WorldWideScience

Sample records for controlling fitness pleiotropy

  1. Essential gene disruptions reveal complex relationships between phenotypic robustness, pleiotropy, and fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Christopher R; Li, Shuang; Siegal, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of robustness in biology has gained much attention recently, but a mechanistic understanding of how genetic networks regulate phenotypic variation has remained elusive. One approach to understand the genetic architecture of variability has been to analyze dispensable gene deletions in model organisms; however, the most important genes cannot be deleted. Here, we have utilized two systems in yeast whereby essential genes have been altered to reduce expression. Using high-throughput microscopy and image analysis, we have characterized a large number of morphological phenotypes, and their associated variation, for the majority of essential genes in yeast. Our results indicate that phenotypic robustness is more highly dependent upon the expression of essential genes than on the presence of dispensable genes. Morphological robustness appears to be a general property of a genotype that is closely related to pleiotropy. While the fitness profile across a range of expression levels is idiosyncratic to each gene, the global pattern indicates that there is a window in which phenotypic variation can be released before fitness effects are observable. PMID:25609648

  2. Antagonistic pleiotropy and fitness trade-offs reveal specialist and generalist traits in strains of canine distemper virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljko M Nikolin

    Full Text Available Theoretically, homogeneous environments favor the evolution of specialists whereas heterogeneous environments favor generalists. Canine distemper is a multi-host carnivore disease caused by canine distemper virus (CDV. The described cell receptor of CDV is SLAM (CD150. Attachment of CDV hemagglutinin protein (CDV-H to this receptor facilitates fusion and virus entry in cooperation with the fusion protein (CDV-F. We investigated whether CDV strains co-evolved in the large, homogeneous domestic dog population exhibited specialist traits, and strains adapted to the heterogeneous environment of smaller populations of different carnivores exhibited generalist traits. Comparison of amino acid sequences of the SLAM binding region revealed higher similarity between sequences from Canidae species than to sequences from other carnivore families. Using an in vitro assay, we quantified syncytia formation mediated by CDV-H proteins from dog and non-dog CDV strains in cells expressing dog, lion or cat SLAM. CDV-H proteins from dog strains produced significantly higher values with cells expressing dog SLAM than with cells expressing lion or cat SLAM. CDV-H proteins from strains of non-dog species produced similar values in all three cell types, but lower values in cells expressing dog SLAM than the values obtained for CDV-H proteins from dog strains. By experimentally changing one amino acid (Y549H in the CDV-H protein of one dog strain we decreased expression of specialist traits and increased expression of generalist traits, thereby confirming its functional importance. A virus titer assay demonstrated that dog strains produced higher titers in cells expressing dog SLAM than cells expressing SLAM of non-dog hosts, which suggested possible fitness benefits of specialization post-cell entry. We provide in vitro evidence for the expression of specialist and generalist traits by CDV strains, and fitness trade-offs across carnivore host environments caused by

  3. Antagonistic Pleiotropy and Fitness Trade-Offs Reveal Specialist and Generalist Traits in Strains of Canine Distemper Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolin, Veljko M.; Osterrieder, Klaus; von Messling, Veronika; Hofer, Heribert; Anderson, Danielle; Dubovi, Edward; Brunner, Edgar; East, Marion L.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, homogeneous environments favor the evolution of specialists whereas heterogeneous environments favor generalists. Canine distemper is a multi-host carnivore disease caused by canine distemper virus (CDV). The described cell receptor of CDV is SLAM (CD150). Attachment of CDV hemagglutinin protein (CDV-H) to this receptor facilitates fusion and virus entry in cooperation with the fusion protein (CDV-F). We investigated whether CDV strains co-evolved in the large, homogeneous domestic dog population exhibited specialist traits, and strains adapted to the heterogeneous environment of smaller populations of different carnivores exhibited generalist traits. Comparison of amino acid sequences of the SLAM binding region revealed higher similarity between sequences from Canidae species than to sequences from other carnivore families. Using an in vitro assay, we quantified syncytia formation mediated by CDV-H proteins from dog and non-dog CDV strains in cells expressing dog, lion or cat SLAM. CDV-H proteins from dog strains produced significantly higher values with cells expressing dog SLAM than with cells expressing lion or cat SLAM. CDV-H proteins from strains of non-dog species produced similar values in all three cell types, but lower values in cells expressing dog SLAM than the values obtained for CDV-H proteins from dog strains. By experimentally changing one amino acid (Y549H) in the CDV-H protein of one dog strain we decreased expression of specialist traits and increased expression of generalist traits, thereby confirming its functional importance. A virus titer assay demonstrated that dog strains produced higher titers in cells expressing dog SLAM than cells expressing SLAM of non-dog hosts, which suggested possible fitness benefits of specialization post-cell entry. We provide in vitro evidence for the expression of specialist and generalist traits by CDV strains, and fitness trade-offs across carnivore host environments caused by antagonistic

  4. Genetic variation in adaptability and pleiotropy in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerison, Elizabeth R; Kryazhimskiy, Sergey; Mitchell, James Kameron; Bloom, Joshua S; Kruglyak, Leonid; Desai, Michael M

    2017-08-17

    Evolution can favor organisms that are more adaptable, provided that genetic variation in adaptability exists. Here, we quantify this variation among 230 offspring of a cross between diverged yeast strains. We measure the adaptability of each offspring genotype, defined as its average rate of adaptation in a specific environmental condition, and analyze the heritability, predictability, and genetic basis of this trait. We find that initial genotype strongly affects adaptability and can alter the genetic basis of future evolution. Initial genotype also affects the pleiotropic consequences of adaptation for fitness in a different environment. This genetic variation in adaptability and pleiotropy is largely determined by initial fitness, according to a rule of declining adaptability with increasing initial fitness, but several individual QTLs also have a significant idiosyncratic role. Our results demonstrate that both adaptability and pleiotropy are complex traits, with extensive heritable differences arising from naturally occurring variation.

  5. Condition-dependence, pleiotropy and the handicap principle of sexual selection in melanin-based colouration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulin, Alexandre

    2016-05-01

    The signalling function of melanin-based colouration is debated. Sexual selection theory states that ornaments should be costly to produce, maintain, wear or display to signal quality honestly to potential mates or competitors. An increasing number of studies supports the hypothesis that the degree of melanism covaries with aspects of body condition (e.g. body mass or immunity), which has contributed to change the initial perception that melanin-based colour ornaments entail no costs. Indeed, the expression of many (but not all) melanin-based colour traits is weakly sensitive to the environment but strongly heritable suggesting that these colour traits are relatively cheap to produce and maintain, thus raising the question of how such colour traits could signal quality honestly. Here I review the production, maintenance and wearing/displaying costs that can generate a correlation between melanin-based colouration and body condition, and consider other evolutionary mechanisms that can also lead to covariation between colour and body condition. Because genes controlling melanic traits can affect numerous phenotypic traits, pleiotropy could also explain a linkage between body condition and colouration. Pleiotropy may result in differently coloured individuals signalling different aspects of quality that are maintained by frequency-dependent selection or local adaptation. Colouration may therefore not signal absolute quality to potential mates or competitors (e.g. dark males may not achieve a higher fitness than pale males); otherwise genetic variation would be rapidly depleted by directional selection. As a consequence, selection on heritable melanin-based colouration may not always be directional, but mate choice may be conditional to environmental conditions (i.e. context-dependent sexual selection). Despite the interest of evolutionary biologists in the adaptive value of melanin-based colouration, its actual role in sexual selection is still poorly understood.

  6. Differential pleiotropy and HOX functional organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanantharajah, Lovesha; Percival-Smith, Anthony

    2015-02-01

    Key studies led to the idea that transcription factors are composed of defined modular protein motifs or domains, each with separable, unique function. During evolution, the recombination of these modular domains could give rise to transcription factors with new properties, as has been shown using recombinant molecules. This archetypic, modular view of transcription factor organization is based on the analyses of a few transcription factors such as GAL4, which may represent extreme exemplars rather than an archetype or the norm. Recent work with a set of Homeotic selector (HOX) proteins has revealed differential pleiotropy: the observation that highly-conserved HOX protein motifs and domains make small, additive, tissue specific contributions to HOX activity. Many of these differentially pleiotropic HOX motifs may represent plastic sequence elements called short linear motifs (SLiMs). The coupling of differential pleiotropy with SLiMs, suggests that protein sequence changes in HOX transcription factors may have had a greater impact on morphological diversity during evolution than previously believed. Furthermore, differential pleiotropy may be the genetic consequence of an ensemble nature of HOX transcription factor allostery, where HOX proteins exist as an ensemble of states with the capacity to integrate an extensive array of developmental information. Given a new structural model for HOX functional domain organization, the properties of the archetypic TF may require reassessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationships Between Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Elizabeth W; Smith, Donald; Quinn, Lauretta; Park, Chang

    2018-07-01

    Diabetes is a serious health problem affecting approximately 29.1 million individuals in the United States. Another 86 million have prediabetes. The development and implementation of lifestyle modifications such as physical activity for these persons are among the most effective methods for prevention and treatment. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between glycemic control (HbA1c) and cardiovascular fitness (peak maximal oxygen uptake [VO 2 peak] and ventilatory threshold [VT]) in overweight/obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In addition, the influences of body mass index (BMI) and insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment [HOMA %S]) on the relationship between glycemic control and cardiovascular fitness were explored. Data were abstracted from a completed study that included 51 overweight or obese subjects with T2DM ( n = 18), impaired glucose tolerance ( n = 8), or normal glucose tolerance ( n = 25). Relationships between glycemic control (HbA1c) and cardiovascular fitness (VO 2 peak and VT) were determined using correlational analysis and multiple linear regression analyses. A statistically significant relationship was observed between HbA1c and cardiovascular fitness. However, BMI and HOMA %S did not influence the relationship between glycemic control and cardiovascular fitness. HbA1c contributes to VO 2 peak and VT in obese and overweight subjects across glucose tolerance categories. Significant results were achieved despite the fact that there was a limited range of HbA1c based on the study inclusion criteria. This finding suggests that even a mild decrease in glycemic control can negatively influence cardiovascular fitness.

  8. Contrast Gain Control Model Fits Masking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Solomon, Joshua A.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We studied the fit of a contrast gain control model to data of Foley (JOSA 1994), consisting of thresholds for a Gabor patch masked by gratings of various orientations, or by compounds of two orientations. Our general model includes models of Foley and Teo & Heeger (IEEE 1994). Our specific model used a bank of Gabor filters with octave bandwidths at 8 orientations. Excitatory and inhibitory nonlinearities were power functions with exponents of 2.4 and 2. Inhibitory pooling was broad in orientation, but narrow in spatial frequency and space. Minkowski pooling used an exponent of 4. All of the data for observer KMF were well fit by the model. We have developed a contrast gain control model that fits masking data. Unlike Foley's, our model accepts images as inputs. Unlike Teo & Heeger's, our model did not require multiple channels for different dynamic ranges.

  9. Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Fitness Fitness Want to look and feel your best? Physical ... are? Check out this info: What is physical fitness? top Physical fitness means you can do everyday ...

  10. Genepleio software for effective estimation of gene pleiotropy from protein sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenhai; Chen, Dandan; Zhao, Ming; Zou, Yangyun; Zeng, Yanwu; Gu, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Though pleiotropy, which refers to the phenomenon of a gene affecting multiple traits, has long played a central role in genetics, development, and evolution, estimation of the number of pleiotropy components remains a hard mission to accomplish. In this paper, we report a newly developed software package, Genepleio, to estimate the effective gene pleiotropy from phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences. Since this estimate can be interpreted as the minimum pleiotropy of a gene, it is used to play a role of reference for many empirical pleiotropy measures. This work would facilitate our understanding of how gene pleiotropy affects the pattern of genotype-phenotype map and the consequence of organismal evolution.

  11. Fit and the system theory of control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mobach, M.P.; Rogier, J.J.H.; Leeuw, A.C.J. de

    2006-01-01

    In this article we discuss freedom of choice in action and its relationship with the concepts of fit and effectiveness from a managerial point of view and using a designing perspective. We have give our perspectives on fit as a construction, on freedom of choice and on dynamics. We regard the

  12. Automated Model Fit Method for Diesel Engine Control Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seykens, X.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kuijpers, B.; Rietjens, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automated fit for a control-oriented physics-based diesel engine combustion model. This method is based on the combination of a dedicated measurement procedure and structured approach to fit the required combustion model parameters. Only a data set is required that is

  13. Automated model fit method for diesel engine control development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seykens, X.L.J.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kuijpers, B.; Rietjens, C.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automated fit for a control-oriented physics-based diesel engine combustion model. This method is based on the combination of a dedicated measurement procedure and structured approach to fit the required combustion model parameters. Only a data set is required that is

  14. Improving health-related fitness in adolescents: the CrossFit Teens™ randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip James; Lubans, David Revalds

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and feasibility of the CrossFit Teens™ resistance training programme for improving health-related fitness and resistance training skill competency in adolescents. This assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted in one secondary school in the Hunter Region, Australia, from July to September 2013. Ninety-six (96) students (age = 15.4 (.5) years, 51.5% female) were randomised into intervention (n = 51) or control (n = 45) conditions for 8-weeks (60 min twice per week). Waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), BMI-Z score (primary outcomes), cardiorespiratory fitness (shuttle run test), muscular fitness (standing jump, push-up, handgrip, curl-up test), flexibility (sit and reach) and resistance training skill competency were measured at baseline and immediate post-intervention. Feasibility measures of recruitment, retention, adherence and satisfaction were assessed. Significant group-by-time intervention effects were found for waist circumference [-3.1 cm, P CrossFit Teens™ is a feasible and efficacious programme for improving health-related fitness in adolescents.

  15. Genepleio Software for Effective Estimation of Gene Pleiotropy from Protein Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhai Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Though pleiotropy, which refers to the phenomenon of a gene affecting multiple traits, has long played a central role in genetics, development, and evolution, estimation of the number of pleiotropy components remains a hard mission to accomplish. In this paper, we report a newly developed software package, Genepleio, to estimate the effective gene pleiotropy from phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences. Since this estimate can be interpreted as the minimum pleiotropy of a gene, it is used to play a role of reference for many empirical pleiotropy measures. This work would facilitate our understanding of how gene pleiotropy affects the pattern of genotype-phenotype map and the consequence of organismal evolution.

  16. Improving health-related fitness in children: the fit-4-Fun randomized controlled trial study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eather Narelle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Declining levels of physical fitness in children are linked to an increased risk of developing poor physical and mental health. Physical activity programs for children that involve regular high intensity physical activity, along with muscle and bone strengthening activities, have been identified by the World Health Organisation as a key strategy to reduce the escalating burden of ill health caused by non-communicable diseases. This paper reports the rationale and methods for a school-based intervention designed to improve physical fitness and physical activity levels of Grades 5 and 6 primary school children. Methods/Design Fit-4-Fun is an 8-week multi-component school-based health-related fitness education intervention and will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. Primary schools from the Hunter Region in NSW, Australia, will be invited to participate in the program in 2011 with a target sample size of 128 primary schools children (age 10-13. The Fit-4-Fun program is theoretically grounded and will be implemented applying the Health Promoting Schools framework. Students will participate in weekly curriculum-based health and physical education lessons, daily break-time physical activities during recess and lunch, and will complete an 8-week (3 × per week home activity program with their parents and/or family members. A battery of six health-related fitness assessments, four days of pedometery-assessed physical activity and a questionnaire, will be administered at baseline, immediate post-intervention (2-months and at 6-months (from baseline to determine intervention effects. Details of the methodological aspects of recruitment, inclusion criteria, randomization, intervention program, assessments, process evaluation and statistical analyses are described. Discussion The Fit-4-Fun program is an innovative school-based intervention targeting fitness improvements in primary school children. The program will

  17. Improving health-related fitness in children: the Fit-4-Fun randomized controlled trial study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R

    2011-12-05

    Declining levels of physical fitness in children are linked to an increased risk of developing poor physical and mental health. Physical activity programs for children that involve regular high intensity physical activity, along with muscle and bone strengthening activities, have been identified by the World Health Organisation as a key strategy to reduce the escalating burden of ill health caused by non-communicable diseases. This paper reports the rationale and methods for a school-based intervention designed to improve physical fitness and physical activity levels of Grades 5 and 6 primary school children. Fit-4-Fun is an 8-week multi-component school-based health-related fitness education intervention and will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. Primary schools from the Hunter Region in NSW, Australia, will be invited to participate in the program in 2011 with a target sample size of 128 primary schools children (age 10-13). The Fit-4-Fun program is theoretically grounded and will be implemented applying the Health Promoting Schools framework. Students will participate in weekly curriculum-based health and physical education lessons, daily break-time physical activities during recess and lunch, and will complete an 8-week (3 × per week) home activity program with their parents and/or family members. A battery of six health-related fitness assessments, four days of pedometery-assessed physical activity and a questionnaire, will be administered at baseline, immediate post-intervention (2-months) and at 6-months (from baseline) to determine intervention effects. Details of the methodological aspects of recruitment, inclusion criteria, randomization, intervention program, assessments, process evaluation and statistical analyses are described. The Fit-4-Fun program is an innovative school-based intervention targeting fitness improvements in primary school children. The program will involve a range of evidence-based behaviour change strategies to

  18. Antagonistic pleiotropy and mutation accumulation contribute to age-related decline in stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Elizabeth R; Morgan, Theodore J

    2018-02-01

    As organisms age, the effectiveness of natural selection weakens, leading to age-related decline in fitness-related traits. The evolution of age-related changes associated with senescence is likely influenced by mutation accumulation (MA) and antagonistic pleiotropy (AP). MA predicts that age-related decline in fitness components is driven by age-specific sets of alleles, nonnegative genetic correlations within trait across age, and an increase in the coefficient of genetic variance. AP predicts that age-related decline in a trait is driven by alleles with positive effects on fitness in young individuals and negative effects in old individuals, and is expected to lead to negative genetic correlations within traits across age. We build on these predictions using an association mapping approach to investigate the change in additive effects of SNPs across age and among traits for multiple stress-response fitness-related traits, including cold stress with and without acclimation and starvation resistance. We found support for both MA and AP theories of aging in the age-related decline in stress tolerance. Our study demonstrates that the evolution of age-related decline in stress tolerance is driven by a combination of alleles that have age-specific additive effects, consistent with MA, as well as nonindependent and antagonistic genetic architectures characteristic of AP. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Monotonicity of fitness landscapes and mutation rate control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belavkin, Roman V; Channon, Alastair; Aston, Elizabeth; Aston, John; Krašovec, Rok; Knight, Christopher G

    2016-12-01

    A common view in evolutionary biology is that mutation rates are minimised. However, studies in combinatorial optimisation and search have shown a clear advantage of using variable mutation rates as a control parameter to optimise the performance of evolutionary algorithms. Much biological theory in this area is based on Ronald Fisher's work, who used Euclidean geometry to study the relation between mutation size and expected fitness of the offspring in infinite phenotypic spaces. Here we reconsider this theory based on the alternative geometry of discrete and finite spaces of DNA sequences. First, we consider the geometric case of fitness being isomorphic to distance from an optimum, and show how problems of optimal mutation rate control can be solved exactly or approximately depending on additional constraints of the problem. Then we consider the general case of fitness communicating only partial information about the distance. We define weak monotonicity of fitness landscapes and prove that this property holds in all landscapes that are continuous and open at the optimum. This theoretical result motivates our hypothesis that optimal mutation rate functions in such landscapes will increase when fitness decreases in some neighbourhood of an optimum, resembling the control functions derived in the geometric case. We test this hypothesis experimentally by analysing approximately optimal mutation rate control functions in 115 complete landscapes of binding scores between DNA sequences and transcription factors. Our findings support the hypothesis and find that the increase of mutation rate is more rapid in landscapes that are less monotonic (more rugged). We discuss the relevance of these findings to living organisms.

  20. Synthetic control of a fitness tradeoff in yeast nitrogen metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jack J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial communities are involved in many processes relevant to industrial and medical biotechnology, such as the formation of biofilms, lignocellulosic degradation, and hydrogen production. The manipulation of synthetic and natural microbial communities and their underlying ecological parameters, such as fitness, evolvability, and variation, is an increasingly important area of research for synthetic biology. Results Here, we explored how synthetic control of an endogenous circuit can be used to regulate a tradeoff between fitness in resource abundant and resource limited environments in a population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that noise in the expression of a key enzyme in ammonia assimilation, Gdh1p, mediated a tradeoff between growth in low nitrogen environments and stress resistance in high ammonia environments. We implemented synthetic control of an endogenous Gdh1p regulatory network to construct an engineered strain in which the fitness of the population was tunable in response to an exogenously-added small molecule across a range of ammonia environments. Conclusion The ability to tune fitness and biological tradeoffs will be important components of future efforts to engineer microbial communities.

  1. RekonFit - fit by reconstruction. Retrofitting of stall-controlled wind power systems; RekonFit - Fit durch Rekonstruktion. Verbesserungen fuer ihre stallgeregelte Windenergieanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosebrock, B. [RWE Piller GmbH, Osterode (Germany); Pfeiffer, K. [Erwin Peters GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The improvements gained by retrofitting are summarized as follows: Reduction of servicing cost by abandoning terminal switching; reduction of loads on the powertrain and rotor blades; reduction of loads on electric components (main contactors and compensation); higher productivity as RekonFit MAF improves the overall productivity of stall-controlled wind power systems with terminal-switched asynchronous generators in low-wind operation; excellent function in low wind conditions with optimisation only in the lower stage (P

  2. What affects the predictability of evolutionary constraints using a G-matrix? The relative effects of modular pleiotropy and mutational correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebib, Jobran; Guillaume, Frédéric

    2017-10-01

    Phenotypic traits do not always respond to selection independently from each other and often show correlated responses to selection. The structure of a genotype-phenotype map (GP map) determines trait covariation, which involves variation in the degree and strength of the pleiotropic effects of the underlying genes. It is still unclear, and debated, how much of that structure can be deduced from variational properties of quantitative traits that are inferred from their genetic (co) variance matrix (G-matrix). Here we aim to clarify how the extent of pleiotropy and the correlation among the pleiotropic effects of mutations differentially affect the structure of a G-matrix and our ability to detect genetic constraints from its eigen decomposition. We show that the eigenvectors of a G-matrix can be predictive of evolutionary constraints when they map to underlying pleiotropic modules with correlated mutational effects. Without mutational correlation, evolutionary constraints caused by the fitness costs associated with increased pleiotropy are harder to infer from evolutionary metrics based on a G-matrix's geometric properties because uncorrelated pleiotropic effects do not affect traits' genetic correlations. Correlational selection induces much weaker modular partitioning of traits' genetic correlations in absence then in presence of underlying modular pleiotropy. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Systematic Evaluation of Pleiotropy Identifies 6 Further Loci Associated With Coronary Artery Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Thomas R; Erdmann, Jeanette; Stirrups, Kathleen E

    2017-01-01

    %) single nucleotide polymorphisms available on the exome array, which included a substantial proportion of known or suspected single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with common diseases or traits as of 2011. Suggestive association signals were replicated in an additional 30,533 cases and 42,530 control...... subjects. To evaluate pleiotropy, we tested CAD loci for association with cardiovascular risk factors (lipid traits, blood pressure phenotypes, body mass index, diabetes, and smoking behavior), as well as with other diseases/traits through interrogation of currently available genome-wide association study...

  4. The Nature and Extent of Mutational Pleiotropy in Gene Expression of Male Drosophila serrata

    OpenAIRE

    McGuigan, Katrina; Collet, Julie M.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.; Ye, Yixin H.; Allen, Scott L.; Chenoweth, Stephen F.; Blows, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    The nature and extent of mutational pleiotropy remain largely unknown, despite the central role that pleiotropy plays in many areas of biology, including human disease, agricultural production, and evolution. Here, we investigate the variation in 11,604 gene expression traits among 41 mutation accumulation (MA) lines of Drosophila serrata. We first confirmed that these expression phenotypes were heritable, detecting genetic variation in 96% of them in an outbred, natural population of D. serr...

  5. The Genomic Landscape and Evolutionary Resolution of Antagonistic Pleiotropy in Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Qian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Antagonistic pleiotropy (AP, or genetic tradeoff, is an important concept that is frequently invoked in theories of aging, cancer, genetic disease, and other common phenomena. However, the prevalence of AP, which genes are subject to AP, and to what extent and how AP may be resolved remain unclear. By measuring the fitness difference between the wild-type and null alleles of ∼5,000 nonessential genes in yeast, we found that in any given environment, yeast expresses hundreds of genes that harm rather than benefit the organism, demonstrating widespread AP. Nonetheless, under sufficient selection, AP is often resolvable through regulatory evolution, primarily by trans-acting changes, although in one case we also detected a cis-acting change and localized its causal mutation. However, AP is resolved more slowly in smaller populations, predicting more unresolved AP in multicellular organisms than in yeast. These findings provide an empirical foundation for AP-dependent theories and have broad biomedical and evolutionary implications.

  6. Improved Detection of Common Variants Associated with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder Using Pleiotropy-Informed Conditional False Discovery Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Ole A.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Schork, Andrew J.; Ripke, Stephan; Mattingsdal, Morten; Kelsoe, John R.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Rujescu, Dan; Werge, Thomas; Sklar, Pamela; Roddey, J. Cooper; Chen, Chi-Hua; McEvoy, Linda; Desikan, Rahul S.; Djurovic, Srdjan; Dale, Anders M.

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have the potential to explain more of the “missing heritability” of common complex phenotypes. However, reliable methods to identify a larger proportion of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that impact disease risk are currently lacking. Here, we use a genetic pleiotropy-informed conditional false discovery rate (FDR) method on GWAS summary statistics data to identify new loci associated with schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorders (BD), two highly heritable disorders with significant missing heritability. Epidemiological and clinical evidence suggest similar disease characteristics and overlapping genes between SCZ and BD. Here, we computed conditional Q–Q curves of data from the Psychiatric Genome Consortium (SCZ; n = 9,379 cases and n = 7,736 controls; BD: n = 6,990 cases and n = 4,820 controls) to show enrichment of SNPs associated with SCZ as a function of association with BD and vice versa with a corresponding reduction in FDR. Applying the conditional FDR method, we identified 58 loci associated with SCZ and 35 loci associated with BD below the conditional FDR level of 0.05. Of these, 14 loci were associated with both SCZ and BD (conjunction FDR). Together, these findings show the feasibility of genetic pleiotropy-informed methods to improve gene discovery in SCZ and BD and indicate overlapping genetic mechanisms between these two disorders. PMID:23637625

  7. Canonical correlation analysis for gene-based pleiotropy discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A Seoane

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have identified a wealth of genetic variants involved in complex traits and multifactorial diseases. There is now considerable interest in testing variants for association with multiple phenotypes (pleiotropy and for testing multiple variants for association with a single phenotype (gene-based association tests. Such approaches can increase statistical power by combining evidence for association over multiple phenotypes or genetic variants respectively. Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA measures the correlation between two sets of multidimensional variables, and thus offers the potential to combine these two approaches. To apply CCA, we must restrict the number of attributes relative to the number of samples. Hence we consider modules of genetic variation that can comprise a gene, a pathway or another biologically relevant grouping, and/or a set of phenotypes. In order to do this, we use an attribute selection strategy based on a binary genetic algorithm. Applied to a UK-based prospective cohort study of 4286 women (the British Women's Heart and Health Study, we find improved statistical power in the detection of previously reported genetic associations, and identify a number of novel pleiotropic associations between genetic variants and phenotypes. New discoveries include gene-based association of NSF with triglyceride levels and several genes (ACSM3, ERI2, IL18RAP, IL23RAP and NRG1 with left ventricular hypertrophy phenotypes. In multiple-phenotype analyses we find association of NRG1 with left ventricular hypertrophy phenotypes, fibrinogen and urea and pleiotropic relationships of F7 and F10 with Factor VII, Factor IX and cholesterol levels.

  8. FIT for FUNCTION: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Julie; Tang, Ada; Guyatt, Gordon; Thabane, Lehana; Xie, Feng; Sahlas, Demetrios; Hart, Robert; Fleck, Rebecca; Hladysh, Genevieve; Macrae, Louise

    2018-01-15

    The current state of evidence suggests that community-based exercise programs are beneficial in improving impairment, function, and health status, and are greatly needed for persons with stroke. However, limitations of these studies include risk of bias, feasibility, and cost issues. This single-blinded, randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 216 participants with stroke will compare the effectiveness of a 12-week YMCA community-based wellness program (FIT for FUNCTION) specifically designed for community-dwelling persons with stroke to persons who receive a standard YMCA membership. The primary outcome will be community reintegration using the Reintegration to Normal Living Index at 12 and 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes include measurement of physical activity level using the Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity and accelerometry; balance using the Berg Balance Scale; lower extremity function using the Short Physical Performance Battery; exercise capacity using the 6-min walk test; grip strength and isometric knee extension strength using hand held dynamometry; and health-related quality of life using the European Quality of Life 5-Dimension Questionnaire. We are also assessing cardiovascular health and lipids; glucose and inflammatory markers will be collected following 12-h fast for total cholesterol, insulin, glucose, and glycated hemoglobin. Self-efficacy for physical activity will be assessed with a single question and self-efficacy for managing chronic disease will be assessed using the Stanford 6-item Scale. The Patient Activation Measure will be used to assess the patient's level of knowledge, skill, and confidence for self-management. Healthcare utilization and costs will be evaluated. Group, time, and group × time interaction effects will be estimated using generalized linear models for continuous variables, including relevant baseline variables as covariates in the analysis that differ appreciably between groups at baseline. Cost data will be treated

  9. Implications of pleiotropy: Challenges and opportunities for mining Big Data in Biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can eYang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pleiotropy arises when a locus influences multiple traits. Rich GWAS findings of various traits in the past decade reveal many examples of this phenomenon, suggesting the wide existence of pleiotropic effects. What underlies this phenomenon is the biological connection among seemingly unrelated traits/diseases. Characterizing the molecular mechanisms of pleiotropy not only helps to explain the relationship between diseases, but may also contribute to novel insights concerning the pathological mechanism of each specific disease, leading to better disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment. However, most pleiotropic effects remain elusive because their functional roles have not been systematically examined. A systematic investigation requires availability of qualified measurements at multilayered biological processes (e.g., transcription and translation.The rise of Big Data in biomedicine, such as high-quality multi-omics data, biomedical imaging data and electronic medical records of patients, offers us an unprecedented opportunity to investigate pleiotropy. There will be a great need of computationally efficient and statistically rigorous methods for integrative analysis of these Big Data in biomedicine. In this review, we outline many opportunities and challenges in methodology developments for systematic analysis of pleiotropy, and highlight its implications on disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Systematic Evaluation of Pleiotropy Identifies 6 Further Loci Associated With Coronary Artery Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, Thomas R.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Stirrups, Kathleen E.; Stitziel, Nathan O.; Masca, Nicholas G. D.; Jansen, Henning; Kanoni, Stavroula; Nelson, Christopher P.; Ferrario, Paola G.; König, Inke R.; Eicher, John D.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Hamby, Stephen E.; Betsholtz, Christer; Ruusalepp, Arno; Franzén, Oscar; Schadt, Eric E.; Björkegren, Johan L. M.; Weeke, Peter E.; Auer, Paul L.; Schick, Ursula M.; Lu, Yingchang; Zhang, He; Dube, Marie-Pierre; Goel, Anuj; Farrall, Martin; Peloso, Gina M.; Won, Hong-Hee; Do, Ron; van Iperen, Erik; Kruppa, Jochen; Mahajan, Anubha; Scott, Robert A.; Willenborg, Christina; Braund, Peter S.; van Capelleveen, Julian C.; Doney, Alex S. F.; Donnelly, Louise A.; Asselta, Rosanna; Merlini, Pier A.; Duga, Stefano; Marziliano, Nicola; Denny, Josh C.; Shaffer, Christian; El-Mokhtari, Nour Eddine; Franke, Andre; Heilmann, Stefanie; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hoffmann, Per; Holmen, Oddgeir L.; Hveem, Kristian; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kessler, Thorsten; Kriebel, Jennifer; Laugwitz, Karl L.; Marouli, Eirini; Martinelli, Nicola; McCarthy, Mark I.; van Zuydam, Natalie R.; Meisinger, Christa; Esko, Tõnu; Mihailov, Evelin; Escher, Stefan A.; Alver, Maris; Moebus, Susanne; Morris, Andrew D.; Virtamo, Jarma; Nikpay, Majid; Olivieri, Oliviero; Provost, Sylvie; AlQarawi, Alaa; Robertson, Neil R.; Akinsansya, Karen O.; Reilly, Dermot F.; Vogt, Thomas F.; Yin, Wu; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Kooperberg, Charles; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Stahl, Eli; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Strauch, Konstantin; Varga, Tibor V.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Zeng, Lingyao; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Salomaa, Veikko; Ford, Ian; Jukema, J. Wouter; Amouyel, Philippe; Kontto, Jukka; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Ferrières, Jean; Saleheen, Danish; Sattar, Naveed; Surendran, Praveen; Wagner, Aline; Young, Robin; Howson, Joanna M. M.; Butterworth, Adam S.; Danesh, John; Ardissino, Diego; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Erbel, Raimund; Franks, Paul W.; Girelli, Domenico; Hall, Alistair S.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kastrati, Adnan; Lieb, Wolfgang; Meitinger, Thomas; Kraus, William E.; Shah, Svati H.; McPherson, Ruth; Orho-Melander, Marju; Melander, Olle; Metspalu, Andres; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Peters, Annette; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Reiner, Alex P.; Roden, Dan M.; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Thompson, John R.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Willer, Cristen J.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schunkert, Heribert; Deloukas, Panos; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have so far identified 56 loci associated with risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Many CAD loci show pleiotropy; that is, they are also associated with other diseases or traits. This study sought to systematically test if genetic variants identified for non-CAD

  11. Role of pleiotropy during adaptation of TEM-1 β-lactamase to two novel antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.; Witte, Sariette; Salverda, M.L.M.; Koopmanschap, Bertha; Krug, Joachim; Visser, de J.A.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Pleiotropy is a key feature of the genotype-phenotype map, and its form and extent have many evolutionary implications, including for the dynamics of adaptation and the evolution of specialization. Similarly, pleiotropic effects of antibiotic resistance mutations may affect the evolution of

  12. Implications of pleiotropy: challenges and opportunities for mining Big Data in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Can; Li, Cong; Wang, Qian; Chung, Dongjun; Zhao, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    Pleiotropy arises when a locus influences multiple traits. Rich GWAS findings of various traits in the past decade reveal many examples of this phenomenon, suggesting the wide existence of pleiotropic effects. What underlies this phenomenon is the biological connection among seemingly unrelated traits/diseases. Characterizing the molecular mechanisms of pleiotropy not only helps to explain the relationship between diseases, but may also contribute to novel insights concerning the pathological mechanism of each specific disease, leading to better disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment. However, most pleiotropic effects remain elusive because their functional roles have not been systematically examined. A systematic investigation requires availability of qualified measurements at multilayered biological processes (e.g., transcription and translation). The rise of Big Data in biomedicine, such as high-quality multi-omics data, biomedical imaging data and electronic medical records of patients, offers us an unprecedented opportunity to investigate pleiotropy. There will be a great need of computationally efficient and statistically rigorous methods for integrative analysis of these Big Data in biomedicine. In this review, we outline many opportunities and challenges in methodology developments for systematic analysis of pleiotropy, and highlight its implications on disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Pleiotropy constrains the evolution of protein but not regulatory sequences in a transcription regulatory network influencing complex social behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria eMolodtsova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly apparent that genes and networks that influence complex behaviour are evolutionary conserved, which is paradoxical considering that behaviour is labile over evolutionary timescales. How does adaptive change in behaviour arise if behaviour is controlled by conserved, pleiotropic, and likely evolutionary constrained genes? Pleiotropy and connectedness are known to constrain the general rate of protein evolution, prompting some to suggest that the evolution of complex traits, including behaviour, is fuelled by regulatory sequence evolution. However, we seldom have data on the strength of selection on mutations in coding and regulatory sequences, and this hinders our ability to study how pleiotropy influences coding and regulatory sequence evolution. Here we use population genomics to estimate the strength of selection on coding and regulatory mutations for a transcriptional regulatory network that influences complex behaviour of honey bees. We found that replacement mutations in highly connected transcription factors and target genes experience significantly stronger negative selection relative to weakly connected transcription factors and targets. Adaptively evolving proteins were significantly more likely to reside at the periphery of the regulatory network, while proteins with signs of negative selection were near the core of the network. Interestingly, connectedness and network structure had minimal influence on the strength of selection on putative regulatory sequences for both transcription factors and their targets. Our study indicates that adaptive evolution of complex behaviour can arise because of positive selection on protein-coding mutations in peripheral genes, and on regulatory sequence mutations in both transcription factors and their targets throughout the network.

  14. Dimensional control of buttwelding pipe fitting for nuclear power plant Class 1 piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodabaugh, E.C.; Moore, S.E.; Robinson, J.N.

    1976-11-01

    Dimensional controls of wrought steel buttwelding fittings are examined from the standpoint of design adequacy. A fairly large number of fittings were purchased from different manufacturers. The dimensions of each fitting were measured and correlated along with additional information obtained from the manufacturers in an effort to establish ''standard'' shapes. This information and a critical examination of the present ANSI standards is used to develop a ''Supplementary Standard.'' The Supplementary Standard is intended to provide improved dimensional control and more complete design information for fittings used in Class 1 nuclear power plant piping systems

  15. Pleiotropy analysis of quantitative traits at gene level by multivariate functional linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifan; Liu, Aiyi; Mills, James L; Boehnke, Michael; Wilson, Alexander F; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Xiong, Momiao; Wu, Colin O; Fan, Ruzong

    2015-05-01

    In genetics, pleiotropy describes the genetic effect of a single gene on multiple phenotypic traits. A common approach is to analyze the phenotypic traits separately using univariate analyses and combine the test results through multiple comparisons. This approach may lead to low power. Multivariate functional linear models are developed to connect genetic variant data to multiple quantitative traits adjusting for covariates for a unified analysis. Three types of approximate F-distribution tests based on Pillai-Bartlett trace, Hotelling-Lawley trace, and Wilks's Lambda are introduced to test for association between multiple quantitative traits and multiple genetic variants in one genetic region. The approximate F-distribution tests provide much more significant results than those of F-tests of univariate analysis and optimal sequence kernel association test (SKAT-O). Extensive simulations were performed to evaluate the false positive rates and power performance of the proposed models and tests. We show that the approximate F-distribution tests control the type I error rates very well. Overall, simultaneous analysis of multiple traits can increase power performance compared to an individual test of each trait. The proposed methods were applied to analyze (1) four lipid traits in eight European cohorts, and (2) three biochemical traits in the Trinity Students Study. The approximate F-distribution tests provide much more significant results than those of F-tests of univariate analysis and SKAT-O for the three biochemical traits. The approximate F-distribution tests of the proposed functional linear models are more sensitive than those of the traditional multivariate linear models that in turn are more sensitive than SKAT-O in the univariate case. The analysis of the four lipid traits and the three biochemical traits detects more association than SKAT-O in the univariate case. © 2015 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  16. Fitness, Balance Efficacy, and Postural Control in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Lee; John R. Biggan; Christopher Ray

    2016-01-01

    Age-related declines in postural control and physical fitness are strong risk factors for falls in older adults. Balance efficacy has been utilized to identify poor postural control, reduced physical function, and fall risk. However, it is not clear as to whether balance efficacy is truly a better predictor of functional fitness outcomes or postural control. Distinguishing these associations is an important step in the...

  17. Where does infection control fit into a hospital management structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannigan, E T; Murray, E; Holmes, A

    2009-12-01

    To be effective, infection prevention and control must be integrated into the complex and multiple interlinking systems within a hospital's management structure. Each of the systems must consider how activity associated with it can be optimised to minimise infection risk to patients. The components of an organisational structure to achieve these quality assurance and patient safety aims are discussed. The use of performance management tools in relation to infection control metrics is reviewed, and the use of hospital-acquired infection as a proxy indicator for deficiencies of system management is considered. Infection prevention and control cannot be the role and responsibility of a single individual or a small dedicated team; rather it should be a priority at all levels and integrated within all management systems, including the research and educational agendas.

  18. Improved detection of common variants associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using pleiotropy-informed conditional false discovery rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Ole A; Thompson, Wesley K; Schork, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    are currently lacking. Here, we use a genetic pleiotropy-informed conditional false discovery rate (FDR) method on GWAS summary statistics data to identify new loci associated with schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorders (BD), two highly heritable disorders with significant missing heritability...... associated with both SCZ and BD (conjunction FDR). Together, these findings show the feasibility of genetic pleiotropy-informed methods to improve gene discovery in SCZ and BD and indicate overlapping genetic mechanisms between these two disorders....

  19. Association Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and the Determinants of Glycemic Control Across the Entire Glucose Tolerance Continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas P. J.; Malin, Steven K.; Karstoft, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) is associated with glycemic control, yet the relationship between VO2max and the underlying determinants of glycemic control is less clear. Our aim was to determine whether VO2max is associated with insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and the disp...... fitness and compromised pancreatic β-cell compensation across the entire glucose tolerance continuum provides additional evidence highlighting the importance of fitness in protection against the onset of a fundamental pathophysiological event that leads to type 2 diabetes....

  20. III. The importance of physical activity and aerobic fitness for cognitive control and memory in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J; Kramer, Arthur F

    2014-12-01

    In this chapter, we review literature that examines the association among physical activity, aerobic fitness, cognition, and the brain in elementary school children (ages 7-10 years). Specifically, physical activity and higher levels of aerobic fitness in children have been found to benefit brain structure, brain function, cognition, and school achievement. For example, higher fit children have larger brain volumes in the basal ganglia and hippocampus, which relate to superior performance on tasks of cognitive control and memory, respectively, when compared to their lower fit peers. Higher fit children also show superior brain function during tasks of cognitive control, better scores on tests of academic achievement, and higher performance on a real-world street crossing task, compared to lower fit and less active children. The cross-sectional findings are strengthened by a few randomized, controlled trials, which demonstrate that children randomly assigned to a physical activity intervention group show greater brain and cognitive benefits compared to a control group. Because these findings suggest that the developing brain is plastic and sensitive to lifestyle factors, we also discuss typical structural and functional brain maturation in children to provide context in which to interpret the effects of physical activity and aerobic fitness on the developing brain. This research is important because children are becoming increasingly sedentary, physically inactive, and unfit. An important goal of this review is to emphasize the importance of physical activity and aerobic fitness for the cognitive and brain health of today's youth. © 2014 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. Fitness, Balance Efficacy, and Postural Control in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Age-related declines in postural control and physical fitness are strong risk factors for falls in older adults. Balance efficacy has been utilized to identify poor postural control, reduced physical function, and fall risk. However, it is not clear as to whether balance efficacy is truly a better predictor of functional fitness outcomes or postural control. Distinguishing these associations is an important step in the future derivation of physiotherapeutic programming to remediate acute and chronic decline. Therefore, the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to partition which measures are more associated with balance efficacy, fitness, or postural control. One hundred eleven community-dwelling older adults participated and were asked to complete the Balance Efficacy Scale (BES, a functional fitness measure (the Senior Fitness Test [SFT], and a measure of postural control (the Sensory Organization Test [SOT].We found that the SFT was more significantly associated with balance efficacy (R2 = .37 than the SOT (R2 = .08 in older adults. Overall, aerobic endurance, functional mobility in the SFT, and the vestibular score on the SOT were significantly associated with balance efficacy. We concluded that clinicians utilizing the BES as a preliminary screen should recommend physiotherapy follow-up activities that build endurance (walking, lower extremity functional mobility (sit-to-stand, and vestibular function (head movement while walking. Understanding the links between a preliminary screening tool and the physiological needs of the patient will allow for targeted activities to be prescribed.

  2. Genetic pleiotropy explains associations between musical auditory discrimination and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosing, Miriam A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Madison, Guy; Ullén, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Musical aptitude is commonly measured using tasks that involve discrimination of different types of musical auditory stimuli. Performance on such different discrimination tasks correlates positively with each other and with intelligence. However, no study to date has explored these associations using a genetically informative sample to estimate underlying genetic and environmental influences. In the present study, a large sample of Swedish twins (N = 10,500) was used to investigate the genetic architecture of the associations between intelligence and performance on three musical auditory discrimination tasks (rhythm, melody and pitch). Phenotypic correlations between the tasks ranged between 0.23 and 0.42 (Pearson r values). Genetic modelling showed that the covariation between the variables could be explained by shared genetic influences. Neither shared, nor non-shared environment had a significant effect on the associations. Good fit was obtained with a two-factor model where one underlying shared genetic factor explained all the covariation between the musical discrimination tasks and IQ, and a second genetic factor explained variance exclusively shared among the discrimination tasks. The results suggest that positive correlations among musical aptitudes result from both genes with broad effects on cognition, and genes with potentially more specific influences on auditory functions.

  3. Fit 5 Kids TV reduction program for Latino preschoolers: A cluster randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing Latino preschoolers' TV viewing is needed to reduce their risk of obesity and other chronic diseases. This study's objective was to evaluate the Fit 5 Kids (F5K) TV reduction program's impact on Latino preschooler's TV viewing. The study design was a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT...

  4. Person Fit Based on Statistical Process Control in an Adaptive Testing Environment. Research Report 98-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith M. L. A.; Meijer, Rob R.

    Person-fit research in the context of paper-and-pencil tests is reviewed, and some specific problems regarding person fit in the context of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) are discussed. Some new methods are proposed to investigate person fit in a CAT environment. These statistics are based on Statistical Process Control (SPC) theory. A…

  5. [Fitness and quality of life in kidney transplant recipients: case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Sánchez, Sonsoles; Carrero, Juan J; García López, David; Herrero Alonso, Juan Azael; Menéndez Alegre, Héctor; Ruiz, Jonatan R

    2016-04-15

    We analyzed the levels of fitness, muscle structure and quality of life of adults after kidney transplant and healthy adults. A total of 16 kidney transplant patients and 21 healthy controls performed several fitness test, isokinetic evaluation of knee flexion and extension and ultrasonography muscle thickness assessment. They also completed the quality of life questionnaire SF-36. Physical fitness, muscle structure and quality of life of the kidney transplant recipients were significantly poorer than the controls. The transplant patients performed less well in the "get up and go" and "sit to stand" test (p<.001) as well as in assessments of muscle structure, strength and power. The patients had a poorer score in their quality of life assessments, differing from the controls in domains of physical function, physical role, general health and social function (p<.001). Fitness, strength and muscle mass are diminished in kidney transplant patients, resulting in a poorer quality of life which might entail an increased risk to their health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Improving the fitness and physical activity levels of primary school children: results of the Fit-4-Fun group randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a multi-component school-based physical activity intervention (Fit-4-Fun) on health-related fitness and objectively measured physical activity in primary school children. Four Hunter primary schools were recruited in April, 2011 and randomized by school into treatment or control conditions. Participants included 213 children (mean age = 10.72 years ± 0.6; 52.2% female) with the treatment group (n = 118) completing the 8-week Fit-4-Fun Program. Participants were assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up, with a 91% retention rate. Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) (20 m shuttle run) was the primary outcome, and secondary outcomes included body composition (BMI, BMI(Z)), muscular fitness (7-stage sit-up test, push-up test, basketball throw test, Standing Jump), flexibility (sit and reach) and physical activity (7 days pedometry). After 6-months, significant treatment effects were found for CRF (adjusted mean difference, 1.14 levels, p < 0.001), body composition (BMI mean, -0.96 kg/m(2), p < 0.001 and BMI z-score mean -0.47 z-scores, p < 0.001), flexibility (sit and reach mean, 1.52 cm, p = 0.0013), muscular fitness (sit-ups) (mean 0.62 stages, p = 0.003) and physical activity (mean, 3253 steps/day, p < 0.001). There were no group by time effects for the other muscular fitness measures. A primary school-based intervention focusing on fitness education significantly improved health-related fitness and physical activity levels in children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Can genetic pleiotropy replicate common clinical constellations of cardiovascular disease and risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omri Gottesman

    Full Text Available The relationship between obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, kidney disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD is established when looked at from a clinical, epidemiological or pathophysiological perspective. Yet, when viewed from a genetic perspective, there is comparatively little data synthesis that these conditions have an underlying relationship. We sought to investigate the overlap of genetic variants independently associated with each of these commonly co-existing conditions from the NHGRI genome-wide association study (GWAS catalog, in an attempt to replicate the established notion of shared pathophysiology and risk. We used pathway-based analyses to detect subsets of pleiotropic genes involved in similar biological processes. We identified 107 eligible GWAS studies related to CVD and its established comorbidities and risk factors and assigned genes that correspond to the associated signals based on their position. We found 44 positional genes shared across at least two CVD-related phenotypes that independently recreated the established relationship between the six phenotypes, but only if studies representing non-European populations were included. Seven genes revealed pleiotropy across three or more phenotypes, mostly related to lipid transport and metabolism. Yet, many genes had no relationship to each other or to genes with established functional connection. Whilst we successfully reproduced established relationships between CVD risk factors using GWAS findings, interpretation of biological pathways involved in the observed pleiotropy was limited. Further studies linking genetic variation to gene expression, as well as describing novel biological pathways will be needed to take full advantage of GWAS results.

  8. Polynomial curve fitting for control rod worth using least square numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Husamuddin Abdul Khalil; Mark Dennis Usang; Julia Abdul Karim; Mohd Amin Sharifuldin Salleh

    2012-01-01

    RTP must have sufficient excess reactivity to compensate the negative reactivity feedback effects such as those caused by the fuel temperature and power defects of reactivity, fuel burn-up and to allow full power operation for predetermined period of time. To compensate this excess reactivity, it is necessary to introduce an amount of negative reactivity by adjusting or controlling the control rods at will. Control rod worth depends largely upon the value of the neutron flux at the location of the rod and reflected by a polynomial curve. Purpose of this paper is to rule out the polynomial curve fitting using least square numerical techniques via MATLAB compatible language. (author)

  9. Systematic Evaluation of Pleiotropy Identifies 6 Further Loci Associated With Coronary Artery Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, Thomas R; Erdmann, Jeanette; Stirrups, Kathleen E; Stitziel, Nathan O; Masca, Nicholas G D; Jansen, Henning; Kanoni, Stavroula; Nelson, Christopher P; Ferrario, Paola G; König, Inke R; Eicher, John D; Johnson, Andrew D; Hamby, Stephen E; Betsholtz, Christer; Ruusalepp, Arno; Franzén, Oscar; Schadt, Eric E; Björkegren, Johan L M; Weeke, Peter E; Auer, Paul L; Schick, Ursula M; Lu, Yingchang; Zhang, He; Dube, Marie-Pierre; Goel, Anuj; Farrall, Martin; Peloso, Gina M; Won, Hong-Hee; Do, Ron; van Iperen, Erik; Kruppa, Jochen; Mahajan, Anubha; Scott, Robert A; Willenborg, Christina; Braund, Peter S; van Capelleveen, Julian C; Doney, Alex S F; Donnelly, Louise A; Asselta, Rosanna; Merlini, Pier A; Duga, Stefano; Marziliano, Nicola; Denny, Josh C; Shaffer, Christian; El-Mokhtari, Nour Eddine; Franke, Andre; Heilmann, Stefanie; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hoffmann, Per; Holmen, Oddgeir L; Hveem, Kristian; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kessler, Thorsten; Kriebel, Jennifer; Laugwitz, Karl L; Marouli, Eirini; Martinelli, Nicola; McCarthy, Mark I; Van Zuydam, Natalie R; Meisinger, Christa; Esko, Tõnu; Mihailov, Evelin; Escher, Stefan A; Alver, Maris; Moebus, Susanne; Morris, Andrew D; Virtamo, Jarma; Nikpay, Majid; Olivieri, Oliviero; Provost, Sylvie; AlQarawi, Alaa; Robertson, Neil R; Akinsansya, Karen O; Reilly, Dermot F; Vogt, Thomas F; Yin, Wu; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Kooperberg, Charles; Jackson, Rebecca D; Stahl, Eli; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Strauch, Konstantin; Varga, Tibor V; Waldenberger, Melanie; Zeng, Lingyao; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Salomaa, Veikko; Ford, Ian; Jukema, J Wouter; Amouyel, Philippe; Kontto, Jukka; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Ferrières, Jean; Saleheen, Danish; Sattar, Naveed; Surendran, Praveen; Wagner, Aline; Young, Robin; Howson, Joanna M M; Butterworth, Adam S; Danesh, John; Ardissino, Diego; Bottinger, Erwin P; Erbel, Raimund; Franks, Paul W; Girelli, Domenico; Hall, Alistair S; Hovingh, G Kees; Kastrati, Adnan; Lieb, Wolfgang; Meitinger, Thomas; Kraus, William E; Shah, Svati H; McPherson, Ruth; Orho-Melander, Marju; Melander, Olle; Metspalu, Andres; Palmer, Colin N A; Peters, Annette; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Loos, Ruth J F; Reiner, Alex P; Roden, Dan M; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Thompson, John R; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Willer, Cristen J; Samani, Nilesh J; Schunkert, Heribert; Deloukas, Panos; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have so far identified 56 loci associated with risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Many CAD loci show pleiotropy; that is, they are also associated with other diseases or traits. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to systematically test if genetic variants

  10. Effect of a primary health-care-based controlled trial for cardiorespiratory fitness in refugee women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Sven-Erik

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Refugee women have a high risk of coronary heart disease with low physical activity as one possible mediator. Furthermore, cultural and environmental barriers to increasing physical activity have been demonstrated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the combined effect of an approximate 6-month primary health care- and community-based exercise intervention versus an individual written prescription for exercise on objectively assessed cardiorespiratory fitness in low-active refugee women. Methods A controlled clinical trial, named "Support for Increased Physical Activity", was executed among 243 refugee women recruited between November 2006 and April 2008 from two deprived geographic areas in southern Stockholm, Sweden. One geographic area provided the intervention group and the other area the control group. The control group was on a higher activity level at both baseline and follow-up, which was taken into consideration in the analysis by applying statistical models that accounted for this. Relative aerobic capacity and fitness level were assessed as the two main outcome measures. Results The intervention group increased their relative aerobic capacity and the percentage with an acceptable fitness level (relative aerobic capacity > 23 O2ml·kg·min-1 to a greater extent than the control group between baseline and the 6-month follow-up, after adjusting for possible confounders (P = 0.020. Conclusions A combined primary health-care and community-based exercise programme (involving non-profit organizations can be an effective strategy to increase cardiorespiratory fitness among low-active refugee women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00747942

  11.  Female fibromyalgia patients have the same ability to improve aerobic fitness as healthy sedentary controls

    OpenAIRE

    Hafstad, Arild

    2010-01-01

    Background: Several cross-sectional studies have reported lower aerobic fitness among fibromyalgia (FM) patients compared to healthy controls. At present it is unknown whether the inferior aerobic fitness is a cause or a consequence of the illness. Objective: To examine if female FM patients have the same ability to enhance their aerobic fitness as healthy sedentary controls matched on age and BMI. A second objective was to investigate whether the FM patients experience an increase in pre...

  12. Aerobic Fitness and Cognitive Development: Event-Related Brain Potential and Task Performance Indices of Executive Control in Preadolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Charles H.; Buck, Sarah M.; Themanson, Jason R.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between aerobic fitness and executive control was assessed in 38 higher- and lower-fit children (M[subscript age] = 9.4 years), grouped according to their performance on a field test of aerobic capacity. Participants performed a flanker task requiring variable amounts of executive control while event-related brain potential…

  13. Testing Genetic Pleiotropy with GWAS Summary Statistics for Marginal and Conditional Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yangqing; Pan, Wei

    2017-12-01

    There is growing interest in testing genetic pleiotropy, which is when a single genetic variant influences multiple traits. Several methods have been proposed; however, these methods have some limitations. First, all the proposed methods are based on the use of individual-level genotype and phenotype data; in contrast, for logistical, and other, reasons, summary statistics of univariate SNP-trait associations are typically only available based on meta- or mega-analyzed large genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. Second, existing tests are based on marginal pleiotropy, which cannot distinguish between direct and indirect associations of a single genetic variant with multiple traits due to correlations among the traits. Hence, it is useful to consider conditional analysis, in which a subset of traits is adjusted for another subset of traits. For example, in spite of substantial lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) with statin therapy, some patients still maintain high residual cardiovascular risk, and, for these patients, it might be helpful to reduce their triglyceride (TG) level. For this purpose, in order to identify new therapeutic targets, it would be useful to identify genetic variants with pleiotropic effects on LDL and TG after adjusting the latter for LDL; otherwise, a pleiotropic effect of a genetic variant detected by a marginal model could simply be due to its association with LDL only, given the well-known correlation between the two types of lipids. Here, we develop a new pleiotropy testing procedure based only on GWAS summary statistics that can be applied for both marginal analysis and conditional analysis. Although the main technical development is based on published union-intersection testing methods, care is needed in specifying conditional models to avoid invalid statistical estimation and inference. In addition to the previously used likelihood ratio test, we also propose using generalized estimating equations under the

  14. PSO-tuned PID controller for coupled tank system via priority-based fitness scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Hazriq Izzuan; Hussien, Sharifah Yuslinda Syed; Selamat, Nur Asmiza; Abidin, Amar Faiz Zainal; Aras, Mohd Shahrieel Mohd; Nasir, Mohamad Na'im Mohd; Bohari, Zul Hasrizal

    2015-05-01

    The industrial applications of Coupled Tank System (CTS) are widely used especially in chemical process industries. The overall process is require liquids to be pumped, stored in the tank and pumped again to another tank. Nevertheless, the level of liquid in tank need to be controlled and flow between two tanks must be regulated. This paper presents development of an optimal PID controller for controlling the desired liquid level of the CTS. Two method of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm will be tested in optimizing the PID controller parameters. These two methods of PSO are standard Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Priority-based Fitness Scheme in Particle Swarm Optimization (PFPSO). Simulation is conducted within Matlab environment to verify the performance of the system in terms of settling time (Ts), steady state error (SSE) and overshoot (OS). It has been demonstrated that implementation of PSO via Priority-based Fitness Scheme (PFPSO) for this system is potential technique to control the desired liquid level and improve the system performances compared with standard PSO.

