes and pleiotropy with melanization in the pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendenmann, Mark H; Croll, Daniel; McDonald, Bruce A

    2015-07-01

    A major problem associated with the intensification of agriculture is the emergence of fungicide resistance. Azoles are ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors that have been widely used in agriculture and medicine since the 1970s, leading to emergence of increasingly resistant fungal populations. The known genetic mechanisms underlying lower azole sensitivity include mutations affecting the CYP51 gene that encodes the target protein, but in many cases azole resistance is a more complex trait with an unknown genetic basis. We used quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping to identify genes affecting azole sensitivity in two crosses of Zymoseptoria tritici, the most damaging wheat pathogen in Europe. Restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) was used to genotype 263 (cross 1) and 261 (cross 2) progeny at ∼ 8500 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and construct two dense linkage maps. Azole sensitivity was assessed using high-throughput digital image analysis of colonies growing on Petri dishes with or without the fungicide propiconazole. We identified three QTLs for azole sensitivity, including two that contained novel fungicide sensitivity genes. One of these two QTLs contained only 16 candidate genes, among which four most likely candidates were identified. The third QTL contained ERG6, encoding another protein involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. Known genes in QTLs affecting colony growth included CYP51 and PKS1, a gene affecting melanization in Z. tritici. PKS1 showed compelling evidence for pleiotropy, with a rare segregating allele that increased melanization while decreasing growth rate and propiconazole sensitivity. This study resolved the genetic architecture of an important agricultural trait and led to identification of novel genes that are likely to affect azole sensitivity in Z. tritici. It also provided insight into fitness costs associated with lowered azole sensitivity and suggests a novel fungicide mixture strategy.

  18. A PID Positioning Controller with a Curve Fitting Model Based on RFID Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Long Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The global positioning system (GPS is an important research topic to solve outdoor positioning problems, but GPS is unable to locate objects accurately and precisely indoors. Some available systems apply ultrasound or optical tracking. This paper presents an efficient proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller with curve fitting model for mobile robot localization and position estimation which adopts passive radio frequency identification (RFID tags in a space. This scheme is based on a mobile robot carries an RFID reader module which reads the installed low-cost passive tags under the floor in a grid-like pattern. The PID controllers increase the efficiency of captured RFID tags and the curve fitting model is used to systematically identify the revolutions per minute (RPM of the motor. We control and monitor the position of the robot from a remote location through a mobile phone via Wi-Fi and Bluetooth network. Experiment results present that the number of captured RFID tags of our proposed scheme outperforms that of the previous scheme.

  19. Challenges in improving fitness: results of a community-based, randomized, controlled lifestyle change intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, Antronette K; McCarthy, William J; Harrison, Gail G; Wong, Weng Kee; Siegel, Judith M; Leslie, Joanne

    2006-05-01

    This study tested the efficacy of an 8-week culturally targeted nutrition and physical activity intervention on body composition. A randomized, attention-controlled, two-group trial was conducted in a blackowned commercial gym with a sample of 366 predominantly healthy, obese African American women. A free 1-year membership to the study site gym was provided to participants in both groups. Data were collected at baseline, 2, 6, and 12 months. Sample retention at 1 year was 71%. Between-group longitudinal analysis including only participants with complete data revealed a trend toward weight stability in the intervention group at 2 months compared with controls (+0.05 kg/m(2), p = 0.75; +0.32 kg/m(2), p = 0.08, respectively), disappearing at 12 months (+1.37 kg/m(2), p = 0.0001; +1.02 kg/m(2), p = 0.001, respectively). Within-group analysis demonstrated that intervention and control participants' fitness (1-mile run-walk) improved by 1.9 minutes (p = 0.0001) and 2.3 minutes (p = 0.0001), respectively, at 12 months. Mixed model regression analyses demonstrated a significant main effect of the intervention on fitness (p = 0.0185) and a marginally significant effect on body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.057), at 2 months, disappearing by 6 months. By 12 months, however, the controls exhibited a significant advantage in waist circumference stability compared with intervention participants (+1.1 cm, p = 0.2763; +2.1 cm, p = 0.0002, respectively). The intervention produced modest short-term improvements in body composition, but the economic incentive of a free 1-year gym membership provided to all participants was a more potent intervention than the education and social support intervention tested. However, longer-term fitness enhancement remains elusive and demands research and policy attention. These findings have policy implications in that employer-/insurer-subsidized gym memberships may require interventions targeting other levels of change (e.g., physical or social

  20. Pleiotropy in Coffin-Lowry syndrome: sensorineural hearing deficit and premature tooth loss as early manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsfield, J K; Hall, B D; Grix, A W; Kousseff, B G; Salazar, J F; Haufe, S M

    1993-03-01

    We report on 7 patients (6 M, 1 F) with Coffin-Lowry syndrome who have a sensorineural hearing deficit in addition to developmental delay and characteristic facial changes. One of the patients also had a history of premature exfoliation of primary teeth. These are previously unappreciated clinical signs that may aid in the early diagnosis of Coffin-Lowry syndrome. Early diagnosis and recognition of a hearing deficit in the patient can lead to the use of hearing aids to help the patient achieve his or her full potential. These "new" clinical manifestations expand the phenotype of Coffin-Lowry syndrome and constitute an additional indication of pleiotropy.

  1. A PID Positioning Controller with a Curve Fitting Model Based on RFID Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Long Chen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The global positioning system (GPS is an important research topic to solve outdoor positioning problems, but GPSis unable to locate objects accurately and precisely indoors. Some available systems apply ultrasound or opticaltracking. This paper presents an efficient proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller with curve fitting model formobile robot localization and position estimation which adopts passive radio frequency identification (RFID tags ina space. This scheme is based on a mobile robot carries an RFID reader module which reads the installed low-costpassive tags under the floor in a grid-like pattern. The PID controllers increase the efficiency of captured RFID tagsand the curve fitting model is used to systematically identify the revolutions per minute (RPM of the motor. Wecontrol and monitor the position of the robot from a remote location through a mobile phone via Wi-Fi and Bluetoothnetwork. Experiment results present that the number of captured RFID tags of our proposed scheme outperformsthat of the previous scheme.

  2. [PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES ONLY IMPROVE CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS OF STUDENTS WITH LOWER PHYSICAL FITNESS: A CONTROLLED INTERVENTION STUDY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Viciana, Jesús

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: los profesores de educación física deben llevar a cabo programas de intervención con el fin de mejorar los niveles de capacidad cardiorrespiratoria de sus alumnos. Sin embargo, debido a la baja carga lectiva, dichos programas podrían no mejorar la capacidad cardiorrespiratoria de los estudiantes con mayores niveles iniciales. Objetivos: el objetivo del presente estudio fue comparar el efecto de un programa de acondicionamiento físico realizado durante las dos clases de educación física sobre la capacidad cardiorrespiratoria en función del nivel de condición física inicial de los estudiantes. Métodos: una muestra de 71 estudiantes de educación primaria y 107 de educación secundaria obligatoria fue asignada aleatoriamente (por clases naturales) al grupo control y experimental. Durante las clases de educación física, los estudiantes experimentales realizaron un programa de acondicionamiento físico. Resultados: los resultados del análisis de varianza de un factor mostraron que los estudiantes experimentales con menor nivel de condición física incrementaron estadísticamente su capacidad cardiorrespiratoria con respecto a los estudiantes controles (p estudiantes experimentales con mayor nivel y los controles (p > 0,05). Conclusiones: durante las clases de educación física, solo los estudiantes con menor condición física parecen incrementar su capacidad cardiorrespiratoria. En cambio, los alumnos con mayor nivel de condición física no se benefician de estos programas. Por ello, con el objetivo real de incrementar la capacidad cardiorrespiratoria de todos los jóvenes, parece necesario aumentar la carga lectiva de la asignatura de educación física.

  3. The effect of a prenatal lifestyle intervention on glucose metabolism: results of the Norwegian Fit for Delivery randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Linda R Sagedal; Ingvild Vistad; Nina C Overby; Elling Bere; Monica K Torstveit; Hilde Lohne-Seiler; Elisabet R Hillesund; Are Pripp; Tore Henriksen

    2017-01-01

    .... The Norwegian Fit for Delivery (NFFD) randomized, controlled trial studied the effect of a combined lifestyle intervention provided to a general population, and found significantly lower gestational weight gain among intervention...

  4. Can genetic pleiotropy replicate common clinical constellations of cardiovascular disease and risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omri Gottesman

    Full Text Available The relationship between obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, kidney disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD is established when looked at from a clinical, epidemiological or pathophysiological perspective. Yet, when viewed from a genetic perspective, there is comparatively little data synthesis that these conditions have an underlying relationship. We sought to investigate the overlap of genetic variants independently associated with each of these commonly co-existing conditions from the NHGRI genome-wide association study (GWAS catalog, in an attempt to replicate the established notion of shared pathophysiology and risk. We used pathway-based analyses to detect subsets of pleiotropic genes involved in similar biological processes. We identified 107 eligible GWAS studies related to CVD and its established comorbidities and risk factors and assigned genes that correspond to the associated signals based on their position. We found 44 positional genes shared across at least two CVD-related phenotypes that independently recreated the established relationship between the six phenotypes, but only if studies representing non-European populations were included. Seven genes revealed pleiotropy across three or more phenotypes, mostly related to lipid transport and metabolism. Yet, many genes had no relationship to each other or to genes with established functional connection. Whilst we successfully reproduced established relationships between CVD risk factors using GWAS findings, interpretation of biological pathways involved in the observed pleiotropy was limited. Further studies linking genetic variation to gene expression, as well as describing novel biological pathways will be needed to take full advantage of GWAS results.

  5. Dissection of complex gene expression using the combined analysis of pleiotropy and epistasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Vivek M; Tyler, Anna L; Carter, Gregory W

    2014-01-01

    Global transcript expression experiments are commonly used to investigate the biological processes that underlie complex traits. These studies can exhibit complex patterns of pleiotropy when trans-acting genetic factors influence overlapping sets of multiple transcripts. Dissecting these patterns into biological modules with distinct genetic etiology can provide models of how genetic variants affect specific processes that contribute to a trait. Here we identify transcript modules associated with pleiotropic genetic factors and apply genetic interaction analysis to disentangle the regulatory architecture in a mouse intercross study of kidney function. The method, called the combined analysis of pleiotropy and epistasis (CAPE), has been previously used to model genetic networks for multiple physiological traits. It simultaneously models multiple phenotypes to identify direct genetic influences as well as influences mediated through genetic interactions. We first identify candidate trans expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and the transcripts potentially affected. We then clustered the transcripts into modules of co-expressed genes, from which we compute summary module phenotypes. Finally, we applied CAPE to map the network of interacting module QTL (modQTL) affecting the gene modules. The resulting network mapped how multiple modQTL both directly and indirectly affect modules associated with metabolic functions and biosynthetic processes. This work demonstrates how the integration of pleiotropic signals in gene expression data can be used to infer a complex hypothesis of how multiple loci interact to co-regulate transcription programs, thereby providing additional constraints to prioritize validation experiments.

  6. Polygenic risk assessment reveals pleiotropy between sarcoidosis and inflammatory disorders in the context of genetic ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lareau, C A; DeWeese, C F; Adrianto, I; Lessard, C J; Gaffney, P M; Iannuzzi, M C; Rybicki, B A; Levin, A M; Montgomery, C G

    2017-03-01

    Sarcoidosis is a complex disease of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of granulomatous inflammation. Though various immune system pathways have been implicated in disease, the relationship between the genetic determinants of sarcoidosis and other inflammatory disorders has not been characterized. Herein, we examined the degree of genetic pleiotropy common to sarcoidosis and other inflammatory disorders to identify shared pathways and disease systems pertinent to sarcoidosis onset. To achieve this, we quantify the association of common variant polygenic risk scores from nine complex inflammatory disorders with sarcoidosis risk. Enrichment analyses of genes implicated in pleiotropic associations were further used to elucidate candidate pathways. In European-Americans, we identify significant pleiotropy between risk of sarcoidosis and risk of asthma (R(2)=2.03%; P=8.89 × 10(-9)), celiac disease (R(2)=2.03%; P=8.21 × 10(-9)), primary biliary cirrhosis (R(2)=2.43%; P=2.01 × 10(-10)) and rheumatoid arthritis (R(2)=4.32%; P=2.50 × 10(-17)). These associations validate in African Americans only after accounting for the proportion of genome-wide European ancestry, where we demonstrate similar effects of polygenic risk for African-Americans with the highest levels of European ancestry. Variants and genes implicated in European-American pleiotropic associations were enriched for pathways involving interleukin-12, interleukin-27 and cell adhesion molecules, corroborating the hypothesized immunopathogenesis of disease.

  7. Daily energy expenditure, cardiorespiratory fitness and glycaemic control in people with type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Joseph Valletta

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Encouraging daily physical activity improves cardiorespiratory fitness and many cardiovascular risk factors. However, increasing physical activity often creates a challenge for people with type 1 diabetes, because of difficulties maintaining euglycemia in the face of altered food intake and adjustments to insulin doses. Our aim was to examine the triangular relationship between glucose control measured by continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS, objective measures of total daily energy expenditure (TEE recorded by a multi-sensory monitoring device, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, in free-living subjects with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-three individuals (12 women with type 1 diabetes who were free from micro- and macrovascular complications were recruited. TEE and glucose control were monitored simultaneously for up to 12 days, using a multi-sensory device and CGMS respectively. CRF was recorded as V02 max from a maximal treadmill test with the Bruce protocol. RESULTS: Subjects (mean±SD were aged 37±11 years, with BMI = 26.5±5.1 kg.m⁻², HbA1c = 7.7±1.3% (61±14 mmol/mol and V02 max (ml.min⁻¹.kg⁻¹  = 39.9±8.4 (range 22.4-58.6. TEE (36.3±5.5 kcal.kg⁻¹.day⁻¹ was strongly associated with CRF(39.9±8.4 ml.min⁻¹.kg⁻¹ independently of sex (r = 0.63, p<0.01. However, neither TEE (r = -0.20, p = 0.36 nor CRF (r = -0.20, p = 0.39; adjusted for sex, were significantly associated with mean glycaemia measured by CGMS. CONCLUSION: Higher levels of energy expenditure (due to a more active lifestyle are associated with increased cardiorespiratory fitness, but not necessarily better glycaemic control. Since increased levels of energy expenditure and good glycaemic control are both needed to protect against diabetes-related complications our data suggest they need to be achieved independently.

  8. Increasing students' physical activity during school physical education: rationale and protocol for the SELF-FIT cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Amy S; Lonsdale, Chris; Lubans, David R; Ng, Johan Y Y

    2017-07-11

    The Self-determined Exercise and Learning For FITness (SELF-FIT) is a multi-component school-based intervention based on tenets of self-determination theory. SELF-FIT aims to increase students' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during physical education lessons, and enhance their autonomous motivation towards fitness activities. Using a cluster randomized controlled trial, we aim to examine the effects of the intervention on students' MVPA during school physical education. Secondary 2 students (approximately aged 14 years) from 26 classes in 26 different schools will be recruited. After baseline assessments, students will be randomized into either the experimental group or wait-list control group using a matched-pair randomization. Teachers allocated to the experimental group will attend two half-day workshops and deliver the SELF-FIT intervention for 8 weeks. The main intervention components include training teachers to teach in more need supportive ways, and conducting fitness exercises using a fitness dice with interchangeable faces. Other motivational components, such as playing music during classes, are also included. The primary outcome of the trial is students' MVPA during PE lessons. Secondary outcomes include students' leisure-time MVPA, perceived need support from teachers, need satisfaction, autonomous motivation towards physical education, intention to engage in physical activity, psychological well-being, and health-related fitness (cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness). Quantitative data will be analyzed using multilevel modeling approaches. Focus group interviews will also be conducted to assess students' perceptions of the intervention. The SELF-FIT intervention has been designed to improve students' health and well-being by using high-intensity activities in classes delivered by teachers who have been trained to be autonomy needs supportive. If successful, scalable interventions based on SELF-FIT could be applied in physical

  9. Scenario-based fitted Q-iteration for adaptive control of water reservoir systems under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Federica; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Over recent years, mathematical models have largely been used to support planning and management of water resources systems. Yet, the increasing uncertainties in their inputs - due to increased variability in the hydrological regimes - are a major challenge to the optimal operations of these systems. Such uncertainty, boosted by projected changing climate, violates the stationarity principle generally used for describing hydro-meteorological processes, which assumes time persisting statistical characteristics of a given variable as inferred by historical data. As this principle is unlikely to be valid in the future, the probability density function used for modeling stochastic disturbances (e.g., inflows) becomes an additional uncertain parameter of the problem, which can be described in a deterministic and set-membership based fashion. This study contributes a novel method for designing optimal, adaptive policies for controlling water reservoir systems under climate-related uncertainty. The proposed method, called scenario-based Fitted Q-Iteration (sFQI), extends the original Fitted Q-Iteration algorithm by enlarging the state space to include the space of the uncertain system's parameters (i.e., the uncertain climate scenarios). As a result, sFQI embeds the set-membership uncertainty of the future inflow scenarios in the action-value function and is able to approximate, with a single learning process, the optimal control policy associated to any scenario included in the uncertainty set. The method is demonstrated on a synthetic water system, consisting of a regulated lake operated for ensuring reliable water supply to downstream users. Numerical results show that the sFQI algorithm successfully identifies adaptive solutions to operate the system under different inflow scenarios, which outperform the control policy designed under historical conditions. Moreover, the sFQI policy generalizes over inflow scenarios not directly experienced during the policy design

  10. A Genome-wide Pleiotropy Scan for Prostate Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotou, Orestis A; Travis, Ruth C; Campa, Daniele; Berndt, Sonja I.; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Siddiq, Afshan; Papatheodorou, Stefania I.; Stanford, Janet L.; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Kaaks, Rudolf; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Krogh, Vittorio; Overvad, Kim; Riboli, Elio; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Giovannucci, Edward; Stampfer, Meir; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian; Le Marchand, Loic; Gaziano, J. Michael; Hunter, DavidJ.; Koutros, Stella; Yeager, Meredith; Hoover, Robert N.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Wacholder, Sholom; Key, Timothy J.; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K

    2014-01-01

    Background No single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) specific for aggressive prostate cancer have been identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Objective To test if SNPs associated with other traits may also affect the risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Design, setting, and participants SNPs implicated in any phenotype other than prostate cancer (p ≤ 10−7) were identified through the catalog of published GWAS and tested in 2891 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 4592 controls from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). The 40 most significant SNPs were followed up in 4872 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 24 534 controls from the Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for aggressive prostate cancer were estimated. Results and limitations A total of 4666 SNPs were evaluated by the BPC3. Two signals were seen in regions already reported for prostate cancer risk. rs7014346 at 8q24.21 was marginally associated with aggressive prostate cancer in the BPC3 trial (p = 1.6 × 10-6), whereas after meta-analysis by PRACTICAL the summary OR was 1.21 (95%CI 1.16–1.27; p = 3.22 × 10−18). rs9900242 at 17q24.3 was also marginally associated with aggressive disease in the meta-analysis (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.86–0.94; p = 2.5 × 10−6). Neither of these SNPs remained statistically significant when conditioning on correlated known prostate cancer SNPs. The meta-analysis by BPC3 and PRACTICAL identified a third promising signal, marked by rs16844874 at 2q34, independent of known prostate cancer loci (OR 1.12,95% CI 1.06–1.19; p = 4.67 × 10−5); it has been shown that SNPs correlated with this signal affect glycine concentrations. The main limitation is the heterogeneity in the definition of aggressive prostate cancer between BPC3 and PRACTICAL. Conclusions We did

  11. Systematic Evaluation of Pleiotropy Identifies 6 Further Loci Associated With Coronary Artery Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Thomas R; Erdmann, Jeanette; Stirrups, Kathleen E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have so far identified 56 loci associated with risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Many CAD loci show pleiotropy; that is, they are also associated with other diseases or traits. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to systematically test if genetic variant...

  12. Association Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and the Determinants of Glycemic Control Across the Entire Glucose Tolerance Continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas P. J.; Malin, Steven K.; Karstoft, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) is associated with glycemic control, yet the relationship between VO2max and the underlying determinants of glycemic control is less clear. Our aim was to determine whether VO2max is associated with insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion...... underwent measurements of body composition, HbA1c, fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT), and VO2max. OGTT-derived insulin sensitivity (SiOGTT), glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSISOGTT), and the disposition index (DIOGTT) (the product of SiOGTT and GSISOGTT) were measured, and associations...... between VO2max and these determinants of glycemic control were examined. RESULTS: A low VO2max was associated with high HbA1c (r = -0.33), high fasting glucose (r = -0.34), high 2-h OGTT glucose (r = -0.33), low SiOGTT (r = 0.73), and high early-phase (r = -0.34) and late-phase (r = -0.36) GSISOGTT...

  13. Hormonal pleiotropy and the juvenile hormone regulation of Drosophila development and life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatt, Thomas; Tu, Meng-Ping; Tatar, Marc

    2005-10-01

    Understanding how traits are integrated at the organismal level remains a fundamental problem at the interface of developmental and evolutionary biology. Hormones, regulatory signaling molecules that coordinate multiple developmental and physiological processes, are major determinants underlying phenotypic integration. The probably best example for this is the lipid-like juvenile hormone (JH) in insects. Here we review the manifold effects of JH, the most versatile animal hormone, with an emphasis on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, an organism amenable to both genetics and endocrinology. JH affects a remarkable number of processes and traits in Drosophila development and life history, including metamorphosis, behavior, reproduction, diapause, stress resistance and aging. While many molecular details underlying JH signaling remain unknown, we argue that studying "hormonal pleiotropy" offers intriguing insights into phenotypic integration and the mechanisms underlying life history evolution. In particular, we illustrate the role of JH as a key mediator of life history trade-offs.

  14. Inflammaging (inflammation + aging): A driving force for human aging based on an evolutionarily antagonistic pleiotropy theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Makoto

    2008-12-01

    Aging, and especially human aging, can be explained by the emerging concept of parainflammation-driven inflammaging, i.e. a combination of inflammation and aging. Inflammaging posits that aging either physiologically or pathologically can be driven by the pro-inflammatory cytokines and substances produced by the innate immune system. Animals must maintain homeostasis as they age despite incessant attack from both intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli/antigens. These potentially harmful pro-inflammatory signals at a later stage of life may act antagonistically to the beneficial role they had in an earlier stage of life, like serving as developmental engines for body system formation. The concept of inflammaging is based on an antagonistic pleiotropy theory programmed during evolution. Clinical trials including caloric restriction, sirtuin activators, and p38 MAPK inhibitors against both pathological aging such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, and Werner syndrome and physiological aging have been proposed.

  15. Revisiting the antagonistic pleiotropy theory of aging: TOR-driven program and quasi-program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2010-08-15

    A half century ago, the antagonistic pleiotropy (AP) theory had solved a mystery of aging, by postulating genes beneficial early in life at the cost of aging. Recently it was argued however that there are very few clear-cut examples of antagonistically pleiotropic (AP) genes other than p53. In contrast, here I discuss that p53 is not a clear-cut example of AP genes but is rather an aging-suppressor (gerosuppressor). In contrast, clear-cut examples of AP genes are genes that encode the TOR (target of rapamycin) pathway. TOR itself is the ultimate example of AP gene because its deletion is lethal in embryogenesis. Early in life the TOR pathway drives developmental program, which persists later in life as an aimless quasi-program of aging and age-related diseases.

  16. New multivariate test for linkage, with application to pleiotropy: fuzzy Haseman-Elston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaabi, Belhassen; Elston, Robert C

    2003-05-01

    We propose a new method of linkage analysis based on using the grade of membership scores resulting from fuzzy clustering procedures to define new dependent variables for the various Haseman-Elston approaches. For a single continuous trait with low heritability, the aim was to identify subgroups such that the grade of membership scores to these subgroups would provide more information for linkage than the original trait. For a multivariate trait, the goal was to provide a means of data reduction and data mining. Simulation studies using continuous traits with relatively low heritability (H=0.1, 0.2, and 0.3) showed that the new approach does not enhance power for a single trait. However, for a multivariate continuous trait (with three components), it is more powerful than the principal component method and more powerful than the joint linkage test proposed by Mangin et al. ([1998] Biometrics 54:88-99) when there is pleiotropy.

  17. The impact of Wii Fit intervention on dynamic balance control in children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder and balance problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelsma, Dorothee; Geuze, Reint H; Mombarg, Remo; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in the performance of children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder (p-DCD) and balance problems (BP) and typical developing children (TD) on a Wii Fit task and to measure the effect on balance skills after a Wii Fit intervention. Twenty-eight children with BP and 20 TD-children participated in the study. Motor performance was assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC2), three subtests of the Bruininks Oseretsky Test (BOT2): Bilateral Coordination, Balance and Running Speed & Agility, and a Wii Fit ski slalom test. The TD children and half of the children in the BP group were tested before and after a 6weeks non-intervention period. All children with BP received 6weeks of Wii Fit intervention (with games other than the ski game) and were tested before and afterwards. Children with BP were less proficient than TD children in playing the Wii Fit ski slalom game. Training with the Wii Fit improved their motor performance. The improvement was significantly larger after intervention than after a period of non-intervention. Therefore the change cannot solely be attributed to spontaneous development or test-retest effect. Nearly all children enjoyed participation during the 6weeks of intervention. Our study shows that Wii Fit intervention is effective and is potentially a method to support treatment of (dynamic) balance control problems in children.

  18. Auxin transport through PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3) controls shade avoidance and fitness during competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuskamp, Diederik H.; Pollmann, Stephan; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Peeters, Anton J. M.; Pierik, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Plants grow in dense vegetations at the risk of being out-competed by neighbors. To increase their competitive power, plants display adaptive responses, such as rapid shoot elongation (shade avoidance) to consolidate light capture. These responses are induced upon detection of proximate neighbors through perception of the reduced ratio between red (R) and far-red (FR) light that is typical for dense vegetations. The plant hormone auxin is a central regulator of plant development and plasticity, but until now it has been unknown how auxin transport is controlled to regulate shade-avoidance responses. Here, we show that low R:FR detection changes the cellular location of the PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3) protein, a regulator of auxin efflux, in Arabidopsis seedlings. As a result, auxin levels in the elongating hypocotyls are increased under low R:FR. Seedlings of the pin3-3 mutant lack this low R:FR-induced increase of endogenous auxin in the hypocotyl and, accordingly, have no elongation response to low R:FR. We hypothesize that low R:FR-induced stimulation of auxin biosynthesis drives the regulation of PIN3, thus allowing shade avoidance to occur. The adaptive significance of PIN3-mediated control of shade-avoidance is shown in plant competition studies. It was found that pin3 mutants are outcompeted by wild-type neighbors who suppress fitness of pin3-3 by 40%. We conclude that low R:FR modulates the auxin distribution by a change in the cellular location of PIN3, and that this control can be of great importance for plants growing in dense vegetations. PMID:21149713

  19. More automation and less cognitive control of imagined walking movements in high versus low fit older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Godde

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Using motor imagery, we investigated brain activation in simple and complex walking tasks (walking forward and backward on a treadmill and analyzed if the motor status of older adults influenced these activation patterns. 51 older adults (64-79 years of age were trained in motor execution and imagery and then performed the imagination task and two control tasks (standing, counting backward in a horizontal position within a 3T MRI scanner (first person perspective, eyes closed. Walking backward as compared to walking forward required larger activations in the primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, parietal cortex, thalamus, putamen, and caudatum, but less activation in the cerebellum and brainstem. Motor high-fit individuals showed more activations and larger BOLD signals in motor-related areas compared to low-fit participants but demonstrated lower activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Moreover, parietal activation in high-fit participants remained stable throughout the movement period whereas low-fit participants revealed an early drop in activity in this area accompanied by increasing activity in frontal brain regions. Overall, walking forward seemed to be more automated (more activation in cerebellum and brainstem, whereas walking backward required more resources, e.g. for visual-spatial processing and sensorimotor control. Low-fit subjects in particular seemed to require more cognitive resources for planning and controlling. High-fit subjects, on the contrary, revealed more movement automation and a higher “attention span.” Our results support the hypothesis that high fitness corresponds with more automation and less cognitive control of complex motor tasks, which might help to free up cognitive resources.

  20. Facultative control of matrix production optimizes competitive fitness in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 biofilm models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jonas S; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Squyres, Georgia R; Price-Whelan, Alexa; de Santiago Torio, Ana; Song, Angela; Cornell, William C; Sørensen, Søren J; Xavier, Joao B; Dietrich, Lars E P

    2015-12-01

    As biofilms grow, resident cells inevitably face the challenge of resource limitation. In the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14, electron acceptor availability affects matrix production and, as a result, biofilm morphogenesis. The secreted matrix polysaccharide Pel is required for pellicle formation and for colony wrinkling, two activities that promote access to O2. We examined the exploitability and evolvability of Pel production at the air-liquid interface (during pellicle formation) and on solid surfaces (during colony formation). Although Pel contributes to the developmental response to electron acceptor limitation in both biofilm formation regimes, we found variation in the exploitability of its production and necessity for competitive fitness between the two systems. The wild type showed a competitive advantage against a non-Pel-producing mutant in pellicles but no advantage in colonies. Adaptation to the pellicle environment selected for mutants with a competitive advantage against the wild type in pellicles but also caused a severe disadvantage in colonies, even in wrinkled colony centers. Evolution in the colony center produced divergent phenotypes, while adaptation to the colony edge produced mutants with clear competitive advantages against the wild type in this O2-replete niche. In general, the structurally heterogeneous colony environment promoted more diversification than the more homogeneous pellicle. These results suggest that the role of Pel in community structure formation in response to electron acceptor limitation is unique to specific biofilm models and that the facultative control of Pel production is required for PA14 to maintain optimum benefit in different types of communities.

  1. Decreased health-related physical fitness in adults with ankylosing spondylitis: a cross-sectional controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Tom; O'Shea, Finbar; Wilson, Fiona

    2016-06-01

    (1) Assess the health-related physical fitness of adults with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and compare these to the general population, and (2) examine the relationships between physical fitness and condition-specific outcomes. Cross-sectional, controlled study. Exercise research laboratory. Thirty-nine adults with AS (32 men, 7 women) and 39 age- and gender-matched controls. Comprehensive physical fitness assessment, and completion of questionnaires assessing disease activity, physical function and quality-of-life. Body composition was assessed by bio-impedance analysis. Flexibility was measured with the Bath AS Metrology Index (BASMI). Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by submaximal treadmill test with breath-by-breath gas analysis and heart rate monitoring. Muscular strength and endurance were measured by isokinetic dynamometry of concentric knee flexion/extension. The AS group demonstrated significantly lower cardiorespiratory fitness [mean difference -1.3mLmin(-1)kg(-1) (95% CI -1.1 to -1.4)], flexibility [0.4 BASMI units (0.2 to 0.7)], muscular strength [-31.6 peak torque per body weight dominant knee extension (-56.1 to -7.1)], and increased body fat [0.4% (0.0 to 1.2)] compared to population controls (pexercise prescription in this cohort. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical fitness, but not acute exercise modulates event-related potential indices for executive control in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroth, Sanna; Kubesch, Sabine; Dieterle, Katrin; Ruchsow, Martin; Heim, Rüdiger; Kiefer, Markus

    2009-05-07

    Physical activity and aerobic exercise in particular, promotes health and effective cognitive functioning. To elucidate mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical fitness and acute exercise, behavioral and electrophysiological indices of task preparation and response inhibition as a part of executive functions were assessed in a modified version of an Eriksen flanker task subsequent to an acute bout of aerobic exercise and a period of rest, respectively. 35 higher- and lower-fit adolescents between 13 and 14 years of age participated in a controlled cross-over study design. Results indicate that higher-fit individuals show significantly greater CNV amplitudes, reflecting enhanced task preparation processes, as well as decreased amplitudes in N2, indexing more efficient executive control processes. P3 amplitudes associated with the allocation of attentional and memory control neither showed influences of physical fitness nor the acute bout of exercise. Furthermore, acute aerobic exercise was not related to any of the dependent measures. The current findings suggest that physical fitness, but not an acute bout of aerobic exercise enhances cognitive processing by increasing attentional allocation to stimulus encoding during task preparation.

  3. A high exercise load is linked to pathological weight control behavior and eating disorders in female fitness instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, K; Normén, L

    2002-10-01

    Demographic data, exercise habits, weight control behavior, attitudes towards body shape, eating disorder (ED) experience, and menstrual regularity among female fitness instructors were descriptively assessed. A 60-item questionnaire was sent to 295 female fitness instructors at eight fitness centers. Responders (57%) reported a mean weekly exercise load of 5.5 h week(-1) (SD 2.6), which indicates frequent training, however, less than that of athletes. Overall, 35% reported ED experience (DSM-IV criteria), with an onset at 15-17 years of age. The problems had lasted 5-7 years, and 20% of the entire group reported recovery, however, 11% still had EDs. For the entire group, it was found that a high weekly exercise load was linked to a pathological weight control behavior. Fitness instructors with an active ED exercised more than instructors who never had an ED or who had a past ED. Menstrual irregularity was more common among instructors who did not use contraceptives (14%), compared to those who did (5%). As ED experience and pathological weight control behavior were common in the studied group, the importance of guidelines regarding communication from female fitness instructors about healthy training habits to regular exercisers is discussed in the article.

  4. The experimental evolution of herbicide resistance in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii results in a positive correlation between fitness in the presence and absence of herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogwill, T; Lagator, M; Colegrave, N; Neve, P

    2012-10-01

    Pleiotropic fitness trade-offs will be key determinants of the evolutionary dynamics of selection for pesticide resistance. However, for herbicide resistance, empirical support for a fitness cost of resistance is mixed, and it is therefore also questionable what further ecological trade-offs can be assumed to apply to herbicide resistance. Here, we test the existence of trade-offs by experimentally evolving herbicide resistance in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Although fitness costs are detected for all herbicides, we find that, counterintuitively, the most resistant populations also have the lowest fitness costs as measured by growth rate in the ancestral environment. Furthermore, after controlling for differences in the evolutionary dynamics of resistance to different herbicides, we also detect significant positive correlations between resistance, fitness in the ancestral environment and cross-resistance to other herbicides. We attribute this to the highest levels of nontarget-site resistance being achieved by fixing mutations that more broadly affect cellular physiology, which results in both more cross-resistance and less overall antagonistic pleiotropy on maximum growth rate. Consequently, the lack of classical ecological trade-offs could present a major challenge for herbicide resistance management.

  5. THE RESPONSE TO SELECTION FOR FAST LARVAL DEVELOPMENT IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER AND ITS EFFECT ON ADULT WEIGHT: AN EXAMPLE OF A FITNESS TRADE-OFF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunney, Leonard

    1996-06-01

    A selection experiment using Drosophila melanogaster revealed a strong trade-off between adult weight and larval development time (LDT), supporting the view that antagonistic pleiotropy for these two fitness traits determines mean adult size. Two experimental lines of flies were selected for a shorter LDT (measured from egg laying to pupation). After 15 generations LDT was reduced by an average of 7.9%. The response appeared to be controlled primarily by autosomal loci. A correlated response to the selection was a reduction in adult dry weight: individuals from the selected populations were on average 15.1% lighter than the controls. The lighter females of the selected lines showed a 35% drop in fecundity, but no change in longevity. Thus, there is no direct relationship between LDT and adult longevity. The genetic correlation between weight and LDT, as measured from their joint response to selection, was 0.86. Although there was weak evidence for dominance in LDT, there was none for weight, making it unlikely that selection acting on this antagonistic pleiotropy could lead to a stable polymorphism. In all lines, sex differences in weight violated expectations based on intrasex genetic correlations: Females, being larger than males, ought to require a longer LDT, whereas there was a slight trend in the opposite direction. Because the sexual dimorphism in size was not significantly altered by selection, it appears that the controlling loci are either invariant or have very limited pleiotropic effect on developmental time. It is suggested that they probably control some intrinsic, energy-intensive developmental process in males. © 1996 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Tests and standards for express-control of physical fitness and health of middle school age pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodnar I.R.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: to day, physical fitness testing often causes negative emotions in pupils. It results in sharp loss of pupils’ wish to fulfill physical exercises in free time and worsens their health. Possibility to assess health level is an important motivation factor for pupils’ passing physical tests. Objective testing system will form positive motivation for physical exercises’ practicing and will facilitate increase of pupils’ motor functioning. It will also facilitate optimization of their physical condition, improvement of physical fitness and strengthening of health. Material: we tested physical fitness level and made diagnosis of pupils’ functional state (10-15 years’ age; n=85 with the help of tool methodic. We also used regressive analysis. Results: the system of tests and standards for express-control over physical fitness and health of middle school age pupils has been worked out and substantiated. The system of tests envisages fulfillment of 4 exercises: back pressing ups on bench during 20 seconds; throwing and catching of ball with two hands from wall during 30 seconds; side bending; torso rising from lying position into sitting during 30 seconds. Integral indicator of pupils’ physical fitness and health correlates with functional state of organism’s leading systems. We worked out 5 levels’ scale for express-control over physical fitness and health of middle school age pupils. The system stipulates calculation of integrative indicator with the help of regression equation by results of 4 test exercises and calculation of one index. Conclusions: The system of tests and standards permits the following: to divide pupils into relatively uniform groups even at the beginning of academic year for successful reasonable physical load. The system also permits to determine standard and find what shall be strived for by a pupil in order to achieve optimal physical fitness and somatic state; to motivate relatively weakly

  7. Aerobic fitness does not modulate protein metabolism in response to increased exercise: a controlled trial

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    Byerley Lauri O

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A sudden increase in exercise and energy expenditure is associated with an increase in protein turnover and nitrogen excretion. This study examined how a sudden increase in exercise-induced energy expenditure affected whole body protein metabolism and nitrogen balance in people of differing levels of aerobic fitness. We hypothesized that alterations in whole-body protein turnover would be attenuated, and nitrogen balance would be preserved, in individual with higher levels of aerobic fitness. Methods Eleven men, categorized as either having a lower (LOW-FIT; n = 5 or higher (FIT; n = 6 aerobic fitness level, completed a 4-d baseline period (BL of an energy balance diet while maintaining usual physical activity level, followed by a 7-d intervention consisting of 1,000 kcal·d-1 increased energy expenditure via exercise (50–65% VO2peak. All volunteers consumed 0.9 g protein·kg-1·d-1 and total energy intake was adjusted to maintain energy balance throughout the 11-d study. Mean nitrogen balance (NBAL was determined for BL, days 5–8 (EX1, and days 9–11 (EX2. Whole-body protein turnover was derived from phenylalanine and tyrosine kinetics assessed while fasting at rest on days 4, 7, and 12 using a priming dose of L-[ring-15N]tyrosine and a 4-h primed, continuous infusion of L-[15N]phenylalanine and L-[ring-2H4]tyrosine. Results A significant main effect of time indicated that NBAL increased over the course of the intervention; however, a group-by-time interaction was not observed. Although FIT demonstrated a lower net protein oxidation and higher net protein balance compared to LOW-FIT, neither the effect of time nor a group-by-time interaction was significant for Phe flux, net protein oxidation, or derived whole-body protein synthesis and net protein balance. Conclusion The absence of significant group-by-time interactions in protein metabolism (i.e., NBAL and whole-body protein turnover between LOW-FIT and FIT males

  8. Ultrasonic Phased Array Evaluation of Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) Nozzle Interference Fit and Weld Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mathews, Royce; Hanson, Brady D.; Diaz, Aaron A.

    2011-07-31

    Ultrasonic phased array data were collected on a removed-from-service CRDM nozzle specimen to assess a previously reported leak path. First a mock-up CRDM specimen was evaluated that contained two 0.076-mm (3.0-mil) interference fit regions formed from an actual Inconel CRDM tube and two 152.4-mm (6.0-in.) thick carbon steel blocks. One interference fit region has a series of precision crafted electric discharge machining (EDM) notches at various lengths, widths, depths, and spatial separations for establishing probe sensitivity, resolution and calibration. The other interference fit has zones of boric acid (crystal form) spaced periodically between the tube and block to represent an actively leaking CRDM nozzle assembly in the field. Ultrasonic phased-array evaluations were conducted using an immersion 8-element annular 5.0-MHz probe from the tube inner diameter (ID). A variety of focal laws were employed to evaluate the interference fit regions and J grove weld, where applicable. Responses from the mock-up specimen were evaluated to determine detection limits and characterization ability as well as contrast the ultrasonic response differences with the presence of boric acid in the fit region. Nozzle 63, from the North Anna Unit-2 nuclear power plant, was evaluated to assess leakage path(s) and was destructively dismantled to allow a visual verification of the leak path(s).

  9. Workplace exercise and educational program for improving fitness outcomes related to health in workers: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Bianca Lima; Benedito Silva, Ana Amélia; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Andrade, Marília dos Santos

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the effects of a workplace fitness and education program intervention on physical fitness of workers. Employees from a chemical plant (n = 60) participated in a 4-month longitudinal study. They were randomly distributed in control and experimental groups. The experimental group had 4 months of exercise training in 15-minute sessions. The following evaluations were performed before and after the training period: body composition, localized muscle strength, and flexibility. The experimental group showed a significant decrease in body fat (24.7%) and a significant increase in lean mass (6.1%), flexibility (17.9%), sit-up test performance (39.8%), and push-up test performance (29.8%) after the workplace fitness and education program compared with initial values. A structured program of physical exercise was effective in improving body composition, abdominal strength, upper limb strength, and flexibility in workers.

  10. Exercise therapy, cardiorespiratory fitness and their effect on brain volumes: a randomised controlled trial in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheewe, Thomas W; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Sarkisyan, Gayane; Schnack, Hugo G; Brouwer, Rachel M; de Glint, Maria; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Backx, Frank J G; Kahn, René S; Cahn, Wiepke

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine exercise effects on global brain volume, hippocampal volume, and cortical thickness in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Irrespective of diagnosis and intervention, associations between brain changes and cardiorespiratory fitness improvement were examined. Sixty-three schizophrenia patients and fifty-five healthy controls participated in this randomised controlled trial. Global brain volumes, hippocampal volume, and cortical thickness were estimated from 3-Tesla MRI scans. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed with a cardiopulmonary ergometer test. Subjects were assigned exercise therapy or occupational therapy (patients) and exercise therapy or life-as-usual (healthy controls) for six months 2h weekly. Exercise therapy effects were analysed for subjects who were compliant at least 50% of sessions offered. Significantly smaller baseline cerebral (grey) matter, and larger third ventricle volumes, and thinner cortex in most areas of the brain were found in patients versus controls. Exercise therapy did not affect global brain and hippocampal volume or cortical thickness in patients and controls. Cardiorespiratory fitness improvement was related to increased cerebral matter volume and lateral and third ventricle volume decrease in patients and to thickening in the left hemisphere in large areas of the frontal, temporal and cingulate cortex irrespective of diagnosis. One to 2h of exercise therapy did not elicit significant brain volume changes in patients or controls. However, cardiorespiratory fitness improvement attenuated brain volume changes in schizophrenia patients and increased thickness in large areas of the left cortex in both schizophrenia patients and healthy controls.

  11. Loci associated with N-glycosylation of human immunoglobulin G show pleiotropy with autoimmune diseases and haematological cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Lauc

    Full Text Available Glycosylation of immunoglobulin G (IgG influences IgG effector function by modulating binding to Fc receptors. To identify genetic loci associated with IgG glycosylation, we quantitated N-linked IgG glycans using two approaches. After isolating IgG from human plasma, we performed 77 quantitative measurements of N-glycosylation using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC in 2,247 individuals from four European discovery populations. In parallel, we measured IgG N-glycans using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS in a replication cohort of 1,848 Europeans. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS results identified 9 genome-wide significant loci (P<2.27 × 10(-9 in the discovery analysis and two of the same loci (B4GALT1 and MGAT3 in the replication cohort. Four loci contained genes encoding glycosyltransferases (ST6GAL1, B4GALT1, FUT8, and MGAT3, while the remaining 5 contained genes that have not been previously implicated in protein glycosylation (IKZF1, IL6ST-ANKRD55, ABCF2-SMARCD3, SUV420H1, and SMARCB1-DERL3. However, most of them have been strongly associated with autoimmune and inflammatory conditions (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, diabetes type 1, multiple sclerosis, Graves' disease, celiac disease, nodular sclerosis and/or haematological cancers (acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Follow-up functional experiments in haplodeficient Ikzf1 knock-out mice showed the same general pattern of changes in IgG glycosylation as identified in the meta-analysis. As IKZF1 was associated with multiple IgG N-glycan traits, we explored biomarker potential of affected N-glycans in 101 cases with SLE and 183 matched controls and demonstrated substantial discriminative power in a ROC-curve analysis (area under the curve = 0.842. Our study shows that it is possible to identify new loci that control glycosylation of a single plasma protein

  12. Aerobic fitness does not modulate protein metabolism in response to increased exercise: a controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: This study examined how a sudden increase in exercise energy expenditure affected whole body protein turnover and nitrogen balance in people of differing aerobic fitness. We hypothesized that whole-body protein turnover would be attenuated, and nitrogen balance would be preserved, in aerobi...

  13. Changes in disease gene frequency over time with differential genotype fitness and various control strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, P.N.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    A spreadsheet model was constructed to describe the change in allelic frequency over time for a lethal recessive mutation in an animal population. The model allowed relative fitness to differ between genotypes, between sexes, and over time. Whereas a lethal recessive allele is naturally eliminated v

  14. The role of physical activity and physical fitness in postcancer fatigue: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen, H.; Bleijenberg, G.; Heijmen, L.; Zwarts, M.J.; Leer, J.W.H.; Heerschap, A.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients suffering from postcancer fatigue have both an inferior physical activity and physical fitness compared to non-fatigued cancer survivors. The aims of this study were (1) to examine the effect of cognitive behavior therapy, an effective treatment for postcancer fatigue, on physical

  15. Changes in disease gene frequency over time with differential genotypic fitness and various control strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, P.N.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Arendonk, J.A.M. van

    2006-01-01

    A spreadsheet model was constructed to describe the change in allelic frequency over time for a lethal recessive mutation in an animal population. The model allowed relative fitness to differ between genotypes, between sexes, and over time. Whereas a lethal recessive allele is naturally eliminated v

  16. Ecological speciation in sympatric palms: 1. Gene expression, selection and pleiotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, L T; Hipperson, H; Baker, W J; Butlin, R K; Devaux, C; Hutton, I; Igea, J; Papadopulos, A S T; Quan, X; Smadja, C M; Turnbull, C G N; Savolainen, V

    2016-08-01

    Ecological speciation requires divergent selection, reproductive isolation and a genetic mechanism to link the two. We examined the role of gene expression and coding sequence evolution in this process using two species of Howea palms that have diverged sympatrically on Lord Howe Island, Australia. These palms are associated with distinct soil types and have displaced flowering times, representing an ideal candidate for ecological speciation. We generated large amounts of RNA-Seq data from multiple individuals and tissue types collected on the island from each of the two species. We found that differentially expressed loci as well as those with divergent coding sequences between Howea species were associated with known ecological and phenotypic differences, including response to salinity, drought, pH and flowering time. From these loci, we identified potential 'ecological speciation genes' and further validate their effect on flowering time by knocking out orthologous loci in a model plant species. Finally, we put forward six plausible ecological speciation loci, providing support for the hypothesis that pleiotropy could help to overcome the antagonism between selection and recombination during speciation with gene flow.

  17. Effect of Kaempferia parviflora Extract on Physical Fitness of Soccer Players: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promthep, Kreeta; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn; Chatchawan, Uraiwan

    2015-05-06

    Physical fitness is a fundamental prerequisite for soccer players. Kaempferia parviflora is an herbal plant that has been used in some Asian athletes with the belief that it might prevent fatigue and improve physical fitness. This study aimed to determine the effects of Kaempferia parviflora on the physical fitness of soccer players. Sixty soccer players who routinely trained at a sports school participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial and were randomly allocated to the treatment group or the placebo group. The participants in both groups were given either 180 mg of Kaempferia parviflora extract in capsules or a placebo once daily for 12 weeks. Baseline data were collected using the following 6 tests of physical performance: a sit-and-reach test, a hand grip strength test, a back-and-leg strength test, a 40-yard technical test, a 50-metre sprint test, and a cardiorespiratory fitness test. All of the tests were performed every 4 weeks throughout the 12-week study period. The study showed that after treatment with Kaempferia parviflora, the right-hand grip strength was significantly increased at weeks 4, 8, and 12. The left-hand grip strength was significantly increased at week 8. However, the back-and-leg strength, the 40-yard technical test, the sit-and-reach test, the 50-metre sprint test, and the cardiorespiratory fitness test results of the treatment group were not significantly different from those of the placebo group. Taking Kaempferia parviflora supplements for 12 weeks may significantly enhance some physical fitness components in soccer players.

  18. Smooth-fit principle for a degenerate two-dimensional singular stochastic control problem arising in irreversible investment

    CERN Document Server

    Federico, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies an irreversible investment problem where a social planner aims to control its capacity production in order to fit optimally the random demand of a good. Our model allows for general diffusion dynamics on the demand as well as general cost functional. The resulting optimization problem leads to a degenerate two-dimensional singular stochastic control problem, for which explicit solution is not available in general and the standard verification approach can not be applied a priori. We use a direct viscosity solutions approach for deriving some features of the optimal free boundary function, and for displaying the structure of the solution. In the quadratic cost case, we are able to prove a smooth-fit $C^2$ property, which gives rise to an explicit identification of the optimal policy and value function.

  19. Appraised control, coping, and stress in a community sample: a test of the goodness-of-fit hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakowski, S G; Hall, M H; Klein, L C; Baum, A

    2001-01-01

    Lazarus and Folkman proposed one of the most comprehensive theories of stress and coping in the psychology literature, but many of their postulates have received little empirical attention, and some of the existing research hasyielded contradictory findings. This longitudinal study sought to clarify the associations among control appraisal, coping, and stress within this theoreticalframework. The theory postulates that coping strategies used tend to match the level of appraised controllability of the stressor (matching hypothesis). It further states that the effects of problem-focused versus emotion-focused coping are moderated by the appraised controllability of the stressor (goodness-of-fit hypothesis). An alternative to the latter is the main-effects hypothesis, which states that problem-focused coping is generally more effective in reducing distress regardless of appraisal. These hypotheses were tested on 72 adults who completed questionnaires on coping and control appraisal. Stress was assessed using self-report (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised) and a behavioral measure (proofreading task) at two times approximately 2 months apart. Appraised control significantly predicted type of coping such that greater control was associated with more problem-focused and less emotion-focused coping. Although the main-effects hypothesis was not supported, the goodness-of-fit hypothesis was partly confirmed by a significant control by emotion-focused coping interaction predicting both self-report and behavioral measures of stress.

  20. Spatial scale and movement behaviour traits control the impacts of habitat fragmentation on individual fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattarino, Lorenzo; McAlpine, Clive A; Rhodes, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation, that is the breaking apart of habitat, can occur at multiple spatial scales at the same time, as a result of different land uses. Individuals of most species spend different amounts of times moving in different modes, during which they cover different distances and experience different fitness impacts. The scale at which fragmentation occurs interacts with the distance that individuals move in a particular mode to affect an individual's ability to find habitat. However, there is little knowledge of the fitness consequences of different scales of fragmentation for individuals with different traits of movement behaviour. This is critical to understand the mechanisms of persistence of different species in fragmented landscapes. The aim of this study was to quantify the impacts of habitat fragmentation at different scales on the fitness components (reproduction and survival) of individuals with different traits of movement behaviour. We developed a demographic model of individuals that adopt short and tortuous movements within foraging areas (foraging mode) and long and straight movements between foraging areas (searching mode). We considered individuals that adopt different movement modes with varying frequencies, inherently move different searching distances and experience different risks of mortality during searching. We then applied the model within a spatially explicit simulation framework where we varied simultaneously the degree of fragmentation within (fine scale) and between foraging areas (coarse scale). Fine-scale fragmentation had a greater impact on reproduction and survival than coarse-scale fragmentation, for those individuals with a low searching propensity. The impact of fine-scale fragmentation on reproduction and survival interacted with the impact of coarse-scale fragmentation on reproduction and survival, to affect the fitness of individuals with a high searching propensity, large inherent searching distances and high

  1. Effects of supplemental training on fitness and aesthetic competence parameters in contemporary dance: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioi, Manuela; Metsios, George; Twitchett, Emily A; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew

    2012-03-01

    Within aesthetic sports such as figure skating and rhythmic gymnastics, physical fitness has been shown to have positive benefits on performance outcomes. Presently the link between physical fitness and aesthetic contemporary dance performance has not been demonstrated within an intervention study. In this study, 24 females engaged in contemporary dance (age 27 ± 5.9 yrs; height 165.3 ± 4.8 cm; weight 59.2 ± 7.6 kg) were recruited and randomly assigned to either an exercise (n = 12) or a control group (n = 12). Three dancers withdrew during the study. The intervention group completed a 6-week conditioning programme comprising two 1-hr sessions of circuit and vibration training per week. The circuit training focused on local muscular endurance and aerobic conditioning and vibration training protocol concentrated on power. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant increases for the conditioning group in lower body muscular power (11%), upper body muscular endurance (22%), aerobic fitness (11%), and aesthetic competence (12%) (p dance commitments, revealed significant increases in selected fitness components and a concomitant increase in aesthetic competence in contemporary professional and student dancers.

  2. Relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic control, and fat distribution in type 2 diabetes subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Elisabetta; Negri, Carlo; Tarperi, Cantor; Baraldo, Anna; Faccioli, Niccolò; Milanese, Chiara; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta; Lanza, Massimo; Cevese, Antonio; Bonora, Enzo; Schena, Federico; Moghetti, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Factors contributing to the reduced cardiorespiratory fitness typical of sedentary subjects with type 2 diabetes are still largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness and abdominal and skeletal muscle fat content in 39 untrained type 2 diabetes subjects, 27 males and 12 females (mean ± SD age 56.5 ± 7.3 year, BMI 29.4 ± 4.7 kg/m(2)). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and ventilatory threshold (VO2VT) were assessed by maximal cycle ergometer exercise test, insulin sensitivity by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate visceral, total subcutaneous (SAT), superficial (SSAT) and deep sub-depots of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), as well as femoral quadriceps skeletal muscle fat content. In univariate analysis, both VO2peak and VO2VT were inversely associated with BMI, total fat mass, SAT, SSAT, and sagittal abdominal diameter. VO2peak was also inversely associated with skeletal muscle fat content. A significant direct association was observed between VO2VT and insulin sensitivity. No associations between cardiorespiratory fitness parameters and metabolic profile data were found. In multivariable regression analysis, after adjusting for age and gender, VO2peak was independently predicted by higher HDL cholesterol, and lower SAD and skeletal muscle fat content (R (2) = 0.64, p < 0.001), whereas VO2VT was predicted only by sagittal abdominal diameter (R (2) = 0.48, p = 0.025). In conclusion, in untrained type 2 diabetes subjects, peak oxygen uptake is associated with sagittal abdominal diameter, skeletal muscle fat content, and HDL cholesterol levels. Future research should target these features in prospective intervention studies.

  3. Comparison of the behavior of epiphytic fitness mutants of pseudomonas syringae under controlled and field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, G.A.; Lindow, S.E. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States))

    1994-10-01

    The epiphytic fitness of four Tn5 of Pseudomonas syringae that exhibited reduced epiphytic fitness in the laboratory was evaluated under field conditions. The mutants differed more from the parental strain under field conditions than under laboratory conditions, in their survival immediately following inoculation onto bean leaves and in the size of the epiphytic populations that they established at near-wild type rates, while the others exhibited reduced survival only in the warmest, driest conditions tested and grew epiphytically at reduced rates or, in the case of one mutant, not at all. The presence of the parental strain, B728a, did not influence the survival or growth of three of the mutants under field conditions; however, one mutant, an auxotroph, established larger populations in the presence of B728a than in its absence, possibly because of cross-feeding by By28a in planta. Experiments with B728a demonstrated that established epiphytic populations survived exposure of leaves to dry conditions better than newly inoculated cells did and that epiphytic survival was not dependent on the cell density in the inoculum. Three of the mutants behaved similarly to two nonpathogenic strains of P. syringae, suggesting that the mutants may be altered in traits that are missing or poorly expressed in naturally occurring nonpathogenic epiphytes. 58 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. CF-Pursuit: A Pursuit Method with a Clothoid Fitting and a Fuzzy Controller for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxiao Shan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple and efficient geometric controllers, like Pure-Pursuit, have been widely used in various types of autonomous vehicles to solve tracking problems. In this paper, we have developed a new pursuit method, named CFPursuit, which has been based on Pure-Pursuit but with certain differences. In CF-Pursuit, in order to reduce fitting errors, we used a clothoid C1 curve to replace the circle employed in Pure-Pursuit. This improvement to the fitting method helps the Pursuit method to decrease tracking errors. As regards the selection of look-ahead distance, we employed a fuzzy system to directly consider the path’s curvature. There are three input variables in this fuzzy system, 6mcurvature, 9mcurvature and 12mcurvature, calculated from the clothoid fit with the current position and the goal position on the defined path. A Sugeno fuzzy model was adapted to output a reasonable look-ahead distance using the experiences of human drivers as well as our own tests. Compared with some other geometric controllers, CF-Pursuit performs better in robustness, cross track errors and stability. The results from field tests have proven the CF-Pursuit is a practical and efficient geometric method for the path tracking problems of autonomous vehicles.

  5. Wii Fit is effective in women with bone loss condition associated with balance disorders: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morone, Giovanni; Paolucci, Teresa; Luziatelli, Sara; Iosa, Marco; Piermattei, Cristina; Zangrando, Federico; Paolucci, Stefano; Vulpiani, Maria Chiara; Saraceni, Vincenzo Maria; Baldari, Carlo; Guidetti, Laura

    2016-12-01

    The use of exergame for balance competencies was recently explored in women affected by balance ability reduction with non-conclusive results. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a supervised exergame performed with the Wii Fit(®) compared to conventional exercises on balance function, quality of life, fear of fall and well-being in women with bone loss. Thirty-eight female participants aged over 65 years, with a bone loss condition, were enrolled and random allocated in the Wii group or control group. Subject enrolled in Wii group performed a balance training with a Wii Fit supervised by a physiotherapist (1 h, 2 days per week, during 8 weeks) while in control subjects performed the same amount of conventional balance exercises. Subject enrolled in experimental group showed significantly higher scores in terms of Berg Balance Scale (p = 0.027). In SF-36 scores, a significant difference was reported for physical activity score after treatment (p = 0.031). Fear of falling and the psychological scales were not significantly different between the two groups. In women with bone loss condition, a supervised Wii Fit training has shown better efficacy in improving balance performance with respect to conventional balance exercises.

  6. A clinical evaluation of statin pleiotropy: statins selectively and dose-dependently reduce vascular inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien van der Meij

    Full Text Available Statins are thought to reduce vascular inflammation through lipid independent mechanisms. Evaluation of such an effect in atherosclerotic disease is complicated by simultaneous effects on lipid metabolism. Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA are part of the atherosclerotic spectrum of diseases. Unlike atherosclerotic occlusive disease, AAA is not lipid driven, thus allowing direct evaluation of putative anti-inflammatory effects. The anti-inflammatory potency of increasing doses (0, 20 or 40 mg/day simvastatin or atorvastatin was evaluated in 63 patients that were at least 6 weeks on statin therapy and who underwent open AAA repair. A comprehensive analysis using immunohistochemistry, mRNA and protein analyses was applied on aortic wall samples collected during surgery. The effect of statins on AAA growth was analyzed in a separate prospective study in incorporating 142 patients. Both statins equally effectively and dose-dependently reduced aortic wall expression of NFκB regulated mediators (i.e. IL-6 (P<0.001 and MCP-1 (P<0.001; shifted macrophage polarization towards a M2 phenotype (P<0.0003; selectively reduced macrophage-related markers such as cathepsin K and S (P<0.009 and 0.0027 respectively, and ALOX5 (P<0.0009, and reduced vascular wall NFκB activity (40 mg/day group, P<0.016. No effect was found on other cell types. Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of statins to reduce AAA progression did not indicate an effect of statins on aneurysm growth (P<0.337. Hence, in the context of AAA the clinical relevance of statins pleiotropy appears minimal.

  7. Mutations of ARX are associated with striking pleiotropy and consistent genotype-phenotype correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Mitsuhiro; Das, Soma; Petras, Kristin; Kitamura, Kunio; Morohashi, Ken-ichirou; Abuelo, Diane N; Barr, Mason; Bonneau, Dominique; Brady, Angela F; Carpenter, Nancy J; Cipero, Karen L; Frisone, Francesco; Fukuda, Takayuki; Guerrini, Renzo; Iida, Eri; Itoh, Masayuki; Lewanda, Amy Feldman; Nanba, Yukiko; Oka, Akira; Proud, Virginia K; Saugier-Veber, Pascale; Schelley, Susan L; Selicorni, Angelo; Shaner, Rachel; Silengo, Margherita; Stewart, Fiona; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Toyama, Jun; Toutain, Annick; Vargas, Ana Lía; Yanazawa, Masako; Zackai, Elaine H; Dobyns, William B

    2004-02-01

    We recently identified mutations of ARX in nine genotypic males with X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia (XLAG), and in several female relatives with isolated agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). We now report 13 novel and two recurrent mutations of ARX, and one nucleotide change of uncertain significance in 20 genotypic males from 16 families. Most had XLAG, but two had hydranencephaly and abnormal genitalia, and three males from one family had Proud syndrome or ACC with abnormal genitalia. We obtained detailed clinical information on all 29 affected males, including the nine previously reported subjects. Premature termination mutations consisting of large deletions, frameshifts, nonsense mutations, and splice site mutations in exons 1 to 4 caused XLAG or hydranencephaly with abnormal genitalia. Nonconservative missense mutations within the homeobox caused less severe XLAG, while conservative substitution in the homeodomain caused Proud syndrome. A nonconservative missense mutation near the C-terminal aristaless domain caused unusually severe XLAG with microcephaly and mild cerebellar hypoplasia. In addition, several less severe phenotypes without malformations have been reported, including mental retardation with cryptogenic infantile spasms (West syndrome), other seizure types, dystonia or autism, and nonsyndromic mental retardation. The ARX mutations associated with these phenotypes have included polyalanine expansions or duplications, missense mutations, and one deletion of exon 5. Together, the group of phenotypes associated with ARX mutations demonstrates remarkable pleiotropy, but also comprises a nearly continuous series of developmental disorders that begins with hydranencephaly, lissencephaly, and agenesis of the corpus callosum, and ends with a series of overlapping syndromes with apparently normal brain structure.

  8. Improved Detection of Common Variants Associated with Schizophrenia by Leveraging Pleiotropy with Cardiovascular-Disease Risk Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Ole A; Djurovic, Srdjan; Thompson, Wesley K;

    2013-01-01

    -pleiotropy-informed method for improving gene discovery with the use of GWAS summary-statistics data. We applied this methodology to identify additional loci associated with schizophrenia (SCZ), a highly heritable disorder with significant missing heritability. Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest comorbidity...... between SCZ and cardiovascular-disease (CVD) risk factors, including systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, low- and high-density lipoprotein, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and type 2 diabetes. Using stratified quantile-quantile plots, we show enrichment of SNPs associated with SCZ as a function...

  9. Efficacy of Wii-Fit on Static and Dynamic Balance in Community Dwelling Older Veterans: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbert, Patricia M.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives. Balance problems are well-established modifiable risk factors for falls, which are common in older adults. The objective of this study was to establish the efficacy of a Wii-Fit interactive video-game-led physical exercise program to improve balance in older Veterans. Methods. A prospective randomized controlled parallel-group trial was conducted at Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Thirty community dwelling Veterans aged 68 (±6.7) years were randomized to either the exercise or control groups. The exercise group performed Wii-Fit program while the control group performed a computer-based cognitive program for 45 minutes, three days per week for 8-weeks. The primary (Berg Balance Scale (BBS)) and secondary outcomes (fear of falling, physical activity enjoyment, and quality of life) were measured at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. Results. Of 30 randomized subjects, 27 completed all aspects of the study protocol. There were no study-related adverse events. Intent-to-treat analysis showed a significantly greater improvement in BBS in the exercise group (6.0; 95% CI, 5.1–6.9) compared to the control group (0.5; 95% CI, −0.3–1.3) at 8 weeks (average intergroup difference (95% CI), 5.5 (4.3–6.7), p balance in community dwelling older Veterans. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02190045. PMID:28261500

  10. Widespread fitness alignment in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Maren L

    2012-06-01

    Although 'cheaters' potentially destabilize the legume-rhizobium mutualism, we lack a comprehensive review of host-symbiont fitness correlations. Studies measuring rhizobium relative or absolute fitness and host benefit are surveyed. Mutant studies are tallied for evidence of pleiotropy; studies of natural strains are analyzed with meta-analysis. Of 80 rhizobium mutations, 19 decrease both partners' fitness, four increase both, two increase host fitness but decrease symbiont fitness and none increase symbiont fitness at the host's expense. The pooled correlation between rhizobium nodulation competitiveness and plant aboveground biomass is 0.65 across five experiments that compete natural strains against a reference, whereas, across 14 experiments that compete rhizobia against soil populations or each other, the pooled correlation is 0.24. Pooled correlations between aboveground biomass and nodule number and nodule biomass are 0.76 and 0.83. Positive correlations between legume and rhizobium fitness imply that most ineffective rhizobia are 'defective' rather than 'defectors'; this extends to natural variants, with only one significant fitness conflict. Most studies involve non-coevolved associations, indicating that fitness alignment is the default state. Rhizobium mutations that increase both host and symbiont fitness suggest that some plants maladaptively restrict symbiosis with novel strains.

  11. Benefits of physical exercise intervention on fitness of individuals with Down syndrome: a systematic review of randomized-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxiao; Chen, Shihui; Meng How, Yew; Zhang, Anthony L

    2013-09-01

    This study systematically reviewed the impact of physical exercise interventions on physical fitness for individuals with Down syndrome. Articles published in English were searched from five major electronic databases, namely, CINAHL, Medline, PsychINFO, SPORTDiscus, and PEDro from inception until April 2013. These studies were screened through predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were then extracted and synthesized from the studies included. Meta-analyses were carried out where appropriate. Ten studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of the 10 studies, five studies were found to have high quality research methodology according to the PEDro scale. Varying exercise programs were used and four different fitness outcomes were evaluated: (i) balance, (ii) muscle strength and endurance, (iii) cardiovascular fitness, and (iv) body composition. Exercise interventions led to moderate to high effects on improving muscular strength and balance ((Equation is included in full-text article.)=0.74-1.10) whereas other outcomes showed less conclusive or limited positive evidence. Trends in the results suggest that exercise interventions improve muscular strength and balance. Suggestions for future research include follow-ups to the intervention to examine the longitudinal effects of exercise as well as controlling for confounding factors such as participants' compliance rate and severity levels of Down syndrome to enhance the effectiveness of the interventions.

  12. Decreased physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adults with ankylosing spondylitis: a cross-sectional controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Tom; O'Shea, Finbar; Wilson, Fiona

    2015-11-01

    The health benefits of physical activity (PA) in the general population are numerous; however, few studies have measured PA among adults with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The aims of this study were to: (1) objectively measure the PA levels and cardiorespiratory fitness of adults with AS and compare these to population controls, and (2) examine the relationships between PA, cardiorespiratory function and condition-specific outcomes. This cross-sectional study included participants (>18 years) meeting the modified New York criteria for AS, and matched population controls. Exclusion criteria were the presence of comorbidities limiting PA, or recent changes in medication usage. Participants completed clinical questionnaires assessing disease activity, physical function and quality of life. Tri-axial accelerometers recorded habitual PA over 1 week. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by submaximal treadmill test with breath-by-breath gas analysis and heart rate monitoring. Thirty-nine adults with AS and 39 controls were recruited. The AS group spent significantly less time performing vigorous-intensity PA than controls [mean difference (95 % CI) 1.8 min/day (1.2-2.7)] and performed significantly fewer bouts of health-enhancing PA [1.7 min/day (1.1-2.5)]. The AS group had significantly lower predicted VO(2MAX) than controls [6.0 mL kg(-1) min(-1) (1.8-10.1)]. PA was associated with aerobic capacity. Sedentary time was associated with disease activity and physical function. Adults with AS participate in less health-enhancing PA than population controls. Fewer than half meet PA recommendations, despite exercise being a key component of AS management. Explorations of PA behaviour and strategies to increase PA participation are needed.

  13. Promotion of physical activity and fitness in sedentary patients with Parkinson's disease : randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, Marlies; Speelman, Arlene D.; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van de Warrenburg, Bart P.; Smulders, Katrijn; Dontje, Manon L.; Borm, George F.; Backx, Frank J. G.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Munneke, Marten

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a multifaceted behavioural change programme increases physical activities in patients with Parkinson's disease. Design Multicentre randomised controlled trial. Setting 32 community hospitals in the Netherlands, collaborating in a nationwide network (ParkinsonNet). Parti

  14. Promotion of physical activity and fitness in sedentary patients with Parkinson's disease : randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, Marlies; Speelman, Arlene D.; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van de Warrenburg, Bart P.; Smulders, Katrijn; Dontje, Manon L.; Borm, George F.; Backx, Frank J. G.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Munneke, Marten

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a multifaceted behavioural change programme increases physical activities in patients with Parkinson's disease. Design Multicentre randomised controlled trial. Setting 32 community hospitals in the Netherlands, collaborating in a nationwide network (ParkinsonNet). Parti

  15. The Use of Statistical Process Control-Charts for Person-Fit Analysis on Computerized Adaptive Testing. LSAC Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Rob R.; van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith M. L. A.

    In this study a cumulative-sum (CUSUM) procedure from the theory of Statistical Process Control was modified and applied in the context of person-fit analysis in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) environment. Six person-fit statistics were proposed using the CUSUM procedure, and three of them could be used to investigate the CAT in online test…

  16. Nectar accessibility determines fitness, flower choice and abundance of hoverflies that provide natural pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Paul C. J.; Wäckers, Felix L.

    2016-01-01

    In modern agricultural landscapes, many organisms providing ecosystem services such as pollination and natural pest control are likely constrained by shortage of nectar and/or pollen required for adult nutrition. More and more flower-rich field margin strips and other habitats are created to elimina

  17. Nectar accessibility determines fitness, flower choice and abundance of hoverflies that provide natural pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, P.C.J.; Wäckers, F.L.

    2016-01-01

    1. In modern agricultural landscapes, many organisms providing ecosystem services such as pollination and natural pest control are likely constrained by shortage of nectar and/or pollen required for adult nutrition. More and more flower-rich field margin strips and other habitats are created to elim

  18. The Performance Implications of Fit among Environment, Strategy, Structure, Control System and Social Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Fauzi

    2009-12-01

    domain will be contingent upon strategic behaviors, which are behaviors of members in an organization. The paper integrates the contextual variables including business environment, strategy, organization structure, and control system with corporate performance by using corporate social performance as moderating variable by means of a recent literatures study from strategic management and accounting field.

  19. Antagonistic Pleiotropy at the Human "IL6" Promoter Confers Genetic Resilience to the Pro-Inflammatory Effects of Adverse Social Conditions in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Steven W.; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Manu, Kavya; Telzer, Eva H.; Kiang, Lisa; Bower, Julienne E.; Irwin, Michael R.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors tested the evolutionary genetic hypothesis that the functional form of an asymmetrically risky Gene x Environment interaction will differ as a function of age-related antagonistic pleiotropy (i.e., show opposite effects in young vs. old individuals). Previous studies have identified a polymorphism in the human "IL6" promoter…

  20. Strategic analysis of tuberculosis prevention and control actions in Brazil and Ethiopia: one size fits all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Gisela; Dos Santos, Elizabeth Moreira; Kiflie, Yibeltal; Woldemichael, Kifle; Wilson, Suzanne; Lemma, Wuleta

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed at conducting a strategic analysis of Tuberculosis prevention and control actions in Brazil and Ethiopia, looking at the potential of directly observed treatment short-course strategy (DOTS) and community DOTS in both countries. Literature review was conducted using PubMed, Medline-Ovid, EMBASE, and SCIELO databases. The reviewed terms were Tuberculosis, prevention and control and Brazil (or Brasil) or Ethiopia (or Etiopia). Study's eligibility included article's title or abstract in English or Portuguese and comprised the following Tuberculosis policy components: management; care; communication, and social mobilization; training and professional development; epidemiological surveillance, and monitoring and evaluation. The study identified, compared, and analyzed the challenges and recommendations reported in the literature. Although DOTS was not able to address all the difficulties regarding Tuberculosis control and prevention, it contributes to overcome challenges identified in the literature review. Decentralizing DOTS in Ethiopia and implementing DOTS in Brazil were key recommendations to overcome problems of access and treatment default. DOTS and Community DOTS cannot solve every identified Tuberculosis challenge, but together they complement each other. Both strategies need to be tailored to site's challenges.

  1. The effects of free-living interval-walking training on glycemic control, body composition, and physical fitness in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Winding, Kamilla; Knudsen, Sine H

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of free-living walking training in type 2 diabetic patients and to investigate the effects of interval-walking training versus continuous-walking training upon physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control.......To evaluate the feasibility of free-living walking training in type 2 diabetic patients and to investigate the effects of interval-walking training versus continuous-walking training upon physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control....

  2. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2011-01-01

    General fitness Classes Enrolments are open for general fitness classes at CERN taking place on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday lunchtimes in the Pump Hall (building 216). There are shower facilities for both men and women. It is possible to pay for 1, 2 or 3 classes per week for a minimum of 1 month and up to 6 months. Check out our rates and enrol at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  3. The spectrum of mutations controlling complex traits and the genetics of fitness in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falke, K Christin; Glander, Shirin; He, Fei; Hu, Jinyong; de Meaux, Juliette; Schmitz, Gregor

    2013-12-01

    Elucidating the molecular basis of natural variation in complex traits is the key for their effective management in crops or natural systems. This review focuses on plant variation. It will first, show that genetic modifications causing major alterations in polygenic phenotypes often hit targets within an array of 'candidate genes', second, present new methods that include mutations of all effect sizes, and help exhaustively describe the molecular systems underlying complex traits, and third, discuss recent findings regarding the role of epigenetic variants, which in plants are often maintained through both mitosis and meiosis. Exploring the whole spectrum of mutations controlling complex traits is made possible by the combination of genetic, genomic and epigenomic approaches.

  4. Effects of combined exercise on physical fitness and neurotransmitters in children with ADHD: a pilot randomized controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Kyoung; Lee, Chung-Moo; Park, Jong-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a jump rope and ball combined exercise program on the physical fitness the neurotransmitter (epinephrine, serotonin) levels of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 12 boys attending elementary school, whose grade levels ranged from 1–4. The block randomization method was used to distribute the participants between the combined exercise group (n = 6) and control group (n = 6). The program consisted of a 60-min exercise (10-min warm-up, 40-min main exercise, and 10-min cool down) performed three times a week, for a total of 12 weeks. [Results] The exercise group showed a significant improvement in cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle strength, muscle endurance and flexibility after 12 weeks. A significant increase in the epinephrine level was observed in the exercise group. [Conclusion] The 12-week combined exercise program in the current study (jump rope and ball exercises) had a positive effect on overall fitness level, and neurotransmission in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:26504324

  5. Effects of core strength training using stable versus unstable surfaces on physical fitness in adolescents: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Schellbach, Jörg; Klein, Katja; Prieske, Olaf; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Muehlbauer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that core strength training is an effective means to enhance trunk muscle strength (TMS) and proxies of physical fitness in youth. Of note, cross-sectional studies revealed that the inclusion of unstable elements in core strengthening exercises produced increases in trunk muscle activity and thus provide potential extra training stimuli for performance enhancement. Thus, utilizing unstable surfaces during core strength training may even produce larger performance gains. However, the effects of core strength training using unstable surfaces are unresolved in youth. This randomized controlled study specifically investigated the effects of core strength training performed on stable surfaces (CSTS) compared to unstable surfaces (CSTU) on physical fitness in school-aged children. Twenty-seven (14 girls, 13 boys) healthy subjects (mean age: 14 ± 1 years, age range: 13-15 years) were randomly assigned to a CSTS (n = 13) or a CSTU (n = 14) group. Both training programs lasted 6 weeks (2 sessions/week) and included frontal, dorsal, and lateral core exercises. During CSTU, these exercises were conducted on unstable surfaces (e.g., TOGU© DYNAIR CUSSIONS, THERA-BAND© STABILITY TRAINER). Significant main effects of Time (pre vs. post) were observed for the TMS tests (8-22%, f = 0.47-0.76), the jumping sideways test (4-5%, f = 1.07), and the Y balance test (2-3%, f = 0.46-0.49). Trends towards significance were found for the standing long jump test (1-3%, f = 0.39) and the stand-and-reach test (0-2%, f = 0.39). We could not detect any significant main effects of Group. Significant Time x Group interactions were detected for the stand-and-reach test in favour of the CSTU group (2%, f = 0.54). Core strength training resulted in significant increases in proxies of physical fitness in adolescents. However, CSTU as compared to CSTS had only limited additional effects (i.e., stand-and-reach test). Consequently, if the

  6. Hysteresis Curve Fitting Optimization of Magnetic Controlled Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuquan Tu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As a new actuating material, magnetic controlled shape memory alloys (MSMAs have excellent characteristics such as a large output strain, fast response, and high energy density. These excellent characteristics are very attractive for precision positioning systems. However, the availability of MSMAs in practical precision positioning is poor, caused by weak repeatability under a certain stimulus. This problem results from the error of a large magnetic hysteresis in an external magnetic field. A suitable hysteresis modelling method can reduce the error and improve the accuracy of the MSMA actuator. After analyzing the original hysteresis modelling methods, three kinds of hysteresis modelling methods are proposed: least squares method, back propagation (BP artificial neural network, and BP artificial neural network based on genetic algorithms. Comparing the accuracy and convergence rate of three kinds of hysteresis modelling methods, the results show that the convergence rate of least squares method is the fastest, and the convergence accuracy of BP artificial neural networks based on genetic algorithms is the highest.

  7. Effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) on fitness in adults: a meta-analysis of controlled and non-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Matthew; Taylor, Kathryn L; Batterham, Alan M; Hopkins, Will G

    2014-07-01

    Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) appears to be an efficient and practical way to develop physical fitness. Our objective was to estimate meta-analysed mean effects of HIT on aerobic power (maximum oxygen consumption [VO(2max)] in an incremental test) and sprint fitness (peak and mean power in a 30-s Wingate test). Five databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, BIOSIS and Web of Science) were searched for original research articles published up to January 2014. Search terms included 'high intensity', 'HIT', 'sprint', 'fitness' and 'VO(2max)'. Inclusion criteria were fitness assessed pre- and post-training; training period ≥2 weeks; repetition duration 30-60 s; work/rest ratio intensity described as maximal or near maximal; adult subjects aged >18 years. The final data set consisted of 55 estimates from 32 trials for VO(2max), 23 estimates from 16 trials for peak sprint power, and 19 estimates from 12 trials for mean sprint power. Effects on fitness were analysed as percentages via log transformation. Standard errors calculated from exact p values (where reported) or imputed from errors of measurement provided appropriate weightings. Fixed effects in the meta-regression model included type of study (controlled, uncontrolled), subject characteristics (sex, training status, baseline fitness) and training parameters (number of training sessions, repetition duration, work/rest ratio). Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences for meta-analysed effects were based on standardized thresholds for small, moderate and large changes (0.2, 0.6 and 1.2, respectively) derived from between-subject standard deviations (SDs) for baseline fitness. A mean low-volume HIT protocol (13 training sessions, 0.16 work/rest ratio) in a controlled trial produced a likely moderate improvement in the VO(2max) of active non-athletic males (6.2 %; 90 % confidence limits ±3.1 %), when compared with control. There were possibly moderate improvements in the VO(2max) of sedentary males (10

  8. Model and Effectiveness of Endurance Exercise to Increase Physical Fitness in Intellectual Disability Subjects with Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirza Z Tamin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to design a model and assess the effectiveness of endurance exercise to increase physical fitness in intelectual disability (ID patients with obesity. Methods: a randomized-controlled clinical trial was performed in ID patients with obesity aged 10-30 years old from all Special School in DKI Jakarta, which were randomly allocated into 3 groups and then given 3 different type of exercises: lower extremity muscles endurance exercise for 20 RM followed by cardiorespiratory endurance exercise for 24-25 minutes (type I, lower extremity muscles endurance exercises for 10 RM followed by cardiorespiratory endurance exercises for 26-27 minutes (type II, and threw a tennis ball with 10 m distance for 10 minutes as control (type III. These program was performed 3 times a week for 4 months. Assesment of the exercise effectiveness was done by measuring maximum load that can be lifted and six-minutes walking test on rectangular track which was converted with the VO2 max prediction formula. Analysis was perfomed with Kruskal Wallis test. Results: two hundred and twelve (212 subjects were included in the study, randomly allocated into three types (I, II, and III of exercises groups. The type II of endurance exercise model was proved to be more effective in increasing lower extremity muscles endurance level compared to type I and III for ID patients with obesity (p<0.05. Meanwhile, type I of endurance exercise model was proved to be more effective in increasing cardiorespiratory endurance level compared to type II and III for ID patients with obesity (p<0.05. Conclusion: lower extremity muscles endurance exercise followed by a cardiorespiratory endurance exercise can be used to increase physical fitness in ID patients with obesity. Key words: intelectual disability patient, obesity, lower extremity muscles and cardiorespiratory endurance exercise, lower extremity muscles endurance level, cardiorespiratory endurance level.

  9. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Fitness Club is organising Zumba Classes on the first Wednesday of each month, starting 7 September (19.00 – 20.00). What is Zumba®? It’s an exhilarating, effective, easy-to-follow, Latin-inspired, calorie-burning dance fitness-party™ that’s moving millions of people toward joy and health. Above all it’s great fun and an excellent work out. Price: 22 CHF/person Sign-up via the following form: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20Subscription/NewForm.aspx For more info: fitness.club@cern.ch

  10. Pleiotropy between neuroticism and physical and mental health: findings from 108 038 men and women in UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, C R; Hagenaars, S P; Davies, G; Hill, W D; Liewald, D C M; Cullen, B; Penninx, B W; Boomsma, D I; Pell, J; McIntosh, A M; Smith, D J; Deary, I J; Harris, S E

    2016-04-26

    People with higher levels of neuroticism have an increased risk of several types of mental disorder. Higher neuroticism has also been associated, less consistently, with increased risk of various physical health outcomes. We hypothesised that these associations may, in part, be due to shared genetic influences. We tested for pleiotropy between neuroticism and 17 mental and physical diseases or health traits using linkage disequilibrium regression and polygenic profile scoring. Genetic correlations were derived between neuroticism scores in 108 038 people in the UK Biobank and health-related measures from 14 large genome-wide association studies (GWASs). Summary information for the 17 GWASs was used to create polygenic risk scores for the health-related measures in the UK Biobank participants. Associations between the health-related polygenic scores and neuroticism were examined using regression, adjusting for age, sex, genotyping batch, genotyping array, assessment centre and population stratification. Genetic correlations were identified between neuroticism and anorexia nervosa (rg=0.17), major depressive disorder (rg=0.66) and schizophrenia (rg=0.21). Polygenic risk for several health-related measures were associated with neuroticism, in a positive direction in the case of bipolar disorder, borderline personality, major depressive disorder, negative affect, neuroticism (Genetics of Personality Consortium), schizophrenia, coronary artery disease, and smoking (β between 0.009-0.043), and in a negative direction in the case of body mass index (β=-0.0095). A high level of pleiotropy exists between neuroticism and some measures of mental and physical health, particularly major depressive disorder and schizophrenia.

  11. Use of Approximate Bayesian Computation to Assess and Fit Models of Mycobacterium leprae to Predict Outcomes of the Brazilian Control Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Lee Smith

    Full Text Available Hansen's disease (leprosy elimination has proven difficult in several countries, including Brazil, and there is a need for a mathematical model that can predict control program efficacy. This study applied the Approximate Bayesian Computation algorithm to fit 6 different proposed models to each of the 5 regions of Brazil, then fitted hierarchical models based on the best-fit regional models to the entire country. The best model proposed for most regions was a simple model. Posterior checks found that the model results were more similar to the observed incidence after fitting than before, and that parameters varied slightly by region. Current control programs were predicted to require additional measures to eliminate Hansen's Disease as a public health problem in Brazil.

  12. Treadmill exercise rehabilitation improves ambulatory function and cardiovascular fitness in patients with chronic stroke: a randomized, controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macko, Richard F; Ivey, Frederick M; Forrester, Larry W; Hanley, Daniel; Sorkin, John D; Katzel, Leslie I; Silver, Kenneth H; Goldberg, Andrew P

    2005-01-01

    .... We investigated whether treadmill aerobic training (T-AEX) is more effective than conventional rehabilitation to improve ambulatory function and cardiovascular fitness in patients with chronic stroke...

  13. Can user testing of a clinical trial patient information sheet make it fit-for-purpose? - a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silcock Jonathan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The participant information sheet (PIS provided to potential trial participants is a critical part of the process of valid consent. However, there is long-standing concern that these lengthy and complex documents are not fit-for-purpose. This has been supported recently through the application of a performance-based approach to testing and improving readability called user testing. This method is now widely used to improve patient medicine leaflets - determining whether people can find and understand key facts. This study applied for the first time a controlled design to determine whether a PIS developed through user testing had improved readability over the original, using a sheet from a UK trial in acute myeloid leukemia (AML16. Methods In the first phase the performance of the original PIS was tested on people in the target group for the trial. There were three rounds of testing including 50 people in total - with the information revised according to its performance after each of the first 2 rounds. In the second phase, the revised PIS was compared with the original in a parallel groups randomised controlled trial (RCT A total of 123 participants were recruited and randomly allocated to read one version of the PIS to find and show understanding of 21 key facts. Results The first, developmental phase produced a revised PIS significantly altered in its wording and layout. In the second, trial phase 66% of participants who read the revised PIS were able to show understanding of all aspects of the trial, compared with 15% of those reading the original version (Odds Ratio 11.2; Chi-square = 31.5 p p Conclusions The original PIS for the AML16 trial may not have enabled valid consent. Combining performance-based user testing with expertise in writing for patients and information design led to a significantly improved and preferred information sheet. User testing is an efficient method for indicating strengths and weaknesses in

  14. Effect of a diet intervention during pregnancy on dietary behavior in the randomized controlled Norwegian Fit for Delivery study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillesund, E R; Bere, E; Sagedal, L R; Vistad, I; Øverby, N C

    2016-10-01

    A mother's diet during pregnancy has the potential to influence both her own and her child's short- and long-term health. This paper reports the effects of a randomized controlled diet intervention during pregnancy on dietary behavior post-intervention as reported in late pregnancy. The diet intervention was part of a lifestyle intervention targeting both diet and physical activity behaviors among nulliparous women participating in the randomized controlled Norwegian Fit for Delivery study (NFFD). Eligible women were enrolled in early pregnancy from eight healthcare clinics in southern Norway between 2009 and 2013. The diet intervention was based on 10 dietary recommendations that were conveyed during two counseling sessions by phone and in a pamphlet describing the recommendations and their simplified rationale. A diet score was constructed from a 43-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and used to assess intervention effect on dietary behavior (score range 0-10). Between-group dietary differences post-intervention were estimated with analysis of covariance, with adjustment for baseline diet. A total of 508 women completed the FFQ both at baseline and post-intervention. There were no between-group differences in diet score and subscales at baseline. Post-intervention, the intervention group had higher overall diet score (control: 4.61, intervention: 5.04, P=0.013) and favorable dietary behavior in seven of the 10 dietary domains: 'consumption of water relative to total beverage consumption' (P=0.002), 'having vegetables with dinner' (P=0.027), 'choosing fruits and vegetables for between-meal snacks' (P=0.023), 'buying small portion sizes of unhealthy foods' (P=0.010), 'limiting sugar intake' (P=0.005), 'avoiding eating beyond satiety' (P=0.009) and 'reading food labels' (P=0.011). The NFFD diet intervention improved dietary behavior. Potential long-term clinical influence in mother and child will be investigated in further studies.

  15. The impact of Wii Fit intervention on dynamic balance control in children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder and balance problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Dorothee; Geuze, Reint H; Mombarg, Remo; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in the performance of children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder (p-DCD) and balance problems (BP) and typical developing children (TD) on a Wii Fit task and to measure the effect on balance skills after a Wii Fit intervention. Twenty-

  16. The impact of Wii Fit intervention on dynamic balance control in children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder and balance problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Dorothee; Geuze, Reint H; Mombarg, Remo; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C.M.

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in the performance of children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder (p-DCD) and balance problems (BP) and typical developing children (TD) on a Wii Fit task and to measure the effect on balance skills after a Wii Fit intervention.

  17. Efficacy of Feedback-Controlled Robotics-Assisted Treadmill Exercise to Improve Cardiovascular Fitness Early After Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Oliver; de Bruin, Eling D; Schindelholz, Matthias; Schuster-Amft, Corina; de Bie, Rob A; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular fitness is greatly reduced after stroke. Although individuals with mild to moderate impairments benefit from conventional cardiovascular exercise interventions, there is a lack of effective approaches for persons with severely impaired physical function. This randomized controlled pilot trial investigated efficacy and feasibility of feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (FC-RATE) for cardiovascular rehabilitation in persons with severe impairments early after stroke. Twenty individuals (age 61 ± 11 years; 52 ± 31 days poststroke) with severe motor limitations (Functional Ambulation Classification 0-2) were recruited for FC-RATE or conventional robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (RATE) (4 weeks, 3 × 30-minute sessions/wk). Outcome measures focused on peak cardiopulmonary performance parameters, training intensity, and feasibility, with examiners blinded to allocation. All 14 allocated participants (70% of recruited) completed the intervention (7/group, withdrawals unrelated to intervention), without serious adverse events occurring. Cardiovascular fitness increased significantly in both groups, with peak oxygen uptake increasing from 14.6 to 17.7 mL · kg · min (+17.8%) after 4 weeks (45.8%-55.7% of predicted maximal aerobic capacity; time effect P = 0.01; no group-time interaction). Training intensity (% heart rate reserve) was significantly higher for FC-RATE (40% ± 3%) than for conventional RATE (14% ± 2%) (P = 0.001). Substantive overall increases in the main cardiopulmonary performance parameters were observed, but there were no significant between-group differences when comparing FC-RATE and conventional RATE. Feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise significantly increased exercise intensity, but recommended intensity levels for cardiovascular training were not consistently achieved. Future research should focus on appropriate algorithms within advanced robotic systems to promote optimal cardiovascular

  18. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Open to All: http://cern.ch/club-fitness  fitness.club@cern.ch Boxing Your supervisor makes your life too tough ! You really need to release the pressure you've been building up ! Come and join the fit-boxers. We train three times a week in Bd 216, classes for beginners and advanced available. Visit our website cern.ch/Boxing General Fitness Escape from your desk with our general fitness classes, to strengthen your heart, muscles and bones, improve you stamina, balance and flexibility, achieve new goals, be more productive and experience a sense of well-being, every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtime, Tuesday mornings before work and Thursday evenings after work – join us for one of our monthly fitness workshops. Nordic Walking Enjoy the great outdoors; Nordic Walking is a great way to get your whole body moving and to significantly improve the condition of your muscles, heart and lungs. It will boost your energy levels no end. Pilates A body-conditioning technique de...

  19. A Randomised Control Trial of the Impact of a Computer-Based Activity Programme upon the Fitness of Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Dickinson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The poor levels of fitness in children with autism are prompting concern for the children’s future health. This study looked to assess if a computer-based activity programme could improve fitness levels (as reflected in cardiopulmonary function of these children, and achieve a reduction in their body mass index. In a randomised controlled trial, 50 children with autism (of which 33 were under the age of 11 years and 39 were boys were allocated to an intervention group which encouraged them to use the Nintendo Wii and the software package “Mario and Sonics at the Olympics” in addition to their routine physical education classes. 50 children with autism (34 under the age of 11 years and 40 being boys acted as controls. At the end of one year, analysis of the changes in scores using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA on the Eurofit fitness tests showed that the intervention group had made statistically significant improvement on all tests other than flexibility. These improvements were also significantly better than controls. This type of intervention appears to be an effective addition to standard fitness training in order to help children with autism improve their fitness levels.

  20. A randomised controlled pilot study to compare filtration factor of a novel non-fit-tested high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtering facemask with a fit-tested N95 mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, S S W; Gomersall, C D; Leung, P; Li, P T Y

    2010-09-01

    Use of a fit-tested N95 or FFP2 mask is recommended to protect against transmission of airborne pathogens. This poses considerable logistic problems when preparing for, or dealing with, an epidemic. Some of these problems might be overcome by use of a compact reusable high-efficiency particulate air filtering mask that can be cut to size. We carried out a randomised controlled cross-over study to compare the efficacy of such a mask (Totobobo, Dream Lab One Pte Ltd, Singapore) with fit-tested N95 masks (1860 or 1860s or 1862; 3M, St Paul, MN, USA) in 22 healthy volunteers. The median (interquartile range) reduction in airborne particle counts was significantly higher [193-fold (145-200)] for N95 masks than for Totobobo masks [135-fold (83-184)] (P or =100-fold between N95 (19/22) and Totobobo (16/22) masks. We conclude that use of the Totobobo mask without fit testing cannot be recommended, but its performance is sufficiently promising to warrant further investigation.

  1. Wii Fit balance training or progressive balance training in patients with chronic stroke: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Yatar, Gozde Iyigun; Yildirim, Sibel Aksu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Wii Fit balance training (WBT) and progressive balance training (PBT) approaches on balance functions, balance confidence, and activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] A total of 30 patients were randomized into the WBT (n=15) and PBT (n=15) groups. [Methods] All of the subjects received exercise training based on a neurodevelopemental approach in addition to either Wii Fit or progressive balance training f...

  2. Fitness of Transgenic Anopheles stephensi Mosquitoes Expressing the SM1 Peptide under the Control of a Vitellogenin Promoter

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chaoyang; Marrelli, Mauro T.; Yan, Guiyun; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    Three transgenic Anopheles stephensi lines were established that strongly inhibit transmission of the mouse malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Fitness of the transgenic mosquitoes was assessed based on life table analysis and competition experiments between transgenic and wild-type mosquitoes. Life table analysis indicated low fitness load for the 2 single-insertion transgenic mosquito lines VD35 and VD26 and no load for the double-insertion transgenic mosquito line VD9. However, in cage ex...

  3. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...... to that seen in Denmark. We propose a significant fitness cost of resistance as the main bacteriological explanation for the disappearance of the multiresistant complex 83A MRSA in Denmark following a reduction in antibiotic usage.......Denmark and several other countries experienced the first epidemic of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) during the period 196575, which was caused by multiresistant isolates of phage complex 83A. In Denmark these MRSA isolates disappeared almost completely, being replaced by other...

  4. Low-intensity wheelchair training in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury : A randomized controlled trial on fitness, wheelchair skill performance and physical activity levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Jan W; de Groot, Sonja; Tepper, Marga; Faber, Willemijn; Group, Allrisc; Veeger, DirkJan H; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of low-intensity wheelchair training on wheelchair-specific fitness, wheelchair skill performance and physical activity levels in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Inactive manual wheelchair use

  5. The Efficacy of Incentives to Motivate Continued Fitness-Center Attendance in College First-Year Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Lizzy; Harvey, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether fitness-center attendance established with the provision of weekly monetary incentives persisted after the discontinuation, or decreased frequency, of incentives. Participants: One hundred seventeen first-year college students participated during the 2011-2012 academic year. Methods: A randomized controlled trial…

  6. Low-intensity wheelchair training in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury : A randomized controlled trial on fitness, wheelchair skill performance and physical activity levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Jan W.; de Groot, Sonja; Tepper, Marga; Faber, Willemijn; Veeger, DirkJan H.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    Objective: To investigate the effects of low-intensity wheelchair training on wheelchair-specific fitness, wheelchair skill performance and physical activity levels in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Participants: Inactive manual wheelchair

  7. Muscle strength, physical fitness and well-being in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and the effect of an exercise programme: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Decreased muscle strength, fitness and well-being are common in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) compared to healthy peers. Biological drugs have improved health in children with JIA, but despite this pain is still a major symptom and bone health is reported as decreased in the group. The improvement made by the biological drugs makes it possible to more demanding exercises. To jump is an exercise that can improve bone heath, fitness and muscle strength. The aim of the study was to see if an exercise programme with jumps had an effect on muscle strength, physical fitness and well-being and how it was tolerated. Methods Muscle strength and well-being were studied before and after a 12-week exercise programme in 54 children and adolescents with JIA, 9–21 years old. The participants were randomized into an exercise and a control group. Muscle strength, fitness and well-being were documented before and after the training period and at follow-up after 6 months. Physical activity in leisure time was documented in diaries. The fitness/exercise programme was performed at home three times a week and included rope skipping and muscle strength training exercises. Assessment included measurement of muscle strength with a handheld device, and with Grip-it, step-test for fitness with documentation of heart rate and pain perception and two questionnaires (CHAQ, CHQ) on well-being. Results There were no differences between exercise and control group regarding muscle strength, grip strength, fitness or well-being at base line. Muscle weakness was present in hip extensors, hip abductors and handgrip. For the exercise group muscle strength in hip and knee extensors increased after the 12-week exercise programme and was maintained in knee extensors at follow-up. There was no change in fitness tested with the individually adapted step-test. The CHQ questionnaire showed that pain was common in the exercise group and in the control group

  8. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Get in Shape for Summer with the CERN Fitness Club Saturday 23 June 2012 from 14:30 to 16.30 (doors open at 14.00) Germana’s Fitness Workshop. Build strength and stamina, sculpt and tone your body and get your heart pumping with Germana’s workout mixture of Cardio Attack, Power Pump, Power Step, Cardio Combat and Cross-Training. Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 15 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Test_Subscription/NewForm.aspx? Join the Party and dance yourself into shape at Marco + Marials Zumba Masterclass. Saturday 30 June 2012 from 15:00 to 16:30 Marco + Mariel’s Zumba Masterclass Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 25 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20...

  9. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

      The CERN Fitness Club is pleased to announce its new early morning class which will be taking place on: Tuesdays from 24th April 07:30 to 08:15 216 (Pump Hall, close to entrance C) – Facilities include changing rooms and showers. The Classes: The early morning classes will focus on workouts which will help you build not only strength and stamina, but will also improve your balance, and coordination. Our qualified instructor Germana will accompany you throughout the workout  to ensure you stay motivated so you achieve the best results. Sign up and discover the best way to start your working day full of energy! How to subscribe? We invite you along to a FREE trial session, if you enjoy the activity, please sign up via our website: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Activities/SUBSCRIBE.aspx. * * * * * * * * Saturday 28th April Get in shape for the summer at our fitness workshop and zumba dance party: Fitness workshop with Germana 13:00 to 14:30 - 216 (Pump Hall) Price...

  10. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

      Nordic Walking Classes Come join the Nordic walking classes and outings offered by the CERN Fitness Club starting September 2013. Our licensed instructor Christine offers classes for people who’ve never tried Nordic Walking and who would like to learn the technique, and outings for people who have completed the classes and enjoy going out as a group. Course 1: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 24 September, 1 October, 8 October, 15 October Course 2: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 5 November, 12 November, 19 November, 26 November Outings will take place on Thursdays (12:30 to 13:30) from 12 September 2013. We meet at the CERN Club Barracks car park (close to Entrance A) 10 minutes before departure. Prices: 50 CHF for 4 classes, including the 10 CHF Club membership. Payments made directly to instructor. Renting Poles: Poles can be rented from Christine at 5 CHF / hour. Subscription: Please subscribe at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Looking forward to seeing you among us! Fitness Club FitnessClub@c...

  11. Applying the genetic theories of ageing to the cytoplasm: cytoplasmic genetic covariation for fitness and lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, D K; Maklakov, A A; Friberg, U; Hailer, F

    2009-04-01

    Two genetic models exist to explain the evolution of ageing - mutation accumulation (MA) and antagonistic pleiotropy (AP). Under MA, a reduced intensity of selection with age results in accumulation of late-acting deleterious mutations. Under AP, late-acting deleterious mutations accumulate because they confer beneficial effects early in life. Recent studies suggest that the mitochondrial genome is a major player in ageing. It therefore seems plausible that the MA and AP models will be relevant to genomes within the cytoplasm. This possibility has not been considered previously. We explore whether patterns of covariation between fitness and ageing across 25 cytoplasmic lines, sampled from a population of Drosophila melanogaster, are consistent with the genetic associations predicted under MA or AP. We find negative covariation for fitness and the rate of ageing, and positive covariation for fitness and lifespan. Notably, the direction of these associations is opposite to that typically predicted under AP.

  12. Cognitive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain.

  13. Functional Fitness and Self-Reported Quality of Life of Older Women Diagnosed with Knee Osteoarthrosis: A Cross-Sectional Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Andréa Malveira Cavalcante; Márcio Roberto Doro; Frank Shiguemitsu Suzuki; Roberta Luksevicius Rica; Andrey Jorge Serra; Francisco Luciano Pontes Junior; Alexandre Lopes Evangelista; Aylton José Figueira Junior; Julien Steven Baker; Danilo Sales Bocalini

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Utilizing a cross-sectional case control design, the aim of this study was to evaluate the functional fitness and self-reported quality of life differences in older people diagnosed with knee osteoarthrosis (O) who participated in health promotion groups. Methods. Ninety older women were distributed into two groups: control without O of the knee (C, n = 40) and a group diagnosed with primary and secondary knee O with grade II or higher, with definite osteophytes (OA, n = 50). Functional ...

  14. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) polymorphism is related to differences in potential fertility in women: a case of antagonistic pleiotropy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasienska, Grazyna; Ellison, Peter T; Galbarczyk, Andrzej; Jasienski, Michal; Kalemba-Drozdz, Malgorzata; Kapiszewska, Maria; Nenko, Ilona; Thune, Inger; Ziomkiewicz, Anna

    2015-03-22

    The alleles that are detrimental to health, especially in older age, are thought to persist in populations because they also confer some benefits for individuals (through antagonistic pleiotropy). The ApoE4 allele at the ApoE locus, encoding apolipoprotein E (ApoE), significantly increases risk of poor health, and yet it is present in many populations at relatively high frequencies. Why has it not been replaced by natural selection with the health-beneficial ApoE3 allele? ApoE is a major supplier of cholesterol precursor for the production of ovarian oestrogen and progesterone, thus ApoE has been suggested as the potential candidate gene that may cause variation in reproductive performance. Our results support this hypothesis showing that in 117 regularly menstruating women those with genotypes with at least one ApoE4 allele had significantly higher levels of mean luteal progesterone (144.21 pmol l(-1)) than women with genotypes without ApoE4 (120.49 pmol l(-1)), which indicates higher potential fertility. The hormonal profiles were based on daily data for entire menstrual cycles. We suggest that the finding of higher progesterone in women with ApoE4 allele could provide first strong evidence for an evolutionary mechanism of maintaining the ancestral and health-worsening ApoE4 allele in human populations.