  15. Age-Dependent Pleiotropy Between General Cognitive Function and Major Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, W David; Davies, Gail; Liewald, David C; McIntosh, Andrew M; Deary, Ian J

    2016-08-15

    General cognitive function predicts psychiatric illness across the life course. This study examines the role of pleiotropy in explaining the link between cognitive function and psychiatric disorder. We used two large genome-wide association study data sets on cognitive function-one from older age, n = 53,949, and one from childhood, n = 12,441. We also used genome-wide association study data on educational attainment, n = 95,427, to examine the validity of its use as a proxy phenotype for cognitive function. Using a new method, linkage disequilibrium regression, we derived genetic correlations, free from the confounding of clinical state between psychiatric illness and cognitive function. We found a genetic correlation of .711 (p = 2.26e-12) across the life course for general cognitive function. We also showed a positive genetic correlation between autism spectrum disorder and cognitive function in childhood (rg = .360, p = .0009) and for educational attainment (rg = .322, p = 1.37e-5) but not in older age. In schizophrenia, we found a negative genetic correlation between older age cognitive function (rg = -.231, p = 3.81e-12) but not in childhood or for educational attainment. For Alzheimer's disease, we found negative genetic correlations with childhood cognitive function (rg = -.341, p = .001), educational attainment (rg = -.324, p = 1.15e-5), and with older age cognitive function (rg = -.324, p = 1.78e-5). The pleiotropy exhibited between cognitive function and psychiatric disorders changed across the life course. These age-dependent associations might explain why negative selection has not removed variants causally associated with autism spectrum disorder or schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Randomised controlled trial of informal team sports for cardiorespiratory fitness and health benefit in Pacific adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Mark G; Vincent, Grace; McCambridge, Alana; Britton, Gabrielle; Dewes, Ofa; Elley, C Raina; Moyes, Simon A; Edge, Johann

    2011-12-01

    Rates of obesity, Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease are high among Pacific people in New Zealand. Physical activity is recommended in the prevention and management of these conditions. Community-based, 'small-sided game' group activities may be an effective and culturally appropriate way to promote physical activity within Pacific communities. To assess the effectiveness of small-sided games-based exercise on fitness and health parameters among Pacific adults over four weeks. Twenty untrained (13 female) Pacific adults were randomised to intervention or control. Intervention participants were offered 45 minutes of small-sided games three times per week for four weeks. Control participants were offered one-month gym membership after the trial. Primary outcomes included cardiorespiratory fitness (VO₂peak) and leg strength (maximal concentric force of quadriceps at 60°/second) measured at baseline and four weeks. Secondary outcomes included glycaemia, lipid profile, blood pressure (BP), and inflammatory markers. Multivariable regression models were used to assess differences between groups, adjusting for baseline values, age and gender. At baseline, mean age was 34.8 years (SD 12.6), BMI 36.3 (6.7), systolic BP 127.7 mmHg (12.1), HbA1c 6.1% (1.9), VO₂peak 2.5 L/min (0.6) and leg strength 170.0 N.m (57.4). Sixteen participants completed the trial. Change in outcomes were greater in intervention than control participants in absolute VO₂peak (0.9 L/min (p=0.003)), leg strength (17.8 N.m (p=0.04)) and HDL (0.12 mmol/L (p=0.02)). There were no other significant differences. Small-sided games appear to be a promising means for improving the health and cardiorespiratory fitness and reducing the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Pacific adults.

  17. Promotion of physical activity and fitness in sedentary patients with Parkinson's disease: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nimwegen, Marlies; Speelman, Arlène D; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Smulders, Katrijn; Dontje, Manon L; Borm, George F; Backx, Frank J G; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Munneke, Marten

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate whether a multifaceted behavioural change programme increases physical activities in patients with Parkinson's disease. Multicentre randomised controlled trial. 32 community hospitals in the Netherlands, collaborating in a nationwide network (ParkinsonNet). 586 sedentary patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease aged between 40 and 75 years with mild to moderate disease severity (Hoehn and Yahr stage ≤ 3). Patients were randomly assigned to the ParkFit programme or a matched general physiotherapy intervention. ParkFit is a multifaceted behavioural change programme, designed specifically to achieve an enduring increase in the level of physical activity (coaches using motivational strategies; ambulatory feedback). The primary endpoint was the level of physical activity, measured every six months with a standardised seven day recall (LASA physical activity questionnaire-LAPAQ). Secondary endpoints included two other measures of physical activity (activity diary and ambulatory activity monitor), quality of life (Parkinson's disease questionnaire-PDQ-39), and fitness (six minute walk test). 540 (92.2%) patients completed the primary outcome. During follow-up, overall time spent on physical activities (LAPAQ) was comparable between the groups (adjusted group difference 7%, 95% confidence interval -3 to 17%; P=0.19). Analyses of three secondary outcomes indicated increased physical activity in ParkFit patients, as suggested by the activity diary (difference 30%; Pactivity monitor (difference 12%; Pphysical activity, as measured with the LAPAQ. The analysis of the secondary endpoints justifies further work into the possible merits of behavioural change programmes to increase physical activities in daily life in Parkinson's disease. Clinical trials NCT00748488.

  18. Visual Biofeedback Balance Training Using Wii Fit after Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcala, Luciana; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Colella, Fernanda; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Salgado, Afonso Shiguemi Inoue; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of balance training with visual biofeedback on balance, body symmetry, and function among individuals with hemiplegia following a stroke. [Subjects and Methods] The present study was performed using a randomized controlled clinical trial with a blinded evaluator. The subjects were twenty adults with hemiplegia following a stroke. The experimental group performed balance training with visual biofeedback using Wii Fit® together with conventional physical therapy. The control group underwent conventional physical therapy alone. The intervention lasted five weeks, with two sessions per week. Body symmetry (baropodometry), static balance (stabilometry), functional balance (Berg Balance Scale), functional mobility (Timed Up and Go test), and independence in activities of daily living (Functional Independence Measure) were assessed before and after the intervention. [Results] No statistically significant differences were found between the experimental and control groups. In the intragroup analysis, both groups demonstrated a significant improvement in all variables studied. [Conclusion] The physical therapy program combined with balance training involving visual biofeedback (Wii Fit®) led to an improvement in body symmetry, balance, and function among stroke victims. However, the improvement was similar to that achieved with conventional physical therapy alone. PMID:24259909

  19. Investigation of fitting capability of active mirror for controlling ICF's focal profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Zhige; Ling Ning; Jiang Wenhan

    1998-01-01

    Laser beam's profile at focal plane can be controlled using active mirror in ICF system because the beam's profile has strong relationship with the surface of active mirror, the surface of active mirror can be changed at any time and maintained for a long time. The capabilities of fitting given wave-front (computed by Geometric Transformation Method) at conditions of different actuator numbers and different arrangement have been investigated by computer simulation. The computing results present that the needed laser profile can obtained by adaptive optical technology

  20. An analysis of energy-efficient light fittings and lighting controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Danny H.W.; Cheung, K.L.; Wong, S.L.; Lam, Tony N.T.

    2010-01-01

    Electric lighting is one of the major energy consuming items in many non-domestic buildings. Using appropriate energy-efficient light fittings with dimming controls and proper daylighting schemes can help reduce the electrical demand and contribute to visual comfort and green building development. This paper presents a study on the energy and lighting performances for energy-efficient fluorescent lamps associated with electronic ballasts and high frequency photoelectric dimming controls installed in a school building. Electricity expenditures and indoor illuminance levels for a workshop and a classroom employing high frequency dimming controls were analyzed. Simple prediction methods were used to illustrate the lighting savings. The findings provide the operational and performance information, which would be applicable to other spaces with similar building layouts and lighting schemes.

  1. Smartphone apps to improve fitness and increase physical activity among young people: protocol of the Apps for IMproving FITness (AIMFIT) randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Artur; Jiang, Yannan; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph

    2015-07-11

    Physical activity is a modifiable behavior related to many preventable non-communicable diseases. There is an age-related decline in physical activity levels in young people, which tracks into adulthood. Common interactive technologies such as smartphones, particularly employing immersive features, may enhance the appeal and delivery of interventions to increase levels of physical activity in young people. The primary aim of the Apps for IMproving FITness (AIMFIT) trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of two popular "off-the-shelf" smartphone apps for improving cardiorespiratory fitness in young people. A three-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial will be conducted in Auckland, New Zealand. Fifty-one eligible young people aged 14-17 years will be randomized to one of three conditions: 1) use of an immersive smartphone app, 2) use of a non-immersive app, or 3) usual behavior (control). Both smartphone apps consist of an eight-week training program designed to improve fitness and ability to run 5 km, however, the immersive app features a game-themed design and adds a narrative. Data are collected at baseline and 8 weeks. The primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness, assessed as time to complete the one mile run/walk test at 8 weeks. Secondary outcomes are physical activity levels, self-efficacy, enjoyment, psychological need satisfaction, and acceptability and usability of the apps. Analysis using intention to treat principles will be performed using regression models. Despite the proliferation of commercially available smartphone applications, there is a dearth of empirical evidence to support their effectiveness on the targeted health behavior. This pragmatic study will determine the effectiveness of two popular "off-the-shelf" apps as a stand-alone instrument for improving fitness and physical activity among young people. Adherence to app use will not be closely controlled; however, random allocation of participants, a heterogeneous group, and data

  2. Daily energy expenditure, cardiorespiratory fitness and glycaemic control in people with type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Joseph Valletta

    Full Text Available Encouraging daily physical activity improves cardiorespiratory fitness and many cardiovascular risk factors. However, increasing physical activity often creates a challenge for people with type 1 diabetes, because of difficulties maintaining euglycemia in the face of altered food intake and adjustments to insulin doses. Our aim was to examine the triangular relationship between glucose control measured by continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS, objective measures of total daily energy expenditure (TEE recorded by a multi-sensory monitoring device, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, in free-living subjects with type 1 diabetes.Twenty-three individuals (12 women with type 1 diabetes who were free from micro- and macrovascular complications were recruited. TEE and glucose control were monitored simultaneously for up to 12 days, using a multi-sensory device and CGMS respectively. CRF was recorded as V02 max from a maximal treadmill test with the Bruce protocol.Subjects (mean±SD were aged 37±11 years, with BMI = 26.5±5.1 kg.m⁻², HbA1c = 7.7±1.3% (61±14 mmol/mol and V02 max (ml.min⁻¹.kg⁻¹  = 39.9±8.4 (range 22.4-58.6. TEE (36.3±5.5 kcal.kg⁻¹.day⁻¹ was strongly associated with CRF(39.9±8.4 ml.min⁻¹.kg⁻¹ independently of sex (r = 0.63, p<0.01. However, neither TEE (r = -0.20, p = 0.36 nor CRF (r = -0.20, p = 0.39; adjusted for sex, were significantly associated with mean glycaemia measured by CGMS.Higher levels of energy expenditure (due to a more active lifestyle are associated with increased cardiorespiratory fitness, but not necessarily better glycaemic control. Since increased levels of energy expenditure and good glycaemic control are both needed to protect against diabetes-related complications our data suggest they need to be achieved independently.

  3. Increasing students' physical activity during school physical education: rationale and protocol for the SELF-FIT cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Amy S; Lonsdale, Chris; Lubans, David R; Ng, Johan Y Y

    2017-07-11

    The Self-determined Exercise and Learning For FITness (SELF-FIT) is a multi-component school-based intervention based on tenets of self-determination theory. SELF-FIT aims to increase students' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during physical education lessons, and enhance their autonomous motivation towards fitness activities. Using a cluster randomized controlled trial, we aim to examine the effects of the intervention on students' MVPA during school physical education. Secondary 2 students (approximately aged 14 years) from 26 classes in 26 different schools will be recruited. After baseline assessments, students will be randomized into either the experimental group or wait-list control group using a matched-pair randomization. Teachers allocated to the experimental group will attend two half-day workshops and deliver the SELF-FIT intervention for 8 weeks. The main intervention components include training teachers to teach in more need supportive ways, and conducting fitness exercises using a fitness dice with interchangeable faces. Other motivational components, such as playing music during classes, are also included. The primary outcome of the trial is students' MVPA during PE lessons. Secondary outcomes include students' leisure-time MVPA, perceived need support from teachers, need satisfaction, autonomous motivation towards physical education, intention to engage in physical activity, psychological well-being, and health-related fitness (cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness). Quantitative data will be analyzed using multilevel modeling approaches. Focus group interviews will also be conducted to assess students' perceptions of the intervention. The SELF-FIT intervention has been designed to improve students' health and well-being by using high-intensity activities in classes delivered by teachers who have been trained to be autonomy needs supportive. If successful, scalable interventions based on SELF-FIT could be applied in physical

  4. Scenario-based fitted Q-iteration for adaptive control of water reservoir systems under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Federica; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Over recent years, mathematical models have largely been used to support planning and management of water resources systems. Yet, the increasing uncertainties in their inputs - due to increased variability in the hydrological regimes - are a major challenge to the optimal operations of these systems. Such uncertainty, boosted by projected changing climate, violates the stationarity principle generally used for describing hydro-meteorological processes, which assumes time persisting statistical characteristics of a given variable as inferred by historical data. As this principle is unlikely to be valid in the future, the probability density function used for modeling stochastic disturbances (e.g., inflows) becomes an additional uncertain parameter of the problem, which can be described in a deterministic and set-membership based fashion. This study contributes a novel method for designing optimal, adaptive policies for controlling water reservoir systems under climate-related uncertainty. The proposed method, called scenario-based Fitted Q-Iteration (sFQI), extends the original Fitted Q-Iteration algorithm by enlarging the state space to include the space of the uncertain system's parameters (i.e., the uncertain climate scenarios). As a result, sFQI embeds the set-membership uncertainty of the future inflow scenarios in the action-value function and is able to approximate, with a single learning process, the optimal control policy associated to any scenario included in the uncertainty set. The method is demonstrated on a synthetic water system, consisting of a regulated lake operated for ensuring reliable water supply to downstream users. Numerical results show that the sFQI algorithm successfully identifies adaptive solutions to operate the system under different inflow scenarios, which outperform the control policy designed under historical conditions. Moreover, the sFQI policy generalizes over inflow scenarios not directly experienced during the policy design

  5. Associations of object control motor skill proficiency, game play competence, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness among primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew; Eather, Narelle; Duncan, Mitch; Lubans, David Revalds

    2018-06-18

    This study investigated if object control relates to children's game play competence, and examined these competencies as correlates of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Game play (Game Performance Assessment Instrument), object control (The Test Gross Motor Development-3), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (Accelerometry), and cardiorespiratory fitness (20-metre shuttle) assessments were completed for 107 children (57% Female, 43% Male) aged 9-12 years (M 10.53, SD 0.65). Two-level regression of object control on game play competence, and object control and game play competence on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed associations. Object control competence was positively associated with game play competence (Std. B = 0.25, t (104.77) = 2.38, p = 0.001). Game play competence (Std. B = 0.33, t (99.81) = 5.21, p competence (Std. B = 0.20, t (106.93) = 2.96, p = 0.003). Likewise, game competence (Std. B = 0.39, t (104.41) = 4.36, p fitness than object control competence (Std. B = 0.22, t (106.69) = 2.63, p = 0.002). Object control and game competence are both important as correlates of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children.

  6. Restricted pleiotropy facilitates mutational erosion of major life-history traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Agnieszka; Korona, Ryszard

    2013-11-01

    Radical shifts to new natural and human made niches can make some functions unneeded and thus exposed to genetic degeneration. Here we ask not about highly specialized and rarely used functions but those relating to major life-history traits, rate of growth, and resistance to prolonged starvation. We found that in yeast each of the two traits was visibly impaired by at least several hundred individual gene deletions. There were relatively few deletions affecting negatively both traits and likely none harming one but improving the other. Functional profiles of gene deletions affecting either growth or survival were strikingly different: the first related chiefly to synthesis of macromolecules whereas the second to maintenance and recycling of cellular structures. The observed pattern of gene indispensability corresponds to that of gene induction, providing a rather rare example of agreement between the results of deletion and expression studies. We conclude that transitions to new environments in which the ability to grow at possibly fastest rate or survive under very long starvation become practically unnecessary can result in rapid erosion of these vital functions because they are coded by many genes constituting large mutational targets and because restricted pleiotropy is unlikely to constrain this process. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with selective attention and inhibitory control in healthy male high-school students

    OpenAIRE

    Wengaard, Eivind Johannessen; Kristoffersen, Morten; Harris, Anette; Gundersen, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown associations of physical fitness and cognition in children and in younger and older adults. However, knowledge about associations in high-school adolescents and young adults is sparse. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of physical fitness, measured as maximal oxygen uptake (V⋅O2max), muscle mass, weekly training, and cognitive function in the executive domains of selective attention and inhibitory control, in healthy male ...

  8. Aerobic fitness in patients with fibrositis. A controlled study of respiratory gas exchange and 133-xenon clearance from exercising muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.M.; Clark, S.R.; Goldberg, L.; Nelson, D.; Bonafede, R.P.; Porter, J.; Specht, D.

    1989-01-01

    Aerobic fitness was evaluated in 25 women with fibrositis, by having them exercise to volitional exhaustion on an electronically braked cycle ergometer. Compared with published standards, greater than 80% of the fibrositis patients were not physically fit, as assessed by maximal oxygen uptake. Compared with matched sedentary controls, fibrositis patients accurately perceived their level of exertion in relation to oxygen consumption and attained a similar level of lactic acidosis, as assessed by their respiratory quotient and ventilatory threshold. Exercising muscle blood flow was estimated by 133-xenon clearance in a subgroup of 16 fibrositis patients and compared with that in 16 matched sedentary controls; the fibrositis patients exhibited reduced 133-xenon clearance. These results indicate a need to include aerobic fitness as a matched variable in future controlled studies of fibrositis and suggest that the detraining phenomenon may be of relevance to the etiopathogenesis of the disease

  9. More automation and less cognitive control of imagined walking movements in high versus low fit older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Godde

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Using motor imagery, we investigated brain activation in simple and complex walking tasks (walking forward and backward on a treadmill and analyzed if the motor status of older adults influenced these activation patterns. 51 older adults (64-79 years of age were trained in motor execution and imagery and then performed the imagination task and two control tasks (standing, counting backward in a horizontal position within a 3T MRI scanner (first person perspective, eyes closed. Walking backward as compared to walking forward required larger activations in the primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, parietal cortex, thalamus, putamen, and caudatum, but less activation in the cerebellum and brainstem. Motor high-fit individuals showed more activations and larger BOLD signals in motor-related areas compared to low-fit participants but demonstrated lower activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Moreover, parietal activation in high-fit participants remained stable throughout the movement period whereas low-fit participants revealed an early drop in activity in this area accompanied by increasing activity in frontal brain regions. Overall, walking forward seemed to be more automated (more activation in cerebellum and brainstem, whereas walking backward required more resources, e.g. for visual-spatial processing and sensorimotor control. Low-fit subjects in particular seemed to require more cognitive resources for planning and controlling. High-fit subjects, on the contrary, revealed more movement automation and a higher “attention span.” Our results support the hypothesis that high fitness corresponds with more automation and less cognitive control of complex motor tasks, which might help to free up cognitive resources.

  10. Exercise counseling to enhance smoking cessation outcomes: the Fit2Quit randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Ralph; Roberts, Vaughan; McRobbie, Hayden; Bullen, Christopher; Prapavessis, Harry; Glover, Marewa; Jiang, Yannan; Brown, Paul; Leung, William; Taylor, Sue; Tsai, Midi

    2014-10-01

    Regular exercise has been proposed as a potential smoking cessation aid. This study aimed to determine the effects of an exercise counseling program on cigarette smoking abstinence at 24 weeks. A parallel, two-arm, randomized controlled trial was conducted. Adult cigarette smokers (n = 906) who were insufficiently active and interested in quitting were randomized to receive the Fit2Quit intervention (10 exercise telephone counseling sessions over 6 months) plus usual care (behavioral counseling and nicotine replacement therapy) or usual care alone. There were no significant group differences in 7-day point-prevalence and continuous abstinence at 6 months. The more intervention calls successfully delivered, the lower the probability of smoking (OR, 0.88; 95 % CI 0.81-0.97, p = 0.01) in the intervention group. A significant difference was observed for leisure time physical activity (difference = 219.11 MET-minutes/week; 95 % CI 52.65-385.58; p = 0.01). Telephone-delivered exercise counseling may not be sufficient to improve smoking abstinence rates over and above existing smoking cessation services. (Australasian Clinical Trials Registry Number: ACTRN12609000637246.).

  11. Enhancing water stress tolerance improves fitness in biological control strains of Lactobacillus plantarum in plant environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daranas, Núria; Badosa, Esther; Francés, Jesús; Montesinos, Emilio; Bonaterra, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum strains PM411 and TC92 can efficiently control bacterial plant diseases, but their fitness on the plant surface is limited under unfavourable low relative humidity (RH) conditions. To increase tolerance of these strains to water stress, an adaptive strategy was used consisting of hyperosmotic and acidic conditions during growth. Adapted cells had higher survival rates under desiccation than non-adapted cells. Transcript levels and patterns of general stress-related genes increased immediately after the combined-stress adaptation treatment, and remained unaltered or repressed during the desiccation challenge. However, there were differences between strains in the transcription patterns that were in agreement with a better performance of adapted cells of PM411 than TC92 in plant surfaces under low RH environmental conditions. The combined-stress adaptation treatment increased the survival of PM411 cells consistently in different plant hosts in the greenhouse and under field conditions. Stress-adapted cells of PM411 had similar biocontrol potential against bacterial plant pathogens than non-adapted cells, but with less variability within experiments.

  12. Enhancing water stress tolerance improves fitness in biological control strains of Lactobacillus plantarum in plant environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Daranas

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum strains PM411 and TC92 can efficiently control bacterial plant diseases, but their fitness on the plant surface is limited under unfavourable low relative humidity (RH conditions. To increase tolerance of these strains to water stress, an adaptive strategy was used consisting of hyperosmotic and acidic conditions during growth. Adapted cells had higher survival rates under desiccation than non-adapted cells. Transcript levels and patterns of general stress-related genes increased immediately after the combined-stress adaptation treatment, and remained unaltered or repressed during the desiccation challenge. However, there were differences between strains in the transcription patterns that were in agreement with a better performance of adapted cells of PM411 than TC92 in plant surfaces under low RH environmental conditions. The combined-stress adaptation treatment increased the survival of PM411 cells consistently in different plant hosts in the greenhouse and under field conditions. Stress-adapted cells of PM411 had similar biocontrol potential against bacterial plant pathogens than non-adapted cells, but with less variability within experiments.

  13. Laser surface texturing for high control of interference fit joint load bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidi, M. Ahmed; McCarthy, E.; Brabazon, D.

    2017-10-01

    Laser beams attract the attention of researchers, engineers and manufacturer as they can deliver high energy with finite controlled processing parameters and heat affected zone (HAZ) on almost all kind of materials [1-3]. Laser beams can be generated in the broad range of wavelengths, energies and beam modes in addition to the unique property of propagation in straight lines with less or negligible divergence [3]. These features made lasers preferential for metal treatment and surface modification over the conventional machining and heat treatment methods. Laser material forming and processing is prosperous and competitive because of its flexibility and the creation of new solutions and techniques [3-5]. This study is focused on the laser surface texture of 316L stainless steel pins for the application of interference fit, widely used in automotive and aerospace industry. The main laser processing parameters applied are the power, frequency and the overlapping laser beam scans. The produced samples were characterized by measuring the increase in the insertion diameter, insertion and removal force, surface morphology and cross section alteration and the modified layer chemical composition and residual stresses.

  14. Pleiotropy among common genetic loci identified for cardiometabolic disorders and C-reactive protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Symen Ligthart

    Full Text Available Pleiotropic genetic variants have independent effects on different phenotypes. C-reactive protein (CRP is associated with several cardiometabolic phenotypes. Shared genetic backgrounds may partially underlie these associations. We conducted a genome-wide analysis to identify the shared genetic background of inflammation and cardiometabolic phenotypes using published genome-wide association studies (GWAS. We also evaluated whether the pleiotropic effects of such loci were biological or mediated in nature. First, we examined whether 283 common variants identified for 10 cardiometabolic phenotypes in GWAS are associated with CRP level. Second, we tested whether 18 variants identified for serum CRP are associated with 10 cardiometabolic phenotypes. We used a Bonferroni corrected p-value of 1.1×10-04 (0.05/463 as a threshold of significance. We evaluated the independent pleiotropic effect on both phenotypes using individual level data from the Women Genome Health Study. Evaluating the genetic overlap between inflammation and cardiometabolic phenotypes, we found 13 pleiotropic regions. Additional analyses showed that 6 regions (APOC1, HNF1A, IL6R, PPP1R3B, HNF4A and IL1F10 appeared to have a pleiotropic effect on CRP independent of the effects on the cardiometabolic phenotypes. These included loci where individuals carrying the risk allele for CRP encounter higher lipid levels and risk of type 2 diabetes. In addition, 5 regions (GCKR, PABPC4, BCL7B, FTO and TMEM18 had an effect on CRP largely mediated through the cardiometabolic phenotypes. In conclusion, our results show genetic pleiotropy among inflammation and cardiometabolic phenotypes. In addition to reverse causation, our data suggests that pleiotropic genetic variants partially underlie the association between CRP and cardiometabolic phenotypes.

  15. Increasing students’ physical activity during school physical education: rationale and protocol for the SELF-FIT cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S. Ha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Self-determined Exercise and Learning For FITness (SELF-FIT is a multi-component school-based intervention based on tenets of self-determination theory. SELF-FIT aims to increase students’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA during physical education lessons, and enhance their autonomous motivation towards fitness activities. Using a cluster randomized controlled trial, we aim to examine the effects of the intervention on students’ MVPA during school physical education. Methods Secondary 2 students (approximately aged 14 years from 26 classes in 26 different schools will be recruited. After baseline assessments, students will be randomized into either the experimental group or wait-list control group using a matched-pair randomization. Teachers allocated to the experimental group will attend two half-day workshops and deliver the SELF-FIT intervention for 8 weeks. The main intervention components include training teachers to teach in more need supportive ways, and conducting fitness exercises using a fitness dice with interchangeable faces. Other motivational components, such as playing music during classes, are also included. The primary outcome of the trial is students’ MVPA during PE lessons. Secondary outcomes include students’ leisure-time MVPA, perceived need support from teachers, need satisfaction, autonomous motivation towards physical education, intention to engage in physical activity, psychological well-being, and health-related fitness (cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness. Quantitative data will be analyzed using multilevel modeling approaches. Focus group interviews will also be conducted to assess students’ perceptions of the intervention. Discussion The SELF-FIT intervention has been designed to improve students’ health and well-being by using high-intensity activities in classes delivered by teachers who have been trained to be autonomy needs supportive. If successful, scalable

  16. Effects of supplemental training on fitness and aesthetic competence parameters in contemporary dance: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioi, Manuela; Metsios, George; Twitchett, Emily A; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew

    2012-03-01

    Within aesthetic sports such as figure skating and rhythmic gymnastics, physical fitness has been shown to have positive benefits on performance outcomes. Presently the link between physical fitness and aesthetic contemporary dance performance has not been demonstrated within an intervention study. In this study, 24 females engaged in contemporary dance (age 27 ± 5.9 yrs; height 165.3 ± 4.8 cm; weight 59.2 ± 7.6 kg) were recruited and randomly assigned to either an exercise (n = 12) or a control group (n = 12). Three dancers withdrew during the study. The intervention group completed a 6-week conditioning programme comprising two 1-hr sessions of circuit and vibration training per week. The circuit training focused on local muscular endurance and aerobic conditioning and vibration training protocol concentrated on power. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant increases for the conditioning group in lower body muscular power (11%), upper body muscular endurance (22%), aerobic fitness (11%), and aesthetic competence (12%) (p fitness parameters with the exception of aerobic fitness as well as a decrease in aesthetic competence (7%). A 6-week circuit and vibration training programme, which supplemented normal dance commitments, revealed significant increases in selected fitness components and a concomitant increase in aesthetic competence in contemporary professional and student dancers.

  17. A new mobile ubiquitous computing application to control obesity: SapoFit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Lopes, Ivo M C; Silva, Bruno M C; Torre, Isabel de La

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was the proposal, design, construction and validation of a mobile health system for dietetic monitoring and assessment, called SapoFit. This application may be personalized to keep a daily personal health record of an individual's food intake and daily exercise and to share this with a social network. The initiative is a partnership with SAPO - Portugal Telecom. SapoFit uses Web services architecture, a relatively new model for distributed computing and application integration. SapoFit runs on a range of mobile platforms, and it has been implemented successfully in a range of mobile devices and has been evaluated by over 100 users. Most users strongly agree that SapoFit has an attractive design, the environment is user-friendly and intuitive, and the navigation options are clear.

  18. FitMindKit: Randomised controlled trial of an automatically tailored online program for mood, anxiety, substance use and suicidality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Batterham

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Online mental health programs can be effective in reducing symptoms of depression, anxiety disorders, substance use and suicidal ideation. However, most existing e-mental health programs focus on a single domain of mental health, neglecting comorbidity. Furthermore, few programs are tailored to the symptom patterns of the individual user. FitMindKit was designed to overcome the gaps of existing e-mental health programs, providing tailored, transdiagnostic therapeutic content to address a range of comorbid mental health symptoms. A trial was conducted to test the program's efficacy. Methods: Australian adults with elevated symptoms of depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation and/or substance use were recruited through social media, with n=194 randomised into a fully-automated trial of a 10-day brief intervention. Participants were randomly allocated to receive FitMindKit tailored to their symptoms, an untailored generic version of FitMindKit, or an attention control. Results: Mixed model repeated measures ANOVA indicated that participants in both FitMindKit and the attention control had significant reductions in symptom composite scores. Effects were not significantly greater in the FitMindKit program relative to control, either at post-test or 3-month follow-up. No effects were detected for specific decreases in depression, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, panic, suicidal ideation or alcohol/substance use. There were no significant differences between the tailored and static versions in effectiveness or adherence. Participants in the tailored and static conditions were more satisfied than in the control condition, with some evidence favouring the tailored condition. High attrition reduced power to find effects. Conclusions: FitMindKit provides a model for addressing comorbid mental health symptoms in an online program, using automated tailoring to symptom patterns. Modifications to the program are recommended, along with the need for

  19. Tests and standards for express-control of physical fitness and health of middle school age pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Bodnar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: to day, physical fitness testing often causes negative emotions in pupils. It results in sharp loss of pupils’ wish to fulfill physical exercises in free time and worsens their health. Possibility to assess health level is an important motivation factor for pupils’ passing physical tests. Objective testing system will form positive motivation for physical exercises’ practicing and will facilitate increase of pupils’ motor functioning. It will also facilitate optimization of their physical condition, improvement of physical fitness and strengthening of health. Material: we tested physical fitness level and made diagnosis of pupils’ functional state (10-15 years’ age; n=85 with the help of tool methodic. We also used regressive analysis. Results: the system of tests and standards for express-control over physical fitness and health of middle school age pupils has been worked out and substantiated. The system of tests envisages fulfillment of 4 exercises: back pressing ups on bench during 20 seconds; throwing and catching of ball with two hands from wall during 30 seconds; side bending; torso rising from lying position into sitting during 30 seconds. Integral indicator of pupils’ physical fitness and health correlates with functional state of organism’s leading systems. We worked out 5 levels’ scale for express-control over physical fitness and health of middle school age pupils. The system stipulates calculation of integrative indicator with the help of regression equation by results of 4 test exercises and calculation of one index. Conclusions: The system of tests and standards permits the following: to divide pupils into relatively uniform groups even at the beginning of academic year for successful reasonable physical load. The system also permits to determine standard and find what shall be strived for by a pupil in order to achieve optimal physical fitness and somatic state; to motivate relatively weakly

  20. Facultative control of matrix production optimizes competitive fitness in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 biofilm models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jonas S; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Squyres, Georgia R; Price-Whelan, Alexa; de Santiago Torio, Ana; Song, Angela; Cornell, William C; Sørensen, Søren J; Xavier, Joao B; Dietrich, Lars E P

    2015-12-01

    As biofilms grow, resident cells inevitably face the challenge of resource limitation. In the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14, electron acceptor availability affects matrix production and, as a result, biofilm morphogenesis. The secreted matrix polysaccharide Pel is required for pellicle formation and for colony wrinkling, two activities that promote access to O2. We examined the exploitability and evolvability of Pel production at the air-liquid interface (during pellicle formation) and on solid surfaces (during colony formation). Although Pel contributes to the developmental response to electron acceptor limitation in both biofilm formation regimes, we found variation in the exploitability of its production and necessity for competitive fitness between the two systems. The wild type showed a competitive advantage against a non-Pel-producing mutant in pellicles but no advantage in colonies. Adaptation to the pellicle environment selected for mutants with a competitive advantage against the wild type in pellicles but also caused a severe disadvantage in colonies, even in wrinkled colony centers. Evolution in the colony center produced divergent phenotypes, while adaptation to the colony edge produced mutants with clear competitive advantages against the wild type in this O2-replete niche. In general, the structurally heterogeneous colony environment promoted more diversification than the more homogeneous pellicle. These results suggest that the role of Pel in community structure formation in response to electron acceptor limitation is unique to specific biofilm models and that the facultative control of Pel production is required for PA14 to maintain optimum benefit in different types of communities. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Workplace exercise and educational program for improving fitness outcomes related to health in workers: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Bianca Lima; Benedito Silva, Ana Amélia; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Andrade, Marília dos Santos

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the effects of a workplace fitness and education program intervention on physical fitness of workers. Employees from a chemical plant (n = 60) participated in a 4-month longitudinal study. They were randomly distributed in control and experimental groups. The experimental group had 4 months of exercise training in 15-minute sessions. The following evaluations were performed before and after the training period: body composition, localized muscle strength, and flexibility. The experimental group showed a significant decrease in body fat (24.7%) and a significant increase in lean mass (6.1%), flexibility (17.9%), sit-up test performance (39.8%), and push-up test performance (29.8%) after the workplace fitness and education program compared with initial values. A structured program of physical exercise was effective in improving body composition, abdominal strength, upper limb strength, and flexibility in workers.

  2. The role of physical activity and physical fitness in postcancer fatigue: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen, H.; Bleijenberg, G.; Heijmen, L.; Zwarts, M. J.; Leer, J. W. H.; Heerschap, A.; Hopman, M. T. E.; van Laarhoven, H. W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Patients suffering from postcancer fatigue have both an inferior physical activity and physical fitness compared to non-fatigued cancer survivors. The aims of this study were (1) to examine the effect of cognitive behavior therapy, an effective treatment for postcancer fatigue, on physical activity

  3. Outcomes of a Peer Mentor Implemented Fitness Program in Older Adults: A Quasi-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgo, Sandor; King, George A.; Bader, Julia O.; Limon, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effectiveness of different applications of mentoring in an older adult exercise program, this study compared the physical fitness scores, the retention and participation rates of older adults trained by student mentors, peer mentors, peer mentors working independently of the researchers, and a non-exercising control group. Methods 106 older adults were recruited and assigned to one of the groups using quasi-randomization. All three experimental groups completed a 14-week intervention. Pre- and post-training assessments of fitness were completed, and retention and participation rates were compared. Results High retention and participation rates, as well as significant improvements in fitness scores from baseline to post-test were observed in all three mentored groups. While the control group showed improvement only in one fitness test, subjects in the mentored groups improved similarly in all measures, regardless of the type of mentoring received. Discussion These findings indicated effectiveness of the peer mentor model and suggested that with adequate preparation peer mentors may be capable of guiding older adult participants effectively without assistance from professional staff. PMID:23279966

  4. Effect of a 26-month floorball training on male elderly's cardiovascular fitness, glucose control, body composition, and functional capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Vorup, Jacob; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-01-01

    , the effect of long-term participation in floorball training among male elderly has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of 26-month self-organized regular participation in floorball training on cardiovascular fitness, body composition, blood lipids, glucose control...... weekly floorball sessions with 40 min/session over 26-month appear to reduce age-related decline in cardiovascular fitness and glucose control and improve leg bone mineral density, suggesting that long-term participation in floorball training can be considered as a health-enhancing activity......Background: Floorball training offers a motivating and socially stimulating team activity for older adults, and 12 weeks of floorball training twice a week among men aged 65–76 years have been shown to have positive effects on a number of physiological parameters important for health. However...

  5. Apps for IMproving FITness and Increasing Physical Activity Among Young People: The AIMFIT Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Artur; Jiang, Yannan; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph

    2015-08-27

    Given the global prevalence of insufficient physical activity (PA), effective interventions that attenuate age-related decline in PA levels are needed. Mobile phone interventions that positively affect health (mHealth) show promise; however, their impact on PA levels and fitness in young people is unclear and little is known about what makes a good mHealth app. The aim was to determine the effects of two commercially available smartphone apps (Zombies, Run and Get Running) on cardiorespiratory fitness and PA levels in insufficiently active healthy young people. A second aim was to identify the features of the app design that may contribute to improved fitness and PA levels. Apps for IMproving FITness (AIMFIT) was a 3-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial conducted in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants were recruited through advertisements in electronic mailing lists, local newspapers, flyers posted in community locations, and presentations at schools. Eligible young people aged 14-17 years were allocated at random to 1 of 3 conditions: (1) use of an immersive app (Zombies, Run), (2) use of a nonimmersive app (Get Running), or (3) usual behavior (control). Both smartphone apps consisted of a fully automated 8-week training program designed to improve fitness and ability to run 5 km; however, the immersive app featured a game-themed design and narrative. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed using data collected face-to-face at baseline and 8 weeks, and all regression models were adjusted for baseline outcome value and gender. The primary outcome was cardiorespiratory fitness, objectively assessed as time to complete the 1-mile run/walk test at 8 weeks. Secondary outcomes were PA levels (accelerometry and self-reported), enjoyment, psychological need satisfaction, self-efficacy, and acceptability and usability of the apps. A total of 51 participants were randomized to the immersive app intervention (n=17), nonimmersive app intervention (n=16), or the

  6. Four-Year Change in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Influence on Glycemic Control in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes in a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakicic, John M.; Egan, Caitlin M.; Fabricatore, Anthony N.; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Glasser, Stephen P.; Hesson, Louise A.; Knowler, William C.; Lang, Wei; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Ribisl, Paul M.; Ryan, Donna H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) on 4-year change in fitness and physical activity (PA), and to examine the effect of change in fitness and PA, adjusting for potential confounders, on glycemic control in the Look AHEAD Trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects were overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with available fitness data at 4 years (n = 3,942).This clinical trial randomized subjects to DSE or ILI. DSE subjects received standard care plus information related to diet, PA, and social support three times per year. ILI subjects received weekly intervention contact for 6 months, which was reduced over the 4-year period, and were prescribed diet and PA. Measures included weight, fitness, PA, and HbA1c. RESULTS The difference in percent fitness change between ILI and DSE at 4 years was significant after adjustment for baseline fitness and change in weight (3.70 vs. 0.94%; P Fitness change at 4 years was inversely related to change in HbA1c after adjustment for clinical site, treatment, baseline HbA1c, prescribed diabetes medication, baseline fitness, and weight change (P fitness and PA in overweight/obese individuals with T2DM. Change in fitness was associated with improvements in glycemic control, which provides support for interventions to improve fitness in adults with T2DM. PMID:23223405

  7. Improved Detection of Common Variants Associated with Schizophrenia by Leveraging Pleiotropy with Cardiovascular-Disease Risk Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Ole A; Djurovic, Srdjan; Thompson, Wesley K

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have the potential to explain more of the "missing heritability" of common complex phenotypes. However, reliable methods for identifying a larger proportion of SNPs are currently lacking. Here, we present a genetic......-pleiotropy-informed method for improving gene discovery with the use of GWAS summary-statistics data. We applied this methodology to identify additional loci associated with schizophrenia (SCZ), a highly heritable disorder with significant missing heritability. Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest comorbidity...... of the association with several CVD risk factors and a corresponding reduction in false discovery rate (FDR). We validate this "pleiotropic enrichment" by demonstrating increased replication rate across independent SCZ substudies. Applying the stratified FDR method, we identified 25 loci associated with SCZ...

  8. CF-Pursuit: A Pursuit Method with a Clothoid Fitting and a Fuzzy Controller for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxiao Shan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple and efficient geometric controllers, like Pure-Pursuit, have been widely used in various types of autonomous vehicles to solve tracking problems. In this paper, we have developed a new pursuit method, named CF-Pursuit, which has been based on Pure-Pursuit but with certain differences. In CF-Pursuit, in order to reduce fitting errors, we used a clothoid C1 curve to replace the circle employed in Pure-Pursuit. This improvement to the fitting method helps the Pursuit method to decrease tracking errors. As regards the selection of look-ahead distance, we employed a fuzzy system to directly consider the path's curvature. There are three input variables in this fuzzy system, 6mcurvature, 9mcurvature and 12mcurvature, calculated from the clothoid fit with the current position and the goal position on the defined path. A Sugeno fuzzy model was adapted to output a reasonable look-ahead distance using the experiences of human drivers as well as our own tests. Compared with some other geometric controllers, CF-Pursuit performs better in robustness, cross track errors and stability. The results from field tests have proven the CF-Pursuit is a practical and efficient geometric method for the path tracking problems of autonomous vehicles.

  9. Shared regulatory sites are abundant in the human genome and shed light on genome evolution and disease pleiotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Pin; Monahan, Jack; Prendergast, James G D

    2017-03-01

    Large-scale gene expression datasets are providing an increasing understanding of the location of cis-eQTLs in the human genome and their role in disease. However, little is currently known regarding the extent of regulatory site-sharing between genes. This is despite it having potentially wide-ranging implications, from the determination of the way in which genetic variants may shape multiple phenotypes to the understanding of the evolution of human gene order. By first identifying the location of non-redundant cis-eQTLs, we show that regulatory site-sharing is a relatively common phenomenon in the human genome, with over 10% of non-redundant regulatory variants linked to the expression of multiple nearby genes. We show that these shared, local regulatory sites are linked to high levels of chromatin looping between the regulatory sites and their associated genes. In addition, these co-regulated gene modules are found to be strongly conserved across mammalian species, suggesting that shared regulatory sites have played an important role in shaping human gene order. The association of these shared cis-eQTLs with multiple genes means they also appear to be unusually important in understanding the genetics of human phenotypes and pleiotropy, with shared regulatory sites more often linked to multiple human phenotypes than other regulatory variants. This study shows that regulatory site-sharing is likely an underappreciated aspect of gene regulation and has important implications for the understanding of various biological phenomena, including how the two and three dimensional structures of the genome have been shaped and the potential causes of disease pleiotropy outside coding regions.

  10. Multivariable polynomial fitting of controlled single-phase nonlinear load of input current total harmonic distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Roman; Markiewicz, Przemysław; Pabjańczyk, Wiesława

    2018-04-01

    The power systems usually include a number of nonlinear receivers. Nonlinear receivers are the source of disturbances generated to the power system in the form of higher harmonics. The level of these disturbances describes the total harmonic distortion coefficient THD. Its value depends on many factors. One of them are the deformation and change in RMS value of supply voltage. A modern LED luminaire is a nonlinear receiver as well. The paper presents the results of the analysis of the influence of change in RMS value of supply voltage and the level of dimming of the tested luminaire on the value of the current THD. The analysis was made using a mathematical model based on multivariable polynomial fitting.

  11. Multivariable polynomial fitting of controlled single-phase nonlinear load of input current total harmonic distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikora Roman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The power systems usually include a number of nonlinear receivers. Nonlinear receivers are the source of disturbances generated to the power system in the form of higher harmonics. The level of these disturbances describes the total harmonic distortion coefficient THD. Its value depends on many factors. One of them are the deformation and change in RMS value of supply voltage. A modern LED luminaire is a nonlinear receiver as well. The paper presents the results of the analysis of the influence of change in RMS value of supply voltage and the level of dimming of the tested luminaire on the value of the current THD. The analysis was made using a mathematical model based on multivariable polynomial fitting.

  12. Facultative control of matrix production optimizes competitive fitness in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 biofilm models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Lin, Yu Cheng; Squyres, Georgia R.

    2015-01-01

    response to electron acceptor limitation in both biofilm formation regimes, we found variation in the exploitability of its production and necessity for competitive fitness between the two systems. The wild type showed a competitive advantage against a non-Pel-producing mutant in pellicles but no advantage...... in colonies. Adaptation to the pellicle environment selected for mutants with a competitive advantage against the wild type in pellicles but also caused a severe disadvantage in colonies, even in wrinkled colony centers. Evolution in the colony center produced divergent phenotypes, while adaptation...... to the colony edge produced mutants with clear competitive advantages against the wild type in this O2-replete niche. In general, the structurally heterogeneous colony environment promoted more diversification than the more homogeneous pellicle. These results suggest that the role of Pel in community structure...

  13. Efficacy of Wii-Fit on Static and Dynamic Balance in Community Dwelling Older Veterans: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana P. Padala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives. Balance problems are well-established modifiable risk factors for falls, which are common in older adults. The objective of this study was to establish the efficacy of a Wii-Fit interactive video-game-led physical exercise program to improve balance in older Veterans. Methods. A prospective randomized controlled parallel-group trial was conducted at Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Thirty community dwelling Veterans aged 68 (±6.7 years were randomized to either the exercise or control groups. The exercise group performed Wii-Fit program while the control group performed a computer-based cognitive program for 45 minutes, three days per week for 8-weeks. The primary (Berg Balance Scale (BBS and secondary outcomes (fear of falling, physical activity enjoyment, and quality of life were measured at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. Results. Of 30 randomized subjects, 27 completed all aspects of the study protocol. There were no study-related adverse events. Intent-to-treat analysis showed a significantly greater improvement in BBS in the exercise group (6.0; 95% CI, 5.1–6.9 compared to the control group (0.5; 95% CI, −0.3–1.3 at 8 weeks (average intergroup difference (95% CI, 5.5 (4.3–6.7, p < 0.001 after adjusting for baseline. Conclusion. This study establishes that the Wii-Fit exercise program is efficacious in improving balance in community dwelling older Veterans. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02190045.

  14. An overview of the Families Improving Together (FIT) for weight loss randomized controlled trial in African American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dawn K; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Resnicow, Ken; Van Horn, M Lee; St George, Sara M; Siceloff, E Rebekah; Alia, Kassandra A; McDaniel, Tyler; Heatley, VaShawn; Huffman, Lauren; Coulon, Sandra; Prinz, Ron

    2015-05-01

    The Families Improving Together (FIT) randomized controlled trial tests the efficacy of integrating cultural tailoring, positive parenting, and motivational strategies into a comprehensive curriculum for weight loss in African American adolescents. The overall goal of the FIT trial is to test the effects of an integrated intervention curriculum and the added effects of a tailored web-based intervention on reducing z-BMI in overweight African American adolescents. The FIT trial is a randomized group cohort design the will involve 520 African American families with an overweight adolescent between the ages of 11-16 years. The trial tests the efficacy of an 8-week face-to-face group randomized program comparing M + FWL (Motivational Plus Family Weight Loss) to a comprehensive health education program (CHE) and re-randomizes participants to either an 8-week on-line tailored intervention or control on-line program resulting in a 2 (M + FWL vs. CHE group) × 2 (on-line intervention vs. control on-line program) factorial design to test the effects of the intervention on reducing z-BMI at post-treatment and at 6-month follow-up. The interventions for this trial are based on a theoretical framework that is novel and integrates elements from cultural tailoring, Family Systems Theory, Self-Determination Theory and Social Cognitive Theory. The intervention targets positive parenting skills (parenting style, monitoring, communication); cultural values; teaching parents to increase youth motivation by encouraging youth to have input and choice (autonomy-support); and provides a framework for building skills and self-efficacy through developing weight loss action plans that target goal setting, monitoring, and positive feedback. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Effects of High-Intensity Hatha Yoga on Cardiovascular Fitness, Adipocytokines, and Apolipoproteins in Healthy Students: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Marian E; Lindfors, Petra; Nygren-Bonnier, Malin; Gullstrand, Lennart; Wändell, Per E

    2016-01-01

    Yoga exercises are often used as a form of body and mind exercise to increase performance. However, knowledge about the physiologic effects of performing high-intensity Hatha yoga exercises over a longer time period remains limited. To investigate the effects of high-intensity yoga (HIY) on cardiovascular fitness (maximal oxygen consumption, estimated from the Cooper running test), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR), heart rate recovery (HRR), blood pressure (BP), adipocytokines, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in healthy students. The 44 participants (38 women and 6 men; median age, 25 years [range, 20-39 years]) were randomly assigned to an HIY or a control group. The HIY program was held for 6 weeks (60 minutes once a week). Cardiovascular fitness, RPE, HR, HRR, BP, adipocytokines, HbA1c, ApoA1, and ApoB were measured at baseline and after 6 weeks in both groups. HIY had no significant effects on cardiovascular fitness (mean dose: 390 minutes [range, 210-800 minutes]), HR, HRR, BP, or any of the blood parameters. However, ApoA1 (1.47 ± 0.17 to 1.55 ± 0.16 g/L; p = 0.03) and adiponectin (8.32 ± 3.32 to 9.68 ± 3.83 mg/L; p = 0.003) levels increased significantly in the HIY group after 6 weeks. Six weeks of HIY did not significantly improve cardiovascular fitness. However, ApoA1 and adiponectin levels increased significantly in the HIY group. This finding suggests that HIY may have positive effects on blood lipids and an anti-inflammatory effect.

  16. The Csr System Regulates Escherichia coli Fitness by Controlling Glycogen Accumulation and Energy Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon Morin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the bacterium Escherichia coli, the posttranscriptional regulatory system Csr was postulated to influence the transition from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis. Here, we explored the role of the Csr system in the glucose-acetate transition as a model of the glycolysis-to-gluconeogenesis switch. Mutations in the Csr system influence the reorganization of gene expression after glucose exhaustion and disturb the timing of acetate reconsumption after glucose exhaustion. Analysis of metabolite concentrations during the transition revealed that the Csr system has a major effect on the energy levels of the cells after glucose exhaustion. This influence was demonstrated to result directly from the effect of the Csr system on glycogen accumulation. Mutation in glycogen metabolism was also demonstrated to hinder metabolic adaptation after glucose exhaustion because of insufficient energy. This work explains how the Csr system influences E. coli fitness during the glycolysis-gluconeogenesis switch and demonstrates the role of glycogen in maintenance of the energy charge during metabolic adaptation.

  17. The Use of Statistical Process Control-Charts for Person-Fit Analysis on Computerized Adaptive Testing. LSAC Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Rob R.; van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith M. L. A.

    In this study a cumulative-sum (CUSUM) procedure from the theory of Statistical Process Control was modified and applied in the context of person-fit analysis in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) environment. Six person-fit statistics were proposed using the CUSUM procedure, and three of them could be used to investigate the CAT in online test…

  18. The Csr System Regulates Escherichia coli Fitness by Controlling Glycogen Accumulation and Energy Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Manon; Ropers, Delphine; Cinquemani, Eugenio; Portais, Jean-Charles; Enjalbert, Brice; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel

    2017-10-31

    In the bacterium Escherichia coli , the posttranscriptional regulatory system Csr was postulated to influence the transition from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis. Here, we explored the role of the Csr system in the glucose-acetate transition as a model of the glycolysis-to-gluconeogenesis switch. Mutations in the Csr system influence the reorganization of gene expression after glucose exhaustion and disturb the timing of acetate reconsumption after glucose exhaustion. Analysis of metabolite concentrations during the transition revealed that the Csr system has a major effect on the energy levels of the cells after glucose exhaustion. This influence was demonstrated to result directly from the effect of the Csr system on glycogen accumulation. Mutation in glycogen metabolism was also demonstrated to hinder metabolic adaptation after glucose exhaustion because of insufficient energy. This work explains how the Csr system influences E. coli fitness during the glycolysis-gluconeogenesis switch and demonstrates the role of glycogen in maintenance of the energy charge during metabolic adaptation. IMPORTANCE Glycogen is a polysaccharide and the main storage form of glucose from bacteria such as Escherichia coli to yeasts and mammals. Although its function as a sugar reserve in mammals is well documented, the role of glycogen in bacteria is not as clear. By studying the role of posttranscriptional regulation during metabolic adaptation, for the first time, we demonstrate the role of sugar reserve played by glycogen in E. coli Indeed, glycogen not only makes it possible to maintain sufficient energy during metabolic transitions but is also the key component in the capacity of cells to resume growth. Since the essential posttranscriptional regulatory system Csr is a major regulator of glycogen accumulation, this work also sheds light on the central role of posttranscriptional regulation in metabolic adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Morin et al.

  19. The effects of free-living interval-walking training on glycemic control, body composition, and physical fitness in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Winding, Kamilla; Knudsen, Sine H; Nielsen, Jens S; Thomsen, Carsten; Pedersen, Bente K; Solomon, Thomas P J

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of free-living walking training in type 2 diabetic patients and to investigate the effects of interval-walking training versus continuous-walking training upon physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control. Subjects with type 2 diabetes were randomized to a control (n = 8), continuous-walking (n = 12), or interval-walking group (n = 12). Training groups were prescribed five sessions per week (60 min/session) and were controlled with an accelerometer and a heart-rate monitor. Continuous walkers performed all training at moderate intensity, whereas interval walkers alternated 3-min repetitions at low and high intensity. Before and after the 4-month intervention, the following variables were measured: VO(2)max, body composition, and glycemic control (fasting glucose, HbA(1c), oral glucose tolerance test, and continuous glucose monitoring [CGM]). Training adherence was high (89 ± 4%), and training energy expenditure and mean intensity were comparable. VO(2)max increased 16.1 ± 3.7% in the interval-walking group (P Body mass and adiposity (fat mass and visceral fat) decreased in the interval-walking group only (P interval-walking group. The continuous walkers showed no changes in glycemic control. Free-living walking training is feasible in type 2 diabetic patients. Continuous walking offsets the deterioration in glycemia seen in the control group, and interval walking is superior to energy expenditure-matched continuous walking for improving physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control.

  20. The Performance Implications of Fit among Environment, Strategy, Structure, Control System and Social Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Fauzi

    2009-12-01

    domain will be contingent upon strategic behaviors, which are behaviors of members in an organization. The paper integrates the contextual variables including business environment, strategy, organization structure, and control system with corporate performance by using corporate social performance as moderating variable by means of a recent literatures study from strategic management and accounting field.

  1. Nectar accessibility determines fitness, flower choice and abundance of hoverflies that provide natural pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Paul C. J.; Wäckers, Felix L.

    2016-01-01

    In modern agricultural landscapes, many organisms providing ecosystem services such as pollination and natural pest control are likely constrained by shortage of nectar and/or pollen required for adult nutrition. More and more flower-rich field margin strips and other habitats are created to

  2. Nectar accessibility determines fitness, flower choice and abundance of hoverflies that provide natural pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, P.C.J.; Wäckers, F.L.