  15. The effects of repeated-sprint training on field-based fitness measures: a meta-analysis of controlled and non-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan; Macpherson, Tom; Spears, Iain; Weston, Matthew

    2015-06-01

    Repeated-sprint training appears to be an efficient and practical means for the simultaneous development of different components of fitness relevant to team sports. Our objective was to systematically review the literature and meta-analyse the effect of repeated-sprint training on a selection of field-based measures of athletic performance, i.e. counter-movement jump, 10 m sprint, 20 m sprint, 30 m sprint, repeated-sprint ability and high-intensity intermittent running performance. The SPORTDiscus, PubMed, MEDLINE and Web of Science databases were searched for original research articles. Search terms included 'repeated-sprint training', 'sprint training', 'aerobic endurance', 'repeated-sprint ability', 'counter-movement jump' and 'sprint performance'. Inclusion criteria included intervention consisting of a series of ≤10 s sprints with ≤60 s recovery; trained participants; intervention duration of 2-12 weeks; field-based fitness measures; running- or cycling-based intervention; published up to, and including, February 2014. Our final dataset included six trials for counter-movement jump (two controlled trials), eight trials for 10 m sprint, four trials for 20 m sprint (three controlled trials), two trials for 30 m sprint, eight trials for repeated-sprint ability and three trials for high-intensity intermittent running performance. Analyses were conducted using comprehensive meta-analysis software. Uncertainty in the meta-analysed effect of repeated-sprint training was expressed as 95% confidence limits (CL), along with the probability that the true value of the effect was trivial, beneficial or harmful. Magnitude-based inferences were based on standardised thresholds for small, moderate and large changes of 0.2, 0.6 and 1.2 standard deviations, respectively. Repeated-sprint training had a likely small beneficial effect in non-controlled counter-movement jump trials (effect size 0.33; 95% CL ±0.30), with a possibly moderate beneficial effect in controlled

  16. Sedentary Patterns, Physical Activity, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Association to Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís B. Sardinha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sedentary behavior has been considered an independent risk factor for type-2 diabetes (T2D, with a negative impact on several physiological outcomes, whereas breaks in sedentary time (BST have been proposed as a viable solution to mitigate some of these effects. However, little is known about the independent associations of sedentary pursuits, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF variables with glycemic control. We investigated the independent associations of total sedentary time, BST, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and CRF with glycemic outcomes in patients with T2D.Methods: Total sedentary time, BST, and MVPA were assessed in 66 participants (29 women with T2D, using accelerometry. Glucose and insulin were measured during a mixed meal tolerance test, with the respective calculations of HOMA-IR and Matsuda index. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c was also analyzed. CRF was measured in a maximal treadmill test with breath-by-breath gases analysis. Multiple regressions were used for data analysis.Results: Regardless of CRF, total sedentary time was positively associated with HbA1c (β = 0.25, p = 0.044. Adjusting for MVPA, total sedentary time was related to fasting glucose (β = 0.32, p = 0.037. No associations between total sedentary time and the remaining glycemic outcomes, after adjusting for MVPA. BST had favorable associations with HOMA-IR (β = −0.28, p = 0.047 and fasting glucose (β = −0.25, p = 0.046, when adjusted for MVPA, and with HOMA-IR (β = −0.25, p = 0.036, Matsuda index (β = 0.26, p = 0.036, and fasting glucose (β = −0.22, p = 0.038, following adjustment for CRF. When adjusting for total sedentary time, only CRF yielded favorable associations with HOMA-IR (β = −0.29, p = 0.039, fasting glucose (β = −0.32, p = 0.012, and glucose at 120-min (β = −0.26, p = 0.035, and no associations were found for MVPA with none of the metabolic outcomes.Conclusion: The results from this

  17. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes Sessions of four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Session 1 =  11.09 / 18.09 / 25.09 / 02.10, 18:15 - 19:15 Session 2 = 25.09 / 02.10 / 09.10 / 16.10, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 3 = 23.10 / 30.10 / 06.11 / 13.11, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 4 = 20.11 / 27.11 / 04.12 / 11.12, 12:30 - 13:30 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness   Hope to see you among us!  fitness.club@cern.ch In spring 2012 there was a long-awaited progress in CERN Fitness club. We have officially opened a Powerlifting @ CERN, and the number of members of the new section has been increasing since then reaching 70+ people in less than 4 months. Powerlifting is a strength sport, which is simple as 1-2-3 and efficient. The "1-2-3" are the three basic lifts (bench press...

  18. Improved physical fitness of cancer survivors : A randomised controlled trial comparing physical training with physical and cognitive-behavioural training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    May, Anne M.; Van Weert, Ellen; Korstjens, Irene; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Van Der Schans, Cees P.; Zonderland, Maria L.; Mesters, Ilse; Van Den Borne, Bart; Ros, Wynand J. G.

    2008-01-01

    We compared the effect of a group-based 12-week supervised exercise programme, i.e. aerobic and resistance exercise, and group sports, with that of the same programme combined with cognitive-behavioural training on physical fitness and activity of cancer survivors. One hundred and forty seven cancer

  19. Improved physical fitness of cancer survivors : A randomised controlled trial comparing physical training with physical and cognitive-behavioural training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    May, Anne M.; Van Weert, Ellen; Korstjens, Irene; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Van Der Schans, Cees P.; Zonderland, Maria L.; Mesters, Ilse; Van Den Borne, Bart; Ros, Wynand J. G.

    2008-01-01

    We compared the effect of a group-based 12-week supervised exercise programme, i.e. aerobic and resistance exercise, and group sports, with that of the same programme combined with cognitive-behavioural training on physical fitness and activity of cancer survivors. One hundred and forty seven cancer

  20. Decline in Executive Control during Acute Bouts of Exercise as a Function of Exercise Intensity and Fitness Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, Veronique; Bosquet, Laurent; Mekary, Said; Bherer, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the effects of acute bouts of cardiovascular exercise on cognitive performances show contradictory findings due to methodological differences (e.g., exercise intensity, cognitive function assessed, participants' aerobic fitness level, etc.). The present study assessed the acute effect of exercise intensity on cognition while controlling…

  1. Decline in Executive Control during Acute Bouts of Exercise as a Function of Exercise Intensity and Fitness Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, Veronique; Bosquet, Laurent; Mekary, Said; Bherer, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the effects of acute bouts of cardiovascular exercise on cognitive performances show contradictory findings due to methodological differences (e.g., exercise intensity, cognitive function assessed, participants' aerobic fitness level, etc.). The present study assessed the acute effect of exercise intensity on cognition while controlling…

  2. Promoting Fitness and Safety in Elementary Students: A Randomized Control Study of the Michigan Model for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, James M.; Clark, Jeffrey K.; Jones, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In elementary grades, comprehensive health education curricula have demonstrated effectiveness in addressing singular health issues. The Michigan Model for Health (MMH) was implemented and evaluated to determine its impact on nutrition, physical fitness, and safety knowledge and skills. Methods: Schools (N = 52) were randomly assigned…

  3. Can pre-season fitness measures predict time to injury in varsity athletes?: a retrospective case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Michael D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to determine athletic performance in varsity athletes using preseason measures has been established. The ability of pre-season performance measures and athlete’s exposure to predict the incidence of injuries is unclear. Thus our purpose was to determine the ability of pre-season measures of athletic performance to predict time to injury in varsity athletes. Methods Male and female varsity athletes competing in basketball, volleyball and ice hockey participated in this study. The main outcome measures were injury prevalence, time to injury (based on calculated exposure and pre-season fitness measures as predictors of time to injury. Fitness measures were Apley’s range of motion, push-up, curl-ups, vertical jump, modified Illinois agility, and sit-and-reach. Cox regression models were used to identify which baseline fitness measures were predictors of time to injury. Results Seventy-six percent of the athletes reported 1 or more injuries. Mean times to initial injury were significantly different for females and males (40.6% and 66.1% of the total season (p , respectively. A significant univariate correlation was observed between push-up performance and time to injury (Pearson’s r = 0.332, p . No preseason fitness measure impacted the hazard of injury. Regardless of sport, female athletes had significantly shorter time to injury than males (Hazard Ratio = 2.2, p . Athletes playing volleyball had significantly shorter time to injury (Hazard Ratio = 4.2, p  compared to those playing hockey or basketball. Conclusions When accounting for exposure, gender, sport and fitness measures, prediction of time to injury was influenced most heavily by gender and sport.

  4. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes New session of 4 classes of 1 hour each will be held on Tuesdays in May 2013. Meet at the CERN barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Dates and time: 07.05, 14.05, 21.05 and 28.05, fom  12 h 30 to 13 h 30 Prices: 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership – 5 CHF / hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! 

  5. Positive effects on bone mineralisation and muscular fitness after 10 months of intense school-based physical training for children aged 8–10 years: the FIT FIRST randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malte Nejst; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Helge, Eva Wulff

    2017-01-01

    classes), a circuit strength training group (CST) (n=83, four schools, four classes) or a control group (CON, n=116, two schools, five classes). Intervention SSG or CST was performed 3×40 min/week over 10 months. Whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were used to determine areal bone...... vs CST: 12 mg/cm2, 95%CI 3 to 21, ptraining types resulted in higher change scores in postural balance (SSG vs CON: 2.4 fewer falls/min, 95% CI 0.3 to 4.5, CST vs CON: 3...... improves bone mineralisation and several aspects of muscular fitness of children aged 8–10 years, suggesting that well-organised intense physical education classes can contribute positively to develop musculoskeletal health in young children. Trial registration number NCT02000492, post results....

  6. Comparison of Canadian firefighters and normal controls based on the submaximal fitness testing and strength considering age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Goris; MacDermid, Joy C; Kin, Kathryn E Sinden R; Overend, Tom J

    2017-09-07

    Few studies have addressed whether the firefighters are more fit than the general population and possess sufficient levels of aerobic capacity and muscle strength to perform on duty tasks in a safe and efficient manner, considering age and gender. We aimed to evaluate the fitness levels of Hamilton firefighters, and to determine the effects of age and gender. 89 participants were recruited. The Modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test was used to determine participants' estimated maximal oxygen consumptions (VO2-max) levels. For upper and lower body strength levels, a calibrated J-Tech hand held dynamometer and a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting devices were used respectively. Firefighters' mean (standard deviations) VO2-max levels were 40.30 ± 6.25 ml·kg -1·min -1. Age proved to have a statistically significant impact on VO2-max - p < 0.001. Gender displayed statistically significant effects on strength levels. Firefighters' age was the only statistically significant independent variable, and accounted for 61.00% of the variance in firefighter aerobic capacity levels. Firefighters possessed somewhat similar aerobic capacities, but much higher levels of body strength when compared with the general population. With age, firefighters' aerobic capacities decreased, however their upper and lower body strength levels remained the same.

  7. Long-term effect of a school-based physical activity program (KISS on fitness and adiposity in children: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursina Meyer

    Full Text Available School-based intervention studies promoting a healthy lifestyle have shown favorable immediate health effects. However, there is a striking paucity on long-term follow-ups. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the 3 yr-follow-up of a cluster-randomized controlled school-based physical activity program over nine month with beneficial immediate effects on body fat, aerobic fitness and physical activity.Initially, 28 classes from 15 elementary schools in Switzerland were grouped into an intervention (16 classes from 9 schools, n = 297 children and a control arm (12 classes from 6 schools, n = 205 children after stratification for grade (1st and 5th graders. Three years after the end of the multi-component physical activity program of nine months including daily physical education (i.e. two additional lessons per week on top of three regular lessons, short physical activity breaks during academic lessons, and daily physical activity homework, 289 (58% participated in the follow-up. Primary outcome measures included body fat (sum of four skinfolds, aerobic fitness (shuttle run test, physical activity (accelerometry, and quality of life (questionnaires. After adjustment for grade, gender, baseline value and clustering within classes, children in the intervention arm compared with controls had a significantly higher average level of aerobic fitness at follow-up (0.373 z-score units [95%-CI: 0.157 to 0.59, p = 0.001] corresponding to a shift from the 50th to the 65th percentile between baseline and follow-up, while the immediate beneficial effects on the other primary outcomes were not sustained.Apart from aerobic fitness, beneficial effects seen after one year were not maintained when the intervention was stopped. A continuous intervention seems necessary to maintain overall beneficial health effects as reached at the end of the intervention.ControlledTrials.com ISRCTN15360785.

  8. Long-term effect of a school-based physical activity program (KISS) on fitness and adiposity in children: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ursina; Schindler, Christian; Zahner, Lukas; Ernst, Dominique; Hebestreit, Helge; van Mechelen, Willem; Brunner-La Rocca, Hans-Peter; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Puder, Jardena J; Kriemler, Susi

    2014-01-01

    School-based intervention studies promoting a healthy lifestyle have shown favorable immediate health effects. However, there is a striking paucity on long-term follow-ups. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the 3 yr-follow-up of a cluster-randomized controlled school-based physical activity program over nine month with beneficial immediate effects on body fat, aerobic fitness and physical activity. Initially, 28 classes from 15 elementary schools in Switzerland were grouped into an intervention (16 classes from 9 schools, n = 297 children) and a control arm (12 classes from 6 schools, n = 205 children) after stratification for grade (1st and 5th graders). Three years after the end of the multi-component physical activity program of nine months including daily physical education (i.e. two additional lessons per week on top of three regular lessons), short physical activity breaks during academic lessons, and daily physical activity homework, 289 (58%) participated in the follow-up. Primary outcome measures included body fat (sum of four skinfolds), aerobic fitness (shuttle run test), physical activity (accelerometry), and quality of life (questionnaires). After adjustment for grade, gender, baseline value and clustering within classes, children in the intervention arm compared with controls had a significantly higher average level of aerobic fitness at follow-up (0.373 z-score units [95%-CI: 0.157 to 0.59, p = 0.001] corresponding to a shift from the 50th to the 65th percentile between baseline and follow-up), while the immediate beneficial effects on the other primary outcomes were not sustained. Apart from aerobic fitness, beneficial effects seen after one year were not maintained when the intervention was stopped. A continuous intervention seems necessary to maintain overall beneficial health effects as reached at the end of the intervention. ControlledTrials.com ISRCTN15360785.

  9. Potential application of digital image-processing method and fitted logistic model to the control of oriental fruit moths (Grapholita molesta Busck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z G; Rong, E H; Li, S C; Zhang, L J; Zhang, Z W; Guo, Y Q; Ma, R Y

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring of oriental fruit moths (Grapholita molesta Busck) is a prerequisite for its control. This study introduced a digital image-processing method and logistic model for the control of oriental fruit moths. First, five triangular sex pheromone traps were installed separately within each area of 667 m2 in a peach orchard to monitor oriental fruit moths consecutively for 3 years. Next, full view images of oriental fruit moths were collected via a digital camera and then subjected to graying, separation and morphological analysis for automatic counting using MATLAB software. Afterwards, the results of automatic counting were used for fitting a logistic model to forecast the control threshold and key control period. There was a high consistency between automatic counting and manual counting (0.99, P < 0.05). According to the logistic model, oriental fruit moths had four occurrence peaks during a year, with a time-lag of 15-18 days between adult occurrence peak and the larval damage peak. Additionally, the key control period was from 28 June to 3 July each year, when the wormy fruit rate reached up to 5% and the trapping volume was approximately 10.2 per day per trap. Additionally, the key control period for the overwintering generation was 25 April. This study provides an automatic counting method and fitted logistic model with a great potential for application to the control of oriental fruit moths.

  10. Phenome Wide Association Studies demonstrating pleiotropy of genetic variants within FTO with and without adjustment for body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Michael Cronin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS have demonstrated utility in validating genetic associations derived from traditional genetic studies as well as identifying novel genetic associations. Here we used an electronic health record (EHR-based PheWAS to explore pleiotropy of genetic variants in the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO, some of which have been previously associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D. We used a population of 10,487 individuals of European ancestry with genome-wide genotyping from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE Network and another population of 13,711 individuals of European ancestry from the BioVU DNA biobank at Vanderbilt genotyped using Illumina HumanExome BeadChip. A meta-analysis of the two study populations replicated the well-described associations between FTO variants and obesity (odds ratio [OR]=1.25, 95% Confidence Interval=1.11-1.24, p=2.10 x 10 9 and FTO variants and T2D (OR=1.14, 95% CI=1.08-1.21, p=2.34 x 10 6. The meta-analysis also demonstrated that FTO variant rs8050136 was significantly associated with sleep apnea (OR=1.14, 95% CI=1.07-1.22, p=3.33 x 10 5; however, the association was attenuated after adjustment for body mass index (BMI. Novel phenotype associations with obesity-associated FTO variants included fibrocystic breast disease (rs9941349, OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.74-0.91, p=5.41x10 5 and trends toward associations with nonalcoholic liver disease and gram-positive bacterial infections. FTO variants not associated with obesity demonstrated other potential disease associations including noninflammatory disorders of the cervix and chronic periodontitis. These results suggest that genetic variants in FTO may have pleiotropic associations, some of which are not mediated by obesity.

  11. The outcomes of a 12-week Internet intervention aimed at improving fitness and health-related quality of life in overweight adolescents: the Young & Active controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Riiser

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity among adolescents may have consequences, with potentially lasting effects on health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Excess weight is also associated with decreases in physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. The aim of the current study was to investigate the short-term effects of a 12-week Internet intervention in a primary care setting intended to increase cardiorespiratory fitness and HRQoL among overweight and obese adolescents.In this controlled trial, participants (13-15 years were non-randomly allocated to an intervention- or a control group. The intervention group received 12-weeks access to an online program providing tailored physical activity counseling based on principles from Self-determination Theory and Motivational Interviewing. The control group received standard follow-up by the school nurses. The primary outcome measure of cardiorespiratory fitness was determined using a shuttle run test. The secondary outcomes: HRQoL, leisure time exercise, body image and self-determined motivation for physical activity and exercise, were assessed by self-report measures. Age- and gender-adjusted body mass index (BMI was calculated based on measurements of height and weight. To compare pre-to post intervention differences within groups, a paired samples t-test was used while crude differences between groups were analyzed with an independent samples t-test.Of the 120 participants, 108 completed the study, 75 in the intervention group and 33 in the control group. Exposure to the intervention had a small effect on cardiorespiratory fitness (0.14; 95% CI [0.01;0.28]; P = 0.04, and a moderate effect on HRQoL (5.22; 95% CI [0.90; 9.53]; P = 0.02. Moreover, the control group increased significantly in BMI, yielding a moderate preventive effect on BMI (-0.39; 95% CI [-0.74;-0.03]; P = 0.03 for the intervention group.The results suggest that the Internet intervention with tailored physical activity counseling

  12. Generalized design of fitness equipment control interface%健身器材控制界面的通用化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林能涛; 苏智剑; 乔帅; 闫扬义; 闫勇杰

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Health has been paid more and more attention in modern society, the health of those special groups, such as the elderly and the disabled, should also be brought to the forefront. As fitness equipment is more and more popular in contemporary, our focus should be transferred to the use of fitness equipment for these special groups. OBJECTIVE:To put forward the design strategy of fitness equipment control interface, for the special groups to use common fitness equipment comfortably and conveniently. METHODS:Based on the research of existing fitness equipment control interface, according to the usage habits and cognitive awareness of special groups on control interface, a new design strategy has been put forward using the general design method and ergonomics. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Based on the existing 45 kinds of exercise bikes, 84 kinds of running machines and 129 kinds of treadmil fitness equipments, we found that these equipments are designed for common users in the aspects of design and production process and control interface. Universal design is a design concept beyond the lack of capacity to meet the different needs of different populations, and designed products can reduce or even eliminate the difference in the ability of special populations and the general population in use. The new strategy makes design of fitness equipment control interface generalized and good man-machine interactive, which can meet the demand of the special groups and help them do fitness exercise to improve their health and body function.%背景:随着健身器材越来越普及的当代国情,关注的焦点也应该转移到老年人、残疾人等这些特殊群体对健身器材的使用上。  目的:提出健身器材控制界面通用化设计策略,以便于特殊人群能够舒适方便的使用普通健身器材。  方法:通过对现有健身器材控制界面的调查研究,结合特殊人群对控制界面的使用习惯和认知意识,

  13. Aquatic therapy improves pain, disability, quality of life, body composition and fitness in sedentary adults with chronic low back pain. A controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Beato, Pedro Ángel; Artero, Enrique G; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Robles-Fuentes, Alejandro; Gatto-Cardia, María Claudia; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2014-04-01

    To determine the effects of a two-month intensive aquatic therapy programme on back pain, disability, quality of life, body composition and health-related fitness in sedentary adults with chronic low back pain. Controlled clinical trial. Community. Forty-nine sedentary patients with chronic low back pain. Patients were allocated into active group (n = 24, two months, five times/week) or waiting list, control group (n = 25) according to space on the programme. Outcomes variables were pain (visual analogue scale), disability (Oswestry Disability Index), quality of life (Quality Short-Form Health Survey 36), body composition (weight, body mass index, body fat percentage and skeletal muscle mass) and health-related fitness (sit-and-reach, handgrip strength, curl-up, Rockport 1-mile test). The active group significantly improved low back pain (-3.83 ± 0.35 mm on the visual analogue scale ), disability (-12.7 ± 1.3 points for the Oswestry Disability Index) and the standardized physical component (10.3 ± 1.4 points for the Quality Short-Form Health Survey 36) of quality-of-life domains (P aquatic therapy programme of high-frequency (five times/week) decreases levels of back pain and disability, increases quality of life, and improves body composition and health-related fitness in sedentary adults with chronic low back pain.

  14. Investigating cognitive transfer within the framework of music practice: genetic pleiotropy rather than causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosing, Miriam A; Madison, Guy; Pedersen, Nancy L; Ullén, Fredrik

    2016-05-01

    The idea of far transfer effects in the cognitive sciences has received much attention in recent years. One domain where far transfer effects have frequently been reported is music education, with the prevailing idea that music practice entails an increase in cognitive ability (IQ). While cross-sectional studies consistently find significant associations between music practice and IQ, randomized controlled trials, however, report mixed results. An alternative to the hypothesis of cognitive transfer effects is that some underlying factors, such as shared genes, influence practice behaviour and IQ causing associations on the phenotypic level. Here we explored the hypothesis of far transfer within the framework of music practice. A co-twin control design combined with classical twin-modelling based on a sample of more than 10,500 twins was used to explore causal associations between music practice and IQ as well as underlying genetic and environmental influences. As expected, phenotypic associations were moderate (r = 0.11 and r = 0.10 for males and females, respectively). However, the relationship disappeared when controlling for genetic and shared environmental influences using the co-twin control method, indicating that a highly practiced twin did not have higher IQ than the untrained co-twin. In line with that finding, the relationship between practice and IQ was mostly due to shared genetic influences. Findings strongly suggest that associations between music practice and IQ in the general population are non-causal in nature. The implications of the present findings for research on plasticity, modularity, and transfer are discussed.

  15. Nicotinic receptor Alpha7 expression during tooth morphogenesis reveals functional pleiotropy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott W Rogers

    Full Text Available The expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR subtype, alpha7, was investigated in the developing teeth of mice that were modified through homologous recombination to express a bi-cistronic IRES-driven tau-enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP; alpha7GFP or IRES-Cre (alpha7Cre. The expression of alpha7GFP was detected first in cells of the condensing mesenchyme at embryonic (E day E13.5 where it intensifies through E14.5. This expression ends abruptly at E15.5, but was again observed in ameloblasts of incisors at E16.5 or molar ameloblasts by E17.5-E18.5. This expression remains detectable until molar enamel deposition is completed or throughout life as in the constantly erupting mouse incisors. The expression of alpha7GFP also identifies all stages of innervation of the tooth organ. Ablation of the alpha7-cell lineage using a conditional alpha7Cre×ROSA26-LoxP(diphtheria toxin A strategy substantially reduced the mesenchyme and this corresponded with excessive epithelium overgrowth consistent with an instructive role by these cells during ectoderm patterning. However, alpha7knock-out (KO mice exhibited normal tooth size and shape indicating that under normal conditions alpha7 expression is dispensable to this process. The function of ameloblasts in alpha7KO mice is altered relative to controls. High resolution micro-computed tomography analysis of adult mandibular incisors revealed enamel volume of the alpha7KO was significantly reduced and the organization of enamel rods was altered relative to controls. These results demonstrate distinct and varied spatiotemporal expression of alpha7 during tooth development, and they suggest that dysfunction of this receptor would have diverse impacts upon the adult organ.

  16. Nicotinic Receptor Alpha7 Expression during Tooth Morphogenesis Reveals Functional Pleiotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Scott W.; Gahring, Lorise C.

    2012-01-01

    The expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype, alpha7, was investigated in the developing teeth of mice that were modified through homologous recombination to express a bi-cistronic IRES-driven tau-enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP); alpha7GFP) or IRES-Cre (alpha7Cre). The expression of alpha7GFP was detected first in cells of the condensing mesenchyme at embryonic (E) day E13.5 where it intensifies through E14.5. This expression ends abruptly at E15.5, but was again observed in ameloblasts of incisors at E16.5 or molar ameloblasts by E17.5–E18.5. This expression remains detectable until molar enamel deposition is completed or throughout life as in the constantly erupting mouse incisors. The expression of alpha7GFP also identifies all stages of innervation of the tooth organ. Ablation of the alpha7-cell lineage using a conditional alpha7Cre×ROSA26-LoxP(diphtheria toxin A) strategy substantially reduced the mesenchyme and this corresponded with excessive epithelium overgrowth consistent with an instructive role by these cells during ectoderm patterning. However, alpha7knock-out (KO) mice exhibited normal tooth size and shape indicating that under normal conditions alpha7 expression is dispensable to this process. The function of ameloblasts in alpha7KO mice is altered relative to controls. High resolution micro-computed tomography analysis of adult mandibular incisors revealed enamel volume of the alpha7KO was significantly reduced and the organization of enamel rods was altered relative to controls. These results demonstrate distinct and varied spatiotemporal expression of alpha7 during tooth development, and they suggest that dysfunction of this receptor would have diverse impacts upon the adult organ. PMID:22666322

  17. Study protocol of European Fans in Training (EuroFIT): a four-country randomised controlled trial of a lifestyle program for men delivered in elite football clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nassau, Femke; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Abrahamsen, Frank; Andersen, Eivind; Anderson, Annie S; Bosmans, Judith E; Bunn, Christopher; Chalmers, Matthew; Clissmann, Ciaran; Gill, Jason M R; Gray, Cindy M; Hunt, Kate; Jelsma, Judith G M; La Guardia, Jennifer G; Lemyre, Pierre N; Loudon, David W; Macaulay, Lisa; Maxwell, Douglas J; McConnachie, Alex; Martin, Anne; Mourselas, Nikos; Mutrie, Nanette; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Ria; O'Brien, Kylie; Pereira, Hugo V; Philpott, Matthew; Roberts, Glyn C; Rooksby, John; Rost, Mattias; Røynesdal, Øystein; Sattar, Naveed; Silva, Marlene N; Sorensen, Marit; Teixeira, Pedro J; Treweek, Shaun; van Achterberg, Theo; van de Glind, Irene; van Mechelen, Willem; Wyke, Sally

    2016-07-19

    Lifestyle interventions targeting physical activity, sedentary time and dietary behaviours have the potential to initiate and support behavioural change and result in public health gain. Although men have often been reluctant to engage in such lifestyle programs, many are at high risk of several chronic conditions. We have developed an evidence and theory-based, gender sensitised, health and lifestyle program (European Fans in Training (EuroFIT)), which is designed to attract men through the loyalty they feel to the football club they support. This paper describes the study protocol to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the EuroFIT program in supporting men to improve their level of physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour over 12 months. The EuroFIT study is a pragmatic, two-arm, randomised controlled trial conducted in 15 football clubs in the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and the UK (England). One-thousand men, aged 30 to 65 years, with a self-reported Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥27 kg/m(2) will be recruited and individually randomised. The primary outcomes are objectively-assessed changes in total physical activity (steps per day) and total sedentary time (minutes per day) at 12 months after baseline assessment. Secondary outcomes are weight, BMI, waist circumference, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cardio-metabolic blood biomarkers, food intake, self-reported physical activity and sedentary time, wellbeing, self-esteem, vitality and quality of life. Cost-effectiveness will be assessed and a process evaluation conducted. The EuroFIT program will be delivered over 12 weekly, 90-minute sessions that combine classroom discussion with graded physical activity in the setting of the football club. Classroom sessions provide participants with a toolbox of behaviour change techniques to initiate and sustain long-term lifestyle changes. The coaches will receive two days of training to enable them to create a positive social

  18. PINK1/Parkin-Dependent Mitochondrial Surveillance: From Pleiotropy to Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Corti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is one of the most frequent neurodegenerative disease caused by the preferential, progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic (DA neurons of the substantia nigra (SN pars compacta. PD is characterized by a multifaceted pathological process involving protein misfolding, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation and metabolism deregulation. The molecular mechanisms governing the complex interplay between the different facets of this process are still unknown. PARK2/Parkin and PARK6/PINK1, two genes responsible for familial forms of PD, act as a ubiquitous core signaling pathway, coupling mitochondrial stress to mitochondrial surveillance, by regulating mitochondrial dynamics, the removal of damaged mitochondrial components by mitochondria-derived vesicles, mitophagy, and mitochondrial biogenesis. Over the last decade, PINK1/Parkin-dependent mitochondrial quality control emerged as a pleiotropic regulatory pathway. Loss of its function impinges on a number of physiological processes suspected to contribute to PD pathogenesis. Its role in the regulation of innate immunity and inflammatory processes stands out, providing compelling support to the contribution of non-cell-autonomous immune mechanisms in PD. In this review, we illustrate the central role of this multifunctional pathway at the crossroads between mitochondrial stress, neuroinflammation and metabolism. We discuss how its dysfunction may contribute to PD pathogenesis and pinpoint major unresolved questions in the field.

  19. Effectiveness of a school-based physical activity-related injury prevention program on risk behavior and neuromotor fitness a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakker Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the effects of a school-based physical activity-related injury prevention program, called 'iPlay', on risk behavior and neuromotor fitness. Methods In this cluster randomized controlled trial 40 primary schools throughout the Netherlands were randomly assigned in an intervention (n = 20 or control group (n = 20. The study includes 2,210 children aged 10-12 years. The iPlay-intervention takes one school year and consists of a teacher manual, informative newsletters and posters, a website, and simple exercises to be carried out during physical education classes. Outcomes measures were self-reported injury preventing behavior, self-reported behavioral determinants (knowledge, attitude, social-influence, self-efficacy, and intention, and neuromotor fitness. Results The iPlay-program was not able to significantly improve injury-preventing behavior. The program did significantly improve knowledge and attitude, two determinants of behavior. The effect of the intervention-program on behavior appeared to be significantly mediated by knowledge and attitude. Improved scores on attitude, social norm, self-efficacy and intention were significantly related to changes in injury preventing behavior. Furthermore, iPlay resulted in small non-significant improvements in neuromotor fitness in favor of the intervention group. Conclusion This cluster randomized controlled trial showed that the iPlay-program did significantly improved behavioral determinants. However, this effect on knowledge and attitude was not strong enough to improve injury preventing behavior. Furthermore, the results confirm the hypothetical model that injury preventing behavior is determined by intention, attitude, social norm and self-efficacy. Trial number ISRCTN78846684

  20. A Randomized-Controlled Trial of School-Based Active Videogame Intervention on Chinese Children's Aerobic Fitness, Physical Activity Level, and Psychological Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Patrick Wing Chung; Wang, Jing Jing; Maddison, Ralph

    2016-12-01

    Active videogames (AVGs) that require body movements to play offer a novel opportunity to turn a traditionally sedentary behavior into a physically active one. We sought to determine the effect of a school-based AVG intervention on Chinese children's aerobic fitness, physical activity (PA) level, and PA-related psychological correlates. Eighty 8-11-year-old Chinese children (55 males) were recruited from one Hong Kong primary school and were allocated at random to either an AVG intervention or control group. Children in the intervention group played an AVG, Xbox 360, twice per week during after-school hours, each for 60 minutes over 12 weeks in duration. The control group received no intervention. Children's body-mass index (BMI), objective PA, aerobic fitness (maximum oxygen consumption [VO2max]), PA task efficacy, barrier efficacy, and enjoyment were assessed. Compared with the control group, significant increases were found in the intervention group in VO2max [mean and 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.58 (0.74, 2.42) mL/(kg·min)], objective moderate-to-vigorous PA [6.73 (1.70, 11.76) min/day], and total PA [27.19 (9.33, 45.04) min/day], but not for BMI. No significant differences in PA task efficacy, barrier efficacy, and enjoyment were observed. A 12-week (60 minutes × twice per week) school-based AVG intervention can improve Chinese children's aerobic fitness and PA level. These findings indicated that AVGs could be used as an alternative means to engage Chinese children in PA in school setting. However, the treatment effects of AVGs on PA-related psychological correlates and body composition need more investigation.

  1. Functional Fitness and Self-Reported Quality of Life of Older Women Diagnosed with Knee Osteoarthrosis: A Cross-Sectional Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Andréa Malveira Cavalcante

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Utilizing a cross-sectional case control design, the aim of this study was to evaluate the functional fitness and self-reported quality of life differences in older people diagnosed with knee osteoarthrosis (O who participated in health promotion groups. Methods. Ninety older women were distributed into two groups: control without O of the knee (C, n=40 and a group diagnosed with primary and secondary knee O with grade II or higher, with definite osteophytes (OA, n=50. Functional fitness was evaluated by specific tests, and the time spent in physical activity and quality of life was evaluated by the IPAQ and WHOQOL (distributed in four domains: physical: P, psychological: PS, social: S, and environmental: E domain questionnaires. Results. No differences were found between ages of groups (C: 66±7; OA: 67±9; years. The values of the chair stand test (rep in the OA (13±5 group were different when compared to C group (22±5. For the 6-minute walk test (meters, the values obtained for the C (635±142 were higher (P<0.01 than the OA (297±143 group. The time spent in physical activity (min was greater (P<0.001 in the control (220±12 group compared to OA (100±10 group. Higher values (P<0.001 in all domains were found in the C (P: 69±16, PS: 72±17, S: 67±15, E: 70±15 group compared to OA (P: 48±7, PS: 43±8, S: 53±13, E: 47±14 group. Conclusion. Our data suggests that knee O, in older women, can promote a decline in time spent performing physical activity and functional fitness with decline in quality of life with an increase in sitting time.

  2. Interplay between pleiotropy and secondary selection determines rise and fall of mutators in stress response.

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    Muyoung Heo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mutators are clones whose mutation rate is about two to three orders of magnitude higher than the rate of wild-type clones and their roles in adaptive evolution of asexual populations have been controversial. Here we address this problem by using an ab initio microscopic model of living cells, which combines population genetics with a physically realistic presentation of protein stability and protein-protein interactions. The genome of model organisms encodes replication controlling genes (RCGs and genes modeling the mismatch repair (MMR complexes. The genotype-phenotype relationship posits that the replication rate of an organism is proportional to protein copy numbers of RCGs in their functional form and there is a production cost penalty for protein overexpression. The mutation rate depends linearly on the concentration of homodimers of MMR proteins. By simulating multiple runs of evolution of populations under various environmental stresses--stationary phase, starvation or temperature-jump--we find that adaptation most often occurs through transient fixation of a mutator phenotype, regardless of the nature of stress. By contrast, the fixation mechanism does depend on the nature of stress. In temperature jump stress, mutators take over the population due to loss of stability of MMR complexes. In contrast, in starvation and stationary phase stresses, a small number of mutators are supplied to the population via epigenetic stochastic noise in production of MMR proteins (a pleiotropic effect, and their net supply is higher due to reduced genetic drift in slowly growing populations under stressful environments. Subsequently, mutators in stationary phase or starvation hitchhike to fixation with a beneficial mutation in the RCGs, (second order selection and finally a mutation stabilizing the MMR complex arrives, returning the population to a non-mutator phenotype. Our results provide microscopic insights into the rise and fall of mutators in

  3. Cross-talk between microbiota and immune fitness to steer and control response to anti PD-1/PDL-1 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botticelli, Andrea; Zizzari, Ilaria; Mazzuca, Federica; Ascierto, Paolo Antonio; Putignani, Lorenza; Marchetti, Luca; Napoletano, Chiara; Nuti, Marianna; Marchetti, Paolo

    2017-01-31

    Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICIs) are improving the survival of cancer patients, however only the 20-30% of treated patients present clinical benefits. Toxicity represents the major cause of reduced dosage, delayed drug administration and therapy discontinuation. Hence in the context of multiple treatment possibilities, the identification of predictive markers of response and toxicity is a challenging approach for drug selection in order to obtain the best clinical benefit while minimizing the side effects. The loss of the protective function of intestinal barriers that interacts with the environment measured as increased intestinal permeability and the changes occurring in the microbiota composition have been proposed as a mechanism potentially explaining the pathogenesis of immune related toxicity.In this review we discuss the new perspectives on the involvement of PD-1 and PDL-1 in the cross talk between gut microbiota and immune fitness and how gut microbiota impacts on the efficacy of anti-PD-1 and anti-PDL-1 treatments in cancer.

  4. Improving physical fitness and emotional well-being in adolescents of low socioeconomic status in Chile: results of a school-based controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhauser, Marco; Fernandez, Gonzalo; Püschel, Klaus; Yañez, Fernando; Montero, Joaquín; Thompson, Beti; Coronado, Gloria

    2005-06-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality, and mortality due to cardiovascular disease and cancer. Among adolescents, physical activity is associated with benefits in the prevention and control of emotional distress, and improvement of self-esteem. Countries in transitional epidemiological scenarios, such as Chile, need to develop effective strategies to improve physical activity as a way to face the epidemic of chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a school-based physical activity program on physical fitness and mental health status of adolescents living in a low socioeconomic status area in Santiago, Chile. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the program over one academic year. The study included 198 students aged 15 years old. Two ninth grade classes were randomly selected as the intervention group, with two classes of the same grade as controls. A social planning approach was used to develop the intervention. The program was designed and implemented based on student preferences, teachers' expertise and local resources. Changes in physiological and mental health status were assessed. After the intervention, maximum oxygen capacity achieved a significant increase of 8.5% in the intervention versus 1.8% in the control group (p performance scores improved significantly more in the intervention versus the control group (p > 0.01). Anxiety score decreased 13.7% in the intervention group versus 2.8% in the control group (p self-esteem score increased 2.3% in the intervention group and decreased 0.1% in the control group after the end of the program (p 80%. To conclude, a school-based program to improve physical activity in adolescents of low socioeconomic status, obtained a high level of participation and achieved significant benefits in terms of physical fitness and mental health status.

  5. A randomized controlled trial of a transdiagnostic Internet intervention for individuals with panic and phobias - One size fits all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Johanna; Jelinek, Lena; Moritz, Steffen

    2017-03-01

    Many individuals with anxiety disorders do not receive professional treatment. Internet interventions have shown to be effective in the treatment of anxiety. The present randomized controlled trial was designed to examine the effectiveness of a short-term (4-week) Internet intervention in treating panic disorder, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobias ('ConfID'). We addressed the questions of whether this transdiagnostic program would affect these disorders to varying degrees and whether there would be moderators of effectiveness. Adults who were recruited in online forums for anxiety underwent an online baseline assessment (N = 179) and were randomized either to the intervention group (ConfID) or the control group (care as usual). Online post-assessment took place 4 weeks later. The primary outcome was assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI); the secondary outcomes targeted the disorder-specific symptoms, depression, and somatization. Participants in the intervention group showed a significantly stronger anxiety reduction compared to participants receiving care as usual (small-to-medium effect size between groups in intention-to-treat analysis). The treatment effect was similar for the different disorders and was moderated by participants' attitudes towards Internet interventions. Secondary outcomes yielded effect sizes in the medium range. Moderate treatment adherence, lack of measures beyond online self-reports, and unavailability of long-term results. The study provides further evidence that transdiagnostic Internet interventions are promising in reducing the existing treatment gap in individuals with panic disorder and phobias. Results extend previous findings by showing that significant effects can also be reached by comprehensive short-term programs and that the effects might be moderated by participants' attitudes towards Internet interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrasonic Phased Array Assessment of the Interference Fit and Leak Path of the North Anna Unit 2 Control Rod Drive Mechanism Nozzle 63 with Destructive Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Hanson, Brady D.; Mathews, Royce

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonic testing (UT) for primary water leak path assessments of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) upper head penetrations. Operating reactors have experienced leakage when stress corrosion cracking of nickel-based alloy penetrations allowed primary water into the annulus of the interference fit between the penetration and the low-alloy steel RPV head. In this investigation, UT leak path data were acquired for an Alloy 600 control rod drive mechanism nozzle penetration, referred to as Nozzle 63, which was removed from the North Anna Unit 2 reactor when the RPV head was replaced in 2002. In-service inspection prior to the head replacement indicated that Nozzle 63 had a probable leakage path through the interference fit region. Nozzle 63 was examined using a phased-array UT probe with a 5.0-MHz, eight-element annular array. Immersion data were acquired from the nozzle inner diameter surface. The UT data were interpreted by comparing to responses measured on a mockup penetration with known features. Following acquisition of the UT data, Nozzle 63 was destructively examined to determine if the features identified in the UT examination, including leakage paths and crystalline boric acid deposits, could be visually confirmed. Additional measurements of boric acid deposit thickness and low-alloy steel wastage were made to assess how these factors affect the UT response. The implications of these findings for interpreting UT leak path data are described.

  7. A new kinetic model based on the remote control mechanism to fit experimental data in the selective oxidation of propene into acrolein on biphasic catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdeldayem, H.M.; Ruiz, P.; Delmon, B. [Unite de Catalyse et Chimie des Materiaux Divises, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Thyrion, F.C. [Unite des Procedes Faculte des Sciences Appliquees, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium)

    1998-12-31

    A new kinetic model for a more accurate and detailed fitting of the experimental data is proposed. The model is based on the remote control mechanism (RCM). The RCM assumes that some oxides (called `donors`) are able to activate molecular oxygen transforming it to very active mobile species (spillover oxygen (O{sub OS})). O{sub OS} migrates onto the surface of the other oxide (called `acceptor`) where it creates and/or regenerates the active sites during the reaction. The model contains tow terms, one considering the creation of selective sites and the other the catalytic reaction at each site. The model has been tested in the selective oxidation of propene into acrolein (T=380, 400, 420 C; oxygen and propene partial pressures between 38 and 152 Torr). Catalysts were prepared as pure MoO{sub 3} (acceptor) and their mechanical mixtures with {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} (donor) in different proportions. The presence of {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} changes the reaction order, the activation energy of the reaction and the number of active sites of MoO{sub 3} produced by oxygen spillover. These changes are consistent with a modification in the degree of irrigation of the surface by oxygen spillover. The fitting of the model to experimental results shows that the number of sites created by O{sub SO} increases with the amount of {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4}. (orig.)

  8. Study protocol: fit for delivery - can a lifestyle intervention in pregnancy result in measurable health benefits for mothers and newborns? A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagedal Linda Reme

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global obesity epidemic has led to increased attention on pregnancy, a period when women are at risk of gaining excessive weight. Excessive gestational weight gain is associated with numerous complications, for both mother and child. Though the problem is widespread, few studies have examined the effect of a lifestyle intervention in pregnancy designed to limit maternal weight gain. The Fit for Delivery study will explore the effectiveness of nutritional counseling coupled with exercise classes compared with standard prenatal care. The aims of the study are to examine the effect of the intervention on maternal weight gain, newborn birth weight, glucose regulation, complications of pregnancy and delivery, and maternal weight retention up to 12 months postpartum. Methods/design Fit for Delivery is a randomized controlled trial that will include 600 women expecting their first child. To be eligible, women must be 18 years of age or older, of less than 20 weeks gestational age, with a singleton pregnancy, and have a Body Mass Index (BMI ≥ 19 kg/m2. The women will be randomly allocated to either an intervention group or a control group. The control group will receive standard prenatal care. The intervention group will, in addition, receive nutritional counseling by phone, access to twice-weekly exercise sessions, and information on healthy eating and physical activity provided in pamphlets, evening meetings and an interactive website. Both groups will be monitored by weighing (including bioimpedance measurements of percent body fat, blood tests, self-report questionnaires and hospital record review. Discussion Weight gained in pregnancy affects the health of both the mother and her unborn child, and simple models for efficient intervention are in high demand. The Fit for Delivery intervention provides concrete advice on limiting energy intake and practical training in increasing physical activity. This lifestyle intervention

  9. Effect of deworming on physical fitness of school-aged children in Yunnan, China: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

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    Peiling Yap

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable debate on the health impacts of soil-transmitted helminth infections. We assessed effects of deworming on physical fitness and strength of children in an area in Yunnan, People's Republic of China, where soil-transmitted helminthiasis is highly endemic.The double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Children, aged 9-12 years, were treated with either triple-dose albendazole or placebo, and monitored for 6 months post-treatment. The Kato-Katz and Baermann techniques were used for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. Physical fitness was assessed with a 20-m shuttle run test, where the maximum aerobic capacity within 1 min of exhaustive exercise (VO2 max estimate and the number of 20-m laps completed were recorded. Physical strength was determined with grip strength and standing broad jump tests. Body height and weight, the sum of skinfolds, and hemoglobin levels were recorded as secondary outcomes.Children receiving triple-dose albendazole scored slightly higher in the primary and secondary outcomes than placebo recipients, but the difference lacked statistical significance. Trichuris trichiura-infected children had 1.6 ml kg(-1 min(-1 (P = 0.02 less increase in their VO2 max estimate and completed 4.6 (P = 0.04 fewer 20-m laps than at baseline compared to non-infected peers. Similar trends were detected in the VO2 max estimate and grip strength of children infected with hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides, respectively. In addition, the increase in the VO2 max estimate from baseline was consistently higher in children with low-intensity T. trichiura and hookworm infections than in their peers with high-intensity infections of all soil-transmitted helminths (range: 1.9-2.1 ml kg(-1 min(-1; all P<0.05.We found no strong evidence for significant improvements in physical fitness and anthropometric indicators due to deworming over a 6-month follow-up period

  10. Effect of Deworming on Physical Fitness of School-Aged Children in Yunnan, China: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Peiling; Wu, Fang-Wei; Du, Zun-Wei; Hattendorf, Jan; Chen, Ran; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Kriemler, Susi; Krauth, Stefanie J.; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background There is considerable debate on the health impacts of soil-transmitted helminth infections. We assessed effects of deworming on physical fitness and strength of children in an area in Yunnan, People's Republic of China, where soil-transmitted helminthiasis is highly endemic. Methodology The double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Children, aged 9–12 years, were treated with either triple-dose albendazole or placebo, and monitored for 6 months post-treatment. The Kato-Katz and Baermann techniques were used for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. Physical fitness was assessed with a 20-m shuttle run test, where the maximum aerobic capacity within 1 min of exhaustive exercise (VO2 max estimate) and the number of 20-m laps completed were recorded. Physical strength was determined with grip strength and standing broad jump tests. Body height and weight, the sum of skinfolds, and hemoglobin levels were recorded as secondary outcomes. Principal Findings Children receiving triple-dose albendazole scored slightly higher in the primary and secondary outcomes than placebo recipients, but the difference lacked statistical significance. Trichuris trichiura-infected children had 1.6 ml kg−1 min−1 (P = 0.02) less increase in their VO2 max estimate and completed 4.6 (P = 0.04) fewer 20-m laps than at baseline compared to non-infected peers. Similar trends were detected in the VO2 max estimate and grip strength of children infected with hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides, respectively. In addition, the increase in the VO2 max estimate from baseline was consistently higher in children with low-intensity T. trichiura and hookworm infections than in their peers with high-intensity infections of all soil-transmitted helminths (range: 1.9–2.1 ml kg−1 min−1; all P<0.05). Conclusions/Significance We found no strong evidence for significant improvements in physical fitness and

  11. Lipoprotein profile, glycemic control and physical fitness after strength and aerobic training in post-menopausal women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zois, Christos E; Christos, Zois E; Tokmakidis, Savvas P; Volaklis, Konstantinos A; Kotsa, Kalliopi; Touvra, Anna-Maria; Douda, Eleni; Yovos, Ioannis G

    2009-08-01

    We studied the effects on blood lipids and physical fitness after a training program that combined strength and aerobic exercise in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Ten patients (55.0 +/- 5.2 years) followed four exercise sessions per week, two strength and two aerobic, and ten (59.4 +/- 3.2 years) served as a control group. Lipid profile, glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), HOMA2 index, exercise stress and muscular testing were assessed at the beginning and after 16 weeks of training program. Exercise training increased significantly HDL-C (17.2%; P exercise time (17.8%) and muscular strength increased significantly (P post-menopausal women with type 2 diabetes.

  12. Physical fitness exercise versus cognitive behavior therapy on reducing the depressive symptoms among community-dwelling elderly adults: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tzu-Ting; Liu, Chiu-Bi; Tsai, Yu-Hsia; Chin, Yen-Fan; Wong, Ching-Hsiang

    2015-10-01

    Depression is a major health problem for community-dwelling elderly adults. Since limited resources are available to decrease the high prevalence of depressive symptoms among the elderly adults, improved support for them can be provided if we can determine which intervention is superior in ridding depressive symptoms. To compare the effectiveness of the physical fitness exercise program and the cognitive behavior therapy program on primary (depressive symptoms) and secondary outcomes (6-min walk distance, quality of life, and social support) for community-dwelling elderly adults with depressive symptoms. A prospective randomized control trial was conducted in three communities in northern Taiwan. The elderly adults in the three communities were invited to participate by mail, phone calls, and posters. There were a total of 57 participants who had depressive symptoms and all without impaired cognition that participated in this trial. None of the participants withdrew during the 9 months of follow-up for this study. Fifty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: the physical fitness exercise program group, the cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) group, or the control group. The primary (Geriatric Depression Scale-15, GDS-15), and secondary outcomes (6-min walk distance, SF-36, and Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors scales, ISSB) were collected immediately (T2), at 3 months (T3), and at 6 months after the interventions (T4). After the interventions, the CBT group participants demonstrated significantly lower symptoms of depression (p=0.009) at T2 and perceived more social support from those around them (pexercise program group had decreased GDS-15 scores at three time-point comparisons (p=0.003, 0.012 and 0.037, respectively), had a substantially greater 6-min walk distance (p=0.023), a better quality of life (pexercise program may be a better intervention for elderly adults with depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  13. A multi-component cognitive behavioural intervention for the treatment of fear of falling after hip fracture (FIT-HIP): protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffers-Barnhoorn, Maaike N; van Haastregt, Jolanda C M; Schols, Jos M G A; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M; van Balen, Romke; Visschedijk, Jan H M; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Dumas, Eve M; Achterberg, Wilco P; van Eijk, Monica

    2017-03-20

    Hip fracture is a common injury in the geriatric population. Despite surgical repair and subsequent rehabilitation programmes, functional recovery is often limited, particularly in individuals with multi-morbidity. This leads to high care dependency and subsequent use of healthcare services. Fear of falling has a negative influence on recovery after hip fracture, due to avoidance of activity and subsequent restriction in mobility. Although fear of falling is highly prevalent after hip fracture, no structured treatment programme is currently available. This trial will evaluate whether targeted treatment of fear of falling in geriatric rehabilitation after hip fracture using a multi-component cognitive behavioural intervention (FIT-HIP), is feasible and (cost) effective in reducing fear of falling and associated activity restriction and thereby improves physical functioning. This multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial will be conducted among older patients with hip fracture and fear of falling who are admitted to a multidisciplinary inpatient geriatric rehabilitation programme in eleven post-acute geriatric rehabilitation units. Fifteen participants will be recruited from each site. Recruitment sites will be allocated by computer randomisation to either the control group, receiving usual care, or to the intervention group receiving the FIT-HIP intervention in addition to usual care. The FIT-HIP intervention is conducted by physiotherapists and will be embedded in usual care. It consists of various elements of cognitive behavioural therapy, including guided exposure to feared activities (that are avoided by the participants). Participants and outcome assessors are blinded to group allocation. Follow-up measurements will be performed at 3 and 6 months after discharge from geriatric rehabilitation. (Cost)-effectiveness and feasibility of the intervention will be evaluated. Primary outcome measures are fear of falling and mobility. Targeted treatment of fear of

  14. Effects of lifestyle intervention in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers on nutrition, BMI, and physical fitness (LIBRE study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiechle, Marion; Engel, Christoph; Berling, Anika; Hebestreit, Katrin; Bischoff, Stephan C; Dukatz, Ricarda; Siniatchkin, Michael; Pfeifer, Katharina; Grill, Sabine; Yahiaoui-Doktor, Maryam; Kirsch, Ellen; Niederberger, Uwe; Enders, Ute; Löffler, Markus; Meindl, Alfons; Rhiem, Kerstin; Schmutzler, Rita; Erickson, Nicole; Halle, Martin

    2016-07-29

    Women with highly penetrant BRCA mutations have a 55-60 % lifetime risk for breast cancer and a 16-59 % lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer. However, penetrance differs interindividually, indicating that environmental and behavioral factors may modify this risk. It is well documented that the risk for sporadic breast cancer disease can be modified by changing lifestyle factors that primarily include physical activity, dietary habits, and body weight. It can thus be hypothesized that the modification of these lifestyle factors may also influence the incidence and progression of cancer in BRCA mutation carriers. This multicenter, interdisciplinary, prospective, two-armed, randomized (1:1) controlled trial aims to enroll a minimum of 600 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers to partake in either a lifestyle intervention or usual care. The study primarily aims to demonstrate an improvement of nutritional behavior (adherence to the Mediterranean diet), body mass index, and physical fitness. Furthermore, the effects on quality of life, stress coping capacity, breast cancer incidence, and mortality will be investigated. The intervention group (IG) will receive a structured lifestyle intervention over 12 months, whereas the control group (CG) will only receive information regarding a healthy lifestyle. During the first 3 months, women in the IG will receive structured, individualized, and mainly supervised endurance training with a minimum of 18 MET-h physical activity per week and nutrition education based on the Mediterranean diet. Over the following 9 months, IG monthly group training sessions and regular telephone contacts will motivate study participants. The CG will receive one general training session about healthy nutrition in accordance with the recommendations of the German Society of Nutrition (standard of care in Germany) and the benefits of regular physical activity on health status. At randomization and subsequent time points (3 and 12

  15. Fit for purpose: Australia's National Fitness Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Julie A; Lekkas, Peter

    2011-12-19

    During a time of war, the federal government passed the National Fitness Act 1941 to improve the fitness of the youth of Australia and better prepare them for roles in the armed services and industry. Implementation of the National Fitness Act made federal funds available at a local level through state-based national fitness councils, which coordinated promotional campaigns, programs, education and infrastructure for physical fitness, with volunteers undertaking most of the work. Specifically focused on children and youth, national fitness councils supported the provision of children's playgrounds, youth clubs and school camping programs, as well as the development of physical education in schools and its teaching and research in universities. By the time the Act was repealed in 1994, fitness had become associated with leisure and recreation rather than being seen as equipping people for everyday life and work. The emergence of the Australian National Preventive Health Agency Act 2010 offers the opportunity to reflect on synergies with its historic precedent.

  16. Identifying candidate genes affecting developmental time in Drosophila melanogaster: pervasive pleiotropy and gene-by-environment interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasson Esteban

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the genetic architecture of ecologically relevant adaptive traits requires the contribution of developmental and evolutionary biology. The time to reach the age of reproduction is a complex life history trait commonly known as developmental time. In particular, in holometabolous insects that occupy ephemeral habitats, like fruit flies, the impact of developmental time on fitness is further exaggerated. The present work is one of the first systematic studies of the genetic basis of developmental time, in which we also evaluate the impact of environmental variation on the expression of the trait. Results We analyzed 179 co-isogenic single P[GT1]-element insertion lines of Drosophila melanogaster to identify novel genes affecting developmental time in flies reared at 25°C. Sixty percent of the lines showed a heterochronic phenotype, suggesting that a large number of genes affect this trait. Mutant lines for the genes Merlin and Karl showed the most extreme phenotypes exhibiting a developmental time reduction and increase, respectively, of over 2 days and 4 days relative to the control (a co-isogenic P-element insertion free line. In addition, a subset of 42 lines selected at random from the initial set of 179 lines was screened at 17°C. Interestingly, the gene-by-environment interaction accounted for 52% of total phenotypic variance. Plastic reaction norms were found for a large number of developmental time candidate genes. Conclusion We identified components of several integrated time-dependent pathways affecting egg-to-adult developmental time in Drosophila. At the same time, we also show that many heterochronic phenotypes may arise from changes in genes involved in several developmental mechanisms that do not explicitly control the timing of specific events. We also demonstrate that many developmental time genes have pleiotropic effects on several adult traits and that the action of most of them is sensitive

  17. Cardiorespiratory Fitness is Associated with Executive Control in Late-Middle-Aged Adults: An Event-Related (De synchronization (ERD/ERS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Heng Chu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study sought to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive function in late-middle-aged adults from event-related desynchronization (ERD and event-related synchronization (ERS perspectives. Late-middle-aged adults were categorized into either the high-fitness group or the low-fitness group based on their estimated cardiorespiratory fitness values. The participants completed the Stroop Test, which is comprised of incongruent and neutral conditions, while the brain activities were recoded. The alpha ERD and ERS values based on the equation proposed by Pfurtscheller (1977 were further calculated. The results revealed that the adults with higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness demonstrated superior Stroop performance, regardless of Stroop congruency. While these high-fitness adults had less positive upper alpha ERD values in the later epoch window compared to their lower-fitness counterparts, they had greater lower alpha ERD values in the early epoch window. Additionally, in the late epoch window, the high-fitness adults showed less positive lower alpha ERD values on neutral, but not incongruent condition, relative to their low-fitness counterparts. These findings suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness of the late-middle-aged adults is positively associated with cognitive functioning, especially the cognitive processes related to the inhibition of task-irrelevant information and those processes required the devotion of greater amounts of attentional resources to a given task.

  18. The effects of a home-based arm ergometry exercise programme on physical fitness, fatigue and activity in polio survivors: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Deirdre

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Polio survivors have reduced mobility, pain and fatigue, which make access to conventional forms of aerobic exercise difficult. Inactivity leads to increased risk of health problems, many of which are prevalent among Polio survivors. Aerobic exercise programmes in Polio survivors should utilise stable muscle groups and should be designed to minimise exacerbation of pain and fatigue. A home-based arm ergometry aerobic exercise programme may represent an affordable and accessible exercise modality, incorporating exercise prescription principles in this group. Methods/design This is a prospective, single blinded, randomised controlled trial. There are two arms; exercise intervention using arm ergometers and control. Polio survivors meeting eligibility criteria will be recruited and randomly allocated to intervention or control groups. Participants allocated to the intervention group will receive a small arm ergometer and a polar heart rate monitor. They will carry out a home-based moderate intensity (50-70% HRMax aerobic exercise programme for eight weeks, following instruction by the treating physiotherapist. Assessments will occur at baseline and after eight weeks and will include tests of physical fitness, activity, energy cost of walking, fatigue and quality of life. Clinically feasible assessment tools including the Six Minute Arm Test, the Physical Activity Scale for People with Physical Disabilities questionnaire, the Physiological Cost Index, Fatigue Severity Scale and the SF-36v2 will be utilised. Discussion The efficacy of a home-based arm ergometry programme in Polio survivors will be examined. No previous trial has examined such a programme using a wide range of outcome measures pertinent to Polio survivors. This study will provide new information on the impact of arm ergometry on physical fitness, activity, body composition, fatigue, pain, muscle strength, and health related quality of life. Also, the study

  19. ProFit: Bayesian galaxy fitting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, A. S. G.; Taranu, D.; Tobar, R.

    2016-12-01

    ProFit is a Bayesian galaxy fitting tool that uses the fast C++ image generation library libprofit (ascl:1612.003) and a flexible R interface to a large number of likelihood samplers. It offers a fully featured Bayesian interface to galaxy model fitting (also called profiling), using mostly the same standard inputs as other popular codes (e.g. GALFIT ascl:1104.010), but it is also able to use complex priors and a number of likelihoods.

  20. A Pretty Good Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Tim

    2008-01-01

    We often look for a best-fit function to a set of data. This article describes how a "pretty good" fit might be better than a "best" fit when it comes to promoting conceptual understanding of functions. In a pretty good fit, students design the function themselves rather than choosing it from a menu; they use appropriate variable names; and they…

  1. Unge, sundhed og fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness.......Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness....

  2. Enhanced fitness: a randomized controlled trial of the effects of home-based physical activity counseling on glycemic control in older adults with prediabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Miriam C; Pieper, Carl F; Edelman, David E; Yancy, William S; Green, Jennifer B; Lum, Helen; Peterson, Matthew J; Sloane, Richard; Cowper, Patricia A; Bosworth, Hayden B; Huffman, Kim M; Cavanaugh, James T; Hall, Katherine S; Pearson, Megan P; Taylor, Gregory A

    2012-09-01

    To determine whether a home-based multicomponent physical activity counseling (PAC) intervention is effective in reducing glycemic measures in older outpatients with prediabetes mellitus. Controlled clinical trial. Primary care clinics of the Durham Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center between September 29, 2008, and March 25, 2010. Three hundred two overweight (body mass index 25-45 kg/m(2) ), older (60-89) outpatients with impaired glucose tolerance (fasting blood glucose 100-125 mg/dL, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) fasting insulin and glucose levels at baseline and 3 and 12 months. HbA1c was the secondary indicator of glycemic control. Other secondary outcomes were anthropometric measures and self-reported physical activity, health-related quality of life, and physical function. There were no significant differences between the PAC and control groups over time for any of the glycemic indicators. Both groups had small declines over time of approximately 6% in fasting blood glucose (P physical activity increased significantly in the PAC group (P physical activity levels but was insufficient to improve glycemic indicators in older outpatients with prediabetes mellitus. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Fitness World - Fremtidig overlevelse

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Kasper; Klink, Nikolaj; Nielsen, Mie; Carlson, Andre; Boy, Mikkel; Hansen, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Our project is a case study with Fitness World as a baseline. Our project will enhance Fitness Worlds penetration on their current position on the market. Our empiricism includes both qualitative and quantitative methodical approaches by the use of an expert interview and a questionnaire survey. These methods contribute and generate general knowledge about the fitness culture in Denmark and the customers in the fitness industry. We have stated a possible strategic opportunity for Fitness Worl...

  4. Effects of new mutations on fitness: insights from models and data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataillon, Thomas; Bailey, Susan F

    2014-07-01

    The rates and properties of new mutations affecting fitness have implications for a number of outstanding questions in evolutionary biology. Obtaining estimates of mutation rates and effects has historically been challenging, and little theory has been available for predicting the distribution of fitness effects (DFE); however, there have been recent advances on both fronts. Extreme-value theory predicts the DFE of beneficial mutations in well-adapted populations, while phenotypic fitness landscape models make predictions for the DFE of all mutations as a function of the initial level of adaptation and the strength of stabilizing selection on traits underlying fitness. Direct experimental evidence confirms predictions on the DFE of beneficial mutations and favors distributions that are roughly exponential but bounded on the right. A growing number of studies infer the DFE using genomic patterns of polymorphism and divergence, recovering a wide range of DFE. Future work should be aimed at identifying factors driving the observed variation in the DFE. We emphasize the need for further theory explicitly incorporating the effects of partial pleiotropy and heterogeneity in the environment on the expected DFE.

  5. Effects of a 6-month multimodal training intervention on retention of functional fitness in older adults: A randomized-controlled cross-over design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudlaugsson Janus

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older adults have the highest rates of disability, functional dependence and use of healthcare resources. Training interventions for older individuals are of special interest where regular physical activity (PA has many health benefits. The main purpose of this study was to assess the immediate and long-term effects of a 6-month multimodal training intervention (MTI on functional fitness in old adults. Methods For this study, 117 participants, 71 to 90 years old, were randomized in immediate intervention group and a control group (delayed intervention group. The intervention consisted of daily endurance and twice-a-week strength training. The method was based on a randomized-controlled cross-over design. Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB, 8 foot up-and-go test, strength performance, six min walking test (6 MW, physical activity, BMI and quality of life were obtained at baseline, after a 6-month intervention- and control phase, again after 6-month crossover- and delayed intervention phase, and after anadditional 6-month follow-up. Results After 6 months of MTI, the intervention group improved in physical performance compared with the control group via Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB score (mean diff = 0.6, 95 % CI: 0.1, 1.0 and 8-foot up-and-go test (mean diff = −1.0 s, 95 % CI: -1.5, -0.6, and in endurance performance via 6-minute walking test (6 MW (mean diff = 44.2 meters, 95 % CI: 17.1, 71.2. In strength performance via knee extension the intervention group improved while control group declined (mean diff = 55.0 Newton, 95 % CI: 28.4, 81.7, and also in PA (mean diff = 125.9 cpm, 95 % CI: 96.0, 155.8. Long-term effects of MTI on the particpants was assesed by estimating the mean difference in the variables measured between time-point 1 and 4: SPPB (1.1 points, 95 % CI: 0.8, 1.4; 8-foot up-and-go (−0.9 s, 95 % CI: -1.2, -0.6; 6 MW (18.7 m, 95 % CI: 6.5, 31.0; knee extension (4.2 Newton

  6. Analysis of clinically important factors on the performance of advanced hydraulic, microprocessor-controlled exo-prosthetic knee joints based on 899 trial fittings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Andreas; Lang, Michael; Stuckart, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this work is to evaluate whether clinically important factors may predict an individual's capability to utilize the functional benefits provided by an advanced hydraulic, microprocessor-controlled exo-prosthetic knee component. This retrospective cross-sectional cohort analysis investigated the data of above knee amputees captured during routine trial fittings. Prosthetists rated the performance indicators showing the functional benefits of the advanced maneuvering capabilities of the device. Subjects were asked to rate their perception. Simple and multiple linear and logistic regression was applied. Data from 899 subjects with demographics typical for the population were evaluated. Ability to vary gait speed, perform toileting, and ascend stairs were identified as the most sensitive performance predictors. Prior C-Leg users showed benefits during advanced maneuvering. Variables showed plausible and meaningful effects, however, could not claim predictive power. Mobility grade showed the largest effect but also failed to be predictive. Clinical parameters such as etiology, age, mobility grade, and others analyzed here do not suffice to predict individual potential. Daily walking distance may pose a threshold value and be part of a predictive instrument. Decisions based solely on single parameters such as mobility grade rating or walking distance seem to be questionable. PMID:27828871

  7. Analysis of clinically important factors on the performance of advanced hydraulic, microprocessor-controlled exo-prosthetic knee joints based on 899 trial fittings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Andreas; Lang, Michael; Stuckart, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate whether clinically important factors may predict an individual's capability to utilize the functional benefits provided by an advanced hydraulic, microprocessor-controlled exo-prosthetic knee component.This retrospective cross-sectional cohort analysis investigated the data of above knee amputees captured during routine trial fittings. Prosthetists rated the performance indicators showing the functional benefits of the advanced maneuvering capabilities of the device. Subjects were asked to rate their perception. Simple and multiple linear and logistic regression was applied.Data from 899 subjects with demographics typical for the population were evaluated. Ability to vary gait speed, perform toileting, and ascend stairs were identified as the most sensitive performance predictors. Prior C-Leg users showed benefits during advanced maneuvering. Variables showed plausible and meaningful effects, however, could not claim predictive power. Mobility grade showed the largest effect but also failed to be predictive.Clinical parameters such as etiology, age, mobility grade, and others analyzed here do not suffice to predict individual potential. Daily walking distance may pose a threshold value and be part of a predictive instrument. Decisions based solely on single parameters such as mobility grade rating or walking distance seem to be questionable.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of an exercise intervention program in perimenopausal women: the Fitness League Against MENopause COst (FLAMENCO) randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Gallo, Francisco Javier; López del Amo, María Puerto; Ruiz-Cabello, Pilar; Andrade, Ana; Borges-Cosic, Milkana; Peces-Rama, Antonio Rubén; Spacírová, Zuzana; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; García-Mochón, Leticia; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Estévez-López, Fernando; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Martín-Martín, Jose Jesús; Aranda, Pilar; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Aparicio, Virginia A

    2015-06-17

    The high prevalence of women that do not reach the recommended level of physical activity is worrisome. A sedentary lifestyle has negative consequences on health status and increases health care costs. The main objective of this project is to assess the cost-effectiveness of a primary care-based exercise intervention in perimenopausal women. The present study is a Randomized Controlled Trial. A total of 150 eligible women will be recruited and randomly assigned to either a 16-week exercise intervention (3 sessions/week), or to usual care (control) group. The primary outcome measure is the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. The secondary outcome measures are: i) socio-demographic and clinical information; ii) body composition; iii) dietary patterns; iv) glycaemic and lipid profile; v) physical fitness; vi) physical activity and sedentary behaviour; vii) sleep quality; viii) quality of life, mental health and positive health; ix) menopause symptoms. All outcomes will be assessed at baseline and post intervention. The data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis and per protocol. In addition, we will conduct a cost effectiveness analysis from a health system perspective. The intervention designed is feasible and if it proves to be clinically and cost effective, it can be easily transferred to other similar contexts. Consequently, the findings of this project might help the Health Systems to identify strategies for primary prevention and health promotion as well as to reduce health care requirements and costs. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02358109. Date of registration: 05/02/2015.

  9. MUNI-FITS-Utils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrastina, M.; Zejda, M.; Mikulášek, Z.

    2010-12-01

    The FITS standard allows arbitrary use of name-space for keywords, except some reserved keywords. Result of this freedom is that several keywords have the same meaning. Similar problem is that values of keywords have different physical units. These facts complicate automated data processing and also creation of FITS file archives with simple structure. MUNI-FITS-Utils is a package of Python scripts which have been developed in PyFITS, a Python FITS Module. Scripts are user-friendly and allow manipulating FITS headers to get uniform shape. Further functions will be added soon.

  10. FIT3D: Fitting optical spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.

    2016-09-01

    FIT3D fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT3D is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.

  11. Antagonistic pleiotropy at the human IL6 promoter confers genetic resilience to the pro-inflammatory effects of adverse social conditions in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Steven W; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Manu, Kavya; Telzer, Eva H; Kiang, Lisa; Bower, Julienne E; Irwin, Michael R; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2011-07-01

    The authors tested the evolutionary genetic hypothesis that the functional form of an asymmetrically risky Gene × Environment interaction will differ as a function of age-related antagonistic pleiotropy (i.e., show opposite effects in young vs. old individuals). Previous studies have identified a polymorphism in the human IL6 promoter (rs1800795; IL6-74 G/C) that interacts with adverse socioenvironmental conditions to promote chronic inflammation in older adults (elevated C-reactive protein). This study identifies a protective effect of the same polymorphism in 17- to 19-year-old adolescents confronting socioeconomic adversity. Over 60% of the environmental risk contribution to the IL6 × Socioeconomic Status interaction could be accounted for by interpersonal stress and adult role burden. Thus, the IL6-174G allele does not represent an undifferentiated risk factor but instead sensitizes inflammatory biology to socioenvironmental conditions, conferring either genetic vulnerability or resilience depending on the developmental "somatic environment" that interacts with social conditions to influence gene expression.

  12. Family Activities for Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  13. Muscle strength, physical fitness and well-being in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and the effect of an exercise programme: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sandstedt, Eva; Fasth, Anders; Eek, Meta Nyström; BECKUNG, EVA

    2013-01-01

    Background Decreased muscle strength, fitness and well-being are common in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) compared to healthy peers. Biological drugs have improved health in children with JIA, but despite this pain is still a major symptom and bone health is reported as decreased in the group. The improvement made by the biological drugs makes it possible to more demanding exercises. To jump is an exercise that can improve bone heath, fitness and muscle stre...

  14. Detection of pleiotropy through a Phenome-wide association study (PheWAS of epidemiologic data as part of the Environmental Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly A Hall

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We performed a Phenome-wide association study (PheWAS utilizing diverse genotypic and phenotypic data existing across multiple populations in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES, conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, and accessed by the Epidemiological Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE study. We calculated comprehensive tests of association in Genetic NHANES using 80 SNPs and 1,008 phenotypes (grouped into 184 phenotype classes, stratified by race-ethnicity. Genetic NHANES includes three surveys (NHANES III, 1999-2000, and 2001-2002 and three race-ethnicities: non-Hispanic whites (n = 6,634, non-Hispanic blacks (n = 3,458, and Mexican Americans (n = 3,950. We identified 69 PheWAS associations replicating across surveys for the same SNP, phenotype-class, direction of effect, and race-ethnicity at p0.01, and sample size >200. Of these 69 PheWAS associations, 39 replicated previously reported SNP-phenotype associations, 9 were related to previously reported associations, and 21 were novel associations. Fourteen results had the same direction of effect across more than one race-ethnicity: one result was novel, 11 replicated previously reported associations, and two were related to previously reported results. Thirteen SNPs showed evidence of pleiotropy. We further explored results with gene-based biological networks, contrasting the direction of effect for pleiotropic associations across phenotypes. One PheWAS result was ABCG2 missense SNP rs2231142, associated with uric acid levels in both non-Hispanic whites and Mexican Americans, protoporphyrin levels in non-Hispanic whites and Mexican Americans, and blood pressure levels in Mexican Americans. Another example was SNP rs1800588 near LIPC, significantly associated with the novel phenotypes of folate levels (Mexican Americans, vitamin E levels (non-Hispanic whites and triglyceride levels (non-Hispanic whites, and replication for

  15. The effects of four weeks of creatine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on cardiorespiratory fitness: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramer Joel T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-intensity interval training has been shown to be a time-efficient way to induce physiological adaptations similar to those of traditional endurance training. Creatine supplementation may enhance high-intensity interval training, leading to even greater physiological adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT and creatine supplementation on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance (maximal oxygen consumption (VO2PEAK, time-to-exhaustion (VO2PEAKTTE, ventilatory threshold (VT, and total work done (TWD in college-aged men. Methods Forty-three recreationally active men completed a graded exercise test to determine VO2PEAK, VO2PEAKTTE, and VT. In addition, participants completed a time to exhaustion (TTE ride at 110% of the maximum workload reached during the graded exercise test to determine TWD (TTE (sec × W = J. Following testing, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: creatine (creatine citrate (Cr; n = 16, placebo (PL; n = 17, or control (n = 10 groups. The Cr and PL groups completed four weeks of HIIT prior to post-testing. Results Significant improvements in VO2PEAK and VO2PEAKTTE occurred in both training groups. Only the Cr group significantly improved VT (16% vs. 10% improvement in PL. No changes occurred in TWD in any group. Conclusion In conclusion, HIIT is an effective and time-efficient way to improve maximal endurance performance. The addition of Cr improved VT, but did not increase TWD. Therefore, 10 g of Cr per day for five days per week for four weeks does not seem to further augment maximal oxygen consumption, greater than HIIT alone; however, Cr supplementation may improve submaximal exercise performance.

  16. 基于MP940运动控制器的数控压装设备%CNC Press-fit Equipment Based on MP940 Motion Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨笋

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, this paper describes the internal structure, working principle and programming examples of MP940 motion controller and introduces the structure and function of CNC Press-fit equipment. Secondly.it recommends CNC press-fit equipment based on MP940 independence motion controller which can improve the precision of displacement,pressure and speed control of CNC press-fit equipment. Finally,it comes to the conclusion that CNC press-fit equipment can be used to improve their accuracy through other embedded motion controller.%介绍了MP940运动控制器的内部结构、工作原理及编程实例和数控压装机的结构及功能;设计了基于MP940独立运动控制器的数控压装设备,以提高数控压装设备的位移、压力和速度控制精度,确保其较高的工艺性,提出了数控压装设备可以通过其他嵌入式运动控制器来满足不同的需求,提高自身的精确度.

  17. Effects of hybrid cycling versus handcycling on wheelchair-specific fitness and physical activity in people with long-term spinal cord injury : a 16-week randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkum, A. J. T.; de Groot, S.; Stolwijk-Swuste, J. M.; van Kuppevelt, D. J.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Janssen, T. W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Study design: This is an open randomized controlled trial. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a 16-week hybrid cycle versus handcycle exercise program on fitness and physical activity in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury (SCI). Setting: The study

  18. Quasispecies on Fitness Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Selection-mutation dynamics is studied as adaptation and neutral drift on abstract fitness landscapes. Various models of fitness landscapes are introduced and analyzed with respect to the stationary mutant distributions adopted by populations upon them. The concept of quasispecies is introduced, and the error threshold phenomenon is analyzed. Complex fitness landscapes with large scatter of fitness values are shown to sustain error thresholds. The phenomenological theory of the quasispecies introduced in 1971 by Eigen is compared to approximation-free numerical computations. The concept of strong quasispecies understood as mutant distributions, which are especially stable against changes in mutations rates, is presented. The role of fitness neutral genotypes in quasispecies is discussed.

  19. A population-based randomized controlled trial of the effect of combining a pedometer with an intervention toolkit on physical activity among individuals with low levels of physical activity or fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Severin, Maria; Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Curtis, Tine; Grønbæk, Morten; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    2012-02-01

    To examine if receiving a pedometer along with an intervention toolkit is associated with increased physical activity, aerobic fitness and better self-rated health among individuals with low levels of physical activity or fitness. The intervention was nested in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES) and carried out in 2008. Participants were randomly assigned to either a pedometer group (n=326) or a control group (n=329). Physical activity, aerobic fitness, and self-rated health were measured at baseline and at 3-month follow-up, and differences were tested by Wilcoxons signed rank tests and Chi-squared tests. At follow-up, no significant differences in physical activity, aerobic fitness and self-rated health were found between the groups. However, the oldest participants in the pedometer group reported significantly more walking time compared to the controls (controls=368 min/week, pedometer group=680 min/week, P=0.05). Among participants who completed the intervention, a significant effect on total walking time was observed (median difference=225 min/week, P=0.04). The results suggest that receiving a pedometer and along with an intervention toolkit can increase walking time in older individuals, but not in younger individuals. Thus, this type of intervention offers great potential for promoting physical activity in older individuals. NCT01071811. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Learn 2 Move 16-24: effectiveness of an intervention to stimulate physical activity and improve physical fitness of adolescents and young adults with spastic cerebral palsy; a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinders- Messelink Heleen A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persons with cerebral palsy (CP are at risk for developing an inactive lifestyle and often have poor fitness levels, which may lead to secondary health complications and diminished participation and quality of life. However, persons with CP also tend not to receive structural treatment to improve physical activity and fitness in adolescence, which is precisely the period when adult physical activity patterns are established. Methods We aim to include 60 adolescents and young adults (16-24 years with spastic CP. Participants will be randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group (no treatment; current policy. The intervention will last 6 months and consist of three parts; 1 counselling on daily physical activity; 2 physical fitness training; and 3 sports advice. To evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention, all participants will be measured before, during, directly after, and at 6 months following the intervention period. Primary outcome measures will be: 1 physical activity level, which will be measured objectively with an accelerometry-based activity monitor during 72 h and subjectively with the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities; 2 aerobic fitness, which will be measured with a maximal ramp test on a bicycle or armcrank ergometer and a 6-minute walking or wheelchair test; 3 neuromuscular fitness, which will be measured with handheld dynamometry; and 4 body composition, which will be determined by measuring body mass, height, waist circumference, fat mass and lipid profile. Conclusions This paper outlines the design, methodology and intervention of a multicenter randomized controlled trial (LEARN 2 MOVE 16-24 aimed at examining the effectiveness of an intervention that is intended to permanently increase physical activity levels and improve fitness levels of adolescents and young adults with CP by achieving a behavioral change toward a more active lifestyle. Trial

  1. Learn 2 Move 16-24: effectiveness of an intervention to stimulate physical activity and improve physical fitness of adolescents and young adults with spastic cerebral palsy; a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Persons with cerebral palsy (CP) are at risk for developing an inactive lifestyle and often have poor fitness levels, which may lead to secondary health complications and diminished participation and quality of life. However, persons with CP also tend not to receive structural treatment to improve physical activity and fitness in adolescence, which is precisely the period when adult physical activity patterns are established. Methods We aim to include 60 adolescents and young adults (16-24 years) with spastic CP. Participants will be randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group (no treatment; current policy). The intervention will last 6 months and consist of three parts; 1) counselling on daily physical activity; 2) physical fitness training; and 3) sports advice. To evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention, all participants will be measured before, during, directly after, and at 6 months following the intervention period. Primary outcome measures will be: 1) physical activity level, which will be measured objectively with an accelerometry-based activity monitor during 72 h and subjectively with the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities; 2) aerobic fitness, which will be measured with a maximal ramp test on a bicycle or armcrank ergometer and a 6-minute walking or wheelchair test; 3) neuromuscular fitness, which will be measured with handheld dynamometry; and 4 body composition, which will be determined by measuring body mass, height, waist circumference, fat mass and lipid profile. Conclusions This paper outlines the design, methodology and intervention of a multicenter randomized controlled trial (LEARN 2 MOVE 16-24) aimed at examining the effectiveness of an intervention that is intended to permanently increase physical activity levels and improve fitness levels of adolescents and young adults with CP by achieving a behavioral change toward a more active lifestyle. Trial registration Dutch Trial

  2. Self-management for obesity and cardio-metabolic fitness: description and evaluation of the lifestyle modification program of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettman, Tahna L; Misan, Gary Mh; Owen, Katherine; Warren, Kate; Coates, Alison M; Buckley, Jonathan D; Howe, Peter Rc

    2008-10-27

    Sustainable lifestyle modification strategies are needed to address obesity and cardiovascular risk factors. Intensive, individualised programs have been successful, but are limited by time and resources. We have formulated a group-based lifestyle education program based upon national diet and physical activity (PA) recommendations to manage obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors. This article describes the content and delivery of this program, with information on compliance and acceptability. Overweight/obese adults (n = 153) with metabolic syndrome were recruited from the community and randomly allocated to intervention (INT) or control (CON). Written copies of Australian national dietary and PA guidelines were provided to all participants. INT took part in a 16-week lifestyle program which provided a curriculum and practical strategies on 1) dietary and PA information based on national guidelines, 2) behavioural self-management tools, 3) food-label reading, supermarkets tour and cooking, 4) exercise sessions, and 5) peer-group support. Compliance was assessed using attendance records and weekly food/PA logs. Participants' motivations, perceived benefits and goals were assessed through facilitated discussion. Program acceptability feedback was collected through structured focus groups. Although completion of weekly food/PA records was poor, attendance at information/education sessions (77% overall) and exercise participation (66% overall) was high, and compared with CON, multiple markers of body composition and cardio-metabolic health improved in INT. Participants reported that the most useful program components included food-label reading, cooking sessions, and learning new and different physical exercises, including home-based options. Participants also reported finding self-management techniques helpful, namely problem solving and short-term goal setting. The use of a group setting and supportive 'peer' leaders were found to be supportive. More frequent

  3. Self-management for obesity and cardio-metabolic fitness: Description and evaluation of the lifestyle modification program of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coates Alison M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sustainable lifestyle modification strategies are needed to address obesity and cardiovascular risk factors. Intensive, individualised programs have been successful, but are limited by time and resources. We have formulated a group-based lifestyle education program based upon national diet and physical activity (PA recommendations to manage obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors. This article describes the content and delivery of this program, with information on compliance and acceptability. Methods Overweight/obese adults (n = 153 with metabolic syndrome were recruited from the community and randomly allocated to intervention (INT or control (CON. Written copies of Australian national dietary and PA guidelines were provided to all participants. INT took part in a 16-week lifestyle program which provided a curriculum and practical strategies on 1 dietary and PA information based on national guidelines, 2 behavioural self-management tools, 3 food-label reading, supermarkets tour and cooking, 4 exercise sessions, and 5 peer-group support. Compliance was assessed using attendance records and weekly food/PA logs. Participants' motivations, perceived benefits and goals were assessed through facilitated discussion. Program acceptability feedback was collected through structured focus groups. Results Although completion of weekly food/PA records was poor, attendance at information/education sessions (77% overall and exercise participation (66% overall was high, and compared with CON, multiple markers of body composition and cardio-metabolic health improved in INT. Participants reported that the most useful program components included food-label reading, cooking sessions, and learning new and different physical exercises, including home-based options. Participants also reported finding self-management techniques helpful, namely problem solving and short-term goal setting. The use of a group setting and supportive 'peer' leaders

  4. Getting CSR communication fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line

    2017-01-01

    Companies experience increasing legal and societal pressure to communicate about their corporate social responsibility (CSR) engagements from a number of different publics. One very important group is that of young consumers who are predicted to be the most important and influential consumer group...... in the near future. From a value- theoretical base, this article empirically explores the role and applicability of ‘fit’ in strategic CSR communication targeted at young consumers. Point of departure is taken in the well-known strategic fit (a logical link between a company’s CSR commitment and its core...... values) and is further developed by introducing two additional fits, the CSR- Consumer fit and the CSR-Consumer-Company fit (Triple Fit). Through a sequential design, the three fits are empirically tested and their potential for meeting young consumers’ expectations for corporate CSR messaging...

  5. Improving NEC Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Fill cannot. NEC Fit NEC Fit measures more than the crew’s total skill sets. It also accounts for how these sailors are used by crediting an NEC...Abstract Navy enlisted classifications (NECs) denote special skills beyond those associated with a rating. They are used in defining manpower...requirements and in managing personnel by tracking sailors who have acquired these skills . NEC Fit is one of two primary metrics that Navy leadership

  6. The effect of the Nintendo Wii Fit on balance control and gross motor function of children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Jennifer; Pronk, Marieke; Ferguson, Gillian; Jelsma-Smit, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the impact of training using the Nintendo Wii Fit in 14 children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Methods: A single-subject single blinded design with multiple subjects and baselines was utilised. Interactive video gaming (IVG) in lieu of regular physiotherapy was given fo

  7. Does exercise training improve cardiopulmonary fitness and daily physical activity in children and young adults with corrected tetralogy of Fallot or Fontan circulation? A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duppen, Nienke; Etnel, Jonathan R.; Spaans, Laura; Takken, Tim; Van Den Berg-Emons, Rita J.; Boersma, Eric; Schokking, Michiel; Dulfer, Karolijn; Utens, Elisabeth M.; Helbing, Willem; Hopman, Maria T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many patients with congenital heart disease do not meet current public health guidelines to participate in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity for ≥60 minutes per day. They are less fit than their healthy peers. We hypothesized that exercise training would increase cardiopulmonary fitn

  8. Does exercise training improve cardiopulmonary fitness and daily physical activity in children and young adults with corrected tetralogy of Fallot or Fontan circulation? A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duppen, N.; Etnel, J.R.; Spaans, L.; Takken, T.; Berg-Emons, R.J. van den; Boersma, E.; Schokking, M.; Dulfer, K.; Utens, E.M.; Helbing, W.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients with congenital heart disease do not meet current public health guidelines to participate in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity for >/=60 minutes per day. They are less fit than their healthy peers. We hypothesized that exercise training would increase cardiopulmonar

  9. The effect of the Nintendo Wii Fit on balance control and gross motor function of children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Jennifer; Pronk, Marieke; Ferguson, Gillian; Jelsma-Smit, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the impact of training using the Nintendo Wii Fit in 14 children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Methods: A single-subject single blinded design with multiple subjects and baselines was utilised. Interactive video gaming (IVG) in lieu of regular physiotherapy was given

  10. Effects of a Physical Education-Based Programme on Health-Related Physical Fitness and Its Maintenance in High School Students: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Montoro-Escaño, Jorge; Merino-Marban, Rafael; Viciana, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a physical education-based development and maintenance programme on objective and perceived health-related physical fitness in high school students. A sample of 111 students aged 12-14 years old from six classes were cluster-randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 54) or a control…

  11. Effects of a Physical Education-Based Programme on Health-Related Physical Fitness and Its Maintenance in High School Students: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Montoro-Escaño, Jorge; Merino-Marban, Rafael; Viciana, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a physical education-based development and maintenance programme on objective and perceived health-related physical fitness in high school students. A sample of 111 students aged 12-14 years old from six classes were cluster-randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 54) or a control…

  12. Complications of complexity: integrating environmental, genetic and hormonal control of insect diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Kevin J; Bradshaw, William E; Holzapfel, Christina M

    2009-05-01

    Understanding gene interaction and pleiotropy are long-standing goals of developmental and evolutionary biology. We examine the genetic control of diapause in insects and show how the failure to recognize the difference between modular and gene pleiotropy has confounded our understanding of the genetic basis of this important phenotype. This has led to complications in understanding the role of the circadian clock in the control of diapause in Drosophila and other insects. We emphasize three successive modules - each containing functionally related genes - that lead to diapause: photoperiodism, hormonal events and diapause itself. Understanding the genetic basis for environmental control of diapause has wider implications for evolutionary response to rapid climate change and for the opportunity to observe evolutionary change in contemporary time.

  13. 汽油分馏塔现场分段预制组焊质量控制%Quality Control of Sectional Pre-fabrication Fit-up Welding of Gasoline Fractionating Tower at Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭中毅; 李刚

    2012-01-01

    As one of critical equipments-the gasoline fractionating tower, the quality control is very important for an ethylene plant. Based on the fabrication scheme of sectional pre-fabrica-tion fit-up welding at site as well as the characteristic of equipment structure, the quality control key points were worked out. According to quality control measures aimed at the equipment are a-dopted and certain methods were used to ensure the quality of fit-up welding. It provides a reference for quality control of similar equipment for pre-fabrication fit-up welding at site.%作为乙烯装置中的关键设备之一——汽油分馏塔,其制造安装质量的重要性不言而喻.根据设备现场分段预制组焊的制造方案及设备的结构特点提出了汽油分馏塔的质量控制重点,并采取了针对性的措施保证了设备组焊的高质量,此经验可为同类设备现场组焊的质量控制提供一定的借鉴.

  14. The universal Higgs fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giardino, P. P.; Kannike, K.; Masina, I.

    2014-01-01

    Higgs models, models with extra Higgs doublets, supersymmetry, extra particles in the loops, anomalous top couplings, and invisible Higgs decays into Dark Matter. Best fit regions lie around the Standard Model predictions and are well approximated by our 'universal' fit. Latest data exclude the dilaton...

  15. Fit 2-B FATHERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorano, Joseph J.

    2001-01-01

    Fit 2-B FATHERS is a parenting-skills education program for incarcerated adult males. The goals of this program are for participants to have reduced recidivism rates and a reduced risk of their children acquiring criminal records. These goals are accomplished by helping participants become physically, practically, and socially fit for the demands…

  16. Best Fit for 'Bounce'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The mineralogy of 'Bounce' rock was determined by fitting spectra from a library of laboratory minerals to the spectrum of Bounce taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's miniature thermal emission spectrometer. The minerals that give the best fit include pyroxene, plagioclase and olivine -- minerals commonly found in basaltic volcanic rocks -- and typical martian dust produced by the rover's rock abrasion tool.

  17. Fitness Test and Tips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karen; Clark

    2005-01-01

    Summer is a time to exercise and keep fit.Ask yourself these quick questions and check your score below.How fit are you? 1.What is your pulse[脉搏]?Find your pulse in your wrist[手腕], count the number of beats[跳动] in one minute,Now

  18. The Quality Fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertiz, Virginia C.; Downey, Carolyn J.

    This paper proposes a two-pronged approach for examining an educational program's "quality of fit." The American Association of School Administrators' (AASA's) Curriculum Management Audit for quality indicators is reviewed, using the Downey Quality Fit Framework and Deming's 4 areas of profound knowledge and 14 points. The purpose is to…

  19. Physical fitness of schoolgirls with Turner syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milde, K.; Tomaszewski, P.K.; Stupnicki, R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess physical fitness of girls with Turner syndrome (TS) and to determine the relative contributions of age, body height, and body mass to performance in fitness tests. Girls with TS aged 10-18 years (n = 184), and age- and stature-matched healthy controls (n = 280) wer

  20. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.

  1. Design of the Quality of Life in Motion (QLIM study: a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a combined physical exercise and psychosocial training program to improve physical fitness in children with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Tim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood cancer and its treatment have considerable impact on a child's physical and mental wellbeing. Especially long-term administration of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy impairs physical fitness both during and after therapy, when children often present with muscle weakness and/or low cardiorespiratory fitness. Physical exercise can improve these two elements of physical fitness, but the positive effects of physical exercise might be further increased when a child's wellbeing is simultaneously enhanced by psychosocial training. Feeling better may increase the willingness and motivation to engage in sports activities. Therefore, this multi-centre study evaluates the short and long-term changes in physical fitness of a child with a childhood malignancy, using a combined physical exercise and psychosocial intervention program, implemented during or shortly after treatment. Also examined is whether positive effects on physical fitness reduce inactivity-related adverse health problems, improve quality of life, and are cost-effective. Methods This multi-centre randomized controlled trial compares a combined physical and psychosocial intervention program for children with cancer, with care as usual (controls. Children with cancer (aged 8-18 years treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, and who are no longer than 1 year post-treatment, are eligible for participation. A total of 100 children are being recruited from the paediatric oncology/haematology departments of three Dutch university medical centres. Patients are stratified according to pubertal stage (girls: age ≤10 or >10 years; boys: ≤11 or >11 years, type of malignancy (haematological or solid tumour, and moment of inclusion into the study (during or after treatment, and are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Discussion Childhood cancer patients undergoing long-term cancer therapy may benefit from a combined physical exercise and

  2. 基于LSM分段拟合技术的喷墨输出反馈控制研究%Study of the Inkjet Output's Feedback Control Based on the LSM Piece Wise Curve-fitting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于惠; 刘真

    2011-01-01

    各单色通道保持线性输出是喷墨打印机线性化校正的前提,以LSM(最小二乘法)的不足为启示,分析了LSM分段拟合技术的原理及特点,进而提出了针对图像的不同色调采用LSM分段拟合技术。实验分别采用LSM分段拟合技术和普通LSM拟合技术,拟合了喷墨打印机的反补偿曲线,再打印出反馈的应输入控制信息,最终评价比较了2种曲线模型下的输出样稿效果。结果表明:最小二乘法分段曲线拟合技术比普通最小二乘拟合技术更适用于喷墨输出反馈控制过程中。%Precise inking of every channel is the presupposition of inkjet printers' linearization. The principle and feature of LSM piece wise curve-fitting technology was analyzed. Pictures" different tones were treated with LSM piece wise Printing feedback controlling curve was fitted with LSM piece wise curve-fitting technology and common LSM curve-fitting technology. Sample sheets printed by the two control technologies were evaluated and compared. The results showed that LSM Piece Wise method is more suitable for the inkier printers' feed back control.

  3. ACSM Fit Society Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2011 -- Exercise for Special Populations 2011 -- Behavior Change & Exercise Adherence 2011 -- Nutrition 2011 -- Winter Health 2010 -- Healthy Aging 2010 -- Weight Loss & Weight Management 2010 -- Fitness Assessment & Injury Prevention 2009 -- Strength Training 2009 -- Menopause ...

  4. Getting Fit Before Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  5. Enxertia em plantas de pimentão no controle da murcha de fitóftora em ambiente protegido Sweet pepper grafting to control phytophthora blight under protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydée S. Santos

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a viabilidade de utilização da enxertia em plantas de pimentão (Capsicum annuum, L., visando o controle da murcha de fitóftora. A pesquisa foi conduzida de setembro de 2000 a julho de 2001, na UNESP, Botucatu, em ambiente protegido. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com 4 repetições e 5 plantas por parcela. Foram utilizados dois porta-enxertos resistentes a Phytophthora capsici, híbridos F1 de Capsicum annuum, e três híbridos comerciais suscetíveis (Elisa, Margarita e Magali-R. A enxertia foi realizada quando porta-enxertos e enxertos apresentavam respectivamente sete e três folhas verdadeiras, pelo método de garfagem fenda simples. Aos 14 dias após o transplante das mudas foi feita a inoculação do fungo, utilizando sementes de trigo infestadas pelo patógeno, depositadas ao redor do colo da planta. Quatro dias após a inoculação, e a partir daí a cada 15 dias, foram feitas avaliações que confirmaram a resistência dos porta-enxertos e a suscetibilidade das plantas não enxertadas. Observou-se bom nível de compatibilidade de enxertia em todas as combinações, precocidade de florescimento das plantas não enxertadas, manutenção de resistência à doença pelas plantas enxertadas durante todo o período e variações na altura das plantas em algumas combinações. Com relação à produção, verificou-se que os frutos mantiveram as características fenotípicas de cada híbrido, revelando que não houve interferência dos porta-enxertos neste aspecto. Concluiu-se haver viabilidade técnica de utilização da enxertia no controle da murcha de fitóftora em ambiente protegido.The viability of grafting was evaluated in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum, L plants to control phytophthora blight. The research was carried out during the period of September 2000 to July 2001, in Botucatu (Brazil, under protected cultivation. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with four replication and

  6. Fitting Galaxies on GPUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsdell, B. R.; Barnes, D. G.; Fluke, C. J.

    2011-07-01

    Structural parameters are normally extracted from observed galaxies by fitting analytic light profiles to the observations. Obtaining accurate fits to high-resolution images is a computationally expensive task, requiring many model evaluations and convolutions with the imaging point spread function. While these algorithms contain high degrees of parallelism, current implementations do not exploit this property. With ever-growing volumes of observational data, an inability to make use of advances in computing power can act as a constraint on scientific outcomes. This is the motivation behind our work, which aims to implement the model-fitting procedure on a graphics processing unit (GPU). We begin by analysing the algorithms involved in model evaluation with respect to their suitability for modern many-core computing architectures like GPUs, finding them to be well-placed to take advantage of the high memory bandwidth offered by this hardware. Following our analysis, we briefly describe a preliminary implementation of the model fitting procedure using freely-available GPU libraries. Early results suggest a speed-up of around 10× over a CPU implementation. We discuss the opportunities such a speed-up could provide, including the ability to use more computationally expensive but better-performing fitting routines to increase the quality and robustness of fits.

  7. [Aerobic fitness in police officers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodaglio, E M; Imbriani, M; Criffò, A; Tronconi, E

    1996-01-01

    According to act n. 626, individual assessment of fitness and absence of contraindications for carrying on a job is fundamental. We considered a group of 44 Urban Police officers (36 males, 8 females), age 39.7 +/- 9.1, whose principal job requirement is a good energetic and motor availability, for a fitness evaluation through a submaximal treadmill test, with subsequent steps of 6 minutes. During the test, physiological variables (VO2, VE, QR through a metabograph, Hr trough an Ec-monitor and Pa through a manual sphygmomanometer) and subjective evaluations of fatigue and dyspnea were monitored. Studying the individual variables trend it was possible to identify the critical metabolic level that was easily tolerated by each individual. This level, an average of 6.8 MET corresponding to a heavy activity, is an endurance predictor and can be utilized in subsequent controls.

  8. Alternative Astronomical FITS imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Varsaki, Eleni E; Fotopoulos, Vassilis; Skodras, Athanassios N

    2012-01-01

    Astronomical radio maps are presented mainly in FITS format. Astronomical Image Processing Software (AIPS) uses a set of tables attached to the output map to include all sorts of information concerning the production of the image. However this information together with information on the flux and noise of the map is lost as soon as the image of the radio source in fits or other format is extracted from AIPS. This information would have been valuable to another astronomer who just uses NED, for example, to download the map. In the current work, we show a method of data hiding inside the radio map, which can be preserved under transformations, even for example while the format of the map is changed from fits to other lossless available image formats.

  9. Fitting Galaxies on GPUs

    CERN Document Server

    Barsdell, Benjamin R; Fluke, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    Structural parameters are normally extracted from observed galaxies by fitting analytic light profiles to the observations. Obtaining accurate fits to high-resolution images is a computationally expensive task, requiring many model evaluations and convolutions with the imaging point spread function. While these algorithms contain high degrees of parallelism, current implementations do not exploit this property. With evergrowing volumes of observational data, an inability to make use of advances in computing power can act as a constraint on scientific outcomes. This is the motivation behind our work, which aims to implement the model-fitting procedure on a graphics processing unit (GPU). We begin by analysing the algorithms involved in model evaluation with respect to their suitability for modern many-core computing architectures like GPUs, finding them to be well-placed to take advantage of the high memory bandwidth offered by this hardware. Following our analysis, we briefly describe a preliminary implementa...

  10. Fitting the Phenomenological MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    AbdusSalam, S S; Quevedo, F; Feroz, F; Hobson, M

    2010-01-01

    We perform a global Bayesian fit of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) to current indirect collider and dark matter data. The pMSSM contains the most relevant 25 weak-scale MSSM parameters, which are simultaneously fit using `nested sampling' Monte Carlo techniques in more than 15 years of CPU time. We calculate the Bayesian evidence for the pMSSM and constrain its parameters and observables in the context of two widely different, but reasonable, priors to determine which inferences are robust. We make inferences about sparticle masses, the sign of the $\\mu$ parameter, the amount of fine tuning, dark matter properties and the prospects for direct dark matter detection without assuming a restrictive high-scale supersymmetry breaking model. We find the inferred lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass as an example of an approximately prior independent observable. This analysis constitutes the first statistically convergent pMSSM global fit to all current data.

  11. The universal Higgs fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giardino, P. P.; Kannike, K.; Masina, I.;

    2014-01-01

    We perform a state-of-the-art global fit to all Higgs data. We synthesise them into a 'universal' form, which allows to easily test any desired model. We apply the proposed methodology to extract from data the Higgs branching ratios, production cross sections, couplings and to analyse composite H...... as an alternative to the Higgs, and disfavour fits with negative Yukawa couplings. We derive for the first time the SM Higgs boson mass from the measured rates, rather than from the peak positions, obtaining M-h = 124.4 +/- 1.6 GeV....

  12. Mosquito transgenesis: what is the fitness cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrelli, Mauro T; Moreira, Cristina K; Kelly, David; Alphey, Luke; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2006-05-01

    The generation of transgenic mosquitoes with a minimal fitness load is a prerequisite for the success of strategies for controlling mosquito-borne diseases using transgenic insects. It is important to assemble as much information as possible on this subject because realistic estimates of transgene fitness costs are essential for modeling and planning release strategies. Transgenic mosquitoes must have minimal fitness costs, because such costs would reduce the effectiveness of the genetic drive mechanisms that are used to introduce the transgenes into field mosquito populations. Several factors affect fitness of transgenic mosquitoes, including the potential negative effect of transgene products and insertional mutagenesis. Studies to assess fitness of transgenic mosquitoes in the field (as opposed to the laboratory) are still needed.