    2016-01-01

    1. In modern agricultural landscapes, many organisms providing ecosystem services such as pollination and natural pest control are likely constrained by shortage of nectar and/or pollen required for adult nutrition. More and more flower-rich field margin strips and other habitats are created to

  3. Reexamining Ground SOF Command and Control: Does One Size Fit All

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    controlling forces and operations in the accomplishment of the mission.”19 Essentially, command gives, among other things, legal authority to an individual...of capturing Aidid. E. OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS OF SOF TF Ranger executed six missions and aborted 35–40 missions during its deployment in support...of Operation RESTORE HOPE. The aborted missions were due to a lack of intelligence reporting. Of the six missions executed three were night-time

  4. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2011-01-01

    General fitness Classes Enrolments are open for general fitness classes at CERN taking place on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday lunchtimes in the Pump Hall (building 216). There are shower facilities for both men and women. It is possible to pay for 1, 2 or 3 classes per week for a minimum of 1 month and up to 6 months. Check out our rates and enrol at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  5. Comparison of shoe-length fit between people with and without diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McInnes Alistair D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amongst the many identified mechanisms leading to diabetic foot ulceration, ill-fitting footwear is one. There is anecdotal evidence that people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy wear shoes that are too small in order to increase the sensation of fit. The aim of this study was to determine whether people with diabetic sensory neuropathy wear appropriate length footwear. Methods A case–control design was used to compare internal shoe length and foot length differences between a group of people with diabetes and peripheral sensory neuropathy and a group of people without diabetes and no peripheral sensory neuropathy. Shoe and foot length measurements were taken using a calibrated Internal Shoe Size Gauge® and a Brannock Device®, respectively. Results Data was collected from 85 participants with diabetes and 118 participants without diabetes. The mean difference between shoe and foot length was not significantly different between the two groups. However, a significant number of participants within both groups had a shoe to foot length difference that lay outside a previously suggested 10 to 15 mm range. From the diabetic and non-diabetic groups 82% (70/85 and 66% (78/118, respectively had a foot to shoe length difference outside this same range. Conclusions This study shows that although there is no significant difference in shoe-length fit between participants with and without neuropathy, a significant proportion of these populations wear shoes that are either too long or too short for their foot length according to the 10 to 15 mm value used for comparison. The study has highlighted the need for standardised approaches when considering the allowance required between foot and internal shoe length and for the measurement and comparison of foot and shoe dimensions.

  6. Integrating smartphone technology, social support and the outdoor physical environment to improve fitness among adults at risk of, or diagnosed with, Type 2 Diabetes: Findings from the 'eCoFit' randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Wilczynska, Magdalena; Cohen, Kristen E; Smith, Jordan J; Lubans, David R

    2017-12-01

    The risk and prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) has dramatically increased over the past decade. The aim of this study was to develop, implement and evaluate a physical activity intervention to improve aerobic and muscular fitness among adults at risk of, or diagnosed with T2D. A 20-week, assessor blinded, parallel-group randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted at the University of Newcastle (June-December 2015). Adults were randomized to the intervention (n=42) or wait-list control group (n=42). The theory-based intervention included: Phase 1 (weeks 1-10) integrated group sessions (outdoor physical activity and cognitive mentoring), and the eCoFit smartphone application (app). Phase 2 (weeks 11-20) only included the eCoFit app. Participants were assessed at baseline, 10weeks and 20weeks. Linear mixed models (intention-to-treat) were used to determine group-by-time interactions at 10weeks (primary time-point) and 20weeks for the primary outcomes. Several secondary outcomes were also assessed. After 10weeks, significant group-by-time effects were observed for aerobic fitness (4.5mL/kg/min; 95% CI [1.3, 7.7], d=0.68) and muscular fitness (lower body) (3.4 reps, 95% CI [2.7, 4.2], d=1.45). Intervention effects for secondary outcomes included significant increased physical activity (1330steps/week), improved upper body muscular fitness (5 reps; arm-curl test), improved functionality (-1.8s; timed-up and go test) reduced waist circumference (2.8cm) and systolic blood pressure (-10.4mmHg). After 20weeks, significant effects were observed for lower body muscular fitness and health outcomes. eCoFit is an innovative lifestyle intervention which integrates smartphone technology, social support, and the outdoor environment to improve aerobic and muscular fitness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rationale and study protocol for the 'eCoFit' randomized controlled trial: Integrating smartphone technology, social support and the outdoor physical environment to improve health-related fitness among adults at risk of, or diagnosed with, Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczynska, Magdalena; Lubans, David R; Cohen, Kristen E; Smith, Jordan J; Robards, Sara L; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2016-07-01

    The prevalence and risk of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) has dramatically increased over the past decade. Physical activity (PA) has significant benefits for the treatment and prevention of T2D. The aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based PA intervention to improve aerobic and muscular fitness among adults at risk of, or diagnosed with T2D. The eCoFit pilot intervention will be evaluated using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design. The 20-week (Phases 1 and 2) multi-component intervention was guided by Social Cognitive Theory, Health Action Process Approach Model, and Cognitive Behavior Therapy strategies. Phase 1 (Weeks 1-10) includes: i) 5 group face-to-face sessions consisting of outdoor training and cognitive mentoring; and ii) the use of the eCoFit smartphone application with a description of where and how to use the outdoor environment to be more physically active. Phase 2 (Weeks 11-20) includes the use of the eCoFit smartphone application only. Assessments are to be conducted at baseline, 10-weeks (primary end-point) and 20-weeks (secondary end-point) post-baseline. Primary outcomes are cardio-respiratory fitness and muscular fitness (lower body). Secondary outcomes include physical, behavioral, mental health and quality of life, and social-cognitive outcomes. eCoFit is an innovative, multi-component intervention, which integrates smartphone technology, social support and the outdoor physical environment to promote aerobic and resistance training PA among adults at risk of, or diagnosed with T2D. The findings will be used to guide future interventions and to develop and implement effective community-based prevention programs. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry No: ACTRN12615000990527. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Automatic and accurate reconstruction of distal humerus contours through B-Spline fitting based on control polygon deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Kamal; Tutunea-Fatan, O Remus; Bordatchev, Evgueni V; Johnson, James A

    2014-12-01

    The strong advent of computer-assisted technologies experienced by the modern orthopedic surgery prompts for the expansion of computationally efficient techniques to be built on the broad base of computer-aided engineering tools that are readily available. However, one of the common challenges faced during the current developmental phase continues to remain the lack of reliable frameworks to allow a fast and precise conversion of the anatomical information acquired through computer tomography to a format that is acceptable to computer-aided engineering software. To address this, this study proposes an integrated and automatic framework capable to extract and then postprocess the original imaging data to a common planar and closed B-Spline representation. The core of the developed platform relies on the approximation of the discrete computer tomography data by means of an original two-step B-Spline fitting technique based on successive deformations of the control polygon. In addition to its rapidity and robustness, the developed fitting technique was validated to produce accurate representations that do not deviate by more than 0.2 mm with respect to alternate representations of the bone geometry that were obtained through different-contact-based-data acquisition or data processing methods. © IMechE 2014.

  9. Effects of core strength training using stable versus unstable surfaces on physical fitness in adolescents: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Schellbach, Jörg; Klein, Katja; Prieske, Olaf; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Muehlbauer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that core strength training is an effective means to enhance trunk muscle strength (TMS) and proxies of physical fitness in youth. Of note, cross-sectional studies revealed that the inclusion of unstable elements in core strengthening exercises produced increases in trunk muscle activity and thus provide potential extra training stimuli for performance enhancement. Thus, utilizing unstable surfaces during core strength training may even produce larger performance gains. However, the effects of core strength training using unstable surfaces are unresolved in youth. This randomized controlled study specifically investigated the effects of core strength training performed on stable surfaces (CSTS) compared to unstable surfaces (CSTU) on physical fitness in school-aged children. Twenty-seven (14 girls, 13 boys) healthy subjects (mean age: 14 ± 1 years, age range: 13-15 years) were randomly assigned to a CSTS (n = 13) or a CSTU (n = 14) group. Both training programs lasted 6 weeks (2 sessions/week) and included frontal, dorsal, and lateral core exercises. During CSTU, these exercises were conducted on unstable surfaces (e.g., TOGU© DYNAIR CUSSIONS, THERA-BAND© STABILITY TRAINER). Significant main effects of Time (pre vs. post) were observed for the TMS tests (8-22%, f = 0.47-0.76), the jumping sideways test (4-5%, f = 1.07), and the Y balance test (2-3%, f = 0.46-0.49). Trends towards significance were found for the standing long jump test (1-3%, f = 0.39) and the stand-and-reach test (0-2%, f = 0.39). We could not detect any significant main effects of Group. Significant Time x Group interactions were detected for the stand-and-reach test in favour of the CSTU group (2%, f = 0.54). Core strength training resulted in significant increases in proxies of physical fitness in adolescents. However, CSTU as compared to CSTS had only limited additional effects (i.e., stand-and-reach test). Consequently, if the

  10. Hysteresis Curve Fitting Optimization of Magnetic Controlled Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuquan Tu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As a new actuating material, magnetic controlled shape memory alloys (MSMAs have excellent characteristics such as a large output strain, fast response, and high energy density. These excellent characteristics are very attractive for precision positioning systems. However, the availability of MSMAs in practical precision positioning is poor, caused by weak repeatability under a certain stimulus. This problem results from the error of a large magnetic hysteresis in an external magnetic field. A suitable hysteresis modelling method can reduce the error and improve the accuracy of the MSMA actuator. After analyzing the original hysteresis modelling methods, three kinds of hysteresis modelling methods are proposed: least squares method, back propagation (BP artificial neural network, and BP artificial neural network based on genetic algorithms. Comparing the accuracy and convergence rate of three kinds of hysteresis modelling methods, the results show that the convergence rate of least squares method is the fastest, and the convergence accuracy of BP artificial neural networks based on genetic algorithms is the highest.

  11. Pleiotropy of genetic variants on obesity and smoking phenotypes: Results from the Oncoarray Project of The International Lung Cancer Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available Obesity and cigarette smoking are correlated through complex relationships. Common genetic causes may contribute to these correlations. In this study, we selected 241 loci potentially associated with body mass index (BMI based on the Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits (GIANT consortium data and calculated a BMI genetic risk score (BMI-GRS for 17,037 individuals of European descent from the Oncoarray Project of the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO. Smokers had a significantly higher BMI-GRS than never-smokers (p = 0.016 and 0.010 before and after adjustment for BMI, respectively. The BMI-GRS was also positively correlated with pack-years of smoking (p<0.001 in smokers. Based on causal network inference analyses, seven and five of 241 SNPs were classified to pleiotropic models for BMI/smoking status and BMI/pack-years, respectively. Among them, three and four SNPs associated with smoking status and pack-years (p<0.05, respectively, were followed up in the ever-smoking data of the Tobacco, Alcohol and Genetics (TAG consortium. Among these seven candidate SNPs, one SNP (rs11030104, BDNF achieved statistical significance after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, and three suggestive SNPs (rs13021737, TMEM18; rs11583200, ELAVL4; and rs6990042, SGCZ achieved a nominal statistical significance. Our results suggest that there is a common genetic component between BMI and smoking, and pleiotropy analysis can be useful to identify novel genetic loci of complex phenotypes.

  12. The B-cell receptor controls fitness of MYC-driven lymphoma cells via GSK3β inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varano, Gabriele; Raffel, Simon; Sormani, Martina; Zanardi, Federica; Lonardi, Silvia; Zasada, Christin; Perucho, Laura; Petrocelli, Valentina; Haake, Andrea; Lee, Albert K; Bugatti, Mattia; Paul, Ulrike; Van Anken, Eelco; Pasqualucci, Laura; Rabadan, Raul; Siebert, Reiner; Kempa, Stefan; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Facchetti, Fabio; Rajewsky, Klaus; Casola, Stefano

    2017-06-08

    Similar to resting mature B cells, where the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) controls cellular survival, surface BCR expression is conserved in most mature B-cell lymphomas. The identification of activating BCR mutations and the growth disadvantage upon BCR knockdown of cells of certain lymphoma entities has led to the view that BCR signalling is required for tumour cell survival. Consequently, the BCR signalling machinery has become an established target in the therapy of B-cell malignancies. Here we study the effects of BCR ablation on MYC-driven mouse B-cell lymphomas and compare them with observations in human Burkitt lymphoma. Whereas BCR ablation does not, per se, significantly affect lymphoma growth, BCR-negative (BCR - ) tumour cells rapidly disappear in the presence of their BCR-expressing (BCR + ) counterparts in vitro and in vivo. This requires neither cellular contact nor factors released by BCR + tumour cells. Instead, BCR loss induces the rewiring of central carbon metabolism, increasing the sensitivity of receptor-less lymphoma cells to nutrient restriction. The BCR attenuates glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) activity to support MYC-controlled gene expression. BCR - tumour cells exhibit increased GSK3β activity and are rescued from their competitive growth disadvantage by GSK3β inhibition. BCR - lymphoma variants that restore competitive fitness normalize GSK3β activity after constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway, commonly through Ras mutations. Similarly, in Burkitt lymphoma, activating RAS mutations may propagate immunoglobulin-crippled tumour cells, which usually represent a minority of the tumour bulk. Thus, while BCR expression enhances lymphoma cell fitness, BCR-targeted therapies may profit from combinations with drugs targeting BCR - tumour cells.

  13. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Fitness Club is organising Zumba Classes on the first Wednesday of each month, starting 7 September (19.00 – 20.00). What is Zumba®? It’s an exhilarating, effective, easy-to-follow, Latin-inspired, calorie-burning dance fitness-party™ that’s moving millions of people toward joy and health. Above all it’s great fun and an excellent work out. Price: 22 CHF/person Sign-up via the following form: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20Subscription/NewForm.aspx For more info: fitness.club@cern.ch

  14. Indirect evolution of social fitness inequalities and facultative social exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramith R; Fiegna, Francesca; Velicer, Gregory J

    2018-03-28

    Microbial genotypes with similarly high proficiency at a cooperative behaviour in genetically pure groups often exhibit fitness inequalities caused by social interaction in mixed groups. Winning competitors in this scenario have been referred to as 'cheaters' in some studies. Such interaction-specific fitness inequalities, as well as social exploitation (in which interaction between genotypes increases absolute fitness), might evolve due to selection for competitiveness at the focal behaviour or might arise non-adaptively due to pleiotropy, hitchhiking or genetic drift. The bacterium Myxococcus xanthus sporulates during cooperative development of multicellular fruiting bodies. Using M. xanthus lineages that underwent experimental evolution in allopatry without selection on sporulation, we demonstrate that interaction-specific fitness inequalities and facultative social exploitation during development readily evolved indirectly among descendant lineages. Fitness inequalities between evolved genotypes were not caused by divergence in developmental speed, as faster-developing strains were not over-represented among competition winners. In competitions between ancestors and several evolved strains, all evolved genotypes produced more spores than the ancestors, including losers of evolved-versus-evolved competitions, indicating that adaptation in non-developmental contexts pleiotropically increased competitiveness for spore production. Overall, our results suggest that fitness inequalities caused by social interaction during cooperative processes may often evolve non-adaptively in natural populations. © 2018 The Authors.

  15. Fodbold Fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren

    Samfundet forandrer sig og ligeså gør danskernes idrætsmønstre. Fodbold Fitness, der er afhandlingens omdrejningspunkt, kan iagttages som en reaktion på disse forandringer. Afhandlingen ser nærmere på Fodbold Fitness og implementeringen af dette, der ingenlunde er nogen let opgave. Bennike bidrager...

  16. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    phage types, predominantly only penicillin resistant. We investigated whether isolates of this epidemic were associated with a fitness cost, and we employed a mathematical model to ask whether these fitness costs could have led to the observed reduction in frequency. Bacteraemia isolates of S. aureus...... from Denmark have been stored since 1957. We chose 40 S. aureus isolates belonging to phage complex 83A, clonal complex 8 based on spa type, ranging in time of isolation from 1957 to 1980 and with varyous antibiograms, including both methicillin-resistant and -susceptible isolates. The relative fitness...... of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...

  17. Calculations of mechanisms for balance control during narrow and single-leg standing in fit older adults: A reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, A C; Thorstensson, A; Tarassova, O; Halvorsen, K

    2011-07-01

    For older people balance control in standing is critical for performance of activities of daily living without falling. The aims were to investigate reliability of quantification of the usage of the two balance mechanisms M(1) 'moving the centre of pressure' and M(2) 'segment acceleration' and also to compare calculation methods based on a combination of kinetic (K) and kinematic (Km) data, (K-Km), or Km data only concerning M(2). For this purpose nine physically fit persons aged 70-78 years were tested in narrow and single-leg standing. Data were collected by a 7-camera motion capture system and two force plates. Repeated measure ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests were used to detect differences between the standing tasks. Reliability was estimated by ICCs, standard error of measurement including its 95% CI, and minimal detectable change, whereas Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to investigate agreement between the two calculation methods. The results indicated that for the tasks investigated, M(1) and M(2) can be measured with acceptable inter- and intrasession reliability, and that both Km and K-Km based calculations may be useful for M(2), although Km data may give slightly lower values. The proportional M(1):M(2) usage was approximately 9:1, in both anterio-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) directions for narrow standing, and about 2:1 in the AP and of 1:2 in the ML direction in single-leg standing, respectively. In conclusion, the tested measurements and calculations appear to constitute a reliable way of quantifying one important aspect of balance capacity in fit older people. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Impact of Classroom Physical Activity Breaks on Middle School Students' Health-Related Fitness: An Xbox One Kinetic Delivered 4-Week Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Piipari, S.; Layne, T.; McCollins, T.; Knox, T.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effect of a 4-week classroom physical activity break intervention on middle school students' health-related physical fitness. The study was a randomized controlled trial with students assigned to the experiment and control conditions. A convenience sample comprised 94 adolescents (experiment group n = 52;…

  19. The effect of a prenatal lifestyle intervention on glucose metabolism: results of the Norwegian Fit for Delivery randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagedal, Linda R; Vistad, Ingvild; Øverby, Nina C; Bere, Elling; Torstveit, Monica K; Lohne-Seiler, Hilde; Hillesund, Elisabet R; Pripp, Are; Henriksen, Tore

    2017-06-02

    The effectiveness of prenatal lifestyle intervention to prevent gestational diabetes and improve maternal glucose metabolism remains to be established. The Norwegian Fit for Delivery (NFFD) randomized, controlled trial studied the effect of a combined lifestyle intervention provided to a general population, and found significantly lower gestational weight gain among intervention participants but no improvement in obstetrical outcomes or the proportion of large infants. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of the NFFD intervention on glucose metabolism, including an assessment of the subgroups of normal-weight and overweight/obese participants. Healthy, non-diabetic women expecting their first child, with pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) ≥19 kg/m 2 , age ≥ 18 years and a singleton pregnancy of ≤20 gestational-weeks were enrolled from healthcare clinics in southern Norway. Gestational weight gain was the primary endpoint. Participants (n = 606) were individually randomized to intervention (two dietary consultations and access to twice-weekly exercise groups) or control group (routine prenatal care). The effect of intervention on glucose metabolism was a secondary endpoint, measuring glucose (fasting and 2-h following 75-g glucose load), insulin, homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and leptin levels at gestational-week 30. Blood samples from 557 (91.9%) women were analyzed. For the total group, intervention resulted in reduced insulin (adj. Mean diff -0.91 mU/l, p = 0.045) and leptin levels (adj. Mean diff -207 pmol/l, p = 0.021) compared to routine care, while glucose levels were unchanged. However, the effect of intervention on both fasting and 2-h glucose was modified by pre-pregnancy BMI (interaction p = 0.030 and p = 0.039, respectively). For overweight/obese women (n = 158), intervention was associated with increased risk of at least one glucose measurement exceeding International Association of

  20. Effect of a diet intervention during pregnancy on dietary behavior in the randomized controlled Norwegian Fit for Delivery study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillesund, E R; Bere, E; Sagedal, L R; Vistad, I; Øverby, N C

    2016-10-01

    A mother's diet during pregnancy has the potential to influence both her own and her child's short- and long-term health. This paper reports the effects of a randomized controlled diet intervention during pregnancy on dietary behavior post-intervention as reported in late pregnancy. The diet intervention was part of a lifestyle intervention targeting both diet and physical activity behaviors among nulliparous women participating in the randomized controlled Norwegian Fit for Delivery study (NFFD). Eligible women were enrolled in early pregnancy from eight healthcare clinics in southern Norway between 2009 and 2013. The diet intervention was based on 10 dietary recommendations that were conveyed during two counseling sessions by phone and in a pamphlet describing the recommendations and their simplified rationale. A diet score was constructed from a 43-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and used to assess intervention effect on dietary behavior (score range 0-10). Between-group dietary differences post-intervention were estimated with analysis of covariance, with adjustment for baseline diet. A total of 508 women completed the FFQ both at baseline and post-intervention. There were no between-group differences in diet score and subscales at baseline. Post-intervention, the intervention group had higher overall diet score (control: 4.61, intervention: 5.04, P=0.013) and favorable dietary behavior in seven of the 10 dietary domains: 'consumption of water relative to total beverage consumption' (P=0.002), 'having vegetables with dinner' (P=0.027), 'choosing fruits and vegetables for between-meal snacks' (P=0.023), 'buying small portion sizes of unhealthy foods' (P=0.010), 'limiting sugar intake' (P=0.005), 'avoiding eating beyond satiety' (P=0.009) and 'reading food labels' (P=0.011). The NFFD diet intervention improved dietary behavior. Potential long-term clinical influence in mother and child will be investigated in further studies.

  1. The impact of Wii Fit intervention on dynamic balance control in children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder and balance problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Dorothee; Geuze, Reint H; Mombarg, Remo; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C.M.

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in the performance of children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder (p-DCD) and balance problems (BP) and typical developing children (TD) on a Wii Fit task and to measure the effect on balance skills after a Wii Fit intervention.

  2. Phenome Wide Association Studies demonstrating pleiotropy of genetic variants within FTO with and without adjustment for body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Michael Cronin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS have demonstrated utility in validating genetic associations derived from traditional genetic studies as well as identifying novel genetic associations. Here we used an electronic health record (EHR-based PheWAS to explore pleiotropy of genetic variants in the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO, some of which have been previously associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D. We used a population of 10,487 individuals of European ancestry with genome-wide genotyping from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE Network and another population of 13,711 individuals of European ancestry from the BioVU DNA biobank at Vanderbilt genotyped using Illumina HumanExome BeadChip. A meta-analysis of the two study populations replicated the well-described associations between FTO variants and obesity (odds ratio [OR]=1.25, 95% Confidence Interval=1.11-1.24, p=2.10 x 10 9 and FTO variants and T2D (OR=1.14, 95% CI=1.08-1.21, p=2.34 x 10 6. The meta-analysis also demonstrated that FTO variant rs8050136 was significantly associated with sleep apnea (OR=1.14, 95% CI=1.07-1.22, p=3.33 x 10 5; however, the association was attenuated after adjustment for body mass index (BMI. Novel phenotype associations with obesity-associated FTO variants included fibrocystic breast disease (rs9941349, OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.74-0.91, p=5.41x10 5 and trends toward associations with nonalcoholic liver disease and gram-positive bacterial infections. FTO variants not associated with obesity demonstrated other potential disease associations including noninflammatory disorders of the cervix and chronic periodontitis. These results suggest that genetic variants in FTO may have pleiotropic associations, some of which are not mediated by obesity.

  3. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Open to All: http://cern.ch/club-fitness  fitness.club@cern.ch Boxing Your supervisor makes your life too tough ! You really need to release the pressure you've been building up ! Come and join the fit-boxers. We train three times a week in Bd 216, classes for beginners and advanced available. Visit our website cern.ch/Boxing General Fitness Escape from your desk with our general fitness classes, to strengthen your heart, muscles and bones, improve you stamina, balance and flexibility, achieve new goals, be more productive and experience a sense of well-being, every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtime, Tuesday mornings before work and Thursday evenings after work – join us for one of our monthly fitness workshops. Nordic Walking Enjoy the great outdoors; Nordic Walking is a great way to get your whole body moving and to significantly improve the condition of your muscles, heart and lungs. It will boost your energy levels no end. Pilates A body-conditioning technique de...

  4. The effect of active video games by ethnicity, sex and fitness: subgroup analysis from a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Louise; Jiang, Yannan; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jull, Andrew; Prapavessis, Harry; Rodgers, Anthony; Maddison, Ralph

    2014-04-03

    The prevention and treatment of childhood obesity is a key public health challenge. However, certain groups within populations have markedly different risk profiles for obesity and related health behaviours. Well-designed subgroup analysis can identify potential differential effects of obesity interventions, which may be important for reducing health inequalities. The study aim was to evaluate the consistency of the effects of active video games across important subgroups in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). A two-arm, parallel RCT was conducted in overweight or obese children (n=322; aged 10-14 years) to determine the effect of active video games on body composition. Statistically significant overall treatment effects favouring the intervention group were found for body mass index, body mass index z-score and percentage body fat at 24 weeks. For these outcomes, pre-specified subgroup analyses were conducted among important baseline demographic (ethnicity, sex) and prognostic (cardiovascular fitness) groups. No statistically significant interaction effects were found between the treatment and subgroup terms in the main regression model (p=0.36 to 0.93), indicating a consistent treatment effect across these groups. Preliminary evidence suggests an active video games intervention had a consistent positive effect on body composition among important subgroups. This may support the use of these games as a pragmatic public health intervention to displace sedentary behaviour with physical activity in young people.

  5. Efficacy of Feedback-Controlled Robotics-Assisted Treadmill Exercise to Improve Cardiovascular Fitness Early After Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Oliver; de Bruin, Eling D; Schindelholz, Matthias; Schuster-Amft, Corina; de Bie, Rob A; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular fitness is greatly reduced after stroke. Although individuals with mild to moderate impairments benefit from conventional cardiovascular exercise interventions, there is a lack of effective approaches for persons with severely impaired physical function. This randomized controlled pilot trial investigated efficacy and feasibility of feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (FC-RATE) for cardiovascular rehabilitation in persons with severe impairments early after stroke. Twenty individuals (age 61 ± 11 years; 52 ± 31 days poststroke) with severe motor limitations (Functional Ambulation Classification 0-2) were recruited for FC-RATE or conventional robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (RATE) (4 weeks, 3 × 30-minute sessions/wk). Outcome measures focused on peak cardiopulmonary performance parameters, training intensity, and feasibility, with examiners blinded to allocation. All 14 allocated participants (70% of recruited) completed the intervention (7/group, withdrawals unrelated to intervention), without serious adverse events occurring. Cardiovascular fitness increased significantly in both groups, with peak oxygen uptake increasing from 14.6 to 17.7 mL · kg · min (+17.8%) after 4 weeks (45.8%-55.7% of predicted maximal aerobic capacity; time effect P = 0.01; no group-time interaction). Training intensity (% heart rate reserve) was significantly higher for FC-RATE (40% ± 3%) than for conventional RATE (14% ± 2%) (P = 0.001). Substantive overall increases in the main cardiopulmonary performance parameters were observed, but there were no significant between-group differences when comparing FC-RATE and conventional RATE. Feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise significantly increased exercise intensity, but recommended intensity levels for cardiovascular training were not consistently achieved. Future research should focus on appropriate algorithms within advanced robotic systems to promote optimal cardiovascular

  6. Effect of Producing Different Phenazines on Bacterial Fitness and Biological Control in Pseudomonas chlororaphis 30-84

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Myoung Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas chlororaphis 30-84 is a biological control agent selected for its ability to suppress diseases caused by fungal pathogens. P. chlororaphis 30-84 produces three phenazines: phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA, 2-hydroxy-phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (2OHPCA and a small amount of 2-hydroxy-phenazine (2OHPHZ, and these are required for fungal pathogen inhibition and wheat rhizosphere competence. The two, 2-hydroxy derivatives are produced from PCA via the activity of a phenazine-modifying enzyme encoded by phzO. In addition to the seven biosynthetic genes responsible for the production of PCA, many other Pseudomonas strains possess one or more modifying genes, which encode enzymes that act independently or together to convert PCA into other phenazine derivatives. In order to understand the fitness effects of producing different phenazines, we constructed isogenic derivatives of P. chlororaphis 30-84 that differed only in the type of phenazines produced. Altering the type of phenazines produced by P. chlororaphis 30-84 enhanced the spectrum of fungal pathogens inhibited and altered the degree of take-all disease suppression. These strains also differed in their ability to promote extracellular DNA release, which may contribute to the observed differences in the amount of biofilm produced. All derivatives were equally important for survival over repeated plant/harvest cycles, indicating that the type of phenazines produced is less important for persistence in the wheat rhizosphere than whether or not cells produce phenazines. These findings provide a better understanding of the effects of different phenazines on functions important for biological control activity with implications for applications that rely on introduced or native phenazine producing populations.

  7. A Randomised Control Trial of the Impact of a Computer-Based Activity Programme upon the Fitness of Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Dickinson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The poor levels of fitness in children with autism are prompting concern for the children’s future health. This study looked to assess if a computer-based activity programme could improve fitness levels (as reflected in cardiopulmonary function of these children, and achieve a reduction in their body mass index. In a randomised controlled trial, 50 children with autism (of which 33 were under the age of 11 years and 39 were boys were allocated to an intervention group which encouraged them to use the Nintendo Wii and the software package “Mario and Sonics at the Olympics” in addition to their routine physical education classes. 50 children with autism (34 under the age of 11 years and 40 being boys acted as controls. At the end of one year, analysis of the changes in scores using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA on the Eurofit fitness tests showed that the intervention group had made statistically significant improvement on all tests other than flexibility. These improvements were also significantly better than controls. This type of intervention appears to be an effective addition to standard fitness training in order to help children with autism improve their fitness levels.

  8. The rate and effects of spontaneous mutation on fitness traits in the social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David W; Fox, Sara; Kuzdzal-Fick, Jennie J; Strassmann, Joan E; Queller, David C

    2013-07-08

    We performed a mutation accumulation (MA) experiment in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum to estimate the rate and distribution of effects of spontaneous mutations affecting eight putative fitness traits. We found that the per-generation mutation rate for most fitness components is 0.0019 mutations per haploid genome per generation or larger. This rate is an order of magnitude higher than estimates for fitness components in the unicellular eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, even though the base-pair substitution rate is two orders of magnitude lower. The high rate of fitness-altering mutations observed in this species may be partially explained by a large mutational target relative to S. cerevisiae. Fitness-altering mutations also may occur primarily at simple sequence repeats, which are common throughout the genome, including in coding regions, and may represent a target that is particularly likely to give fitness effects upon mutation. The majority of mutations had deleterious effects on fitness, but there was evidence for a substantial fraction, up to 40%, being beneficial for some of the putative fitness traits. Competitive ability within the multicellular slug appears to be under weak directional selection, perhaps reflecting the fact that slugs are sometimes, but not often, comprised of multiple clones in nature. Evidence for pleiotropy among fitness components across MA lines was absent, suggesting that mutations tend to act on single fitness components.

  9. A cognitive-balance control training paradigm using wii fit to reduce fall risk in chronic stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Savitha; Wan-Ying Hui-Chan, Christina; Bhatt, Tanvi

    2014-10-01

    The impaired ability to maintain balance while performing higher-level cognitive tasks (cognitive-motor interference) significantly predisposes stroke survivors to risk of falls. We investigated adherence and intervention-related effects of gaming to improve balance control and decrease cognitive-motor interference in stroke survivors. Community-dwelling individuals with hemiparetic stroke (N = 8) received balance control training using Wii Fit in conjunction with cognitive training for approximately 110 min/d for 5 consecutive days. Changes in balance and cognitive performance were evaluated by the limits of stability test performed under single-task (ST) and dual-task (DT) conditions. The outcome measures from the limits of stability test included reaction time and movement velocity of the center of pressure. The cognitive performance was quantified by the number of errors. The DT cost was computed for the balance and cognitive outcome measures using [(ST - DT)/ST × 100]. Adherence was assessed by change on the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory scores postintervention. No commercial party having a direct financial interest in the research findings reported here has conferred orwill confer. Posttraining, reaction time cost in the forward direction improved from 31 ± 8.02 to ±8.7 ± 6.6. Similarly, movement velocity cost improved from 33.7 ± 12.3 to 11 ± 1. Cognitive cost also decreased from 47.9 ± 13.9 to 20 ± 18.8. There were similar improvements in the backward direction for all the outcome measures. Scores on the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory improved from 16.6 ± 1.3 to 23.5 ± 1.5. The results demonstrate good adherence and evidence of clinical value of this high-intensity, short-duration protocol for reducing cognitive-motor interference and improving balance control in stroke survivors. Future studies should examine the dose-response effects and long-term changes of such DT training paradigm applied to improve fall efficacy.Video Abstract available

  10. Investigating cognitive transfer within the framework of music practice: genetic pleiotropy rather than causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosing, Miriam A; Madison, Guy; Pedersen, Nancy L; Ullén, Fredrik

    2016-05-01

    The idea of far transfer effects in the cognitive sciences has received much attention in recent years. One domain where far transfer effects have frequently been reported is music education, with the prevailing idea that music practice entails an increase in cognitive ability (IQ). While cross-sectional studies consistently find significant associations between music practice and IQ, randomized controlled trials, however, report mixed results. An alternative to the hypothesis of cognitive transfer effects is that some underlying factors, such as shared genes, influence practice behaviour and IQ causing associations on the phenotypic level. Here we explored the hypothesis of far transfer within the framework of music practice. A co-twin control design combined with classical twin-modelling based on a sample of more than 10,500 twins was used to explore causal associations between music practice and IQ as well as underlying genetic and environmental influences. As expected, phenotypic associations were moderate (r = 0.11 and r = 0.10 for males and females, respectively). However, the relationship disappeared when controlling for genetic and shared environmental influences using the co-twin control method, indicating that a highly practiced twin did not have higher IQ than the untrained co-twin. In line with that finding, the relationship between practice and IQ was mostly due to shared genetic influences. Findings strongly suggest that associations between music practice and IQ in the general population are non-causal in nature. The implications of the present findings for research on plasticity, modularity, and transfer are discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Physical activity as treatment for alcohol use disorders (FitForChange): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Mats; Andersson, Victoria; Ekblom, Örjan; Andréasson, Sven

    2018-02-14

    Help-seeking for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is low and traditional treatments are often perceived as stigmatizing. Physical activity has positive effects on mental and physical health which could benefit this population. We propose to compare the effects of aerobic training, yoga, and usual care for AUDs in physically inactive Swedish adults. This is a three-group, parallel, single-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT). In total, 210 adults (aged 18-75 years) diagnosed with an AUD will be invited to participate in a 12-week intervention. The primary study outcome is alcohol consumption measure by the Timeline Follow-back method and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Secondary outcomes include: depression, anxiety, perceived stress, sleep quality, physical activity levels, fitness, self-efficacy, health-related quality of life, and cognition. Blood samples will be taken to objectively assess heavy drinking, and saliva to measure cortisol. Acute effects of exercise on the urge to drink alcohol, mood, and anxiety will also be assessed. The treatment potential for exercise in AUDs is substantial as many individuals with the disorder are physically inactive and have comorbid health problems. The study is the first to assess the effects of physical activity as a stand-alone treatment for AUDs. Considerable attention will be given to optimizing exercise adherence. Both the feasibility and treatment effects of exercise interventions in AUDs will be discussed. The Ethical Review Board (EPN) at Karolinska Institutet has approved the study (DNR: 2017/1380-3). German Clinical Trials Register, ID: DRKS00012311. Registered on 26 September 2017.

  12. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

      Nordic Walking Classes Come join the Nordic walking classes and outings offered by the CERN Fitness Club starting September 2013. Our licensed instructor Christine offers classes for people who’ve never tried Nordic Walking and who would like to learn the technique, and outings for people who have completed the classes and enjoy going out as a group. Course 1: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 24 September, 1 October, 8 October, 15 October Course 2: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 5 November, 12 November, 19 November, 26 November Outings will take place on Thursdays (12:30 to 13:30) from 12 September 2013. We meet at the CERN Club Barracks car park (close to Entrance A) 10 minutes before departure. Prices: 50 CHF for 4 classes, including the 10 CHF Club membership. Payments made directly to instructor. Renting Poles: Poles can be rented from Christine at 5 CHF / hour. Subscription: Please subscribe at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Looking forward to seeing you among us! Fitness Club FitnessClub@c...

  13. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Get in Shape for Summer with the CERN Fitness Club Saturday 23 June 2012 from 14:30 to 16.30 (doors open at 14.00) Germana’s Fitness Workshop. Build strength and stamina, sculpt and tone your body and get your heart pumping with Germana’s workout mixture of Cardio Attack, Power Pump, Power Step, Cardio Combat and Cross-Training. Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 15 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Test_Subscription/NewForm.aspx? Join the Party and dance yourself into shape at Marco + Marials Zumba Masterclass. Saturday 30 June 2012 from 15:00 to 16:30 Marco + Mariel’s Zumba Masterclass Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 25 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20...

  14. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2010-01-01

    Nordic Walking Please note that the subscriptions for the general fitness classes from July to December are open: Subscriptions general fitness classes Jul-Dec 2010 Sign-up to the Fitness Club mailing list here Nordic Walking: Sign-up to the Nordic Walking mailing list here Beginners Nordic walking lessons Monday Lunchtimes (rdv 12:20 for 12:30 departure) 13.09/20.09/27.09/04.10 11.10/18.10/08.11/15.11 22.11/29.11/06.12/20.12 Nordic walking lessons Tuesday evenings (rdv 17:50 for 18:00 departure) 07.09/14.09/21.09/28.09 05.10/12.10/19.10/26.10 Intermediate/Advanced Nordic walking outings (follow the nordic walking lessons before signing up for the outings) every Thursday from 16.09 - 16.12, excluding 28.10 and 09.12 Subscriptions and info: fitness.club@cern.ch  

  15. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

      The CERN Fitness Club is pleased to announce its new early morning class which will be taking place on: Tuesdays from 24th April 07:30 to 08:15 216 (Pump Hall, close to entrance C) – Facilities include changing rooms and showers. The Classes: The early morning classes will focus on workouts which will help you build not only strength and stamina, but will also improve your balance, and coordination. Our qualified instructor Germana will accompany you throughout the workout  to ensure you stay motivated so you achieve the best results. Sign up and discover the best way to start your working day full of energy! How to subscribe? We invite you along to a FREE trial session, if you enjoy the activity, please sign up via our website: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Activities/SUBSCRIBE.aspx. * * * * * * * * Saturday 28th April Get in shape for the summer at our fitness workshop and zumba dance party: Fitness workshop with Germana 13:00 to 14:30 - 216 (Pump Hall) Price...

  16. Nicotinic Receptor Alpha7 Expression during Tooth Morphogenesis Reveals Functional Pleiotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Scott W.; Gahring, Lorise C.

    2012-01-01

    The expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype, alpha7, was investigated in the developing teeth of mice that were modified through homologous recombination to express a bi-cistronic IRES-driven tau-enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP); alpha7GFP) or IRES-Cre (alpha7Cre). The expression of alpha7GFP was detected first in cells of the condensing mesenchyme at embryonic (E) day E13.5 where it intensifies through E14.5. This expression ends abruptly at E15.5, but was again observed in ameloblasts of incisors at E16.5 or molar ameloblasts by E17.5–E18.5. This expression remains detectable until molar enamel deposition is completed or throughout life as in the constantly erupting mouse incisors. The expression of alpha7GFP also identifies all stages of innervation of the tooth organ. Ablation of the alpha7-cell lineage using a conditional alpha7Cre×ROSA26-LoxP(diphtheria toxin A) strategy substantially reduced the mesenchyme and this corresponded with excessive epithelium overgrowth consistent with an instructive role by these cells during ectoderm patterning. However, alpha7knock-out (KO) mice exhibited normal tooth size and shape indicating that under normal conditions alpha7 expression is dispensable to this process. The function of ameloblasts in alpha7KO mice is altered relative to controls. High resolution micro-computed tomography analysis of adult mandibular incisors revealed enamel volume of the alpha7KO was significantly reduced and the organization of enamel rods was altered relative to controls. These results demonstrate distinct and varied spatiotemporal expression of alpha7 during tooth development, and they suggest that dysfunction of this receptor would have diverse impacts upon the adult organ. PMID:22666322

  17. Effects of Exercise Training on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Biomarkers of Cardiometabolic Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaochen; Zhang, Xi; Guo, Jianjun; Roberts, Christian K; McKenzie, Steve; Wu, Wen-Chih; Liu, Simin; Song, Yiqing

    2015-01-01

    Background Guidelines recommend exercise for cardiovascular health, although evidence from trials linking exercise to cardiovascular health through intermediate biomarkers remains inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to quantify the impact of exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness and a variety of conventional and novel cardiometabolic biomarkers in adults without cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results Two researchers selected 160 randomized controlled trials (7487 participants) based on literature searches of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central (January 1965 to March 2014). Data were extracted using a standardized protocol. A random-effects meta-analysis and systematic review was conducted to evaluate the effects of exercise interventions on cardiorespiratory fitness and circulating biomarkers. Exercise significantly raised absolute and relative cardiorespiratory fitness. Lipid profiles were improved in exercise groups, with lower levels of triglycerides and higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1. Lower levels of fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance, and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c were found in exercise groups. Compared with controls, exercise groups had higher levels of interleukin-18 and lower levels of leptin, fibrinogen, and angiotensin II. In addition, we found that the exercise effects were modified by age, sex, and health status such that people aged exercise significantly improved cardiorespiratory fitness and some cardiometabolic biomarkers. The effects of exercise were modified by age, sex, and health status. Findings from this study have significant implications for future design of targeted lifestyle interventions. PMID:26116691

  18. Sedentary Patterns, Physical Activity, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Association to Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís B. Sardinha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sedentary behavior has been considered an independent risk factor for type-2 diabetes (T2D, with a negative impact on several physiological outcomes, whereas breaks in sedentary time (BST have been proposed as a viable solution to mitigate some of these effects. However, little is known about the independent associations of sedentary pursuits, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF variables with glycemic control. We investigated the independent associations of total sedentary time, BST, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and CRF with glycemic outcomes in patients with T2D.Methods: Total sedentary time, BST, and MVPA were assessed in 66 participants (29 women with T2D, using accelerometry. Glucose and insulin were measured during a mixed meal tolerance test, with the respective calculations of HOMA-IR and Matsuda index. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c was also analyzed. CRF was measured in a maximal treadmill test with breath-by-breath gases analysis. Multiple regressions were used for data analysis.Results: Regardless of CRF, total sedentary time was positively associated with HbA1c (β = 0.25, p = 0.044. Adjusting for MVPA, total sedentary time was related to fasting glucose (β = 0.32, p = 0.037. No associations between total sedentary time and the remaining glycemic outcomes, after adjusting for MVPA. BST had favorable associations with HOMA-IR (β = −0.28, p = 0.047 and fasting glucose (β = −0.25, p = 0.046, when adjusted for MVPA, and with HOMA-IR (β = −0.25, p = 0.036, Matsuda index (β = 0.26, p = 0.036, and fasting glucose (β = −0.22, p = 0.038, following adjustment for CRF. When adjusting for total sedentary time, only CRF yielded favorable associations with HOMA-IR (β = −0.29, p = 0.039, fasting glucose (β = −0.32, p = 0.012, and glucose at 120-min (β = −0.26, p = 0.035, and no associations were found for MVPA with none of the metabolic outcomes.Conclusion: The results from this

  19. PINK1/Parkin-Dependent Mitochondrial Surveillance: From Pleiotropy to Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Corti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is one of the most frequent neurodegenerative disease caused by the preferential, progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic (DA neurons of the substantia nigra (SN pars compacta. PD is characterized by a multifaceted pathological process involving protein misfolding, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation and metabolism deregulation. The molecular mechanisms governing the complex interplay between the different facets of this process are still unknown. PARK2/Parkin and PARK6/PINK1, two genes responsible for familial forms of PD, act as a ubiquitous core signaling pathway, coupling mitochondrial stress to mitochondrial surveillance, by regulating mitochondrial dynamics, the removal of damaged mitochondrial components by mitochondria-derived vesicles, mitophagy, and mitochondrial biogenesis. Over the last decade, PINK1/Parkin-dependent mitochondrial quality control emerged as a pleiotropic regulatory pathway. Loss of its function impinges on a number of physiological processes suspected to contribute to PD pathogenesis. Its role in the regulation of innate immunity and inflammatory processes stands out, providing compelling support to the contribution of non-cell-autonomous immune mechanisms in PD. In this review, we illustrate the central role of this multifunctional pathway at the crossroads between mitochondrial stress, neuroinflammation and metabolism. We discuss how its dysfunction may contribute to PD pathogenesis and pinpoint major unresolved questions in the field.

  20. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes Sessions of four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Session 1 =  11.09 / 18.09 / 25.09 / 02.10, 18:15 - 19:15 Session 2 = 25.09 / 02.10 / 09.10 / 16.10, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 3 = 23.10 / 30.10 / 06.11 / 13.11, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 4 = 20.11 / 27.11 / 04.12 / 11.12, 12:30 - 13:30 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness   Hope to see you among us!  fitness.club@cern.ch In spring 2012 there was a long-awaited progress in CERN Fitness club. We have officially opened a Powerlifting @ CERN, and the number of members of the new section has been increasing since then reaching 70+ people in less than 4 months. Powerlifting is a strength sport, which is simple as 1-2-3 and efficient. The "1-2-3" are the three basic lifts (bench press...

  1. Effect of individual counseling on physical activity fitness and health: A randomized controlled trial in a workplace setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Beek, A.J. van der; Twisk, J.W.R.; Mechelen, W. van

    2003-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity and obesity are major public health problems. Our objective was to investigate the effectiveness of an individual counseling intervention at the workplace on physical activity fitness and health. Counseling content derived from the Patient-centered Assessment and

  2. The effect on cardiorespiratory fitness after an 8-week period of commuter cycling - A randomized controlled study in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels Christian; Østergaard, Lars; Gade, Jens Raaberg

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of commuter cycling on cardiorespiratory fitness in men and women. Secondary outcomes included body fat and blood pressure measurements. METHODS: In February 2009, 48 volunteers from the Island of Funen, Denmark were randomly assigned to either "no ch...

  3. Effectiveness of cycle fit, a 6-week training program for novice cyclers, on increasing physical activity: a controlled study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, L.; Veenhof, C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the Netherlands, National Sports Federations were funded to develop “easily accessible” sporting programs aimed at inactive population groups. Cycle Fit, a 6-week training program for novice cyclers (i.e. mountain biking, race cycling), developed by the Dutch Cycle Federation, is

  4. Improved physical fitness of cancer survivors : A randomised controlled trial comparing physical training with physical and cognitive-behavioural training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    May, Anne M.; Van Weert, Ellen; Korstjens, Irene; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Van Der Schans, Cees P.; Zonderland, Maria L.; Mesters, Ilse; Van Den Borne, Bart; Ros, Wynand J. G.

    2008-01-01

    We compared the effect of a group-based 12-week supervised exercise programme, i.e. aerobic and resistance exercise, and group sports, with that of the same programme combined with cognitive-behavioural training on physical fitness and activity of cancer survivors. One hundred and forty seven cancer

  5. Can pre-season fitness measures predict time to injury in varsity athletes?: a retrospective case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Michael D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to determine athletic performance in varsity athletes using preseason measures has been established. The ability of pre-season performance measures and athlete’s exposure to predict the incidence of injuries is unclear. Thus our purpose was to determine the ability of pre-season measures of athletic performance to predict time to injury in varsity athletes. Methods Male and female varsity athletes competing in basketball, volleyball and ice hockey participated in this study. The main outcome measures were injury prevalence, time to injury (based on calculated exposure and pre-season fitness measures as predictors of time to injury. Fitness measures were Apley’s range of motion, push-up, curl-ups, vertical jump, modified Illinois agility, and sit-and-reach. Cox regression models were used to identify which baseline fitness measures were predictors of time to injury. Results Seventy-six percent of the athletes reported 1 or more injuries. Mean times to initial injury were significantly different for females and males (40.6% and 66.1% of the total season (p , respectively. A significant univariate correlation was observed between push-up performance and time to injury (Pearson’s r = 0.332, p . No preseason fitness measure impacted the hazard of injury. Regardless of sport, female athletes had significantly shorter time to injury than males (Hazard Ratio = 2.2, p . Athletes playing volleyball had significantly shorter time to injury (Hazard Ratio = 4.2, p  compared to those playing hockey or basketball. Conclusions When accounting for exposure, gender, sport and fitness measures, prediction of time to injury was influenced most heavily by gender and sport.

  6. The efficacy of incentives to motivate continued fitness-center attendance in college first-year students: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Lizzy; Harvey, Jean

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether fitness-center attendance established with the provision of weekly monetary incentives persisted after the discontinuation, or decreased frequency, of incentives. One hundred seventeen first-year college students participated during the 2011-2012 academic year. A randomized controlled trial with control, discontinued-incentive, and continued-incentive conditions was conducted. During fall semester, students in incentive conditions received weekly monetary payments for meeting fitness-center attendance goals. During spring semester, discontinued-incentive condition participants no longer received incentives, whereas continued-incentive condition participants received payments on a variable-interval schedule. ID-card attendance records tracked fitness-center attendance. Goal completion decreased from 63% in the incentive groups during the fall semester to 3% in the discontinued-incentive condition, and 39% in the continued-incentive condition during the spring semester. There was not a significant interaction between condition and body mass index change, F(6, 332) = 0.67, p = .68. Incentive discontinuation resulted in students no longer meeting fitness-center attendance goals. A variable-interval reward schedule better maintained attendance.

  7. The effect of progressive resistance training on aerobic fitness and strength in adults with coronary heart disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollings, Matthew; Mavros, Yorgi; Freeston, Jonathan; Fiatarone Singh, Maria

    2017-08-01

    Design We aimed to evaluate the effect of progressive resistance training on cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength in coronary heart disease, when compared to control or aerobic training, and when combined with aerobic training. Secondary aims were to evaluate the safety and efficacy of progressive resistance training on other physiological and clinical outcomes. Methods and results Electronic databases were searched from inception until July 2016. Designs included progressive resistance training vs control, progressive resistance training vs aerobic training, and combined training vs aerobic training. From 268,778 titles, 34 studies were included (1940 participants; 71.9% male; age 60 ± 7 years). Progressive resistance training was more effective than control for lower (standardized mean difference 0.57, 95% confidence interval (0.17-0.96)) and upper (1.43 (0.73-2.13)) body strength. Aerobic fitness improved similarly after progressive resistance training (16.9%) or aerobic training (21.0%); (standardized mean difference -0.13, 95% confidence interval (-0.35-0.08)). Combined training was more effective than aerobic training for aerobic fitness (0.21 (0.09-0.34), lower (0.62 (0.32-0.92)) and upper (0.51 (0.27-0.74)) body strength. Twenty studies reported adverse event information, with five reporting 64 cardiovascular complications, 63 during aerobic training. Conclusion Isolated progressive resistance training resulted in an increase in lower and upper body strength, and improved aerobic fitness to a similar degree as aerobic training in coronary heart disease cohorts. Importantly, when progressive resistance training was added to aerobic training, effects on both fitness and strength were enhanced compared to aerobic training alone. Reporting of adverse events was poor, and clinical gaps were identified for women, older adults, high intensity progressive resistance training and long-term outcomes, warranting future trials to confirm safety and

  8. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes New session of 4 classes of 1 hour each will be held on Tuesdays in May 2013. Meet at the CERN barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Dates and time: 07.05, 14.05, 21.05 and 28.05, fom  12 h 30 to 13 h 30 Prices: 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership – 5 CHF / hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! 

  9. Higher cardio-respiratory fitness is associated with increased mental and physical quality of life in people with bipolar disorder: A controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Hagemann, Noemi; Wyckaert, Sabine; Rosenbaum, Simon; Stubbs, Brendon; Firth, Joseph; Schuch, Felipe B; Probst, Michel; Sienaert, Pascal

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cardiorespiratory fitness among outpatients with bipolar disorder is associated with health related quality of life (HRQL) and explore differences versus healthy controls. Outpatients with bipolar disorder and healthy controls matched for age, sex and body mass index completed the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, the Positive-and-Negative-Affect-Schedule (PANAS), a maximal cardiorespiratory fitness test, and wore a Sensewear Armband to measure physical activity and sedentary behavior for eight days. Unpaired t-tests, Pearson correlations and backward regression analyses were performed. Outpatients with bipolar disorder (n = 20; 14♀; 47.9 ± 7.9 years) had a significantly lower physical and mental HRQL than healthy controls (n = 20; 14♀; 47.8 ± 7.6 years), a lower maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) and were more sedentary. While no significant correlates were found for HRQL in controls, higher VO 2 max values and lower PANAS negative affect scores predicted better physical and mental HRQL in people with bipolar disorder. The final regression model explained 68% and 58% of the variability in physical and mental HRQL respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with mental and physical HRQL among people with bipolar disorder. The current study offers novel targets for scientific investigation and clinical interventions to increase HRQL in people with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Potential application of digital image-processing method and fitted logistic model to the control of oriental fruit moths (Grapholita molesta Busck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z G; Rong, E H; Li, S C; Zhang, L J; Zhang, Z W; Guo, Y Q; Ma, R Y

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring of oriental fruit moths (Grapholita molesta Busck) is a prerequisite for its control. This study introduced a digital image-processing method and logistic model for the control of oriental fruit moths. First, five triangular sex pheromone traps were installed separately within each area of 667 m2 in a peach orchard to monitor oriental fruit moths consecutively for 3 years. Next, full view images of oriental fruit moths were collected via a digital camera and then subjected to graying, separation and morphological analysis for automatic counting using MATLAB software. Afterwards, the results of automatic counting were used for fitting a logistic model to forecast the control threshold and key control period. There was a high consistency between automatic counting and manual counting (0.99, P model, oriental fruit moths had four occurrence peaks during a year, with a time-lag of 15-18 days between adult occurrence peak and the larval damage peak. Additionally, the key control period was from 28 June to 3 July each year, when the wormy fruit rate reached up to 5% and the trapping volume was approximately 10.2 per day per trap. Additionally, the key control period for the overwintering generation was 25 April. This study provides an automatic counting method and fitted logistic model with a great potential for application to the control of oriental fruit moths.

  11. Mediating effects of resistance training skill competency on health-related fitness and physical activity: the ATLAS cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan J; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Stodden, David F; Lubans, David R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effect of resistance training skill competency on percentage of body fat, muscular fitness and physical activity among a sample of adolescent boys participating in a school-based obesity prevention intervention. Participants were 361 adolescent boys taking part in the Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time (ATLAS) cluster randomised controlled trial: a school-based program targeting the health behaviours of economically disadvantaged adolescent males considered "at-risk" of obesity. Body fat percentage (bioelectrical impedance), muscular fitness (hand grip dynamometry and push-ups), physical activity (accelerometry) and resistance training skill competency were assessed at baseline and post-intervention (i.e., 8 months). Three separate multi-level mediation models were analysed to investigate the potential mediating effects of resistance training skill competency on each of the study outcomes using a product-of-coefficients test. Analyses followed the intention-to-treat principle. The intervention had a significant impact on the resistance training skill competency of the boys, and improvements in skill competency significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on percentage of body fat and the combined muscular fitness score. No significant mediated effects were found for physical activity. Improving resistance training skill competency may be an effective strategy for achieving improvements in body composition and muscular fitness in adolescent boys.

  12. From discovery of high lysine barley endosperm mutants in the 1960-70 ties to new holistic spectral models of the phenome and of pleiotropy in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munck, L.; Moeller Jespersen, B.

    2008-01-01

    As documented by eight IAEA/FAO symposia 1968-82 on nutritionally improved seeds, a wide range of high lysine endosperm mutants were isolated in maize, sorghum and barley. These mutants observed by new spectroscopic screening methods can now be exploited to advance basic biological research and theory. Since 1982 effective methods to overview the physiochemical composition of seeds by Near Infrared Spectroscopy evaluated by chemometric data analysis have developed. Spectroscopic analyses by calibration have now substituted for the wet analyses in industry. In genetics there has traditionally been a differentiation between major genes for qualitative and minor 'polygenes' for quantitative traits. This view has been coupled to an incomplete understanding of pleiotropy. It is shown that seed spectra from isogenic barley endosperm mutants represent a coarse-grained physiochemical overview of the phenome that can be classified by chemometrics. Pleiotropy expressed by a gene is quantified as a whole pattern by the gene specific mutant spectrum subtracted by the spectrum of the parent variety. Selection for an improved plumpness (starch) in a breeding material with the lys3.a mutant visualises in spectra the effect of enriching 'minor polygenes' for an increased content of starch in a mutant gene background. Morphological, spectroscopic and chemical analyses suggest that mutant genes have both qualitative and quantitative expressions. They produce qualitative pleiotropic phenomenological patterns that can be observed as more or less severe changes in macro and microstructures of the plant and seed phenotype. Behind are quantitative chemical changes that by spectroscopy and chemometrics can be transferred to qualitative patterns. In fact one major gene for a qualitative trait can act as several apparent minor polygenes for quantitative variables. This explains the reduced need for the previously expected several hundred thousands of genes and gene modifiers down to the

  13. Patients with musculoskeletal conditions do less vigorous physical activity and have poorer physical fitness than population controls: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseng, T; Tveter, A T; Holm, I; Dagfinrud, H

    2014-12-01

    To compare physical activity and physical fitness in patients with various musculoskeletal conditions receiving physiotherapy in primary care with population controls. Cross-sectional. One hundred and sixty-seven patients with musculoskeletal conditions receiving physiotherapy in primary care and 313 population controls from various settings and geographical areas. Physical activity was measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short-form (IPAQ-sf) and reported in metabolic equivalents (METs). The 6-minute walk test and 30-second sit-to-stand test reflected cardiorespiratory endurance and muscular strength, respectively. Differences in physical activity between the groups were explored using the Mann-Whitney U-test. The patient group reported significantly less vigorous activity compared with the control group {median 0 [interquartile range (IQR) 0 to 960] vs median 240 [IQR 0 to 1440] MET minutes/week, respectively)} (P=0.001). A similar proportion of patients (68%) and controls (75%) reached the recommended level of health-enhancing physical activity (P=0.11). Linear regression analyses adjusted for age, body mass index and gender showed significantly poorer fitness in the patient group compared with the control group, reflected by the 6-minute walk test and the 30-second sit-to-stand test {mean difference 69m [95% confidence interval (CI) 52 to 85; P≤0.001] and six repetitions [95% CI 5 to 7; P≤0.001], respectively}. Patients with various long-term musculoskeletal conditions receiving physiotherapy in primary care had significantly poorer physical fitness and reported less vigorous physical activity compared with population controls. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of cold priming on the fitness of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions under natural and controlled conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvetkovic, Jelena; Müller, Klaus; Baier, Margarete

    2017-01-01

    Priming improves an organism's performance upon a future stress. To test whether cold priming supports protection in spring and how it is affected by cold acclimation, we compared seven Arabidopsis accessions with different cold acclimation potentials in the field and in the greenhouse for growth......, photosynthetic performance and reproductive fitness in March and May after a 14 day long cold-pretreatment at 4 °C. In the plants transferred to the field in May, the effect of the cold pretreatment on the seed yield correlated with the cold acclimation potential of the accessions. In the March transferred...