  13. Linking the Fits, Fitting the Links: Connecting Different Types of PO Fit to Attitudinal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Aegean; Chaturvedi, Sankalp

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the linkages among various types of person-organization (PO) fit and their effects on employee attitudinal outcomes. We propose and test a conceptual model which links various types of fits--objective fit, perceived fit and subjective fit--in a hierarchical order of cognitive information processing and relate them to…

  14. Evaluating the potential of the sterile insect technique for malaria control: relative fitness and mating compatibility between laboratory colonized and a wild population of Anopheles arabiensis from the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunt Richard H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The successful suppression of a target insect population using the sterile insect technique (SIT partly depends on the premise that the laboratory insects used for mass rearing are genetically compatible with the target population, that the mating competitiveness of laboratory reared males is at least comparable to that of their wild counterparts, and that mass rearing and sterilization processes do not in themselves compromise male fitness to a degree that precludes them from successfully competing for mates in the wild. This study investigated the fitness and sexual cross-compatibility between samples of field collected and laboratory reared An. arabiensis under laboratory conditions. Results The physiological and reproductive fitness of the MALPAN laboratory strain is not substantially modified with respect to the field population at Malahlapanga. Further, a high degree of mating compatibility between MALPAN and the Malahlapanga population was established based on cross-mating experiments. Lastly, the morphological characteristics of hybrid ovarian polytene chromosomes further support the contention that the MALPAN laboratory colony and the An. arabiensis population at Malahlapanga are genetically homogenous and therefore compatible. Conclusions It is concluded that the presence of a perennial and isolated population of An. arabiensis at Malahlapanga presents a unique opportunity for assessing the feasibility of SIT as a malaria vector control option. The MALPAN laboratory colony has retained sufficient enough measures of reproductive and physiological fitness to present as a suitable candidate for male sterilization, mass rearing and subsequent mass release of sterile males at Malahlapanga in order to further assess the feasibility of SIT in a field setting.

  15. Design of the Physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effectiveness Study (PACES:A randomized controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of physical exercise in improving physical fitness and reducing fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonke Gabe S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer chemotherapy is frequently associated with a decline in general physical condition, exercise tolerance, and muscle strength and with an increase in fatigue. While accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise interventions during chemotherapy treatment may contribute to maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness and strength, the results of studies conducted to date have not been consistent. Additional research is needed to determine the optimal intensity of exercise training programs in general and in particular the relative effectiveness of supervised, outpatient (hospital- or physical therapy practice-based versus home-based programs. Methods This multicenter, prospective, randomized trial will evaluate the effectiveness of a low to moderate intensity, home-based, self-management physical activity program, and a high intensity, structured, supervised exercise program, in maintaining or enhancing physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength, in minimizing fatigue and in enhancing the health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast or colon cancer (n = 360 are being recruited from twelve hospitals in the Netherlands, and randomly allocated to one of the two treatment groups or to a 'usual care' control group. Performance-based and self-reported outcomes are assessed at baseline, at the end of chemotherapy and at six month follow-up. Discussion This large, multicenter, randomized clinical trial will provide additional empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical exercise during adjuvant chemotherapy in enhancing physical fitness, minimizing fatigue, and maintaining or enhancing patients' quality of life. If demonstrated to be effective, exercise intervention programs will be a welcome addition to the standard program of care offered to patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Trial registration This study is registered at

  16. Talking Sport and Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Keogh, Brenda; Naylor, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    For some time the Association for Science Education (ASE) has been aware that it would be useful to have some resources available to get children talking and thinking about issues related to health, sport and fitness. Some of the questions about pulse, breathing rate and so on are pretty obvious to everyone, and there is a risk of these being…

  17. Water Fit to Drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

  18. Fit for Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Children who hate gym grow into adults who associate physical activity with ridicule and humiliation. Physical education is reinventing itself, stressing enjoyable activities that continue into adulthood: aerobic dance, weight training, fitness walking, mountain biking, hiking, inline skating, karate, rock-climbing, and canoeing. Cooperative,…

  19. Finding What Fits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Statistical association between two variables is one of the fundamental statistical ideas in school curricula. Reasoning about statistical association has been deemed one of the most important cognitive activities that humans perform. Students are typically introduced to statistical association through the study of the line of best fit because it…

  20. Fitting a Gompertz curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, a simple Gompertz curve-fitting procedure is proposed. Its advantages include the facts that the stability of the saturation level over the sample period can be checked, and that no knowledge of its value is necessary for forecasting. An application to forecasting the stoc

  1. Kids Weigh to Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, Mary Jane

    A description is given of a program that provides preventive measures to check obesity in children and young people. The 24-week program is divided into two parts--a nutrition component and an exercise component. At the start and end of the program, tests are given to assess the participants' height, weight, body composition, fitness level, and…

  2. Manual for physical fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, A. E.

    1981-01-01

    Training manual used for preflight conditioning of NASA astronauts is written for audience with diverse backgrounds and interests. It suggests programs for various levels of fitness, including sample starter programs, safe progression schedules, and stretching exercises. Related information on equipment needs, environmental coonsiderations, and precautions can help readers design safe and effective running programs.

  3. Extensive fitness and human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hateren, J H

    2015-12-01

    Evolution depends on the fitness of organisms, the expected rate of reproducing. Directly getting offspring is the most basic form of fitness, but fitness can also be increased indirectly by helping genetically related individuals (such as kin) to increase their fitness. The combined effect is known as inclusive fitness. Here it is argued that a further elaboration of fitness has evolved, particularly in humans. It is called extensive fitness and it incorporates producing organisms that are merely similar in phenotype. The evolvability of this mechanism is illustrated by computations on a simple model combining heredity and behaviour. Phenotypes are driven into the direction of high fitness through a mechanism that involves an internal estimate of fitness, implicitly made within the organism itself. This mechanism has recently been conjectured to be responsible for producing agency and goals. In the model, inclusive and extensive fitness are both implemented by letting fitness increase nonlinearly with the size of subpopulations of similar heredity (for the indirect part of inclusive fitness) and of similar phenotype (for the phenotypic part of extensive fitness). Populations implementing extensive fitness outcompete populations implementing mere inclusive fitness. This occurs because groups with similar phenotype tend to be larger than groups with similar heredity, and fitness increases more when groups are larger. Extensive fitness has two components, a direct component where individuals compete in inducing others to become like them and an indirect component where individuals cooperate and help others who are already similar to them.

  4. Variability of cardio-respiratory, electromyographic, and perceived exertion responses at the walk-run transition in a sample of young men controlled for anthropometric and fitness characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Walace D; Farinatti, Paulo T V; de Oliveira, Carlos G; Araújo, Claudio Gil S

    2011-06-01

    The cardio-respiratory (heart rate, HR; oxygen uptake, VO(2;) expired carbon dioxide, VCO(2); ventilation, VE), electromyographic (EMG; medial gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis, rectus femoralis, and anterior tibialis), and perceived exertion (PE) responses during a protocol for the determination of the walk-run transition speed (WRTS) were investigated. From an initial sample of 453 volunteers, 12 subjects matched for age, anthropometric characteristics [height, weight, lower limb length (LLL)], cardio-respiratory fitness (peak oxygen consumption, VO(2peak); ventilatory threshold, VT; maximal HR), and habitual physical activity levels were selected (age = 18.6 ± 0.5 years; height = 174.5 ± 1.4 cm; weight = 66.4 ± 1.1 kg; LLL = 83.3 ± 1.2 cm, VO(2peak) = 52.2 ± 2.2 ml kg(-1) min(-1); VT = 39.8 ± 2.6 ml kg(-1) min(-1)). The highly reproducible WRTS determination protocol (ICC = 0.92; p running velocities (from 80 to 120% of WRTS) was compared to WRTS variation. The coefficient of variation for WRTS was 7.8%, which was within the range of variability for age, anthropometric variables, VO(2peak), and maximal HR (from 5 to 12%). Cardio-respiratory responses at WRTS had a greater variation (VO(2) about 50%; VE/VCO(2) about 35%; VE/VO(2) about 45%; HR about 30%). The highest variation was found for PE (from 70 to 90%) whereas EMG variables showed the lowest variation (from 25 to 30%). Linear regression between EMG series and VO(2) data showed that VO(2) reflected the increase in muscle activity only before the WRTS. These results support the hypothesis that the walk-run transition phenomenon is determined by mechanical variables such as limb length and its relationship to biomechanical model rather than by metabolic factors.

  5. A school-based intervention incorporating smartphone technology to improve health-related fitness among adolescents: rationale and study protocol for the NEAT and ATLAS 2.0 cluster randomised controlled trial and dissemination study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J; Peralta, Louisa R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Okely, Anthony D; Salmon, Jo; Eather, Narelle; Dewar, Deborah L; Kennedy, Sarah; Lonsdale, Chris; Hilland, Toni A; Estabrooks, Paul; Finn, Tara L; Pollock, Emma; Morgan, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical inactivity has been described as a global pandemic. Interventions aimed at developing skills in lifelong physical activities may provide the foundation for an active lifestyle into adulthood. In general, school-based physical activity interventions targeting adolescents have produced modest results and few have been designed to be ‘scaled-up’ and disseminated. This study aims to: (1) assess the effectiveness of two physical activity promotion programmes (ie, NEAT and ATLAS) that have been modified for scalability; and (2) evaluate the dissemination of these programmes throughout government funded secondary schools. Methods and analysis The study will be conducted in two phases. In the first phase (cluster randomised controlled trial), 16 schools will be randomly allocated to the intervention or a usual care control condition. In the second phase, the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (Re-AIM) framework will be used to guide the design and evaluation of programme dissemination throughout New South Wales (NSW), Australia. In both phases, teachers will be trained to deliver the NEAT and ATLAS programmes, which will include: (1) interactive student seminars; (2) structured physical activity programmes; (3) lunch-time fitness sessions; and (4) web-based smartphone apps. In the cluster RCT, study outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 6 months (primary end point) and 12-months. Muscular fitness will be the primary outcome and secondary outcomes will include: objectively measured body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility, resistance training skill competency, physical activity, self-reported recreational screen-time, sleep, sugar-sweetened beverage and junk food snack consumption, self-esteem and well-being. Ethics and dissemination This study has received approval from the University of Newcastle (H-2014-0312) and the NSW Department of Education (SERAP: 2012121) human research ethics committees. This

  6. Extensive fitness and human cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hateren, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution depends on the fitness of organisms, the expected rate of reproducing. Directly getting offspring is the most basic form of fitness, but fitness can also be increased indirectly by helping genetically related individuals (such as kin) to increase their fitness. The combined effect is known

  7. A school-based physical activity program to improve health and fitness in children aged 6–13 years ("Kinder-Sportstudie KISS": study design of a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN15360785

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knöpfli Martin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is the result of a long lasting imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. A major contributing factor is physical inactivity which is closely linked to bone health, cardiovascular disease risk, fitness and psychological factors. The school seems to provide an excellent setting to enhance levels of physical activity (PA. However, there is insufficient data from previous school-based intervention trials on how to enhance overall PA. It is also unknown whether an intervention aimed at increasing PA is effective in improving the children's health. The purpose of this paper is to outline the design of a school-based randomized, controlled trial (RCT aiming to increase overall PA and to improve fitness and health in 6- to 13-year-old children. Methods/Design 15 schools were randomized to the intervention (n = 9 or the control (n = 6 group, stratified by geographic region (urban vs. rural and by age (1st and 5th grade. Participation was given for all children in the intervention group since in this group the intervention was part of the normal school curriculum. The intervention during one academic year consisted of: 1. two additional physical education classes per week given by trained physical education teachers adding up to a total of five PA classes per week, 2. short PA breaks (2–5 min each during academic lessons, 3. PA home work, and 4. adaptation of recreational areas around the school. All children underwent anthropometric measurements, blood pressure assessment, fitness testing, measurement of PA and they filled out questionnaires. At least 70% of all children agreed to blood sampling and measurements of body composition and bone mineral measurements by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The primary endpoints of the study after one year were an increase in total PA by accelerometry, an increase in aerobic fitness measured by the 20 m shuttle run, a decrease in percent body fat derived from

  8. Structuring warehouse management : Exploring the fit between warehouse characteristics and warehouse planning and control structure, and its effect on warehouse performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Faber (Nynke)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThis dissertation studies the management processes that plan, control, and optimize warehouse operations. The inventory in warehouses decouples supply from demand. As such, economies of scale can be achieved in production, purchasing, and transport. As warehouses become more and more

  9. The Fit between School Board Control and Behaviour of Middle Managers, Team Leaders and Teachers in Dutch Colleges for Vocational Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honingh, Marlies; van Genugten, Marieke

    2017-01-01

    The inspectorate's judgements about a school's educational quality in the Netherlands are to a large extent based on sophisticated desk research, risk analyses and analyses of the school's self-evaluation reports. This relatively distant mode of inspecting schools relies on rational ideas about organizational management and control while aspects…

  10. Structuring warehouse management : Exploring the fit between warehouse characteristics and warehouse planning and control structure, and its effect on warehouse performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Faber (Nynke)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract This dissertation studies the management processes that plan, control, and optimize warehouse operations. The inventory in warehouses decouples supply from demand. As such, economies of scale can be achieved in production, purchasing, and transport. As warehouses become mor

  11. MixFit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haller, Toomas; Leitsalu, Liis; Fischer, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Ancestry information at the individual level can be a valuable resource for personalized medicine, medical, demographical and history research, as well as for tracing back personal history. We report a new method for quantitatively determining personal genetic ancestry based on genome-wide data....... Numerical ancestry component scores are assigned to individuals based on comparisons with reference populations. These comparisons are conducted with an existing analytical pipeline making use of genotype phasing, similarity matrix computation and our addition-multidimensional best fitting by Mix......Fit. The method is demonstrated by studying Estonian and Finnish populations in geographical context. We show the main differences in the genetic composition of these otherwise close European populations and how they have influenced each other. The components of our analytical pipeline are freely available...

  12. Return to fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinubile, Nicholas A

    2008-12-01

    The cornerstone of personal health is prevention. The concept of exercise as medicine is a lesson I have preached throughout my career, both with my patients in my private practice as well as through my years working with athletes at all levels including the Philadelphia 76ers basketball team and the Pennsylvania Ballet. It is also a message I relayed as a Special Advisor to the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports (PCPFS) during the first Bush administration, working closely with my old friend-and fitness advocate and visionary himself-Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, who served as Chairman to the PCPFS. Arnold's impact on our nation's health was an extremely positive one that was felt in communities from coast-to-coast. Exercise, activity, and prevention were key components of his prescription for change and improved health for our country. He has also always personally inspired me to see my role as a physician and "healer" in a much broader context.

  13. Design of the Resistance and Endurance exercise After ChemoTherapy (REACT study: A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of exercise interventions after chemotherapy on physical fitness and fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Mechelen Willem

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preliminary studies suggest that physical exercise interventions can improve physical fitness, fatigue and quality of life in cancer patients after completion of chemotherapy. Additional research is needed to rigorously test the effects of exercise programmes among cancer patients and to determine optimal training intensity accordingly. The present paper presents the design of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a high intensity exercise programme compared to a low-to-moderate intensity exercise programme and a waiting list control group on physical fitness and fatigue as primary outcomes. Methods After baseline measurements, cancer patients who completed chemotherapy are randomly assigned to either a 12-week high intensity exercise programme or a low-to-moderate intensity exercise programme. Next, patients from both groups are randomly assigned to immediate training or a waiting list (i.e. waiting list control group. After 12 weeks, patients of the waiting list control group start with the exercise programme they have been allocated to. Both interventions consist of equal bouts of resistance and endurance interval exercises with the same frequency and duration, but differ in training intensity. Additionally, patients of both exercise programmes are counselled to improve compliance and achieve and maintain an active lifestyle, tailored to their individual preferences and capabilities. Measurements will be performed at baseline (t = 0, 12 weeks after randomization (t = 1, and 64 weeks after randomization (t = 2. The primary outcome measures are cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength assessed by means of objective performance indicators, and self-reported fatigue. Secondary outcome measures include health-related quality of life, self-reported physical activity, daily functioning, body composition, mood and sleep disturbances, and return to work. In addition, compliance

  14. Virtual Fitting Rooms

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra Rodríguez, Carlos Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade a considerable number of efforts have been devoted into developing Virtual Fitting Rooms (VFR) due to the great popularity of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) in the fashion design industry. The existence of new technologies such as Kinect, powerful web cameras and smartphones permit us to examine new ways to try on clothes without doing it physically in a store center. This research is primarily dedicated to review some important aspects about...

  15. BESⅢ track fitting algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji-Ke; MAO Ze-Pu; BIAN Jian-Ming; CAO Guo-Fu; CAO Xue-Xiang; CHEN Shen-Jian; DENG Zi-Yan; FU Cheng-Dong; GAO Yuan-Ning; HE Kang-Lin; HE Miao; HUA Chun-Fei; HUANG Bin; HUANG Xing-Tao; JI Xiao-Sin; LI Fei; LI Hai-Bo; LI Wei-Dong; LIANG Yu-Tie; LIU Chun-Xiu; LIU Huai-Min; LIU Suo; LIU Ying-Jie; MA Qiu-Mei; MA Xiang; MAO Ya-Jun; MO Xiao-Hu; PAN Ming-Hua; PANG Cai-Ying; PING Rong-Gang; QIN Ya-Hong; QIU Jin-Fa; SUN Sheng-Sen; SUN Yong-Zhao; WANG Liang-Liang; WEN Shuo-Pin; WU Ling-Hui; XIE Yu-Guang; XU Min; YAN Liang; YOU Zheng-Yun; YUAN Chang-Zheng; YUAN Ye; ZHANG Bing-Yun; ZHANG Chang-Chun; ZHANG Jian-Yong; ZHANG Xue-Yao; ZHANG Yao; ZHENG Yang-Heng; ZHU Ke-Jun; ZHU Yong-Sheng; ZHU Zhi-Li; ZOU Jia-Heng

    2009-01-01

    A track fitting algorithm based on the Kalman filter method has been developed for BESⅢ of BEPCⅡ.The effects of multiple scattering and energy loss when the charged particles go through the detector,non-uniformity of magnetic field (NUMF) and wire sag, etc., have been carefully handled.This algorithm works well and the performance satisfies the physical requirements tested by the simulation data.

  16. Made to fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerck, Mari; Klepp, Ingun Grimstad; Skoland, Eli

    Denne rapporten formidler funn fra en litteraturstudie, brukerundersøkelse og markedsundersøkelse gjort i prosjektet Made to Fit. Rapporten svarer på prosjektets hovedmål og delmål som retter seg mot å formidle kunnskap om tilpasning og fremstilling av funksjonelle og gode produkter for handikapp......Denne rapporten formidler funn fra en litteraturstudie, brukerundersøkelse og markedsundersøkelse gjort i prosjektet Made to Fit. Rapporten svarer på prosjektets hovedmål og delmål som retter seg mot å formidle kunnskap om tilpasning og fremstilling av funksjonelle og gode produkter...... for handikappede. Herunder potensialet for å utvikle spesialtilpassede klær i konseptet «Made to Fit», utprøving av metoder og identifisering av kunnskapsstatus på feltet. Rapporten er således delt inn i tre hoveddeler. Første delen bygger videre på prosjektnotatet til Vestvik, Hebrok og Klepp (2013) fra...

  17. Structuring warehouse management: Exploring the fit between warehouse characteristics and warehouse planning and control structure, and its effect on warehouse performance

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Nynke

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract This dissertation studies the management processes that plan, control, and optimize warehouse operations. The inventory in warehouses decouples supply from demand. As such, economies of scale can be achieved in production, purchasing, and transport. As warehouses become more and more vital for the success of many companies, they are facing increasing demands with respect to costs, productivity, and customer service. At the same time, warehouse operations have become m...

  18. Aging: progressive decline in fitness due to the rising deleteriome adjusted by genetic, environmental, and stochastic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2016-08-01

    Different theories posit that aging is caused by molecular damage, genetic programs, continued development, hyperfunction, antagonistic pleiotropy alleles, mutations, trade-offs, incomplete repair, etc. Here, I discuss that these ideas can be conceptually unified as they capture particular facets of aging, while being incomplete. Their respective deleterious effects impact fitness at different levels of biological organization, adjusting progression through aging, rather than causing it. Living is associated with a myriad of deleterious processes, both random and deterministic, which are caused by imperfectness, exhibit cumulative properties, and represent the indirect effects of biological functions at all levels, from simple molecules to systems. From this, I derive the deleteriome, which encompasses cumulative deleterious age-related changes and represents the biological age. The organismal deleteriome consists of the deleteriomes of cells, organs, and systems, which change along roughly synchronized trajectories and may be assessed through biomarkers of aging. Aging is then a progressive decline in fitness due to the increasing deleteriome, adjusted by genetic, environmental, and stochastic processes. This model allows integration of diverse aging concepts, provides insights into the nature of aging, and suggests how lifespan may be adjusted during evolution and in experimental models. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of the SCI Get Fit Toolkit on leisure-time physical activity behaviour and social-cognitive processes in adults with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P; Sweet, Shane N; Lamontagne, Marie-Eve; Ginis, Kathleen A Martin; Jeske, Samantha; Routhier, François; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E

    2017-01-01

    Single blind, two-group randomized controlled trial. To evaluate the efficacy of the SCI Get Fit Toolkit delivered online on theoretical constructs and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among adults with SCI. Ontario and Quebec, Canada. Inactive, English- and French-speaking Canadian adults with traumatic SCI with Internet access, and no self-reported cognitive or memory impairments. Participants (N=90 Mage=48.12±11.29 years; 79% male) were randomized to view the SCI Get Fit Toolkit or the Physical Activity Guidelines for adults with SCI (PAG-SCI) online. Primary (intentions) and secondary (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, planning and MVPA behaviour) outcomes were assessed over a 1-month period. Of the 90 participants randomized, 77 were included in the analyses. Participants viewed the experimental stimuli only briefly, reading the 4-page toolkit for approximately 2.5 min longer than the 1-page guideline document. No condition effects were found for intentions, outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and planning (ΔR(2)⩽0.03). Individuals in the toolkit condition were more likely to participate in at least one bout of 20 min of MVPA behaviour at 1-week post-intervention compared to individuals in the guidelines condition (OR=3.54, 95% CI=0.95, 13.17). However, no differences were found when examining change in weekly minutes of MVPA or comparing whether participants met the PAG-SCI. No firm conclusions can be made regarding the impact of the SCI Get Fit Toolkit in comparison to the PAG-SCI on social cognitions and MVPA behaviour. The limited online access to this resource may partially explain these null findings.

  20. The Feedback Intervention Trial (FIT) — Improving Hand-Hygiene Compliance in UK Healthcare Workers: A Stepped Wedge Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Christopher; Michie, Susan; Savage, Joanne; McAteer, John; Besser, Sarah; Charlett, Andre; Hayward, Andrew; Cookson, Barry D.; Cooper, Ben S.; Duckworth, Georgia; Jeanes, Annette; Roberts, Jenny; Teare, Louise; Stone, Sheldon

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Achieving a sustained improvement in hand-hygiene compliance is the WHO’s first global patient safety challenge. There is no RCT evidence showing how to do this. Systematic reviews suggest feedback is most effective and call for long term well designed RCTs, applying behavioural theory to intervention design to optimise effectiveness. Methods Three year stepped wedge cluster RCT of a feedback intervention testing hypothesis that the intervention was more effective than routine practice in 16 English/Welsh Hospitals (16 Intensive Therapy Units [ITU]; 44 Acute Care of the Elderly [ACE] wards) routinely implementing a national cleanyourhands campaign). Intervention-based on Goal & Control theories. Repeating 4 week cycle (20 mins/week) of observation, feedback and personalised action planning, recorded on forms. Computer-generated stepwise entry of all hospitals to intervention. Hospitals aware only of own allocation. Primary outcome: direct blinded hand hygiene compliance (%). Results All 16 trusts (60 wards) randomised, 33 wards implemented intervention (11 ITU, 22 ACE). Mixed effects regression analysis (all wards) accounting for confounders, temporal trends, ward type and fidelity to intervention (forms/month used). Intention to Treat Analysis Estimated odds ratio (OR) for hand hygiene compliance rose post randomisation (1.44; 95% CI 1.18, 1.76;phygiene compliance, in wards implementing a national hand-hygiene campaign. Further implementation studies are needed to maximise the intervention’s effect in different settings. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN65246961 PMID:23110040

  1. Invasion fitness, inclusive fitness, and reproductive numbers in heterogeneous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Laurent; Mullon, Charles; Akçay, Erol; Van Cleve, Jeremy

    2016-08-01

    How should fitness be measured to determine which phenotype or "strategy" is uninvadable when evolution occurs in a group-structured population subject to local demographic and environmental heterogeneity? Several fitness measures, such as basic reproductive number, lifetime dispersal success of a local lineage, or inclusive fitness have been proposed to address this question, but the relationships between them and their generality remains unclear. Here, we ascertain uninvadability (all mutant strategies always go extinct) in terms of the asymptotic per capita number of mutant copies produced by a mutant lineage arising as a single copy in a resident population ("invasion fitness"). We show that from invasion fitness uninvadability is equivalently characterized by at least three conceptually distinct fitness measures: (i) lineage fitness, giving the average individual fitness of a randomly sampled mutant lineage member; (ii) inclusive fitness, giving a reproductive value weighted average of the direct fitness costs and relatedness weighted indirect fitness benefits accruing to a randomly sampled mutant lineage member; and (iii) basic reproductive number (and variations thereof) giving lifetime success of a lineage in a single group, and which is an invasion fitness proxy. Our analysis connects approaches that have been deemed different, generalizes the exact version of inclusive fitness to class-structured populations, and provides a biological interpretation of natural selection on a mutant allele under arbitrary strength of selection.

  2. Fit for work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorholt, Grete

    "Fit for work - Attraktiv sundhed og sikkerhed på en hospitalsafdeling i Region Hovedstaden" undersøger hvorledes sundhedsvæsenets forandringer påvirker medarbejdere, ledere og organisation. Udgangspunktet for afhandlingen er en interesse for psykisk arbejdsmiljø, og hvordan reformerne i kølvandet...... også belastende arbejdsmiljø. Afhandlingen er baseret på 8 måneders deltagerobservation og interviews på en anæstesiologisk afdeling kombineret med omfattende dokumentlæsning....

  3. Adaptive Vertex Fitting

    CERN Document Server

    Frühwirth, R; Vanlaer, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    Vertex fitting frequently has to deal with both mis-associated tracks and mis-measured track errors. A robust, adaptive method is presented that is able to cope with contaminated data. The method is formulated as an iterative re-weighted Kalman filter. Annealing is introduced to avoid local minima in the optimization. For the initialization of the adaptive filter a robust algorithm is presented that turns out to perform well in a wide range of applications. The tuning of the annealing schedule and of the cut-off parameter is described, using simulated data from the CMS experiment. Finally, the adaptive property of the method is illustrated in two examples.

  4. A randomised placebo-exercise controlled trial of Kung Fu training for improvements in body composition in overweight/obese adolescents: the "Martial Fitness" study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Tracey W; Kohn, Michael; Chow, Chin Moi; Singh, M Fiatarone

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if Chinese martial arts (Kung Fu, KF) might be effective for improving body composition, as well as being an appealing form of physical activity for inexperienced, sedentary, overweight/obese adolescents. Twenty subjects (age: 13.3 ± 1.8 y; BMI percentile: 98.6(86.5 - 99.8); 60% girls) were randomly-assigned to the supervised KF or placebo (Tai Chi, TC) control group 3 d.wk(-1) for 6 months. We assessed body composition, including total and regional fat and lean mass, total and regional bone mineral density (BMD), percent lean and fat mass, body mass index and waist circumference, at baseline and after 6 months of training using anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Habitual physical activity and dietary intake were recorded as covariates via self-report at each time-point. As expected due to natural growth, significant increases in height, weight, total and lumbar BMD, and lean mass were seen in the cohort over time, with a trend for increased whole body fat mass, with no difference between groups. By contrast, percent fat and android fat mass via DXA did not increase in either group over time. The absence of a similar expected increase in central adiposity over 6 months could indicate a positive effect of participation in both programs on the metabolically critical abdominal adiposity in this cohort. Further research in this area is warranted to determine ways to increase uptake and compliance, and to see if longer-term martial arts training not only maintains, but improves abdominal fat mass and related metabolic health indices in overweight/ obese adolescents. Key pointsParticipation in our martial arts trial attenuated the increases in body fat mass expected due to growth in our overweight/obese adolescent group.All subjects allocated to the Kung Fu intervention were satisfied with their Kung Fu training, in contrast to our placebo-exercise (Tai Chi) subjects, suggesting that this form of

  5. The Feedback Intervention Trial (FIT--improving hand-hygiene compliance in UK healthcare workers: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Fuller

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Achieving a sustained improvement in hand-hygiene compliance is the WHO's first global patient safety challenge. There is no RCT evidence showing how to do this. Systematic reviews suggest feedback is most effective and call for long term well designed RCTs, applying behavioural theory to intervention design to optimise effectiveness. METHODS: Three year stepped wedge cluster RCT of a feedback intervention testing hypothesis that the intervention was more effective than routine practice in 16 English/Welsh Hospitals (16 Intensive Therapy Units [ITU]; 44 Acute Care of the Elderly [ACE] wards routinely implementing a national cleanyourhands campaign. Intervention-based on Goal & Control theories. Repeating 4 week cycle (20 mins/week of observation, feedback and personalised action planning, recorded on forms. Computer-generated stepwise entry of all hospitals to intervention. Hospitals aware only of own allocation. PRIMARY OUTCOME: direct blinded hand hygiene compliance (%. RESULTS: All 16 trusts (60 wards randomised, 33 wards implemented intervention (11 ITU, 22 ACE. Mixed effects regression analysis (all wards accounting for confounders, temporal trends, ward type and fidelity to intervention (forms/month used. INTENTION TO TREAT ANALYSIS: Estimated odds ratio (OR for hand hygiene compliance rose post randomisation (1.44; 95% CI 1.18, 1.76;p<0.001 in ITUs but not ACE wards, equivalent to 7-9% absolute increase in compliance. PER-PROTOCOL ANALYSIS FOR IMPLEMENTING WARDS: OR for compliance rose for both ACE (1.67 [1.28-2.22]; p<0.001 & ITUs (2.09 [1.55-2.81]; p<0.001 equating to absolute increases of 10-13% and 13-18% respectively. Fidelity to intervention closely related to compliance on ITUs (OR 1.12 [1.04, 1.20]; p = 0.003 per completed form but not ACE wards. CONCLUSION: Despite difficulties in implementation, intention-to-treat, per-protocol and fidelity to intervention, analyses showed an intervention coupling feedback to

  6. A population-based randomized controlled trial of the effect of combining a pedometer with an intervention toolkit on physical activity among individuals with low levels of physical activity or fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Severin, Maria; Hansen, Andreas Wolff

    2012-01-01

    To examine if receiving a pedometer along with an intervention toolkit is associated with increased physical activity, aerobic fitness and better self-rated health among individuals with low levels of physical activity or fitness.......To examine if receiving a pedometer along with an intervention toolkit is associated with increased physical activity, aerobic fitness and better self-rated health among individuals with low levels of physical activity or fitness....

  7. Personal Involvement Level in Fitness Training : An Example of a Turkish Fitness Club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper BOZKURT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fitness centres, especially in developed nations are means of exercising in a controlled environment that offers customised training facilities, along with helping the members to socialise. Although services and the rates differ from one to another, they a ll work with the same principal - obtaining membership of the attendants, longer the membership, better for both parties : members and club owners alike . This article will explore the fitness industry in Turkey briefly, by providing background information about the participants of the research. It will then move into portraying their involvement level with the fitness activities. Finally, the paper will pre sent a summary and recommendations sections, based on the research findings. The data for the article collected from members of a fitness club in Adana during the 6 months period of time. Out of 200 questionnaires left, 79 returned by the participants, who were the members of the fitness club under scrutiny.

  8. A school-based intervention incorporating smartphone technology to improve health-related fitness among adolescents: rationale and study protocol for the NEAT and ATLAS 2.0 cluster randomised controlled trial and dissemination study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J; Peralta, Louisa R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Okely, Anthony D; Salmon, Jo; Eather, Narelle; Dewar, Deborah L; Kennedy, Sarah; Lonsdale, Chris; Hilland, Toni A; Estabrooks, Paul; Finn, Tara L; Pollock, Emma; Morgan, Philip J

    2016-06-27

    Physical inactivity has been described as a global pandemic. Interventions aimed at developing skills in lifelong physical activities may provide the foundation for an active lifestyle into adulthood. In general, school-based physical activity interventions targeting adolescents have produced modest results and few have been designed to be 'scaled-up' and disseminated. This study aims to: (1) assess the effectiveness of two physical activity promotion programmes (ie, NEAT and ATLAS) that have been modified for scalability; and (2) evaluate the dissemination of these programmes throughout government funded secondary schools. The study will be conducted in two phases. In the first phase (cluster randomised controlled trial), 16 schools will be randomly allocated to the intervention or a usual care control condition. In the second phase, the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (Re-AIM) framework will be used to guide the design and evaluation of programme dissemination throughout New South Wales (NSW), Australia. In both phases, teachers will be trained to deliver the NEAT and ATLAS programmes, which will include: (1) interactive student seminars; (2) structured physical activity programmes; (3) lunch-time fitness sessions; and (4) web-based smartphone apps. In the cluster RCT, study outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 6 months (primary end point) and 12-months. Muscular fitness will be the primary outcome and secondary outcomes will include: objectively measured body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility, resistance training skill competency, physical activity, self-reported recreational screen-time, sleep, sugar-sweetened beverage and junk food snack consumption, self-esteem and well-being. This study has received approval from the University of Newcastle (H-2014-0312) and the NSW Department of Education (SERAP: 2012121) human research ethics committees. This study is funded by the Australian Research Council (FT

  9. Methodology review: evaluating person fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2001-01-01

    Person-fit methods based on classical test theory-and item response theory (IRT), and methods investigating particular types of response behavior on tests, are examined. Similarities and differences among person-fit methods and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Sound person-fit

  10. SE-FIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongkang; Weislogel, Mark; Schaeffer, Ben; Semerjian, Ben; Yang, Lihong; Zimmerli, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical theory of capillary surfaces has developed steadily over the centuries, but it was not until the last few decades that new technologies have put a more urgent demand on a substantially more qualitative and quantitative understanding of phenomena relating to capillarity in general. So far, the new theory development successfully predicts the behavior of capillary surfaces for special cases. However, an efficient quantitative mathematical prediction of capillary phenomena related to the shape and stability of geometrically complex equilibrium capillary surfaces remains a significant challenge. As one of many numerical tools, the open-source Surface Evolver (SE) algorithm has played an important role over the last two decades. The current effort was undertaken to provide a front-end to enhance the accessibility of SE for the purposes of design and analysis. Like SE, the new code is open-source and will remain under development for the foreseeable future. The ultimate goal of the current Surface Evolver Fluid Interface Tool (SEFIT) development is to build a fully integrated front-end with a set of graphical user interface (GUI) elements. Such a front-end enables the access to functionalities that are developed along with the GUIs to deal with pre-processing, convergence computation operation, and post-processing. In other words, SE-FIT is not just a GUI front-end, but an integrated environment that can perform sophisticated computational tasks, e.g. importing industry standard file formats and employing parameter sweep functions, which are both lacking in SE, and require minimal interaction by the user. These functions are created using a mixture of Visual Basic and the SE script language. These form the foundation for a high-performance front-end that substantially simplifies use without sacrificing the proven capabilities of SE. The real power of SE-FIT lies in its automated pre-processing, pre-defined geometries, convergence computation operation

  11. Taekwondo training and fitness in female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Bae; Stebbins, Charles L; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong-Kook

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we determined the specificity of a low frequency taekwondo training programme on physical fitness levels in adolescent females who receive limited physical education instruction (i.e. 2 days per week). Major components of physical fitness assessed were: skeletal muscle fitness (hand grip strength, bent arm hang, standing long jump, and isokinetic strength), flexibility (sit-and-reach test), speed and agility (10 × 5-m shuttle run), and cardiovascular fitness (VO(2max) and 20-m shuttle run). Changes in body composition were also assessed (dual X-ray absorptiometry, DXA). Participants were divided into two groups, a taekwondo training group (n = 21), which trained 50 min a day, 2 days per week for 12 weeks, and a control group (n = 10). Taekwondo training improved isokinetic strength, standing long jump, and sit-and-reach performance. Body fat mass and percent body fat were reduced. No changes in grip strength, bent arm hang time, speed and agility, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed. Results indicate that low frequency taekwondo training in adolescent females produces beneficial changes in skeletal muscle fitness, flexibility, and body composition in a relatively short period of time. Consequently, this specific type of training can be useful to female adolescents in structured school environments where physical education classes are limited and there is little free time for physical activity.

  12. Effects of a 12-week, short-interval, intermittent, low-intensity, slow-jogging program on skeletal muscle, fat infiltration, and fitness in older adults: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, Masahiro; Yamada, Yosuke; Kose, Yujiro; Morimura, Kazuhiro; Higaki, Yasuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    We developed a short-interval, low-intensity, slow-jogging (SJ) program consisting of sets of 1 min of SJ at walking speed and 1 min of walking. We aimed to examine the effects of an easily performed SJ program on skeletal muscle, fat infiltration, and fitness in older adults. A total of 81 community-dwelling, independent, older adults (70.8 ± 4.0 years) were randomly assigned to the SJ or control group. The SJ group participants were encouraged to perform 90 min of SJ at their anaerobic threshold (AT) intensity and 90 min of walking intermittently per week. Aerobic capacity at the AT and sit-to-stand (STS) scores were measured. Intracellular water (ICW) in the legs was assessed by segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Subcutaneous (SAT) and intermuscular (IMAT) adipose tissue and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) were measured at the mid-thigh using computed tomography. A total of 75 participants (37 SJ group, 38 controls) completed the 12-week intervention. The AT and STS improved in the SJ group compared with the controls (AT 15.7 vs. 4.9 %, p increased only in the SJ group (9.7 %, p decreased only in the SJ group (p muscle mass, improved aerobic capacity, muscle function, and muscle composition in older adults.

  13. Is biomass a reliable estimate of plant fitness?1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younginger, Brett S.; Sirová, Dagmara; Cruzan, Mitchell B.; Ballhorn, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    The measurement of fitness is critical to biological research. Although the determination of fitness for some organisms may be relatively straightforward under controlled conditions, it is often a difficult or nearly impossible task in nature. Plants are no exception. The potential for long-distance pollen dispersal, likelihood of multiple reproductive events per inflorescence, varying degrees of reproductive growth in perennials, and asexual reproduction all confound accurate fitness measurements. For these reasons, biomass is frequently used as a proxy for plant fitness. However, the suitability of indirect fitness measurements such as plant size is rarely evaluated. This review outlines the important associations between plant performance, fecundity, and fitness. We make a case for the reliability of biomass as an estimate of fitness when comparing conspecifics of the same age class. We reviewed 170 studies on plant fitness and discuss the metrics commonly employed for fitness estimations. We find that biomass or growth rate are frequently used and often positively associated with fecundity, which in turn suggests greater overall fitness. Our results support the utility of biomass as an appropriate surrogate for fitness under many circumstances, and suggest that additional fitness measures should be reported along with biomass or growth rate whenever possible. PMID:28224055

  14. A Telehealth Intervention Using Nintendo Wii Fit Balance Boards and iPads to Improve Walking in Older Adults With Lower Limb Amputation (Wii.n.Walk): Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Bita; Finlayson, Heather C; Eng, Janice J; Payne, Michael WC; Jarus, Tal; Goldsmith, Charles H; Mitchell, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of older adults living with lower limb amputation (LLA) who require rehabilitation for improving their walking capacity and mobility is growing. Existing rehabilitation practices frequently fail to meet this demand. Nintendo Wii Fit may be a valuable tool to enable rehabilitation interventions. Based on pilot studies, we have developed “Wii.n.Walk”, an in-home telehealth Wii Fit intervention targeted to improve walking capacity in older adults with LLA. Objective The objective of this study is to determine whether the Wii.n.Walk intervention enhances walking capacity compared to an attention control group. Methods This project is a multi-site (Vancouver BC, London ON), parallel, evaluator-blind randomized controlled trial. Participants include community-dwelling older adults over the age of 50 years with unilateral transtibial or transfemoral amputation. Participants will be stratified by site and block randomized in triplets to either the Wii.n.Walk intervention or an attention control group employing the Wii Big Brain cognitive software. This trial will include both supervised and unsupervised phases. During the supervised phase, both groups will receive 40-minute sessions of supervised group training three times per week for a duration of 4 weeks. Participants will complete the first week of the intervention in groups of three at their local rehabilitation center with a trainer. The remaining 3 weeks will take place at participants’ homes using remote supervision by the trainer using Apple iPad technology. At the end of 4 weeks, the supervised period will end and the unsupervised period will begin. Participants will retain the Wii console and be encouraged to continue using the program for an additional 4 weeks’ duration. The primary outcome measure will be the “Two-Minute Walk Test” to measure walking capacity. Outcome measures will be evaluated for all participants at baseline, after the end of both the supervised and

  15. Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2015-01-01

    The term “Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration” indicates that the approach used for building land administration systems in less developed countries should be flexible and focused on serving the purpose of the systems (such as providing security of tenure and control of land use) rather than...... focusing on top-end technical solutions and high accuracy surveys. Of course, such flexibility allows for land administration systems to be incrementally improved over time. This paper unfolds the Fit-For-Purpose concept by analyzing the three core components: The spatial framework (large scale land parcel...... mapping) should be provided using affordable modern technologies such aerial imageries rather than field surveys. The legal framework must support both legal and social tenure, and the regulations must be designed along administrative rather than judicial lines. The fit-for-purpose approach must...

  16. Feasibility and Preliminary Efficacy of the Fit4Fun Intervention for Improving Physical Fitness in a Sample of Primary School Children: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip J.; Lubans, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a school-based physical fitness intervention (Fit4Fun) on the physical fitness and physical activity (PA) levels of primary school children. Methods: A group-randomized controlled trial with a 3-month wait-list control group was conducted in…

  17. Feasibility and Preliminary Efficacy of the Fit4Fun Intervention for Improving Physical Fitness in a Sample of Primary School Children: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip J.; Lubans, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a school-based physical fitness intervention (Fit4Fun) on the physical fitness and physical activity (PA) levels of primary school children. Methods: A group-randomized controlled trial with a 3-month wait-list control group was conducted in…

  18. Double-blind randomised controlled trial of the independent and synergistic effect of Spirulina maxima with exercise (ISESE) on general fitness, lipid profile and redox status in overweight and obese subjects: study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Lepe, Marco Antonio; López-Díaz, José Alberto; de la Rosa, Laura Alejandra; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Juarez-Oropeza, Marco Antonio; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Urquidez-Romero, Rene; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In order to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors, a healthy diet must include dietary antioxidants from different sources (eg, Spirulina maxima) and regular practice of exercise should be promoted. There is some evidence from animal studies that S. maxima and exercise decrease cardiovascular disease risks factors. However, very few studies have proved the independent or synergistic effect of S. maxima plus exercise in humans. This study attempts to address the independent and synergistic effects in overweight and obese subjects participating in a systematic physical exercise programme at moderate intensity on general fitness, plasma lipid profile and antioxidant capacity. Methods and analysis Using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced crossover study design, 80 healthy overweight and obese subjects will be evaluated during a 12-week isoenergetic diet accompanied by 4.5 g/day S. maxima intake and/or a physical systematic exercise programme at moderate intensity. Body composition, oxygen uptake, heart rate, capillary blood lactate, plasma concentrations of triacylglycerols, total, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, antioxidant status, lipid oxidation, protein carbonyls, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and paraoxonase will be assessed. Ethics and dissemination This study and all the procedures have been approved by the Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez Bioethics Committee. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conferences. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02837666. PMID:28645949

  19. Focal fits during chlorambucil therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naysmith, A.; Robson, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    An elderly man receiving chlorambucil for chronic lymphatic leukaemia developed focal fits. The onset and frequency were dose related. There was no evidence of metabolic disturbance or of meningeal leukaemia. Although reported in children and well recognized in animals, chlorambucil-induced fits in an adult have not been previously recorded. PMID:118440

  20. Optimization of military garment fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the Dutch armed forces clothing sizes are determined using 3D body scans. To evaluate if the predicted size based on the scan analysis matches the best fit, 35 male soldiers fitted a combat jacket and combat pants. It was shown that the predicted jacket size was slightly too large. Therefore, an

  1. Reeling of tight fit pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Focke, E.S.

    2007-01-01

    If it would be possible to install Tight Fit Pipe by means of reeling, it would be an attractive new option for the exploitation of offshore oil and gas fields containing corrosive hydrocarbons. Tight Fit Pipe is a mechanically bonded double walled pipe where a corrosion resistant alloy liner pipe

  2. Definitions of Health Terms: Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/definitions/fitnessdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms: Fitness To use the sharing features on ... the most of your exercise routine. Find more definitions on Fitness | General Health | Minerals | Nutrition | Vitamins Activity Count Physical activity is ...

  3. ProFit: Bayesian Profile Fitting of Galaxy Images

    CERN Document Server

    Robotham, A S G; Tobar, R; A,; Moffett,; Driver, S P

    2016-01-01

    We present ProFit, a new code for Bayesian two-dimensional photometric galaxy profile modelling. ProFit consists of a low-level C++ library (libprofit), accessible via a command-line interface and documented API, along with high-level R (ProFit) and Python (PyProFit) interfaces (available at github.com/ICRAR/ libprofit, github.com/ICRAR/ProFit, and github.com/ICRAR/pyprofit respectively). R ProFit is also available pre-built from CRAN, however this version will be slightly behind the latest GitHub version. libprofit offers fast and accurate two- dimensional integration for a useful number of profiles, including Sersic, Core-Sersic, broken-exponential, Ferrer, Moffat, empirical King, point-source and sky, with a simple mechanism for adding new profiles. We show detailed comparisons between libprofit and GALFIT. libprofit is both faster and more accurate than GALFIT at integrating the ubiquitous Serrsic profile for the most common values of the Serrsic index n (0.5 < n < 8). The high-level fitting code Pr...

  4. Female Fitness in the Blogosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Andreasson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes self-portrayals and gender constructions among female personal trainers within an Internet-mediated framework of fitness culture. The empirical material comes from a close examination of three strategically selected blogs. The result shows that some of the blogs clearly build upon what Connell calls emphasized femininity, as a means of legitimizing and constructing appropriate female fitness. In addition, there are also tendencies of sexualization in text and imagery present. As such, these self-representations are framed within a cultural history of body fitness dominated by stereotypical ways of perceiving masculinity and femininity. However, this does not capture the entire presentation of the self among the analyzed fitness bloggers. The blogs also point in the direction of ongoing negotiations and subversions of traditional gender norms. Among other things, they show how irony and humor are used as a means of questioning normative gender constructions while empowering female fitness and bodyliness.

  5. Kung fu training improves physical fitness measures in overweight/obese adolescents: the "martial fitness" study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Tracey W; Kohn, Michael R; Chow, Chin Moi; Fiatarone Singh, Maria Antoinette

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To examine the efficacy of a six-month Kung Fu (KF) program on physical fitness in overweight/obese adolescents. Methods. Subjects were randomly assigned to the KF or sham exercise (Tai Chi, TC) control group. Physical measurements in cardiovascular fitness and muscle fitness occurred at baseline and after 6 months of training thrice weekly. Results. Twenty subjects were recruited. One subject was lost to follow-up, although overall compliance to the training sessions was 46.7 +/- 27.8%. At follow-up, the cohort improved in absolute upper (P = .002) and lower (P = .04) body strength, and upper body muscle endurance (P = .02), without group differences. KF training resulted in significantly greater improvements in submaximal cardiovascular fitness (P = .03), lower body muscle endurance (P = .28; significant 95% CI: 0.37-2.49), and upper body muscle velocity (P = .03) relative to TC training. Conclusions. This short-term KF program improved submaximal cardiovascular fitness, lower body muscle endurance, and muscle velocity, in overweight/obese adolescents with very low baseline fitness.

  6. AKLSQF - LEAST SQUARES CURVE FITTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, A. V.

    1994-01-01

    The Least Squares Curve Fitting program, AKLSQF, computes the polynomial which will least square fit uniformly spaced data easily and efficiently. The program allows the user to specify the tolerable least squares error in the fitting or allows the user to specify the polynomial degree. In both cases AKLSQF returns the polynomial and the actual least squares fit error incurred in the operation. The data may be supplied to the routine either by direct keyboard entry or via a file. AKLSQF produces the least squares polynomial in two steps. First, the data points are least squares fitted using the orthogonal factorial polynomials. The result is then reduced to a regular polynomial using Sterling numbers of the first kind. If an error tolerance is specified, the program starts with a polynomial of degree 1 and computes the least squares fit error. The degree of the polynomial used for fitting is then increased successively until the error criterion specified by the user is met. At every step the polynomial as well as the least squares fitting error is printed to the screen. In general, the program can produce a curve fitting up to a 100 degree polynomial. All computations in the program are carried out under Double Precision format for real numbers and under long integer format for integers to provide the maximum accuracy possible. AKLSQF was written for an IBM PC X/AT or compatible using Microsoft's Quick Basic compiler. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2.1 using 23K of RAM. AKLSQF was developed in 1989.

  7. Opas CrossFit -harjoitteluun

    OpenAIRE

    Knaapi, Matti

    2014-01-01

    CrossFit on laji, joka pyrkii edistämään terveyttä ja kuntoa. CrossFit saleja löytyy mailmalta yli 10 000 kappaletta. CrossFit -harjoittelussa pyritään parantamaan ihmisen kuntoa mahdollisimman laajalla skaalalla kehittämällä mm. voimaa, kestävyyttä, tarkkuutta, tasapainoa ja eri aineenvaihduntareittejä samanaikaisesti. Terveyden ja kunnon kehittämiseen kuuluu kuntoilun lisäksi myös muita osa-alueita. Ruokavalio ja kehonhuolto ovat tärkeitä osa-alueita hyvän kunnon saavuttamiseksi. Ruokav...

  8. Opas CrossFit -harjoitteluun

    OpenAIRE

    Knaapi, Matti

    2014-01-01

    CrossFit on laji, joka pyrkii edistämään terveyttä ja kuntoa. CrossFit saleja löytyy mailmalta yli 10 000 kappaletta. CrossFit -harjoittelussa pyritään parantamaan ihmisen kuntoa mahdollisimman laajalla skaalalla kehittämällä mm. voimaa, kestävyyttä, tarkkuutta, tasapainoa ja eri aineenvaihduntareittejä samanaikaisesti. Terveyden ja kunnon kehittämiseen kuuluu kuntoilun lisäksi myös muita osa-alueita. Ruokavalio ja kehonhuolto ovat tärkeitä osa-alueita hyvän kunnon saavuttamiseksi. Ruokav...