  15. The outcomes of a 12-week Internet intervention aimed at improving fitness and health-related quality of life in overweight adolescents: the Young & Active controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Riiser

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity among adolescents may have consequences, with potentially lasting effects on health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Excess weight is also associated with decreases in physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. The aim of the current study was to investigate the short-term effects of a 12-week Internet intervention in a primary care setting intended to increase cardiorespiratory fitness and HRQoL among overweight and obese adolescents.In this controlled trial, participants (13-15 years were non-randomly allocated to an intervention- or a control group. The intervention group received 12-weeks access to an online program providing tailored physical activity counseling based on principles from Self-determination Theory and Motivational Interviewing. The control group received standard follow-up by the school nurses. The primary outcome measure of cardiorespiratory fitness was determined using a shuttle run test. The secondary outcomes: HRQoL, leisure time exercise, body image and self-determined motivation for physical activity and exercise, were assessed by self-report measures. Age- and gender-adjusted body mass index (BMI was calculated based on measurements of height and weight. To compare pre-to post intervention differences within groups, a paired samples t-test was used while crude differences between groups were analyzed with an independent samples t-test.Of the 120 participants, 108 completed the study, 75 in the intervention group and 33 in the control group. Exposure to the intervention had a small effect on cardiorespiratory fitness (0.14; 95% CI [0.01;0.28]; P = 0.04, and a moderate effect on HRQoL (5.22; 95% CI [0.90; 9.53]; P = 0.02. Moreover, the control group increased significantly in BMI, yielding a moderate preventive effect on BMI (-0.39; 95% CI [-0.74;-0.03]; P = 0.03 for the intervention group.The results suggest that the Internet intervention with tailored physical activity counseling

  16. Rules, culture, and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, W M

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be "internalized," the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain ("If you'll do X, then I'll do Y"), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule ("Dress warmly; it's cold outside") can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior.

  17. The feasibility of evaluating the effect of using Wii Fit balance games to train postural control in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Almuwais, Afrah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the usability and potential effect of Wii Fit games as postural control intervention and Wii Balance Board [WBB] as postural control assessment tool in clinical rehabilitation for children with cerebral palsy [CP]. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the intra- and inter-session reliability of the WBB in measuring Centre of Pressure [COP] path length of children with and without CP. 12 children {mean age 8.75 ± 1.7}, and 12 aged matched children w...

  18. Wii Fit balance training or progressive balance training in patients with chronic stroke: a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatar, Gozde Iyigun; Yildirim, Sibel Aksu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Wii Fit balance training (WBT) and progressive balance training (PBT) approaches on balance functions, balance confidence, and activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] A total of 30 patients were randomized into the WBT (n=15) and PBT (n=15) groups. [Methods] All of the subjects received exercise training based on a neurodevelopemental approach in addition to either Wii Fit or progressive balance training for total of 1 hour a day, 3 days per week for 4 weeks. Primary measurements were static balance function measured with a Wii Balance Board and dynamic balance function assessed with the Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go test, Dynamic Gait Index, and Functional Reach Test. Secondary measures were balance confidence assessed with the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale and activities of daily living evaluated with the Frenchay Activity Index. [Results] There was not remarkable difference between the two treatments in dynamic balance functions, balance confidence, and activities of daily living. [Conclusion] Although both of the approaches were found to be effective in improving the balance functions, balance confidence, and activities of daily living, neither of them were more preferable than the other for the treatment of balance in patients with chronic stroke. PMID:25995576

  19. Wii Fit balance training or progressive balance training in patients with chronic stroke: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatar, Gozde Iyigun; Yildirim, Sibel Aksu

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Wii Fit balance training (WBT) and progressive balance training (PBT) approaches on balance functions, balance confidence, and activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] A total of 30 patients were randomized into the WBT (n=15) and PBT (n=15) groups. [Methods] All of the subjects received exercise training based on a neurodevelopemental approach in addition to either Wii Fit or progressive balance training for total of 1 hour a day, 3 days per week for 4 weeks. Primary measurements were static balance function measured with a Wii Balance Board and dynamic balance function assessed with the Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go test, Dynamic Gait Index, and Functional Reach Test. Secondary measures were balance confidence assessed with the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale and activities of daily living evaluated with the Frenchay Activity Index. [Results] There was not remarkable difference between the two treatments in dynamic balance functions, balance confidence, and activities of daily living. [Conclusion] Although both of the approaches were found to be effective in improving the balance functions, balance confidence, and activities of daily living, neither of them were more preferable than the other for the treatment of balance in patients with chronic stroke.

  20. T-Bet Enhances Regulatory T Cell Fitness and Directs Control of Th1 Responses in Crescentic GN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosko, Anna; Kluger, Malte A; Diefenhardt, Paul; Melderis, Simon; Wegscheid, Claudia; Tiegs, Gisa; Stahl, Rolf A K; Panzer, Ulf; Steinmetz, Oliver M

    2017-01-01

    Th1 cells are central pathogenic mediators of crescentic GN (cGN). Mechanisms responsible for Th1 cell downregulation, however, remain widely unknown. Recently, it was proposed that activation of the Th1-characteristic transcription factor T-bet optimizes Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cells to counteract Th1-type inflammation. Because very little is known about the role of T-bet + Treg1 cells in inflammatory diseases, we studied the function of these cells in the nephrotoxic nephritis (NTN) model of cGN. The percentage of Treg1 cells progressively increased in kidneys of nephritic wild-type mice during the course of NTN, indicating their functional importance. Notably, naïve Foxp3 Cre xT-bet fl/fl mice, lacking Treg1 cells, showed spontaneous skewing toward Th1 immunity. Furthermore, absence of Treg1 cells resulted in aggravated NTN with selectively dysregulated renal and systemic Th1 responses. Detailed analyses of Treg cells from Foxp3 Cre xT-bet fl/fl mice revealed unaltered cytokine production and suppressive capacity. However, in competitive cotransfer experiments, wild-type Treg cells outcompeted T-bet-deficient Treg cells in terms of population expansion and expression levels of Foxp3, indicating that T-bet expression is crucial for general Treg fitness. Additionally, T-bet-deficient Treg cells lacked expression of the Th1-characteristic trafficking receptor CXCR3, which correlated with significant impairment of renal Treg infiltration. In summary, our data indicate a new subtype of Treg cells in cGN. These Treg1 cells are characterized by activation of the transcription factor T-bet, which enhances the overall fitness of these cells and optimizes their capacity to downregulate Th1 responses by inducing chemokine receptor CXCR3 expression. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  1. Study protocol of European Fans in Training (EuroFIT): a four-country randomised controlled trial of a lifestyle program for men delivered in elite football clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nassau, Femke; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Abrahamsen, Frank; Andersen, Eivind; Anderson, Annie S; Bosmans, Judith E; Bunn, Christopher; Chalmers, Matthew; Clissmann, Ciaran; Gill, Jason M R; Gray, Cindy M; Hunt, Kate; Jelsma, Judith G M; La Guardia, Jennifer G; Lemyre, Pierre N; Loudon, David W; Macaulay, Lisa; Maxwell, Douglas J; McConnachie, Alex; Martin, Anne; Mourselas, Nikos; Mutrie, Nanette; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Ria; O'Brien, Kylie; Pereira, Hugo V; Philpott, Matthew; Roberts, Glyn C; Rooksby, John; Rost, Mattias; Røynesdal, Øystein; Sattar, Naveed; Silva, Marlene N; Sorensen, Marit; Teixeira, Pedro J; Treweek, Shaun; van Achterberg, Theo; van de Glind, Irene; van Mechelen, Willem; Wyke, Sally

    2016-07-19

    Lifestyle interventions targeting physical activity, sedentary time and dietary behaviours have the potential to initiate and support behavioural change and result in public health gain. Although men have often been reluctant to engage in such lifestyle programs, many are at high risk of several chronic conditions. We have developed an evidence and theory-based, gender sensitised, health and lifestyle program (European Fans in Training (EuroFIT)), which is designed to attract men through the loyalty they feel to the football club they support. This paper describes the study protocol to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the EuroFIT program in supporting men to improve their level of physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour over 12 months. The EuroFIT study is a pragmatic, two-arm, randomised controlled trial conducted in 15 football clubs in the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and the UK (England). One-thousand men, aged 30 to 65 years, with a self-reported Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥27 kg/m(2) will be recruited and individually randomised. The primary outcomes are objectively-assessed changes in total physical activity (steps per day) and total sedentary time (minutes per day) at 12 months after baseline assessment. Secondary outcomes are weight, BMI, waist circumference, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cardio-metabolic blood biomarkers, food intake, self-reported physical activity and sedentary time, wellbeing, self-esteem, vitality and quality of life. Cost-effectiveness will be assessed and a process evaluation conducted. The EuroFIT program will be delivered over 12 weekly, 90-minute sessions that combine classroom discussion with graded physical activity in the setting of the football club. Classroom sessions provide participants with a toolbox of behaviour change techniques to initiate and sustain long-term lifestyle changes. The coaches will receive two days of training to enable them to create a positive social

  2. Study protocol of European Fans in Training (EuroFIT: a four-country randomised controlled trial of a lifestyle program for men delivered in elite football clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke van Nassau

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle interventions targeting physical activity, sedentary time and dietary behaviours have the potential to initiate and support behavioural change and result in public health gain. Although men have often been reluctant to engage in such lifestyle programs, many are at high risk of several chronic conditions. We have developed an evidence and theory-based, gender sensitised, health and lifestyle program (European Fans in Training (EuroFIT, which is designed to attract men through the loyalty they feel to the football club they support. This paper describes the study protocol to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the EuroFIT program in supporting men to improve their level of physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour over 12 months. Methods The EuroFIT study is a pragmatic, two-arm, randomised controlled trial conducted in 15 football clubs in the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and the UK (England. One-thousand men, aged 30 to 65 years, with a self-reported Body Mass Index (BMI ≥27 kg/m2 will be recruited and individually randomised. The primary outcomes are objectively-assessed changes in total physical activity (steps per day and total sedentary time (minutes per day at 12 months after baseline assessment. Secondary outcomes are weight, BMI, waist circumference, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cardio-metabolic blood biomarkers, food intake, self-reported physical activity and sedentary time, wellbeing, self-esteem, vitality and quality of life. Cost-effectiveness will be assessed and a process evaluation conducted. The EuroFIT program will be delivered over 12 weekly, 90-minute sessions that combine classroom discussion with graded physical activity in the setting of the football club. Classroom sessions provide participants with a toolbox of behaviour change techniques to initiate and sustain long-term lifestyle changes. The coaches will receive two days of training to

  3. Tip-tilt disturbance model identification based on non-linear least squares fitting for Linear Quadratic Gaussian control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kangjian; Yang, Ping; Wang, Shuai; Dong, Lizhi; Xu, Bing

    2018-05-01

    We propose a method to identify tip-tilt disturbance model for Linear Quadratic Gaussian control. This identification method based on Levenberg-Marquardt method conducts with a little prior information and no auxiliary system and it is convenient to identify the tip-tilt disturbance model on-line for real-time control. This identification method makes it easy that Linear Quadratic Gaussian control runs efficiently in different adaptive optics systems for vibration mitigation. The validity of the Linear Quadratic Gaussian control associated with this tip-tilt disturbance model identification method is verified by experimental data, which is conducted in replay mode by simulation.

  4. Functional Fitness and Self-Reported Quality of Life of Older Women Diagnosed with Knee Osteoarthrosis: A Cross-Sectional Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Andréa Malveira Cavalcante

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Utilizing a cross-sectional case control design, the aim of this study was to evaluate the functional fitness and self-reported quality of life differences in older people diagnosed with knee osteoarthrosis (O who participated in health promotion groups. Methods. Ninety older women were distributed into two groups: control without O of the knee (C, n=40 and a group diagnosed with primary and secondary knee O with grade II or higher, with definite osteophytes (OA, n=50. Functional fitness was evaluated by specific tests, and the time spent in physical activity and quality of life was evaluated by the IPAQ and WHOQOL (distributed in four domains: physical: P, psychological: PS, social: S, and environmental: E domain questionnaires. Results. No differences were found between ages of groups (C: 66±7; OA: 67±9; years. The values of the chair stand test (rep in the OA (13±5 group were different when compared to C group (22±5. For the 6-minute walk test (meters, the values obtained for the C (635±142 were higher (P<0.01 than the OA (297±143 group. The time spent in physical activity (min was greater (P<0.001 in the control (220±12 group compared to OA (100±10 group. Higher values (P<0.001 in all domains were found in the C (P: 69±16, PS: 72±17, S: 67±15, E: 70±15 group compared to OA (P: 48±7, PS: 43±8, S: 53±13, E: 47±14 group. Conclusion. Our data suggests that knee O, in older women, can promote a decline in time spent performing physical activity and functional fitness with decline in quality of life with an increase in sitting time.

  5. A Randomized-Controlled Trial of School-Based Active Videogame Intervention on Chinese Children's Aerobic Fitness, Physical Activity Level, and Psychological Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Patrick Wing Chung; Wang, Jing Jing; Maddison, Ralph

    2016-12-01

    Active videogames (AVGs) that require body movements to play offer a novel opportunity to turn a traditionally sedentary behavior into a physically active one. We sought to determine the effect of a school-based AVG intervention on Chinese children's aerobic fitness, physical activity (PA) level, and PA-related psychological correlates. Eighty 8-11-year-old Chinese children (55 males) were recruited from one Hong Kong primary school and were allocated at random to either an AVG intervention or control group. Children in the intervention group played an AVG, Xbox 360, twice per week during after-school hours, each for 60 minutes over 12 weeks in duration. The control group received no intervention. Children's body-mass index (BMI), objective PA, aerobic fitness (maximum oxygen consumption [VO 2max ]), PA task efficacy, barrier efficacy, and enjoyment were assessed. Compared with the control group, significant increases were found in the intervention group in VO 2max [mean and 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.58 (0.74, 2.42) mL/(kg·min)], objective moderate-to-vigorous PA [6.73 (1.70, 11.76) min/day], and total PA [27.19 (9.33, 45.04) min/day], but not for BMI. No significant differences in PA task efficacy, barrier efficacy, and enjoyment were observed. A 12-week (60 minutes × twice per week) school-based AVG intervention can improve Chinese children's aerobic fitness and PA level. These findings indicated that AVGs could be used as an alternative means to engage Chinese children in PA in school setting. However, the treatment effects of AVGs on PA-related psychological correlates and body composition need more investigation.

  6. Cardiorespiratory fitness moderates the effect of an affect-guided physical activity prescription: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin S; Kangas, Julie L; Denman, Deanna C; Smits, Jasper A J; Yamada, Tetsuhiro; Otto, Michael W

    2016-11-01

    Physical activity (PA) interventions have a clear role in promoting mental health. Current PA guidelines directed toward specific PA intensities may have negative effects on affective response to exercise, and affective response is an important determinant of PA adherence. In this randomized trial of 67 previously inactive adults, we compared the effects of a PA prescription emphasizing the maintenance of positive affect to one emphasizing a target heart rate, and tested the extent to which the effect of the affect-guided prescription on PA is moderated by cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). We found the effect of an affect-guided prescription was significantly moderated by CRF. At one week, for participants with lower CRF (i.e. poor conditioning), the affect-guided prescription resulted in significantly greater change in PA minutes (M = 240.8) than the heart rate-guided prescription (M = 165.7), reflecting a moderate-sized effect (d = .55). For those with higher CRF (i.e. good conditioning), the means were in the opposite direction but not significantly different. At one month, the same pattern emerged but the interaction was not significant. We discuss the implications of these findings for the type of PA prescriptions offered to individuals in need.

  7. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, James T

    2013-01-01

    In 1963-1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's 'special difficulty'-the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of 'offspring ideas' that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated.

  8. Taylor, Graicunas, Worthy, Likert, and Thayer: Span of Control and Organizational Structure--Where They Fit on the "Leadership Continuum."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corder, Lloyd E.

    The "Leadership Continuum" model developed in 1961 by R. Tannenbaum, I. Weschler, and F. Massarik clearly illustrates the ideas that management scholars like Frederick Taylor, V. A. Graicunas, James Worthy, Rensis Likert, and Frederick Thayer have posited concerning span of control and organizational structure. Each of these scholars…

  9. Microprocessor-controlled system for automatic acquisition of potentiometric data and their non-linear least-squares fit in equilibrium studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampp, H; Maeder, M; Zuberbühler, A D; Kaden, T A

    1980-06-01

    A microprocessor-controlled potentiometric titration apparatus for equilibrium studies is described. The microprocessor controls the stepwise addition of reagent, monitors the pH until it becomes constant and stores the constant value. The data are recorded on magnetic tape by a cassette recorder with an RS232 input-output interface. A non-linear least-squares program based on Marquardt's modification of the Newton-Gauss method is discussed and its performance in the calculation of equilibrium constants is exemplified. An HP 9821 desk-top computer accepts the data from the magnetic tape recorder. In addition to a fully automatic fitting procedure, the program allows manual adjustment of the parameters. Three examples are discussed with regard to performance and reproducibility.

  10. Effect of a 26-month floorball training on male elderly's cardiovascular fitness, glucose control, body composition, and functional capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Vorup, Jacob; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-01-01

    , and physical function among recreationally active men aged 66–78 years.  Methods: After completing a 12-week randomized and controlled intervention with floorball and petanque training in the autumn 2014 or spring 2015, 15 subjects chose to participate in floorball training (floorball group, FG), whereas 16...... in recreationally active male elderly.......Background: Floorball training offers a motivating and socially stimulating team activity for older adults, and 12 weeks of floorball training twice a week among men aged 65–76 years have been shown to have positive effects on a number of physiological parameters important for health. However...

  11. Where do the Nuclear Materials Management functions fit in the Materials Control and Accountability (MC and A) plan?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVer, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    Safeguards had its beginning in the early 1940s and has continued to grow through the stormy years in dealing with nuclear materials. MC and A Plans have been developed for each facility which includes requirements for containment, surveillance, internal controls, measurements, statistics, records and report systems, and inventory certification of its nuclear materials, in the context of how precisely the inventory is known at stated risk or confidence levels. The I and E Regulations, the newest document affecting the control system, are used for testing the current MC and A plan in place at each facility. Nuclear Materials Management activities also have reporting requirements that include: (1) Annual Forecast, (2) Materials Management Plan, (3) Quarterly Status Report, (4) Assessment Report, and (5) Scrap and Excess Material Management. Data used to generate reports for both functions come from the same data base and source documents at most facilities. The separation of sponsoring groups at the DOE for NM Accountability and NM Management can and does pose problems for contractors. In this paper, we will try to separate and identify these overlaps at the Facility and DOE level

  12. Ultrasonic Phased Array Assessment of the Interference Fit and Leak Path of the North Anna Unit 2 Control Rod Drive Mechanism Nozzle 63 with Destructive Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Hanson, Brady D.; Mathews, Royce

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonic testing (UT) for primary water leak path assessments of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) upper head penetrations. Operating reactors have experienced leakage when stress corrosion cracking of nickel-based alloy penetrations allowed primary water into the annulus of the interference fit between the penetration and the low-alloy steel RPV head. In this investigation, UT leak path data were acquired for an Alloy 600 control rod drive mechanism nozzle penetration, referred to as Nozzle 63, which was removed from the North Anna Unit 2 reactor when the RPV head was replaced in 2002. In-service inspection prior to the head replacement indicated that Nozzle 63 had a probable leakage path through the interference fit region. Nozzle 63 was examined using a phased-array UT probe with a 5.0-MHz, eight-element annular array. Immersion data were acquired from the nozzle inner diameter surface. The UT data were interpreted by comparing to responses measured on a mockup penetration with known features. Following acquisition of the UT data, Nozzle 63 was destructively examined to determine if the features identified in the UT examination, including leakage paths and crystalline boric acid deposits, could be visually confirmed. Additional measurements of boric acid deposit thickness and low-alloy steel wastage were made to assess how these factors affect the UT response. The implications of these findings for interpreting UT leak path data are described.

  13. The Effects of a Motorized Aquatic Treadmill Exercise Program on Muscle Strength, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and clinical function in Subacute Stroke Patients -- a Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So Young; Han, Eun Young; Kim, Bo Ryun; Im, Sang Hee

    2018-03-12

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a motorized aquatic treadmill exercise program improve the isometric strength of the knee muscles, cardiorespiratory fitness, arterial stiffness, motor function, balance, functional outcomes and quality of life in subacute stroke patients. Thirty-two patients were randomly assigned to 4-week training sessions of either aquatic therapy(n=19) or land-based aerobic exercise(n=18). Isometric strength was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Cardiopulmonary fitness was evaluated using a symptom-limited exercise tolerance test and by measuring brachial ankle pulse wave velocity. Moreover, motor function(Fugl-Meyer Assessment[FMA] and FMA-lower limb[FMA-LL]), balance(Berg Balance Scale[BBS]), Activities of daily living(Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index [K-MBI]), and Quality of life(EQ-5D index) were examined. There were no inter-group differences between demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline(p>0.05). The results shows significant improvements in peak oxygen consumption (p=0.02), maximal isometric strength of the bilateral knee extensors (paquatic therapy group. However, only significant improvements in maximal isometric strength in the knee extensors (p=0.03) and flexors (p=0.04) were found within the aquatic therapy group and control group. Water-based aerobic exercise performed on a motorized aquatic treadmill had beneficial effect on isometric muscle strength in the lower limb.

  14. Fit for purpose frozen tissue collections by RNA integrity number-based quality control assurance at the Erasmus MC tissue bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kap, Marcel; Oomen, Monique; Arshad, Shazia; de Jong, Bas; Riegman, Peter

    2014-04-01

    About 5000 frozen tissue samples are collected each year by the Erasmus Medical Center tissue bank. Two percent of these samples are randomly selected annually for RNA isolation and RNA Integrity Number (RIN) measurement. A similar quality assessment was conducted during centralization of a 20-year-old tissue collection from the cancer institute, a 15-year-old liver sample archive (-80°C), and a 13-year-old clinical pathology frozen biopsy archive (Liquid Nitrogen). Samples were divided into either high-quality (RIN ≥6.5) or low-quality overall categories, or into four "fit-for-purpose" quality groups: RIN procurement protocols used for these samples needed immediate evaluation. When the distribution of RIN values of the different collections were compared, no significant differences were found, despite differences in average storage time and temperature. According to the principle of "fit-for-purpose" distribution, the vast majority of samples are considered good enough for most downstream techniques. In conclusion, an annual tissue bank quality control procedure provides useful information on tissue sample quality and sheds light on where and if improvements need to be made.

  15. Multimodal Therapy Involving High-Intensity Interval Training Improves the Physical Fitness, Motor Skills, Social Behavior, and Quality of Life of Boys With ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meßler, Carolin Friederike; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Sperlich, Billy

    2018-06-01

    To compare the effects of multimodal therapy including supervised high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with those of standard multimodal therapy (TRAD) concerning key variables of physical fitness (peak power and oxygen uptake), motor skills, social behavior, and quality of life in boys with ADHD. A single-center, two-arm randomized, controlled design was used, with 28 boys (8-13 years of age, IQ = 83-136) being randomly assigned to multimodal HIIT (three sessions/week, 4 × 4-min intervals at 95% of peak heart rate) or TRAD. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children II evaluated motor skills and the German version of the hyperkinetic disorder questionnaire for external evaluation by the guardians (FBB-HKS) or German version of the hyperkinetic disorder questionnaire for self-assessment by the children (SBB-HKS) and the KINDL-R questionnaires mental health and health-related quality of life. Both interventions enhanced peak power, and HIIT also reduced submaximal oxygen uptake. HIIT was more effective than TRAD in improving the total score for motor skills (including manual dexterity and ball skills; p HIIT improved physical fitness, motor skills, certain aspects of quality of life, competence, and attention in boys with ADHD.

  16. A new kinetic model based on the remote control mechanism to fit experimental data in the selective oxidation of propene into acrolein on biphasic catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdeldayem, H.M.; Ruiz, P.; Delmon, B. [Unite de Catalyse et Chimie des Materiaux Divises, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Thyrion, F.C. [Unite des Procedes Faculte des Sciences Appliquees, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium)

    1998-12-31

    A new kinetic model for a more accurate and detailed fitting of the experimental data is proposed. The model is based on the remote control mechanism (RCM). The RCM assumes that some oxides (called `donors`) are able to activate molecular oxygen transforming it to very active mobile species (spillover oxygen (O{sub OS})). O{sub OS} migrates onto the surface of the other oxide (called `acceptor`) where it creates and/or regenerates the active sites during the reaction. The model contains tow terms, one considering the creation of selective sites and the other the catalytic reaction at each site. The model has been tested in the selective oxidation of propene into acrolein (T=380, 400, 420 C; oxygen and propene partial pressures between 38 and 152 Torr). Catalysts were prepared as pure MoO{sub 3} (acceptor) and their mechanical mixtures with {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} (donor) in different proportions. The presence of {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} changes the reaction order, the activation energy of the reaction and the number of active sites of MoO{sub 3} produced by oxygen spillover. These changes are consistent with a modification in the degree of irrigation of the surface by oxygen spillover. The fitting of the model to experimental results shows that the number of sites created by O{sub SO} increases with the amount of {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4}. (orig.)

  17. A randomized controlled trial of a transdiagnostic Internet intervention for individuals with panic and phobias - One size fits all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Johanna; Jelinek, Lena; Moritz, Steffen

    2017-03-01

    Many individuals with anxiety disorders do not receive professional treatment. Internet interventions have shown to be effective in the treatment of anxiety. The present randomized controlled trial was designed to examine the effectiveness of a short-term (4-week) Internet intervention in treating panic disorder, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobias ('ConfID'). We addressed the questions of whether this transdiagnostic program would affect these disorders to varying degrees and whether there would be moderators of effectiveness. Adults who were recruited in online forums for anxiety underwent an online baseline assessment (N = 179) and were randomized either to the intervention group (ConfID) or the control group (care as usual). Online post-assessment took place 4 weeks later. The primary outcome was assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI); the secondary outcomes targeted the disorder-specific symptoms, depression, and somatization. Participants in the intervention group showed a significantly stronger anxiety reduction compared to participants receiving care as usual (small-to-medium effect size between groups in intention-to-treat analysis). The treatment effect was similar for the different disorders and was moderated by participants' attitudes towards Internet interventions. Secondary outcomes yielded effect sizes in the medium range. Moderate treatment adherence, lack of measures beyond online self-reports, and unavailability of long-term results. The study provides further evidence that transdiagnostic Internet interventions are promising in reducing the existing treatment gap in individuals with panic disorder and phobias. Results extend previous findings by showing that significant effects can also be reached by comprehensive short-term programs and that the effects might be moderated by participants' attitudes towards Internet interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Study protocol: fit for delivery - can a lifestyle intervention in pregnancy result in measurable health benefits for mothers and newborns? A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagedal Linda Reme

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global obesity epidemic has led to increased attention on pregnancy, a period when women are at risk of gaining excessive weight. Excessive gestational weight gain is associated with numerous complications, for both mother and child. Though the problem is widespread, few studies have examined the effect of a lifestyle intervention in pregnancy designed to limit maternal weight gain. The Fit for Delivery study will explore the effectiveness of nutritional counseling coupled with exercise classes compared with standard prenatal care. The aims of the study are to examine the effect of the intervention on maternal weight gain, newborn birth weight, glucose regulation, complications of pregnancy and delivery, and maternal weight retention up to 12 months postpartum. Methods/design Fit for Delivery is a randomized controlled trial that will include 600 women expecting their first child. To be eligible, women must be 18 years of age or older, of less than 20 weeks gestational age, with a singleton pregnancy, and have a Body Mass Index (BMI ≥ 19 kg/m2. The women will be randomly allocated to either an intervention group or a control group. The control group will receive standard prenatal care. The intervention group will, in addition, receive nutritional counseling by phone, access to twice-weekly exercise sessions, and information on healthy eating and physical activity provided in pamphlets, evening meetings and an interactive website. Both groups will be monitored by weighing (including bioimpedance measurements of percent body fat, blood tests, self-report questionnaires and hospital record review. Discussion Weight gained in pregnancy affects the health of both the mother and her unborn child, and simple models for efficient intervention are in high demand. The Fit for Delivery intervention provides concrete advice on limiting energy intake and practical training in increasing physical activity. This lifestyle intervention

  19. Effect of Deworming on Physical Fitness of School-Aged Children in Yunnan, China: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Peiling; Wu, Fang-Wei; Du, Zun-Wei; Hattendorf, Jan; Chen, Ran; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Kriemler, Susi; Krauth, Stefanie J.; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background There is considerable debate on the health impacts of soil-transmitted helminth infections. We assessed effects of deworming on physical fitness and strength of children in an area in Yunnan, People's Republic of China, where soil-transmitted helminthiasis is highly endemic. Methodology The double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Children, aged 9–12 years, were treated with either triple-dose albendazole or placebo, and monitored for 6 months post-treatment. The Kato-Katz and Baermann techniques were used for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. Physical fitness was assessed with a 20-m shuttle run test, where the maximum aerobic capacity within 1 min of exhaustive exercise (VO2 max estimate) and the number of 20-m laps completed were recorded. Physical strength was determined with grip strength and standing broad jump tests. Body height and weight, the sum of skinfolds, and hemoglobin levels were recorded as secondary outcomes. Principal Findings Children receiving triple-dose albendazole scored slightly higher in the primary and secondary outcomes than placebo recipients, but the difference lacked statistical significance. Trichuris trichiura-infected children had 1.6 ml kg−1 min−1 (P = 0.02) less increase in their VO2 max estimate and completed 4.6 (P = 0.04) fewer 20-m laps than at baseline compared to non-infected peers. Similar trends were detected in the VO2 max estimate and grip strength of children infected with hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides, respectively. In addition, the increase in the VO2 max estimate from baseline was consistently higher in children with low-intensity T. trichiura and hookworm infections than in their peers with high-intensity infections of all soil-transmitted helminths (range: 1.9–2.1 ml kg−1 min−1; all P<0.05). Conclusions/Significance We found no strong evidence for significant improvements in physical fitness and

  20. Exercise and fractures in postmenopausal women. Final results of the controlled Erlangen Fitness and Osteoporosis Prevention Study (EFOPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, W; Bebenek, M; Kohl, M; von Stengel, S

    2015-10-01

    The EFOPS trial clearly established the positive effect of long-term exercise on clinical low-trauma fractures in postmenopausal women at risk. Bearing in mind that the complex anti-fracture exercise protocols also affect a large variety of diseases of increased age, we strongly encourage older adults to perform multipurpose exercise programs. Physical exercise may be an efficient option for autonomous fracture prevention during increasing age. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of exercise on clinical overall fracture incidence and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly subjects at risk. In 1998 initially, 137 early-postmenopausal, osteopenic women living in Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany, were included in the EFOPS trial. Subjects of the exercise group (EG; n = 86) conducted two supervised group and two home exercise sessions/week while the control group (CG; n = 51) was requested to maintain their physical activity. Primary study endpoints were clinical overall low-trauma fractures determined by questionnaires, structured interviews, and BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In 2014, 105 subjects (EG: n = 59 vs. CG: n = 46) representing 1680 participant-years were included in the 16-year follow-up analysis. Risk ratio in the EG for overall low-trauma fractures was 0.51 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.23 to 0.97, p = .046), rate ratio was 0.42 (95% CI 0.20 to 0.86, p = .018). Based on comparable baseline values, lumbar spine (MV -1.5%, 95% CI -0.1 to -2.8 vs. -5.8%, -3.3 to -7.2%) and femoral neck (-6.5%, -5.2 to -7.7 vs. -9.6%, -8.2 to 11.1%) BMD decreased in both groups; however, the reduction was more pronounced in the CG (p ≤ .001). This study clearly evidenced the high anti-fracture efficiency of multipurpose exercise programs. Considering furthermore the favorable effect of exercise on most other risk factors of increasing age, we strongly encourage older adults to perform multipurpose

  1. Quality control of radiolabeled antibodies through simultaneous determination of antibody concentration and specific activity using time-resolved interaction analysis and reverse kinetic fit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.; Mihaylova, D.; Wang, E.; Abrahamsen, L.; Buijs, J.; Bjoerkelund, H.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. With the advent of efficient methods for producing proteins that bind to a defined target, the number of radiolabeled proteins, and in particular antibodies, used for medical imaging and cancer therapy is increasing rapidly. In line with this increase, focus should be put on methods for the quality control (QC). Proper antibody quality is of fundamental importance to guarantee safety and consistent efficacy for the patient. Adequate QC procedures exist for small radiolabeled synthetic compounds like FDG, but antibody based radiopharmaceuticals are different. Proteins are much more complex and fragile than the synthetic compounds, and hence require new methods for adequate characterization and QC. Yet another complication is the labeling where there is a risk that a subpopulation of the protein is damaged to the level that it no longer binds the target. Therefore, a new toolbox is required to fulfill the quality characterization of radiolabeled antibodies. We have developed a QC assay for the simultaneous determination of antibody function, concentration and specific activity. The assay is based on time-resolved detection of the antibody interaction with antigen-coated magnetic beads in LigandTracer instruments. The resulting binding curve is evaluated using reverse kinetic fits, where the known interaction parameters of the antibody-antigen interaction are set constant while as the concentration and signal level are fitted. The assay takes approximately 2 hours and the majority of the time constitutes automated data collection in the instrument. The QC assay has been tested on multiple antibody-antigen interactions and consistently provides repeatable results for concentration and specific activity, both with coefficient of variation (CV) less than 15%. We believe that this QC assay can improve the quality of radiolabeled therapeutic antibodies. (authors)

  2. The effects of a home-based arm ergometry exercise programme on physical fitness, fatigue and activity in polio survivors: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Deirdre

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Polio survivors have reduced mobility, pain and fatigue, which make access to conventional forms of aerobic exercise difficult. Inactivity leads to increased risk of health problems, many of which are prevalent among Polio survivors. Aerobic exercise programmes in Polio survivors should utilise stable muscle groups and should be designed to minimise exacerbation of pain and fatigue. A home-based arm ergometry aerobic exercise programme may represent an affordable and accessible exercise modality, incorporating exercise prescription principles in this group. Methods/design This is a prospective, single blinded, randomised controlled trial. There are two arms; exercise intervention using arm ergometers and control. Polio survivors meeting eligibility criteria will be recruited and randomly allocated to intervention or control groups. Participants allocated to the intervention group will receive a small arm ergometer and a polar heart rate monitor. They will carry out a home-based moderate intensity (50-70% HRMax aerobic exercise programme for eight weeks, following instruction by the treating physiotherapist. Assessments will occur at baseline and after eight weeks and will include tests of physical fitness, activity, energy cost of walking, fatigue and quality of life. Clinically feasible assessment tools including the Six Minute Arm Test, the Physical Activity Scale for People with Physical Disabilities questionnaire, the Physiological Cost Index, Fatigue Severity Scale and the SF-36v2 will be utilised. Discussion The efficacy of a home-based arm ergometry programme in Polio survivors will be examined. No previous trial has examined such a programme using a wide range of outcome measures pertinent to Polio survivors. This study will provide new information on the impact of arm ergometry on physical fitness, activity, body composition, fatigue, pain, muscle strength, and health related quality of life. Also, the study

  3. Physical Fitness Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Alice

    This document presents baseline data on physical fitness that provides an outline for assessing the physical fitness of students. It consists of 4 tasks and a 13-item questionnaire on fitness-related behaviors. The fitness test evaluates cardiorespiratory endurance by a steady state jog; muscular strength and endurance with a two-minute bent-knee…

  4. Unge, sundhed og fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness.......Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness....

  5. Positive effects on bone mineralisation and muscular fitness after 10 months of intense school-based physical training for children aged 8–10 years: the FIT FIRST randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malte Nejst; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Helge, Eva Wulff

    2018-01-01

    mineral density (aBMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and lean body mass (LBM). Flamingo balance, standing long jump and 20-m sprint tests were used to determine muscular fitness. Results Analysis of baseline-to-10 months change scores showed between-group differences in favour of the interventions in whole...... vs CST: 12 mg/cm2, 95%CI 3 to 21, ppostural balance (SSG vs CON: 2.4 fewer falls/min, 95% CI 0.3 to 4.5, CST vs CON: 3...

  6. A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the feasibility of the Wii Fit for improving walking in older adults with lower limb amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Bita; Miller, William C; Finlayson, Heather; Eng, Janice J; Jarus, Tal

    2017-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of Wii.n.Walk for improving walking capacity in older adults with lower limb amputation. A parallel, evaluator-blind randomized controlled feasibility trial. Community-living. Individuals who were ⩾50 years old with a unilateral lower limb amputation. Wii.n.Walk consisted of Wii Fit training, 3x/week (40 minute sessions), for 4 weeks. Training started in the clinic in groups of 3 and graduated to unsupervised home training. Control group were trained using cognitive games. Feasibility indicators: trial process (recruitment, retention, participants' perceived benefit from the Wii.n.Walk intervention measured by exit questionnaire), resources (adherence), management (participant processing, blinding), and treatment (adverse event, and Cohen's d effect size and variance). Primary clinical outcome: walking capacity measured using the 2 Minute Walk Test at baseline, end of treatment, and 3-week retention. Of 28 randomized participants, 24 completed the trial (12/arm). Median (range) age was 62.0 (50-78) years. Mean (SD) score for perceived benefit from the Wii.n.Walk intervention was 38.9/45 (6.8). Adherence was 83.4%. The effect sizes for the 2 Minute Walk Test were 0.5 (end of treatment) and 0.6 (3-week retention) based on intention to treat with imputed data; and 0.9 (end of treatment) and 1.2 (3-week retention) based on per protocol analysis. The required sample size for a future larger RCT was deemed to be 72 (36 per arm). The results suggested the feasibility of the Wii.n.Walk with a medium effect size for improving walking capacity. Future larger randomized controlled trials investigating efficacy are warranted.

  7. Exploring the fitness hypothesis in ALS: a population-based case-control study of parental cause of death and lifespan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.E.; Seelen, M.; Hulsbergen, A.; Graaf, Joris de; Kooi, A.J. van der; Raaphorst, J.; Veldink, J.H.; Berg, L.H. van den

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the theory of premorbid fitness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we studied whether a common genetic profile for physical or cardiovascular fitness was manifest in progenitors leading to less cardiovascular death and a longer lifespan in parents of patients with ALS

  8. Effects of a 6-month multimodal training intervention on retention of functional fitness in older adults: A randomized-controlled cross-over design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudlaugsson Janus

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older adults have the highest rates of disability, functional dependence and use of healthcare resources. Training interventions for older individuals are of special interest where regular physical activity (PA has many health benefits. The main purpose of this study was to assess the immediate and long-term effects of a 6-month multimodal training intervention (MTI on functional fitness in old adults. Methods For this study, 117 participants, 71 to 90 years old, were randomized in immediate intervention group and a control group (delayed intervention group. The intervention consisted of daily endurance and twice-a-week strength training. The method was based on a randomized-controlled cross-over design. Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB, 8 foot up-and-go test, strength performance, six min walking test (6 MW, physical activity, BMI and quality of life were obtained at baseline, after a 6-month intervention- and control phase, again after 6-month crossover- and delayed intervention phase, and after anadditional 6-month follow-up. Results After 6 months of MTI, the intervention group improved in physical performance compared with the control group via Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB score (mean diff = 0.6, 95 % CI: 0.1, 1.0 and 8-foot up-and-go test (mean diff = −1.0 s, 95 % CI: -1.5, -0.6, and in endurance performance via 6-minute walking test (6 MW (mean diff = 44.2 meters, 95 % CI: 17.1, 71.2. In strength performance via knee extension the intervention group improved while control group declined (mean diff = 55.0 Newton, 95 % CI: 28.4, 81.7, and also in PA (mean diff = 125.9 cpm, 95 % CI: 96.0, 155.8. Long-term effects of MTI on the particpants was assesed by estimating the mean difference in the variables measured between time-point 1 and 4: SPPB (1.1 points, 95 % CI: 0.8, 1.4; 8-foot up-and-go (−0.9 s, 95 % CI: -1.2, -0.6; 6 MW (18.7 m, 95 % CI: 6.5, 31.0; knee extension (4.2 Newton

  9. Solving the maintenance dilemma of ageing controls in nuclear standby generators. The decision to retro-fit the control system with 'off the shelf technology'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Neil; Rees, Christpher; Yeremain, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Blackouts - Are we 2 Steps away from Nuclear meltdown owing to Aging Controls? The intent of this white paper is to high-light the need to:- 1. Replace the aging control systems associated with critical safety equipment of Standby Generators in the nuclear environment. 2. Explain how 'off the shelf' standard control equipment may be suitably selected, integrated and tested for a nuclear environment. 3. High-light the lessons learned in respect of: - a. Qualification of COTS (commercial off the shelf) equipment for use in a nuclear application. b. Software quality assurance program. c. Reducing plant outage time. 4. Guide you on the selection criteria of credible partners that can implement such mission critical control systems. Causes for Concern - The control systems of some of the Standby Generators are 30+ years old and aging equipment is no longer available from the OEM's. Maintenance crews are evolving with young engineers who have no experience, or chance to be trained, on the old installed control base. The writer has no doubt that the extent of the black outs of North America, Aug 2003, and the standby generators ever reducing availability, has compromised their ability to provide essential service and communications to maintain the safety of the nuclear plant. These concerns prompted Ontario Power Generator and Bruce Power to review the reliability of their standby generators and this review prompted them to locate a suitable supplier for the task of replacing the control system. OPG's previous attempts to have the controls replaced by I and C dedicated companies weighed heavy on their minds. Worsening the dilemma was the fact that it used dedicated controls and what might be considered 'Propriety Software'. Black Outs - Not only is it possible, the probability of it happening is getting stronger The Northeast Blackout of 2003 was a massive widespread power outage that occurred throughout parts of the North-eastern and Midwestern United States and Ontario

  10. Effects of chair yoga therapy on physical fitness in patients with psychiatric disorders: A 12-week single-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikai, Saeko; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Mizuno, Yuya; Tani, Hideaki; Nagaoka, Maki; Tsunoda, Kenichi; Mimura, Masaru; Suzuki, Takefumi

    2017-11-01

    Since falls may lead to fractures and have serious, potentially fatal outcomes, prevention of falls is an urgent public health issue. We examined the effects of chair yoga therapy on physical fitness among psychiatric patients in order to reduce the risk of falls, which has not been previously reported in the literature. In this 12-week single-blind randomized controlled trial with a 6-week follow-up, inpatients with mixed psychiatric diagnoses were randomly assigned to either chair yoga therapy in addition to ongoing treatment, or treatment-as-usual. Chair yoga therapy was conducted as twice-weekly 20-min sessions over 12 weeks. Assessments included anteflexion in sitting, degree of muscle strength, and Modified Falls Efficacy Scale (MFES) as well as QOL, psychopathology and functioning. Fifty-six inpatients participated in this study (36 men; mean ± SD age, 55.3 ± 13.7 years; schizophrenia 87.5%). In the chair yoga group, significant improvements were observed in flexibility, hand-grip, lower limb muscle endurance, and MFES at week 12 (mean ± SD: 55.1 ± 16.6 to 67.2 ± 14.0 cm, 23.6 ± 10.6 to 26.8 ± 9.7 kg, 4.9 ± 4.0 to 7.0 ± 3.9 kg, and 114.9 ± 29.2 to 134.1 ± 11.6, respectively). Additionally, these improvements were observable six weeks after the intervention was over. The QOL-VAS improved in the intervention group while no differences were noted in psychopathology and functioning between the groups. The intervention appeared to be highly tolerable without any notable adverse effects. The results indicated sustainable effects of 20-min, 12-week, 24-session chair yoga therapy on physical fitness. Chair yoga therapy may contribute to reduce the risk of falls and their unwanted consequences in psychiatric patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. How does a lifestyle intervention during pregnancy influence perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity? The Norwegian fit for delivery study, a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haakstad, Lene A H; Vistad, Ingvild; Sagedal, Linda Reme; Lohne-Seiler, Hilde; Torstveit, Monica K

    2018-05-03

    To develop effective health promotional and preventive prenatal programs, it is important to understand perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy, including exercise and sport participation. The aims of the present study was 1) to assess the effect of prenatal lifestyle intervention on the perceived barrier to leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy and the first year after delivery and 2) identify the most important perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity at multiple time points during and after pregnancy. This secondary analysis was part of the Norwegian Fit for Delivery study, a combined lifestyle intervention evaluated in a blinded, randomized controlled trial. Healthy, nulliparous women with singleton pregnancy of ≤20 gestational weeks, age ≥ 18 years and body mass index ≥19 kg/m 2 were recruited via healthcare clinics in southern Norway, including urban and rural settings. Participants were randomized to either twice-weekly supervised exercise sessions and nutritional counselling (n = 303) or standard prenatal care (n = 303). The principal analysis was based on the participants who completed the standardized questionnaire assessing their perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity at inclusion (gestational week 16, n = 589) and following intervention (gestational week 36, n = 509), as well as six months (n = 470) and 12 months (n = 424) postpartum. Following intervention (gestation week 35.4 ± 1.0), a significant between-group difference in perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity was found with respect to time constraints: "... I do not have the time" (intervention: 22 vs. control: 38, p = 0.030), mother-child safety concerns: "... afraid to harm the baby" (intervention: 8 vs. control: 25, p = 0.002) and self-efficacy: "... I do not believe/think that I can do it" (intervention: 3 vs. control: 10, p = 0.050). No positive effect was seen

  12. FITS: a function-fitting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Chezem, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    FITS is an iterating computer program that adjusts the parameters of a function to fit a set of data points according to the least squares criterion and then lists and plots the results. The function can be programmed or chosen from a library that is provided. The library can be expanded to include up to 99 functions. A general plotting routine, contained in the program but useful in its own right, is described separately in an Appendix.

  13. Family Activities for Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  14. Computer code FIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohmann, D.; Koehler, T.

    1987-02-01

    This is a description of the computer code FIT, written in FORTRAN-77 for a PDP 11/34. FIT is an interactive program to decude position, width and intensity of lines of X-ray spectra (max. length of 4K channels). The lines (max. 30 lines per fit) may have Gauss- or Voigt-profile, as well as exponential tails. Spectrum and fit can be displayed on a Tektronix terminal. (orig.) [de

  15. The effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, fitness, hormonal and inflammatory mediators in elite adolescent volleyball players: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal, Shawn; Zadik, Zvi; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Pilz-Burstein, Ruty; Adler-Portal, Dana; Meckel, Yoav; Cooper, Dan M; Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan

    2011-09-01

    The use of ergogenic nutritional supplements is becoming inseparable from competitive sports. β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyric acid (HMB) has recently been suggested to promote fat-free mass (FFM) and strength gains during resistance training in adults. In this prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we studied the effect of HMB (3 g/day) supplementation on body composition, muscle strength, anaerobic and aerobic capacity, anabolic/catabolic hormones and inflammatory mediators in elite, national team level adolescent volleyball players (13.5-18 years, 14 males, 14 females, Tanner stage 4-5) during the first 7 weeks of the training season. HMB led to a significant greater increase in FFM by skinfold thickness (56.4 ± 10.2 to 56.3 ± 8.6 vs. 59.3 ± 11.3 to 61.6 ± 11.3 kg in the control and HMB group, respectively, p HMB led to a significant greater increase in both dominant and non-dominant knee flexion isokinetic force/FFM, measured at fast (180°/sec) and slow (60°/sec) angle speeds, but had no significant effect on knee extension and elbow flexion and extension. HMB led to a significant greater increase in peak and mean anaerobic power determined by the Wingate anaerobic test (peak power: 15.5 ± 1.6 to 16.2 ± 1.2 vs. 15.4 ± 1.6 to 17.2 ± 1.2 watts/FFM, mean power: 10.6 ± 0.9 to 10.8 ± 1.1 vs. 10.7 ± 0.8 to 11.8 ± 1.0 watts/FFM in control and HMB group, respectively, p HMB had no significant effect on aerobic fitness or on anabolic (growth hormone, IGF-I, testosterone), catabolic (cortisol) and inflammatory mediators (IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist). HMB supplementation was associated with greater increases in muscle mass, muscle strength and anaerobic properties with no effect on aerobic capacity suggesting some advantage for its use in elite adolescent volleyball players during the initial phases of the training season. These effects were not accompanied by hormonal and inflammatory mediator changes.

  16. Wii Fit® training vs. Adapted Physical Activities: which one is the most appropriate to improve the balance of independent senior subjects? A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulotte, Claire; Toursel, Cindy; Olivier, Nicolas

    2012-09-01

    To compare the effectiveness of three protocols (Adapted Physical Activities, Wii Fit(®), Adapted Physical Activities + Wii Fit(®)) on the balance of independent senior subjects. Case comparison study. Healthy elderly subjects living in independent community dwellings. Thirty-six subjects, average age 75.09 ± 10.26 years, took part in this study, and were randomly assigned to one of the four experimental groups: G1 followed an Adapted Physical Activities training programme, while the second group (G2) participated in Wii Fit(®) training and the third one (G3) combined both methods. There was no training for the fourth group (G4). All subjects trained once a week (1 hour) for 20 weeks and were assessed before and after treatment. The Tinetti test, unipedal tests and the Wii Fit(®) tests. After training, the scores in the Tinetti test decreased significantly (P Wii Fit(®)) and G3 (Adapted Physical Activities and Wii Fit(®)) improved their balance. In addition, G1 and G3 increased their dynamic balance. The findings suggest that Adapted Physical Activities training limits the decline in sensorial functions in the elderly.

  17. Signatures of pleiotropy, economy and convergent evolution in a domain-resolved map of human-virus protein-protein interaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Garamszegi

    Full Text Available A central challenge in host-pathogen systems biology is the elucidation of general, systems-level principles that distinguish host-pathogen interactions from within-host interactions. Current analyses of host-pathogen and within-host protein-protein interaction networks are largely limited by their resolution, treating proteins as nodes and interactions as edges. Here, we construct a domain-resolved map of human-virus and within-human protein-protein interaction networks by annotating protein interactions with high-coverage, high-accuracy, domain-centric interaction mechanisms: (1 domain-domain interactions, in which a domain in one protein binds to a domain in a second protein, and (2 domain-motif interactions, in which a domain in one protein binds to a short, linear peptide motif in a second protein. Analysis of these domain-resolved networks reveals, for the first time, significant mechanistic differences between virus-human and within-human interactions at the resolution of single domains. While human proteins tend to compete with each other for domain binding sites by means of sequence similarity, viral proteins tend to compete with human proteins for domain binding sites in the absence of sequence similarity. Independent of their previously established preference for targeting human protein hubs, viral proteins also preferentially target human proteins containing linear motif-binding domains. Compared to human proteins, viral proteins participate in more domain-motif interactions, target more unique linear motif-binding domains per residue, and contain more unique linear motifs per residue. Together, these results suggest that viruses surmount genome size constraints by convergently evolving multiple short linear motifs in order to effectively mimic, hijack, and manipulate complex host processes for their survival. Our domain-resolved analyses reveal unique signatures of pleiotropy, economy, and convergent evolution in viral

  18. Signatures of pleiotropy, economy and convergent evolution in a domain-resolved map of human-virus protein-protein interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garamszegi, Sara; Franzosa, Eric A; Xia, Yu

    2013-01-01

    A central challenge in host-pathogen systems biology is the elucidation of general, systems-level principles that distinguish host-pathogen interactions from within-host interactions. Current analyses of host-pathogen and within-host protein-protein interaction networks are largely limited by their resolution, treating proteins as nodes and interactions as edges. Here, we construct a domain-resolved map of human-virus and within-human protein-protein interaction networks by annotating protein interactions with high-coverage, high-accuracy, domain-centric interaction mechanisms: (1) domain-domain interactions, in which a domain in one protein binds to a domain in a second protein, and (2) domain-motif interactions, in which a domain in one protein binds to a short, linear peptide motif in a second protein. Analysis of these domain-resolved networks reveals, for the first time, significant mechanistic differences between virus-human and within-human interactions at the resolution of single domains. While human proteins tend to compete with each other for domain binding sites by means of sequence similarity, viral proteins tend to compete with human proteins for domain binding sites in the absence of sequence similarity. Independent of their previously established preference for targeting human protein hubs, viral proteins also preferentially target human proteins containing linear motif-binding domains. Compared to human proteins, viral proteins participate in more domain-motif interactions, target more unique linear motif-binding domains per residue, and contain more unique linear motifs per residue. Together, these results suggest that viruses surmount genome size constraints by convergently evolving multiple short linear motifs in order to effectively mimic, hijack, and manipulate complex host processes for their survival. Our domain-resolved analyses reveal unique signatures of pleiotropy, economy, and convergent evolution in viral-host interactions that are

  19. The effects of four weeks of creatine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on cardiorespiratory fitness: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramer Joel T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-intensity interval training has been shown to be a time-efficient way to induce physiological adaptations similar to those of traditional endurance training. Creatine supplementation may enhance high-intensity interval training, leading to even greater physiological adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT and creatine supplementation on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance (maximal oxygen consumption (VO2PEAK, time-to-exhaustion (VO2PEAKTTE, ventilatory threshold (VT, and total work done (TWD in college-aged men. Methods Forty-three recreationally active men completed a graded exercise test to determine VO2PEAK, VO2PEAKTTE, and VT. In addition, participants completed a time to exhaustion (TTE ride at 110% of the maximum workload reached during the graded exercise test to determine TWD (TTE (sec × W = J. Following testing, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: creatine (creatine citrate (Cr; n = 16, placebo (PL; n = 17, or control (n = 10 groups. The Cr and PL groups completed four weeks of HIIT prior to post-testing. Results Significant improvements in VO2PEAK and VO2PEAKTTE occurred in both training groups. Only the Cr group significantly improved VT (16% vs. 10% improvement in PL. No changes occurred in TWD in any group. Conclusion In conclusion, HIIT is an effective and time-efficient way to improve maximal endurance performance. The addition of Cr improved VT, but did not increase TWD. Therefore, 10 g of Cr per day for five days per week for four weeks does not seem to further augment maximal oxygen consumption, greater than HIIT alone; however, Cr supplementation may improve submaximal exercise performance.

  20. Effects of hybrid cycling versus handcycling on wheelchair-specific fitness and physical activity in people with long-term spinal cord injury : a 16-week randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkum, A. J. T.; de Groot, S.; Stolwijk-Swuste, J. M.; van Kuppevelt, D. J.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Janssen, T. W. J.

    Study design: This is an open randomized controlled trial. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a 16-week hybrid cycle versus handcycle exercise program on fitness and physical activity in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury (SCI). Setting: The study

  1. Effects of hybrid cycling versus handcycling on wheelchair-specific fitness and physical activity in people with long-term spinal cord injury: a 16-week randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkum, A.J.T.; de Groot, S.; Stolwijk-Swuste, J.M.; van Kuppevelt, D.J.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Janssen, T.W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Study design:This is an open randomized controlled trial.Objective:The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a 16-week hybrid cycle versus handcycle exercise program on fitness and physical activity in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury (SCI).Setting:The study was

  2. FITS: a function-fitting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Chezem, C.G.

    1982-08-01

    FITS is an iterating computer program that adjusts the parameters of a function to fit a set of data points according to the least squares criterion and then lists and plots the results. The function can be programmed or chosen from a library that is provided. The library can be expanded to include up to 99 functions. A general plotting routine, contained in the program but useful in its own right, is described separately in Appendix A. An example problem file and its solution is given in Appendix B.

  3. Getting CSR communication fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line

    2017-01-01

    Companies experience increasing legal and societal pressure to communicate about their corporate social responsibility (CSR) engagements from a number of different publics. One very important group is that of young consumers who are predicted to be the most important and influential consumer group...... in the near future. From a value- theoretical base, this article empirically explores the role and applicability of ‘fit’ in strategic CSR communication targeted at young consumers. Point of departure is taken in the well-known strategic fit (a logical link between a company’s CSR commitment and its core...... values) and is further developed by introducing two additional fits, the CSR- Consumer fit and the CSR-Consumer-Company fit (Triple Fit). Through a sequential design, the three fits are empirically tested and their potential for meeting young consumers’ expectations for corporate CSR messaging...