  9. Frailty Intervention Trial (FIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhall, Nicola; Aggar, Christina; Kurrle, Susan E; Sherrington, Catherine; Lord, Stephen; Lockwood, Keri; Monaghan, Noeline; Cameron, Ian D

    2008-10-13

    Frailty is a term commonly used to describe the condition of an older person who has chronic health problems, has lost functional abilities and is likely to deteriorate further. However, despite its common use, only a small number of studies have attempted to define the syndrome of frailty and measure its prevalence. The criteria Fried and colleagues used to define the frailty syndrome will be used in this study (i.e. weight loss, fatigue, decreased grip strength, slow gait speed, and low physical activity). Previous studies have shown that clinical outcomes for frail older people can be improved using multi-factorial interventions such as comprehensive geriatric assessment, and single interventions such as exercise programs or nutritional supplementation, but no interventions have been developed to specifically reverse the syndrome of frailty.We have developed a multidisciplinary intervention that specifically targets frailty as defined by Fried et al. We aim to establish the effects of this intervention on frailty, mobility, hospitalisation and institutionalisation in frail older people. A single centre randomised controlled trial comparing a multidisciplinary intervention with usual care. The intervention will target identified characteristics of frailty, functional limitations, nutritional status, falls risk, psychological issues and management of chronic health conditions. Two hundred and thirty people aged 70 and over who meet the Fried definition of frailty will be recruited from clients of the aged care service of a metropolitan hospital. Participants will be followed for a 12-month period. This research is an important step in the examination of specifically targeted frailty interventions. This project will assess whether an intervention specifically targeting frailty can be implemented, and whether it is effective when compared to usual care. If successful, the study will establish a new approach to the treatment of older people at risk of further

  10. Personal Involvement Level in Fitness Training: An Example of a Turkish Fitness Club

    OpenAIRE

    Bozkurt, Alper

    2015-01-01

    Fitness centres, especially in developed nations are means of exercising in a controlled environment that offers customised training facilities, along with helping the members to socialise. Although services and the rates differ from one to another, they a ll work with the same principal - obtaining membership of the attendants, longer the membership, better for both parties : members and club owners alike . ...

  11. The fitness for the Ageing Brain Study II (FABS II: protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial evaluating the effect of physical activity on cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ames David

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Observational studies have documented a potential protective effect of physical exercise in older adults who are at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. The Fitness for the Ageing Brain II (FABS II study is a multicentre randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT aiming to determine whether physical activity reduces the rate of cognitive decline among individuals with Alzheimer's disease. This paper describes the background, objectives of the study, and an overview of the protocol including design, organization and data collection methods. Methods/Design The study will recruit 230 community-dwelling participants diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. Participants will be randomly allocated to two treatment groups: usual care group or 24-week home-based program consisting of 150 minutes per week of tailored moderate physical activity. The primary outcome measure of the study is cognitive decline as measured by the change from baseline in the total score on the Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive section. Secondary outcomes of interest include behavioral and psychological symptoms, quality of life, functional level, carer burden and physical function (strength, balance, endurance, physical activity. Primary endpoints will be measured at six and twelve months following the baseline assessment. Discussion This RCT will contribute evidence regarding the potential benefits of a systematic program of physical activity as an affordable and safe intervention for people with Alzheimer's disease. Further, if successful, physical activity in combination with usual care has the potential to alleviate the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and improve its management and the quality of life of patients and their carers. Trial Registration Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000755235

  12. The fitness value of information

    CERN Document Server

    Bergstrom, Carl T

    2007-01-01

    Biologists measure information in different ways. Neurobiologists and researchers in bioinformatics often measure information using information-theoretic measures such as Shannon's entropy or mutual information. Behavioral biologists and evolutionary ecologists more commonly use decision-theoretic measures, such the value of information, which assess the worth of information to a decision maker. Here we show that these two kinds of measures are intimately related in the context of biological evolution. We present a simple model of evolution in an uncertain environment, and calculate the increase in Darwinian fitness that is made possible by information about the environmental state. This fitness increase -- the fitness value of information -- is a composite of both Shannon's mutual information and the decision-theoretic value of information. Furthermore, we show that in certain cases the fitness value of responding to a cue is exactly equal to the mutual information between the cue and the environment. In gen...

  13. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accessed Jan. 11, 2016. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: Guidance for prescribing exercise. American College of ...

  14. Dance Your Way to Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Better heart health Stronger muscles Better balance and coordination Stronger bones Lower risk of dementia Improved memory Reduced stress More energy Improved mood Types of Dance There are dance styles to fit almost anyone ...

  15. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattione, Paul [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  16. Frailty Intervention Trial (FIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lockwood Keri

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frailty is a term commonly used to describe the condition of an older person who has chronic health problems, has lost functional abilities and is likely to deteriorate further. However, despite its common use, only a small number of studies have attempted to define the syndrome of frailty and measure its prevalence. The criteria Fried and colleagues used to define the frailty syndrome will be used in this study (i.e. weight loss, fatigue, decreased grip strength, slow gait speed, and low physical activity. Previous studies have shown that clinical outcomes for frail older people can be improved using multi-factorial interventions such as comprehensive geriatric assessment, and single interventions such as exercise programs or nutritional supplementation, but no interventions have been developed to specifically reverse the syndrome of frailty. We have developed a multidisciplinary intervention that specifically targets frailty as defined by Fried et al. We aim to establish the effects of this intervention on frailty, mobility, hospitalisation and institutionalisation in frail older people. Methods and Design A single centre randomised controlled trial comparing a multidisciplinary intervention with usual care. The intervention will target identified characteristics of frailty, functional limitations, nutritional status, falls risk, psychological issues and management of chronic health conditions. Two hundred and thirty people aged 70 and over who meet the Fried definition of frailty will be recruited from clients of the aged care service of a metropolitan hospital. Participants will be followed for a 12-month period. Discussion This research is an important step in the examination of specifically targeted frailty interventions. This project will assess whether an intervention specifically targeting frailty can be implemented, and whether it is effective when compared to usual care. If successful, the study will establish a

  17. Physical Fitness in the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-17

    situations, deal with the day to day duty demands, and maintain a trim physical appearance. But if it has been years since you exercised , do not run right...how much exercise is required to achieve and maintain a fit unit and secondly, how is this fitness requirement modified by age and sex . The Training...as the activity in which you are involved becomes easier, increase the amount. You can do 7 this by varying the intensity (how hard you exercise as

  18. Fitness consequences of Anopheles gambiae population hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beier John C

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of transgenic mosquitoes with parasite inhibiting genes has been proposed as an integral strategy to control malaria transmission. However, release of exotic transgenic mosquitoes will bring in novel alleles along with parasite-inhibiting genes that may have unknown effects on native populations. Thus it is necessary to study the effects and dynamics of fitness traits in native mosquito populations in response to the introduction of novel genes. This study was designed to evaluate the dynamics of fitness traits in a simulation of introduction of novel alleles under laboratory conditions using two strains of Anopheles gambiae: Mbita strain from western Kenya and Ifakara strain from Tanzania. Methods The dynamics of fitness traits were evaluated under laboratory conditions using the two An. gambiae strains. These two geographically different strains were cross-bred and monitored for 20 generations to score fecundity, body size, blood-meal size, larval survival, and adult longevity, all of which are important determinants of the vector's potential in malaria transmission. Traits were analysed using pair-wise analysis of variance (ANOVA for fecundity, body size, and blood-meal size while survival analysis was performed for larval survival and adult longevity. Results Fecundity and body size were significantly higher in the progeny up to the 20th generation compared to founder strains. Adult longevity had a significantly higher mean up to the 10th generation and average blood-meal size was significantly larger up to the 5th generation, indicating that hybrids fitness is enhanced over that of the founder strains. Conclusion Hybridization of the two mosquito populations used in this study led to increased performance in the fitness traits studied. Given that the studied traits are important determinants of the vector's potential to transmit malaria, these results suggest the need to release genetically modified mosquitoes

  19. Modified Fittings Enhance Industrial Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is not only home to one of the largest buildings in the world - the massive Vehicle Assembly Building - it also hosts a number of one-of-a-kind facilities. The more than 30-mile-long campus has witnessed every launch from the Space Shuttle Launch Pad, as well as many homecomings at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Just as important, the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) has seen each element of the International Space Station (ISS) that passes through Kennedy before it goes into orbit. The SSPF is where ISS components are checked, tested, and adjusted before being packed into the Space Shuttle for transport. In an environment like the SSPF - spanning 457,000 square feet of processing areas, operational control rooms, laboratories, logistics areas, and office space - large workstands and equipment used to support the processing of ISS components need to be moved around the facility. One of the devices employed for this task is an air pallet. An air pallet moves on cushions of air instead of wheels. Compressed air inflates the cushions underneath the pallet and is then expelled through exhaust holes. This forms a thin film of air between the cushions and the floor, lifting the platform off the floor and making it easy to move the heavy workstands, equipment, and ISS components. Concerned with the safety of the connections on the pressurized air hoses used for the air pallets, engineers at Kennedy modified an existing commercial cam and groove fitting to control the air supply hose in the event of an accidental release of a pressurized hose. This modification prevented the hose from detaching and, propelled by compressed air, striking workers or equipment. "At the time, these were not available on commercial coupling halves, so NASA made a modification and then put them into use. If a worker were to accidentally try to remove a pressurized hose from the pallet, it no longer rapidly separated, and it safely relieved the pressure," says Paul

  20. Implementation of Health Fitness Exercise Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, David E., Ed.

    This monograph includes the following articles to aid in implementation of fitness concepts: (1) "Trends in Physical Fitness: A Personal Perspective" (H. Harrison Clarke); (2) "A Total Health-Fitness Life-Style" (Steven N. Blair); (3) "Objectives for the Nation--Physical Fitness and Exercise" (Jack H. Wilmore); (4) "A New Physical Fitness Test"…

  1. Physical fitness and mental health impact of a sport-for-development intervention in a post-conflict setting: randomised controlled trial nested within an observational study of adolescents in Gulu, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Justin; Foster, Charlie; Townsend, Nick; Bauman, Adrian

    2014-06-18

    Physical inactivity contributes to poor fitness and mental health disorders. This is of concern in post-conflict low-income settings where non-communicable diseases are emerging and there is limited evidence for physical activity interventions. We examined the effects of a sport-for-development programme on adolescent physical fitness and mental health in Gulu, Uganda. We conducted a single-blinded RCT nested within an observational study with three unbalanced parallel groups. Participants were able-bodied adolescents aged 11-14 years. The intervention comprised an 11-week voluntary competitive sport-for-development football league. Participants who did not subscribe for the intervention formed a non-registered comparison group. Boys who registered for the sport-for-development programme were randomly allocated to the intervention or wait-listed. The girls programme subscription was insufficient to form a wait-list and all registrants received the intervention. Physical fitness was assessed by cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage fitness test), muscular power (standing broad jump) and body composition (BMI-for-age). Mental health was measured using the Acholi Psychosocial Assessment Instrument for local depression-like (DLS) and anxiety-like (ALS) syndromes. All randomisation was computer generated and assessors were masked to group allocation. An intention-to-treat analysis of adjusted effect size (ES) was applied. There were 1,462 adolescents in the study (intervention: boys = 74, girls = 81; wait-list: boys = 72; comparison: boys = 472, girls = 763). At four months follow-up there was no significant effect on the boys fitness when comparing intervention vs wait-listed and intervention vs non-registered groups. However, there was a negative effect on DLS when comparing boys intervention vs wait-listed (ES = 0.67 [0.33 to 1.00]) and intervention vs non-registered (ES = 0.25 [0.00 to 0.49]). Similar results were observed for ALS for boys intervention vs wait

  2. Ligand fitting with CCP4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Crystal structures of protein–ligand complexes are often used to infer biology and inform structure-based drug discovery. Hence, it is important to build accurate, reliable models of ligands that give confidence in the interpretation of the respective protein–ligand complex. This paper discusses key stages in the ligand-fitting process, including ligand binding-site identification, ligand description and conformer generation, ligand fitting, refinement and subsequent validation. The CCP4 suite contains a number of software tools that facilitate this task: AceDRG for the creation of ligand descriptions and conformers, Lidia and JLigand for two-dimensional and three-dimensional ligand editing and visual analysis, Coot for density interpretation, ligand fitting, analysis and validation, and REFMAC5 for macromolecular refinement. In addition to recent advancements in automatic carbohydrate building in Coot (LO/Carb) and ligand-validation tools (FLEV), the release of the CCP4i2 GUI provides an integrated solution that streamlines the ligand-fitting workflow, seamlessly passing results from one program to the next. The ligand-fitting process is illustrated using instructive practical examples, including problematic cases such as post-translational modifications, highlighting the need for careful analysis and rigorous validation. PMID:28177312

  3. Desirable design of hose fittings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the primary functionality of a hose fitting. There has been made a discussion about the different parts of the hose assembly - the nipple, the hose and the outer compression parts. The last subject covered is which criteria should be put up for determining what is a good hose...... fittings. There has been made an uncompleted list of 'Voice of Customer' to this respect. Observations and interviews in industry should expand this list.......This paper describes the primary functionality of a hose fitting. There has been made a discussion about the different parts of the hose assembly - the nipple, the hose and the outer compression parts. The last subject covered is which criteria should be put up for determining what is a good hose...

  4. Accelerated Fitting of Stellar Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2016-01-01

    Stellar spectra are often modeled and fit by interpolating within a rectilinear grid of synthetic spectra to derive the stars' labels: stellar parameters and elemental abundances. However, the number of synthetic spectra needed for a rectilinear grid grows exponentially with the label space dimensions, precluding the simultaneous and self-consistent fitting of more than a few elemental abundances. Shortcuts such as fitting subsets of parameters separately can introduce unknown systematics and do not produce correct error covariances in the derived labels. In this paper we present a new approach -- CHAT (Convex Hull Adaptive Tessellation) -- which includes several new ideas for inexpensively generating a sufficient stellar synthetic library, using linear algebra and the concept of an adaptive, data-driven grid. A convex hull approximates the region where the data lie in the label space. A variety of tests with mock datasets demonstrate that CHAT can reduce the number of required synthetic model calculations by...

  5. Fitness Doping and Body Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thualagant, Nicole

    This PhD thesis examines in a first paper the conceptualization of fitness doping and its current limitations. Based on a review of studies on bodywork and fitness doping it is emphasised that the definition of doping does not provide insights into bodywork of both men and women. Moreover......, it is argued that the social and a cultural context are missing in the many epidemiological studies on the prevalence of doping. The second paper explores the difficulties of implementing an anti-doping policy, which was originally formulated in an elite sport context, in a fitness context and more...... specifically in a sport-for-all context. It is questioned whether the anti-doping policy contradicts some of the national sport-for-all organisation, DGI’s values of fostering fellowship, challenge and health. Last but not least, this thesis examines in a third paper the bodywork of the users’ of the club...

  6. Pleiotropy and its limited dissection through a metabolic gene Miniature1 (Mn1) that encodes a cell wall invertase in developing seeds of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mn1-encoded endosperm-specific cell wall invertase is a major determinant of sink strength of developing seeds through its control of both sink size, cell number and cell size, and sink activity via sucrose hydrolysis and release of hexoses essential for energy and signaling functions. Consequen...

  7. Fit;o) - A M\\"ossbauer spectrum fitting program

    CERN Document Server

    Hjøllum, Jari í

    2009-01-01

    Fit;o) is a M\\"ossbauer fitting and analysis program written in Borland Delphi. It has a complete graphical user interface that allows all actions to be carried out via mouse clicks or key shortcut operations in a WYSIWYG fashion. The program does not perform complete transmission integrals, and will therefore not be suited for a complete analysis of all types of M\\"ossbauer spectra and e.g. low temperature spectra of ferrous silicates. Instead, the program is intended for application on complex spectra resulting from typical mineral samples, in which many phases and different crystallite sizes are often present at the same time. The program provides the opportunity to fit the spectra with Gaussian, Lorentzian, Split-Lorentzian, Pseudo-Voigt, Pseudo-Lorentz and Pearson-VII line profiles for individual components of the spectra. This feature is particularly useful when the sample contains components, that are affected by effects of either relaxation or interaction among particles. Fitted spectra may be printed...

  8. The Model Characteristics of Physical Fitness in CrossFit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilii V. Volkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to work out the model characteristics of the physical fitness of CrossFit athletes based on laboratory functional testing (n=10. The analysis of the body composition was conducted using the dual-energy absorptiometry method. The morpho-functional characteristics of the heart were explored using a high-resolution ultrasound scanner. Oxygen consumption at the aerobic-anaerobic threshold and maximum oxygen consumption were determined in a step test on arm and leg cycle ergometers using a gas-analyzer. The level of the physical fitness of leg muscles in the males and females who took part in the study was satisfactory. However, it was considerably higher than the norm for untrained people. The level of the physical fitness of arm muscles was higher than the average and matched the Master of Sport of International Class standards. The productivity of the cardio-vascular system was much higher than in healthy males and females who do not work out and comparable to the standards for advanced soccer players.

  9. Quantum algorithm for data fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Nathan; Braun, Daniel; Lloyd, Seth

    2012-08-03

    We provide a new quantum algorithm that efficiently determines the quality of a least-squares fit over an exponentially large data set by building upon an algorithm for solving systems of linear equations efficiently [Harrow et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 150502 (2009)]. In many cases, our algorithm can also efficiently find a concise function that approximates the data to be fitted and bound the approximation error. In cases where the input data are pure quantum states, the algorithm can be used to provide an efficient parametric estimation of the quantum state and therefore can be applied as an alternative to full quantum-state tomography given a fault tolerant quantum computer.

  10. Fitness Doping and Body Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thualagant, Nicole

    -based fitness centres. Based on a survey in ten Danish club-based fitness centres and on narratives from semi-structured interviews, it is highlighted that the objectives of bodywork differ according to the users’ age and gender. Two different ways of investing in the body are explored in the paper, namely...... a work on the body and a work with the body. As it is concluded, different orientations towards bodywork imply various uses of body enhancing strategies. Although the objectives of bodywork and the body investments are different, these practices seem to be based on the same quest, namely the search...

  11. Physical fitness assessment: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Robert P; Greene, Jill Amanda; Winters, Kathryne L; Long, William B; Gubler, K; Edlich, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) gives the following definition of health-related physical fitness: Physical fitness is defined as a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity. It is also characterized by (1) an ability to perform daily activities with vigor, and (2) a demonstration of traits and capacities that are associated with a low risk of premature development of hypokinetic diseases (e.g., those associated with physical inactivity). Information from an individual's health and medical records can be combined with information from physical fitness assessment to meet the specific health goals and rehabilitative needs of that individual. Attaining adequate informed consent from participants prior to exercise testing is mandatory because of ethical and legal considerations.A physical fitness assessment includes measures of body composition, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular fitness, and musculoskeletal flexibility. The three common techniques for assessing body composition are hydrostatic weighing, and skinfold measurements, and anthropometric measurements. Cardiorespiratory endurance is a crucial component of physical fitness assessment because of its strong correlation with health and health risks. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is the traditionally accepted criterion for measuring cardiorespiratory endurance. Although maximal-effort tests must be used to measure VO2max, submaximal exercise can be used to estimate this value. Muscular fitness has historically been used to describe an individual's integrated status of muscular strength and muscular endurance. An individual's muscular strength is specific to a particular muscle or muscle group and refers to the maximal force (N or kg) that the muscle or muscle group can generate. Dynamic strength can be assessed by measuring the movement of an individual's body against an external load. Isokinetic testing may be performed by assessing

  12. Chinese Hailed "National Fitness Program"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    IN March, 1994, Liu Ji, Vice Minister of the State Physical Culture and Sports Commission (SPCSC) announced the "National Fitness Program" on behalf of Chinese government at the World Sports-for-All Congress in Uruguay. Almost all the participants thought it important to carry out the program in a country with a population of 1.2 billion. It not only helps improve Chinese people’s health but also the world’s average standard of health. The "National Fitness Program" is an overall, century-spanning, systematic project, which is snowballing. In 1994, the SPCSC issued the One-Two-One Project of the

  13. Decision making on fitness landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, R.; Sibani, P.

    2017-04-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.

  14. Decision Making on Fitness Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Rudy; Sibani, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et. al. that we call...... the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures....

  15. Descision Making on Fitness Landscapes

    CERN Document Server

    Arthur, Rudy

    2016-01-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et. al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.

  16. Fitness measures and health outcomes in youth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pate, Russell R; Oria, Maria; Pillsbury, Laura

    2012-01-01

    .... Physical fitness testing in American youth was established on a large scale in the 1950s with an early focus on performance-related fitness that gradually gave way to an emphasis on health-related fitness...

  17. Learn 2 Move 16-24 : effectiveness of an intervention to stimulate physical activity and improve physical fitness of adolescents and young adults with spastic cerebral palsy; a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaman, Jorrit; Roebroeck, Marij E.; van Meeteren, Jetty; van der Slot, Wilma M.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Lindeman, Eline; Stam, Henk J.; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Persons with cerebral palsy (CP) are at risk for developing an inactive lifestyle and often have poor fitness levels, which may lead to secondary health complications and diminished participation and quality of life. However, persons with CP also tend not to receive structural treatment

  18. Learn 2 Move 16-24: Effectiveness of an intervention to stimulate physical activity and improve physical fitness of adolescents and young adults with spastic cerebral palsy; a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Slaman (Jorrit); M.E. Roebroeck (Marij); J. van Meeteren (Jetty); W.M.A. van der Slot (Wilma); H.A. Reinders-Messelink (Heleen); E. Lindeman (Eline); H.J. Stam (Henk); R.J.G. van den Berg-Emons (Rita)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Persons with cerebral palsy (CP) are at risk for developing an inactive lifestyle and often have poor fitness levels, which may lead to secondary health complications and diminished participation and quality of life. However, persons with CP also tend not to receive structura

  19. Design of the Quality of Life in Motion (QLIM) study: a randomized Controlled Trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a combined physical exercise and psychosocial training program to improve physical fitness in children with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, K.I.; van Dijk, E.M.; Veening, M.A.; Bierings, M.B.; Merks, J.H.M.; Grootenhuis, M.A.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Sinnema, G.; Takken, T.; Huisman, J.; Kaspers, G.J.L.; van Dulmen-den Broeder, E.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer and its treatment have considerable impact on a child's physical and mental wellbeing. Especially long-term administration of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy impairs physical fitness both during and after therapy, when children often present with muscle weakne

  20. Learn 2 Move 16-24: Effectiveness of an intervention to stimulate physical activity and improve physical fitness of adolescents and young adults with spastic cerebral palsy; a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Slaman (Jorrit); M.E. Roebroeck (Marij); J. van Meeteren (Jetty); W.M.A. van der Slot (Wilma); H.A. Reinders-Messelink (Heleen); E. Lindeman (Eline); H.J. Stam (Henk); R.J.G. van den Berg-Emons (Rita)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Persons with cerebral palsy (CP) are at risk for developing an inactive lifestyle and often have poor fitness levels, which may lead to secondary health complications and diminished participation and quality of life. However, persons with CP also tend not to receive structura

  1. The influence of childhood aerobic fitness on learning and memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren B Raine

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is a growing trend of inactivity among children, which may not only result in poorer physical health, but also poorer cognitive health. Previous research has shown that lower fitness has been related to decreased cognitive function for tasks requiring perception, memory, and cognitive control as well as lower academic achievement. PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness, learning, and memory on a task that involved remembering names and locations on a fictitious map. Different learning strategies and recall procedures were employed to better understand fitness effects on learning novel material. METHODS: Forty-eight 9-10 year old children (n = 24 high fit; HF and n = 24 low fit; LF performed a task requiring them to learn the names of specific regions on a map, under two learning conditions in which they only studied (SO versus a condition in which they were tested during study (TS. The retention day occurred one day after initial learning and involved two different recall conditions: free recall and cued recall. RESULTS: There were no differences in performance at initial learning between higher fit and lower fit participants. However, during the retention session higher fit children outperformed lower fit children, particularly when the initial learning strategy involved relatively poor recall performance (i.e., study only versus test-study strategy. CONCLUSIONS: We interpret these novel data to suggest that fitness can boost learning and memory of children and that these fitness-associated performance benefits are largest in conditions in which initial learning is the most challenging. Such data have important implications for both educational practice and policy.

  2. The influence of childhood aerobic fitness on learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Lauren B; Lee, Hyun Kyu; Saliba, Brian J; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Hillman, Charles H; Kramer, Arthur F

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing trend of inactivity among children, which may not only result in poorer physical health, but also poorer cognitive health. Previous research has shown that lower fitness has been related to decreased cognitive function for tasks requiring perception, memory, and cognitive control as well as lower academic achievement. To investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness, learning, and memory on a task that involved remembering names and locations on a fictitious map. Different learning strategies and recall procedures were employed to better understand fitness effects on learning novel material. Forty-eight 9-10 year old children (n = 24 high fit; HF and n = 24 low fit; LF) performed a task requiring them to learn the names of specific regions on a map, under two learning conditions in which they only studied (SO) versus a condition in which they were tested during study (TS). The retention day occurred one day after initial learning and involved two different recall conditions: free recall and cued recall. There were no differences in performance at initial learning between higher fit and lower fit participants. However, during the retention session higher fit children outperformed lower fit children, particularly when the initial learning strategy involved relatively poor recall performance (i.e., study only versus test-study strategy). We interpret these novel data to suggest that fitness can boost learning and memory of children and that these fitness-associated performance benefits are largest in conditions in which initial learning is the most challenging. Such data have important implications for both educational practice and policy.

  3. Physical activity, fitness, and gray matter volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kirk I; Leckie, Regina L; Weinstein, Andrea M

    2014-09-01

    In this review, we explore the association among physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise on gray matter volume in older adults. We conclude that higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are routinely associated with greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and less consistently in other regions. We also conclude that physical activity is associated with greater gray matter volume in the same regions that are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Some heterogeneity in the literature may be explained by effect moderation by age, stress, or other factors. Finally, we report promising results from randomized exercise interventions that suggest that the volume of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex remain pliable and responsive to moderate intensity exercise for 6 months-1 year. Physical activity appears to be a propitious method for influencing gray matter volume in late adulthood, but additional well-controlled studies are necessary to inform public policies about the potential protective or therapeutic effects of exercise on brain volume. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Walking Shoes: Features and Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be snug, not tight. If you're a woman with wide feet, consider men's or boys' shoes, which are cut a bit larger through the heel and the ball of the foot. Walk in the shoes before buying them. They should feel comfortable right away. Make sure your heel fits snugly in ...

  5. Self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The predictive value and improved risk classification of self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (SRCF), when added to traditional risk factors on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and longevity, are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3843 males and 5093 females from the Copenhagen...

  6. Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbot, P.; Wrangham, R.; Abe, J.

    2011-01-01

    Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. Nowak et al. argue that inclusive fitness theory has been of little value in explaining the natural world, and that it has led to negligible progress in explaining the evolution of eusociality. Howev...

  7. Preparation of Police Fitness Instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collingwood, Thomas R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Concern about the declining level of physical fitness of police officers has led the Bureau of Training of the Kentucky Department of Justice and the Department of Physical Education at Eastern Kentucky University to implement a training course for police instructors. (LH)

  8. Military Services Fitness Database: Development of a Computerized Physical Fitness and Weight Management Database for the U.S. Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Donald A.; Bathalon, Gaston P.; Sigrist, Lori D.; Allen, H. Raymond; Friedl, Karl E.; Young, Andrew J.; Martin, Corby K.; Stewart, Tiffany M.; Burrell, Lolita; Han, Hongmei; Hubbard, Van S.; Ryan, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) has mandated development of a system to collect and manage data on the weight, percent body fat (%BF), and fitness of all military personnel. This project aimed to (1) develop a computerized weight and fitness database to track individuals and Army units over time allowing cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluations and (2) test the computerized system for feasibility and integrity of data collection over several years of usage. The computer application, the Military Services Fitness Database (MSFD), was designed for (1) storage and tracking of data related to height, weight, %BF for the Army Weight Control Program (AWCP) and Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores and (2) generation of reports using these data. A 2.5-year pilot test of the MSFD indicated that it monitors population and individual trends of changing body weight, %BF, and fitness in a military population. PMID:19216292

  9. Genetic mapping of adaptation reveals fitness tradeoffs in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågrena, Jon; Oakley, Christopher G; McKay, John K; Lovell, John T; Schemske, Douglas W

    2013-12-24

    Organisms inhabiting different environments are often locally adapted, and yet despite a considerable body of theory, the genetic basis of local adaptation is poorly understood. Unanswered questions include the number and effect sizes of adaptive loci, whether locally favored loci reduce fitness elsewhere (i.e., fitness tradeoffs), and whether a lack of genetic variation limits adaptation. To address these questions, we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for total fitness in 398 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between locally adapted populations of the highly selfing plant Arabidopsis thaliana from Sweden and Italy and grown for 3 consecutive years at the parental sites (>40,000 plants monitored). We show that local adaptation is controlled by relatively few genomic regions of small to modest effect. A third of the 15 fitness QTL we detected showed evidence of tradeoffs, which contrasts with the minimal evidence for fitness tradeoffs found in previous studies. This difference may reflect the power of our multiyear study to distinguish conditionally neutral QTL from those that reflect fitness tradeoffs. In Sweden, but not in Italy, the local genotype underlying fitness QTL was often maladaptive, suggesting that adaptation there is constrained by a lack of adaptive genetic variation, attributable perhaps to genetic bottlenecks during postglacial colonization of Scandinavia or to recent changes in selection regime caused by climate change. Our results suggest that adaptation to markedly different environments can be achieved through changes in relatively few genomic regions, that fitness tradeoffs are common, and that lack of genetic variation can limit adaptation.

  10. Self-Fitting Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitte Keidser

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A self-contained, self-fitting hearing aid (SFHA is a device that enables the user to perform both threshold measurements leading to a prescribed hearing aid setting and fine-tuning, without the need for audiological support or access to other equipment. The SFHA has been proposed as a potential solution to address unmet hearing health care in developing countries and remote locations in the developed world and is considered a means to lower cost and increase uptake of hearing aids in developed countries. This article reviews the status of the SFHA and the evidence for its feasibility and challenges and predicts where it is heading. Devices that can be considered partly or fully self-fitting without audiological support were identified in the direct-to-consumer market. None of these devices are considered self-contained as they require access to other hardware such as a proprietary interface, computer, smartphone, or tablet for manipulation. While there is evidence that self-administered fitting processes can provide valid and reliable results, their success relies on user-friendly device designs and interfaces and easy-to-interpret instructions. Until these issues have been sufficiently addressed, optional assistance with the self-fitting process and on-going use of SFHAs is recommended. Affordability and a sustainable delivery system remain additional challenges for the SFHA in developing countries. Future predictions include a growth in self-fitting products, with most future SFHAs consisting of earpieces that connect wirelessly with a smartphone and providers offering assistance through a telehealth infrastructure, and the integration of SFHAs into the traditional hearing health-care model.

  11. Genotype–environment interaction for total fitness in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    James D. Fry

    2008-12-01

    A fundamental assumption of models for the maintenance of genetic variation by environmental heterogeneity is that selection favours different genotypes in different environments. Here, I use a method for measuring total fitness of chromosomal heterozygotes in Drosophila melanogaster to assess genotype–environment interaction for fitness across two ecologically relevant environments, medium with and without added ethanol. Two-third chromosomes are compared, one from a population selected for ethanol tolerance, and the other from a control population. The results show strong crossing of reaction norms for outbred, total fitness, with the chromosome from the ethanol-adapted population increasing fitness on ethanol-supplemented food, but decreasing fitness on regular food, relative to the chromosome from the control population. Although I did not map the fitness effects below the chromosome level, the method could be adapted for quantitative trait locus mapping, to determine whether a substantial proportion of fitness variation is contributed by loci at which different alleles are favoured in different environments.

  12. Amino acids intake and physical fitness among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Cuenca-Garcia, Magdalena; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Pedrero-Chamizo, Raquel; Manios, Yannis; Marcos, Ascensión; Molnar, Denes; Widhalm, Kurt; Polito, Angela; Vanhelst, Jeremy; Hagströmer, Maria; Sjöström, Michael; Kafatos, Anthony; de Henauw, Stefaan; Gutierrez, Ángel; Castillo, Manuel J; Moreno, Luis A

    2017-03-17

    The aim was to investigate whether there was an association between amino acid (AA) intake and physical fitness and if so, to assess whether this association was independent of carbohydrates intake. European adolescents (n = 1481, 12.5-17.5 years) were measured. Intake was assessed via two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Lower and upper limbs muscular fitness was assessed by standing long jump and handgrip strength tests, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test. Physical activity was objectively measured. Socioeconomic status was obtained via questionnaires. Lower limbs muscular fitness seems to be positively associated with tryptophan, histidine and methionine intake in boys, regardless of centre, age, socioeconomic status, physical activity and total energy intake (model 1). However, these associations disappeared once carbohydrates intake was controlled for (model 2). In girls, only proline intake seems to be positively associated with lower limbs muscular fitness (model 2) while cardiorespiratory fitness seems to be positively associated with leucine (model 1) and proline intake (models 1 and 2). None of the observed significant associations remained significant once multiple testing was controlled for. In conclusion, we failed to detect any associations between any of the evaluated AAs and physical fitness after taking into account the effect of multiple testing.

  13. Industrial Psychology: Goodness of fit? Fit for goodness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon J. van Vuuren

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This theoretical opinion-based paper represents a critical reflection on the relevance of industrial psychology.Research purpose: Against a historical-developmental background of the discipline, the inquiry questions its goodness of fit, that is its contribution to organisation and society.Motivation for the study: Regular introspection in the discipline ensures that it remains relevant in both science and practice. As such, such introspection calls for a meta-theoretical imperative, to ensure that industrial psychology is fully aware of how the theoretical models applied in the discipline influence people and the society that they form part of.Research design, approach and method: The question of industrial psychology’s potential fit for goodness that is broader than what is merely good for the organisation and its employees is explored with a view to enhancing its relevance. The exploration is conducted through the utilisation of theoretical argumentation in which industrial psychology is analysed in terms of contextual considerations that require the discipline to evaluate its real versus its potential contribution to society.Main findings: It is found that the fit is limited to its relevance for inwardly focused organisational behaviour due to its endorsement of the instrumental (strategic motives of organisations that subscribe to an owner and/or shareholder agenda.Practical/managerial implications: In light of the main finding, industrial psychology’s potential fit for goodness is explored with a view to enhancing its relevance in an era of goodness. The creation of a scientific and practical interface between industrial psychology and business ethics is suggested to facilitate movement away from a descriptive approach.Contribution/value-add: The heuristics of reflection, reform, research and resources are suggested to facilitate movement towards a normative (multiple stakeholder paradigm aimed at broad based goodness and

  14. Industrial Psychology: Goodness of fit? Fit for goodness?

    OpenAIRE

    Leon J. van Vuuren

    2010-01-01

    Orientation: This theoretical opinion-based paper represents a critical reflection on the relevance of industrial psychology.Research purpose: Against a historical-developmental background of the discipline, the inquiry questions its goodness of fit, that is its contribution to organisation and society.Motivation for the study: Regular introspection in the discipline ensures that it remains relevant in both science and practice. As such, such introspection calls for a meta-theoretical imperat...

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness and laboratory stress: a meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Erica M; Dishman, Rod K

    2006-01-01

    We performed a meta-regression analysis of 73 studies that examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness mitigates cardiovascular responses during and after acute laboratory stress in humans. The cumulative evidence indicates that fitness is related to slightly greater reactivity, but better recovery. However, effects varied according to several study features and were smallest in the better controlled studies. Fitness did not mitigate integrated stress responses such as heart rate and blood pressure, which were the focus of most of the studies we reviewed. Nonetheless, potentially important areas, particularly hemodynamic and vascular responses, have been understudied. Women, racial/ethnic groups, and cardiovascular patients were underrepresented. Randomized controlled trials, including naturalistic studies of real-life responses, are needed to clarify whether a change in fitness alters putative stress mechanisms linked with cardiovascular health.

  16. Quasispecies theory for multiple-peak fitness landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Enrique; Saakian, David; Hu, Chin-Kun; Deem, Michael

    2007-03-01

    We used a path integral representation to solve the Eigen and Crow-Kimura molecular evolution models for the case of multiple fitness peaks with arbitrary fitness and degradation functions. In the general case, we find that the solution to these molecular evolution models can be written as the optimum of a fitness function, with constraints enforced by Lagrange multipliers and with a term accounting for the entropy of the spreading population in sequence space. The results for the Eigen model are applied to consider virus or cancer proliferation under the control of drugs or the immune system.

  17. Physical Activity Enhances Metabolic Fitness Independently of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Marathon Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laye, M. J.; Nielsen, M. B.; Hansen, L. S.; Knudsen, T.; Pedersen, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    High levels of cardiovascular fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are associated with decreased mortality and risk to develop metabolic diseases. The independent contributions of CRF and PA to metabolic disease risk factors are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that runners who run consistently >50 km/wk and/or >2 marathons/yr for the last 5 years have superior metabolic fitness compared to matched sedentary subjects (CRF, age, gender, and BMI). Case-control recruitment of 31 pairs of runner-sedentary subjects identified 10 matched pairs with similar VO2max (mL/min/kg) (similar-VO2max). The similar-VO2max group was compared with a group of age, gender, and BMI matched pairs who had the largest difference in VO2max (different-VO2max). Primary outcomes that defined metabolic fitness including insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting lipids, and fasting insulin were superior in runners versus sedentary controls despite similar VO2max. Furthermore, performance (velocity at VO2max, running economy), improved exercise metabolism (lactate threshold), and skeletal muscle levels of mitochondrial proteins were superior in runners versus sedentary controls with similar VO2max. In conclusion subjects with a high amount of PA have more positive metabolic health parameters independent of CRF. PA is thus a good marker against metabolic diseases. PMID:25821340

  18. Benefit segmentation of the fitness market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J D

    1992-01-01

    While considerate attention is being paid to the fitness and wellness needs of people by healthcare and related marketing organizations, little research attention has been directed to identifying the market segments for fitness based upon consumers' perceived benefits of fitness. This article describes three distinct segments of fitness consumers comprising an estimated 50 percent of households. Implications for marketing strategies are also presented.

  19. Youth Physical Fitness: Ten Key Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Charles B.; Welk, Gregory J.; Richardson, Cheryl; Vowell, Catherine; Lambdin, Dolly; Wikgren, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of physical fitness has been a key objective of physical education for more than a century. During this period, physical education has evolved to accommodate changing views on fitness and health. The purpose of this article is to discuss issues with fitness assessment and fitness education central to the new Presidential Youth…

  20. Youth Physical Fitness: Ten Key Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Charles B.; Welk, Gregory J.; Richardson, Cheryl; Vowell, Catherine; Lambdin, Dolly; Wikgren, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of physical fitness has been a key objective of physical education for more than a century. During this period, physical education has evolved to accommodate changing views on fitness and health. The purpose of this article is to discuss issues with fitness assessment and fitness education central to the new Presidential Youth…

  1. Seeing How Fitting Process Works

    CERN Document Server

    Montalbano, Vera

    2016-01-01

    A common problem in teaching Physics in secondary school is due to the gap in terms of difficulty between the physical concepts and the mathematical tools which are necessary to study them quantitatively. Advanced statistical estimators are commonly introduced only a couple of years later than some common physical topics, such as e.g. the electronic circuit analysis. Filling this gap with alternative methods appears to be opportune, in order to let the students reach a full comprehension of the issue they are facing with. In this work we use a smartphone camera and GeoGebra to propose a visual method for understanding the physical meaning of a fitting process. The time constant of an RC circuit is estimated by fitting the discharge curve of a capacitor visualized on the screen of an oscilloscope.

  2. The Andersen aerobic fitness test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadland, Eivind; Terum, Torkil; Mamen, Asgeir

    2014-01-01

    of agreement) were 26.7±125.2 m for test 2 vs. test 1 (ptest 3 vs. test 2 (p = .514 for mean difference). The equation to estimate VO2peak suggested by Andersen et al. (2008) showed a poor fit in the present sample; thus, we suggest a new equation: VO2peak = 23......BACKGROUND: High aerobic fitness is consistently associated with a favorable metabolic risk profile in children. Direct measurement of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) is often not feasible, thus indirect tests such as the Andersen test are required in many settings. The present study seeks...... to determine the reliability and validity of the Andersen test in 10-year-old children. METHODS: A total of 118 10-year-old children (67 boys and 51 girls) were recruited from one school and performed four VO2peak tests over three weeks: three Andersen tests (indirect) and one continuous progressive treadmill...

  3. Hearing Aid Fitting & Electrophysiologic Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Jalaei

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of deaf individual is one of the important subjects that has attracted attention of many researchers during past centuries. Different opinions have been established in this direction. Electrophysiologic tests were established and developed parallel to developments in rehabilitation. Therefore, opinion of using electrophysiologic test for evaluation and fitting of hearing aid became gradually popular. Ultimately, the electrophysiologic tests are used in evaluation and fitting of hearing aid in two ways: 1-Direct way 2- Indirect way "nIn direct way aided ABR is obtained and special attention is paid to wave V. This technique has many difficulties. Inindirect way, electrophysiologic tests such, ECochG, OAE and ABR, AMLR, ALR and P300 and other objective tests are used, especially in infants and neonates for evaluating the state of hearing. Researches are continuing in this field. It is probable to have aided electrophysiologic responses with speech stimuli in near future.

  4. Afterschool program participation, youth physical fitness, and overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Rebecca A; Gurantz, Oded

    2013-03-01

    Fighting childhood obesity has become a key policy focus. The role of community-based interventions to promote physical activity is an important part of an overall strategy to increase physical activity for youth. This study examines whether community-based afterschool physical activity programs lead to improved youth fitness and lower obesity rates. Individually linked, longitudinal administrative data were used from local afterschool programs and two school districts in one California community to follow 1105 students from the 2006-2007 to 2008-2009 school years. Models were estimated in 2009-2010 using linear probability regressions and robust SEs, controlling for individual, family, and school characteristics, including fitness and overweight status prior to program participation. One third (36%) of the students participated in fitness-focused afterschool programs. Controlling for baseline fitness status, participating in fitness-focused afterschool programs was associated with a 10% increase in the probability of being physically fit after 2 years. This finding held for nearly all subgroups, including students who were initially unfit. Participation in 2 years of the program was associated with a 14.7% increased likelihood of subsequent fitness compared to 8.8% for 1 year of participation. Participation in other types of afterschool programs was not associated with fitness improvements. There were no effects of participation in either type of program on overweight status. These findings point to the promise of relying on existing community resources in the fight against childhood obesity. Fitness-focused afterschool programs will need to ensure that the highest-risk children--including those who are Latino and low-income--are served. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Leading a Culture of Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    Program. As shown earlier, VO2max is a good indicator of cardio respiratory fitness. A maximum effort test on a treadmill is one of the most...accepted and accurate methods to determine VO2max , but the test is lengthy, complicated, and comes with risks. To avoid these drawbacks, the Air Force 9...adopted a sub-maximal cycle ergometry test (SCET) designed to estimate VO2max . These tests were accurate within the range of ten to twenty percent

  6. Fit to Electroweak Precision Data

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, J

    2006-01-01

    A brief review of electroweak precision data from LEP, SLC, the Tevatron, and low energies is presented. The global fit to all data including the most recent results on the masses of the top quark and the W boson reinforces the preference for a relatively light Higgs boson. I will also give an outlook on future developments at the Tevatron Run II, CEBAF, the LHC, and the ILC.

  7. Physical Work Demands and Fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Korshøj

    resting and sleeping heart rate, relative aerobic workload and level of high sensitive C-reactive protein. However, the intervention also elevated resting and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure. Secondary analysis, stratified on high vs low (≥/... exposed to high relative aerobic workloads obtained more pronounced increases of resting and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, an unaltered cardiorespiratory fitness and a reduced sleeping heart rate. The enhanced resting and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure may be explained as a potential...

  8. Pitfalls in aphakic contact lens fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dada Vijay

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 23 consecutive cases of unilateral aphakia reporting to the contact lens office for endothelial count and morphology, corneal thickness and toricity. The fellow eye served as a control in all the cases. It was found that there is a significant drop in the central endothelial cell density, and change in the size and shape of the cells. These observations indicate a thermodynamically unstable state. The aphakic corneas were thicker than the controls but not to a significant extent. The cell count and pachymetry had no statistical correlation. Toricity of the aphakic corneas make successful fitting of a lens difficult. Since prolonged use of extended wear gas permeable as well as hydrogel lenses have a deleterious effect on the endothelium it is suggested that a careful case selection be made and strict monitoting carried out at follow up. These corneas are liable for decompensation with only mild noxious stimuli. This article is intended to acquaint the ophthalmologist with the pitfalls in aphakic contact lens fitting so that a cautious follow up may be planned.

  9. Process study and quality control for forming large-scale duplex fitting%大比例三通接头成形工艺研究及质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲; 付冬雪; 郎利辉; 王少华; 杨春雷

    2013-01-01

    For meeting requirements of the large content flow inside the tube, a plenty of large-scale duplex fitting structures are used in the aircraft and aerospace areas. There are many issues to be tackled due to the high scrap rate in the large-scale duplex fitting forming processes. Taking duplex fitting with forming factor of 1 as experiment part, the optimization of the process parameters, tooling types and forming experiments were done. These researches show that the conical forming die is better than spherical die for improving the forming quality and qualified products were formed.%为适应导管内容物流量的要求,航空航天、汽配等领域上采用大量大比例成形系数的三通接头结构.成形系数为1的大比例接头存在成形难度大、报废率高等许多亟待解决的问题.本文以某型号成形系数为1的大比例三通接头为典型件,对成形中椭圆孔尺寸、模具形状等工艺参数进行设计与优化,并通过试验验证了锥面模胎工装形式相比两次球面模胎工装形式对成形质量的改善,最终成形出了合格零件.

  10. Where does fitness fit in theories of perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Barton L

    2015-12-01

    Interface theory asserts that neither our perceptual experience of the world nor the scientific constructs used to describe the world are veridical. The primary argument used to uphold this claim is that (1) evolution is driven by a process of natural selection that favors fitness over veridicality, and (2) payoffs do not vary monotonically with truth. I argue that both the arguments used to bolster this claim and the conclusions derived from it are flawed. Interface theory assumes that perception evolved to directly track fitness but fails to consider the role of adaptation on ontogenetic time scales. I argue that the ubiquity of nonmonotonic payoff functions requires that (1) perception tracks "truth" for species that adapt on ontogenetic time scales and (2) that perception should be distinct from utility. These conditions are required to pursue an adaptive strategy to mitigate homeostatic imbalances. I also discuss issues with the interface metaphor, the particular formulation of veridicality that is considered, and the relationship of interface theory to the history of ideas on these topics.

  11. Comparison of cluster expansion fitting algorithms for interactions at surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Laura M.; Bray, Jason M.; Schneider, William F.

    2015-10-01

    Cluster expansions (CEs) are Ising-type interaction models that are increasingly used to model interaction and ordering phenomena at surfaces, such as the adsorbate-adsorbate interactions that control coverage-dependent adsorption or surface-vacancy interactions that control surface reconstructions. CEs are typically fit to a limited set of data derived from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The CE fitting process involves iterative selection of DFT data points to include in a fit set and selection of interaction clusters to include in the CE. Here we compare the performance of three CE fitting algorithms-the MIT Ab-initio Phase Stability code (MAPS, the default in ATAT software), a genetic algorithm (GA), and a steepest descent (SD) algorithm-against synthetic data. The synthetic data is encoded in model Hamiltonians of varying complexity motivated by the observed behavior of atomic adsorbates on a face-centered-cubic transition metal close-packed (111) surface. We compare the performance of the leave-one-out cross-validation score against the true fitting error available from knowledge of the hidden CEs. For these systems, SD achieves lowest overall fitting and prediction error independent of the underlying system complexity. SD also most accurately predicts cluster interaction energies without ignoring or introducing extra interactions into the CE. MAPS achieves good results in fewer iterations, while the GA performs least well for these particular problems.

  12. A causal dispositional account of fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triviño, Vanessa; Nuño de la Rosa, Laura

    2016-09-01

    The notion of fitness is usually equated to reproductive success. However, this actualist approach presents some difficulties, mainly the explanatory circularity problem, which have lead philosophers of biology to offer alternative definitions in which fitness and reproductive success are distinguished. In this paper, we argue  that none of these alternatives is satisfactory and, inspired by Mumford and Anjum's dispositional theory of causation, we offer a definition of fitness as a causal dispositional property. We argue that, under this framework, the distinctiveness that biologists usually attribute to fitness-namely, the fact that fitness is something different from both the physical traits of an organism and the number of offspring it leaves-can be explained, and the main problems associated with the concept of fitness can be solved. Firstly, we introduce Mumford and Anjum's dispositional theory of causation and present our definition of fitness as a causal disposition. We explain in detail each of the elements involved in our definition, namely: the relationship between fitness and the functional dispositions that compose it, the emergent character of fitness, and the context-sensitivity of fitness. Finally, we explain how fitness and realized fitness, as well as expected and realized fitness are distinguished in our approach to fitness as a causal disposition.

  13. The iFit: an integrated physical fitness testing system to evaluate the degree of physical fitness of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kevin C; Wong, Alice May-Kuen; Hsu, Chien-Lung; Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Han, Chang-Mu; Lee, Ming-Ren

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated physical fitness testing system (iFit) that evaluates the physical fitness of older adults. The intent of the test is to help them manage and promote their health and mitigate the effects of aging. National protocols of physical fitness were implemented to support the assessment. The proposed system encompasses four modules of physical fitness assessment for both users and medical professionals. The test information will be recorded and managed through a wireless sensor network that will enable a better understanding of users' fitness states. Furthermore, the iFit has been validated by a test session attended by elderly participants. The results show that there is a significant correlation between iFit use in the test of flexibility, grip strength, and balance, compared to conventional methods.

  14. Effect of a physical fitness program on physical self-concept and physical fitness elements in primary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, D; Viciana, J; Cocca, A; de Rueda Villén, B

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the short-term effect of a physical fitness program on physical self-concept and physical fitness elements among primary school students. Spanish boys and girls (N = 75; M age = 11.1 yr., SD = 0.4) were divided into an experimental group and a control group. During physical education classes, the experimental group performed an 8-week program including two circuits of 8 exercises done for 15 to 35 sec. each with 45 to 25 sec. of rest between them. Physical self-concept (Physical Self-Description Questionnaire) and physical fitness (EUROFIT battery tests) were measured at the beginning and at the end of the physical fitness program. The results showed that the improvements in physical fitness were not accompanied by major changes in physical self-concept, even though the physical fitness program seemed to maintain the Experimental group's previous physical appearance, strength, and self-esteem perceptions, all of which statistically significantly decreased in the control group after the intervention.

  15. Social personality trait and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, J; Dreiss, A; Clobert, J

    2008-12-22

    Several recent studies have explored various aspects of animal personality and their ecological consequences. However, the processes responsible for the maintenance of personality variability within a population are still largely unknown. We have recently demonstrated that social personality traits exist in the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) and that the variation in sociability provides an explanation for variable dispersal responses within a given species. However, we need to know the fitness consequences of variation in sociability across environmental contexts in order to better understand the maintenance of such variation. In order to achieve this, we investigated the relationship between sociability and survival, body growth and fecundity, in one-year-old individuals in semi-natural populations with varying density. 'Asocial' and 'social' lizards displayed different fitness outcomes in populations of different densities. Asocial lizards survived better in low-density populations, while social females reproduced better. Spatiotemporal variation in environmental conditions might thus be the process underlying the maintenance of these personality traits within a population. Finally, we also discuss the position of sociability in a more general individual behavioural pattern including boldness, exploration and aggressiveness.