  4. Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevitz, Daniel Wolf [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Key, Brian P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garcia, Daniel B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT) is a software package used for probabilistic consequence evaluation of fragmenting sources. The typical use case for FIT is to simulate an exploding shell and evaluate the consequence on nearby objects. FIT is written in the programming language Python and is designed as a collection of interacting software modules. Each module has a function that interacts with the other modules to produce desired results.

  5. Self-management for obesity and cardio-metabolic fitness: Description and evaluation of the lifestyle modification program of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coates Alison M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sustainable lifestyle modification strategies are needed to address obesity and cardiovascular risk factors. Intensive, individualised programs have been successful, but are limited by time and resources. We have formulated a group-based lifestyle education program based upon national diet and physical activity (PA recommendations to manage obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors. This article describes the content and delivery of this program, with information on compliance and acceptability. Methods Overweight/obese adults (n = 153 with metabolic syndrome were recruited from the community and randomly allocated to intervention (INT or control (CON. Written copies of Australian national dietary and PA guidelines were provided to all participants. INT took part in a 16-week lifestyle program which provided a curriculum and practical strategies on 1 dietary and PA information based on national guidelines, 2 behavioural self-management tools, 3 food-label reading, supermarkets tour and cooking, 4 exercise sessions, and 5 peer-group support. Compliance was assessed using attendance records and weekly food/PA logs. Participants' motivations, perceived benefits and goals were assessed through facilitated discussion. Program acceptability feedback was collected through structured focus groups. Results Although completion of weekly food/PA records was poor, attendance at information/education sessions (77% overall and exercise participation (66% overall was high, and compared with CON, multiple markers of body composition and cardio-metabolic health improved in INT. Participants reported that the most useful program components included food-label reading, cooking sessions, and learning new and different physical exercises, including home-based options. Participants also reported finding self-management techniques helpful, namely problem solving and short-term goal setting. The use of a group setting and supportive 'peer' leaders

  6. The effect of the Nintendo Wii Fit on balance control and gross motor function of children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Jennifer; Pronk, Marieke; Ferguson, Gillian; Jelsma-Smit, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the impact of training using the Nintendo Wii Fit in 14 children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Methods: A single-subject single blinded design with multiple subjects and baselines was utilised. Interactive video gaming (IVG) in lieu of regular physiotherapy was given

  7. Fitness: Tips for Staying Motivated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Fitness is for life. Motivate yourself with these practical tips. By Mayo Clinic Staff Have ... 27, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/fitness/art-20047624 . Mayo Clinic ...

  8. Physical fitness of schoolgirls with Turner syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milde, K.; Tomaszewski, P.K.; Stupnicki, R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess physical fitness of girls with Turner syndrome (TS) and to determine the relative contributions of age, body height, and body mass to performance in fitness tests. Girls with TS aged 10-18 years (n = 184), and age- and stature-matched healthy controls (n = 280)

  9. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.

  10. Reduced genetic variance among high fitness individuals: inferring stabilizing selection on male sexual displays in Drosophila serrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztepanacz, Jacqueline L; Rundle, Howard D

    2012-10-01

    Directional selection is prevalent in nature, yet phenotypes tend to remain relatively constant, suggesting a limit to trait evolution. However, the genetic basis of this limit is unresolved. Given widespread pleiotropy, opposing selection on a trait may arise from the effects of the underlying alleles on other traits under selection, generating net stabilizing selection on trait genetic variance. These pleiotropic costs of trait exaggeration may arise through any number of other traits, making them hard to detect in phenotypic analyses. Stabilizing selection can be inferred, however, if genetic variance is greater among low- compared to high-fitness individuals. We extend a recently suggested approach to provide a direct test of a difference in genetic variance for a suite of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) in Drosophila serrata. Despite strong directional sexual selection on these traits, genetic variance differed between high- and low-fitness individuals and was greater among the low-fitness males for seven of eight CHCs, significantly more than expected by chance. Univariate tests of a difference in genetic variance were nonsignificant but likely have low power. Our results suggest that further CHC exaggeration in D. serrata in response to sexual selection is limited by pleiotropic costs mediated through other traits. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. GOSSIP: SED fitting code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzetti, Paolo; Scodeggio, Marco

    2012-10-01

    GOSSIP fits the electro-magnetic emission of an object (the SED, Spectral Energy Distribution) against synthetic models to find the simulated one that best reproduces the observed data. It builds-up the observed SED of an object (or a large sample of objects) combining magnitudes in different bands and eventually a spectrum; then it performs a chi-square minimization fitting procedure versus a set of synthetic models. The fitting results are used to estimate a number of physical parameters like the Star Formation History, absolute magnitudes, stellar mass and their Probability Distribution Functions.

  12. Fitness Club / Nordic Walking

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    Nordic Walking at CERN Enrollments are open for Nordic Walking courses and outings at CERN. Classes will be on Tuesdays as of 20 September, and outings for the more experienced will be on Thursdays as of 15 September. We meet at the CERN Club barracks car park (near entrance A). • 18:00 to 19:00 on 20 & 27 September, as well as 4 & 11 October. Check out our schedule and rates and enroll at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  13. Effectiveness of a physical activity program on weight, physical fitness, occupational stress, job satisfaction and quality of life of overweight employees in high-tech industries: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yun-Ya; Huang, Chien-Yuan; Hsu, Mei-Chi

    2018-03-27

    This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a physical activity (PA) program on weight control, physical fitness, occupational stress, job satisfaction and quality of life of overweight and sedentary employees in high-tech industries. Participants in the intervention group (n = 37) were instructed to carry out a PA program at moderate intensity for 60 min/session, 3 sessions/week for 12 weeks. Those in the control group (n = 38) received no PA program and were asked to continue their routine lifestyle. Evaluations were performed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Results of structured questionnaires and blood biochemistry tests and evaluations of physical fitness were analyzed. The PA program effectively reduced the number of risk factors for metabolic syndrome and body fat percentage, and improved physical fitness such as flexibility, muscular strength and endurance and cardiorespiratory endurance. The intervention also significantly decreased levels of serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Significant positive effects on work control, interpersonal relationships at work, global job satisfaction and quality of life were also demonstrated. This study showed that a PA program can be helpful in improving physical, physiological and psychological outcomes for overweight and sedentary employees in high-tech industries.

  14. Measuring Your Fitness Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... online calculator. If you'd rather do the math yourself, divide your weight in pounds by your ... Human Services recommends one of the following activity levels for adult fitness and health benefits: 150 minutes ...

  15. The universal Higgs fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giardino, P. P.; Kannike, K.; Masina, I.

    2014-01-01

    We perform a state-of-the-art global fit to all Higgs data. We synthesise them into a 'universal' form, which allows to easily test any desired model. We apply the proposed methodology to extract from data the Higgs branching ratios, production cross sections, couplings and to analyse composite...... Higgs models, models with extra Higgs doublets, supersymmetry, extra particles in the loops, anomalous top couplings, and invisible Higgs decays into Dark Matter. Best fit regions lie around the Standard Model predictions and are well approximated by our 'universal' fit. Latest data exclude the dilaton...... as an alternative to the Higgs, and disfavour fits with negative Yukawa couplings. We derive for the first time the SM Higgs boson mass from the measured rates, rather than from the peak positions, obtaining M-h = 124.4 +/- 1.6 GeV....

  16. ACSM Fit Society Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fitness topics. Expert commentary and features on exercise, nutrition, sports and health offer tips and techniques for maintaining ... Special Populations 2011 -- Behavior Change & Exercise Adherence 2011 -- ... Preparing for Fall Sports 2009 -- Cancer and Exercise 2008 -- Group Exercise 2008 -- ...

  17. Driver fitness medical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This guide provides guidance to assist licensing agencies in making decisions about an individuals fitness for driving. This is the first attempt to produce a consolidated document covering medical conditions included in the task agreement between...

  18. Investigation into the Factors that Dtermine Shoe Fitting Using MRI

    OpenAIRE

    吉田, 宏昭

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to purchase suitable shoes that fit the size of users' feet in order to prevent foot injuries in daily life. Although shoe fitting significantly affects the performance of shoes, there are few studies that have either investigated the factors that control shoe fitting or established a method to evaluate shoe fitting. While, the shape of each foot and shoe was measured to estimate shoe fitting in previous studies, the deformation of feet when wearing shoes had not been taken in...

  19. Design of the Quality of Life in Motion (QLIM) study: a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a combined physical exercise and psychosocial training program to improve physical fitness in children with cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braam, Katja I; Huisman, Jaap; Kaspers, Gertjan JL; Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline van; Dijk, Elisabeth M van; Veening, Margreet A; Bierings, Marc B; Merks, Johannes HM; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Chinapaw, Mai JM; Sinnema, Gerben; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Childhood cancer and its treatment have considerable impact on a child's physical and mental wellbeing. Especially long-term administration of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy impairs physical fitness both during and after therapy, when children often present with muscle weakness and/or low cardiorespiratory fitness. Physical exercise can improve these two elements of physical fitness, but the positive effects of physical exercise might be further increased when a child's wellbeing is simultaneously enhanced by psychosocial training. Feeling better may increase the willingness and motivation to engage in sports activities. Therefore, this multi-centre study evaluates the short and long-term changes in physical fitness of a child with a childhood malignancy, using a combined physical exercise and psychosocial intervention program, implemented during or shortly after treatment. Also examined is whether positive effects on physical fitness reduce inactivity-related adverse health problems, improve quality of life, and are cost-effective. This multi-centre randomized controlled trial compares a combined physical and psychosocial intervention program for children with cancer, with care as usual (controls). Children with cancer (aged 8-18 years) treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, and who are no longer than 1 year post-treatment, are eligible for participation. A total of 100 children are being recruited from the paediatric oncology/haematology departments of three Dutch university medical centres. Patients are stratified according to pubertal stage (girls: age ≤10 or >10 years; boys: ≤11 or >11 years), type of malignancy (haematological or solid tumour), and moment of inclusion into the study (during or after treatment), and are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Childhood cancer patients undergoing long-term cancer therapy may benefit from a combined physical exercise and psychosocial intervention program since it may

  20. Design of the Quality of Life in Motion (QLIM study: a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a combined physical exercise and psychosocial training program to improve physical fitness in children with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Tim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood cancer and its treatment have considerable impact on a child's physical and mental wellbeing. Especially long-term administration of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy impairs physical fitness both during and after therapy, when children often present with muscle weakness and/or low cardiorespiratory fitness. Physical exercise can improve these two elements of physical fitness, but the positive effects of physical exercise might be further increased when a child's wellbeing is simultaneously enhanced by psychosocial training. Feeling better may increase the willingness and motivation to engage in sports activities. Therefore, this multi-centre study evaluates the short and long-term changes in physical fitness of a child with a childhood malignancy, using a combined physical exercise and psychosocial intervention program, implemented during or shortly after treatment. Also examined is whether positive effects on physical fitness reduce inactivity-related adverse health problems, improve quality of life, and are cost-effective. Methods This multi-centre randomized controlled trial compares a combined physical and psychosocial intervention program for children with cancer, with care as usual (controls. Children with cancer (aged 8-18 years treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, and who are no longer than 1 year post-treatment, are eligible for participation. A total of 100 children are being recruited from the paediatric oncology/haematology departments of three Dutch university medical centres. Patients are stratified according to pubertal stage (girls: age ≤10 or >10 years; boys: ≤11 or >11 years, type of malignancy (haematological or solid tumour, and moment of inclusion into the study (during or after treatment, and are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Discussion Childhood cancer patients undergoing long-term cancer therapy may benefit from a combined physical exercise and

  1. The Langley Fitness Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley recognizes the importance of healthy employees by committing itself to offering a complete fitness program. The scope of the program focuses on promoting overall health and wellness in an effort to reduce the risks of illness and disease and to increase productivity. This is accomplished through a comprehensive Health and Fitness Program offered to all NASA employees. Various aspects of the program are discussed.

  2. dftools: Distribution function fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreschkow, Danail

    2018-05-01

    dftools, written in R, finds the most likely P parameters of a D-dimensional distribution function (DF) generating N objects, where each object is specified by D observables with measurement uncertainties. For instance, if the objects are galaxies, it can fit a mass function (D=1), a mass-size distribution (D=2) or the mass-spin-morphology distribution (D=3). Unlike most common fitting approaches, this method accurately accounts for measurement in uncertainties and complex selection functions.

  3. Multiple-modality exercise and mind-motor training to improve cardiovascular health and fitness in older adults at risk for cognitive impairment: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boa Sorte Silva, Narlon C; Gregory, Michael A; Gill, Dawn P; Petrella, Robert J

    The effects of multiple-modality exercise on arterial stiffening and cardiovascular fitness has not been fully explored. To explore the influence of a 24-week multiple-modality exercise program associated with a mind-motor training in cardiovascular health and fitness in community-dwelling older adults, compared to multiple-modality exercise (M2) alone. Participants (n=127, aged 67.5 [7.3] years, 71% females) were randomized to either M4 or M2 groups. Both groups received multiple-modality exercise intervention (60min/day, 3days/week for 24-weeks); however, the M4 group underwent additional 15min of mind-motor training, whereas the M2 group received 15min of balance training. Participants were assessed at 24-weeks and after a 28-week non-contact follow-up (52-weeks). at 52-weeks, the M4 group demonstrated a greater VO2max (ml/kg/min) compared to the M2 group (mean difference: 2.39, 95% CI: 0. 61 to 4.16, p=0.009). Within-group analysis indicated that the M4 group demonstrated a positive change in VO2max at 24-weeks (mean change: 1.93, 95% CI: 0.82 to 3.05, p=0.001) and 52-weeks (4.02, 95% CI: 2.71 to 5.32, p=0.001). Similarly, the M2 group increased VO2max at 24-weeks (2.28, 95% CI: 1.23 to 3.32, pMind-motor training associated with multiple-modality exercise can positively impact cardiovascular fitness to the same extent as multiple-modality exercise alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cardiovascular fitness strengthening using portable device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Hamzah; Kai Cao; Tao Zhang; Haddad, Azzam; Su, Steven; Celler, Branko; Nguyen, Hung T

    2016-08-01

    The paper describes a reliable and valid Portable Exercise Monitoring system developed using TI eZ430-Chronos watch, which can control the exercise intensity through audio stimulation in order to increase the Cardiovascular fitness strengthening.

  5. Effects of hybrid cycling versus handcycling on wheelchair-specific fitness and physical activity in people with long-term spinal cord injury: a 16-week randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkum, A J T; de Groot, S; Stolwijk-Swüste, J M; van Kuppevelt, D J; van der Woude, L H V; Janssen, T W J

    2015-05-01

    This is an open randomized controlled trial. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a 16-week hybrid cycle versus handcycle exercise program on fitness and physical activity in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury (SCI). The study was conducted in two rehabilitation centers with a specialized SCI unit. Twenty individuals (SCI⩾8 years) were randomly assigned to a hybrid cycle (voluntary arm exercise combined with functional electrical stimulation (FES)-induced leg exercise) or a handcycle group. During 16 weeks, both groups trained twice a week for 30 min at 65-75% heart rate reserve. Outcome measures obtained before, during and after the program were fitness (peak power output, peak oxygen consumption), submaximal VO2 and heart rate (HR), resting HR, wheelchair skill performance time score) and physical activity (distance travelled in wheelchair and Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) score). Changes were examined using a two-factor mixed-measures analysis of variance. For all fitness parameters, except for submaximal VO2, no interaction effects were found. The hybrid cycle group showed a decrease in VO2 over time in contrast to the handcycle group (P=0.045). An overall reduction in HRrest (5±2 b.p.m.; P=0.03) and overall increase in PASIPD score (6.5±2.1; P=0.002) were found after 16 weeks of training. No overall training effects were found for the other fitness and activity outcome measures. In the current study, hybrid cycling and handcycling showed similar effects on fitness and physical activity, indicating that there seem to be no additional benefits of the FES-induced leg exercise over handcycle training alone.

  6. Epidemia de fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanja Bastos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo refletir sobre uma condição naturalizada e disseminada principalmente pelo campo da nova promoção à saúde e reforçada nos espaços de atuação da educação física, a que se denominou epidemia de fitness. O termo refere-se a hábitos e comportamentos obsessivos com a saúde, beleza e vitalidade, tornando-se alvo de exercício de controle por parte de especialistas. Para discuti-la realizou-se um estudo de caso em que foram submetidos à análise semiótica, por meio do método de leitura isotópica, 59 materiais de divulgação, impressos, coletados na Expo Wellness Rio 2009, uma feira de negócios inserida no Congresso Wellness Rio 2009. As categorias isotópicas que emergiram a partir da análise são as seguintes: saúde/beleza e tecnologia, saúde/beleza e especialidade e saúde/beleza e longevidade. Elas apontam para a potencialização da vitalidade humana como mola propulsora das estratégias discursivas, assim como valor recorrente que embasa ações voltadas para a melhoria das condições de saúde, imbricadas à ideia de longevidade e beleza.

  7. The influence of high-intensity compared with moderate-intensity exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in colorectal cancer survivors: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devin, James L; Sax, Andrew T; Hughes, Gareth I; Jenkins, David G; Aitken, Joanne F; Chambers, Suzanne K; Dunn, Jeffrey C; Bolam, Kate A; Skinner, Tina L

    2016-06-01

    Following colorectal cancer diagnosis and anti-cancer therapy, declines in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition lead to significant increases in morbidity and mortality. There is increasing interest within the field of exercise oncology surrounding potential strategies to remediate these adverse outcomes. This study compared 4 weeks of moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) and high-intensity exercise (HIE) training on peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak) and body composition in colorectal cancer survivors. Forty seven post-treatment colorectal cancer survivors (HIE = 27 months post-treatment; MIE = 38 months post-treatment) were randomised to either HIE [85-95 % peak heart rate (HRpeak)] or MIE (70 % HRpeak) in equivalence with current physical activity guidelines and completed 12 training sessions over 4 weeks. HIE was superior to MIE in improving absolute (p = 0.016) and relative (p = 0.021) V̇O2peak. Absolute (+0.28 L.min(-1), p body composition for colorectal cancer survivors. HIE appears to offer superior improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in comparison to current physical activity recommendations for colorectal cancer survivors and therefore may be an effective clinical utility following treatment.

  8. Targeting functional fitness, hearing and health-related quality of life in older adults with hearing loss: Walk, Talk 'n' Listen, study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Justin; Ghadry-Tavi, Rouzbeh; Knuff, Kate; Jutras, Marc; Siever, Jodi; Mick, Paul; Roque, Carolyn; Jones, Gareth; Little, Jonathan; Miller, Harry; Van Bergen, Colin; Kurtz, Donna; Murphy, Mary Ann; Jones, Charlotte Ann

    2017-01-28

    Hearing loss (HL) is a disability associated with poorer health-related quality of life including an increased risk for loneliness, isolation, functional fitness declines, falls, hospitalization and premature mortality. The purpose of this pilot trial is to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a novel intervention to reduce loneliness, improve functional fitness, social connectedness, hearing and health-related quality of life in older adults with HL. This 10-week, single-blind, pilot randomized control trial (RCT) will include a convenience sample of ambulatory adults aged 65 years or older with self-reported HL. Following baseline assessments, participants will be randomized to either intervention (exercise, health education, socialization and group auditory rehabilitation (GAR)) or control (GAR only) groups. The intervention group will attend a local YMCA twice a week and the control group once a week. Intervention sessions will include 45 min of strengthening, balance and resistance exercises, 30 min of group walking at a self-selected pace and 60 min of interactive health education or GAR. The control group will attend 60-min GAR sessions. GAR sessions will include education about hearing, hearing technologies, enhancing communication skills, and psychosocial support. Pre-post trial data collection and measures will include: functional fitness (gait speed, 30-s Sit to Stand Test), hearing and health-related quality of life, loneliness, depression, social participation and social support. At trial end, feasibility (recruitment, randomization, retention, acceptability) and GAR will be evaluated. Despite evidence suggesting that HL is associated with declines in functional fitness, there are no studies aimed at addressing functional fitness declines associated with the disability of HL. This pilot trial will provide knowledge about the physical, mental and social impacts on health related to HL as a disability. This will inform the feasibility of a

  9. Nuclear reactor fuel assemblies and end fitting grid structures therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1978-01-01

    An improved end fitting grid structure is described for nuclear fuel assemblies which overcomes the need for load-bearing control rod guide tubes and the expensive special fittings that these tubes required. (UK)

  10. Improving physical fitness and health status perception in community-dwelling older adults through a structured program for physical activity promotion in the city of Naples, Italy: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallè, Francesca; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Romano Spica, Vincenzo; Mastronuzzi, Roberto; Russo Krauss, Pio; Belfiore, Patrizia; Buono, Pasqualina; Liguori, Giorgio

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of a physical activity promotion intervention in community-dwelling older adults based on a free program of exercise adapted for older adults aged ≥60 years managed by trainees from the Movement Sciences degree course. A total of 160 adults aged 60-82 years were randomly allocated into the intervention and control group. The exercise program consisted of 1-h sessions carried out twice a week for a year. Control participants received recommendations about an active lifestyle from their physicians. Senior Fitness Tests and the 12-item Short Form Health Survey were used to assess six functional fitness domains of participants and perception of their health status, respectively. Body mass index was also evaluated. A total of 62 participants completed the exercise path. At the end of the intervention, they showed a significant body mass index decrease (from 27.9 ± 1.6 to 25.1 ± 1.8 kg/m 2 , P fitness (+33.9%, P  0.05). A high acceptance of the intervention was registered among participants (>88.7%); staff competence and gratuitousness were the most appreciated features (>85.5%). The structured program represented a useful opportunity to promote physical activity among participants, and it was effective in improving their physical fitness and health status perception. Similar interventions are required to sensitize the whole older population, and experts in Movement Sciences might represent a key figure in this context. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1421-1428. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. Fitting the Phenomenological MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    AbdusSalam, S S; Quevedo, F; Feroz, F; Hobson, M

    2010-01-01

    We perform a global Bayesian fit of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) to current indirect collider and dark matter data. The pMSSM contains the most relevant 25 weak-scale MSSM parameters, which are simultaneously fit using `nested sampling' Monte Carlo techniques in more than 15 years of CPU time. We calculate the Bayesian evidence for the pMSSM and constrain its parameters and observables in the context of two widely different, but reasonable, priors to determine which inferences are robust. We make inferences about sparticle masses, the sign of the $\\mu$ parameter, the amount of fine tuning, dark matter properties and the prospects for direct dark matter detection without assuming a restrictive high-scale supersymmetry breaking model. We find the inferred lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass as an example of an approximately prior independent observable. This analysis constitutes the first statistically convergent pMSSM global fit to all current data.

  12. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Strength training is an important part of an overall fitness program. Here's what strength training can do for ... is a key component of overall health and fitness for everyone. Lean muscle mass naturally diminishes with ...

  13. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on Fitness, Fat Mass and Cardiometabolic Biomarkers in Children with Obesity: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Katrin A; Ingul, Charlotte B; Tjønna, Arnt E; Keating, Shelley E; Gomersall, Sjaan R; Follestad, Turid; Hosseini, Mansoureh S; Hollekim-Strand, Siri M; Ro, Torstein B; Haram, Margrete; Huuse, Else Marie; Davies, Peter S W; Cain, Peter A; Leong, Gary M; Coombes, Jeff S

    2018-03-01

    Paediatric obesity significantly increases the risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases across the lifespan. Increasing cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) could mitigate this risk. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves CRF in clinical adult populations but the evidence in paediatric obesity is inconsistent. The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of a 12-week, HIIT intervention for increasing CRF and reducing adiposity in children with obesity. Children with obesity (n = 99, 7-16 years old) were randomised into a 12-week intervention as follows: (1) HIIT [n = 33, 4 × 4-min bouts at 85-95% maximum heart rate (HR max ), interspersed with 3 min of active recovery at 50-70% HR max , 3 times/week] and nutrition advice; (2) moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) [n = 32, 44 min at 60-70% HR max , 3 times/week] and nutrition advice; and (3) nutrition advice only (nutrition) [n = 34]. CRF was quantified through a maximal exercise test ([Formula: see text]) while adiposity was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air-displacement plethysmography. HIIT stimulated significant increases in relative [Formula: see text] compared with MICT (+3.6 mL/kg/min, 95% CI 1.1-6.0, P = 0.004) and the nutrition intervention (+5.4 mL/kg/min, 95% CI 2.9-7.9, P = 0.001). However, the intervention had no significant effect on visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, whole body composition or cardiometabolic biomarkers (P > 0.05). A 12-week, HIIT intervention was highly effective in increasing cardiorespiratory fitness when compared with MICT and nutrition interventions. While there were no concomitant reductions in adiposity or blood biomarkers, the cardiometabolic health benefit conferred through increased CRF should be noted. Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01991106.

  14. Improving NEC Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    TAD Temporary Additional Duty TFMMS Total Force Manpower Management System UIC Unit Identification Code USFFC United States Fleet Forces Command...not include sailors on temporary additional duty ( TAD ). In addition, for class average Fit, we excluded units that had billets but no onboard

  15. Reliability and Model Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Leanne M.; Edwards, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the distinction between the reliability of test scores and the fit of psychometric measurement models, reminding readers why it is important to consider both when evaluating whether test scores are valid for a proposed interpretation and/or use. It is often the case that an investigator judges both the…

  16. Physical Fitness in Young Adults Born Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Kaseva, Nina; Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Miettola, Satu; Eriksson, Johan G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Kajantie, Eero

    2016-01-01

    Young adults born preterm have higher levels of cardiometabolic risk factors than their term-born peers. Muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness have important cardiometabolic and other health benefits. We assessed muscular, cardiorespiratory, and self-rated fitness in preterm-born young adults. We studied unimpaired participants of the ESTER (Ennenaikainen syntymä ja aikuisiän terveys [Preterm Birth and Early-Life Programming of Adult Health and Disease]) birth cohort study at age 23.3 (SD: 1.2) years: 139 born early preterm (EPT; Young adults born EPT (-0.8; 95% confidence interval: -1.5 to -0.1; adjusted for gender, age, and source cohort) and LPT (-0.8; -1.4 to -0.3) performed fewer modified push-ups than controls. Handgrip strength was 23.8 (0.9-46.8) N lower in EPT participants. Cardiorespiratory fitness, measured by submaximal step test, was similar. On a self-rated fitness scale (1-5), the EPT adults reported 0.2 (0.0-0.4) lower scores than controls. After adjustment for early-life confounders, the results remained. They attenuated after further adjustment for mediating factors. Young adults born EPT and LPT had lower muscular fitness than controls, which may predispose them to cardiometabolic and other chronic diseases. Adults born EPT also perceived themselves as less fit than controls. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Fitting PAC spectra with stochastic models: PolyPacFit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacate, M. O., E-mail: zacatem1@nku.edu [Northern Kentucky University, Department of Physics and Geology (United States); Evenson, W. E. [Utah Valley University, College of Science and Health (United States); Newhouse, R.; Collins, G. S. [Washington State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States)

    2010-04-15

    PolyPacFit is an advanced fitting program for time-differential perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. It incorporates stochastic models and provides robust options for customization of fits. Notable features of the program include platform independence and support for (1) fits to stochastic models of hyperfine interactions, (2) user-defined constraints among model parameters, (3) fits to multiple spectra simultaneously, and (4) any spin nuclear probe.

  18. Extensive fitness and human cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hateren, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution depends on the fitness of organisms, the expected rate of reproducing. Directly getting offspring is the most basic form of fitness, but fitness can also be increased indirectly by helping genetically related individuals (such as kin) to increase their fitness. The combined effect is known

  19. Fit-for-Purpose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2013-01-01

    ; completeness to cover the total jurisdiction; and credibility in terms of reliable data being trusted by the users. Accuracy can then be incrementally improved over time when relevant and justified by serving the needs of citizen, business and society in general. Such a fit-for-purpose approach is fundamental...... systems act within adopted land policies that define the legal regulatory pattern for dealing with land issues. Land administration systems - whether highly advanced or very basic – require a spatial framework to operate. This framework provides the fundamental information for dealing with land issues...... concepts may well be seen as the end target but not as the point of entry. When assessing the technology and investment choices the focus should be on building a fit-for-purpose framework that will meet the needs of society today and that can be incrementally improved over time....

  20. Convolution based profile fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, A.; Coelho, A.A.; Cheary, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In convolution based profile fitting, profiles are generated by convoluting functions together to form the observed profile shape. For a convolution of 'n' functions this process can be written as, Y(2θ)=F 1 (2θ)x F 2 (2θ)x... x F i (2θ)x....xF n (2θ). In powder diffractometry the functions F i (2θ) can be interpreted as the aberration functions of the diffractometer, but in general any combination of appropriate functions for F i (2θ) may be used in this context. Most direct convolution fitting methods are restricted to combinations of F i (2θ) that can be convoluted analytically (e.g. GSAS) such as Lorentzians, Gaussians, the hat (impulse) function and the exponential function. However, software such as TOPAS is now available that can accurately convolute and refine a wide variety of profile shapes numerically, including user defined profiles, without the need to convolute analytically. Some of the most important advantages of modern convolution based profile fitting are: 1) virtually any peak shape and angle dependence can normally be described using minimal profile parameters in laboratory and synchrotron X-ray data as well as in CW and TOF neutron data. This is possible because numerical convolution and numerical differentiation is used within the refinement procedure so that a wide range of functions can easily be incorporated into the convolution equation; 2) it can use physically based diffractometer models by convoluting the instrument aberration functions. This can be done for most laboratory based X-ray powder diffractometer configurations including conventional divergent beam instruments, parallel beam instruments, and diffractometers used for asymmetric diffraction. It can also accommodate various optical elements (e.g. multilayers and monochromators) and detector systems (e.g. point and position sensitive detectors) and has already been applied to neutron powder diffraction systems (e.g. ANSTO) as well as synchrotron based

  1. MixFit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haller, Toomas; Leitsalu, Liis; Fischer, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Ancestry information at the individual level can be a valuable resource for personalized medicine, medical, demographical and history research, as well as for tracing back personal history. We report a new method for quantitatively determining personal genetic ancestry based on genome-wide data....... Numerical ancestry component scores are assigned to individuals based on comparisons with reference populations. These comparisons are conducted with an existing analytical pipeline making use of genotype phasing, similarity matrix computation and our addition-multidimensional best fitting by Mix......Fit. The method is demonstrated by studying Estonian and Finnish populations in geographical context. We show the main differences in the genetic composition of these otherwise close European populations and how they have influenced each other. The components of our analytical pipeline are freely available...

  2. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  3. A school-based physical activity program to improve health and fitness in children aged 6–13 years ("Kinder-Sportstudie KISS": study design of a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN15360785

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knöpfli Martin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is the result of a long lasting imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. A major contributing factor is physical inactivity which is closely linked to bone health, cardiovascular disease risk, fitness and psychological factors. The school seems to provide an excellent setting to enhance levels of physical activity (PA. However, there is insufficient data from previous school-based intervention trials on how to enhance overall PA. It is also unknown whether an intervention aimed at increasing PA is effective in improving the children's health. The purpose of this paper is to outline the design of a school-based randomized, controlled trial (RCT aiming to increase overall PA and to improve fitness and health in 6- to 13-year-old children. Methods/Design 15 schools were randomized to the intervention (n = 9 or the control (n = 6 group, stratified by geographic region (urban vs. rural and by age (1st and 5th grade. Participation was given for all children in the intervention group since in this group the intervention was part of the normal school curriculum. The intervention during one academic year consisted of: 1. two additional physical education classes per week given by trained physical education teachers adding up to a total of five PA classes per week, 2. short PA breaks (2–5 min each during academic lessons, 3. PA home work, and 4. adaptation of recreational areas around the school. All children underwent anthropometric measurements, blood pressure assessment, fitness testing, measurement of PA and they filled out questionnaires. At least 70% of all children agreed to blood sampling and measurements of body composition and bone mineral measurements by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The primary endpoints of the study after one year were an increase in total PA by accelerometry, an increase in aerobic fitness measured by the 20 m shuttle run, a decrease in percent body fat derived from

  4. Structuring warehouse management : Exploring the fit between warehouse characteristics and warehouse planning and control structure, and its effect on warehouse performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Faber (Nynke)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThis dissertation studies the management processes that plan, control, and optimize warehouse operations. The inventory in warehouses decouples supply from demand. As such, economies of scale can be achieved in production, purchasing, and transport. As warehouses become more and more

  5. The effects of exercise on the quality of life of patients with breast cancer (the UMBRELLA Fit study) : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gal, Roxanne; Monninkhof, Evelyn M; Groenwold, Rolf H H; van Gils, Carla H; van den Bongard, Desiree H J G; Peeters, Petra H M; Verkooijen, Helena M; May, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that exercise has beneficial effects on quality of life (QoL) in patients with breast cancer. However, these effects were often small. Blinding in an exercise trial is not possible, which has the possible disadvantage of

  6. Design of the Resistance and Endurance exercise After ChemoTherapy (REACT study: A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of exercise interventions after chemotherapy on physical fitness and fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Mechelen Willem

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preliminary studies suggest that physical exercise interventions can improve physical fitness, fatigue and quality of life in cancer patients after completion of chemotherapy. Additional research is needed to rigorously test the effects of exercise programmes among cancer patients and to determine optimal training intensity accordingly. The present paper presents the design of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a high intensity exercise programme compared to a low-to-moderate intensity exercise programme and a waiting list control group on physical fitness and fatigue as primary outcomes. Methods After baseline measurements, cancer patients who completed chemotherapy are randomly assigned to either a 12-week high intensity exercise programme or a low-to-moderate intensity exercise programme. Next, patients from both groups are randomly assigned to immediate training or a waiting list (i.e. waiting list control group. After 12 weeks, patients of the waiting list control group start with the exercise programme they have been allocated to. Both interventions consist of equal bouts of resistance and endurance interval exercises with the same frequency and duration, but differ in training intensity. Additionally, patients of both exercise programmes are counselled to improve compliance and achieve and maintain an active lifestyle, tailored to their individual preferences and capabilities. Measurements will be performed at baseline (t = 0, 12 weeks after randomization (t = 1, and 64 weeks after randomization (t = 2. The primary outcome measures are cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength assessed by means of objective performance indicators, and self-reported fatigue. Secondary outcome measures include health-related quality of life, self-reported physical activity, daily functioning, body composition, mood and sleep disturbances, and return to work. In addition, compliance

  7. The Effects of Free-Living Interval-Walking Training on Glycemic Control, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Winding, Kamilla; Knudsen, Sine H

    2013-01-01

    at moderate intensity, whereas interval walkers alternated 3-min repetitions at low and high intensity. Before and after the 4-month intervention, the following variables were measured: VO(2)max, body composition, and glycemic control (fasting glucose, HbA(1c), oral glucose tolerance test, and continuous...... glucose monitoring [CGM]).RESULTSTraining adherence was high (89 ± 4%), and training energy expenditure and mean intensity were comparable. VO(2)max increased 16.1 ± 3.7% in the interval-walking group (P

  8. The Feedback Intervention Trial (FIT) — Improving Hand-Hygiene Compliance in UK Healthcare Workers: A Stepped Wedge Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Christopher; Michie, Susan; Savage, Joanne; McAteer, John; Besser, Sarah; Charlett, Andre; Hayward, Andrew; Cookson, Barry D.; Cooper, Ben S.; Duckworth, Georgia; Jeanes, Annette; Roberts, Jenny; Teare, Louise; Stone, Sheldon

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Achieving a sustained improvement in hand-hygiene compliance is the WHO’s first global patient safety challenge. There is no RCT evidence showing how to do this. Systematic reviews suggest feedback is most effective and call for long term well designed RCTs, applying behavioural theory to intervention design to optimise effectiveness. Methods Three year stepped wedge cluster RCT of a feedback intervention testing hypothesis that the intervention was more effective than routine practice in 16 English/Welsh Hospitals (16 Intensive Therapy Units [ITU]; 44 Acute Care of the Elderly [ACE] wards) routinely implementing a national cleanyourhands campaign). Intervention-based on Goal & Control theories. Repeating 4 week cycle (20 mins/week) of observation, feedback and personalised action planning, recorded on forms. Computer-generated stepwise entry of all hospitals to intervention. Hospitals aware only of own allocation. Primary outcome: direct blinded hand hygiene compliance (%). Results All 16 trusts (60 wards) randomised, 33 wards implemented intervention (11 ITU, 22 ACE). Mixed effects regression analysis (all wards) accounting for confounders, temporal trends, ward type and fidelity to intervention (forms/month used). Intention to Treat Analysis Estimated odds ratio (OR) for hand hygiene compliance rose post randomisation (1.44; 95% CI 1.18, 1.76;phand-hygiene compliance, in wards implementing a national hand-hygiene campaign. Further implementation studies are needed to maximise the intervention’s effect in different settings. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN65246961 PMID:23110040

  9. Obesity-related hormones and endometrial cancer among postmenopausal women: a nested case-control study within the B~FIT cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallal, Cher M; Brinton, Louise A; Bauer, Douglas C; Buist, Diana S M; Cauley, Jane A; Hue, Trisha F; Lacroix, Andrea; Tice, Jeffrey A; Chia, Victoria M; Falk, Roni; Pfeiffer, Ruth; Pollak, Michael; Veenstra, Timothy D; Xu, Xia; Lacey, James V

    2013-02-01

    Endometrial cancer risk is strongly influenced by obesity, but the mechanisms of action remain unclear. Leptin and adiponectin, secreted from adipose tissue, reportedly play a role in such carcinogenic processes as cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and insulin regulation. In this case-control study, nested within the Breast and Bone Follow-up of the Fracture Intervention Trial (n=15,595), we assessed pre-diagnostic serum leptin, total adiponectin, and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin in relation to endometrial cancer among postmenopausal women. During the 10-year follow-up, 62 incident endometrial cases were identified and matched to 124 controls on age, geographical site, time of fasting blood draw at baseline (1992-1993), and trial participation status. Adipokines and C-peptide were measured by ELISA. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated via conditional logistic regression, with exposures categorized in tertiles (T). Multivariable models considered C-peptide, BMI (kg/m(2)), and estradiol (E2) as potential confounders. Endometrial cancer risk was significantly associated with higher leptin levels, adjusted for E2 and C-peptide (OR(T3 vs T1)=2.96; 95% CI, 1.21-7.25; P trend <0.01). After further adjustment for BMI, the estimates were attenuated and the positive trend was no longer statistically significant (OR(T3 vs T1)=2.11; 95% CI, 0.69-6.44; P trend=0.18). No significant associations were observed with adiponectin or HMW adiponectin and endometrial cancer. Our findings with leptin suggest that the leptin-BMI axis might increase endometrial cancer risk through mechanisms other than estrogen-driven proliferation. Continued exploration of these pathways in larger prospective studies may help elucidate mechanisms underlying observed obesity-endometrial cancer associations.

  10. Obesity-related hormones and endometrial cancer among postmenopausal women: a nested case–control study within the B~FIT cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallal, Cher M; Brinton, Louise A; Bauer, Douglas C; Buist, Diana S M; Cauley, Jane A; Hue, Trisha F; LaCroix, Andrea; Tice, Jeffrey A; Chia, Chia; Falk, Roni; Pfeiffer, Ruth; Pollak, Michael; Veenstra, Timothy D; Xu, Xia; Lacey, James V

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial cancer risk is strongly influenced by obesity, but the mechanisms of action remain unclear. Leptin and adiponectin, secreted from adipose tissue, reportedly play a role in such carcinogenic processes as cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and insulin regulation. In this case–control study, nested within the Breast and Bone Follow-up of the Fracture Intervention Trial (n = 15 595), we assessed pre-diagnostic serum leptin, total adiponectin, and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin in relation to endometrial cancer among postmenopausal women. During the 10-year follow-up, 62 incident endometrial cases were identified and matched to 124 controls on age, geographical site, time of fasting blood draw at baseline (1992–1993), and trial participation status. Adipokines and C-peptide were measured by ELISA. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated via conditional logistic regression, with exposures categorized in tertiles (T). Multivariable models considered C-peptide, BMI (kg/m2), and estradiol (E2) as potential confounders. Endometrial cancer risk was significantly associated with higher leptin levels, adjusted for E2 and C-peptide (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.96; 95% CI, 1.21–7.25; P trend <0.01). After further adjustment for BMI, the estimates were attenuated and the positive trend was no longer statistically significant (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.11; 95% CI, 0.69–6.44; P trend = 0.18). No significant associations were observed with adiponectin or HMW adiponectin and endometrial cancer. Our findings with leptin suggest that the leptin–BMI axis might increase endometrial cancer risk through mechanisms other than estrogen-driven proliferation. Continued exploration of these pathways in larger prospective studies may help elucidate mechanisms underlying observed obesity–endometrial cancer associations. PMID:23222000

  11. A population-based randomized controlled trial of the effect of combining a pedometer with an intervention toolkit on physical activity among individuals with low levels of physical activity or fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Severin, Maria; Hansen, Andreas Wolff

    2012-01-01

    To examine if receiving a pedometer along with an intervention toolkit is associated with increased physical activity, aerobic fitness and better self-rated health among individuals with low levels of physical activity or fitness.......To examine if receiving a pedometer along with an intervention toolkit is associated with increased physical activity, aerobic fitness and better self-rated health among individuals with low levels of physical activity or fitness....

  12. A randomised placebo-exercise controlled trial of Kung Fu training for improvements in body composition in overweight/obese adolescents: the "Martial Fitness" study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Tracey W; Kohn, Michael; Chow, Chin Moi; Singh, M Fiatarone

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if Chinese martial arts (Kung Fu, KF) might be effective for improving body composition, as well as being an appealing form of physical activity for inexperienced, sedentary, overweight/obese adolescents. Twenty subjects (age: 13.3 ± 1.8 y; BMI percentile: 98.6(86.5 - 99.8); 60% girls) were randomly-assigned to the supervised KF or placebo (Tai Chi, TC) control group 3 d.wk(-1) for 6 months. We assessed body composition, including total and regional fat and lean mass, total and regional bone mineral density (BMD), percent lean and fat mass, body mass index and waist circumference, at baseline and after 6 months of training using anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Habitual physical activity and dietary intake were recorded as covariates via self-report at each time-point. As expected due to natural growth, significant increases in height, weight, total and lumbar BMD, and lean mass were seen in the cohort over time, with a trend for increased whole body fat mass, with no difference between groups. By contrast, percent fat and android fat mass via DXA did not increase in either group over time. The absence of a similar expected increase in central adiposity over 6 months could indicate a positive effect of participation in both programs on the metabolically critical abdominal adiposity in this cohort. Further research in this area is warranted to determine ways to increase uptake and compliance, and to see if longer-term martial arts training not only maintains, but improves abdominal fat mass and related metabolic health indices in overweight/ obese adolescents. Key pointsParticipation in our martial arts trial attenuated the increases in body fat mass expected due to growth in our overweight/obese adolescent group.All subjects allocated to the Kung Fu intervention were satisfied with their Kung Fu training, in contrast to our placebo-exercise (Tai Chi) subjects, suggesting that this form of

  13. Dance your way to fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000809.htm Dance your way to fitness To use the sharing features on this page, ... to rhythm and music. Many health clubs and fitness centers offer dance workout classes, such as Zumba. ...

  14. Characteristics of Early Flame Development in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition CNG Engine Fitted with a Variable Swirl Control Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Rashid Abd Aziz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of the structure of the induction flow on the characteristics of early flames in a lean-stratified and lean-homogeneous charge combustion of compressed natural gas (CNG fuel in a direct injection (DI engine at different engine speeds. The engine speed was varied at 1500 rpm, 1800 rpm and 2100 rpm, and the ignition timing was set at a 38.5° crank angle (CA after top dead center (TDC for all conditions. The engine was operated in a partial-load mode and a homogeneous air/fuel charge was achieved by injecting the fuel early (before the intake valve closure, while late injection during the compression stroke was used to produce a stratified charge. Different induction flow structures were obtained by adjusting the swirl control valves (SCV. Using an endoscopic intensified CCD (ICCD camera, flame images were captured and analyzed. Code was developed to analyze the level of distortion of the flame and its wrinkledness, displacement and position relative to the spark center, as well as the flame growth rate. The results showed a higher flame growth rate with the flame kernel in the homogeneous charge, compared to the stratified combustion case. In the stratified charge combustion scenario, the 10° SCV closure (medium-tumble resulted in a higher early flame growth rate, whereas a homogeneous charge combustion (characterized by strong swirl resulted in the highest rate of flame growth.

  15. Competency profile of Fitness Instructor

    OpenAIRE

    Peterová, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Title: COMPETENCY PROFILE OF FITNESS INSTRUCTOR Objectives: The aim of this work is to find out competencies of fitness instructor and make a competency profile, containing competencies, which are important for excellent fitness instructor. Methods: I applied the method of interview and the method of research in my thesis. The interview was used to make a list of competencies of fitness instructor. The research was applied in the final part of making competency profile, for an attestation of ...

  16. Methodology review: evaluating person fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2001-01-01

    Person-fit methods based on classical test theory-and item response theory (IRT), and methods investigating particular types of response behavior on tests, are examined. Similarities and differences among person-fit methods and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Sound person-fit

  17. Fitness for duty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.; Matney, C.

    1991-01-01

    A Fitness For Duty training program was developed to satisfy the requirements of the NRC, 10 CFR 26, 10 CFR 707 and to meet requirements at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. Interactive videodisc technology was selected as the training medium using the TenCore authoring language. Computer-based training was chosen because of the large number of trainees, the advantages of the reduced overall cost, and the increased trainee retention of course material compared to traditional instruction. The resulting training program utilizes extensive role playing exercises in which employees and supervisors are exposed to real life situations. Extensive interactions by the trainees are required in that they must answer questions concerning the behav ior of individuals, random and for-cause drug testing, and the employee assistance program. Feedback is given in each case. Emphasis is placed on recognition of deteriorating job performance

  18. Multivariate rational data fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte

    1992-12-01

    Sections 1 and 2 discuss the advantages of an object-oriented implementation combined with higher floating-point arithmetic, of the algorithms available for multivariate data fitting using rational functions. Section 1 will in particular explain what we mean by "higher arithmetic". Section 2 will concentrate on the concepts of "object orientation". In sections 3 and 4 we shall describe the generality of the data structure that can be dealt with: due to some new results virtually every data set is acceptable right now, with possible coalescence of coordinates or points. In order to solve the multivariate rational interpolation problem the data sets are fed to different algorithms depending on the structure of the interpolation points in then-variate space.

  19. A school-based intervention incorporating smartphone technology to improve health-related fitness among adolescents: rationale and study protocol for the NEAT and ATLAS 2.0 cluster randomised controlled trial and dissemination study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J; Peralta, Louisa R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Okely, Anthony D; Salmon, Jo; Eather, Narelle; Dewar, Deborah L; Kennedy, Sarah; Lonsdale, Chris; Hilland, Toni A; Estabrooks, Paul; Finn, Tara L; Pollock, Emma; Morgan, Philip J

    2016-06-27

    Physical inactivity has been described as a global pandemic. Interventions aimed at developing skills in lifelong physical activities may provide the foundation for an active lifestyle into adulthood. In general, school-based physical activity interventions targeting adolescents have produced modest results and few have been designed to be 'scaled-up' and disseminated. This study aims to: (1) assess the effectiveness of two physical activity promotion programmes (ie, NEAT and ATLAS) that have been modified for scalability; and (2) evaluate the dissemination of these programmes throughout government funded secondary schools. The study will be conducted in two phases. In the first phase (cluster randomised controlled trial), 16 schools will be randomly allocated to the intervention or a usual care control condition. In the second phase, the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (Re-AIM) framework will be used to guide the design and evaluation of programme dissemination throughout New South Wales (NSW), Australia. In both phases, teachers will be trained to deliver the NEAT and ATLAS programmes, which will include: (1) interactive student seminars; (2) structured physical activity programmes; (3) lunch-time fitness sessions; and (4) web-based smartphone apps. In the cluster RCT, study outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 6 months (primary end point) and 12-months. Muscular fitness will be the primary outcome and secondary outcomes will include: objectively measured body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility, resistance training skill competency, physical activity, self-reported recreational screen-time, sleep, sugar-sweetened beverage and junk food snack consumption, self-esteem and well-being. This study has received approval from the University of Newcastle (H-2014-0312) and the NSW Department of Education (SERAP: 2012121) human research ethics committees. This study is funded by the Australian Research Council (FT

  20. Effect of test exercises and mask donning on measured respirator fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, C D; Fairbank, E O; Greenstein, S L

    1999-12-01

    Quantitative respirator fit test protocols are typically defined by a series of fit test exercises. A rationale for the protocols that have been developed is generally not available. There also is little information available that describes the effect or effectiveness of the fit test exercises currently specified in respiratory protection standards. This study was designed to assess the relative impact of fit test exercises and mask donning on respirator fit as measured by a controlled negative pressure and an ambient aerosol fit test system. Multiple donnings of two different sizes of identical respirator models by each of 14 test subjects showed that donning affects respirator fit to a greater degree than fit test exercises. Currently specified fit test protocols emphasize test exercises, and the determination of fit is based on a single mask donning. A rationale for a modified fit test protocol based on fewer, more targeted test exercises and multiple mask donnings is presented. The modified protocol identified inadequately fitting respirators as effectively as the currently specified Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) quantitative fit test protocol. The controlled negative pressure system measured significantly (p < 0.0001) more respirator leakage than the ambient aerosol fit test system. The bend over fit test exercise was found to be predictive of poor respirator fit by both fit test systems. For the better fitting respirators, only the talking exercise generated aerosol fit factors that were significantly lower (p < 0.0001) than corresponding donning fit factors.

  1. 'Fit Moms/Mamás Activas' internet-based weight control program with group support to reduce postpartum weight retention in low-income women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Suzanne; Brannen, Anna; Erickson, Karen; Diamond, Molly; Schaffner, Andrew; Muñoz-Christian, Karen; Stewart, Ana; Sanchez, Teresa; Rodriguez, Vanessa C; Ramos, Dalila I; McClure, Linda; Stinson, Caro; Tate, Deborah F

    2015-02-25

    High postpartum weight retention is a strong independent risk factor for lifetime obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes in women. Interventions to promote postpartum weight loss have met with some success but have been limited by high attrition. Internet-based treatment has the potential to overcome this barrier and reduce postpartum weight retention, but no study has evaluated the effects of an internet-based program to prevent high postpartum weight retention in women. Fit Moms/Mamás Activas targets recruitment of 12 Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Supplemental Nutrition Program clinics with a total of 408 adult (>18 years), postpartum (internet-based weight loss intervention. The intervention includes: monthly face-to-face group sessions; access to a website with weekly lessons, a web diary, instructional videos, and computer-tailored feedback; four weekly text messages; and brief reinforcement from WIC counselors. Participants are assessed at baseline, six months, and 12 months. The primary outcome is weight loss over six and 12 months; secondary outcomes include diet and physical activity behaviors, and psychosocial measures. Fit Moms/Mamás Activas is the first study to empirically examine the effects of an internet-based treatment program, coupled with monthly group contact at the WIC program, designed to prevent sustained postpartum weight retention in low-income women at high risk for weight gain, obesity, and related comorbidities. This trial was registered with Clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT01408147 ) on 29 July 2011.

  2. Sensitization of Parker fittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilber, W.W.

    1985-09-01

    At your request, ferrules from 316 SS Parker-Hannifen compression fittings at the FFTF have been examined and evaluated to determine the metallurgical condition as related to carbide precipitation in grain boundaries (known as sensitization) and the implications this may have with regard to corrosion resistance. To accomplish this, two ferrules from new stock, two ferrules from old stock and two ferrules that had seen service were examined metallurgically. The samples were prepared for optical metallography. They were viewed in both the etched and unetched condition and analyzed on the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for elemental content. It was confirmed that the ferrules from new stock had a 5 mil thick nitrided layer on the ferrule ID at the lead end and that the 316 SS ferrule material was in the sensitized condition, indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The material from old stock had no nitride layer but was in the sensitized condition indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The ferrules that had seen service had not been nitrided and were not sensitized indicating high resistance to aqueous corrosion

  3. A Telehealth Intervention Using Nintendo Wii Fit Balance Boards and iPads to Improve Walking in Older Adults With Lower Limb Amputation (Wii.n.Walk): Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Bita; Finlayson, Heather C; Eng, Janice J; Payne, Michael WC; Jarus, Tal; Goldsmith, Charles H; Mitchell, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of older adults living with lower limb amputation (LLA) who require rehabilitation for improving their walking capacity and mobility is growing. Existing rehabilitation practices frequently fail to meet this demand. Nintendo Wii Fit may be a valuable tool to enable rehabilitation interventions. Based on pilot studies, we have developed “Wii.n.Walk”, an in-home telehealth Wii Fit intervention targeted to improve walking capacity in older adults with LLA. Objective The objective of this study is to determine whether the Wii.n.Walk intervention enhances walking capacity compared to an attention control group. Methods This project is a multi-site (Vancouver BC, London ON), parallel, evaluator-blind randomized controlled trial. Participants include community-dwelling older adults over the age of 50 years with unilateral transtibial or transfemoral amputation. Participants will be stratified by site and block randomized in triplets to either the Wii.n.Walk intervention or an attention control group employing the Wii Big Brain cognitive software. This trial will include both supervised and unsupervised phases. During the supervised phase, both groups will receive 40-minute sessions of supervised group training three times per week for a duration of 4 weeks. Participants will complete the first week of the intervention in groups of three at their local rehabilitation center with a trainer. The remaining 3 weeks will take place at participants’ homes using remote supervision by the trainer using Apple iPad technology. At the end of 4 weeks, the supervised period will end and the unsupervised period will begin. Participants will retain the Wii console and be encouraged to continue using the program for an additional 4 weeks’ duration. The primary outcome measure will be the “Two-Minute Walk Test” to measure walking capacity. Outcome measures will be evaluated for all participants at baseline, after the end of both the supervised and

  4. A Telehealth Intervention Using Nintendo Wii Fit Balance Boards and iPads to Improve Walking in Older Adults With Lower Limb Amputation (Wii.n.Walk): Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Bita; Miller, William C; Finlayson, Heather C; Eng, Janice J; Payne, Michael Wc; Jarus, Tal; Goldsmith, Charles H; Mitchell, Ian M

    2014-12-22

    The number of older adults living with lower limb amputation (LLA) who require rehabilitation for improving their walking capacity and mobility is growing. Existing rehabilitation practices frequently fail to meet this demand. Nintendo Wii Fit may be a valuable tool to enable rehabilitation interventions. Based on pilot studies, we have developed "Wii.n.Walk", an in-home telehealth Wii Fit intervention targeted to improve walking capacity in older adults with LLA. The objective of this study is to determine whether the Wii.n.Walk intervention enhances walking capacity compared to an attention control group. This project is a multi-site (Vancouver BC, London ON), parallel, evaluator-blind randomized controlled trial. Participants include community-dwelling older adults over the age of 50 years with unilateral transtibial or transfemoral amputation. Participants will be stratified by site and block randomized in triplets to either the Wii.n.Walk intervention or an attention control group employing the Wii Big Brain cognitive software. This trial will include both supervised and unsupervised phases. During the supervised phase, both groups will receive 40-minute sessions of supervised group training three times per week for a duration of 4 weeks. Participants will complete the first week of the intervention in groups of three at their local rehabilitation center with a trainer. The remaining 3 weeks will take place at participants' homes using remote supervision by the trainer using Apple iPad technology. At the end of 4 weeks, the supervised period will end and the unsupervised period will begin. Participants will retain the Wii console and be encouraged to continue using the program for an additional 4 weeks' duration. The primary outcome measure will be the "Two-Minute Walk Test" to measure walking capacity. Outcome measures will be evaluated for all participants at baseline, after the end of both the supervised and unsupervised phases, and after 1-year follow up

  5. Fitness Landscapes of Functional RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Kun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The notion of fitness landscapes, a map between genotype and fitness, was proposed more than 80 years ago. For most of this time data was only available for a few alleles, and thus we had only a restricted view of the whole fitness landscape. Recently, advances in genetics and molecular biology allow a more detailed view of them. Here we review experimental and theoretical studies of fitness landscapes of functional RNAs, especially aptamers and ribozymes. We find that RNA structures can be divided into critical structures, connecting structures, neutral structures and forbidden structures. Such characterisation, coupled with theoretical sequence-to-structure predictions, allows us to construct the whole fitness landscape. Fitness landscapes then can be used to study evolution, and in our case the development of the RNA world.

  6. Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2015-01-01

    The term “Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration” indicates that the approach used for building land administration systems in less developed countries should be flexible and focused on serving the purpose of the systems (such as providing security of tenure and control of land use) rather than...... focusing on top-end technical solutions and high accuracy surveys. Of course, such flexibility allows for land administration systems to be incrementally improved over time. This paper unfolds the Fit-For-Purpose concept by analyzing the three core components: The spatial framework (large scale land parcel...... mapping) should be provided using affordable modern technologies such aerial imageries rather than field surveys. The legal framework must support both legal and social tenure, and the regulations must be designed along administrative rather than judicial lines. The fit-for-purpose approach must...

  7. Leading a Culture of Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    professional fighting force. Numerous studies indicate physical fitness improves cognitive function, the ability to handle stress, injury recovery...4 ―What is Fitness?‖ The CrossFit Journal (October 2002) http://www.crossfit.com (accessed 11 February, 2011). An excellent article beyond the...scope of this paper. Although our definition was derived from Crossfit , it is our position that Crossfit is not, and should not be, the only method to

  8. Physical Fitness in the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-17

    in fitness as the absence of disease or injury . The coach defines fitness as §l’Jse factors responsible for success in a sport. The leader is...lower back and legs to gradually increase your body’s level of activity. This will reduce the risk of injury and prevent unnecessary soreness. Also, a...flexibility. Let’s discuss the importance of muscular fitness and how we can achieve this kind of fitneas through weightlifting or calisthenics. Remember

  9. Female Fitness in the Blogosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Andreasson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes self-portrayals and gender constructions among female personal trainers within an Internet-mediated framework of fitness culture. The empirical material comes from a close examination of three strategically selected blogs. The result shows that some of the blogs clearly build upon what Connell calls emphasized femininity, as a means of legitimizing and constructing appropriate female fitness. In addition, there are also tendencies of sexualization in text and imagery present. As such, these self-representations are framed within a cultural history of body fitness dominated by stereotypical ways of perceiving masculinity and femininity. However, this does not capture the entire presentation of the self among the analyzed fitness bloggers. The blogs also point in the direction of ongoing negotiations and subversions of traditional gender norms. Among other things, they show how irony and humor are used as a means of questioning normative gender constructions while empowering female fitness and bodyliness.

  10. Nuclear fuel element end fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1980-01-01

    An invention is described whereby end fittings are formed from lattices of mutually perpendicular plates. At the plate intersections, sockets are secured to the end fittings in a manner that permits the longitudinal axes of each of the sockets to align with the respective lines of intersection of the plates. The sockets all protrude above one of the surfaces of the end fitting. Further, a detent is formed in the proturding sides of each of the sockets. Annular grooves are formed in each of the ends of the fuel rods that are to be mounted between the end fittings. The socket detents protrude into the respective annular grooves, thus engaging the grooves and retaining the fuel rods and end fittings in one integral structure. (auth)

  11. FITS Liberator: Image processing software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Nielsen, Lars Holm; Nielsen, Kaspar K.; Johansen, Teis; Hurt, Robert; de Martin, David

    2012-06-01

    The ESA/ESO/NASA FITS Liberator makes it possible to process and edit astronomical science data in the FITS format to produce stunning images of the universe. Formerly a plugin for Adobe Photoshop, the current version of FITS Liberator is a stand-alone application and no longer requires Photoshop. This image processing software makes it possible to create color images using raw observations from a range of telescopes; the FITS Liberator continues to support the FITS and PDS formats, preferred by astronomers and planetary scientists respectively, which enables data to be processed from a wide range of telescopes and planetary probes, including ESO's Very Large Telescope, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, ESA's XMM-Newton Telescope and Cassini-Huygens or Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  12. Fitness Doping and Body Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thualagant, Nicole

    This PhD thesis examines in a first paper the conceptualization of fitness doping and its current limitations. Based on a review of studies on bodywork and fitness doping it is emphasised that the definition of doping does not provide insights into bodywork of both men and women. Moreover......, it is argued that the social and a cultural context are missing in the many epidemiological studies on the prevalence of doping. The second paper explores the difficulties of implementing an anti-doping policy, which was originally formulated in an elite sport context, in a fitness context and more......-based fitness centres. Based on a survey in ten Danish club-based fitness centres and on narratives from semi-structured interviews, it is highlighted that the objectives of bodywork differ according to the users’ age and gender. Two different ways of investing in the body are explored in the paper, namely...

  13. Does childhood motor skill proficiency predict adolescent fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Van Beurden, Eric; Morgan, Philip J; Brooks, Lyndon O; Beard, John R

    2008-12-01

    To determine whether childhood fundamental motor skill proficiency predicts subsequent adolescent cardiorespiratory fitness. In 2000, children's proficiency in a battery of skills was assessed as part of an elementary school-based intervention. Participants were followed up during 2006/2007 as part of the Physical Activity and Skills Study, and cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using the Multistage Fitness Test. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between childhood fundamental motor skill proficiency and adolescent cardiorespiratory fitness controlling for gender. Composite object control (kick, catch, throw) and locomotor skill (hop, side gallop, vertical jump) were constructed for analysis. A separate linear regression examined the ability of the sprint run to predict cardiorespiratory fitness. Of the 928 original intervention participants, 481 were in 28 schools, 276 (57%) of whom were assessed. Two hundred and forty-four students (88.4%) completed the fitness test. One hundred and twenty-seven were females (52.1%), 60.1% of whom were in grade 10 and 39.0% were in grade 11. As children, almost all 244 completed each motor assessments, except for the sprint run (n = 154, 55.8%). The mean composite skill score in 2000 was 17.7 (SD 5.1). In 2006/2007, the mean number of laps on the Multistage Fitness Test was 50.5 (SD 24.4). Object control proficiency in childhood, adjusting for gender (P = 0.000), was associated with adolescent cardiorespiratory fitness (P = 0.012), accounting for 26% of fitness variation. Children with good object control skills are more likely to become fit adolescents. Fundamental motor skill development in childhood may be an important component of interventions aiming to promote long-term fitness.

  14. FIREFLY (Fitting IteRativEly For Likelihood analYsis): a full spectral fitting code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David M.; Maraston, Claudia; Goddard, Daniel; Thomas, Daniel; Parikh, Taniya

    2017-12-01

    We present a new spectral fitting code, FIREFLY, for deriving the stellar population properties of stellar systems. FIREFLY is a chi-squared minimization fitting code that fits combinations of single-burst stellar population models to spectroscopic data, following an iterative best-fitting process controlled by the Bayesian information criterion. No priors are applied, rather all solutions within a statistical cut are retained with their weight. Moreover, no additive or multiplicative polynomials are employed to adjust the spectral shape. This fitting freedom is envisaged in order to map out the effect of intrinsic spectral energy distribution degeneracies, such as age, metallicity, dust reddening on galaxy properties, and to quantify the effect of varying input model components on such properties. Dust attenuation is included using a new procedure, which was tested on Integral Field Spectroscopic data in a previous paper. The fitting method is extensively tested with a comprehensive suite of mock galaxies, real galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Milky Way globular clusters. We also assess the robustness of the derived properties as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and adopted wavelength range. We show that FIREFLY is able to recover age, metallicity, stellar mass, and even the star formation history remarkably well down to an S/N ∼ 5, for moderately dusty systems. Code and results are publicly available.1

  15. Kung fu training improves physical fitness measures in overweight/obese adolescents: the "martial fitness" study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Tracey W; Kohn, Michael R; Chow, Chin Moi; Fiatarone Singh, Maria Antoinette

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To examine the efficacy of a six-month Kung Fu (KF) program on physical fitness in overweight/obese adolescents. Methods. Subjects were randomly assigned to the KF or sham exercise (Tai Chi, TC) control group. Physical measurements in cardiovascular fitness and muscle fitness occurred at baseline and after 6 months of training thrice weekly. Results. Twenty subjects were recruited. One subject was lost to follow-up, although overall compliance to the training sessions was 46.7 +/- 27.8%. At follow-up, the cohort improved in absolute upper (P = .002) and lower (P = .04) body strength, and upper body muscle endurance (P = .02), without group differences. KF training resulted in significantly greater improvements in submaximal cardiovascular fitness (P = .03), lower body muscle endurance (P = .28; significant 95% CI: 0.37-2.49), and upper body muscle velocity (P = .03) relative to TC training. Conclusions. This short-term KF program improved submaximal cardiovascular fitness, lower body muscle endurance, and muscle velocity, in overweight/obese adolescents with very low baseline fitness.

  16. Current indirect fitness and future direct fitness are not incompatible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahma, Anindita; Mandal, Souvik; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2018-02-01

    In primitively eusocial insects, many individuals function as workers despite being capable of independent reproduction. Such altruistic behaviour is usually explained by the argument that workers gain indirect fitness by helping close genetic relatives. The focus on indirect fitness has left open the question of whether workers are also capable of getting direct fitness in the future in spite of working towards indirect fitness in the present. To investigate this question, we recorded behavioural profiles of all wasps on six naturally occurring nests of Ropalidia marginata , and then isolated all wasps in individual plastic boxes, giving them an opportunity to initiate nests and lay eggs. We found that 41% of the wasps successfully did so. Compared to those that failed to initiate nests, those that did were significantly younger, had significantly higher frequency of self-feeding behaviour on their parent nests but were not different in the levels of work performed in the parent nests. Thus ageing and poor feeding, rather than working for their colonies, constrain individuals for future independent reproduction. Hence, future direct fitness and present work towards gaining indirect fitness are not incompatible, making it easier for worker behaviour to be selected by kin selection or multilevel selection. © 2018 The Author(s).

  17. Opas CrossFit -harjoitteluun

    OpenAIRE

    Knaapi, Matti

    2014-01-01

    CrossFit on laji, joka pyrkii edistämään terveyttä ja kuntoa. CrossFit saleja löytyy mailmalta yli 10 000 kappaletta. CrossFit -harjoittelussa pyritään parantamaan ihmisen kuntoa mahdollisimman laajalla skaalalla kehittämällä mm. voimaa, kestävyyttä, tarkkuutta, tasapainoa ja eri aineenvaihduntareittejä samanaikaisesti. Terveyden ja kunnon kehittämiseen kuuluu kuntoilun lisäksi myös muita osa-alueita. Ruokavalio ja kehonhuolto ovat tärkeitä osa-alueita hyvän kunnon saavuttamiseksi. Ruokav...

  18. Respirators. Does your face fit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, N M; Else, D

    1981-04-01

    The authors carried out a survey of face sizes of men and women of four different ethnic origins and carried out face-seal leakage trials on four corresponding test panels. No single respirator design is likely to fit all members of the workforce, and it may be necessary to stock respirators from more than one manufacturers.Three or four different respirators or size of respirator may be needed. However, the use of lossely-fitting respirators such as Airsteam helmets could remove the necessity for exhaustive fitting procedures.

  19. LOCO with Constraints and Improved Fitting Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Not Available

    2007-01-01

    LOCO has been a powerful beam-based diagnostics and optics control method for storage rings and synchrotrons worldwide ever since it was established at NSLS by J. Safranek. This method measures the orbit response matrix and optionally the dispersion function of the machine. The data are then fitted to a lattice model by adjusting parameters such as quadrupole and skew quadrupole strengths in the model, BPM gains and rolls, corrector gains and rolls of the measurement system. Any abnormality of the machine that affects the machine optics can then be identified. The resulting lattice model is equivalent to the real machine lattice as seen by the BPMs. Since there are usually two or more BPMs per betatron period in modern circular accelerators, the model is often a very accurate representation of the real machine. According to the fitting result, one can correct the machine lattice to the design lattice by changing the quadrupole and skew quadrupole strengths. LOCO is so important that it is routinely performed at many electron storage rings to guarantee machine performance, especially after the Matlab-based LOCO code became available. However, for some machines, LOCO is not easy to carry out. In some cases, LOCO fitting converges to an unrealistic solution with large changes to the quadrupole strengths ΔK. The quadrupole gradient changes can be so large that the resulting lattice model fails to find a closed orbit and subsequent iterations become impossible. In cases when LOCO converges, the solution can have ΔK that is larger than realistic and often along with a spurious zigzag pattern between adjacent quadrupoles. This degeneracy behavior of LOCO is due to the correlation between the fitting parameters - usually between neighboring quadrupoles. The fitting scheme is therefore less restrictive over certain patterns of changes to these quadrupoles with which the correlated quadrupoles fight each other and the net effect is very inefficient χ 2 reduction, i

  20. Solving the maintenance dilemma of ageing controls in nuclear standby generators. The decision to retro-fit the control system with 'off the shelf technology'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Neil [Turbine Controls Ltd Canada, 5288 General Rd, L4W 1Z8 Mississauga (Canada); Rees, Christpher [Turbine Controls Ltd UK, 52 Kenilworth Drive, LE2 5LG Leicester (United Kingdom); Yeremain, Joseph [Thermodyne, 421 Nugget Avenue Unit 3, Toronto Ontario M1S 4L8 (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Blackouts - Are we 2 Steps away from Nuclear meltdown owing to Aging Controls? The intent of this white paper is to high-light the need to:- 1. Replace the aging control systems associated with critical safety equipment of Standby Generators in the nuclear environment. 2. Explain how 'off the shelf' standard control equipment may be suitably selected, integrated and tested for a nuclear environment. 3. High-light the lessons learned in respect of: - a. Qualification of COTS (commercial off the shelf) equipment for use in a nuclear application. b. Software quality assurance program. c. Reducing plant outage time. 4. Guide you on the selection criteria of credible partners that can implement such mission critical control systems. Causes for Concern - The control systems of some of the Standby Generators are 30+ years old and aging equipment is no longer available from the OEM's. Maintenance crews are evolving with young engineers who have no experience, or chance to be trained, on the old installed control base. The writer has no doubt that the extent of the black outs of North America, Aug 2003, and the standby generators ever reducing availability, has compromised their ability to provide essential service and communications to maintain the safety of the nuclear plant. These concerns prompted Ontario Power Generator and Bruce Power to review the reliability of their standby generators and this review prompted them to locate a suitable supplier for the task of replacing the control system. OPG's previous attempts to have the controls replaced by I and C dedicated companies weighed heavy on their minds. Worsening the dilemma was the fact that it used dedicated controls and what might be considered 'Propriety Software'. Black Outs - Not only is it possible, the probability of it happening is getting stronger The Northeast Blackout of 2003 was a massive widespread power outage that occurred throughout parts of the North-eastern and

  1. Tailored Fitness: Culture Clash in the Quest for Combat-Fit Airmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    standardized number of failures for discharge recommendation, established a Fitness Assessment Cell (FAC) to centralize and standardize the...of the mental and physical stamina challenges of flying, but does so within a climate-controlled room with less physiological stress. This is not

  2. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattione, Paul [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  3. Frailty Intervention Trial (FIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lockwood Keri

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frailty is a term commonly used to describe the condition of an older person who has chronic health problems, has lost functional abilities and is likely to deteriorate further. However, despite its common use, only a small number of studies have attempted to define the syndrome of frailty and measure its prevalence. The criteria Fried and colleagues used to define the frailty syndrome will be used in this study (i.e. weight loss, fatigue, decreased grip strength, slow gait speed, and low physical activity. Previous studies have shown that clinical outcomes for frail older people can be improved using multi-factorial interventions such as comprehensive geriatric assessment, and single interventions such as exercise programs or nutritional supplementation, but no interventions have been developed to specifically reverse the syndrome of frailty. We have developed a multidisciplinary intervention that specifically targets frailty as defined by Fried et al. We aim to establish the effects of this intervention on frailty, mobility, hospitalisation and institutionalisation in frail older people. Methods and Design A single centre randomised controlled trial comparing a multidisciplinary intervention with usual care. The intervention will target identified characteristics of frailty, functional limitations, nutritional status, falls risk, psychological issues and management of chronic health conditions. Two hundred and thirty people aged 70 and over who meet the Fried definition of frailty will be recruited from clients of the aged care service of a metropolitan hospital. Participants will be followed for a 12-month period. Discussion This research is an important step in the examination of specifically targeted frailty interventions. This project will assess whether an intervention specifically targeting frailty can be implemented, and whether it is effective when compared to usual care. If successful, the study will establish a

  4. Statistical topography of fitness landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Jasper

    2011-01-01

    Fitness landscapes are generalized energy landscapes that play an important conceptual role in evolutionary biology. These landscapes provide a relation between the genetic configuration of an organism and that organism’s adaptive properties. In this work, global topographical features of these fitness landscapes are investigated using theoretical models. The resulting predictions are compared to empirical landscapes. It is shown that these landscapes allow, at least with respe...

  5. Desirable design of hose fittings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the primary functionality of a hose fitting. There has been made a discussion about the different parts of the hose assembly - the nipple, the hose and the outer compression parts. The last subject covered is which criteria should be put up for determining what is a good hose...... fittings. There has been made an uncompleted list of 'Voice of Customer' to this respect. Observations and interviews in industry should expand this list....

  6. The 'fitting problem' in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, G.F.R.; Stoeger, W.

    1987-01-01

    The paper considers the best way to fit an idealised exactly homogeneous and isotropic universe model to a realistic ('lumpy') universe; whether made explicit or not, some such approach of necessity underlies the use of the standard Robertson-Walker models as models of the real universe. Approaches based on averaging, normal coordinates and null data are presented, the latter offering the best opportunity to relate the fitting procedure to data obtainable by astronomical observations. (author)

  7. Double-blind randomised controlled trial of the independent and synergistic effect of Spirulina maxima with exercise (ISESE) on general fitness, lipid profile and redox status in overweight and obese subjects: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Lepe, Marco Antonio; López-Díaz, José Alberto; Rosa, Laura Alejandra de la; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Juarez-Oropeza, Marco Antonio; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Urquidez-Romero, Rene; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo

    2017-06-23

    In order to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors, a healthy diet must include dietary antioxidants from different sources (eg, Spirulina maxima ) and regular practice of exercise should be promoted. There is some evidence from animal studies that S. maxima and exercise decrease cardiovascular disease risks factors. However, very few studies have proved the independent or synergistic effect of S. maxima plus exercise in humans. This study attempts to address the independent and synergistic effects in overweight and obese subjects participating in a systematic physical exercise programme at moderate intensity on general fitness, plasma lipid profile and antioxidant capacity. Using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced crossover study design, 80 healthy overweight and obese subjects will be evaluated during a 12-week isoenergetic diet accompanied by 4.5 g/day S. maxima intake and/or a physical systematic exercise programme at moderate intensity. Body composition, oxygen uptake, heart rate, capillary blood lactate, plasma concentrations of triacylglycerols, total, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, antioxidant status, lipid oxidation, protein carbonyls, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and paraoxonase will be assessed. This study and all the procedures have been approved by the Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez Bioethics Committee. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conferences. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02837666. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. The fitness for the Ageing Brain Study II (FABS II: protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial evaluating the effect of physical activity on cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ames David

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Observational studies have documented a potential protective effect of physical exercise in older adults who are at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. The Fitness for the Ageing Brain II (FABS II study is a multicentre randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT aiming to determine whether physical activity reduces the rate of cognitive decline among individuals with Alzheimer's disease. This paper describes the background, objectives of the study, and an overview of the protocol including design, organization and data collection methods. Methods/Design The study will recruit 230 community-dwelling participants diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. Participants will be randomly allocated to two treatment groups: usual care group or 24-week home-based program consisting of 150 minutes per week of tailored moderate physical activity. The primary outcome measure of the study is cognitive decline as measured by the change from baseline in the total score on the Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive section. Secondary outcomes of interest include behavioral and psychological symptoms, quality of life, functional level, carer burden and physical function (strength, balance, endurance, physical activity. Primary endpoints will be measured at six and twelve months following the baseline assessment. Discussion This RCT will contribute evidence regarding the potential benefits of a systematic program of physical activity as an affordable and safe intervention for people with Alzheimer's disease. Further, if successful, physical activity in combination with usual care has the potential to alleviate the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and improve its management and the quality of life of patients and their carers. Trial Registration Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000755235

  9. Vestibular schwannoma and fitness to fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Yoann; Raynal, Marc; Hunkemöller, Iris; Lepage, Pierre; Kossowski, Michel

    2010-10-01

    When a pilot is referred for vestibular schwannoma (VS), his or her fitness to fly may be questioned. The objective of this retrospective study was to describe a series of VS cases in a pilot population and to discuss their fitness to fly options. Between September 2002 and March 2010, the ENT/Head and Neck Surgery Department of the National Pilot Expertise Center conducted nearly 120,000 expert consultations for 40,000 pilots. We examined the files of 10 pilots who were referred to our 2 national experts for VS. At the time of the expert consultation, hypoacusis was present in nine cases (four with total deafness), tinnitus in one case, and vertigo in nine cases. In our series, only 2 of the 10 pilots experienced a negative impact on their fitness to fly. Decisions on fitness to fly were based on several factors: minimally disturbed audition, i.e., less than a 35-dB hearing loss with a good speech discrimination score; good balance, i.e., no reported difficulties; no spontaneous nystagmus recorded on videonystagmography (VNG); no postural deviation; and a normal head-shaking test. The delay and the VS's evolution between diagnosis and expert consultation are important because the selection of a treatment to control VS is critical in minimizing the possible associated complications. When a pilot is referred for VS, his or her fitness to fly is determined by the size of the tumor, balance, auditory status, and the follow-up results of these findings. The complications that may arise from VS treatments must also be considered.

  10. Measured, modeled, and causal conceptions of fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes partial answers to the following questions: in what senses can fitness differences plausibly be considered causes of evolution?What relationships are there between fitness concepts used in empirical research, modeling, and abstract theoretical proposals? How does the relevance of different fitness concepts depend on research questions and methodological constraints? The paper develops a novel taxonomy of fitness concepts, beginning with type fitness (a property of a genotype or phenotype), token fitness (a property of a particular individual), and purely mathematical fitness. Type fitness includes statistical type fitness, which can be measured from population data, and parametric type fitness, which is an underlying property estimated by statistical type fitnesses. Token fitness includes measurable token fitness, which can be measured on an individual, and tendential token fitness, which is assumed to be an underlying property of the individual in its environmental circumstances. Some of the paper's conclusions can be outlined as follows: claims that fitness differences do not cause evolution are reasonable when fitness is treated as statistical type fitness, measurable token fitness, or purely mathematical fitness. Some of the ways in which statistical methods are used in population genetics suggest that what natural selection involves are differences in parametric type fitnesses. Further, it's reasonable to think that differences in parametric type fitness can cause evolution. Tendential token fitnesses, however, are not themselves sufficient for natural selection. Though parametric type fitnesses are typically not directly measurable, they can be modeled with purely mathematical fitnesses and estimated by statistical type fitnesses, which in turn are defined in terms of measurable token fitnesses. The paper clarifies the ways in which fitnesses depend on pragmatic choices made by researchers. PMID:23112804

  11. Comparing Person Organization Fit and Person Job Fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Ardıç

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been many studies conducted to analyze the effects of person-organization fit (POF and person-job fit (PJF on individual outcomes, little is known about which of these fit associates stronger with individual variables (i.e., intention to quit job, IQJ, and perceived individual performance, PIP. Therefore the purpose of the study is to compare the relationships of PJF and POF with IQJ and PIP. The sample of the study consists of security guards working at a private company's civil aviation safety department. Totally 98 security guards participated to the research. Results indicated that, the relationships of PJF and POF with IQJ and PIP were not significantly different. Consequently the results indicate that POF and PJF associate similarly with critical individual outcomes.

  12. Randomized controlled trial of the effects of high intensity and low-to-moderate intensity exercise on physical fitness and fatigue in cancer survivors: results of the Resistance and Endurance exercise After ChemoTherapy (REACT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampshoff, Caroline S; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Brug, Johannes; Twisk, Jos W R; Schep, Goof; Nijziel, Marten R; van Mechelen, Willem; Buffart, Laurien M

    2015-10-29

    International evidence-based guidelines recommend physical exercise to form part of standard care for all cancer survivors. However, at present, the optimum exercise intensity is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a high intensity (HI) and low-to-moderate intensity (LMI) resistance and endurance exercise program compared with a wait list control (WLC) group on physical fitness and fatigue in a mixed group of cancer survivors who completed primary cancer treatment, including chemotherapy. Overall, 277 cancer survivors were randomized to 12 weeks of HI exercise (n = 91), LMI exercise (n = 95), or WLC (n = 91). Both interventions were identical with respect to exercise type, duration and frequency, and only differed in intensity. Measurements were performed at baseline (4-6 weeks after primary treatment) and post-intervention. The primary outcomes were cardiorespiratory fitness (peakVO2), muscle strength (grip strength and 30-second chair-stand test), and self-reported fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory; MFI). Secondary outcomes included health-related quality of life, physical activity, daily functioning, body composition, mood, and sleep disturbances. Multilevel linear regression analyses were performed to estimate intervention effects using an intention-to-treat principle. In the HI and LMI groups, 74 % and 70 % of the participants attended more than 80 % of the prescribed exercise sessions, respectively (P = 0.53). HI (β = 2.2; 95 % CI, 1.2-3.1) and LMI (β = 1.3; 95 % CI, 0.3-2.3) exercise showed significantly larger improvements in peakVO2 compared to WLC. Improvements in peakVO2 were larger for HI than LMI exercise (β = 0.9; 95 % CI, -0.1 to 1.9), but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.08). No intervention effects were found for grip strength and the 30-second chair-stand test. HI and LMI exercise significantly reduced general and physical fatigue and reduced activity

  13. Engineering cell fitness: lessons for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakiba, Nika; Zandstra, Peter W

    2017-10-01

    Cell competition results in the loss of weaker cells and the dominance of stronger cells. So-called 'loser' cells are either removed by active elimination or by limiting their access to survival factors. Recently, competition has been shown to serve as a surveillance mechanism against emerging aberrant cells in both the developing and adult organism, contributing to overall organism fitness and survival. Here, we explore the origins and implications of cell competition in development, tissue homeostasis, and in vitro culture. We also provide a forward look on the use of cell competition to interpret multicellular dynamics while offering a perspective on harnessing competition to engineer cells with optimized and controllable fitness characteristics for regenerative medicine applications. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Physical fitness and mental health impact of a sport-for-development intervention in a post-conflict setting: randomised controlled trial nested within an observational study of adolescents in Gulu, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Justin; Foster, Charlie; Townsend, Nick; Bauman, Adrian

    2014-06-18

    Physical inactivity contributes to poor fitness and mental health disorders. This is of concern in post-conflict low-income settings where non-communicable diseases are emerging and there is limited evidence for physical activity interventions. We examined the effects of a sport-for-development programme on adolescent physical fitness and mental health in Gulu, Uganda. We conducted a single-blinded RCT nested within an observational study with three unbalanced parallel groups. Participants were able-bodied adolescents aged 11-14 years. The intervention comprised an 11-week voluntary competitive sport-for-development football league. Participants who did not subscribe for the intervention formed a non-registered comparison group. Boys who registered for the sport-for-development programme were randomly allocated to the intervention or wait-listed. The girls programme subscription was insufficient to form a wait-list and all registrants received the intervention. Physical fitness was assessed by cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage fitness test), muscular power (standing broad jump) and body composition (BMI-for-age). Mental health was measured using the Acholi Psychosocial Assessment Instrument for local depression-like (DLS) and anxiety-like (ALS) syndromes. All randomisation was computer generated and assessors were masked to group allocation. An intention-to-treat analysis of adjusted effect size (ES) was applied. There were 1,462 adolescents in the study (intervention: boys = 74, girls = 81; wait-list: boys = 72; comparison: boys = 472, girls = 763). At four months follow-up there was no significant effect on the boys fitness when comparing intervention vs wait-listed and intervention vs non-registered groups. However, there was a negative effect on DLS when comparing boys intervention vs wait-listed (ES = 0.67 [0.33 to 1.00]) and intervention vs non-registered (ES = 0.25 [0.00 to 0.49]). Similar results were observed for ALS for boys intervention vs wait

  15. The FitTrack Index as fitness indicator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dina Christina Janse van Rensburg

    d Institute for Sports Research, Faculty of Humanities, University of Pretoria, South Africa e Institute for Food ... The American College of Sports Medicine's guidelines for health/fitness .... It is important to stress that the focus of this study was not.

  16. Decision making on fitness landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, R.; Sibani, P.

    2017-04-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.

  17. Adaptive Management Fitness of Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Porzecanski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive management (AM promises to improve our ability to cope with the inherent uncertainties of managing complex dynamic systems such as watersheds. However, despite the increasing adherence and attempts at implementation, the AM approach is rarely successful in practice. A one-size-fits-all AM strategy fails because some watersheds are better positioned at the outset to succeed at AM than others. We introduce a diagnostic tool called the Index of Management Condition (IMC and apply it to twelve diverse watersheds in order to determine their AM "fitness"; that is, the degree to which favorable adaptive management conditions are in place in a watershed.

  18. Physical Work Demands and Fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Korshøj

    . The effects were evaluated with objective physiological or diurnal data in an intention-to-treat analysis using multi-adjusted mixed models. The results indicated that the intervention led to several improvements in risk factors for cardiovascular disease, e.g. enhanced cardiorespiratory fitness, reduced...... exposed to high relative aerobic workloads obtained more pronounced increases of resting and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, an unaltered cardiorespiratory fitness and a reduced sleeping heart rate. The enhanced resting and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure may be explained as a potential...

  19. The Andersen aerobic fitness test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadland, Eivind; Terum, Torkil; Mamen, Asgeir

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High aerobic fitness is consistently associated with a favorable metabolic risk profile in children. Direct measurement of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) is often not feasible, thus indirect tests such as the Andersen test are required in many settings. The present study seeks...... of agreement) were 26.7±125.2 m for test 2 vs. test 1 (pfit in the present sample; thus, we suggest a new equation: VO2peak = 23....... Researchers should be aware of the amount of noise in indirect tests that estimate aerobic fitness....

  20. Decision Making on Fitness Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Rudy; Sibani, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et. al. that we call...... the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures....

  1. A cluster randomised controlled trial of advice, exercise or multifactorial assessment to prevent falls and fractures in community-dwelling older adults: protocol for the prevention of falls injury trial (PreFIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Julie; Lall, Ranjit; Withers, Emma J; Finnegan, Susanne; Underwood, Martin; Hulme, Claire; Sheridan, Ray; Skelton, Dawn A; Martin, Finbarr; Lamb, Sarah E

    2016-01-18

    Falls are the leading cause of accident-related mortality in older adults. Injurious falls are associated with functional decline, disability, healthcare utilisation and significant National Health Service (NHS)-related costs. The evidence base for multifactorial or exercise interventions reducing fractures in the general population is weak. This protocol describes a large-scale UK trial investigating the clinical and cost-effectiveness of alternative falls prevention interventions targeted at community dwelling older adults. A three-arm, pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial, conducted within primary care in England, UK. Sixty-three general practices will be randomised to deliver one of three falls prevention interventions: (1) advice only; (2) advice with exercise; or (3) advice with multifactorial falls prevention (MFFP). We aim to recruit over 9000 community-dwelling adults aged 70 and above. Practices randomised to deliver advice will mail out advice booklets. Practices randomised to deliver 'active' interventions, either exercise or MFFP, send all trial participants the advice booklet and a screening survey to identify participants with a history of falling or balance problems. Onward referral to 'active' intervention will be based on falls risk determined from balance screen. The primary outcome is peripheral fracture; secondary outcomes include number with at least one fracture, falls, mortality, quality of life and health service resource use at 18 months, captured using self-report and routine healthcare activity data. The study protocol has approval from the National Research Ethics Service (REC reference 10/H0401/36; Protocol V.3.1, 21/May/2013). User groups and patient representatives were consulted to inform trial design. Results will be reported at conferences and in peer-reviewed publications. A patient-friendly summary of trial findings will be published on the prevention of falls injury trial (PreFIT) website. This protocol adheres to the

  2. Physical Fitness: Get Your Body Moving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical Fitness: Get Your Body Moving; Exercise; does exercise help quit smoking; exercises after quitting smoking; exercise after smoking; exercise and quitting smoking; exercise and smoking; smoking articles; articles about smoking; articles on smoking; articles about smoking; article on smoking; health articles on smoking; smoking article; benefits of physical activity; benefits for physical activity; benefit of physical activity; benefits to physical activity; daily physical activities; daily physical activity; healthy physical activities; healthy physical activity; health activities; activity for health; exercise physical activity and health; health activities; health activities for kids; health and fitness activities; health benefits for physical activity; health benefits from physical activity; health benefits of physical activity; health benefits physical activity; health promotion activities; physical exercise; exercise and physical activity; exercise and physical health; exercise for physical fitness; health benefits of physical fitness; how to do physical exercise; physical activity and exercise; physical activity exercise; physical health; physical health and fitness; physical health and wellness; physical health benefits; physical Health fitness; what are the benefits of physical fitness; physical fitness; about physical fitness; benefits of physical fitness; how to improve physical fitness; physical fitness; physical fitness article; fitness; fitness article; fitness articles; fitness plans; health and fitness; exercise; benefits of regular exercise on health; exercise plan; exercise tips; routine; best work out routine for overweight women

  3. The influence of childhood aerobic fitness on learning and memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren B Raine

    Full Text Available There is a growing trend of inactivity among children, which may not only result in poorer physical health, but also poorer cognitive health. Previous research has shown that lower fitness has been related to decreased cognitive function for tasks requiring perception, memory, and cognitive control as well as lower academic achievement.To investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness, learning, and memory on a task that involved remembering names and locations on a fictitious map. Different learning strategies and recall procedures were employed to better understand fitness effects on learning novel material.Forty-eight 9-10 year old children (n = 24 high fit; HF and n = 24 low fit; LF performed a task requiring them to learn the names of specific regions on a map, under two learning conditions in which they only studied (SO versus a condition in which they were tested during study (TS. The retention day occurred one day after initial learning and involved two different recall conditions: free recall and cued recall.There were no differences in performance at initial learning between higher fit and lower fit participants. However, during the retention session higher fit children outperformed lower fit children, particularly when the initial learning strategy involved relatively poor recall performance (i.e., study only versus test-study strategy.We interpret these novel data to suggest that fitness can boost learning and memory of children and that these fitness-associated performance benefits are largest in conditions in which initial learning is the most challenging. Such data have important implications for both educational practice and policy.

  4. Exercise at an onsite facility with or without direct exercise supervision improves health-related physical fitness and exercise participation: An 8-week randomised controlled trial with 15-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jayden R; Gordon, Brett A; Lythgo, Noel; Bird, Stephen R; Benson, Amanda C

    2018-04-01

    Physical activity and exercise participation is limited by a perceived lack of time, poor access to facilities and low motivation. The aim was to assess whether providing an exercise program to be completed at the workplace with or without direct supervision was effective for promoting health-related physical fitness and exercise participation. Fifty university employees aged (Mean ± SD) 42.5 ± 11.1 years were prescribed a moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise program to be completed at an onsite facility for 8 weeks. Participants were randomly allocated to receive direct exercise supervision or not. Cardiorespiratory fitness (V̇O 2max ) and maximal muscular strength were assessed at baseline and 8 weeks. Self-report physical activity was assessed at baseline, 8 weeks and 15 months post-intervention. Attendance or exercise session volume were not different between groups. Cardiorespiratory fitness (Mean ± 95% CI); +1.9 ± 0.7 mL·kg·min -1 ; P exercise facility to complete an individually-prescribed 8-week exercise program is sufficient to improve health-related physical fitness in the short-term independent to the level of supervision provided, but does not influence long-term participation. SO WHAT?: Lower cost onsite exercise facility supervision is as effective at improving physical health and fitness as directly supervised exercise, however ongoing support may be required for sustained physical activity behaviour change. © 2017 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  5. Sports Potentials for Physical Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    This report, one of a series on research into specific physical activities and their efficacy in improving and maintaining physical fitness, examines sport participation and the potential it has for developing muscular strength, muscular endurance, and circulatory-respiratory endurance. The activities consist primarily of the following twelve…

  6. Civilian Fitness: A Readiness Enabler

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-24

    bonus to make working out convenient and facilitate work / life balance . This was secondary to the hope that a fitness program would produce healthier...workforce; and 3) become an employer of choice and promote work life balance .88 34 Strategic plans and supporting objectives of the Army Installation

  7. Hotels Make Room for Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszuta, Laurie Einstein

    1986-01-01

    Hotels, in hopes of gaining a competitive edge, are offering workout rooms, exercise equipment, fitness trails, and jogging tracks, but no standards have been set for safety of the facilities or staff preparedness in exercise screening, equipment use, injury prevention, or first aid. (MT)

  8. Factors Influencing Physical Fitness Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarer, Barbara G.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on works that examine areas in which the physical educator can improve the administration of physical fitness tests in the elementary and secondary schools. The first part contains annotations that examine modifications of existing components which measure aspects of muscular and cardiovascular endurance. The…

  9. In a Peak Fitness Condition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.; Nielsen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    managerial efforts with regard to Danish elite sports? The analysis finds the Danish elite sports organization, Team Danmark, well prepared and fit for the future challenges. Still, though, areas such as talent identification and development and division of roles and responsibilities, are in need...

  10. Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbot, P.; Wrangham, R.; Abe, J.

    2011-01-01

    Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. Nowak et al. argue that inclusive fitness theory has been of little value in explaining the natural world, and that it has led to negligible progress in explaining the evolution of eusociality. However...

  11. Self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The predictive value and improved risk classification of self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (SRCF), when added to traditional risk factors on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and longevity, are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3843 males and 5093 females from the Copenhagen...

  12. ACCELERATED FITTING OF STELLAR SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Conroy, Charlie [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rix, Hans-Walter [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-20

    Stellar spectra are often modeled and fitted by interpolating within a rectilinear grid of synthetic spectra to derive the stars’ labels: stellar parameters and elemental abundances. However, the number of synthetic spectra needed for a rectilinear grid grows exponentially with the label space dimensions, precluding the simultaneous and self-consistent fitting of more than a few elemental abundances. Shortcuts such as fitting subsets of labels separately can introduce unknown systematics and do not produce correct error covariances in the derived labels. In this paper we present a new approach—Convex Hull Adaptive Tessellation (chat)—which includes several new ideas for inexpensively generating a sufficient stellar synthetic library, using linear algebra and the concept of an adaptive, data-driven grid. A convex hull approximates the region where the data lie in the label space. A variety of tests with mock data sets demonstrate that chat can reduce the number of required synthetic model calculations by three orders of magnitude in an eight-dimensional label space. The reduction will be even larger for higher dimensional label spaces. In chat the computational effort increases only linearly with the number of labels that are fit simultaneously. Around each of these grid points in the label space an approximate synthetic spectrum can be generated through linear expansion using a set of “gradient spectra” that represent flux derivatives at every wavelength point with respect to all labels. These techniques provide new opportunities to fit the full stellar spectra from large surveys with 15–30 labels simultaneously.

  13. Self-Fitting Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitte Keidser

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A self-contained, self-fitting hearing aid (SFHA is a device that enables the user to perform both threshold measurements leading to a prescribed hearing aid setting and fine-tuning, without the need for audiological support or access to other equipment. The SFHA has been proposed as a potential solution to address unmet hearing health care in developing countries and remote locations in the developed world and is considered a means to lower cost and increase uptake of hearing aids in developed countries. This article reviews the status of the SFHA and the evidence for its feasibility and challenges and predicts where it is heading. Devices that can be considered partly or fully self-fitting without audiological support were identified in the direct-to-consumer market. None of these devices are considered self-contained as they require access to other hardware such as a proprietary interface, computer, smartphone, or tablet for manipulation. While there is evidence that self-administered fitting processes can provide valid and reliable results, their success relies on user-friendly device designs and interfaces and easy-to-interpret instructions. Until these issues have been sufficiently addressed, optional assistance with the self-fitting process and on-going use of SFHAs is recommended. Affordability and a sustainable delivery system remain additional challenges for the SFHA in developing countries. Future predictions include a growth in self-fitting products, with most future SFHAs consisting of earpieces that connect wirelessly with a smartphone and providers offering assistance through a telehealth infrastructure, and the integration of SFHAs into the traditional hearing health-care model.

  14. Amino acids intake and physical fitness among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Cuenca-Garcia, Magdalena; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Pedrero-Chamizo, Raquel; Manios, Yannis; Marcos, Ascensión; Molnar, Denes; Widhalm, Kurt; Polito, Angela; Vanhelst, Jeremy; Hagströmer, Maria; Sjöström, Michael; Kafatos, Anthony; de Henauw, Stefaan; Gutierrez, Ángel; Castillo, Manuel J; Moreno, Luis A

    2017-06-01

    The aim was to investigate whether there was an association between amino acid (AA) intake and physical fitness and if so, to assess whether this association was independent of carbohydrates intake. European adolescents (n = 1481, 12.5-17.5 years) were measured. Intake was assessed via two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Lower and upper limbs muscular fitness was assessed by standing long jump and handgrip strength tests, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test. Physical activity was objectively measured. Socioeconomic status was obtained via questionnaires. Lower limbs muscular fitness seems to be positively associated with tryptophan, histidine and methionine intake in boys, regardless of centre, age, socioeconomic status, physical activity and total energy intake (model 1). However, these associations disappeared once carbohydrates intake was controlled for (model 2). In girls, only proline intake seems to be positively associated with lower limbs muscular fitness (model 2) while cardiorespiratory fitness seems to be positively associated with leucine (model 1) and proline intake (models 1 and 2). None of the observed significant associations remained significant once multiple testing was controlled for. In conclusion, we failed to detect any associations between any of the evaluated AAs and physical fitness after taking into account the effect of multiple testing.

  15. Exercise videogames for physical activity and fitness: Design and rationale of the Wii Heart Fitness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Beth C; Thind, Herpreet; Dunsiger, Shira I; Serber, Eva R; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Cobb, Victoria; Palmer, Kathy; Abernathy, Sean; Marcus, Bess H

    2015-05-01

    Despite numerous health benefits, less than half of American adults engage in regular physical activity. Exercise videogames (EVG) may be a practical and attractive alternative to traditional forms of exercise. However there is insufficient research to determine whether EVG play alone is sufficient to produce prolonged engagement in physical activity or improvements in cardiovascular fitness and overall health risk. The goal of the present study is to test the efficacy of exercise videogames to increase time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and to improve cardiovascular risk indices among adults. Wii Heart Fitness is a rigorous 3-arm randomized controlled trial with adults comparing three 12-week programs: (1) supervised EVGs, (2) supervised standard exercise, and (3) a control condition. Heart rate is monitored continuously throughout all exercise sessions. Assessments are conducted at baseline, end of intervention (week 12), 6 and 9 months. The primary outcome is time spent in MVPA physical activity. Secondary outcomes include changes in cardiovascular fitness, body composition, blood lipid profiles and maintenance of physical activity through six months post-treatment. Changes in cognitive and affective constructs derived from Self Determination and Social Cognitive Theories will be examined to explain the differential outcomes between the two active treatment conditions. The Wii Heart Fitness study is designed to test whether regular participation in EVGs can be an adequate source of physical activity for adults. This study will produce new data on the effect of EVGs on cardiovascular fitness indices and prolonged engagement with physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 10 CFR 26.406 - Fitness monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fitness monitoring. 26.406 Section 26.406 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.406 Fitness monitoring. (a...) Licensees and other entities shall implement a fitness monitoring program to deter substance abuse and...

  17. Benefit segmentation of the fitness market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J D

    1992-01-01

    While considerate attention is being paid to the fitness and wellness needs of people by healthcare and related marketing organizations, little research attention has been directed to identifying the market segments for fitness based upon consumers' perceived benefits of fitness. This article describes three distinct segments of fitness consumers comprising an estimated 50 percent of households. Implications for marketing strategies are also presented.

  18. 14 CFR 31.43 - Fitting factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fitting factor. 31.43 Section 31.43... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.43 Fitting factor. (a) A fitting factor of at least... structure. This factor applies to all parts of the fitting, the means of attachment, and the bearing on the...

  19. Physical Activity Enhances Metabolic Fitness Independently of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Marathon Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Laye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High levels of cardiovascular fitness (CRF and physical activity (PA are associated with decreased mortality and risk to develop metabolic diseases. The independent contributions of CRF and PA to metabolic disease risk factors are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that runners who run consistently >50 km/wk and/or >2 marathons/yr for the last 5 years have superior metabolic fitness compared to matched sedentary subjects (CRF, age, gender, and BMI. Case-control recruitment of 31 pairs of runner-sedentary subjects identified 10 matched pairs with similar VO2max (mL/min/kg (similar-VO2max. The similar-VO2max group was compared with a group of age, gender, and BMI matched pairs who had the largest difference in VO2max (different-VO2max. Primary outcomes that defined metabolic fitness including insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting lipids, and fasting insulin were superior in runners versus sedentary controls despite similar VO2max. Furthermore, performance (velocity at VO2max, running economy, improved exercise metabolism (lactate threshold, and skeletal muscle levels of mitochondrial proteins were superior in runners versus sedentary controls with similar VO2max. In conclusion subjects with a high amount of PA have more positive metabolic health parameters independent of CRF. PA is thus a good marker against metabolic diseases.

  20. Physical activity enhances metabolic fitness independently of cardiorespiratory fitness in marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laye, M J; Nielsen, M B; Hansen, L S

    2015-01-01

    High levels of cardiovascular fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are associated with decreased mortality and risk to develop metabolic diseases. The independent contributions of CRF and PA to metabolic disease risk factors are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that runners who run consisten......High levels of cardiovascular fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are associated with decreased mortality and risk to develop metabolic diseases. The independent contributions of CRF and PA to metabolic disease risk factors are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that runners who run...... consistently >50 km/wk and/or >2 marathons/yr for the last 5 years have superior metabolic fitness compared to matched sedentary subjects (CRF, age, gender, and BMI). Case-control recruitment of 31 pairs of runner-sedentary subjects identified 10 matched pairs with similar VO2max (mL/min/kg) (similar-VO2max......). The similar-VO2max group was compared with a group of age, gender, and BMI matched pairs who had the largest difference in VO2max (different-VO2max). Primary outcomes that defined metabolic fitness including insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting lipids, and fasting insulin were superior...

  1. Fit to Electroweak Precision Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erler, Jens

    2006-01-01

    A brief review of electroweak precision data from LEP, SLC, the Tevatron, and low energies is presented. The global fit to all data including the most recent results on the masses of the top quark and the W boson reinforces the preference for a relatively light Higgs boson. I will also give an outlook on future developments at the Tevatron Run II, CEBAF, the LHC, and the ILC

  2. Back school for fitness treinees

    OpenAIRE

    Líbalová, Kateřina

    2010-01-01

    In introductory chapters the work deals with theoretical starting points of exercising in fitness centres. It focuses on anatomical and physiological basis of exercises and neuromuscular imbalances which may be caused by inadequate exertion. In further chapters the work enlightens about the rudiments of sport training, training of strength and model form of a training unit. In final chapters suitable techniques of exercises of individual muscular systems are discussed. Common mistakes done by...

  3. AMS-02 fits dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Csaba; Li, Tong

    2016-05-01

    In this work we perform a comprehensive statistical analysis of the AMS-02 electron, positron fluxes and the antiproton-to-proton ratio in the context of a simplified dark matter model. We include known, standard astrophysical sources and a dark matter component in the cosmic ray injection spectra. To predict the AMS-02 observables we use propagation parameters extracted from observed fluxes of heavier nuclei and the low energy part of the AMS-02 data. We assume that the dark matter particle is a Majorana fermion coupling to third generation fermions via a spin-0 mediator, and annihilating to multiple channels at once. The simultaneous presence of various annihilation channels provides the dark matter model with additional flexibility, and this enables us to simultaneously fit all cosmic ray spectra using a simple particle physics model and coherent astrophysical assumptions. Our results indicate that AMS-02 observations are not only consistent with the dark matter hypothesis within the uncertainties, but adding a dark matter contribution improves the fit to the data. Assuming, however, that dark matter is solely responsible for this improvement of the fit, it is difficult to evade the latest CMB limits in this model.

  4. AMS-02 fits dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balázs, Csaba; Li, Tong [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale,School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2016-05-05

    In this work we perform a comprehensive statistical analysis of the AMS-02 electron, positron fluxes and the antiproton-to-proton ratio in the context of a simplified dark matter model. We include known, standard astrophysical sources and a dark matter component in the cosmic ray injection spectra. To predict the AMS-02 observables we use propagation parameters extracted from observed fluxes of heavier nuclei and the low energy part of the AMS-02 data. We assume that the dark matter particle is a Majorana fermion coupling to third generation fermions via a spin-0 mediator, and annihilating to multiple channels at once. The simultaneous presence of various annihilation channels provides the dark matter model with additional flexibility, and this enables us to simultaneously fit all cosmic ray spectra using a simple particle physics model and coherent astrophysical assumptions. Our results indicate that AMS-02 observations are not only consistent with the dark matter hypothesis within the uncertainties, but adding a dark matter contribution improves the fit to the data. Assuming, however, that dark matter is solely responsible for this improvement of the fit, it is difficult to evade the latest CMB limits in this model.

  5. Legal issues relating to the Ontario FIT contract - An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weizman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the legal issues related to the Ontario FIT contract, which includes the FIT waiver agreement, WTO challenge, FIT extension, political risk assessment and issues related to unforeseen events beyond human control (force majeure). The risk of termination of the FIT waiver is omitted for convenience by OPA but timing implications relating to the FIT waiver are included. The binding agreement for supply of generating equipment is also presented and the term sheet for turbine equipment and bill of purchase being understood as binding agreements is questioned. Political risks relate to existing contracts, lawsuit risks and changes to the REA process. Change in government and the implications of minority government can be added to the political risks. A successful WTO challenge has been assumed and the possible implications are discussed. Some of them include risk to FIT contracts already issued; changes in DC requirements and in FIT contract pricing and re-pricing of construction and turbine equipment supply contracts if DC requirements are relaxed.

  6. Design and baseline characteristics of the ParkFit study, a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a multifaceted behavioral program to increase physical activity in Parkinson patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Nimwegen Marlies

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients with Parkinson's disease (PD lead a sedentary lifestyle. Promotion of physical activities may beneficially affect the clinical presentation of PD, and perhaps even modify the course of PD. However, because of physical and cognitive impairments, patients with PD require specific support to increase their level of physical activity. Methods We developed the ParkFit Program: a PD-specific and multifaceted behavioral program to promote physical activity. The emphasis is on creating a behavioral change, using a combination of accepted behavioral motivation techniques. In addition, we designed a multicentre randomized clinical trial to investigate whether this ParkFit Program increases physical activity levels over two years in sedentary PD patients. We intended to include 700 sedentary patients. Primary endpoint is the time spent on physical activities per week, which will be measured every six months using an interview-based 7-day recall. Results In total 3453 PD patients were invited to participate. Ultimately, 586 patients - with a mean (SD age of 64.1 (7.6 years and disease duration of 5.3 (4.5 years - entered the study. Study participants were younger, had a shorter disease duration and were less sedentary compared with eligible PD patients not willing to participate. Discussion The ParkFit trial is expected to yield important new evidence about behavioral interventions to promote physical activity in sedentary patients with PD. The results of the trial are expected in 2012. Trial registration http://clinicaltrials.gov (nr NCT00748488.

  7. The Soldier Fitness Tracker: global delivery of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fravell, Mike; Nasser, Katherine; Cornum, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    Carefully implemented technology strategies are vital to the success of large-scale initiatives such as the U.S. Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. Achieving the U.S. Army's vision for CSF required a robust information technology platform that was scaled to millions of users and that leveraged the Internet to enable global reach. The platform needed to be agile, provide powerful real-time reporting, and have the capacity to quickly transform to meet emerging requirements. Existing organizational applications, such as "Single Sign-On," and authoritative data sources were exploited to the maximum extent possible. Development of the "Soldier Fitness Tracker" is the most recent, and possibly the best, demonstration of the potential benefits possible when existing organizational capabilities are married to new, innovative applications. Combining the capabilities of the extant applications with the newly developed applications expedited development, eliminated redundant data collection, resulted in the exceeding of program objectives, and produced a comfortable experience for the end user, all in less than six months. This is a model for future technology integration. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Where does fitness fit in theories of perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Barton L

    2015-12-01

    Interface theory asserts that neither our perceptual experience of the world nor the scientific constructs used to describe the world are veridical. The primary argument used to uphold this claim is that (1) evolution is driven by a process of natural selection that favors fitness over veridicality, and (2) payoffs do not vary monotonically with truth. I argue that both the arguments used to bolster this claim and the conclusions derived from it are flawed. Interface theory assumes that perception evolved to directly track fitness but fails to consider the role of adaptation on ontogenetic time scales. I argue that the ubiquity of nonmonotonic payoff functions requires that (1) perception tracks "truth" for species that adapt on ontogenetic time scales and (2) that perception should be distinct from utility. These conditions are required to pursue an adaptive strategy to mitigate homeostatic imbalances. I also discuss issues with the interface metaphor, the particular formulation of veridicality that is considered, and the relationship of interface theory to the history of ideas on these topics.

  9. INFOS: spectrum fitting software for NMR analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Albert A., E-mail: alsi@nmr.phys.chem.ethz.ch [ETH Zürich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland)

    2017-02-15

    Software for fitting of NMR spectra in MATLAB is presented. Spectra are fitted in the frequency domain, using Fourier transformed lineshapes, which are derived using the experimental acquisition and processing parameters. This yields more accurate fits compared to common fitting methods that use Lorentzian or Gaussian functions. Furthermore, a very time-efficient algorithm for calculating and fitting spectra has been developed. The software also performs initial peak picking, followed by subsequent fitting and refinement of the peak list, by iteratively adding and removing peaks to improve the overall fit. Estimation of error on fitting parameters is performed using a Monte-Carlo approach. Many fitting options allow the software to be flexible enough for a wide array of applications, while still being straightforward to set up with minimal user input.

  10. The FitTrack Index as fitness indicator: A pilot study | van Rensburg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: These results suggest that the web-based FitTrack Index may be considered an appropriate tool to evaluate exercise capacity and cardiovascular fitness in healthy individuals following an aerobic training programme. Keywords: Aerobic fitness, Exercise ability, Recreational fitness, Cardiovascular fitness, ...

  11. Nuclear fuel element end fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    A typical embodiment of the invention has an array of sockets that are welded to the intersections of the plates that form the upper and lower end fittings of a nuclear reactor fuel element. The sockets, which are generally cylindrical in shape, are oriented in directions that enable the longitudinal axes of the sockets to align with the longitudinal axes of the fuel rods that are received in the respective sockets. Detents impressed in the surfaces of the sockets engage mating grooves that are formed in the ends of the fuel rods to provide for the structural integrity of the fuel element

  12. Longitudinal Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Marja H; Henriksson, Pontus; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Hanna; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Löf, Marie

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate longitudinal associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with body composition and physical fitness at a 12-month follow-up in healthy Swedish 4-yr-old children. The data from the population-based MINISTOP trial were collected between 2014 and 2016, and this study included the 138 children who were in the control group. PA and SB were assessed using the wrist-worn ActiGraph (wGT3x-BT) accelerometer during seven 24-h periods and, subsequently, defined as SB, light-intensity PA, moderate-intensity PA, vigorous-intensity PA (VPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Body composition was measured using air-displacement plethysmography and physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, lower and upper muscular strength as well as motor fitness) by the PREFIT fitness battery. Linear regression and isotemporal substitution models were applied. Greater VPA and MVPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher fat-free mass index (FFMI) at 5.5 yr (P fitness, lower body muscular strength, and motor fitness at 12-month follow-up (P = 0.001 to P = 0.031). Substituting 5 min·d of SB, light-intensity PA, or moderate-intensity PA for VPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher FFMI, and with greater upper and lower muscular strength at 12-month follow-up (P fitness at 12-month follow-up. Our results indicate that promoting high-intensity PA at young ages may have long-term beneficial effects on childhood body composition and physical fitness, in particular muscular strength.

  13. Measuring microbial fitness in a field reciprocal transplant experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton, Primrose J; Stelkens, Rike; Kowallik, Vienna; Greig, Duncan

    2017-05-01

    Microbial fitness is easy to measure in the laboratory, but difficult to measure in the field. Laboratory fitness assays make use of controlled conditions and genetically modified organisms, neither of which are available in the field. Among other applications, fitness assays can help researchers detect adaptation to different habitats or locations. We designed a competitive fitness assay to detect adaptation of Saccharomyces paradoxus isolates to the habitat they were isolated from (oak or larch leaf litter). The assay accurately measures relative fitness by tracking genotype frequency changes in the field using digital droplet PCR (DDPCR). We expected locally adapted S. paradoxus strains to increase in frequency over time when growing on the leaf litter type from which they were isolated. The DDPCR assay successfully detected fitness differences among S. paradoxus strains, but did not find a tendency for strains to be adapted to the habitat they were isolated from. Instead, we found that the natural alleles of the hexose transport gene we used to distinguish S. paradoxus strains had significant effects on fitness. The origin of a strain also affected its fitness: strains isolated from oak litter were generally fitter than strains from larch litter. Our results suggest that dispersal limitation and genetic drift shape S. paradoxus populations in the forest more than local selection does, although further research is needed to confirm this. Tracking genotype frequency changes using DDPCR is a practical and accurate microbial fitness assay for natural environments. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Resources Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Construction and fitting of NUCEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Isao; Itahashi, Takayuki; Izawa, Naoki; Okazaki, Shuji

    1994-01-01

    NUCEF consists of two criticality experiment devices, three alpha-gamma cells, the experimental equipments contained in about 90 glove boxes and many others. The background and the course of the construction and fitting of NUCEF are described on the selection of important research, the rationalization of facilities, the integration of the criticality safety experiments facility(CSEF) and the TRU safety test facility(TRUST), the safety examination, and the construction and fitting. The whole NUCEF, the static criticality facility(STACY), the transient criticality facility(TRACY), the mock-up test of the machinery and equipment for both criticality facilities, the solution fuel preparation facility, cells and glove boxes and the equipment contained in them, the analysis facility consists of four analysis rooms, and the radioactive waste facility for gas, liquid and solid wastes are described. The classification of these facilities based on the relevant laws is shown. The way of thinking in the basic design and the detailed design is explained. The permission of nuclear reactor installation and the use of nuclear fuel substances was obtained. The design and the method of works were approved. The inspection is reported. The measures for the security are explained. (K.I.)