  16. The Genetic Pleiotropy of Musculoskeletal Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eKarasik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal aging is detrimental to multiple bodily functions and starts early, probably in the fifth decade of an individual’s life. Sarcopenia is a health problem that is expected to only increase as a greater portion of the population lives longer; prevalence of the related musculoskeletal diseases is similarly expected to increase. Unraveling the biological and biomechanical associations and molecular mechanisms underlying these diseases represents a formidable challenge. There are two major problems making disentangling the biological complexity of musculoskeletal aging difficult: (a it is a systemic, rather than compartmental, problem, which should be approached accordingly, and (b the aging per se is neither well defined nor reliably measurable. A unique challenge of studying any age-related condition is a need of distinguishing between the norm and pathology, which are interwoven throughout the aging organism. We argue that detecting genes with pleiotropic functions in musculoskeletal aging is needed to provide insights into the potential biological mechanisms underlying inter-individual differences insusceptibility to the musculoskeletal diseases. However, exploring pleiotropic relationships among the system’s components is challenging both methodologically and conceptually. We aimed to focus on genetic aspects of the cross-talk between muscle and its neighboring tissues and organs (tendon, bone, and cartilage, and to explore the role of genetics to find the new molecular links between skeletal muscle and other parts of the musculoskeleton. Identification of significant genetic variants underlying the musculoskeletal system’s aging is now possible more than ever due to the currently available advanced genomic technologies. In summary, a holistic genetic approach is needed to study the systems’s normal functioning and the disease predisposition in order to improve musculoskeletal health.

  17. Alternative Forms of Fit in Contingency Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Robert; Van de Ven, Andrew H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the selection, interaction, and systems approaches to fit in structural contingency theory. The concepts of fit evaluated may be applied not only to structural contingency theory but to contingency theories in general. (MD)

  18. President's Council on Fitness, Sports and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Print Share President's Council on Fitness, Sports & Nutrition (PCFSN) Fitness Homepage Intro Tile PCFSN engages, educates, ... lifestyle that includes regular physical activity and good nutrition. Since 1956, the Council has created and promoted ...

  19. Tile-Compressed FITS Kernel for IRAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, R.

    2011-07-01

    The Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) is a ubiquitously supported standard of the astronomical community. Similarly, the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF), developed by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, is a widely used astronomical data reduction package. IRAF supplies compatibility with FITS format data through numerous tools and interfaces. The most integrated of these is IRAF's FITS image kernel that provides access to FITS from any IRAF task that uses the basic IMIO interface. The original FITS kernel is a complex interface of purpose-built procedures that presents growing maintenance issues and lacks recent FITS innovations. A new FITS kernel is being developed at NOAO that is layered on the CFITSIO library from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The simplified interface will minimize maintenance headaches as well as add important new features such as support for the FITS tile-compressed (fpack) format.

  20. Sun Jinfang Establishes A Fitness Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    HIRING a fitness consultant for one year is as easy as filling in a form and paying 10 yuan to get a membership. You will receive a bulletin entitled Fitness Guide and therefore after the bulletin provides free health

  1. A Fitness Center for Senior Citizens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    APHYSICALfitnesscenterforseniorcitizenshasrecentlybeenopenedinBeijing’sYuetanGym."Ourcenterisaschool,akeyandabank,"saysLiuXuecheng,manageroftheBeijingYinxuanFitnessCenterfortheElderly."Itisaschoolbecauseourcenterteachestheelderlyabouthealth;itisakeyb...

  2. HRM and Fit: Survival of the fittest!?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.T. Boon (Corine)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the nature of ‘fit’ in strategic HRM? This is the question guiding this thesis. Although the idea of fit is theoretically convincing, empirical evidence to support the role of fit is limited. Previous studies on fit have mainly focused on the alignment between HRM and strategy

  3. 48 CFR 752.7033 - Physical fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Physical fitness. 752.7033... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of USAID Contract Clauses 752.7033 Physical fitness. For use in all USAID contracts involving performance overseas. Physical Fitness (JUL 1997)...

  4. Having a Ball with Fitness Balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Betty

    2011-01-01

    Fitness programs can be greatly enhanced with the addition of fitness balls. They are a fun, challenging, economical, and safe way to incorporate a cardiovascular, strength, and stretching program for all fitness levels in a physical education setting. The use of these balls has become more popular during the last decade, and their benefits and…

  5. Fit - The Key to Organizational Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lex Donaldson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of an organization needs to fit its situation. Designs that fit produce higher organizational performance than designs that do not.  This article uses the concept of fit to show how to align organizational designs to three important situational factors: competitive strategy, organization size, and task uncertainty.

  6. HRM and Fit: Survival of the fittest!?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.T. Boon (Corine)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the nature of ‘fit’ in strategic HRM? This is the question guiding this thesis. Although the idea of fit is theoretically convincing, empirical evidence to support the role of fit is limited. Previous studies on fit have mainly focused on the alignment between HRM and strategy (s

  7. In a Peak Fitness Condition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.; Nielsen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    managerial efforts with regard to Danish elite sports? The analysis finds the Danish elite sports organization, Team Danmark, well prepared and fit for the future challenges. Still, though, areas such as talent identification and development and division of roles and responsibilities, are in need...... increased, the market has adapted by raising the overall price of a medal. As a direct consequence managerial efficiency can be a 'non-financial' tool for nations to enhance the chances of success. The purpose of this article is to describe the internationalisation of elite sports together with analysing...... of improvement in order to strengthen the managerial efficiency. Furthermore the question of more funding is discussed.  Recently the Danish medal standings have been deteriorating which has initiated requests for more funding and the political response could be increased public funds....

  8. Physical Work Demands and Fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Korshøj

    Cardiovascular disease is the most frequent cause of death, accounting for more than 30 % of all annual deaths. Elevated incidence of cardiovascular disease is seen among occupational groups exposed to high occupational physical activity, like cleaners. Conversely, moderate to high leisure time...... physical activity reduces risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, it is not known whether this also holds for workers exposed to high occupational physical activity, or whether it will lead to a cardiovascular overload. The study therefore investigated whether an aerobic exercise worksite....... The effects were evaluated with objective physiological or diurnal data in an intention-to-treat analysis using multi-adjusted mixed models. The results indicated that the intervention led to several improvements in risk factors for cardiovascular disease, e.g. enhanced cardiorespiratory fitness, reduced...

  9. AMS-02 fits Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Balázs, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    In this work we perform a comprehensive statistical analysis of the AMS-02 electron, positron fluxes and the antiproton-to-proton ratio in the context of a simplified dark matter model. We include known, standard astrophysical sources and a dark matter component in the cosmic ray injection spectra. To predict the AMS-02 observables we use propagation parameters extracted from observed fluxes of heavier nuclei and the low energy part of the AMS-02 data. We assume that the dark matter particle is a Majorana fermion coupling to third generation fermions via a spin-0 mediator, and annihilating to multiple channels at once. The simultaneous presence of various annihilation channels provides the dark matter model with additional flexibility, and this enables us to simultaneously fit all cosmic ray spectra using a simple particle physics model and coherent astrophysical assumptions. Our results indicate that AMS-02 observations are not only consistent with the dark matter hypothesis within the uncertainties, but add...

  10. Predictive models for population performance on real biological fitness landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, William; Wedge, David C; Platt, Mark; Kell, Douglas B; Knowles, Joshua

    2010-09-01

    Directed evolution, in addition to its principal application of obtaining novel biomolecules, offers significant potential as a vehicle for obtaining useful information about the topologies of biomolecular fitness landscapes. In this article, we make use of a special type of model of fitness landscapes-based on finite state machines-which can be inferred from directed evolution experiments. Importantly, the model is constructed only from the fitness data and phylogeny, not sequence or structural information, which is often absent. The model, called a landscape state machine (LSM), has already been used successfully in the evolutionary computation literature to model the landscapes of artificial optimization problems. Here, we use the method for the first time to simulate a biological fitness landscape based on experimental evaluation. We demonstrate in this study that LSMs are capable not only of representing the structure of model fitness landscapes such as NK-landscapes, but also the fitness landscape of real DNA oligomers binding to a protein (allophycocyanin), data we derived from experimental evaluations on microarrays. The LSMs prove adept at modelling the progress of evolution as a function of various controlling parameters, as validated by evaluations on the real landscapes. Specifically, the ability of the model to 'predict' optimal mutation rates and other parameters of the evolution is demonstrated. A modification to the standard LSM also proves accurate at predicting the effects of recombination on the evolution.

  11. Fitting of the Thomson scattering density and temperature profiles on the COMPASS tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanikova, E.; Peterka, M.; Bohm, P.; Bilkova, P.; Aftanas, M.; Sos, M.; Urban, J.; Hron, M.; Panek, R.

    2016-11-01

    A new technique for fitting the full radial profiles of electron density and temperature obtained by the Thomson scattering diagnostic in H-mode discharges on the COMPASS tokamak is described. The technique combines the conventionally used modified hyperbolic tangent function for the edge transport barrier (pedestal) fitting and a modification of a Gaussian function for fitting the core plasma. Low number of parameters of this combined function and their straightforward interpretability and controllability provide a robust method for obtaining physically reasonable profile fits. Deconvolution with the diagnostic instrument function is applied on the profile fit, taking into account the dependence on the actual magnetic configuration.

  12. Changing fitness of a necrotrophic plant pathogen under increasing temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabburg, Rosalie; Obanor, Friday; Aitken, Elizabeth; Chakraborty, Sukumar

    2015-08-01

    Warmer temperatures associated with climate change are expected to have a direct impact on plant pathogens, challenging crops and altering plant disease profiles in the future. In this study, we have investigated the effect of increasing temperature on the pathogenic fitness of Fusarium pseudograminearum, an important necrotrophic plant pathogen associated with crown rot disease of wheat in Australia. Eleven wheat lines with different levels of crown rot resistance were artificially inoculated with F. pseudograminearum and maintained at four diurnal temperatures 15/15°C, 20/15°C, 25/15°C and 28/15°C in a controlled glasshouse. To quantify the success of F. pseudograminearum three fitness measures, these being disease severity, pathogen biomass in stem base and flag leaf node, and deoxynivalenol (DON) in stem base and flag leaf node of mature plants were used. F. pseudograminearum showed superior overall fitness at 15/15°C, and this was reduced with increasing temperature. Pathogen fitness was significantly influenced by the level of crown rot resistance of wheat lines, but the influence of line declined with increasing temperature. Lines that exhibited superior crown rot resistance in the field were generally associated with reduced overall pathogen fitness. However, the relative performance of the wheat lines was dependent on the measure of pathogen fitness, and lines that were associated with one reduced measure of pathogen fitness did not always reduce another. There was a strong correlation between DON in stem base tissue and disease severity, but length of browning was not a good predictor of Fusarium biomass in the stem base. We report that a combination of host resistance and rising temperature will reduce pathogen fitness under increasing temperature, but further studies combining the effect of rising CO2 are essential for more realistic assessments. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Goodness of Simultaneous Fits in ISIS

    CERN Document Server

    Kühnel, Matthias; Grossberger, Christoph; Ballhausen, Ralf; Dauser, Thomas; Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Nowak, Michael A; Pottschmidt, Katja; Ferrigno, Carlo; Rothschild, Richard E; Martínez-Núñez, Silvia; Torrejón, José Miguel; Fürst, Felix; Klochkov, Dmitry; Staubert, Rüdiger; Kretschmar, Peter; Wilms, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    In a previous work, we introduced a tool for analyzing multiple datasets simultaneously, which has been implemented into ISIS. This tool was used to fit many spectra of X-ray binaries. However, the large number of degrees of freedom and individual datasets raise an issue about a good measure for a simultaneous fit quality. We present three ways to check the goodness of these fits: we investigate the goodness of each fit in all datasets, we define a combined goodness exploiting the logical structure of a simultaneous fit, and we stack the fit residuals of all datasets to detect weak features. These tools are applied to all RXTE-spectra from GRO 1008-57, revealing calibration features that are not detected significantly in any single spectrum. Stacking the residuals from the best-fit model for the Vela X-1 and XTE J1859+083 data evidences fluorescent emission lines that would have gone undetected otherwise.

  14. THE GOODNESS OF SIMULTANEOUS FITS IN ISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Kühnel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In a previous work, we introduced a tool for analyzing multiple datasets simultaneously, which has been implemented into ISIS. This tool was used to fit many spectra of X-ray binaries. However, the large number of degrees of freedom and individual datasets raise an issue about a good measure for a simultaneous fit quality. We present three ways to check the goodness of these fits: we investigate the goodness of each fit in all datasets, we define a combined goodness exploiting the logical structure of a simultaneous fit, and we stack the fit residuals of all datasets to detect weak features. These tools are applied to all RXTE-spectra from GRO 1008−57, revealing calibration features that are not detected significantly in any single spectrum. Stacking the residuals from the best-fit model for the Vela X-1 and XTE J1859+083 data evidences fluorescent emission lines that would have gone undetected otherwise.

  15. Properties of Rasch residual fit statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Margaret; Adams, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the residual-based fit statistics commonly used in Rasch measurement. In particular, the paper analytically examines some of the theoretical properties of the residual-based fit statistics with a view to establishing the inferences that can be made using these fit statistics. More specifically, the relationships between the distributional properties of the fit statistics and sample size are discussed; some research that erroneously concludes that residual-based fit statistics are unstable is reviewed; and finally, it is analytically illustrated that, for dichotomous items, residual-based fit statistics provide a measure of the relative slope of empirical item characteristic curves. With a clear understanding of the theoretical properties of the fit statistics, the use and limitations of these statistics can be placed in the right light.

  16. Viral fitness: definitions, measurement, and current insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Andrew R.; Kurath, Gael

    2012-01-01

    Viral fitness is an active area of research, with recent work involving an expanded number of human, non-human vertebrate, invertebrate, plant, and bacterial viruses. Many publications deal with RNA viruses associated with major disease emergence events, such as HIV-1, influenza virus, and Dengue virus. Study topics include drug resistance, immune escape, viral emergence, host jumps, mutation effects, quasispecies diversity, and mathematical models of viral fitness. Important recent trends include increasing use of in vivo systems to assess vertebrate virus fitness, and a broadening of research beyond replicative fitness to also investigate transmission fitness and epidemiologic fitness. This is essential for a more integrated understanding of overall viral fitness, with implications for disease management in the future.

  17. Cultivating Mind Fitness through Mindfulness Training: Applied Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenfeldt, Jo Ann; Herkenhoff, Linda; Coe, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness reduces distress, promotes optimal health, improves attentional control, mental agility, emotional intelligence, and situational awareness. Stress management and cognitive performance in Marines who spent more hours practicing Mindfulness Based Mind Fitness Training were superior to those soldiers who practiced fewer hours. Students…

  18. Physical fitness reference standards in fibromyalgia: The al-Ándalus project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gallardo, I C; Carbonell-Baeza, A; Segura-Jiménez, V; Soriano-Maldonado, A; Intemann, T; Aparicio, V A; Estévez-López, F; Camiletti-Moirón, D; Herrador-Colmenero, M; Ruiz, J R; Delgado-Fernández, M; Ortega, F B

    2016-10-17

    We aimed (1) to report age-specific physical fitness levels in people with fibromyalgia of a representative sample from Andalusia; and (2) to compare the fitness levels of people with fibromyalgia with non-fibromyalgia controls. This cross-sectional study included 468 (21 men) patients with fibromyalgia and 360 (55 men) controls. The fibromyalgia sample was geographically representative from southern Spain. Physical fitness was assessed with the Senior Fitness Test battery plus the handgrip test. We applied the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape to calculate percentile curves for women and fitted mean curves using a linear regression for men. Our results show that people with fibromyalgia reached worse performance in all fitness tests than controls (P physical fitness levels among patients with fibromyalgia and controls in a large sample of patients with fibromyalgia from southern of Spain. Physical fitness levels of people with fibromyalgia from Andalusia are very low in comparison with age-matched healthy controls. This information could be useful to correctly interpret physical fitness assessments and helping health care providers to identify individuals at risk for losing physical independence.

  19. Parameterization for fitting triangular mesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Hongwei; WANG Guojin; LIU Ligang; BAO Hujun

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, with the development of 3D data acquisition equipments, the study on reverse engineering has become more and more important. However, the existing methods for parameterization can hardly ensure that the parametric domain is rectangular, and the parametric curve grid is regular. In order to overcome these limitations, we present a novel method for parameterization of triangular meshes in this paper. The basic idea is twofold: first, because the isotherms in the steady temperature do not intersect with each other, and are distributed uniformly, no singularity (fold-over) exists in the parameterization; second, a 3D harmonic equation is solved by the finite element method to obtain the steady temperature field on a 2D triangular mesh surface with four boundaries. Therefore, our proposed method avoids the embarrassment that it is impossible to solve the 2D quasi-harmonic equation on the 2D triangular mesh without the parametric values at mesh vertices. Furthermore, the isotherms on the temperature field are taken as a set of iso-parametric curves on the triangular mesh surface. The other set of iso-parametric curves can be obtained by connecting the points with the same chord-length on the isotherms sequentially. The obtained parametric curve grid is regular, and distributed uniformly, and can map the triangular mesh surface to the unit square domain with boundaries of mesh surface to boundaries of parametric domain, which ensures that the triangular mesh surface or point cloud can be fitted with the NURBS surface.

  20. Hierarchy, leadership, and construal fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Yair; Halevy, Nir

    2014-09-01

    Three studies tested the hypothesis, derived from construal-level theory, that hierarchical distance between leaders and followers moderates the effectiveness of leader behaviors such that abstract behaviors produce more positive outcomes when enacted across large hierarchical distances, whereas concrete behaviors produce more positive outcomes when enacted across small hierarchical distances. In Study 1 (N = 2,206 employees of a telecommunication organization), job satisfaction was higher when direct supervisors provided employees with concrete feedback and hierarchically distant leaders shared with them their abstract vision rather than vice versa. Study 2 orthogonally crossed hierarchical distances with communication type, operationalized as articulating abstract values versus sharing a detailed story exemplifying the same values; construal misfit mediated the interactive effects of hierarchical distance and communication type on organizational commitment and social bonding. Study 3 similarly manipulated hierarchical distances and communication type, operationalized as concrete versus abstract calls for action in the context of a severe professional crisis. Group commitment and participation in collective action were higher when a hierarchically proximate leader communicated a concrete call for action and a hierarchically distant leader communicated an abstract call for action rather than vice versa. These findings highlight construal fit's positive consequences for individuals and organizations.

  1. Nonlinear fitness landscape of a molecular pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Perfeito

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Genes are regulated because their expression involves a fitness cost to the organism. The production of proteins by transcription and translation is a well-known cost factor, but the enzymatic activity of the proteins produced can also reduce fitness, depending on the internal state and the environment of the cell. Here, we map the fitness costs of a key metabolic network, the lactose utilization pathway in Escherichia coli. We measure the growth of several regulatory lac operon mutants in different environments inducing expression of the lac genes. We find a strikingly nonlinear fitness landscape, which depends on the production rate and on the activity rate of the lac proteins. A simple fitness model of the lac pathway, based on elementary biophysical processes, predicts the growth rate of all observed strains. The nonlinearity of fitness is explained by a feedback loop: production and activity of the lac proteins reduce growth, but growth also affects the density of these molecules. This nonlinearity has important consequences for molecular function and evolution. It generates a cliff in the fitness landscape, beyond which populations cannot maintain growth. In viable populations, there is an expression barrier of the lac genes, which cannot be exceeded in any stationary growth process. Furthermore, the nonlinearity determines how the fitness of operon mutants depends on the inducer environment. We argue that fitness nonlinearities, expression barriers, and gene-environment interactions are generic features of fitness landscapes for metabolic pathways, and we discuss their implications for the evolution of regulation.

  2. Review of the Equilibrium Fitting for Non-Circular Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗家融

    2002-01-01

    As the equilibrium fitting code (EFIT) is developing to perform the magnetic and the kinetic-magnetic analysis for tokamak device operation, it can be not only run in either the fitting mode or the equilibrium mode but also control operation of modern experimental fusion device. In this paper the history of EF1T code and its capabilities are described in section 2. A brief description of the off-line EFIT code and the development of the real-time EFIT (RTEFIT)code is shown in section 3 and 4 respectively. In the last section the summary of this paper is given.

  3. The association of health-related fitness with indicators of academic performance in Texas schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Gregory J; Jackson, Allen W; Morrow, James R; Haskell, William H; Meredith, Marilu D; Cooper, Kenneth H

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the associations between indicators of health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and body mass index) and academic performance (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills). Partial correlations were generally stronger for cardiovascular fitness than body mass index and consistently stronger in the middle school grades. Mixed-model regression analyses revealed modest associations between fitness and academic achievement after controlling for potentially confounding variables. The effects of fitness on academic achievement were positive but small. A separate logistic regression analysis indicated that higher fitness rates increased the odds of schools achieving exemplary/recognized school status within the state. School fitness attainment is an indicator of higher performing schools. Direction of causality cannot be inferred due to the cross-sectional nature of the data.

  4. No effect of the FitFor2 exercise programme on blood glucose, insulin sensitivity, and birthweight in pregnant women who were overweight and at risk for gestational diabetes: Results of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdam, N.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Wouters, M.G.A.J.; Eekhoff, E.M.W.; Bekedam, D.J.; Kuchenbecker, W.K.H.; Quartero, H.W.P.; Heres, M.H.B.; Mechelen, W. van

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of an exercise programme for pregnant women who were overweight or obese and at risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Hospitals and midwifery practices in the Netherlands. Population Pregnant women who were

  5. No effect of the FitFor2 exercise programme on blood glucose, insulin sensitivity, and birthweight in pregnant women who were overweight and at risk for gestational diabetes: Results of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdam, N.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Wouters, M.G.A.J.; Eekhoff, E.M.W.; Bekedam, D.J.; Kuchenbecker, W.K.H.; Quartero, H.W.P.; Heres, M.H.B.; Mechelen, W. van

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of an exercise programme for pregnant women who were overweight or obese and at risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Hospitals and midwifery practices in the Netherlands. Population Pregnant women who were o

  6. Robust ellipse fitting based on sparse combination of data points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junli; Zhang, Miaohua; Liu, Ding; Zeng, Xianju; Ojowu, Ode; Zhao, Kexin; Li, Zhan; Liu, Han

    2013-06-01

    Ellipse fitting is widely applied in the fields of computer vision and automatic industry control, in which the procedure of ellipse fitting often follows the preprocessing step of edge detection in the original image. Therefore, the ellipse fitting method also depends on the accuracy of edge detection besides their own performance, especially due to the introduced outliers and edge point errors from edge detection which will cause severe performance degradation. In this paper, we develop a robust ellipse fitting method to alleviate the influence of outliers. The proposed algorithm solves ellipse parameters by linearly combining a subset of ("more accurate") data points (formed from edge points) rather than all data points (which contain possible outliers). In addition, considering that squaring the fitting residuals can magnify the contributions of these extreme data points, our algorithm replaces it with the absolute residuals to reduce this influence. Moreover, the norm of data point errors is bounded, and the worst case performance optimization is formed to be robust against data point errors. The resulting mixed l1-l2 optimization problem is further derived as a second-order cone programming one and solved by the computationally efficient interior-point methods. Note that the fitting approach developed in this paper specifically deals with the overdetermined system, whereas the current sparse representation theory is only applied to underdetermined systems. Therefore, the proposed algorithm can be looked upon as an extended application and development of the sparse representation theory. Some simulated and experimental examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed ellipse fitting approach.

  7. Focusing of light through turbid media by curve fitting optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Changmei; Wu, Tengfei; Liu, Jietao; Li, Huijuan; Shao, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Jianqi

    2016-12-01

    The construction of wavefront phase plays a critical role in focusing light through turbid media. We introduce the curve fitting algorithm (CFA) into the feedback control procedure for wavefront optimization. Unlike the existing continuous sequential algorithm (CSA), the CFA locates the optimal phase by fitting a curve to the measured signals. Simulation results show that, similar to the genetic algorithm (GA), the proposed CFA technique is far less susceptible to the experimental noise than the CSA. Furthermore, only three measurements of feedback signals are enough for CFA to fit the optimal phase while obtaining a higher focal intensity than the CSA and the GA, dramatically shortening the optimization time by a factor of 3 compared with the CSA and the GA. The proposed CFA approach can be applied to enhance the focus intensity and boost the focusing speed in the fields of biological imaging, particle trapping, laser therapy, and so on, and might help to focus light through dynamic turbid media.

  8. 2-bit Flip Mutation Elementary Fitness Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Langdon, William

    2010-01-01

    Genetic Programming parity is not elementary. GP parity cannot be represented as the sum of a small number of elementary landscapes. Statistics, including fitness distance correlation, of Parity's fitness landscape are calculated. Using Walsh analysis the eigen values and eigenvectors of the Laplacian of the two bit flip fitness landscape are given and a ruggedness measure for elementary landscapes is proposed. An elementary needle in a haystack (NIH) landscape is g...

  9. Are poor physical fitness and obesity two features of the adolescent with Down syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Izquierdo-Gomez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: "Obesity" is considered a feature of youth with DS but whether "low physical fitness" is also a feature is unknown. Objective: The aim of this case-control study was to compare the levels of fatness and fitness in adolescents with and without DS. Methods: Participants included 17 (5 girls adolescents with DS aged 12-18 years and a control group of 94 (45 girls adolescents without DS aged 12-16 years. The ALPHA health-related fitness test battery for children and adolescents was selected to assess fatness and fitness in both groups. Results: There were no differences in levels of fatness between groups (all P > 0.27. Adolescents with DS had lower levels of fitness in all the tests than adolescents without DS (all P < 0.001. Conclusion: Adolescents with DS have similar levels of fatness and lower levels of fitness than their peers without DS.

  10. Fitness consequences of parental compatibility in the frog Crinia georgiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziminski, Martin A; Roberts, J Dale; Simmons, Leigh W

    2008-04-01

    Theory suggests that multiple mating by females can evolve as a mechanism for acquiring compatible genes that promote offspring fitness. Genetic compatibility models predict that differences in fitness among offspring arise from interactions between male and female haplotypes. Using a cross-classified breeding design and in vitro fertilization, we raised families of maternal and paternal half-siblings of the frog Crinia georgiana, a species with a polyandrous breeding system and external fertilization. After controlling for variation in maternal provisioning, we found significant effects of interacting parental haplotypes on fertilization success, and nonadditive genetic effects on measures of offspring fitness such as embryo survival, and survival to, size at, and time to metamorphosis. Additive genetic variation due to males and females was negligible, and not statistically significant for any of the fitness traits measured. Combinations of parental haplotypes that resulted in high rates of fertilization produced offspring with higher embryo survival and rapid juvenile development. We suggest that a gamete recognition mechanism for selective fertilization by compatible sperm may promote offspring fitness in this system.

  11. Thermoforming of Textile Composite Pipe Fittings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Jun-Ichi; Manabe, Ken-Ichi

    Thermoforming of braided thermoplastic composite tubes was carried out in order to clarify the mechanism of the thermoforming process for pipe fittings such as T-shape fittings, cross fittings and two-branch fittings. The composite tube was made of a cowoven braid that consists of a carbon braid and polyamide resin, and 4-ply tubes with initial fiber orientations of 18° and 26° are used in the experiment. The branch is formed with not only the fisherman's net effect but also with moving yarns along the longitudinal direction in every forming process. The results show that the deformation behavior of the braid is very complex. Therefore, fiber orientation through forming is also greatly changed. Wall thickness at the branch decreases with increasing branch height. From these results, it is found that a fitting with complex shape can be produced by thermoforming. T-shape fittings, cross fittings and two-branch fittings are achieved by this process. It is confirmed that moving yarns along the longitudinal direction plays an important role in branch forming of pipe fittings.

  12. The Obesity Paradox and Cardiorespiratory Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. McAuley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiorespiratory fitness as an explanation for the obesity paradox warrants further examination. We evaluated independent and joint associations of cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity with all-cause mortality in 811 middle-aged (age, 53.3±7.2 years male never smokers without documented cardiopulmonary disease or diabetes from the Veterans Exercise Testing Study (VETS. Cardiorespiratory fitness was quantified in metabolic equivalents (METs using final treadmill speed and grade achieved on a maximal exercise test. Subjects were grouped for analysis by METs: unfit (lowest third and fit (upper two-thirds; and by body mass index (kg/m2: nonobese (18.5−29.9 and obese (≥30.0. Associations of baseline fitness and adiposity measures with all-cause mortality were determined by Cox proportional hazards analysis adjusted for age, ethnicity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, family history of coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular medication use. In multivariate analysis, mortality risk for obese/fit men did not differ significantly from the nonobese/fit reference group. However, compared to the reference group, nonobese and obese unfit men were 2.2 (=0.01 and 1.9 (=0.03 times more likely to die, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness altered the obesity paradox such that mortality risk was lower for both obese and nonobese men who were fit.

  13. Acute hernial strangulation following Wii Fit exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, O A; Parvaiz, A C; Vassallo, D J

    2013-01-01

    The Wii Fit is one the most popular fitness games on the market. Although this device has been linked to a number of injuries, the vast majority of these have been relatively minor musculo-skeletal complaints. We present a case of a patient who presented with an acute strangulation of a pre-existing asymptomatic paraumbilical hernia after completing a series of aerobic exercises on her Wii Fit. She required laparotomy and small bowel resection for infarcted bowel. Although a number of minor mechanical and orthopaedic injurieshave been reported with the Wii Fit, this represents the first case of a life-threatening complication associated with the use of this device.

  14. A person-environment fit approach to volunteerism : Volunteer personality fit and culture fit as predictors of affective outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; Voskuijl, Olga F.

    2008-01-01

    This study employed a person-environment (P-E) fit approach to explaining volunteer satisfaction, affective commitment, and turnover intentions. It was hypothesized that personality fit would explain additional variance in volunteer affective outcomes above and beyond motives to volunteer. This hypo

  15. Effect of low-impact aerobic dance on the functional fitness of elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, D R; Murrah, B; Hoeger, W W; Rhodes, R C

    1990-04-01

    To determine the effect of low-impact aerobic dance on sedentary elderly women (N = 53), functional fitness was measured by items from the proposed American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance (AAHPERD) fitness test for older adults. After 12-weeks of low-impact aerobic dance, the group improved significantly on all functional fitness components except motor control/coordination, including cardiorespiratory endurance, strength/endurance, body agility, flexibility, body fat, and balance.

  16. Exceptional longevity and muscle and fitness related genotypes: a functional in vitro analysis and case-control association replication study with SNPs THRH rs7832552, IL6 rs1800795, and ACSL1 rs6552828

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuku, Noriyuki; He, Zi-hong; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Tian, Ye; Arai, Yasumichi; Abe, Yukiko; Murakami, Haruka; Miyachi, Motohiko; Zempo, Hirofumi; Naito, Hisashi; Yvert, Thomas; Verde, Zoraida; Venturini, Letizia; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Romo, Gabriel; Ricevuti, Giovanni; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Emanuele, Enzo; Garatachea, Nuria; Lucia, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    There are several gene variants that are candidates to influence functional capacity in long-lived individuals. As such, their potential association with exceptional longevity (EL, i.e., reaching 100+ years) deserves analysis. Among them are rs7832552 in the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRHR) gene, rs1800795 in the interleukin-6 (IL6) gene and rs6552828 in the coenzyme A synthetase long-chain 1 (ACSL1) gene. To gain insight into their functionality (which is yet unknown), here we determined for the first time luciferase gene reporter activity at the muscle tissue level in rs7832552 and rs6552828. We then compared allele/genotype frequencies of the 3 abovementioned variants among centenarians [n = 138, age range 100–111 years (114 women)] and healthy controls [n = 334, 20–50 years (141 women)] of the same ethnic and geographic origin (Spain). We also studied healthy centenarians [n = 79, 100–104 years (40 women)] and controls [n = 316, 27–81 years (156 women)] from Italy, and centenarians [n = 742, 100–116 years (623 women)] and healthy controls [n = 499, 23–59 years (356 women)] from Japan. The THRH rs7832552 T-allele and ACSL1 rs6552828 A-allele up-regulated luciferase activity compared to the C and G-allele, respectively (P = 0.001). Yet we found no significant association of EL with rs7832552, rs1800795 or rs6552828 in any of the 3 cohorts. Further research is needed with larger cohorts of centenarians of different origin as well as with younger old people. PMID:25999849

  17. The Associations of Youth Physical Activity and Screen Time with Fatness and Fitness: The 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bai

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the associations of youth physical activity and screen time with weight status and cardiorespiratory fitness in children and adolescents, separately, utilizing a nationally representative sample. A total of 1,113 participants (692 children aged 6-11 yrs; 422 adolescents aged 12-15 yrs from the 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey. Participants completed physical activity and screen time questionnaires, and their body mass index and cardiorespiratory fitness (adolescents only were assessed. Adolescents completed additional physical activity questions to estimate daily MET minutes. Children not meeting the screen time guideline had 1.69 times the odds of being overweight/obese compared to those meeting the screen time guideline, after adjusting for physical activity and other control variables. Among adolescent, screen time was significantly associated with being overweight/obese (odds ratio = 1.82, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-3.15, but the association attenuated toward the borderline of being significant after controlling for physical activity. Being physically active was positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, independent of screen time among adolescents. In joint association analysis, children who did not meet physical activity nor screen time guidelines had 2.52 times higher odds of being overweight/obese than children who met both guidelines. Adolescents who did not meet the screen time guideline had significantly higher odds ratio of being overweight/obese regardless of meeting the physical activity guideline. Meeting the physical activity guideline was also associated with cardiorespiratory fitness regardless of meeting the screen time guideline in adolescents. Screen time is a stronger factor than physical activity in predicting weight status in both children and adolescents, and only physical activity is strongly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents.

  18. EFFECTIVENESS OF SUPERVISED FITNESS AND MOBILITY EXERCISE PROGRAM ON FITNESS, MOBILITY AND MUSCLE STRENGTH IN YOUNG ADULTS WITH STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sandhya kiran

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke is a major disabling health problem in developing countries like India & causes long term disability. Long term disability furthers leads to global burden and other psychological problems.The FAME i.e., fitness and mobility exercise program has been designed to improve mobility, fitness and muscle strength. This protocol is community based protocol and helps in patients independent lifestyle.Objective is to examine the effect of supervised FAME protocol on fitness with 6minutes walk test, on mobility with timed up go test & on hamstrings muscle strength measured as hamstrings peak torque with isokinetic analyzer. Methods: Stroke participants were recruited into the study as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria and randomized into intervention group (n = 15 and control group (n = 15.The intervention group underwent supervised fitness and mobility exercise program & the control group underwent home exercises with printed FAME material (telugu & English version.This program was designed for 8 weeks (3 sessions / week. 6MWT- used to evaluate cardio respiratory fitness, TUG test- used to evaluate mobility, Isokinetic analyzer- used to evaluate hamstrings peak torque. Base line measurements are taken prior to the intervention and post intervention values taken after the 8 weeks of intervention. Results: Variables within the groups were compared by using paired t test and between the groups by using independent t test. According to obtained values, the pre & posttest values of 6MWT, TUG test & hamstrings peak toque had a significant effect on p-values <0.05 in experimental group. Conclusion: After 8 weeks of intervention program, the present study concludes that the supervised FAME protocol had showed statistically significant improvement in fitness, mobility & leg muscle strength in intervention group.

  19. Monitoring techniques for high accuracy interference fit assembly processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuti, A.; Vedugo, F. Rodriguez; Paone, N.; Ungaro, C.

    2016-06-01

    In the automotive industry, there are many assembly processes that require a high geometric accuracy, in the micrometer range; generally open-loop controllers cannot meet these requirements. This results in an increased defect rate and high production costs. This paper presents an experimental study of interference fit process, aimed to evaluate the aspects which have the most impact on the uncertainty in the final positioning. The press-fitting process considered, consists in a press machine operating with a piezoelectric actuator to press a plug into a sleeve. Plug and sleeve are designed and machined to obtain a known interference fit. Differential displacement and velocity measurements of the plug with respect to the sleeve are measured by a fiber optic differential laser Doppler vibrometer. Different driving signals of the piezo actuator allow to have an insight into the differences between a linear and a pulsating press action. The paper highlights how the press-fit assembly process is characterized by two main phases: the first is an elastic deformation of the plug and sleeve, which produces a reversible displacement, the second is a sliding of the plug with respect to the sleeve, which results in an irreversible displacement and finally realizes the assembly. The simultaneous measurements of the displacement and the force have permitted to define characteristic features in the signal useful to identify the start of the irreversible movement. These indicators could be used to develop a control logic in a press assembly process.

  20. Multicomponent Fitness Training Improves Walking Economy in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Giulio; Bonomi, Alberto Giovanni; Westerterp, Klaas Roelof

    2016-07-01

    Walking economy declines with increasing age, possibly leading to mobility limitation in older adults. Multicomponent fitness training could delay the decline in walking economy. This study aimed to determine the effect of multicomponent fitness training on walking economy in older adults. Participants were untrained adults, age 50 to 83 yr (N = 26, 10 males, age = 63 ± 6 yr, BMI = 25.6 ± 2.1 kg·m, mean ± SD). A control group was also recruited (N = 16, 9 males, age = 66 ± 10 yr, BMI = 25.4 ± 3.0 kg·m), matching the intervention group for age, weight, body composition, and fitness. The intervention group followed a multicomponent fitness program of 1 h, twice per week during 1 yr. The control group did not take part in any physical training. Fat-free mass, walking economy, and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) were measured in both groups before and after the year. Walking economy was measured with indirect calorimetry as the lowest energy needed to displace 1 kg of body mass for 1 m while walking on a treadmill. The data were compared between the two groups with repeated-measures ANOVA. Thirty-two subjects completed all measurements. There was an interaction between the effects of time and group on V˙O2max (P economy (P economy. Thus, training programs could delay mobility limitation with increasing age.

  1. Silver yoga exercises improved physical fitness of transitional frail elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuei-Min; Fan, Jue-Ting; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Wu, Shu-Ju; Li, Chun-Huw; Lin, Huey-Shyan

    2010-01-01

    Promoting the health of transitional frail elders (e.g., through therapeutic-based yoga exercises) is essential to reduce healthcare expenditures caused by chronic health problems. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of 24 weeks of the senior-tailored silver yoga (SY) exercise program for transitional frail elders. A convenience sample of 69 elders in assisted living facilities were assigned randomly to the SY group (n = 38) or to the control group (n = 31) on the basis of the facilities where they resided, and 55 of them completed this quasi-experimental pretest and posttest study. Intervention was conducted three times per week, 70 minutes per session, for 24 weeks. Physical fitness (body composition, cardiovascular-respiratory functions, body flexibility, muscle power and endurance, balance, and agility) were examined at baseline, at 12 weeks, and at the end of the 24th week of the study. At the end of the study, the physical fitness indicators of participants in the SY group had improved significantly, and they had better physical fitness than participants in the control group (all p values < .05). It was recommended that the SY exercises be incorporated as an activity program in assisted living facilities to promote the physical fitness of transitional frail elders.

  2. Computation of mutual fitness by competing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keymer, J.E.; Galajda, P.; Lambert, G.; Liao, D.; Austin, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Competing populations in shared spaces with nonrenewable resources do not necessarily wage a battle for dominance at the cost of extinction of the less-fit strain if there are fitness advantages to the presence of the other strain. We report on the use of nanofabricated habitat landscapes to study t

  3. Pilates and Physical Education: A Natural Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloubec, June; Banks, Aaron L.

    2004-01-01

    In a time period characterized by the continual decline of fitness and physical activity among American youths, Pilates can provide physical educators a unique activity that will improve fitness and stimulate the cognitive domain of today's students. Because the Pilates method of exercise encourages the development of strong and flexible muscles…

  4. FiT gets CLEAN local roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, Chris

    2012-07-01

    Feed-in tariffs are starting to take root in the US. While there is little to no hope of a national FiT policy, a growing number of cities, like Los Angeles, Gainesville, and Sacramento and states including California and Vermont are creating their own FiTs. (orig.)

  5. United States Ski Team Fitness Testing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettman, Larry R.

    Presented is a fitness profile designed to identify the individual athlete's strengths and weaknesses. Specifically, the areas of fitness examined are a) muscular strength; b) cardiovascular respiratory function; c) body composition; and d) motor abilities, agility, and speed. The procedures in the testing program involve the following: a) the…

  6. Are Physical Education Majors Models for Fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamla, James; Snyder, Ben; Tanner, Lori; Wash, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    The National Association of Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) (2002) has taken a firm stance on the importance of adequate fitness levels of physical education teachers stating that they have the responsibility to model an active lifestyle and to promote fitness behaviors. Since the NASPE declaration, national initiatives like Let's Move…

  7. Epileptic fits under intravenous midazolam sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, N D

    1996-09-07

    A case is presented of a patient who suffered from recurrent epileptic fits while being treated under intravenous sedation with midazolam. Those using sedation are advised to beware of the patient who gives a history of fits being provoked in the dental environment.

  8. Expandable Purge Chambers Would Protect Cryogenic Fittings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Ivan I., III

    2004-01-01

    Expandable ice-prevention and cleanliness-preservation (EIP-CP) chambers have been proposed to prevent the accumulation of ice or airborne particles on quick-disconnect (QD) fittings, or on ducts or tubes that contain cryogenic fluids. In the original application for which the EIP-CP chambers were conceived, there is a requirement to be able to disconnect and reconnect the QD fittings in rapid succession. If ice were to form on the fittings by condensation and freezing of airborne water vapor on the cold fitting surfaces, the ice could interfere with proper mating of the fittings, making it necessary to wait an unacceptably long time for the ice to thaw before attempting reconnection. By keeping water vapor away from the cold fitting surfaces, the EIP-CP chambers would prevent accumulation of ice, preserving the ability to reconnect as soon as required. Basically, the role of an EIP-CP chamber would be to serve as an enclosure for a flow of dry nitrogen gas that would keep ambient air away from QD cryogenic fittings. An EIP-CP chamber would be an inflatable device made of a fabriclike material. The chamber would be attached to an umbilical plate holding a cryogenic QD fitting.

  9. Definitions: Health, Fitness, and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Charles B.; Pangrazi, Robert P.; Franks, B. Don

    2000-01-01

    This paper defines a variety of fitness components, using a simple multidimensional hierarchical model that is consistent with recent definitions in the literature. It groups the definitions into two broad categories: product and process. Products refer to states of being such as physical fitness, health, and wellness. They are commonly referred…

  10. Computation of mutual fitness by competing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keymer, J.E.; Galajda, P.; Lambert, G.; Liao, D.; Austin, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Competing populations in shared spaces with nonrenewable resources do not necessarily wage a battle for dominance at the cost of extinction of the less-fit strain if there are fitness advantages to the presence of the other strain. We report on the use of nanofabricated habitat landscapes to study t

  11. FUNdamental Integrative Training (FIT) for Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowsky, Michael; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for physical education teachers to integrate different types of fitness activities into their lessons in order to provide opportunities for all students to learn and practice a variety of movement skills that will enhance their physical fitness and support free-time physical activity. An increased focus on age-appropriate…

  12. Fitting PAC spectra with a hybrid algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, M. A., E-mail: mauro@sepn.org [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (Brazil); Carbonari, A. W., E-mail: carbonar@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    A hybrid algorithm (HA) that blends features of genetic algorithms (GA) and simulated annealing (SA) was implemented for simultaneous fits of perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectra. The main characteristic of the HA is the incorporation of a selection criterion based on SA into the basic structure of GA. The results obtained with the HA compare favorably with fits performed with conventional methods.

  13. FUNdamental Integrative Training (FIT) for Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowsky, Michael; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for physical education teachers to integrate different types of fitness activities into their lessons in order to provide opportunities for all students to learn and practice a variety of movement skills that will enhance their physical fitness and support free-time physical activity. An increased focus on age-appropriate…

  14. A walking programme and a supervised exercise class versus usual physiotherapy for chronic low back pain: a single-blinded randomised controlled trial. (The Supervised Walking In comparison to Fitness Training for Back Pain (SWIFT) Trial).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hurley, Deirdre A

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a persistent disabling condition with rising significant healthcare, social and economic costs. Current research supports the use of exercise-based treatment approaches that encourage people with CLBP to assume a physically active role in their recovery. While international clinical guidelines and systematic reviews for CLBP support supervised group exercise as an attractive first-line option for treating large numbers of CLBP patients at low cost, barriers to their delivery include space and time restrictions in healthcare settings and poor patient attendance. The European Clinical Guidelines have identified the need for research in the use of brief\\/minimal contact self-activation interventions that encourage participation in physical activity for CLBP. Walking may be an ideally suited form of individualized exercise prescription as it is easy to do, requires no special skills or facilities, and is achievable by virtually all ages with little risk of injury, but its effectiveness for LBP is unproven. METHODS AND DESIGN: This study will be an assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial that will investigate the difference in clinical effectiveness and costs of an individualized walking programme and a supervised general exercise programme compared to usual physiotherapy, which will act as the control group, in people with chronic low back pain. A sample of 246 patients will be recruited in Dublin, Ireland through acute general hospital outpatient physiotherapy departments that provide treatment for people with CLBP. Patients will be randomly allocated to one of the three groups in a concealed manner. The main outcomes will be functional disability, pain, quality of life, fear avoidance, back beliefs, physical activity, satisfaction and costs, which will be evaluated at baseline, and 3, 6 and 12 months [follow-up by pre-paid postage]. Qualitative telephone interviews and focus groups will be embedded in the research

  15. Formalizing Darwinism and inclusive fitness theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, Alan

    2009-11-12

    Inclusive fitness maximization is a basic building block for biological contributions to any theory of the evolution of society. There is a view in mathematical population genetics that nothing is caused to be maximized in the process of natural selection, but this is explained as arising from a misunderstanding about the meaning of fitness maximization. Current theoretical work on inclusive fitness is discussed, with emphasis on the author's 'formal Darwinism project'. Generally, favourable conclusions are drawn about the validity of assuming fitness maximization, but the need for continuing work is emphasized, along with the possibility that substantive exceptions may be uncovered. The formal Darwinism project aims more ambitiously to represent in a formal mathematical framework the central point of Darwin's Origin of Species, that the mechanical processes of inheritance and reproduction can give rise to the appearance of design, and it is a fitting ambition in Darwin's bicentenary year to capture his most profound discovery in the lingua franca of science.

  16. Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter

    2014-06-07

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fitness Equipment Brings Business Opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Feng

    2011-01-01

    @@ Nowadays, as you walk in the domestic cities, color-ful and dynamic signs of gyms will always come into your view.And when you walk into the gym, you must first be greet-ed by rows of neatly stacked tread-mills.People running on the tread-mill, regardless of age, regardless of gender, can control their running speed all by themselves, with sports games playing in the monitor in the front of the equipment, and ears full of beautiful music from their iPods.

  18. Low aerobic fitness in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: aerobic fitness is considered one of the most important components of health-related physical fitness, with low levels related to increased risk of premature death from all causes, especially cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: to identify the characteristics of adolescents at higher risk of low levels of aerobic fitness. METHODS: the study included 696 adolescents 15-17 years of age enrolled in public high schools of Florianópolis, southern Brazil. This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Aerobic fitness was measured using the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test mCAFT. Sociodemographic gender, age, school grade, paternal and maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, and anthropometric variables body weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, sexual maturation, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and eating habits were collected. RESULTS: it was found that 31.5% of adolescents had low aerobic fitness levels, being higher in boys 49.2% compared to girls 20.6%. Moreover, girls with sedentary behavior, overweight and high body fat percentage were the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness. In males, the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness were those whose parents studied more than eight years, those with low levels of physical activity, and those with inadequate nutrition and excessive body fat. CONCLUSION: low aerobic fitness levels were present in one third of adolescents and was more prevalent in boys. Lifestyle changes, including replacement of sedentary behaviors by physical and sport activities , may assist in improving the aerobic fitness of Brazilian adolescents.

  19. Functional fitness level of military college cadets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedak S.S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out and study influence of author’s physical training program on functional fitness of military college officers. Material: in the research 83 3rd year cadets of military college participated (experimental group, n=41; control group, n=42, of age 19-21 years. The cadets’ functional state was registered by indicators of Shtange’s test, Genchi test, test of Ruffiet - Dixon, Cooper’s test. The volume of trainings was 4 hours a week. Results: it was found that the acting training programs do not permit to completely prepare combat soldier’s organism for fulfillment of his tasks. We also found the purposefulness of special exercises and means’ application in physical trainings, which would be approached by their structure to military officers’ professional actions. Conclusions: it is recommended to conduct training with complex combining of different physical training sections (accelerated motion, overcoming obstacle course, hand-to-hand fighting and etc. with special means ( armor vest, tactic unloading system, helmet, weapon, gas mask, training grenades and so on.

  20. Psychosocial Variables Associated with Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Christy A.; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among self-esteem, depression, physical self-concept, and body satisfaction among 1,022 middle school students who were in the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zone[TM] (HFZ) compared to those in the Needs Improvement Zone (NIZ) for body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness. After controlling for…

  1. The Impact of Rope Jumping Exercise on Physical Fitness of Visually Impaired Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of rope jumping exercise on the health-related physical fitness of visually impaired students. The participants' physical fitness was examined before and after the training. The exercise intensity of the experimental group was controlled with Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) (values…

  2. The Impact of Rope Jumping Exercise on Physical Fitness of Visually Impaired Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of rope jumping exercise on the health-related physical fitness of visually impaired students. The participants' physical fitness was examined before and after the training. The exercise intensity of the experimental group was controlled with Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) (values…

  3. Does one size really fit all? The effectiveness of a non-diagnosis-specific integrated mental health care program in Germany in a prospective, parallel-group controlled multi-centre trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Stierlin, Annabel Sandra; Helmbrecht, Marina Julia; Herder, Katrin; Prinz, Stefanie; Rosenfeld, Nadine; Walendzik, Julia; Holzmann, Marco; Dinc, Uemmueguelsuem; Schützwohl, Matthias; Becker, Thomas; Kilian, Reinhold

    2017-08-01

    The Network for Mental Health (NWpG-IC) is an integrated mental health care program implemented in 2009 by cooperation between health insurance companies and community mental health providers in Germany. Meanwhile about 10,000 patients have been enrolled. This is the first study evaluating the effectiveness of the program in comparison to standard mental health care in Germany. In a parallel-group controlled trial over 18 months conducted in five regions across Germany, a total of 260 patients enrolled in NWpG-IC and 251 patients in standard mental health care (TAU) were recruited between August 2013 and November 2014. The NWpG-IC patients had access to special services such as community-based multi-professional teams, case management, crisis intervention and family-oriented psychoeducation in addition to standard mental health care. The primary outcome empowerment (EPAS) and the secondary outcomes quality of life (WHO-QoL-BREF), satisfaction with psychiatric treatment (CSQ-8), psychosocial and clinical impairment (HoNOS) and information about mental health service needs (CAN) were measured four times at 6-month intervals. Linear mixed-effect regression models were used to estimate the main effects and interaction effects of treatment, time and primary diagnosis. Due to the non-randomised group assignment, propensity score adjustment was used to control the selection bias. NWpG-IC and TAU groups did not differ with respect to most primary and secondary outcomes in our participating patients who showed a broad spectrum of psychiatric diagnoses and illness severities. However, a significant improvement in terms of patients' satisfaction with psychiatric care and their perception of treatment participation in favour of the NWpG-IC group was found. Providing integrated mental health care for unspecific mentally ill target groups increases treatment participation and service satisfaction but seems not suitable to enhance the overall outcomes of mental health care in

  4. Knowledge in Action: Fitness Lesson Segments That Teach Health-Related Fitness in Elementary Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Michael G.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; van der Mars, Hans; Lee, Chong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine students' health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity levels after the implementation of a series of fitness lessons segments called Knowledge in Action (KIA). KIA aims to teach health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) during short episodes of the physical education lesson. Teacher…

  5. Quantifiable fitness tracking using wearable devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Anurag; Jilla, Vivek; Tiwari, Vijay N; Venkatesan, Shankar M; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring health and fitness is emerging as an important benefit that smartphone users could expect from their mobile devices today. Rule of thumb calorie tracking and recommendation based on selective activity monitoring is widely available today, as both on-device and server based solutions. What is surprisingly not available to the users is a simple application geared towards quantitative fitness tracking. Such an application potentially can be a direct indicator of one's cardio-vascular performance and associated long term health risks. Since wearable devices with various inbuilt sensors like accelerometer, gyroscope, SPO2 and heart rate are increasingly becoming available, it is vital that the enormous data coming from these sensors be used to perform analytics to uncover hidden health and fitness associated facts. A continuous estimation of fitness level employing these wearable devices can potentially help users in setting personalized short and long-term exercise goals leading to positive impact on one's overall health. The present work describes a step in this direction. This work involves an unobtrusive method to track an individual's physical activity seamlessly, estimate calorie consumption during a day by mapping the activity to the calories spent and assess fitness level using heart rate data from wearable sensors. We employ a heart rate based parameter called Endurance to quantitatively estimate cardio-respiratory fitness of a person. This opens up avenues for personalization and adaptiveness by dynamically using individual's personal fitness data towards building robust modeling based on analytical principles.