  15. Whole Protein Native Fitness Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraggi, Eshel; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    Protein structure prediction can be separated into two tasks: sample the configuration space of the protein chain, and assign a fitness between these hypothetical models and the native structure of the protein. One of the more promising developments in this area is that of knowledge based energy functions. However, standard approaches using pair-wise interactions have shown shortcomings demonstrated by the superiority of multi-body-potentials. These shortcomings are due to residue pair-wise interaction being dependent on other residues along the chain. We developed a method that uses whole protein information filtered through machine learners to score protein models based on their likeness to native structures. For all models we calculated parameters associated with the distance to the solvent and with distances between residues. These parameters, in addition to energy estimates obtained by using a four-body-potential, DFIRE, and RWPlus were used as training for machine learners to predict the fitness of the models. Testing on CASP 9 targets showed that our method is superior to DFIRE, RWPlus, and the four-body potential, which are considered standards in the field.

  16. Economical function fitting for momentum determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, M J

    1973-08-01

    Two computer programs LINCOM and GSFIT are described which can be used together to find momenta from spark chamber trajectories. To begin with, a representative sample of trajectories with known momenta is generated by conventional means. Then program LINCOM finds the significant linear combinations of the observed space coordinates, i.e., it performs a factor- analysis. A small number, e.g., 5 or 6, of the more significant linear combinations is passed on to the second program GSFIT. The less significant combinations are available for pattern recognition. Program GSFIT performs a least squares fit to the momenta using functions of the Chebyshev, Legendre or simple monomial type. The arguments of these functions are the more significant linear combinations mentioned above. Because modified'' Gram-Schmid transformations are used to provide an orthogonal set of basis vectors, the user has various controls over the terms which are included in the expansion. In practice, marginally contributing terms can be excluded as the fitting is in progress. Finally a function subprogram is generated for calculating the expected momenta of new trajectories. (auth)

  17. Alternative Forms of Fit in Contingency Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Robert; Van de Ven, Andrew H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the selection, interaction, and systems approaches to fit in structural contingency theory. The concepts of fit evaluated may be applied not only to structural contingency theory but to contingency theories in general. (MD)

  18. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Profile of Undergraduate Biomedical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for developing sedentary habits, which could lead to reduced cardiorespiratory fitness. ... This study therefore examined the cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) profile of ... A modified sub-maximal cycle ergometer protocol was used to estimate ...

  19. Mapping organizational members' sense of fit

    OpenAIRE

    Billsberry, Jon; Marsh, Philip; Moss-Jones, John

    2004-01-01

    Despite its importance in the organizational behavior literature, person–organization (P–O) fit remains an elusive construct. One reason for this is the lack of research about organizational members’ own sense of their P–O fit. In this paper we report an empirical study that explored organizational members’ own sense of fit using storytelling and causal mapping techniques. The results suggest that organizational members categorize their perceptions of their fit into five discrete domains (job...

  20. 48 CFR 752.7033 - Physical fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Physical fitness. 752.7033 Section 752.7033 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND... fitness. For use in all USAID contracts involving performance overseas. Physical Fitness (JUL 1997) (The...

  1. Having a Ball with Fitness Balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Betty

    2011-01-01

    Fitness programs can be greatly enhanced with the addition of fitness balls. They are a fun, challenging, economical, and safe way to incorporate a cardiovascular, strength, and stretching program for all fitness levels in a physical education setting. The use of these balls has become more popular during the last decade, and their benefits and…

  2. HRM and Fit: Survival of the fittest!?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.T. Boon (Corine)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the nature of ‘fit’ in strategic HRM? This is the question guiding this thesis. Although the idea of fit is theoretically convincing, empirical evidence to support the role of fit is limited. Previous studies on fit have mainly focused on the alignment between HRM and strategy

  3. The simplest formal argument for fitness optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Formal Darwinism Project aims to provide a formal argument linking population genetics to fitness optimization, which of necessity includes defining fitness. This bridges the gulf between those biologists who assume that natural selection leads to something close to fitness optimization and those biologists who believe ...

  4. Relationship among Fitness, Morphological Characteristics, Skills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The specific morphological and fitness demands of the sport are, therefore, not fully understood. The purpose of this ... The findings convincingly suggest that coaches should include fitness, morphological and skills tests in their coaching and fitness programmes, team selection and talent identification processes. Keywords: ...

  5. Exercise, fitness, and the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Owen; Molloy, Michael G; Shanahan, Fergus

    2016-03-01

    Exercise and gut symptomatology have long been connected. The possibility that regular exercise fosters intestinal health and function has been somewhat overlooked in the scientific literature. In this review, we summarize current knowledge and discuss a selection of recent, relevant, and innovative studies, hypotheses and reviews that elucidate a complex topic. The multiorgan benefits of regular exercise are extensive. When taken in moderation, these benefits transcend improved cardio-respiratory fitness and likely reach the gut in a metabolic, immunological, neural, and microbial manner. This is applicable in both health and disease. However, further work is required to provide safe, effective recommendations on physical activity in specific gastrointestinal conditions. Challenging methodology investigating the relationship between exercise and gut health should not deter from exploring exercise in the promotion of gastrointestinal health.

  6. Becoming fit for transnational comparability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John Benedicto; Ulf, Olsson; Kenneth, Petersson

    2018-01-01

    . Consequently, Danish teacher education discourse has emerged from a distinctly national vocational seminary tradition, into a modernized university college discourse that increasingly fits the transnational templates of comparability, albeit at a slower pace than her Swedish neighbor. It is often difficult...... of modern nations, if they are to succeed in “an increasingly competitive global race among knowledge economies.” In the case of the Bologna Process, the transformative effects are often rather direct. More often, however, effects touch upon national educational agendas in indirect ways, in terms......This chapter traces how national teacher education policy discourse in Denmark and Sweden is being transformed by opaque, albeit often inclusive, processes in transnational policy forums, such as the Bologna Process, OECD, and EU. This is facilitated by “soft law” surrounding the imagined needs...

  7. Fitting of the Thomson scattering density and temperature profiles on the COMPASS tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanikova, E.; Peterka, M.; Bohm, P.; Bilkova, P.; Aftanas, M.; Urban, J.; Hron, M.; Panek, R.; Sos, M.

    2016-01-01

    A new technique for fitting the full radial profiles of electron density and temperature obtained by the Thomson scattering diagnostic in H-mode discharges on the COMPASS tokamak is described. The technique combines the conventionally used modified hyperbolic tangent function for the edge transport barrier (pedestal) fitting and a modification of a Gaussian function for fitting the core plasma. Low number of parameters of this combined function and their straightforward interpretability and controllability provide a robust method for obtaining physically reasonable profile fits. Deconvolution with the diagnostic instrument function is applied on the profile fit, taking into account the dependence on the actual magnetic configuration.

  8. Fitting of the Thomson scattering density and temperature profiles on the COMPASS tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanikova, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the CAS, Za Slovankou 1782/3, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Division of Fusion Plasma Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Peterka, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the CAS, Za Slovankou 1782/3, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic); MFF Charles University, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Bohm, P., E-mail: bohm@ipp.cas.cz; Bilkova, P.; Aftanas, M.; Urban, J.; Hron, M.; Panek, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the CAS, Za Slovankou 1782/3, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Sos, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the CAS, Za Slovankou 1782/3, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Břehová 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-15

    A new technique for fitting the full radial profiles of electron density and temperature obtained by the Thomson scattering diagnostic in H-mode discharges on the COMPASS tokamak is described. The technique combines the conventionally used modified hyperbolic tangent function for the edge transport barrier (pedestal) fitting and a modification of a Gaussian function for fitting the core plasma. Low number of parameters of this combined function and their straightforward interpretability and controllability provide a robust method for obtaining physically reasonable profile fits. Deconvolution with the diagnostic instrument function is applied on the profile fit, taking into account the dependence on the actual magnetic configuration.

  9. New ROOT Graphical User Interfaces for fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maline, D Gonzalez; Moneta, L; Antcheva, I

    2010-01-01

    ROOT, as a scientific data analysis framework, provides extensive capabilities via Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) for performing interactive analysis and visualizing data objects like histograms and graphs. A new interface for fitting has been developed for performing, exploring and comparing fits on data point sets such as histograms, multi-dimensional graphs or trees. With this new interface, users can build interactively the fit model function, set parameter values and constraints and select fit and minimization methods with their options. Functionality for visualizing the fit results is as well provided, with the possibility of drawing residuals or confidence intervals. Furthermore, the new fit panel reacts as a standalone application and it does not prevent users from interacting with other windows. We will describe in great detail the functionality of this user interface, covering as well new capabilities provided by the new fitting and minimization tools introduced recently in the ROOT framework.

  10. Health Activities Project (HAP): Heart Fitness and Action Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) learning packet are activities for children in grades 5-8. Design of the activities centers around the idea that students can control their own health and safety. Within the Heart Fitness and Action Module are teacher and student folios describing five activities which involve students in…

  11. Functional Fitness Training: Is it Right for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... older adults: A randomized-controlled cross-over design. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 2012;9:107. Zhao Y, et al. Differences in functional fitness among older adults with and without risk of falling. Asian Nursing Research. 2016;10:51. Oct. 29, 2016 Original ...

  12. Physical fitness reference standards in fibromyalgia: The al-Ándalus project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gallardo, I C; Carbonell-Baeza, A; Segura-Jiménez, V; Soriano-Maldonado, A; Intemann, T; Aparicio, V A; Estévez-López, F; Camiletti-Moirón, D; Herrador-Colmenero, M; Ruiz, J R; Delgado-Fernández, M; Ortega, F B

    2017-11-01

    We aimed (1) to report age-specific physical fitness levels in people with fibromyalgia of a representative sample from Andalusia; and (2) to compare the fitness levels of people with fibromyalgia with non-fibromyalgia controls. This cross-sectional study included 468 (21 men) patients with fibromyalgia and 360 (55 men) controls. The fibromyalgia sample was geographically representative from southern Spain. Physical fitness was assessed with the Senior Fitness Test battery plus the handgrip test. We applied the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape to calculate percentile curves for women and fitted mean curves using a linear regression for men. Our results show that people with fibromyalgia reached worse performance in all fitness tests than controls (P fitness levels among patients with fibromyalgia and controls in a large sample of patients with fibromyalgia from southern of Spain. Physical fitness levels of people with fibromyalgia from Andalusia are very low in comparison with age-matched healthy controls. This information could be useful to correctly interpret physical fitness assessments and helping health care providers to identify individuals at risk for losing physical independence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Damped-dynamics flexible fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Julio A; Yeager, Mark; Abagyan, Ruben

    2008-10-01

    In fitting atomic structures into EM maps, it often happens that the map corresponds to a different conformation of the structure. We have developed a new methodology to handle these situations that preserves the covalent geometry of the structure and allows the modeling of large deformations. The first goal is achieved by working in generalized coordinates (positional and internal coordinates), and the second by avoiding harmonic potentials. Instead, we use dampers (shock absorbers) between every pair of atoms, combined with a force field that attracts the atomic structure toward incompletely occupied regions of the EM map. The trajectory obtained by integrating the resulting equations of motion converges to a conformation that, in our validation cases, was very close to the target atomic structure. Compared to current methods, our approach is more efficient and robust against wrong solutions and to overfitting, and does not require user intervention or subjective decisions. Applications to the computation of transition pathways between known conformers, homology and loop modeling, as well as protein docking, are also discussed.

  14. The best-fit universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.; Chicago Univ., IL

    1990-10-01

    Inflation provides very strong motivation for a flat Universe, Harrison-Zel'dovich (constant-curvature) perturbations, and cold dark matter. However, there are a number of cosmological observations that conflict with the predictions of the simplest such model -- one with zero cosmological constant. They include the age of the Universe, dynamical determinations of Ω, galaxy-number counts, and the apparent abundance of large-scale structure in the Universe. While the discrepancies are not yet serious enough to rule out the simplest and ''most well motivated'' model, the current data point to a ''best-fit model'' with the following parameters: Ω B ≅ 0.03, Ω CDM ≅ 0.17, Ω Λ ≅ 0.8, and H 0 ≅ 70 km sec -1 Mpc -1 , which improves significantly the concordance with observations. While there is no good reason to expect such a value for the cosmological constant, there is no physical principle that would rule out such. 42 refs

  15. The best-fit universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-10-01

    Inflation provides very strong motivation for a flat Universe, Harrison-Zel'dovich (constant-curvature) perturbations, and cold dark matter. However, there are a number of cosmological observations that conflict with the predictions of the simplest such model -- one with zero cosmological constant. They include the age of the Universe, dynamical determinations of {Omega}, galaxy-number counts, and the apparent abundance of large-scale structure in the Universe. While the discrepancies are not yet serious enough to rule out the simplest and most well motivated'' model, the current data point to a best-fit model'' with the following parameters: {Omega}{sub B} {approx equal} 0.03, {Omega}{sub CDM} {approx equal} 0.17, {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} {approx equal} 0.8, and H{sub 0} {approx equal} 70 km sec{sup {minus}1} Mpc{sup {minus}1}, which improves significantly the concordance with observations. While there is no good reason to expect such a value for the cosmological constant, there is no physical principle that would rule out such. 42 refs.

  16. FItness programy a individuální přístup ve fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Rambous, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Souhrn: Tato diplomová práce se zabývá problematikou fitness programů a individuálru'ho přístupu ve fitness centrech. Celé téma zahrnuje rozpracování postupu při vytváření fitness programů a roli osobního trenéra ve fitness. Dále jsou zde uvedeny specifika některých fitness programů a v empirické části pak příklad dvou individuálních fitness programů. Název práce: Fitness programy a individuálnípřístup ve fitness Title: FITNESS PROGRAMS AND INDIVIDUAL CARE IN FITNESS Cíle práce: 1. podrobný p...

  17. Fit for Duty?: Evaluating the Physical Fitness Requirements of Battlefield Airmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean, Robson; Maria C, Lytell; Carra S, Sims; Stephanie, Pezard; Thomas, Manacapilli; Amanda, Anderson; Therese, Bohusch; Abigail, Haddad

    2018-01-01

    Military occupations can be physically demanding, yet few attempts have been made to determine the physical readiness of today's airmen to perform their jobs. Although the Air Force conducts fitness testing of all its airmen, these tests and standards are not based on validated job requirements. As part of a broader Air Force effort to measure the physical readiness of airmen to perform their jobs, this study describes a methodology for establishing physical fitness standards for four physically demanding Air Force occupational specialties-combat controller, pararescue, special operations weather team, and tactical air control party. Airmen in these specialties are collectively known as battlefield airmen. The authors sought to identify the physically demanding tasks required of battlefield airmen and ways in which fitness standards might be established to ensure that individuals in these specialties are able to perform these tasks. They reviewed the research literature and relevant military documents, conducted focus groups and interviews with battlefield airmen and other subject matter experts, and analyzed the movement patterns and physical abilities associated with each task. They found a high demand across the four specialities for strength and muscular and cardiovascular endurance, followed by agility, anaerobic power, and equilibrium, whereas they found flexibility to be less critically important. The authors recommend that a validation study be conducted next, to (a) ensure that tests measure important physical abilities required for successful mission or job performance, (b) ensure that performance on tests is a good indicator of mission or job performance, and (c) identify minimum test standards that are associated with acceptable mission or job performance.

  18. Physical characteristics related to bra fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Man; LaBat, Karen; Bye, Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    Producing well-fitting garments has been a challenge for retailers and manufacturers since mass production began. Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. Because body contours are important factors affecting bra fit, this study analyses the relationship of physical characteristics to bra-fit problems. This study has used 3-D body-scanning technology to extract upper body angles from a sample of 103 college women; these data were used to categorise physical characteristics into shoulder slope, bust prominence, back curvature and acromion placement. Relationships between these physical categories and bra-fit problems were then analysed. Results show that significant main effects and two-way interactions of the physical categories exist in the fit problems of poor bra support and bra-motion restriction. The findings are valuable in helping the apparel industry create better-fitting bras. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. The findings regarding body-shape classification provide researchers with a statistics method to quantify physical characteristics and the findings regarding the relationship analysis between physical characteristics and bra fit offer bra companies valuable information about bra-fit perceptions attributable to women with figure variations.

  19. Review of the equilibrium fitting for non-circular tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Jiarong

    2002-01-01

    As the equilibrium fitting code (EFIT) is developing to perform the magnetic and the kinetic-magnetic analysis for tokamak device operation, it can be not only run in either the fitting mode or the equilibrium mode but also control operation of modern experimental fusion device. The history of EFIT code and its capabilities are described in section 2. A brief description of the off-line EFIT code and the development of the real-time EFIT (RTEFIT) code is shown in section 3 and 4 respectively. In the last section the summary is given

  20. Quality of Life and Fitness in Children and Adolescents with Epilepsy (EpiFit).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchenzauner, Markus; Hagn, Claudia; Walch, Romana; Baumann, Matthias; Haberlandt, Edda; Frühwirth, Martin; Rostasy, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    Objective  The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children with idiopathic epilepsy compared with a healthy matched control group. Methods  In this study, 107 children conducted a 6-minute walk test, anthropometric parameters were measured, and HRQoL was assessed using a standardized questionnaire (KINDL-R). Children were divided into two groups: (1) the patient group ( n  = 48) and (2) the healthy control group ( n  = 59). Results  HRQoL of children with focal epilepsy was greater when compared with healthy children and children with generalized epilepsy. A significant association could be demonstrated for the 6-minute walk distance and mental wellbeing in children with epilepsy but not in healthy children. Furthermore, a negative correlation between the HRQoL and the amount of time spent in front of TV and computer in children with epilepsy and healthy children was seen. In children with focal epilepsy, a significant negative correlation could be shown between school sport and mental wellbeing as well as between school sport and self-esteem. Conclusion  HRQoL in children with idiopathic epilepsy is significantly associated with physical fitness and might be positively influenced by an adequate education of patients and parents, a reduction of consumption of computer and TV in combination with age- and disease-adapted physical activity and sports. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Competitive Fitness of Fluconazole-Resistant Clinical Candida albicans Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Christina; Hampe, Irene A I; Hertlein, Tobias; Ohlsen, Knut; Rogers, P David; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2017-07-01

    The pathogenic yeast Candida albicans can develop resistance to the widely used antifungal agent fluconazole, which inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis. Resistance is often caused by gain-of-function mutations in the transcription factors Mrr1 and Tac1, which result in constitutive overexpression of multidrug efflux pumps, and Upc2, which result in constitutive overexpression of ergosterol biosynthesis genes. However, the deregulated gene expression that is caused by hyperactive forms of these transcription factors also reduces the fitness of the cells in the absence of the drug. To investigate whether fluconazole-resistant clinical C. albicans isolates have overcome the fitness costs of drug resistance, we assessed the relative fitness of C. albicans isolates containing resistance mutations in these transcription factors in competition with matched drug-susceptible isolates from the same patients. Most of the fluconazole-resistant isolates were outcompeted by the corresponding drug-susceptible isolates when grown in rich medium without fluconazole. On the other hand, some resistant isolates with gain-of-function mutations in MRR1 did not exhibit reduced fitness under these conditions. In a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis, three out of four tested fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates did not exhibit a significant fitness defect. However, all four fluconazole-resistant isolates were outcompeted by the matched susceptible isolates in a mouse model of gastrointestinal colonization, demonstrating that the effects of drug resistance on in vivo fitness depend on the host niche. Collectively, our results indicate that the fitness costs of drug resistance in C. albicans are not easily remediated, especially when proper control of gene expression is required for successful adaptation to life within a mammalian host. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Cardiorespiratory fitness, BMI, and risk of hypertension: the HYPGENE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Church, Timothy S; Rice, Treva; Bouchard, Claude; Blair, Steven N

    2007-10-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness and regular physical activity are inversely associated with the risk of hypertension, and exercise training has been shown to lower elevated blood pressure (BP). Genetic factors contribute significantly to the interindividual differences in endurance training-induced changes in BP. However, similar data on the genotype-by-fitness interactions on the risk of hypertension are scarce. In 2000, we started a systematic collection of blood samples from all consenting subjects of the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS) with a goal to generate a resource for studies addressing genotype-by-fitness interaction effects on various health-related end points. Here, we introduce the rationale and design of the first study based on the ACLS genetics resource focusing on hypertension as the health outcome (HYPGENE study), and we report the associations of cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index (BMI) with the risk of hypertension. All HYPGENE subjects (N = 1234) were healthy and normotensive at their first clinic visit. Cases (N = 629) developed hypertension during the follow-up period (mean 8.7 yr), whereas controls (N = 605) remained normotensive (mean follow-up 10.1 yr). Cardiorespiratory fitness was the strongest predictor of the hypertension risk, with each maximal metabolic equivalent unit being associated with a 19% lower risk (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 12-24%). Each baseline BMI unit was associated with a 9% higher hypertension risk (95% CI, 4-13%). However, the association of BMI was greatly attenuated (odds ratio 1.04 [95% CI, 0.99-1.09]) when fitness also was included in the model. The HYPGENE study will provide an excellent resource to address hypotheses regarding the genetic basis of hypertension while taking cardiorespiratory fitness level into account.

  3. Inferring genetic interactions from comparative fitness data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crona, Kristina; Gavryushkin, Alex; Greene, Devin; Beerenwinkel, Niko

    2017-12-20

    Darwinian fitness is a central concept in evolutionary biology. In practice, however, it is hardly possible to measure fitness for all genotypes in a natural population. Here, we present quantitative tools to make inferences about epistatic gene interactions when the fitness landscape is only incompletely determined due to imprecise measurements or missing observations. We demonstrate that genetic interactions can often be inferred from fitness rank orders, where all genotypes are ordered according to fitness, and even from partial fitness orders. We provide a complete characterization of rank orders that imply higher order epistasis. Our theory applies to all common types of gene interactions and facilitates comprehensive investigations of diverse genetic interactions. We analyzed various genetic systems comprising HIV-1, the malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium vivax , the fungus Aspergillus niger , and the TEM-family of β-lactamase associated with antibiotic resistance. For all systems, our approach revealed higher order interactions among mutations.

  4. Broad-spectrum physical fitness benefits of recreational football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Čović, Nedim

    2018-01-01

    , narrative reviews have demonstrated beneficial effects of recreational football on physical fitness and health status. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the magnitude of effects of recreational football on blood pressure, body composition, lipid profile...... and muscular fitness with reference to age, gender and health status. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Google Scholar were searched prior to 1 February 2017. In addition...... to a recreational football group or any other type of exercises or passive control group were included. Training programmes had to last at least 2 weeks to meet the inclusion criteria. The primary outcome measures were blood pressure, resting heart rate, body composition, muscular fitness, and blood lipids...

  5. Inclusive Fitness Maximization:An Axiomatic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John; Bossert, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of qu...

  6. [Person-organization fit and work ability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merecz, Dorota; Andysz, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Person-environment issue has long been in focus of researchers who explore the area of human labor. It is known that the level of fit is a predictor of many phenomena related to health and attitude to work. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the level of person- organization fit (P-O fit) and work ability, including indicators of somatic and mental health. Research was conducted on a representative sample of 600 Polish men and women at working age. The Person-Organization Fit Questionnaire was used to assess three dimensions of P-O fit (supplementary fit, complementary fit and identification with organization); mental health status was measured by GHQ-28; the number of diagnosed diseases was taken as an index of somatic health; work ability, ability to physical and mental efforts were measured by three items from the Work Ability Index. A significant relationship between P-O fit level and work ability was found. In men, work ability predictors were: age, supplementary fit and mental health status, which explained 25% of the variance in work ability. In women, work ability predictors were: the number of diagnosed somatic diseases, supplementary fit, age and complementary fit, which explained 27% of the variance in work ability. Some gender-related differences in the predictive value of variables under the study were also found. The results of this study indicate the importance of P-O fit in shaping the sense of work ability, a recognized predictor of workers' occupational activity and the frequency of taking sick leave in subsequent years. Therefore, this result may be a useful argument to motivate employers to employ workers adequately to their abilities and preferences.

  7. No effect of the FitFor2 exercise programme on blood glucose, insulin sensitivity, and birthweight in pregnant women who were overweight and at risk for gestational diabetes: Results of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdam, N.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Wouters, M.G.A.J.; Eekhoff, E.M.W.; Bekedam, D.J.; Kuchenbecker, W.K.H.; Quartero, H.W.P.; Heres, M.H.B.; Mechelen, W. van

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of an exercise programme for pregnant women who were overweight or obese and at risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Hospitals and midwifery practices in the Netherlands. Population Pregnant women who were

  8. "I have to constantly prove to myself, to people, that I fit the bill": Perspectives on weight and shape control behaviors among low-income, ethnically diverse young transgender women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Allegra R; Austin, S Bryn; Krieger, Nancy; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Reisner, Sari L

    2016-09-01

    The impact of societal femininity ideals on disordered eating behaviors in non-transgender women has been well described, but scant research has explored these processes among transgender women. The present study explored weight and shape control behaviors among low-income, ethnically diverse young transgender women at high risk for HIV or living with HIV in a Northeastern metropolitan area. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 21 participants (ages 18-31 years; mean annual income gender affirmation framework. Of 21 participants, 16 reported engaging in past-year disordered eating or weight and shape control behaviors, including binge eating, fasting, vomiting, and laxative use. Study participants described using a variety of strategies to address body image concerns in the context of gender-related and other discriminatory experiences, which shaped participants' access to social and material resources as well as stress and coping behaviors. Disordered weight and shape control behaviors were discussed in relation to four emergent themes: (1) gender socialization and the development of femininity ideals, (2) experiences of stigma and discrimination, (3) biological processes, and (4) multi-level sources of strength and resilience. This formative study provides insight into disordered eating and weight and shape control behaviors among at-risk transgender women, illuminating avenues for future research, treatment, and public health intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in United States Veterans on Statin Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Peter; Faselis, Charles; Narayan, Puneet; Myers, Jonathan; Nylen, Eric; Sui, Xuemei; Zhang, Jiajia; Lavie, Carl J

    2017-10-01

    Impact of cardiorespiratory fitness on statin-related incidence of type 2 diabetes has not been assessed. We assessed the cardiorespiratory fitness and diabetes incidence association in dyslipidemic patients on statins. We identified dyslipidemic patients with a normal exercise test performed during 1986 and 2014 at the Veterans Affairs Medical Centers in Washington, DC or Palo Alto, Calif. The statin-treated patients (n = 4092; age = 58.8 ± 10.9 years) consisted of 2701 Blacks and 1391 Whites. None had evidence of type 2 diabetes prior to statin therapy. We formed 4 fitness categories based on age and peak metabolic equivalents achieved: Least-fit (n = 954), Low-fit (n = 1201), Moderate-fit (n = 1242), and High-fit (n = 695). The non-statin-treated cohort (n = 3001; age = 57.2 ± 11.2 years) with no evidence of type 2 diabetes prior to the exercise test served as controls. Diabetes incidence was 24% higher in statin-treated compared with non-statin-treated patients (P fit, adjusted risk decreased progressively with increasing fitness and was 34% lower for High-fit patients (hazard ratio [HR] 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53-0.82; P fit (HR 1.50; 95% CI, 1.30-1.73; P fit patients (HR 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06-1.41; P = .006). Risk of diabetes in statin-treated dyslipidemic patients was inversely and independently associated with cardiorespiratory fitness. The increased risk was evident only in relatively low-fitness patients. Improving fitness may modulate the potential diabetogenic effects of statins. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Physical self-concept and physical fitness in elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amesberger, G; Finkenzeller, T; Würth, S; Müller, E

    2011-08-01

    This investigation examined the relations between physical self-concept and physical fitness (endurance, balance, muscle strength, muscle power) for gaining knowledge about the interrelationship between subjective ratings and objective fitness scores in the elderly in three steps: (1) detecting correlations and changes in time, (2) clarifying the influence of gender, and (3) of a skiing intervention lasting 12 weeks. Physical self-concept was assessed using a modified version of the Physical Self-Concepts (PSK) scales (Stiller et al., 2004) reflecting three first-order factors (endurance, strength, general sportiness) and one second-order factor (global fitness). Objective fitness scores were obtained by VO(2 max), counter movement jump, concentric muscle strength, and static balance. The results reveal that elderly individuals' global physical self and general sportiness are mainly linked to VO(2 max) and concentric muscle strength. Global physical self is predicted by VO(2 max) in females and by physical strength (concentric muscle strength) in males, indicating gender differences. Over time, correlations between subjective ratings and objective fitness scores become stronger in the sense of convergent validity in the skiing intervention group, whereas convergent and divergent validity cannot be supported by data of the control group. In sum, physical self-concept is an important factor in the context of physical intervention programs in the elderly. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. The Obesity Paradox and Cardiorespiratory Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. McAuley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiorespiratory fitness as an explanation for the obesity paradox warrants further examination. We evaluated independent and joint associations of cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity with all-cause mortality in 811 middle-aged (age, 53.3±7.2 years male never smokers without documented cardiopulmonary disease or diabetes from the Veterans Exercise Testing Study (VETS. Cardiorespiratory fitness was quantified in metabolic equivalents (METs using final treadmill speed and grade achieved on a maximal exercise test. Subjects were grouped for analysis by METs: unfit (lowest third and fit (upper two-thirds; and by body mass index (kg/m2: nonobese (18.5−29.9 and obese (≥30.0. Associations of baseline fitness and adiposity measures with all-cause mortality were determined by Cox proportional hazards analysis adjusted for age, ethnicity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, family history of coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular medication use. In multivariate analysis, mortality risk for obese/fit men did not differ significantly from the nonobese/fit reference group. However, compared to the reference group, nonobese and obese unfit men were 2.2 (=0.01 and 1.9 (=0.03 times more likely to die, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness altered the obesity paradox such that mortality risk was lower for both obese and nonobese men who were fit.

  12. A person-environment fit approach to volunteerism : Volunteer personality fit and culture fit as predictors of affective outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; Voskuijl, Olga F.

    2008-01-01

    This study employed a person-environment (P-E) fit approach to explaining volunteer satisfaction, affective commitment, and turnover intentions. It was hypothesized that personality fit would explain additional variance in volunteer affective outcomes above and beyond motives to volunteer. This

  13. Employers' views on the fit note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, E

    2014-12-01

    The fit note replaced the sick note in 2010. The statement of fitness for work (fit note) is expected to benefit the British economy by helping more people stay in work and prevent long-term sickness absence. Understanding and responding to employers' views on the fit note is key, in order for this goal to be achieved. To explore employers' views on the fit note. A qualitative study was undertaken and face-to-face interviews were conducted with participants representing employers from a variety of industries. There were 21 participants who were mainly human resources officers and line managers. Employers welcomed the introduction of the fit note and felt that it was an improvement on the sick note. The majority of employers felt the fit note had the potential to promote an earlier return to work, if used properly. The main problems reported were the completion of the fit notes and quality of advice received from general practitioners. Employers felt that the most helpful advice came from fit notes with information on the functional effects of the medical condition. Some employers found return to work decisions problematic. The fit note has the potential to promote an earlier return to work. In order for the fit note to achieve its aim, further understanding of the difficulties employers are having when making return to work decisions is important, in order to develop guidance to enable them to provide the practical support employees need to return to work sooner. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A self-fitting hearing aid: need and concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convery, Elizabeth; Keidser, Gitte; Dillon, Harvey; Hartley, Lisa

    2011-12-01

    The need for reliable access to hearing health care services is growing globally, particularly in developing countries and in remotely located, underserved regions in many parts of the developed world. Individuals with hearing loss in these areas are at a significant disadvantage due to the scarcity of local hearing health care professionals and the high cost of hearing aids. Current approaches to making hearing rehabilitation services more readily available to underserved populations include teleaudiology and the provision of amplification devices outside of the traditional provider-client relationship. Both strategies require access to such resources as dedicated equipment and/or specially trained staff. Another possible strategy is a self-fitting hearing aid, a personal amplification device that is equipped with an onboard tone generator to enable user-controlled, automated, in situ audiometry; an onboard prescription to determine the initial hearing aid settings; and a trainable algorithm to enable user-controlled fine-tuning. The device is thus assembled, fitted, and managed by the user without the need for audiological or computer support. This article details the self-fitting concept and its potential application in both developing and developed countries. Potential advantages and disadvantages of such a device are discussed, and considerations for further investigations into the concept are presented. Overall, the concept is considered technologically viable with the main challenges anticipated to be development of clear, simple user instructions and a delivery model that ensures reliable supplies of instant-fit ear tips and batteries.

  15. Exceptional longevity and muscle and fitness related genotypes: a functional in vitro analysis and case-control association replication study with SNPs THRH rs7832552, IL6 rs1800795 and ACSL1 rs6552828

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki eFuku

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are several gene variants that are candidates to influence functional capacity in long-lived individuals. As such, their potential association with exceptional longevity (EL, i.e., reaching 100+ years deserves analysis. Among them are rs7832552 in the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRHR gene, rs1800795 in the interleukin-6 (IL6 gene and rs6552828 in the coenzyme A synthetase long-chain 1 (ACSL1 gene. To gain insight into their functionality (which is yet unknown, here we determined for the first time luciferase gene reporter activity at the muscle tissue level in rs7832552 and rs6552828. We then compared allele/genotype frequencies of the 3 abovementioned variants among centenarians [n=138, age range 100-111 years (114 women] and healthy controls [n=334, 20-50 years (141 women] of the same ethnic and geographic origin (Spain. We also studied healthy centenarians [n=79, 100-104 years (40 women] and controls [n=316, 27-81 years (156 women] from Italy, and centenarians [n=742, 100-116 years (623 women] and healthy controls [n=499, 23-59 years (356 women] from Japan. The THRH rs7832552 T-allele and ACSL1 rs6552828 A-allele up-regulated luciferase activity compared to the C and G-allele, respectively (P≤0.001. Yet we found no significant association of EL with rs7832552, rs1800795 or rs6552828 in any of the 3 cohorts. Further research is needed with larger cohorts of centenarians of different origin as well as with younger old people.

  16. Are Physical Education Majors Models for Fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamla, James; Snyder, Ben; Tanner, Lori; Wash, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    The National Association of Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) (2002) has taken a firm stance on the importance of adequate fitness levels of physical education teachers stating that they have the responsibility to model an active lifestyle and to promote fitness behaviors. Since the NASPE declaration, national initiatives like Let's Move…

  17. Pilates and Physical Education: A Natural Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloubec, June; Banks, Aaron L.

    2004-01-01

    In a time period characterized by the continual decline of fitness and physical activity among American youths, Pilates can provide physical educators a unique activity that will improve fitness and stimulate the cognitive domain of today's students. Because the Pilates method of exercise encourages the development of strong and flexible muscles…

  18. Health-Related Fitness and Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; LeBlanc, Betty

    Because research indicates that American youth have become fatter since the 1960's, the development of fitness among young children should not be left to chance. Simple games, rhythms, and dance are not sufficient to insure fitness, for, during the regular free play situation, children very seldom experience physical activity of enough intensity…

  19. FUNdamental Integrative Training (FIT) for Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowsky, Michael; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for physical education teachers to integrate different types of fitness activities into their lessons in order to provide opportunities for all students to learn and practice a variety of movement skills that will enhance their physical fitness and support free-time physical activity. An increased focus on age-appropriate…

  20. Een toekomst voor outdoor fitness in Nederland?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, Hiske

    De eerste kennismaking met outdoor fitness was in het Fuxing Park in Shanghai, een park waar jong en oud samen komen om te sporten (outdoor fitness, dans en tai-chi) of om ontspannen hun vrije dag door te brengen. een unieke ervaring die verwarring en allerlei vragen tot gevolg had. waarom komen

  1. The neural network approach to parton fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, Joan; Latorre, Jose I.; Del Debbio, Luigi; Forte, Stefano; Piccione, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the neural network approach to global fits of parton distribution functions. First we review previous work on unbiased parametrizations of deep-inelastic structure functions with faithful estimation of their uncertainties, and then we summarize the current status of neural network parton distribution fits

  2. Fitting PAC spectra with a hybrid algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, M. A., E-mail: mauro@sepn.org [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (Brazil); Carbonari, A. W., E-mail: carbonar@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    A hybrid algorithm (HA) that blends features of genetic algorithms (GA) and simulated annealing (SA) was implemented for simultaneous fits of perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectra. The main characteristic of the HA is the incorporation of a selection criterion based on SA into the basic structure of GA. The results obtained with the HA compare favorably with fits performed with conventional methods.

  3. Motor competence and physical fitness in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gísladóttir, Ordís; Haga, Monika; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between physical fitness and motor competence in adolescents aged 15 to 16 years. A sample of 94 adolescents participated in the study. To test motor competence, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 was used. Physical fitness was assessed using the following test items: standing broad jump, 20-m dash, reduced Cooper test, and sit-and-reach test. The results revealed a significant but weak relationship (0.248) between motor competence and physical fitness for the whole sample. More specifically, the correlation between the 2 variables was significant for girls (0.353) but not for boys (0.248). The relatively weak relationship between motor competence and physical fitness suggests that motor competence might not be critical in adolescents to maintain their physical fitness.

  4. Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter

    2014-06-07

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Formalizing Darwinism and inclusive fitness theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, Alan

    2009-11-12

    Inclusive fitness maximization is a basic building block for biological contributions to any theory of the evolution of society. There is a view in mathematical population genetics that nothing is caused to be maximized in the process of natural selection, but this is explained as arising from a misunderstanding about the meaning of fitness maximization. Current theoretical work on inclusive fitness is discussed, with emphasis on the author's 'formal Darwinism project'. Generally, favourable conclusions are drawn about the validity of assuming fitness maximization, but the need for continuing work is emphasized, along with the possibility that substantive exceptions may be uncovered. The formal Darwinism project aims more ambitiously to represent in a formal mathematical framework the central point of Darwin's Origin of Species, that the mechanical processes of inheritance and reproduction can give rise to the appearance of design, and it is a fitting ambition in Darwin's bicentenary year to capture his most profound discovery in the lingua franca of science.

  6. Theoretically unprejudiced fits to proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobos, A.M.; Mackintosh, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    By using a spline interpolation method applied to all components of the proton optical potential we have fitted elastic scattering from 40 Ca and from 16 O at a range of energies. The potentials are highly oscillatory and we have shown that similar oscillations are found when the spline fitting procedure is applied to pseudo-data generated from potentials of known l-dependence. Moreover, we show how to find an l-independent potential equivalent to one that is l-dependent and we find that it is oscillatory and that various characteristic features of empirical spline fit potentials can be explained. Thus, by fitting the data with model indenpendt l-independent potentials we have found support for the contention that the nucleon optical potential should be viewed as being l-dependent. This work may be regarded as an example of the kind of physical information that can be gained by pursuing exact fits to proton elastic scattering data

  7. Finite impulse testing (FIT) system for Emergency Cooling System (ECS) in Dhruva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punekar, Parag; Ramkumar, N.; Kulkarni, U.S.; Darbhea, M.D.; Bharadhwaj, G; Jangra, L.R.; Geetha, Patil; Das, Shantanu; Sonnis, S.T.; Trevedi, P.; Patil, M.B.; Biswas, B.B.

    2006-01-01

    Finite Impulse Testing (FIT) system for Emergency Cooling System (ECS) is used to check healthiness of ECS logic circuits in an online mode. The ECS is an important safety system that ensures the cooling of reactor core during shutdown state of Main Coolant Pumps (MCPs), and hence FIT-ECS that monitors the health of ECS logic circuits in an online (real time) mode is an important part of it. Based on a Safety Related Unusual Occurrence in ECS system due to the malfunction of its earlier single channel FIT system, the new FIT-ECS system has been designed with new features and is commissioned. The FIT-ECS system feeds the simulated input signals (fine impulses of nominal width 575 μS) to the ECS logic circuits and read the outputs. These output (predicted) signals from ECS logic circuit are processed in the FIT-ECS system and in event of any discrepancy, the FIT-ECS system displays fault signature on local panel, detailed information of the fault on Operator Console (OC), and generates an alarm 'ECS logic Fail' in the control room. FIT-ECS also monitors the inputs and outputs of ECS logic circuit. All the information required is stored as a database that can be subsequently displayed in various formats. ECS system is designated as Category I-A system and is a hardwired system and FIT-ECS monitors the healthiness of the logics of the ECS System is a computerized system. As per IEC 1226, FIT-ECS is categorized as Category I-B system. This paper provides technical information on FIT-ECS system design, its important features, the testing carried on the FIT-ECS system, interconnections of FIT-ECS and ECS and the commissioning experience of FIT-ECS system. (author)

  8. Fitness level and body composition indices: cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of fitness level on the well-being of children and adolescent has long been recognised. The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness level of school-going Malaysian adolescent, and its association with body composition indices. Methods 1071 healthy secondary school students participated in the fitness assessment for the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study. Body composition indices such as body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio were measured. Fitness level was assessed with Modified Harvard Step Test. Physical Fitness Score was calculated using total time of step test exercise and resting heart rates. Fitness levels were divided into 3 categories - unacceptable, marginally acceptable, and acceptable. Partial correlation analysis was used to determine the association between fitness score and body composition, by controlling age, gender, locality, ethnicity, smoking status and sexual maturation. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which body composition was the strongest predictor for fitness. Results 43.3% of the participants were categorised into the unacceptable fitness group, 47.1% were considered marginally acceptable, and 9.6% were acceptable. There was a significant moderate inverse association (p fitness score (r = -0.360, -0.413 and -0.403 for body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio, respectively). Waist circumference was the strongest and significant predictor for fitness (ß = -0.318, p = 0.002). Conclusion Only 9.6% of the students were fit. There was also an inverse association between body composition and fitness score among apparently healthy adolescents, with waist circumference indicated as the strongest predictor. The low fitness level among the Malaysian adolescent should necessitate the value of healthy lifestyle starting at a young age. PMID:25436933

  9. Low aerobic fitness in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: aerobic fitness is considered one of the most important components of health-related physical fitness, with low levels related to increased risk of premature death from all causes, especially cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: to identify the characteristics of adolescents at higher risk of low levels of aerobic fitness. METHODS: the study included 696 adolescents 15-17 years of age enrolled in public high schools of Florianópolis, southern Brazil. This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Aerobic fitness was measured using the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test mCAFT. Sociodemographic gender, age, school grade, paternal and maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, and anthropometric variables body weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, sexual maturation, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and eating habits were collected. RESULTS: it was found that 31.5% of adolescents had low aerobic fitness levels, being higher in boys 49.2% compared to girls 20.6%. Moreover, girls with sedentary behavior, overweight and high body fat percentage were the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness. In males, the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness were those whose parents studied more than eight years, those with low levels of physical activity, and those with inadequate nutrition and excessive body fat. CONCLUSION: low aerobic fitness levels were present in one third of adolescents and was more prevalent in boys. Lifestyle changes, including replacement of sedentary behaviors by physical and sport activities , may assist in improving the aerobic fitness of Brazilian adolescents.

  10. Crossing fitness canyons by a finite population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saakian, David B.; Bratus, Alexander S.; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2017-06-01

    We consider the Wright-Fisher model of the finite population evolution on a fitness landscape defined in the sequence space by a path of nearly neutral mutations. We study a specific structure of the fitness landscape: One of the intermediate mutations on the mutation path results in either a large fitness value (climbing up a fitness hill) or a low fitness value (crossing a fitness canyon), the rest of the mutations besides the last one are neutral, and the last sequence has much higher fitness than any intermediate sequence. We derive analytical formulas for the first arrival time of the mutant with two point mutations. For the first arrival problem for the further mutants in the case of canyon crossing, we analytically deduce how the mean first arrival time scales with the population size and fitness difference. The location of the canyon on the path of sequences has a crucial role. If the canyon is at the beginning of the path, then it significantly prolongs the first arrival time; otherwise it just slightly changes it. Furthermore, the fitness hill at the beginning of the path strongly prolongs the arrival time period; however, the hill located near the end of the path shortens it. We optimize the first arrival time by applying a nonzero selection to the intermediate sequences. We extend our results and provide a scaling for the valley crossing time via the depth of the canyon and population size in the case of a fitness canyon at the first position. Our approach is useful for understanding some complex evolution systems, e.g., the evolution of cancer.

  11. A walking programme and a supervised exercise class versus usual physiotherapy for chronic low back pain: a single-blinded randomised controlled trial. (The Supervised Walking In comparison to Fitness Training for Back Pain (SWIFT) Trial).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hurley, Deirdre A

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a persistent disabling condition with rising significant healthcare, social and economic costs. Current research supports the use of exercise-based treatment approaches that encourage people with CLBP to assume a physically active role in their recovery. While international clinical guidelines and systematic reviews for CLBP support supervised group exercise as an attractive first-line option for treating large numbers of CLBP patients at low cost, barriers to their delivery include space and time restrictions in healthcare settings and poor patient attendance. The European Clinical Guidelines have identified the need for research in the use of brief\\/minimal contact self-activation interventions that encourage participation in physical activity for CLBP. Walking may be an ideally suited form of individualized exercise prescription as it is easy to do, requires no special skills or facilities, and is achievable by virtually all ages with little risk of injury, but its effectiveness for LBP is unproven. METHODS AND DESIGN: This study will be an assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial that will investigate the difference in clinical effectiveness and costs of an individualized walking programme and a supervised general exercise programme compared to usual physiotherapy, which will act as the control group, in people with chronic low back pain. A sample of 246 patients will be recruited in Dublin, Ireland through acute general hospital outpatient physiotherapy departments that provide treatment for people with CLBP. Patients will be randomly allocated to one of the three groups in a concealed manner. The main outcomes will be functional disability, pain, quality of life, fear avoidance, back beliefs, physical activity, satisfaction and costs, which will be evaluated at baseline, and 3, 6 and 12 months [follow-up by pre-paid postage]. Qualitative telephone interviews and focus groups will be embedded in the research

  12. Developmental pathways of fitness, and not baseline, predict fitness status at the end of childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Luis Paulo; Stodden, David F.; Lopes, Vítor P.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally described that children fitness levels increase along childhood. Complementary to this idea is the notion that the tracking of children’s fitness is good to moderate during this developmental time, and that baseline (initial values) of fitness are determinant on fitness development. The importance of developmental pathways has been recently reinforced by a theoretical argument that predicts that healthy lifestyle trajectories will evolve through either a positive or n...

  13. Functional fitness level of military college cadets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Fedak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out and study influence of author’s physical training program on functional fitness of military college officers. Material: in the research 83 3rd year cadets of military college participated (experimental group, n=41; control group, n=42, of age 19-21 years. The cadets’ functional state was registered by indicators of Shtange’s test, Genchi test, test of Ruffiet - Dixon, Cooper’s test. The volume of trainings was 4 hours a week. Results: it was found that the acting training programs do not permit to completely prepare combat soldier’s organism for fulfillment of his tasks. We also found the purposefulness of special exercises and means’ application in physical trainings, which would be approached by their structure to military officers’ professional actions. Conclusions: it is recommended to conduct training with complex combining of different physical training sections (accelerated motion, overcoming obstacle course, hand-to-hand fighting and etc. with special means ( armor vest, tactic unloading system, helmet, weapon, gas mask, training grenades and so on.

  14. The development of the physical fitness construct across childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utesch, T; Dreiskämper, D; Strauss, B; Naul, R

    2018-01-01

    The measurement of physical fitness (PF) is an important factor from many different perspectives. PF is a determinant of healthy child development as it is related to several health outcomes. However, existing taxonomies of the construct and frequently used fitness assessments vary concerning their theoretical assumptions and practical implications. From a theoretical perspective, the construct of physical fitness covers a variety of motor domains, such as cardiovascular endurance, strength, coordination, or flexibility (eg, Caspersen et al., 1985). However, most fitness assessments provide a single (composite) score including all items as test outcome. This implicitly relates to a one-dimensional structure of physical fitness, which has been shown for other motor performance assessments in early childhood (eg, Utesch et al., 2016). This study investigated this one-dimensional structure for 6- to 9-year-old children within the item response theory framework (Partial Credit Model). Seven fitness subtests covering a variety of motor dimensions (6-minute run, pushups, sit-ups, standing broad jump, 20 m sprint, jumping sideways, and balancing backwards) were conducted to a total of 790 six-year-olds, 1371 seven-year-olds, 1331 eight-year-olds, and 925 nine-year-olds (48.2% females). Each item was transformed into five performance categories controlling for sex and age. This study indicates that a one-dimensional testing of PF is feasible across middle childhood. Furthermore, for 6- and 7-year-olds, all seven items including balancing backwards can be accumulated to one factor. From the age of about 8 and 9 years balancing backwards seems to become too easy. Altogether, analyses show no diversification of PF across childhood. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Physical fitness reference standards in fibromyalgia : The al-Ándalus project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Carbonell-Baeza, A; Segura-Jiménez, V.; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Intemann, T; Aparicio, Virgina A; Estévez-López, F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412501031; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Herrador-Colmenero, Manuel; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Delgado-Fernández, M.; Ortega, Francisco B

    2017-01-01

    We aimed (1) to report age-specific physical fitness levels in people with fibromyalgia of a representative sample from Andalusia; and (2) to compare the fitness levels of people with fibromyalgia with non-fibromyalgia controls. This cross-sectional study included 468 (21 men) patients with

  16. Psychosocial Variables Associated with Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Christy A.; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among self-esteem, depression, physical self-concept, and body satisfaction among 1,022 middle school students who were in the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zone[TM] (HFZ) compared to those in the Needs Improvement Zone (NIZ) for body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness. After controlling for…

  17. The Impact of Rope Jumping Exercise on Physical Fitness of Visually Impaired Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of rope jumping exercise on the health-related physical fitness of visually impaired students. The participants' physical fitness was examined before and after the training. The exercise intensity of the experimental group was controlled with Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) (values…

  18. The Contributions of Physical Activity and Fitness to Optimal Health and Wellness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohuruogu, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The paper examined the role of physical activity and fitness more especially in the area of disease prevention and control by looking at the major ways by which regular physical activity and fitness contributes to optimal health and wellness. The Surgeor General's Report (1996), stressed that physical inactivity is a national problem which…

  19. Knowledge in Action: Fitness Lesson Segments That Teach Health-Related Fitness in Elementary Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Michael G.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; van der Mars, Hans; Lee, Chong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine students' health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity levels after the implementation of a series of fitness lessons segments called Knowledge in Action (KIA). KIA aims to teach health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) during short episodes of the physical education lesson. Teacher…

  20. "Getting Fit Basically Just Means, Like, Nonfat": Children's Lessons in Fitness and Fatness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Darren; Fitzpatrick, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Current concerns about a childhood obesity crisis and children's physical activity levels have combined to justify fitness lessons as a physical education practice in New Zealand primary (elementary) schools. Researchers focused on children's understandings of fitness lessons argue that they construct fitness as a quest for an "ideal"…

  1. Transcending the Curricular Barrier between Fitness and Reading with FitLit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    The author discusses how FitLit, children's literature that spotlights the multiple aspects of health and well-being, offers a vehicle for integrating reading and fitness into existing classroom routines such as guided reading, read-alouds, independent reading, and reading and writing workshop. Sample FitLit titles are provided as well as a…

  2. Model-fitting approach to kinetic analysis of non-isothermal oxidation of molybdenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi Kahrizsangi, R.; Abbasi, M. H.; Saidi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The kinetics of molybdenite oxidation was studied by non-isothermal TGA-DTA with heating rate 5 d eg C .min -1 . The model-fitting kinetic approach applied to TGA data. The Coats-Redfern method used of model fitting. The popular model-fitting gives excellent fit non-isothermal data in chemically controlled regime. The apparent activation energy was determined to be about 34.2 kcalmol -1 With pre-exponential factor about 10 8 sec -1 for extent of reaction less than 0.5

  3. 10 CFR 26.189 - Determination of fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of fitness. 26.189 Section 26.189 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Determining Fitness-for-Duty Policy Violations and Determining Fitness § 26.189 Determination of fitness. (a) A determination of fitness is the process entered...

  4. The Impact of Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels on the Risk of Developing Atherogenic Dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, Charity B; Polinski, Kristen; Sarzynski, Mark A; Lavie, Carl J; Kokkinos, Peter F; Ahmed, Ali; Sui, Xuemei

    2016-10-01

    Low cardiorespiratory fitness has been established as a risk factor for cardiovascular-related morbidity. However, research about the impact of fitness on lipid abnormalities, including atherogenic dyslipidemia, has produced mixed results. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the influence of baseline fitness and changes in fitness on the development of atherogenic dyslipidemia. All participants completed at least 3 comprehensive medical examinations performed by a physician that included a maximal treadmill test between 1976 and 2006 at the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, Texas. Atherogenic dyslipidemia was defined as a triad of lipid abnormalities: low high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol ([HDL-C] dyslipidemia during an average of 8.85 years of follow-up. High baseline fitness was protective against the development of atherogenic dyslipidemia in comparison with those with low fitness (odds ratio [OR] 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.89); however, this relationship became nonsignificant after controlling for baseline HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG levels. Participants who maintained fitness over time had lower odds of developing atherogenic dyslipidemia than those with a reduction in fitness (OR 0.56; 95% CI, 0.34-0.91) after adjusting for baseline confounders and changes in known risk factors. High fitness at baseline and maintenance of fitness over time are protective against the development of atherogenic dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Sedentarism and physical fitness in postmenopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Silvia; Gómez-Cabello, Alba; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Casajús, José Antonio; Ara, Ignacio; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2013-01-01

    The aging process is accompanied by several changes, such as a decrease in physical fitness. To establish the relationship between a sedentary behavior (sit ≥4 hours/day) and physical fitness in 457 women aged 65 years or older. Physical fitness was evaluated by 8 adapted tests from "Senior Fitness Test" and "Eurofit Testing Battery". ANOVA was used to analyze differences between groups according to the hours of sitting and logistic regression analysis was used to study the association of the sedentary behavior with low fitness, using as reference the 20th percentile of the normative values in Spain (EXERNET Project). Sedentary women had lower balance, legs and arms strength, arms flexibility, walking speed and endurance (p < 0.05). In addition, those women who sat ≥4 hours/day had higher odds for having low fitness in most of the mentioned tests, regardless of the hours of walking (p < 0.05). Sitting for a long time has a negative influence on physical fitness among postmenopausal women independently of walking time. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Set-fit effects in choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Ellen R K; Inbar, Yoel; Zeelenberg, Marcel

    2014-04-01

    In 4 experiments, we investigate how the "fit" of an item with a set of similar items affects choice. We find that people have a notion of a set that "fits" together--one where all items are the same, or all items differ, on salient attributes. One consequence of this notion is that in addition to preferences over the set's individual items, choice reflects set-fit. This leads to predictable shifts in preferences, sometimes even resulting in people choosing normatively inferior options over superior ones.

  7. Football Fitness - a new version of football?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren; Ottesen, Laila Susanne

    2014-01-01

    organised as small-sided games is highly beneficial for enhancing overall fitness. In addition, studies indicate that team sports such as football may have an advantage over individual sports when it comes to personal development and the development of social capital. The aim of this paper is to explore...... a new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF), with a specific focus on organisational issues. In doing so, we would like to contribute to the discussion of how to organise sports as a means for promoting health within sporting organisations. The theoretical framework...... in a Danish context. Key words: Football Fitness, Health, Sports clubs, Sports Organisations, Path dependency...

  8. Fitness for service - A continuing challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGonnagle, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Fitness for service, as defined by this author, is the ability of a material, component, or system - the product - to perform its designated function. A fitness for service program promotes quality, assures reliability, enhances confidence and improves the safety of products - which is crucial in a critical industry as nuclear energy. Fitness for service necessitates strict adherence to and conformance with all safety and quality requirements. In short, the product must perform its designated function, under designated operational and environmental conditions, for a designated period of time

  9. Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; McLaren, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This paper looks at implementing Fit-For-Purpose land administration solutions at county level. This will require a country specific strategy drawing from the recent GLTN publication on “Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration – Guiding Principles for Country Implementation”. The Fit...... administration; 4) Designing the country specific FFP spatial / legal / institutional frameworks; 5) Capacity development; 6) Country specific instruction manuals; and 7) Economic benefits analysis. Finally, the paper presents some experiences and reflections from a case study on implementing the FFP approach...