  6. Biomedical model fitting and error analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Kevin D; Kleinstein, Steven H; Hershberg, Uri

    2011-09-20

    This Teaching Resource introduces students to curve fitting and error analysis; it is the second of two lectures on developing mathematical models of biomedical systems. The first focused on identifying, extracting, and converting required constants--such as kinetic rate constants--from experimental literature. To understand how such constants are determined from experimental data, this lecture introduces the principles and practice of fitting a mathematical model to a series of measurements. We emphasize using nonlinear models for fitting nonlinear data, avoiding problems associated with linearization schemes that can distort and misrepresent the data. To help ensure proper interpretation of model parameters estimated by inverse modeling, we describe a rigorous six-step process: (i) selecting an appropriate mathematical model; (ii) defining a "figure-of-merit" function that quantifies the error between the model and data; (iii) adjusting model parameters to get a "best fit" to the data; (iv) examining the "goodness of fit" to the data; (v) determining whether a much better fit is possible; and (vi) evaluating the accuracy of the best-fit parameter values. Implementation of the computational methods is based on MATLAB, with example programs provided that can be modified for particular applications. The problem set allows students to use these programs to develop practical experience with the inverse-modeling process in the context of determining the rates of cell proliferation and death for B lymphocytes using data from BrdU-labeling experiments.

  7. General Framework of Hearing Aid Fitting Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Soo Hee; Lee, Junghak

    2016-04-01

    Hearing aids are one of the most widely used treatment options for the hearing impaired and optimal outcomes of hearing aids are supported by comprehensive hearing aid fitting protocols. Currently, the term 'hearing aid fitting' is prevalently used among service and industry sectors with its comprehensive procedures not systematically explicated. In addition, a variety of non-normalized guidelines for hearing aid fitting has led to non-uniform care, outcome variability, and dissatisfaction of the use of hearing aids. The main purpose of the present study is to suggest a general framework of standardized practice for hearing aid fitting management including its pre- and post-fitting stages. The management framework centers on its fitting process with its prior steps of assessment as well as its posterior steps of follow-up, thereby eliminating diverging interpretations and non-uniform practices. Outcomes of this study are also expected to improve potential benefits such as quality of hearing aid fitting, user satisfaction, and cost effectiveness across relevant stakeholders.

  8. Corneal topography and soft contact lens fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Graeme; Schnider, Cristina; Hunt, Chris; Efron, Suzanne

    2010-05-01

    To determine which ocular topography variables affect soft contact lens fit. Fifty subjects each wore three pairs of soft lenses in random succession (Vistakon Acuvue 2, Vistakon Acuvue Advance, Ciba Vision Night & Day), and various aspects of lens fit were evaluated. The steeper base curves of each type were worn in one eye and the flatter base curves in the other eye. Corneal topography data were collected using a Medmont E300 corneal topographer (Camberwell, Australia). Corneal curvature, shape factor (SF), and corneal height were measured over a 10 mm chord and also over the maximum measurable diameter. These were measured in the horizontal, vertical, steepest, and flattest meridians. With each lens type, the steeper base curve provided the best fit on the greatest proportion of eyes and the significant differences in various aspects of fit were noted between base curves. For each lens type, there was no significant difference in mean K-reading between those eyes best fit with the steeper base curve and those eyes best fit with the flatter base curve. Two of the lenses showed a positive correlation between centration and horizontal corneal height (maximum), whereas one lens showed a negative correlation between centration and horizontal SF (SF = e). Several lenses showed a positive correlation between post-blink movement and horizontal or vertical corneal SF. The measurement of corneal topography using current Placido disc instrumentation allows a better prediction of soft lens fit than by keratometry, but it is not reliable enough to enable accurate selection of the best fitting base curve. Some correlations are evident between corneal measurements; however, trial fitting remains the method of choice for selection of soft lens base curve.

  9. Design of the EXercise Intervention after Stem cell Transplantation (EXIST study: a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an individualized high intensity physical exercise program on fitness and fatigue in patients with multiple myeloma or (non- Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with high dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burghout Heleen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of high-dose chemotherapy combined with autologous stem cell transplantation has improved the outcome of hematologic malignancies. Nevertheless, this treatment can cause persistent fatigue and a reduced global quality of life, role and physical function. Physical exercise interventions may be beneficial for physical fitness, fatigue and quality of life. However, the trials conducted so far to test the effects of physical exercise interventions in this group of patients were of poor to moderate methodological quality and economic evaluations are lacking. Hence there is need for a rigorous, appropriately controlled assessment of the effectiveness of exercise programs in these patients. The aims of the present study are (1 to determine the effectiveness of an individualized high intensity strength and interval training program with respect to physiological and psychological health status in patients with multiple myeloma or (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who have recently undergone high dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation; and (2 to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this program. Methods A multicenter, prospective, single blind randomized controlled trial will be performed. We aim to recruit 120 patients within an inclusion period of 2 years at 7 hospitals in the Netherlands. The patients will be randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1 intervention plus usual care; or (2 usual care. The intervention consists of an 18-week individualized supervised high-intensity exercise program and counselling. The primary outcomes (cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength and fatigue and secondary outcomes are assessed at baseline, at completion of the intervention and at 12 months follow-up. Discussion The strengths of this study include the solid trial design with clearly defined research groups and standardized outcome measures, the inclusion of an economic evaluation and the inclusion of both

  10. Sex investment ratios in eusocial Hymenoptera support inclusive fitness theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, A F G

    2015-11-01

    Inclusive fitness theory predicts that sex investment ratios in eusocial Hymenoptera are a function of the relatedness asymmetry (relative relatedness to females and males) of the individuals controlling sex allocation. In monogynous ants (with one queen per colony), assuming worker control, the theory therefore predicts female-biased sex investment ratios, as found in natural populations. Recently, E.O. Wilson and M.A. Nowak criticized this explanation and presented an alternative hypothesis. The Wilson-Nowak sex ratio hypothesis proposes that, in monogynous ants, there is selection for a 1 : 1 numerical sex ratio to avoid males remaining unmated, which, given queens exceed males in size, results in a female-biased sex investment ratio. The hypothesis also asserts that, contrary to inclusive fitness theory, queens not workers control sex allocation and queen-worker conflict over sex allocation is absent. Here, I argue that the Wilson-Nowak sex ratio hypothesis is flawed because it contradicts Fisher's sex ratio theory, which shows that selection on sex ratio does not maximize the number of mated offspring and that the sex ratio proposed by the hypothesis is not an equilibrium for the queen. In addition, the hypothesis is not supported by empirical evidence, as it fails to explain 'split' (bimodal) sex ratios or data showing queen and worker control and ongoing queen-worker conflict. By contrast, these phenomena match predictions of inclusive fitness theory. Hence, the Wilson-Nowak sex ratio hypothesis fails both as an alternative hypothesis for sex investment ratios in eusocial Hymenoptera and as a critique of inclusive fitness theory.

  11. UVMULTIFIT: Fitting astronomical radio interferometric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti-Vidal, I.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Muller, S.; Casey, S.

    2014-02-01

    UVMULTIFIT, written in Python, is a versatile library for fitting models directly to visibility data. These models can depend on frequency and fitting parameters in an arbitrary algebraic way. The results from the fit to the visibilities of sources with sizes smaller than the diffraction limit of the interferometer are superior to the output obtained from a mere analysis of the deconvolved images. Though UVMULTIFIT is based on the CASA package, it can be easily adapted to other analysis packages that have a Python API.

  12. GENFIT - a Generic Track-Fitting Toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    GENFIT is an experiment-independent track-fitting toolkit that combines fitting algorithms, track representations, and measurement geometries into a modular framework. We report on a significantly improved version of GENFIT, based on experience gained in the Belle II, PANDA, and FOPI experiments. Improvements concern the implementation of additional track-fitting algorithms, enhanced implementations of Kalman fitters, enhanced visualization capabilities, and additional implementations of measurement types suited for various kinds of tracking detectors. The data model has been revised, allowing for efficient track merging, smoothing, residual calculation, alignment, and storage.

  13. GENFIT - a generic track-fitting toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Johannes [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Schlueter, Tobias [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    GENFIT is an experiment-independent track-fitting toolkit, which combines fitting algorithms, track representations, and measurement geometries into a modular framework. We report on a significantly improved version of GENFIT, based on experience gained in the Belle II, PANDA, and FOPI experiments. Improvements concern the implementation of additional track-fitting algorithms, enhanced implementations of Kalman fitters, enhanced visualization capabilities, and additional implementations of measurement types suited for various kinds of tracking detectors. The data model has been revised, allowing for efficient track merging, smoothing, residual calculation and alignment.

  14. Adiposity, Aerobic Fitness, Muscle Fitness, and Markers of Inflammation in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Kolle, Elin; Andersen, Lars Bo;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe levels of inflammation markers in Norwegian children and to examine the associations of adiposity, aerobic fitness and muscle fitness with markers of inflammation. METHODS: In 2005-2006, 1467 9-year-olds wererandomly selected from all regions...... explosive, isometric and endurance strength. Aerobic fitness was measured directly during a maximal cycle ergometer test. Adiposity was expressed as waist circumference (WC). RESULTS: The girls had significantly higher levels of CRP, leptin, adiponectin and resistin and lower levels of TNF-α compared...... to the boys. We observed a graded association of CRP and leptin levels across quintiles of WC, aerobic fitness and muscle fitness (P ≤0.001 for all participants). The regression analyses revealed that WC, aerobic fitness and muscle fitness were independently associated with the CRP (WC β= 0.158, P

  15. Elastoplastic frictional contact problem study on interference fits of compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwu ZHANG; Aihua LIAO; Changhua WU

    2008-01-01

    The FE parametric quadratic programming (PQP) method developed from the parametric variational principle (PVP) was used for the analysis of the stress distribution of the 3D elastoplastic frictional contact of an impeller-shaft sleeve-shaft. A locomotive-type turbo-charger compressor with 24 blades under combined cen-trifugal and interference-fit loading was considered in the numerical analysis. The solution of elastoplastic frictional contact problems belongs to unspecified boundary pro-blems where the interaction between two kinds of nonli-nearities should occur. To save time in the numerical computation, a multi-substructure technique was adopted in the structural modeling. The effect of fit tolerance, wall thickness of the shaft sleeve, and rotational speed on the contact stress was discussed in detail in the numerical computation. To decrease the difficulty of the assembly process and ensure the safety of the working state, the amount of interference between the shaft sleeve and shaft by press-fitting should be controlled strictly to avoid the rapid increase of contact stress. The numerical results show that the algorithm has high accuracy and good con-vergence. The study can be referred to in deciding the proper fit tolerance and improving the design and man-ufacturing technology of compressor impellers.

  16. Genotype and environment shape the fitness of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesam S. Meshrif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fitness traits of Drosophila are believed to be expressed under genetic control and the environment. This study focuses on the interaction between the genotype (expressing high and low fitness level of Drosophila melanogaster and the environment (diet and infection. The environmental factors are supposed to modify traits such as the survival rate, development time, adult dry weight and response to microbial infection. The results indicated that yeast species (nutrients, bacterial infection and the genotype of Drosophila affected the survival rates and the development time of Drosophila. The fit Drosophila produces more survivors and develops faster than the unfit one. The yeast, Pichia toletana induced the highest survival and the fastest development of Drosophila, while Metschnikowia pulcherrima induced the opposite. The origin also had an effect on the development time; the African lines developed faster than the European ones. The yeast species and its concentration appeared to affect the dry weight of Drosophila too. Following infection with Pseudomonas stutzeri, several antimicrobial peptides, such as drosomycin and metchnikowin have been activated in Drosophila adults when they feed on less nutritive yeast (M. pulcherrima. The above mentioned results support the capacity of genotype-by-environment interactions to shape the fitness of D. melanogaster, where the contribution of each factor may differ according to the trait observed and the population under investigation.

  17. Efits: A New Efficient and Flexible FITS Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grado, A.; Pavlov, M.; Limatola, L.

    The era of petabyte data-flow regime and precision astronomy calls for an overall efficiency of the software used to process the data and for a careful control on the errors introduced by the processing. We present a new FITS library baptized Efficient fits (Efits) developed to satisfy basically two requirements: one related to efficiency and flexibility, and another related to accuracy. To achieve the first goal, the library contains special mechanisms/layers, which support different I/O methods (disk and shared memory, currently), and consent to easily extend the set of supported methods in the future. The usage of the shared memory allows to efficiently exchange data among independent processes in a modular pipeline. Moreover the library can work on single extension of FITS file extracted directly from Multiple Extensions FITS (MEF) files without previously splitting them. For the second goal a true noise map, mandatory in some science application, is created implementing a noise map propagation mechanism which creates (or modifies) a noise map each time a mathematical operation is performed on an image. Structure and mechanisms adopted are presented.

  18. The fitness burden imposed by synthesising quorum sensing signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruparell, A; Dubern, J F; Ortori, C A; Harrison, F; Halliday, N M; Emtage, A; Ashawesh, M M; Laughton, C A; Diggle, S P; Williams, P; Barrett, D A; Hardie, K R

    2016-09-12

    It is now well established that bacterial populations utilize cell-to-cell signaling (quorum-sensing, QS) to control the production of public goods and other co-operative behaviours. Evolutionary theory predicts that both the cost of signal production and the response to signals should incur fitness costs for producing cells. Although costs imposed by the downstream consequences of QS have been shown, the cost of QS signal molecule (QSSM) production and its impact on fitness has not been examined. We measured the fitness cost to cells of synthesising QSSMs by quantifying metabolite levels in the presence of QSSM synthases. We found that: (i) bacteria making certain QSSMs have a growth defect that exerts an evolutionary cost, (ii) production of QSSMs negatively correlates with intracellular concentrations of QSSM precursors, (iii) the production of heterologous QSSMs negatively impacts the production of a native QSSM that shares common substrates, and (iv) supplementation with exogenously added metabolites partially rescued growth defects imposed by QSSM synthesis. These data identify the sources of the fitness costs incurred by QSSM producer cells, and indicate that there may be metabolic trade-offs associated with QS signaling that could exert selection on how signaling evolves.

  19. Systematic review of core muscle activity during physical fitness exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martuscello, Jason M; Nuzzo, James L; Ashley, Candi D; Campbell, Bill I; Orriola, John J; Mayer, John M

    2013-06-01

    A consensus has not been reached among strength and conditioning specialists regarding what physical fitness exercises are most effective to stimulate activity of the core muscles. Thus, the purpose of this article was to systematically review the literature on the electromyographic (EMG) activity of 3 core muscles (lumbar multifidus, transverse abdominis, quadratus lumborum) during physical fitness exercises in healthy adults. CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, PubMed, SPORTdiscus, and Web of Science databases were searched for relevant articles using a search strategy designed by the investigators. Seventeen studies enrolling 252 participants met the review's inclusion/exclusion criteria. Physical fitness exercises were partitioned into 5 major types: traditional core, core stability, ball/device, free weight, and noncore free weight. Strength of evidence was assessed and summarized for comparisons among exercise types. The major findings of this review with moderate levels of evidence indicate that lumbar multifidus EMG activity is greater during free weight exercises compared with ball/device exercises and is similar during core stability and ball/device exercises. Transverse abdominis EMG activity is similar during core stability and ball/device exercises. No studies were uncovered for quadratus lumborum EMG activity during physical fitness exercises. The available evidence suggests that strength and conditioning specialists should focus on implementing multijoint free weight exercises, rather than core-specific exercises, to adequately train the core muscles in their athletes and clients.

  20. President's Council on Fitness, Sports and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsletter Search Site President's Council on Fitness, Sports & Nutrition Be Active Why Is It Important? Ways To ... Jaci L. Van Heest, PhD. November 03, 2016 Nutrition Celebrate a Haunt-Healthy Halloween! By President's Council ...

  1. Physical fitness, cognitive performance, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodzko-Zajko, W J

    1991-07-01

    The relationship between physical fitness and cognitive performance in old age is examined in the light of contemporary capacity theories of attention. It is suggested that a model of cognition based upon the notion of a declining attentional capacity with advancing age provides a valuable conceptual framework for examining the influence of physical fitness on cognitive performance in old age. A direct prediction of the model is that cognitive tasks which require effortful processing should be more sensitive to the effects of fitness than tasks which can be performed without or with minimal attention. It is suggested that future research in the area of exercise and cognition systematically manipulate the attentional requirements of the tasks selected for the evaluation of cognitive performance. The implications of such a task-dependent association between physical fitness and cognitive performance for future research are discussed.

  2. Bounded Population Growth: A Curve Fitting Lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, John H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents two mathematical methods for fitting the logistic curve to population data supplied by the U.S. Census Bureau utilizing computer algebra software to carry out the computations and plot graphs. (JKK)

  3. HfS, Hyperfine Structure Fitting Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Estalella, Robert

    2016-01-01

    HfS is a tool to fit the hyperfine structure of spectral lines, with multiple velocity components. The HfS_nh3 procedures included in HfS fit simultaneously the hyperfine structure of the NH$_3$ (J,K)= (1,1) and (2,2) transitions, and perform a standard analysis to derive $T_\\mathrm{ex}$, NH$_3$ column density, $T_\\mathrm{rot}$, and $T_\\mathrm{k}$. HfS uses a Monte Carlo approach for fitting the line parameters. Especial attention is paid to the derivation of the parameter uncertainties. HfS includes procedures that make use of parallel computing for fitting spectra from a data cube.

  4. ALFA: an automated line fitting algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Wesson, Roger

    2015-01-01

    I present the Automated Line Fitting Algorithm, ALFA, a new code which can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary wavelength coverage and resolution, fully automatically. In contrast to traditional emission line fitting methods which require the identification of spectral features suspected to be emission lines, ALFA instead uses a list of lines which are expected to be present to construct a synthetic spectrum. The parameters used to construct the synthetic spectrum are optimised by means of a genetic algorithm. Uncertainties are estimated using the noise structure of the residuals. An emission line spectrum containing several hundred lines can be fitted in a few seconds using a single processor of a typical contemporary desktop or laptop PC. I show that the results are in excellent agreement with those measured manually for a number of spectra. Where discrepancies exist, the manually measured fluxes are found to be less accurate than those returned by ALFA. Together with the code NEAT (Wesson et al. 2012), ...

  5. Fitting Planetary Orbits with a Spreadsheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Describes how to fit binocular observations of the planets to a theoretical model of circular orbits using a modern computer spreadsheet, from which fundamental data about the solar system may be deduced. (AIM)

  6. Fitness, Extrinsic Complexity and Informing Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandon Gill

    2017-03-01

    We raise concerns about society’s continuing investment in academic research that discounts the extrinsic complexity of the domains under study. Future Research We highlight a need for research to operationalize the concepts of fitness and complexity in practice.

  7. Introducing the Ginga FITS Viewer and Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, E.; Inagaki, T.; Kackley, R.

    2013-10-01

    We introduce Ginga, a new open-source FITS viewer and toolkit based on Python astronomical packages such as pyfits, numpy, scipy, matplotlib, and pywcs. For developers, we present a set of Python classes for viewing FITS files under the modern Gtk and Qt widget sets and a more full-featured viewer that has a plugin architecture. We further describe how plugins can be written to extend the viewer with many different capabilities. The software may be of interest to software developers who are looking for a solution for integrating FITS visualization into their Python programs and end users interested in a new and different FITS viewer that is not based on Tcl/Tk widget technology. The software has been released under a BSD license.

  8. A study on the physical fitness of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Hyun Soo; Lee, Suk Min

    2017-03-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to assess the physical fitness of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). [Subjects and Methods] In total, 26 children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and 25 healthy controls participated in this study. Using the physical fitness measurement instruments, the Inbody 720 and Quark b2, the elements of physical fitness that were assessed included muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, lung capacity, and body composition. [Results] The results revealed significant differences in muscular strength, muscular endurance, lung capacity, body composition, functional ability, and health-related quality of life between the children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and the control group. [Conclusion] These results suggested that children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) have inferior physical fitness when compared to healthy children. The present study was conducted to develop an accurate evaluation standard to assess the physical fitness of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA).

  9. Factorisation fits and the unitarity triangle

    CERN Document Server

    De Groot, N; Whittingham, I B

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present fits to charmless hadronic B decay data from the BaBar, Belle and Cleo experiments using models by Beneke et. al. and Ciuchini et al. When we include the data from pseudo-scalar vector decays (PV) the current experimental results favour the inclusions of a so-called "charming penguin" term. We also present fit results for the Unitary Triangle parameters and the CP violating asymmetries

  10. Woningcorporaties en Vastgoedontwikkeling: Fit for Use?

    OpenAIRE

    Reinier van der Kuij

    2013-01-01

    This summary highlights the findings of the PhD-thesis ‘Woningcorporaties en Vastgoedontwikkeling: Fit for Use’ (‘Housing associations and Real Estate Development: Fit for Use?’). A large part of the thesis contains a description of the complex organization of real estate development by housing associations. This summary contains the background, most important findings and answers on the main research questions.Background and objectives of the researchReal estate development and housing assoc...

  11. Fitness for Function and Dance Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C. Mullis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the manner in which the appreciation of fitness for function can be applied to dance aesthetics. Drawing on Allen Carlson and Glenn Parsons’ work, the essay considers the problems of indeterminacy, translation, and dysfunction as they pertain to the appreciation of dance movement. It then argues that fitness for function can be used to critically assess post-modern task dances and contemporary dance works that do not rely on the execution of codified dance technique.

  12. The Association of Childhood Fitness to Proactive and Reactive Action Monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Kamijo

    Full Text Available Several studies have claimed that the positive association between childhood fitness and cognitive control is attributable to differences in the child's cognitive control strategy, which can involve either proactive or reactive control. The present study tested this hypothesis by manipulating the probability of trial types during a modified flanker task. Preadolescent children performed mostly congruent and mostly incongruent conditions of the flanker task, with post-error task performance and error negativity/error-related negativity (Ne/ERN being assessed. Results indicated that greater aerobic fitness was related to greater post-error accuracy and larger Ne/ERN amplitudes in the mostly congruent condition. These findings suggest that higher-fit children might be able to transiently upregulate cognitive control by recruiting reactive control in the mostly congruent condition. Further, greater fitness was related to greater modulation of Ne/ERN amplitude between conditions, suggesting that higher-fit children engaged in more proactive control in the mostly incongruent condition. This study supports the hypothesis that greater childhood fitness is associated with a more flexible shift between reactive and proactive modes of cognitive control to adapt to varying task demands.

  13. Smartphone Applications for Patients' Health and Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, John P

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare providers are often looking for ways to objectively monitor and improve their patients' health and fitness, especially in between patient visits. Some insurance companies are using applications data as incentives to improve health and lower premiums. As more and more people start to use smartphones, they may provide a tool to help improve a patient's health and fitness. Specifically, fitness applications or "apps" on smartphones are programs that use data collected from a smartphone's inbuilt tools, such as the Global Positioning System, accelerometer, microphone, speaker, and camera, to measure health and fitness parameters. The apps then analyze these data and summarize them, as well as devise individualized plans based on users' goals, provide frequent feedback, personalized coaching, and additional motivation by allowing milestones to be shared on social media. This article introduces evidence that apps can better help patients reach their health and fitness goals. It then discusses what features to look for in an app, followed by an overview of popular health and fitness apps. Last, patient scenarios with app recommendations, limitations of apps, and future research are discussed.

  14. The fit of crowns produced using digital impression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennerstrom, Micael; Fakhary, Mobin; Von Steyern, Per Vult

    2014-01-01

    Compare the marginal and internal fit of crowns manufactured using four different digital impression systems with crowns manufactured using conventional impression technique, that served as a control group. Fifty all-ceramic crowns were fabricated using 50 standardized dies divided into five groups, each group representing one impression system. Each crown was cemented onto its respective model and sectioned into four segments.The marginal and internal fit were measured at 8 predefined points. A total of 1567 measurements were made, statistically analyzed and compared with crowns fabricated using the five systems. The following was found: (1) No significant difference was found with regard to mar ginal gap when comparing the control group to any of the digital systems. (2) Lava™ had smaller marginal gaps than CEREC® and iTero®, (3) CEREC and Lava had smaller gaps in the chamfer compared to iTero and the control, (4) E4D® showed smaller gaps than CEREC at measuring points 4-8 and CEREC a smaller gap at point 2, (5) Lava showed smaller gaps than CEREC at measuring points 1,3 and 5-8. (6) Lava had smaller gaps than iTero at measuring points 1-4,7 and 8. All differences presented were significant. In conclusions, crowns manufactured using digital impressions present a marginal and internal fit equal to, or better than, crowns made using a conventional impression method.The marginal and internal fit of reconstructions made using digital impression techniques could improve with a lower initial setting of the spacer.

  15. Fitness and morphological outcomes of many generations of hybridization in the copepod Tigriopus californicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, V L; Knutson, V L; Lee, M; Zieba, J; Edmands, S

    2013-02-01

    Hybridization between genetically divergent populations is an important evolutionary process, with an outcome that is difficult to predict. We used controlled crosses and freely mating hybrid swarms, followed for up to 30 generations, to examine the morphological and fitness consequences of interpopulation hybridization in the copepod Tigriopus californicus. Patterns of fitness in two generations of controlled crosses were partly predictive of long-term trajectories in hybrid swarms. For one pair of populations, controlled crosses revealed neutral or beneficial effects of hybridization after the F1 generation, and hybrid swarm fitness almost always equalled or exceeded that of the midparent. For a second pair, controlled crosses showed F2 hybrid breakdown, but increased fitness in backcrosses, and hybrid swarm fitness deviated both above and below that of the parentals. Nevertheless, individual swarm replicates exhibited different fitness trajectories over time that were not related in a simple manner to their hybrid genetic composition, and fixation of fitter hybrid phenotypes was not observed. Hybridization did not increase overall morphological variation, and underlying genetic changes may have been masked by phenotypic plasticity. Nevertheless, one type of hybrid swarm exhibited a repeatable pattern of transgressively large eggsacs, indicating a positive effect of hybridization on individual fecundity. Additionally, both parental and hybrid swarms exhibited common phenotypic trends over time, indicating common selective pressures in the laboratory environment. Our results suggest that, in a system where much work has focused on F2 hybrid breakdown, the long-term fitness consequences of interpopulation hybridization are surprisingly benign.

  16. Training Methods and Training Instructors' Qualification Are Related to Recruits' Fitness Development During Basic Military Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Lilian; Hofstetter, Marie-Claire; Mäder, Urs; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Adequate physical fitness is essential for successful military service. Military organizations worldwide therefore make continuous efforts to improve their army's physical training (PT) programs. To investigate the effect of the training methods and the qualification of PT instructors on the development of recruits' physical fitness, the present study compared the outcomes of 2 training groups. Both study groups participated in approximately 145 minutes per week of PT. The control group executed the standard army PT prepared and supervised by army PT instructors. Content of the PT in the intervention group was similar to that of the control group, but their training sessions' methods were different. Their training sessions were organized, prepared, and delivered by more and better-qualified supervisors (tertiary-educated physical education teachers). After 10 weeks of training, the participants of the intervention group experienced a significantly greater physical fitness improvement than those of the control group (positive change in endurance 32 and 17%, balance 30 and 21%, and core strength 74 and 45%, respectively). In both groups, the recruits with the lowest initial fitness levels significantly increased their performance. In the intervention group, but not the control, one-third of the recruits with the highest initial fitness levels were able to further improve their general fitness performance. This study demonstrates that the training methods and quality of instruction during PT sessions are relevant for recruits' fitness development in basic military training.

  17. Fitness, daily activity and body composition in children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahlkvist, S; Pedersen, S

    2009-01-01

    Background: Information about how the asthma disease affects the life style and health in children is sparse. Aim: To measure fitness, daily physical activity and body composition in children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and healthy controls, and to assess the association between...... the level of asthma control and these parameters. Methods: Daily physical activity measured using accelerometry, cardiovascular fitness and body composition (per cent fat, per cent lean tissue and bone mineral density) were measured in 57 children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and in 157 healthy...... fitness and daytime spent in intensive activity. Overweight children are physically less active than normal weight children....

  18. PROFIT: Bayesian profile fitting of galaxy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, A. S. G.; Taranu, D. S.; Tobar, R.; Moffett, A.; Driver, S. P.

    2017-04-01

    We present PROFIT, a new code for Bayesian two-dimensional photometric galaxy profile modelling. PROFIT consists of a low-level C++ library (libprofit), accessible via a command-line interface and documented API, along with high-level R (PROFIT) and PYTHON (PyProFit) interfaces (available at github.com/ICRAR/libprofit, github.com/ICRAR/ProFit, and github.com/ICRAR/pyprofit, respectively). R PROFIT is also available pre-built from CRAN; however, this version will be slightly behind the latest GitHub version. libprofit offers fast and accurate two-dimensional integration for a useful number of profiles, including Sérsic, Core-Sérsic, broken-exponential, Ferrer, Moffat, empirical King, point-source, and sky, with a simple mechanism for adding new profiles. We show detailed comparisons between libprofit and GALFIT. libprofit is both faster and more accurate than GALFIT at integrating the ubiquitous Sérsic profile for the most common values of the Sérsic index n (0.5 < n < 8). The high-level fitting code PROFIT is tested on a sample of galaxies with both SDSS and deeper KiDS imaging. We find good agreement in the fit parameters, with larger scatter in best-fitting parameters from fitting images from different sources (SDSS versus KiDS) than from using different codes (PROFIT versus GALFIT). A large suite of Monte Carlo-simulated images are used to assess prospects for automated bulge-disc decomposition with PROFIT on SDSS, KiDS, and future LSST imaging. We find that the biggest increases in fit quality come from moving from SDSS- to KiDS-quality data, with less significant gains moving from KiDS to LSST.

  19. Chronic exercise keeps working memory and inhibitory capacities fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción ePadilla

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Padilla et al. (2013 recently showed that chronic aerobic exercise in young adults is associated with better inhibitory control as measured by the strategic Stop Signal Task (SST. The aim of the current study was to explore whether better inhibitory abilities, associated with high levels of physical fitness, were also associated with higher working memory capacity (WMC in young healthy adults. Participants aged between 18 and 30 years and showing different levels of fitness confirmed by the Rockport 1-mile walking fitness test took part in this study. Active and passive participants were administered the SST to measure inhibitory control, and the Automatic Operation Span to measure verbal WMC. We first replicated Padilla et al.’s results showing that exercise specifically modulates strategic inhibitory processes. Our results also showed that active participants presented with better WMC than sedentary ones, showing a better capacity to manage simultaneously two verbal tasks and to inhibit interference. The results point to an association between chronic exercise, inhibitory abilities and WMC. The theoretical relationship between these variables will be discussed.

  20. Biophysical principles predict fitness landscapes of drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, João V; Bershtein, Shimon; Li, Anna; Lozovsky, Elena R; Hartl, Daniel L; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2016-03-15

    Fitness landscapes of drug resistance constitute powerful tools to elucidate mutational pathways of antibiotic escape. Here, we developed a predictive biophysics-based fitness landscape of trimethoprim (TMP) resistance for Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). We investigated the activity, binding, folding stability, and intracellular abundance for a complete set of combinatorial DHFR mutants made out of three key resistance mutations and extended this analysis to DHFR originated from Chlamydia muridarum and Listeria grayi We found that the acquisition of TMP resistance via decreased drug affinity is limited by a trade-off in catalytic efficiency. Protein stability is concurrently affected by the resistant mutants, which precludes a precise description of fitness from a single molecular trait. Application of the kinetic flux theory provided an accurate model to predict resistance phenotypes (IC50) quantitatively from a unique combination of the in vitro protein molecular properties. Further, we found that a controlled modulation of the GroEL/ES chaperonins and Lon protease levels affects the intracellular steady-state concentration of DHFR in a mutation-specific manner, whereas IC50 is changed proportionally, as indeed predicted by the model. This unveils a molecular rationale for the pleiotropic role of the protein quality control machinery on the evolution of antibiotic resistance, which, as we illustrate here, may drastically confound the evolutionary outcome. These results provide a comprehensive quantitative genotype-phenotype map for the essential enzyme that serves as an important target of antibiotic and anticancer therapies.

  1. From cognitive motor preparation to visual processing: The benefits of childhood fitness to brain health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchicci, M; Pontifex, M B; Drollette, E S; Pesce, C; Hillman, C H; Di Russo, F

    2015-07-09

    The association between a fit body and a fit brain in children has led to a rise of behavioral and neuroscientific research. Yet, the relation of cardiorespiratory fitness on premotor neurocognitive preparation with early visual processing has received little attention. Here, 41 healthy, lower and higher fit preadolescent children were administered a modified version of the Eriksen flanker task while electroencephalography (EEG) and behavioral measures were recorded. Event-related potentials (ERPs) locked to the stimulus onset with an earlier than usual baseline (-900/-800 ms) allowed investigation of both the usual post-stimulus (i.e., the P1, N1 and P2) as well as the pre-stimulus ERP components, such as the Bereitschaftspotential (BP) and the prefrontal negativity (pN component). At the behavioral level, aerobic fitness was associated response accuracy, with higher fit children being more accurate than lower fit children. Fitness-related differences selectively emerged at prefrontal brain regions during response preparation, with larger pN amplitude for higher than lower fit children, and at early perceptual stages after stimulus onset, with larger P1 and N1 amplitudes in higher relative to lower fit children. Collectively, the results suggest that the benefits of being aerobically fit appear at the stage of cognitive preparation prior to stimulus presentation and the behavioral response during the performance of a task that challenges cognitive control. Further, it is likely that enhanced activity in prefrontal brain areas may improve cognitive control of visuo-motor tasks, allowing for stronger proactive inhibition and larger early allocation of selective attention resources on relevant external stimuli. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Are Injuries More Common With CrossFit Training Than Other Forms of Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Chelsey; Ashbeck, Christopher; Brook, Alexander J; Durall, Chris

    2017-03-02

    Clinical Scenario: CrossFit is a form of exercise that incorporates rapid and successive high-intensity, ballistic movements. As CrossFit becomes an increasingly popular fitness option, it is important to determine how rates of injury compare to more traditional forms of exercise. This review was conducted to ascertain the incidence of injury with CrossFit relative to other forms of exercise. Focused Clinical Question: Are injuries more common with CrossFit training than other forms of exercise? Summary of Key Findings The literature was searched for studies that compared injury rates among individuals who participated in CrossFit fitness programs to participants in other exercise programs The search initially yielded >100 results which was narrowed down to three level 2b retrospective cohort studies that was deemed to have met inclusion/exclusion criteria In all three reviewed studies, the reported incidences of injuries associated with CrossFit training programs were comparable or lower than rates of injury in Olympic weightlifting, distance running, track and field, rugby, or gymnastics. Clinical Bottom Line: Current evidence suggests that the injury risk from CrossFit training is comparable to Olympic weightlifting, distance running, track and field, rugby, football, ice hockey, soccer or gymnastics. Injuries to the shoulder(s) appear to be somewhat common with CrossFit. However, the certitude of these conclusions is questionable given the lack of randomization, control, or uniform training in the reviewed studies. Clinicians should be aware that injury is more prevalent in cases where supervision is not always available to athletes. This is more often the case for male participants who may not actively seek supervision during CrossFit exercise. Strength of Recommendation: Level 2b evidence from three retrospective cohort studies indicates that the risk of injury from participation in CrossFit is comparable to or lower than some common forms of exercise or

  3. Exponentially fitted explicit Runge-Kutta-Nystrom methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, J. M.

    2004-05-01

    Exponentially fitted Runge-Kutta-Nystrom (EFRKN) methods for the numerical integration of second-order IVPs with oscillatory solutions are derived. These methods integrate exactly differential systems whose solutions can be expressed as linear combinations of the set of functions {exp(λt),exp(-λt)}, , or equivalently {sin(ωt),cos(ωt)} when λ=iω, . Explicit EFRKN methods with two and three stages and algebraic orders 3 and 4 are constructed. In addition, a 4(3) embedded pair of explicit EFRKN methods based on the FSAL technique is obtained, which permits to introduce an error and step length control with a small cost added. Some numerical experiments show the efficiency of our explicit EFRKN methods when they are compared with other exponential fitting type codes proposed in the scientific literature.

  4. Transmitting electric power system dynamics in SCADA using polynomial fitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes an approach to transmit electric power system dynamics in the SCADA. With the prevalent application of digital substation automation system, it is feasible for the remote terminal units (RTUs) to collect phasors within a substation. However, limited communication capacity remains the bottleneck that prevents SCADA from transmitting system dynamics. This paper proposes to compress dynamics data with curve fitting in the RTUs and reconstruct the dynamics in the SCADA server for reducing communication demand. Dispatchers in the control center can thus get system dynamics with a delay of several seconds. Simulation result shows that for a power system under disturbance with short-circuit that once occurred and was cleared, the SCADA can approximate the original dynamics with satisfying precision using limited degree polynomial fitting. The approach is highly scalable and adaptable, and can be implemented on existing communication infrastructure with a few software modifications. The approach has extensive application potential.

  5. A predictive fitness model for influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuksza, Marta; Lässig, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The seasonal human influenza A/H3N2 virus undergoes rapid evolution, which produces significant year-to-year sequence turnover in the population of circulating strains. Adaptive mutations respond to human immune challenge and occur primarily in antigenic epitopes, the antibody-binding domains of the viral surface protein haemagglutinin. Here we develop a fitness model for haemagglutinin that predicts the evolution of the viral population from one year to the next. Two factors are shown to determine the fitness of a strain: adaptive epitope changes and deleterious mutations outside the epitopes. We infer both fitness components for the strains circulating in a given year, using population-genetic data of all previous strains. From fitness and frequency of each strain, we predict the frequency of its descendent strains in the following year. This fitness model maps the adaptive history of influenza A and suggests a principled method for vaccine selection. Our results call for a more comprehensive epidemiology of influenza and other fast-evolving pathogens that integrates antigenic phenotypes with other viral functions coupled by genetic linkage.

  6. Fitness in contemporary dance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioi, M; Metsios, G S; Metsios, G; Koutedakis, Y; Wyon, M A

    2009-07-01

    It has been suggested that dancers are less fit compared to other athletes. However, the majority of studies make their arguments based on data deriving mainly from ballet. Therefore, the aim of the current review was to investigate: a) aerobic and anaerobic fitness, muscular strength and body composition characteristics in contemporary dancers of different levels, and b) whether supplementary exercise interventions, in addition to normal dance training, further improves contemporary dance performance. Three databases (Medline, Cochrane and the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health research database) were searched to identify publications regarding the main fitness components of contemporary professional and student dancers. At a professional level, it appears that contemporary dancers demonstrate higher maximal oxygen uptake and higher scores in muscular endurance than ballet dancers. However, contemporary dance students are equally fit compared to their ballet counterparts and their body composition is also very similar. Only two studies have investigated the effects of supplementary exercise training on aspects of dance performance. Further research is needed in order to confirm preliminary data, which suggest that the implementation of additional fitness training is beneficial for contemporary dance students to achieve a better performance outcome.

  7. Understanding biases when fitting disk truncations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiel, Nicolás; Marino, Raffaella A.; Pascual, Sergio; Ceballos, M. Teresa; Gil de Paz, Armando; Sánchez, Sebastián F.

    2017-03-01

    Truncations in the stellar population at the edges of disk galaxies are thought to be a common morphological feature (e.g., Erwin et al. 2005; and more recently Marino et al. 2016). In fact, using imaging data from the SDSS, Pohlen & Trujillo (2006) showed that only ~ 10% of face-on to intermediate inclined, nearby, late-type (Sb-Sdm) spiral galaxies have a normal/standard purely exponential disk down to the noise limit. In situations like these, the simultaneous fit of two lines, joined or not at an intermediate point (the break radius), constitutes a natural step towards the modelling of radial variation in surface brightness, metallicity, or any other relevant parameter. This work shows the results of simple simulations in which the simultaneous fit to two joined lines is compared to the simultaneous fit of two independent lines (i.e., two lines that do not necessarily coincide at an intermediate point), and also to the traditional single ordinary least squares fit. These simulations reveal some biases that should be taken into account when facing these kind of fitting procedures.

  8. Aerobic fitness after JDM--a long-term follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Pernille R; Orngreen, Mette C; Vissing, John

    2013-01-01

    with JDM. We hypothesized that fitness (VO(2max)) is reduced compared with healthy controls in the years after active JDM. Methods. A maximal exercise test was performed using a cycle ergometer. Results were compared with those of sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Results. A total of 36 patients......Objectives. It has previously been shown that patients with active JDM have decreased aerobic fitness; however, it is not known whether these patients regain their physical fitness after recovery. The objective of this study was to investigate the long-term outcome of aerobic fitness in patients...... with JDM in remission were included, 2-36 years after disease onset. Twelve patients (33%) had normal VO(2max) and 24 patients (67%) had decreased VO(2max). Mean VO(2max) was higher in the healthy controls vs patients (P

  9. Biological evolution in a multidimensional fitness landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saakian, David B; Kirakosyan, Zara; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2012-09-01

    We considered a multiblock molecular model of biological evolution, in which fitness is a function of the mean types of alleles located at different parts (blocks) of the genome. We formulated an infinite population model with selection and mutation, and calculated the mean fitness. For the case of recombination, we formulated a model with a multidimensional fitness landscape (the dimension of the space is equal to the number of blocks) and derived a theorem about the dynamics of initially narrow distribution. We also considered the case of lethal mutations. We also formulated the finite population version of the model in the case of lethal mutations. Our models, derived for the virus evolution, are interesting also for the statistical mechanics and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation as well.

  10. Fitting Neuron Models to Spike Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossant, Cyrille; Goodman, Dan F. M.; Fontaine, Bertrand; Platkiewicz, Jonathan; Magnusson, Anna K.; Brette, Romain

    2011-01-01

    Computational modeling is increasingly used to understand the function of neural circuits in systems neuroscience. These studies require models of individual neurons with realistic input–output properties. Recently, it was found that spiking models can accurately predict the precisely timed spike trains produced by cortical neurons in response to somatically injected currents, if properly fitted. This requires fitting techniques that are efficient and flexible enough to easily test different candidate models. We present a generic solution, based on the Brian simulator (a neural network simulator in Python), which allows the user to define and fit arbitrary neuron models to electrophysiological recordings. It relies on vectorization and parallel computing techniques to achieve efficiency. We demonstrate its use on neural recordings in the barrel cortex and in the auditory brainstem, and confirm that simple adaptive spiking models can accurately predict the response of cortical neurons. Finally, we show how a complex multicompartmental model can be reduced to a simple effective spiking model. PMID:21415925

  11. Least Squares Data Fitting with Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian; Pereyra, Víctor; Scherer, Godela

    predictively. The main concern of Least Squares Data Fitting with Applications is how to do this on a computer with efficient and robust computational methods for linear and nonlinear relationships. The presentation also establishes a link between the statistical setting and the computational issues...... with problems of linear and nonlinear least squares fitting will find this book invaluable as a hands-on guide, with accessible text and carefully explained problems. Included are • an overview of computational methods together with their properties and advantages • topics from statistical regression analysis......As one of the classical statistical regression techniques, and often the first to be taught to new students, least squares fitting can be a very effective tool in data analysis. Given measured data, we establish a relationship between independent and dependent variables so that we can use the data...

  12. Exploring the fitness landscape of poliovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Simone; Acevedo, Ashely; Andino, Raul; Tang, Chao

    2012-02-01

    RNA viruses are known to display extraordinary adaptation capabilities to different environments, due to high mutation rates. Their very dynamical evolution is captured by the quasispecies concept, according to which the viral population forms a swarm of genetic variants linked through mutation, which cooperatively interact at a functional level and collectively contribute to the characteristics of the population. The description of the viral fitness landscape becomes paramount towards a more thorough understanding of the virus evolution and spread. The high mutation rate, together with the cooperative nature of the quasispecies, makes it particularly challenging to explore its fitness landscape. I will present an investigation of the dynamical properties of poliovirus fitness landscape, through both the adoption of new experimental techniques and theoretical models.

  13. Exertional and CrossFit-Induced Rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michelle; Sundaram, Sneha; Schafhalter-Zoppoth, Ingeborg

    2017-07-14

    Few publications of exercise-induced rhabomyolysis currently exist in the medical literature besides case reports. However, this condition can be severe, resulting in hospitalization and IV fluid administration to prevent serious sequelae. This report describes a case of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis caused by a CrossFit workout. A 31-year-old female presented with 2 days of bilateral upper extremity pain and soreness, which began 2 days after she completed a CrossFit workout. Workup revealed an elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK) of 18 441 U/L, consistent with exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis, and elevated liver function tests and elevated D-dimer, although her renal function was normal. She was hospitalized for 2 days and treated with IV fluids. This case report demonstrates that CrossFit exercises can lead to rhabdomyolysis, highlighting a condition that may be underdiagnosed and underreported.

  14. Least Squares Data Fitting with Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian; Pereyra, Víctor; Scherer, Godela

    As one of the classical statistical regression techniques, and often the first to be taught to new students, least squares fitting can be a very effective tool in data analysis. Given measured data, we establish a relationship between independent and dependent variables so that we can use the data...... predictively. The main concern of Least Squares Data Fitting with Applications is how to do this on a computer with efficient and robust computational methods for linear and nonlinear relationships. The presentation also establishes a link between the statistical setting and the computational issues...... with problems of linear and nonlinear least squares fitting will find this book invaluable as a hands-on guide, with accessible text and carefully explained problems. Included are • an overview of computational methods together with their properties and advantages • topics from statistical regression analysis...

  15. Fitting the Luminosity Decay in the Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    McCrory, Elliott; Slaughter, Anna Jean; Xiao, Aimin

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the various ways in which the decay of the luminosity in the Tevatron have been fit. The standard assumptions of a fixed-lifetime exponential decay are only appropriate for very short time intervals. A "1/time" funcional form fits rather well, and is supported by analytical derivations. A more complex form, assuming a time-varying lifetime, produces excellent results. Changes in the luminosity can be factored into two phenomena: The luminosity burn-off rate, and the burn-off rate from non-luminosity effects. The luminous and the non-luminous burn rate are shown for stores in the Tevatron.

  16. Los cuerpos en las clases de fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Napolitano, Maria Emilia

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo intentó hacer un análisis acerca de los cuerpos que se dedican al fitness en los gimnasios (tanto el de los profesores, instructores, como así también, el de los alumnos). A su vez, los siguientes interrogantes fueron el marco para la realización del mismo: ¿cómo son los cuerpos de los profesores, instructores y alumnos?, ¿cuál es el cuerpo que se logra y se busca?, lo corporal de las personas que trabajan y toman clases en los gimnasios: ¿son un reflejo de las páginas de Fit...

  17. Parallel Genetic Algorithm for Alpha Spectra Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Orellana, Carlos J.; Rubio-Montero, Pilar; González-Velasco, Horacio

    2005-01-01

    We present a performance study of alpha-particle spectra fitting using parallel Genetic Algorithm (GA). The method uses a two-step approach. In the first step we run parallel GA to find an initial solution for the second step, in which we use Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method for a precise final fit. GA is a high resources-demanding method, so we use a Beowulf cluster for parallel simulation. The relationship between simulation time (and parallel efficiency) and processors number is studied using several alpha spectra, with the aim of obtaining a method to estimate the optimal processors number that must be used in a simulation.

  18. Fitness-for-work assessment of train drivers of Yazd railway, central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukzadeh, Z; Zare, Z; Mehrparvar, A H; Mirmohammadi, S J; Mostaghaci, M

    2013-07-01

    National Transport Commission (NTC) classifies train driving as a high-level safety critical job. To assess fitness-for-work among train drivers in Yazd, central Iran. We evaluated 152 train drivers for their fitness for duty. The results were then compared with NTC guidelines. 63.8% of subjects were fit for duty, 34.2% fit subject to review, and 2.0% were temporarily unfit. The most common reason for fit subject to review was a Kessler score >19. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 48.0% and 15.0%, respectively. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 69.7%, diabetes 10.0%, impaired fasting glucose 36.0%, and hypertension was 19.0%, respectively. Most studied train drivers can continue their work safely. The prevalence of some risk factors such as overweight and dyslipidemia were high among train drivers. This warrants further evaluation and establishment of control programs.

  19. Measuring epistasis in fitness landscapes: The correlation of fitness effects of mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Luca; Schmiegelt, Benjamin; Weinreich, Daniel; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Tajima, Fumio; Achaz, Guillaume

    2016-05-01

    Genotypic fitness landscapes are constructed by assessing the fitness of all possible combinations of a given number of mutations. In the last years, several experimental fitness landscapes have been completely resolved. As fitness landscapes are high-dimensional, simple measures of their structure are used as statistics in empirical applications. Epistasis is one of the most relevant features of fitness landscapes. Here we propose a new natural measure of the amount of epistasis based on the correlation of fitness effects of mutations. This measure has a natural interpretation, captures well the interaction between mutations and can be obtained analytically for most landscape models. We discuss how this measure is related to previous measures of epistasis (number of peaks, roughness/slope, fraction of sign epistasis, Fourier-Walsh spectrum) and how it can be easily extended to landscapes with missing data or with fitness ranks only. Furthermore, the dependence of the correlation of fitness effects on mutational distance contains interesting information about the patterns of epistasis. This dependence can be used to uncover the amount and nature of epistatic interactions in a landscape or to discriminate between different landscape models.

  20. A viable method for goodness-of-fit test in maximum likelihood fit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锋; 高原宁; 霍雷

    2011-01-01

    A test statistic is proposed to perform the goodness-of-fit test in the unbinned maximum likelihood fit. Without using a detailed expression of the efficiency function, the test statistic is found to be strongly correlated with the maximum likelihood func