  10. Facepiece leakage and fitting of respirators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.M.

    1978-05-01

    The ways in which airborne contaminants can penetrate respirators and the factors which affect the fit of respirators are discussed. The fit of the respirator to the face is shown to be the most critical factor affecting the protection achieved by the user. Qualitative and quantitative fit testing techniques are described and their application to industrial respirator programs is examined. Quantitative measurement of the leakage of a respirator while worn can be used to numerically indicate the protection achieved. These numbers, often referred to as protection factors, are sometimes used as the basis for selecting suitable respirators and this practice is reviewed. (author)

  11. GENFIT - a generic track-fitting toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Johannes [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Schlueter, Tobias [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    GENFIT is an experiment-independent track-fitting toolkit, which combines fitting algorithms, track representations, and measurement geometries into a modular framework. We report on a significantly improved version of GENFIT, based on experience gained in the Belle II, PANDA, and FOPI experiments. Improvements concern the implementation of additional track-fitting algorithms, enhanced implementations of Kalman fitters, enhanced visualization capabilities, and additional implementations of measurement types suited for various kinds of tracking detectors. The data model has been revised, allowing for efficient track merging, smoothing, residual calculation and alignment.

  12. Evolutionary Graphs with Frequency Dependent Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Pu-Yan; Zhang, Pei-Ai

    Evolutionary graph theory was recently proposed by Lieberman et al. in 2005. In the previous papers about evolutionary graphs (EGs), the fitness of the residents in the EGs is in general assumed to be unity, and the fitness of a mutant is assumed to be a constant r. We aim to extend EG to general cases in this paper, namely, the fitness of a mutant is heavily dependent upon frequency. The corresponding properties for these new EGs are analyzed, and the fixation probability is obtained for large population.

  13. The Association Between Self-Rated Fitness and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karina Gregersen; Rosthøj, Susanne; Linneberg, Allan

    2018-01-01

    To assess criterion validity of a single item question on self-rated physical fitness against objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. From the Health2008 study 749 men and women between 30 and 60 years of age rated their fitness as excellent, very good, good, fair or poor. Cardiorespiratory...... fitness was estimated with the watt-max test. Agreement between self-rated and objectively measured physical fitness was assessed by Cohen's weighted kappa coefficient. Correlation was determined by Goodman & Kruskal's gamma correlation coefficient. All analyses were stratified according to gender. Data...... from 323 men and 426 women were analysed. There was a slight agreement between self-rated and objectively measured fitness in men (weighted kappa: 0.18, [95%CI: 0.13;0.23]) and a fair agreement in women (weighted kappa: 0.27, [95%CI: 0.22;0.32]). In both genders, self-rated fitness was positively...

  14. Insecticidal effect and impact of fitness of three diatomaceous earths on different maize hybrids for the eco-friendly control of the invasive stored-product pest Prostephanus truncatus (Horn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Peteinatos, Gerassimos G; Boukouvala, Maria C; Benelli, Giovanni

    2018-04-01

    Diatomaceous earths (DEs) are able to successfully protect grain commodities from noxious stored-product insect and mite infestations; however, their effectiveness may be moderated by the grain hybrid or variety they are applied to. There is a gap of information on the comparison of the efficacy of different DEs when are applied on different maize hybrids against Prostephanus truncatus (Horn). Therefore, here we tested three commercially available DEs (DEA-P at 75 and 150 ppm, Protect-It at 500 ppm, and PyriSec at 500 ppm) on five different maize hybrids (Calaria, Doxa, Rio Grande, Sisco, and Studio) for the control of P. truncatus adults in terms of mortality (at 7 and 14 days), progeny production, properties of the infested maize hybrids (number and weight of kernels with or without holes, number of holes per kernel) and the adherence level of the tested DEs to the kernels. DEA-P was very effective at 75 ppm while a considerable proportion of the exposed P. truncatus adults was still alive after 14 days of exposure on all maize hybrids treated with 500 ppm of Protect-It or PyriSec, even though it was 3.3 times higher than the maximal application tested dose of DEA-P. Apart from parental mortality, DEA-P was able to reduce P. truncatus progeny production in all hybrids contrary to Protect-It or PyriSec. The adherence ratios were always higher for DEA-P than Protect-It or PyriSec to all maize hybrids. The highest numbers of kernels (or weight of kernels) without holes were noticed after their treatment with DEA-P. Doxa and Sisco performed better than Calaria, Rio Grande, or Studio based on the differences found concerning the numbers of kernels without holes at treatments with DEA-P and Protect-It. Overall, the findings of our study indicate the high potentiality of DEA-P as protectant of different maize hybrids to P. truncatus infestations at low doses, a fact that could help the eco-friendly management of this noxious species in the stored

  15. Children's Fitness. Managing a Running Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, J. Scott; Tuckman, Bruce W.

    1987-01-01

    A running program to increase the cardiovascular fitness levels of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children is described. Discussed are the running environment, implementation of a running program, feedback, and reinforcement. (MT)

  16. Fitness, Extrinsic Complexity and Informing Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandon Gill

    2017-03-01

    We raise concerns about society’s continuing investment in academic research that discounts the extrinsic complexity of the domains under study. Future Research We highlight a need for research to operationalize the concepts of fitness and complexity in practice.

  17. Valves and fittings for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The standard specifies technical requirements for valves and pipe fittings in nuclear power stations with PWR type reactors. Details of appropriate materials, welding, surface treatment for corrosion protection, painting, and complementary supply are given

  18. Marine Corps Semper Fit Program Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-08

    issue, badminton , basketball, boxing, calisthenics, cardiovascular training, gymnastics, handball, jogging, martial arts, physical fitness training...cooler Hunting & Fishing Equipment - bow & arrows - quiver - rifle - shotgun - rod & reel - tacklebox - creel Sports Equipment - badminton set

  19. Aerobic fitness after JDM--a long-term follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Pernille R; Orngreen, Mette C; Vissing, John

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. It has previously been shown that patients with active JDM have decreased aerobic fitness; however, it is not known whether these patients regain their physical fitness after recovery. The objective of this study was to investigate the long-term outcome of aerobic fitness in patients...... with JDM. We hypothesized that fitness (VO(2max)) is reduced compared with healthy controls in the years after active JDM.Methods. A maximal exercise test was performed using a cycle ergometer. Results were compared with those of sex- and age-matched healthy controls.Results. A total of 36 patients...... year of active disease, VO(2max) was reduced by 0.85 ml/min/kg on average (P fitness. This impairment is directly related to the duration of active disease....

  20. [Comparing the young asthmatics running fitness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belányi, Kinga; Gyene, István; Bak, Zsuzsa; Mezei, Györgyi

    2007-02-25

    Nowadays, doctors strongly recommend physical activity for asthmatic children, since the resulting improved physical fitness and psychological change also raise the quality of life. The aim of this study was to compare the physical fitness of asthmatic children who regularly participate in therapeutic swimming, with asthmatic children who do not participate in this training and with non-swimming, healthy children using the 12 minute free running, Cooper test. The children from the swimmer asthmatic group (n= 51, age = 9-22 yrs) took part in a special, long term, swimming exercise program (Gyene method). Whereas, the non-swimmer asthmatics (n = 28, age = 8-22 yrs) and the healthy children (n: 179, age: 9-22 yrs) only took part in the normal school physical education classes. Fitness was measured using the Cooper test. Data was collected from 258 subjects and showed that the fitness of swimmer asthmatics is significantly better than that of the non-swimmer asthmatics and even better than that of the healthy subjects (swimmer/ non swimmer asthmatic p = 0.01; swimmer asthmatic/ healthy p test). The difference in the fitness acquired from swimming was the most pronounced for the 8-11 years old asthmatics, presumably because of greater motivational factors. No differences were found between genders for the two asthmatic groups, whereas healthy boys were found to have significantly greater levels of fitness than healthy girls. Fitness is substantially increased with regular swimming. The favourable effects of swimming are expressed not only in comparison with the non-swimmer asthmatics but with the healthy subjects too. The regular therapeutic swimming program helps the formation of running fitness too.

  1. Effects of ageing in physical fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Montero, Pedro Jesús; Chiva, Oscar; Martín Moya, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Ageing is a natural and inevitable process with degenerative changes in most of the physical, physiological and psychological functions. Furthermore, the ageing process has an impact on the physical of elderly people. Thus, the aim of this study is to provide to readers of information about effects of ageing and changes in physical fitness as one of the major causes of chronic diseases of ageing people. In addition, the association between physical fitness and physical activity in...

  2. Design and qualification of nuclear fittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppolani, P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper gives a definition of nuclear fittings and presents its characteristics, its operating conditions and the safety function that they ensure. The classification of fittings and the consequences on its design are presented. The procedures of design verification and the validation in loop are given. Two equipments are finally presented: the Framatome Velan Rateau valve and the VR3-1500 LB valve [fr

  3. Woningcorporaties en Vastgoedontwikkeling: Fit for Use?

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Kuij, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    This summary highlights the findings of the PhD-thesis ‘Woningcorporaties en Vastgoedontwikkeling: Fit for Use’ (‘Housing associations and Real Estate Development: Fit for Use?’). A large part of the thesis contains a description of the complex organization of real estate development by housing associations. This summary contains the background, most important findings and answers on the main research questions. Background and objectives of the research Real estate development and h...

  4. Smartphone Applications for Patients' Health and Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, John P

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare providers are often looking for ways to objectively monitor and improve their patients' health and fitness, especially in between patient visits. Some insurance companies are using applications data as incentives to improve health and lower premiums. As more and more people start to use smartphones, they may provide a tool to help improve a patient's health and fitness. Specifically, fitness applications or "apps" on smartphones are programs that use data collected from a smartphone's inbuilt tools, such as the Global Positioning System, accelerometer, microphone, speaker, and camera, to measure health and fitness parameters. The apps then analyze these data and summarize them, as well as devise individualized plans based on users' goals, provide frequent feedback, personalized coaching, and additional motivation by allowing milestones to be shared on social media. This article introduces evidence that apps can better help patients reach their health and fitness goals. It then discusses what features to look for in an app, followed by an overview of popular health and fitness apps. Last, patient scenarios with app recommendations, limitations of apps, and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The three faces of ecological fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Kent A

    2011-03-01

    This paper argues that fitness is most usefully understood as those properties of organisms that are explanatory of survival in the broadest sense, not merely descriptive of reproductive success. Borrowing from Rosenberg and Bouchard (2009), fitness in this sense is ecological in that it is defined by the interactions between organisms and environments. There are three sorts of ecological fitness: the well-documented ability to compete, the ability to cooperate (as in mutualistic symbiosis), and a third sense of fitness that has received insufficient attention in evolutionary theory, the ability to construct. Following Lotka, it can be understood thermodynamically as the ability to maintain or enlarge the energy-circulating capacity of an ecosystem. An organism that does this could end with its gene frequency unchanged but its probability of survival enhanced since it would sustain or increase the total carrying capacity of its ecosystem. Photosynthesizers and other autotrophs are obvious candidates for organisms that are fit in the constructive sense, but any organisms, including heterotrophs, can exhibit constructive fitness if they have some mechanism for channeling external flows of free energy into their ecosystems. I will briefly examine the prospects for the human species in the light of these considerations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Direct fitness of group living mammals varies with breeding strategy, climate and fitness estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebensperger, Luis A; Rivera, Daniela S; Hayes, Loren D

    2012-09-01

    1. Understanding how variation in fitness relates to variation in group living remains critical to determine whether this major aspect of social behaviour is currently adaptive. 2. Available evidence in social mammals aimed to examine this issue remains controversial. Studies show positive (i.e. potentially adaptive), neutral or even negative fitness effects of group living. 3. Attempts to explain this variation rely on intrinsic and extrinsic factors to social groups. Thus, relatively more positive fitness effects are predicted in singularly breeding as opposed to plural breeding species. Fitness effects of sociality in turn may depend on ecological conditions (i.e. extrinsic factors) that influence associated benefits and costs. 4. We used meta-analytic tools to review how breeding strategy or ecological conditions influence the effect size associated with direct fitness-sociality relationships reported in the mammalian literature. Additionally, we determined how taxonomic affiliation of species studied, different fitness and sociality measures used, and major climatic conditions of study sites explained any variation in direct fitness effect size. 5. We found group living had modest, yet positive effects on direct fitness. This generally adaptive scenario was contingent not only upon breeding strategy and climate of study sites, but also on fitness measures examined. Thus, positive and significant effects characterized singular as opposed to plural breeding strategies. 6. We found more positive fitness effects on studies conducted in tropical as opposed to temperate or arid climates. More positive and significant effects were noted on studies that relied on group fecundity, male fecundity and offspring survival as measures of fitness. 7. To conclude, direct fitness consequences of mammalian group living are driven by interspecific differences in breeding strategy and climate conditions. Other factors not examined in this study, namely individual variation in

  7. Do soccer and Zumba exercise improve fitness and indicators of health among female hospital employees?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barene, S; Krustrup, Peter; Jackman, S R

    2014-01-01

    This randomized controlled study investigated the effectiveness of soccer and Zumba on fitness and health indicators in female participants recruited from a workplace. One hundred seven hospital employees were cluster-randomized to either a soccer group (SG), Zumba group (ZG), or control group (CG......-term soccer training as well asZumba outside working hours may result in fitness andmodest health benefits among female hospital employees...

  8. Fitness, daily activity and body composition in children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahlkvist, S; Pedersen, S

    2009-01-01

    Background: Information about how the asthma disease affects the life style and health in children is sparse. Aim: To measure fitness, daily physical activity and body composition in children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and healthy controls, and to assess the association between...... the level of asthma control and these parameters. Methods: Daily physical activity measured using accelerometry, cardiovascular fitness and body composition (per cent fat, per cent lean tissue and bone mineral density) were measured in 57 children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and in 157 healthy...... fitness and daytime spent in intensive activity. Overweight children are physically less active than normal weight children....

  9. Fitness level and body composition indices: cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, Redzal Abu; Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Murray, Liam J; Cantwell, Marie; Su, Tin Tin; Nahar, Azmi Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The importance of fitness level on the well-being of children and adolescent has long been recognised. The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness level of school-going Malaysian adolescent, and its association with body composition indices. 1071 healthy secondary school students participated in the fitness assessment for the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study. Body composition indices such as body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio were measured. Fitness level was assessed with Modified Harvard Step Test. Physical Fitness Score was calculated using total time of step test exercise and resting heart rates. Fitness levels were divided into 3 categories - unacceptable, marginally acceptable, and acceptable. Partial correlation analysis was used to determine the association between fitness score and body composition, by controlling age, gender, locality, ethnicity, smoking status and sexual maturation. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which body composition was the strongest predictor for fitness. 43.3% of the participants were categorised into the unacceptable fitness group, 47.1% were considered marginally acceptable, and 9.6% were acceptable. There was a significant moderate inverse association (p Malaysian adolescent should necessitate the value of healthy lifestyle starting at a young age.

  10. Autism as the Low-Fitness Extreme of a Parentally Selected Fitness Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Andrew; Miller, Geoffrey; Mintz, Jim

    2008-12-01

    Siblings compete for parental care and feeding, while parents must allocate scarce resources to those offspring most likely to survive and reproduce. This could cause offspring to evolve traits that advertise health, and thereby attract parental resources. For example, experimental evidence suggests that bright orange filaments covering the heads of North American coot chicks may have evolved for this fitness-advertising purpose. Could any human mental disorders be the equivalent of dull filaments in coot chicks-low-fitness extremes of mental abilities that evolved as fitness indicators? One possibility is autism. Suppose that the ability of very young children to charm their parents evolved as a parentally selected fitness indicator. Young children would vary greatly in their ability to charm parents, that variation would correlate with underlying fitness, and autism could be the low-fitness extreme of this variation. This view explains many seemingly disparate facts about autism and leads to some surprising and testable predictions.

  11. From cognitive motor preparation to visual processing: The benefits of childhood fitness to brain health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchicci, M; Pontifex, M B; Drollette, E S; Pesce, C; Hillman, C H; Di Russo, F

    2015-07-09

    The association between a fit body and a fit brain in children has led to a rise of behavioral and neuroscientific research. Yet, the relation of cardiorespiratory fitness on premotor neurocognitive preparation with early visual processing has received little attention. Here, 41 healthy, lower and higher fit preadolescent children were administered a modified version of the Eriksen flanker task while electroencephalography (EEG) and behavioral measures were recorded. Event-related potentials (ERPs) locked to the stimulus onset with an earlier than usual baseline (-900/-800 ms) allowed investigation of both the usual post-stimulus (i.e., the P1, N1 and P2) as well as the pre-stimulus ERP components, such as the Bereitschaftspotential (BP) and the prefrontal negativity (pN component). At the behavioral level, aerobic fitness was associated response accuracy, with higher fit children being more accurate than lower fit children. Fitness-related differences selectively emerged at prefrontal brain regions during response preparation, with larger pN amplitude for higher than lower fit children, and at early perceptual stages after stimulus onset, with larger P1 and N1 amplitudes in higher relative to lower fit children. Collectively, the results suggest that the benefits of being aerobically fit appear at the stage of cognitive preparation prior to stimulus presentation and the behavioral response during the performance of a task that challenges cognitive control. Further, it is likely that enhanced activity in prefrontal brain areas may improve cognitive control of visuo-motor tasks, allowing for stronger proactive inhibition and larger early allocation of selective attention resources on relevant external stimuli. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Are Injuries More Common With CrossFit Training Than Other Forms of Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Chelsey; Ashbeck, Christopher; Brook, Alexander J; Durall, Chris

    2018-05-22

    Clinical Scenario: CrossFit is a form of exercise that incorporates rapid and successive high-intensity ballistic movements. As CrossFit is an increasingly popular fitness option, it is important to determine how rates of injury compare to more traditional forms of exercise. This review was conducted to ascertain the incidence of injury with CrossFit relative to other forms of exercise. Focused Clinical Question: Are injuries more common with CrossFit training than other forms of exercise? Summary of Key Findings: (1) The literature was searched for studies that compared injury rates among individuals who participated in CrossFit fitness programs to participants in other exercise programs. (2) The search initially yielded >100 results, which were narrowed down to 3 level 2b retrospective cohort studies that were deemed to have met inclusion/exclusion criteria. (3) In all 3 reviewed studies, the reported incidences of injuries associated with CrossFit training programs were comparable or lower than rates of injury in Olympic weightlifting, distance running, track and field, rugby, or gymnastics. Clinical Bottom Line: Current evidence suggests that the injury risk from CrossFit training is comparable to Olympic weightlifting, distance running, track and field, rugby, football, ice hockey, soccer, or gymnastics. Injuries to the shoulder(s) appear to be somewhat common with CrossFit. However, the certitude of these conclusions is questionable given the lack of randomization, control, or uniform training in the reviewed studies. Clinicians should be aware that injury is more prevalent in cases where supervision is not always available to athletes. This is more often the case for male participants who may not actively seek supervision during CrossFit exercise. Strength of Recommendation: Level 2b evidence from 3 retrospective cohort studies indicates that the risk of injury from participation in CrossFit is comparable to or lower than some common forms of exercise or

  13. Control of physical fitness of athletes specializing in combat sambo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Tron

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Confiscation of informative educational tests to assess motor qualities of skilled athletes. The survey was attended by 94 athletes (18 to 30 years. This group of tests includes: running too far on the bridge (second coups in space (second; perform 100 punches on the punching bag (second, perform 50 kicks on the punching bag (second. It was found that the highest correlation between the result and the qualifications of athletes seen in tests involving the use of wrestling skills (rushing on the bridge and from the place of revolutions. It is shown that in the groups of athletes of medium and heavy weight categories in tests measuring the speed of the application of various attacks on the punching bag have a weak relationship with the level of sportsmanship. The trend is strengthening correlation sports training and exercise, describing the power of athletes of different skills to increase their weight classes.

  14. Effects of foliar herbivory by insects on the fitness of Raphanus raphanistrum: damage can increase male fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, S Y; Conner, J K; Lehtilä, K P

    2001-11-01

    Generally, effects of herbivory on plant fitness have been measured in terms of female reproductive success (seed production). However, male plant fitness, defined as the number of seeds sired by pollen, contributes half of the genes to the next generation and is therefore crucial to the evolution of natural plant populations. This is the first study to examine effects of insect herbivory on both male and female plant reproductive success. Through controlled field and greenhouse experiments and genetic paternity analysis, we found that foliar damage by insects caused a range of responses by plants. In one environment, damaged plants had greater success as male parents than undamaged plants. Neither effects on pollen competitive ability nor pollinator visitation patterns could explain the greater siring success of these damaged plants. Success of damaged plants as male parents appeared to be due primarily to changes in allocation to flowers versus seeds after damage. Damaged plants produced more flowers early in the season, but not more seeds, than undamaged plants. Based on total seed production, male fitness measures from the first third of the season, and flower production, we estimated that damaged and undamaged plants had equal total reproductive success at the end of the season in this environment. In a second, richer environment, damaged and undamaged plants had equal male and female plant fitness, and no traits differed significantly between the treatments. Equal total reproductive success may not be ecologically or evolutionarily equivalent if it is achieved differentially through male versus female fitness. Genes from damaged plants dispersed through pollen may escape attack from herbivores, if such attack is correlated spatially from year to year.

  15. Potential benefits of nintendo wii fit among people with multiple sclerosis: a longitudinal pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plow, Matthew; Finlayson, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    We examined the potential of Nintendo Wii Fit (Nintendo Co, Ltd, Kyoto, Japan) to increase physical activity (PA) behavior and health among people with multiple sclerosis (MS). The study consisted of a repeated-measures design with a baseline control period and involved 30 people with MS who had the ability to walk 25 feet with or without a cane (26 individuals were included in the analyses). Nintendo Wii was set up in the homes of participants, who were prescribed a Wii Fit exercise program lasting 14 weeks, 3 days a week. The Physical Activity and Disability Survey, Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, and 36-item Short Form Health Status Survey were administered three times before participants gained access to Wii Fit (control period, at 2-week intervals), and three times after they received Wii Fit (posttest 1: immediately after; posttest 2: 7 weeks after; posttest 3: 14 weeks after). Mobility, balance, strength, and weight were assessed at the first pretest, immediately prior to obtaining access to Wii Fit, and 7 weeks after obtaining access to Wii Fit. Results from the questionnaires indicated that PA significantly improved at week 7, but at week 14, PA levels declined relative to week 7 and the difference was no longer significant compared with the control period. Physical assessments indicated that balance and strength significantly improved at week 7. One adverse event was reported (repetitive knee injury). Physical assessments indicated that people with MS may be able to improve their fitness levels by using Wii Fit. Future studies should incorporate behavior change strategies to promote long-term use of Wii Fit, and explore whether individuals with more severe symptoms of MS can safely use Wii Fit.

  16. Youth fitness--problems and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNubile, N A

    1993-07-01

    Review of the current data in the area of youth fitness reveals some alarming trends. Children in the United States are fatter, slower, and weaker than their counterparts in other developed nations. In addition, U.S. children seem to be adopting a sedentary lifestyle at earlier ages. Although there is no easy solution to this problem, there are specific recommendations that can ensure improvement in this area. The cornerstone for any meaningful change must involve programs that seek to increase physical activity both in school and at home. Daily, quality physical education in grades K-12 should be mandated in all states. Parents should be educated regarding the critical importance and the multitude of benefits to be derived from their involvement in fitness-related activities with their children. A healthy balance must be established between sedentary activities, e.g., television and video games, and physical activity. All schools should establish fitness testing programs for children and these should be based on health-fitness parameters rather than on athletic performance variables. To ensure improvements in youth fitness across our nation, other interventions are also necessary. These include appropriate involvement of local communities, state and federal governments, the medical health professions, and the media. Specific strategies are available for each group.

  17. Fitness for duty - a regulator's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.H.; Hall, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Fitness for duty is a legal, moral, emotional, and political issue. It is therefore that type of issue that one would expect industry to run from, opting instead for government intervention and prescriptive regulations. This would allow the industry to hide behind the shield of doing what is necessary to comply. But fitness for duty is also a rational business issue. It involves getting a reasonable return on the investment in the people who are necessary to run the nuclear industry. It is within this context that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has exercised its discretion to not undertake new rule making, instead giving the industry the mandate of pursuing this issue. The NRC has deferred rule making as long as the industry programs are effective in producing the desired results. The NRC has also retained the right to follow up on operational events and to evaluate the effectiveness of the programs in place. The industry, under the leadership of NUMARC, has risen to this challenge and has adopted the August 1985 Edison Electric Institute (EEI) fitness-for-duty program guidelines for implementation by all utilities. In evaluating the effectiveness of programs, the NRC is conducting inspections at some utilities. These inspections have confirmed that the EEI guidelines are being used as the basis for fitness-for-duty programs. Even though the nuclear industry has taken a generally strong stand on fitness for duty and has adopted reasonable guidelines for its assurance, there still remain several challenges

  18. Fitness-driven deactivation in network evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xin-Jian; Peng, Xiao-Long; Fu, Xin-Chu; Small, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Individual nodes in evolving real-world networks typically experience growth and decay—that is, the popularity and influence of individuals peaks and then fades. In this paper, we study this phenomenon via an intrinsic nodal fitness function and an intuitive ageing mechanism. Each node of the network is endowed with a fitness which represents its activity. All the nodes have two discrete stages: active and inactive. The evolution of the network combines the addition of new active nodes randomly connected to existing active ones and the deactivation of old active nodes with a possibility inversely proportional to their fitnesses. We obtain a structured exponential network when the fitness distribution of the individuals is homogeneous and a structured scale-free network with heterogeneous fitness distributions. Furthermore, we recover two universal scaling laws of the clustering coefficient for both cases, C(k) ∼ k −1 and C ∼ n −1 , where k and n refer to the node degree and the number of active individuals, respectively. These results offer a new simple description of the growth and ageing of networks where intrinsic features of individual nodes drive their popularity, and hence degree

  19. Seismicity as dynamic load of pipes and fittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejent, B.

    1984-01-01

    The load is discussed of pipe systems and fittings for nuclear power plants which may result from earthquakes, etc. Modifications of the equation of motion are discussed which may be solved using the response spectrum method or the method of direct numerical integration. A mathematical description of both methods is given. The seismic resistance of fittings, pumps, etc., is experimentally determined by loking for their eigenfrequencies and monitoring the response of equipment to resonance oscillations. The principle is described of uniaxial hydraulic and mechanical shock absorbers and a viscous damper. The presented computation method was used for evaluating the primary circuit (Sigma Modrany) and rods for the remote control of fittings (Sigma Hodonin) supplied for the Mochovce nuclear power plant. Variants were compared of seismic protection of the primary circuit by hydraulic and mechanical shock absorbers with viscous dampers and of circuits without any protection. The unprotected system oscillates in the first harmonic, the system with shock absorbers keeps the deflections within the range of the shock absorber function (to 2 mm), and the system using viscous dampers oscillates approximately according to the first waveform with a deflection of around 11 mm. A diagram and a dynamic model are presented of a rod for the remote control of fittings. Figure shows the computation model and the response of this rod in individual time moments, both affected and not affected by play in the dilatation joint. Table shows the effect of play in the dilatation joint on deformation maxima and on rod bend stress from a symmetric load of 8g. (E.S.)

  20. Fitting neuron models to spike trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille eRossant

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Computational modeling is increasingly used to understand the function of neural circuitsin systems neuroscience.These studies require models of individual neurons with realisticinput-output properties.Recently, it was found that spiking models can accurately predict theprecisely timed spike trains produced by cortical neurons in response tosomatically injected currents,if properly fitted. This requires fitting techniques that are efficientand flexible enough to easily test different candidate models.We present a generic solution, based on the Brian simulator(a neural network simulator in Python, which allowsthe user to define and fit arbitrary neuron models to electrophysiological recordings.It relies on vectorization and parallel computing techniques toachieve efficiency.We demonstrate its use on neural recordings in the barrel cortex andin the auditory brainstem, and confirm that simple adaptive spiking modelscan accurately predict the response of cortical neurons. Finally, we show how a complexmulticompartmental model can be reduced to a simple effective spiking model.

  1. Exertional and CrossFit-Induced Rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michelle; Sundaram, Sneha; Schafhalter-Zoppoth, Ingeborg

    2017-07-14

    Few publications of exercise-induced rhabomyolysis currently exist in the medical literature besides case reports. However, this condition can be severe, resulting in hospitalization and IV fluid administration to prevent serious sequelae. This report describes a case of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis caused by a CrossFit workout. A 31-year-old female presented with 2 days of bilateral upper extremity pain and soreness, which began 2 days after she completed a CrossFit workout. Workup revealed an elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK) of 18 441 U/L, consistent with exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis, and elevated liver function tests and elevated D-dimer, although her renal function was normal. She was hospitalized for 2 days and treated with IV fluids. This case report demonstrates that CrossFit exercises can lead to rhabdomyolysis, highlighting a condition that may be underdiagnosed and underreported.

  2. Exploring the fitness landscape of poliovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Simone; Acevedo, Ashely; Andino, Raul; Tang, Chao

    2012-02-01

    RNA viruses are known to display extraordinary adaptation capabilities to different environments, due to high mutation rates. Their very dynamical evolution is captured by the quasispecies concept, according to which the viral population forms a swarm of genetic variants linked through mutation, which cooperatively interact at a functional level and collectively contribute to the characteristics of the population. The description of the viral fitness landscape becomes paramount towards a more thorough understanding of the virus evolution and spread. The high mutation rate, together with the cooperative nature of the quasispecies, makes it particularly challenging to explore its fitness landscape. I will present an investigation of the dynamical properties of poliovirus fitness landscape, through both the adoption of new experimental techniques and theoretical models.

  3. Least Squares Data Fitting with Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian; Pereyra, Víctor; Scherer, Godela

    As one of the classical statistical regression techniques, and often the first to be taught to new students, least squares fitting can be a very effective tool in data analysis. Given measured data, we establish a relationship between independent and dependent variables so that we can use the data....... In a number of applications, the accuracy and efficiency of the least squares fit is central, and Per Christian Hansen, Víctor Pereyra, and Godela Scherer survey modern computational methods and illustrate them in fields ranging from engineering and environmental sciences to geophysics. Anyone working...... with problems of linear and nonlinear least squares fitting will find this book invaluable as a hands-on guide, with accessible text and carefully explained problems. Included are • an overview of computational methods together with their properties and advantages • topics from statistical regression analysis...

  4. A CAD System for Evaluating Footwear Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadkoohi, Bita Ture; de Amicis, Raffaele

    With the great growth in footwear demand, the footwear manufacturing industry, for achieving commercial success, must be able to provide the footwear that fulfills consumer's requirement better than it's competitors. Accurate fitting for shoes is an important factor in comfort and functionality. Footwear fitter measurement have been using manual measurement for a long time, but the development of 3D acquisition devices and the advent of powerful 3D visualization and modeling techniques, automatically analyzing, searching and interpretation of the models have now made automatic determination of different foot dimensions feasible. In this paper, we proposed an approach for finding footwear fit within the shoe last data base. We first properly aligned the 3D models using "Weighted" Principle Component Analysis (WPCA). After solving the alignment problem we used an efficient algorithm for cutting the 3D model in order to find the footwear fit from shoe last data base.

  5. Evaluating Suit Fit Using Performance Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerum, Sarah E.; Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    The Mark III suit has multiple sizes of suit components (arm, leg, and gloves) as well as sizing inserts to tailor the fit of the suit to an individual. This study sought to determine a way to identify the point an ideal suit fit transforms into a bad fit and how to quantify this breakdown using mobility-based physical performance data. This study examined the changes in human physical performance via degradation of the elbow and wrist range of motion of the planetary suit prototype (Mark III) with respect to changes in sizing and as well as how to apply that knowledge to suit sizing options and improvements in suit fit. The methods implemented in this study focused on changes in elbow and wrist mobility due to incremental suit sizing modifications. This incremental sizing was within a range that included both optimum and poor fit. Suited range of motion data was collected using a motion analysis system for nine isolated and functional tasks encompassing the elbow and wrist joints. A total of four subjects were tested with motions involving both arms simultaneously as well as the right arm only. The results were then compared across sizing configurations. The results of this study indicate that range of motion may be used as a viable parameter to quantify at what stage suit sizing causes a detriment in performance; however the human performance decrement appeared to be based on the interaction of multiple joints along a limb, not a single joint angle. The study was able to identify a preliminary method to quantify the impact of size on performance and to develop a means to gauge tolerances around optimal size. More work is needed to improve the assessment of optimal fit and to compensate for multiple joint interactions.

  6. From Curve Fitting to Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Zielesny, Achim

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of experimental data is at heart of science from its beginnings. But it was the advent of digital computers that allowed the execution of highly non-linear and increasingly complex data analysis procedures - methods that were completely unfeasible before. Non-linear curve fitting, clustering and machine learning belong to these modern techniques which are a further step towards computational intelligence. The goal of this book is to provide an interactive and illustrative guide to these topics. It concentrates on the road from two dimensional curve fitting to multidimensional clus

  7. Hearing Aid Fitting: Monaural vs. Binaural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Keshani

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issue for selecting and fitting of hearing aids that should receive special attention is binaural amplification. According to several investigations, superiority of binaural amplification on monaural one is confirmed. Binaural Amplification may have considerable effects on fromation and developing of superior dimensions of hearing including: Localization, Binaural squelch (Better hearing in presence of noise. So, it is necessary to know the basic and scientific concepts and applicable principles of binaural hearing and binaural fitting. Present paper deals with this important subject.

  8. A comparison of wearable fitness devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewkannate, Kanitthika; Kim, Soochan

    2016-05-24

    Wearable trackers can help motivate you during workouts and provide information about your daily routine or fitness in combination with your smartphone without requiring potentially disruptive manual calculations or records. This paper summarizes and compares wearable fitness devices, also called "fitness trackers" or "activity trackers." These devices are becoming increasingly popular in personal healthcare, motivating people to exercise more throughout the day without the need for lifestyle changes. The various choices in the market for wearable devices are also increasing, with customers searching for products that best suit their personal needs. Further, using a wearable device or fitness tracker can help people reach a fitness goal or finish line. Generally, companies display advertising for these kinds of products and depict them as beneficial, user friendly, and accurate. However, there are no objective research results to prove the veracity of their words. This research features subjective and objective experimental results, which reveal that some devices perform better than others. The four most popular wristband style wearable devices currently on the market (Withings Pulse, Misfit Shine, Jawbone Up24, and Fitbit Flex) are selected and compared. The accuracy of fitness tracking is one of the key components for fitness tracking, and some devices perform better than others. This research shows subjective and objective experimental results that are used to compare the accuracy of four wearable devices in conjunction with user friendliness and satisfaction of 7 real users. In addition, this research matches the opinions between reviewers on an Internet site and those of subjects when using the device. Withings Pulse is the most friendly and satisfactory from the users' viewpoint. It is the most accurate and repeatable for step and distance tracking, which is the most important measurement of fitness tracking, followed by Fitbit Flex, Jawbone Up24, and Misfit

  9. A comparison of wearable fitness devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanitthika Kaewkannate

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wearable trackers can help motivate you during workouts and provide information about your daily routine or fitness in combination with your smartphone without requiring potentially disruptive manual calculations or records. This paper summarizes and compares wearable fitness devices, also called “fitness trackers” or “activity trackers.” These devices are becoming increasingly popular in personal healthcare, motivating people to exercise more throughout the day without the need for lifestyle changes. The various choices in the market for wearable devices are also increasing, with customers searching for products that best suit their personal needs. Further, using a wearable device or fitness tracker can help people reach a fitness goal or finish line. Generally, companies display advertising for these kinds of products and depict them as beneficial, user friendly, and accurate. However, there are no objective research results to prove the veracity of their words. This research features subjective and objective experimental results, which reveal that some devices perform better than others. Methods The four most popular wristband style wearable devices currently on the market (Withings Pulse, Misfit Shine, Jawbone Up24, and Fitbit Flex are selected and compared. The accuracy of fitness tracking is one of the key components for fitness tracking, and some devices perform better than others. This research shows subjective and objective experimental results that are used to compare the accuracy of four wearable devices in conjunction with user friendliness and satisfaction of 7 real users. In addition, this research matches the opinions between reviewers on an Internet site and those of subjects when using the device. Results Withings Pulse is the most friendly and satisfactory from the users’ viewpoint. It is the most accurate and repeatable for step and distance tracking, which is the most important measurement of

  10. The benefits of interpersonal regulatory fit for individual goal pursuit.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Righetti, F.; Finkenauer, C.; Rusbult, C. E.

    2011-01-01

    The present work examines whether individual goal pursuit is influenced by advice and suggestions from interaction partners whose regulatory orientation is perceived to fit (vs. not fit) the individual's orientation. We sought to investigate whether such interpersonal regulatory fit yields

  11. Control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Kazuo; Shimoshige, Takanori; Nishimura, Akira

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: A control rod has been developed, which provided a plurality of through-holes in the vicinity of the sheath fitting position, in order to flatten burn-up, of fuel rods in positions confronting a control rod. Thereby to facilitate the manufacture of the control rods and prevent fuel rod failures. Constitution: A plurality of through-holes are formed in the vicinity of the sheath fitting position of a central support rod to which a sheath for the control rod is fitted. These through-holes are arranged in the axial direction of the central support rod. Accordingly, burn-up of fuel rods confronting the control rods can be reduced by through-holes and fuel rod failures can be prevented. (Yoshino, Y.)

  12. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Motor Skills in Relation to Cognition and Academic Performance in Children – A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, Eero A.

    2013-01-01

    Different elements of physical fitness in children have shown a declining trend during the past few decades. Cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills have been associated with cognition, but the magnitude of this association remains unknown. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the relationship of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills with cognitive functions and academic performance in children up to 13 years of age. Cross-sectional studies suggest that children with higher cardiorespiratory fitness have more efficient cognitive processing at the neuroelectric level, as well as larger hippocampal and basal ganglia volumes, compared to children with lower cardiorespiratory fitness. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness has been associated with better inhibitory control in tasks requiring rigorous attention allocation. Better motor skills have been related to more efficient cognitive functions including inhibitory control and working memory. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness and better motor skills have also been associated with better academic performance. Furthermore, none of the studies on cardiorespiratory fitness have revealed independent associations with cognitive functions by controlling for motor skills. Studies concerning the relationship between motor skills and cognitive functions also did not consider cardiorespiratory fitness in the analyses. The results of this review suggest that high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills may be beneficial for cognitive development and academic performance but the evidence relies mainly on cross-sectional studies. PMID:23717355

  13. There is no fitness but fitness, and the lineage is its bearer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive fitness has been the cornerstone of social evolution theory for more than a half-century and has matured as a mathematical theory in the past 20 years. Yet surprisingly for a theory so central to an entire field, some of its connections to evolutionary theory more broadly remain contentious or underappreciated. In this paper, we aim to emphasize the connection between inclusive fitness and modern evolutionary theory through the following fact: inclusive fitness is simply classical Darwinian fitness, averaged over social, environmental and demographic states that members of a gene lineage experience. Therefore, inclusive fitness is neither a generalization of classical fitness, nor does it belong exclusively to the individual. Rather, the lineage perspective emphasizes that evolutionary success is determined by the effect of selection on all biological and environmental contexts that a lineage may experience. We argue that this understanding of inclusive fitness based on gene lineages provides the most illuminating and accurate picture and avoids pitfalls in interpretation and empirical applications of inclusive fitness theory. PMID:26729925

  14. There is no fitness but fitness, and the lineage is its bearer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay, Erol; Van Cleve, Jeremy

    2016-02-05

    Inclusive fitness has been the cornerstone of social evolution theory for more than a half-century and has matured as a mathematical theory in the past 20 years. Yet surprisingly for a theory so central to an entire field, some of its connections to evolutionary theory more broadly remain contentious or underappreciated. In this paper, we aim to emphasize the connection between inclusive fitness and modern evolutionary theory through the following fact: inclusive fitness is simply classical Darwinian fitness, averaged over social, environmental and demographic states that members of a gene lineage experience. Therefore, inclusive fitness is neither a generalization of classical fitness, nor does it belong exclusively to the individual. Rather, the lineage perspective emphasizes that evolutionary success is determined by the effect of selection on all biological and environmental contexts that a lineage may experience. We argue that this understanding of inclusive fitness based on gene lineages provides the most illuminating and accurate picture and avoids pitfalls in interpretation and empirical applications of inclusive fitness theory. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Physical fitness in people with posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Richards, Justin; Ward, Philip B; Firth, Joseph; Schuch, Felipe B; Rosenbaum, Simon

    2017-12-01

    People with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Physical fitness is a key modifiable risk factor for CVD and associated mortality. We reviewed the evidence-base regarding physical fitness in people with PTSD. Two independent reviewers searched PubMed, CINAHL, PsycARTICLES, PEDro, and SPORTDiscus from inception until May 2016 using the key words "fitness" OR "exercise" AND "posttraumatic stress disorder" OR "PTSD". In total, 5 studies involving 192 (44 female) individuals with PTSD met the inclusion criteria. Lower baseline physical fitness are associated with greater reductions in avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms, as well as with total, physical, and social symptoms of anxiety sensitivity. Rigorous data comparing physical fitness with age- and gender matched general population controls are currently lacking. The research field regarding physical fitness in people with PTSD is still in its infancy. Given the established relationships between physical fitness, morbidity and mortality in the general population and the current gaps in the PTSD literature, targets for future research include exploring: (a) whether people with PTSD are at risk of low physical fitness and therefore in need of intensified assessment, treatment and follow-up, (b) the relationships among physical fitness, overall health status, chronic disease risk reduction, disability, and mortality in individuals PTSD, (c) psychometric properties of submaximal physical fitness tests in PTSD, (d) physical fitness changes following physical activity in PTSD, and (e) optimal methods of integrating physical activity programs within current treatment models for PTSD. Implications for Rehabilitation People with PTSD should aim to achieve 150 minutes of moderate or 75 minutes vigorous physical activity per week while also engaging in resistance training exercises at least twice a week. Health care professionals should assist people with PTSD to

  16. A comparison of fit of CNC-milled titanium and zirconia frameworks to implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduo, Jaafar; Lyons, Karl; Waddell, Neil; Bennani, Vincent; Swain, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Computer numeric controlled (CNC) milling was proven to be predictable method to fabricate accurately fitting implant titanium frameworks. However, no data are available regarding the fit of CNC-milled implant zirconia frameworks. To compare the precision of fit of implant frameworks milled from titanium and zirconia and relate it to peri-implant strain development after framework fixation. A partially edentulous epoxy resin models received two Branemark implants in the areas of the lower left second premolar and second molar. From this model, 10 identical frameworks were fabricated by mean of CNC milling. Half of them were made from titanium and the other half from zirconia. Strain gauges were mounted close to the implants to qualitatively and quantitatively assess strain development as a result of framework fitting. In addition, the fit of the framework implant interface was measured using an optical microscope, when only one screw was tightened (passive fit) and when all screws were tightened (vertical fit). The data was statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. All frameworks produced measurable amounts of peri-implant strain. The zirconia frameworks produced significantly less strain than titanium. Combining the qualitative and quantitative information indicates that the implants were under vertical displacement rather than horizontal. The vertical fit was similar for zirconia (3.7 µm) and titanium (3.6 µm) frameworks; however, the zirconia frameworks exhibited a significantly finer passive fit (5.5 µm) than titanium frameworks (13.6 µm). CNC milling produced zirconia and titanium frameworks with high accuracy. The difference between the two materials in terms of fit is expected to be of minimal clinical significance. The strain developed around the implants was more related to the framework fit rather than framework material. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Factorial structure of aerobics athletes’ fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Shepelenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to develop an algorithm of teams’ formation in sport aerobics and to define factorial structure of athletes’ fitness. Material : in the research sport aerobics’ athletes (n=19 participated. All athletes are members of Kharkiv national team (Ukraine. All athletes underwent complete medical examination. The functional condition of an organism (arterial blood pressure, indicators of a variability of the rhythm of the heart, treadbahn testing, psycho-physiological state (time’s determination of simple and complex reaction were defined. The physical development and physical fitness and stability of vestibular system were also defined. The factorial and cluster analysis were used. Results : The algorithm of teams’ formation in sport aerobics is developed for performances in various competitive categories. The algorithm contains all stages of standard procedure of the factorial and cluster analysis. In the factorial analysis the individual factorial values were also defined. Conclusions : The obtained data are recommended to be used at teams’ formation for performances in various competitive categories: team formation for pair and group performances. The general and individual factorial structure of athletes’ complex fitness is defined. It is possible to select athletes with similar qualities and with different qualities for the mixed performances. The determination of individual factorial structure of fitness permits to estimate objectively variants of athletes’ formation in groups.

  18. ALFA: an automated line fitting algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, R.

    2016-03-01

    I present the automated line fitting algorithm, ALFA, a new code which can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary wavelength coverage and resolution, fully automatically. In contrast to traditional emission line fitting methods which require the identification of spectral features suspected to be emission lines, ALFA instead uses a list of lines which are expected to be present to construct a synthetic spectrum. The parameters used to construct the synthetic spectrum are optimized by means of a genetic algorithm. Uncertainties are estimated using the noise structure of the residuals. An emission line spectrum containing several hundred lines can be fitted in a few seconds using a single processor of a typical contemporary desktop or laptop PC. I show that the results are in excellent agreement with those measured manually for a number of spectra. Where discrepancies exist, the manually measured fluxes are found to be less accurate than those returned by ALFA. Together with the code NEAT, ALFA provides a powerful way to rapidly extract physical information from observations, an increasingly vital function in the era of highly multiplexed spectroscopy. The two codes can deliver a reliable and comprehensive analysis of very large data sets in a few hours with little or no user interaction.

  19. Fitness to drive after traumatic brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, WH; Withaar, FK

    This paper deals with the issue of fitness to drive in patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Guidelines for assessment are proposed and three types of studies are reviewed: studies about impairments of attention and information processing, studies of driving competence, and driver

  20. GLOBAL AND STRICT CURVE FITTING METHOD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakajima, Y.; Mori, S.

    2004-01-01

    To find a global and smooth curve fitting, cubic B­Spline method and gathering­ line methods are investigated. When segmenting and recognizing a contour curve of character shape, some global method is required. If we want to connect contour curves around a singular point like crossing points,

  1. Testimony on Physical Fitness for Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    Collected here are fourteen statements on the beneficial effects of physical fitness programs for older persons presented at hearings before the Subcommittee on Aging of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, U.S. Senate. Areas discussed include: What research tells us regarding the contribution of exercise to the health of older people;…

  2. Anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These included 24 university-level, 17 provincial-level, and 14 national team players. Anthropometric data included age, stature, body mass, sum of seven skinfolds and percentage body fat. The fitness characteristics included flexibility, strength, explosive power, muscular endurance, agility, speed and aerobic endurance.

  3. FITNESS SCAVENGER HUNTS for Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighle, Aaron; Darst, Paul W.

    2004-01-01

    The field of physical education continues to shift from an emphasis on physical fitness to a focus on regular physical activity. Routines of the past such as jogging, push-ups, and sit-ups are now giving way to more thoughtful, creative routines designed to motivate students by making physical education more fun and diversified. Ranging from 7-10…

  4. Analytical fits to the synchrotron functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouka, Mourad; Ouichaoui, Saad

    2013-06-01

    Accurate fitting formulae to the synchrotron function, F(x), and its complementary function, G(x), are performed and presented. The corresponding relative errors are less than 0.26% and 0.035% for F(x) and G(x), respectively. To this end we have, first, fitted the modified Bessel functions, K5/3(x) and K2/3(x). For all the fitted functions, the general fit expression is the same, and is based on the well known asymptotic forms for low and large values of x for each function. It consists of multiplying each asymptotic form by a function that tends to unity or zero for low and large values of x. Simple formulae are suggested in this paper, depending on adjustable parameters. The latter have been determined by adopting the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The proposed formulae should be of great utility and simplicity for computing spectral powers and the degree of polarization for synchrotron radiation, both for laboratory and astrophysical applications.

  5. Fitting Hidden Markov Models to Psychological Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Visser

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Markov models have been used extensively in psychology of learning. Applications of hidden Markov models are rare however. This is partially due to the fact that comprehensive statistics for model selection and model assessment are lacking in the psychological literature. We present model selection and model assessment statistics that are particularly useful in applying hidden Markov models in psychology. These statistics are presented and evaluated by simulation studies for a toy example. We compare AIC, BIC and related criteria and introduce a prediction error measure for assessing goodness-of-fit. In a simulation study, two methods of fitting equality constraints are compared. In two illustrative examples with experimental data we apply selection criteria, fit models with constraints and assess goodness-of-fit. First, data from a concept identification task is analyzed. Hidden Markov models provide a flexible approach to analyzing such data when compared to other modeling methods. Second, a novel application of hidden Markov models in implicit learning is presented. Hidden Markov models are used in this context to quantify knowledge that subjects express in an implicit learning task. This method of analyzing implicit learning data provides a comprehensive approach for addressing important theoretical issues in the field.

  6. Functional Fitness Monitor (FFM) : multidisciplinair innovatieproject

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Johan; van Holland, Berry; van Ittersum, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Doel van het project Functional Fitness Monitor (FFM) was het ontwikkelen van een innovatieve combinatie van test-, meet- en gedragsbeïnvloedings-technologie voor werknemers met fysiek en mentaal zware beroepen. De samenwerkende Groningse MKB-bedrijven en kennisinstanties beogen een prototype van

  7. Simplified pressure method for respirator fit testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D; Xu, M; Foo, S; Pilacinski, W; Willeke, K

    1991-08-01

    A simplified pressure method has been developed for fit testing air-purifying respirators. In this method, the air-purifying cartridges are replaced by a pressure-sensing attachment and a valve. While wearers hold their breath, a small pump extracts air from the respirator cavity until a steady-state pressure is reached in 1 to 2 sec. The flow rate through the face seal leak is a unique function of this pressure, which is determined once for all respirators, regardless of the respirator's cavity volume or deformation because of pliability. The contaminant concentration inside the respirator depends on the degree of dilution by the flow through the cartridges. The cartridge flow varies among different brands and is measured once for each brand. The ratio of cartridge to leakflow is a measure of fit. This flow ratio has been measured on human subjects and has been compared to fit factors determined on the same subjects by means of photometric and particle count tests. The aerosol tests gave higher values of fit.

  8. Fitness Fun with a Nutritional Twist!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Kristie

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how to integrate nutrition concepts into physical education activities that include aspects of health- and/or skill-related fitness and relevant nutritional information. Three activities, which are applicable to K-12 physical education classes, are showcased.

  9. Simplifying cochlear implant speech processor fitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willeboer, C.

    2008-01-01

    Conventional fittings of the speech processor of a cochlear implant (CI) rely to a large extent on the implant recipient's subjective responses. For each of the 22 intracochlear electrodes the recipient has to indicate the threshold level (T-level) and comfortable loudness level (C-level) while

  10. Sealing a Loosely Fitting Valve Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, L.; Tellier, G.

    1986-01-01

    Double-ring seal avoids expense of remachining or redesigning valve parts. Mating fittings on valve sealed by pair of rings - one O-ring and backup ring. Backup ring fills relatively large gap between parts. Prevents softer O-ring from being pushed into and through gap.

  11. Enforced Clonality Confers a Fitness Advantage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínková, Jana; Klimešová, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, 26 January (2016), s. 1-10, č. článku 2. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : disturbance * root sprouting * fitness Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  12. Construct Validity of Physical Fitness Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    Powers, S. K., Lawler, J., Ayers, D., & Stuart, M. K. (1991). Physiological correlates to 800 meter running performance. Journal of Sports Medicine and... isokinetic tests. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 36, 169-177. *Myers, D. C., Gebhardt, D. L., Crump, C.E., & Fleishman, E. A. (1984

  13. Empowering University Students through Physical Fitness for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the findings of a study that investigated 252 University of Ilorin students' awareness of the benefits of physical fitness and the need for empowering them for lifetime productivity. Data were collected using a self developed questionnaire and analysed using frequency counts, percentage and chi-square.

  14. Complex growing networks with intrinsic vertex fitness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedogne, C.; Rodgers, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    One of the major questions in complex network research is to identify the range of mechanisms by which a complex network can self organize into a scale-free state. In this paper we investigate the interplay between a fitness linking mechanism and both random and preferential attachment. In our models, each vertex is assigned a fitness x, drawn from a probability distribution ρ(x). In Model A, at each time step a vertex is added and joined to an existing vertex, selected at random, with probability p and an edge is introduced between vertices with fitnesses x and y, with a rate f(x,y), with probability 1-p. Model B differs from Model A in that, with probability p, edges are added with preferential attachment rather than randomly. The analysis of Model A shows that, for every fixed fitness x, the network's degree distribution decays exponentially. In Model B we recover instead a power-law degree distribution whose exponent depends only on p, and we show how this result can be generalized. The properties of a number of particular networks are examined

  15. Herbivory eliminates fitness costs of mutualism exploiters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Anna K; Stinchcombe, John R

    2014-04-01

    A common empirical observation in mutualistic interactions is the persistence of variation in partner quality and, in particular, the persistence of exploitative phenotypes. For mutualisms between hosts and symbionts, most mutualism theory assumes that exploiters always impose fitness costs on their host. We exposed legume hosts to mutualistic (nitrogen-fixing) and exploitative (non-nitrogen-fixing) symbiotic rhizobia in field conditions, and manipulated the presence or absence of insect herbivory to determine if the costly fitness effects of exploitative rhizobia are context-dependent. Exploitative rhizobia predictably reduced host fitness when herbivores were excluded. However, insects caused greater damage on hosts associating with mutualistic rhizobia, as a consequence of feeding preferences related to leaf nitrogen content, resulting in the elimination of fitness costs imposed on hosts by exploitative rhizobia. Our experiment shows that herbivory is potentially an important factor in influencing the evolutionary dynamic between legumes and rhizobia. Partner choice and host sanctioning are theoretically predicted to stabilize mutualisms by reducing the frequency of exploitative symbionts. We argue that herbivore pressure may actually weaken selection on choice and sanction mechanisms, thus providing one explanation of why host-based discrimination mechanisms may not be completely effective in eliminating nonbeneficial partners. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Induced subgraph searching for geometric model fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fan; Xiao, Guobao; Yan, Yan; Wang, Xing; Wang, Hanzi

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel model fitting method based on graphs to fit and segment multiple-structure data. In the graph constructed on data, each model instance is represented as an induced subgraph. Following the idea of pursuing the maximum consensus, the multiple geometric model fitting problem is formulated as searching for a set of induced subgraphs including the maximum union set of vertices. After the generation and refinement of the induced subgraphs that represent the model hypotheses, the searching process is conducted on the "qualified" subgraphs. Multiple model instances can be simultaneously estimated by solving a converted problem. Then, we introduce the energy evaluation function to determine the number of model instances in data. The proposed method is able to effectively estimate the number and the parameters of model instances in data severely corrupted by outliers and noises. Experimental results on synthetic data and real images validate the favorable performance of the proposed method compared with several state-of-the-art fitting methods.

  17. Gezondheidsgerelateerde fitness van gesedenteerde senioren in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Greef, M.; Popkema, D.; Kroes, G.; Middel, B.

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of fitness is a component of a national project aimed at the enhancement of physical avtivity among sedentary older adults, aged 55-65 year in the Netherlands. Deterioration in physical functioning may be improved through an exercise programme. Research showed that enhancement of

  18. Robust fitting of diurnal brightness temperature cycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Udahemuka, G

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available for a pixel concerned. Robust fitting of observed Diurnal Temperature Cycle (DTC) taken over a day of a given pixel without cloud cover and other abnormally conditions such as fire can give a data based brightness temperature model for a given pixel...

  19. Cardiorespiratory fitness and death from cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Holtermann, Andreas; Bay, Hans

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Poor cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with death from cancer. If follow-up time is short, this association may be confounded by subclinical disease already present at the time of CRF assessment. This study investigates the association between CRF and death from cancer...

  20. Physical Fitness, Grit, School Attendance, and Academic Performance among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Jonathan M; Chen, Yen T; Castelli, Darla M

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of grit as a construct representing perseverance to overcoming barriers and the total number of school absences to academic performance (AP) while controlling for sociodemographics, fitness (i.e., PACER), and Body Mass Index (BMI). Adolescents ( N = 397, SD = 1.85; 80.9% females; 77.1% Hispanic) from an urban, minority-majority city in the Southern United States completed the FitnessGram® assessment of physical fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity and Body Mass Index (BMI)) and the valid and reliable short grit survey. The schools provided sociodemographics, attendance, and AP data for the adolescents. Adolescents with higher grit scores ( r s = 0.21, P < 0.001) and less total absences ( r s = -0.35, P < 0.001) performed better on AP. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that grit and absences were associated with AP ( β = 0.13, P < 0.01 and β = -0.35, P < 0.001, resp.). Grit and a total number of absences are significant contributors to academic success, particularly among Hispanic adolescents. Further, grit and school attendance may serve as a better measure of protective factors over proximal health measures of cardiovascular health and BMI.

  1. Environmentally induced development costs underlie fitness tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Greg M; Wilkinson, Melanie J; Aguirre, J David; Blows, Mark W; Ortiz-Barrientos, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    Local adaptation can lead to genotype-by-environment interactions, which can create fitness tradeoffs in alternative environments, and govern the distribution of biodiversity across geographic landscapes. Exploring the ecological circumstances that promote the evolution of fitness tradeoffs requires identifying how natural selection operates and during which ontogenetic stages natural selection is strongest. When organisms disperse to areas outside their natural range, tradeoffs might emerge when organisms struggle to reach key life history stages, or alternatively, die shortly after reaching life history stages if there are greater risks of mortality associated with costs to developing in novel environments. We used multiple populations from four ecotypes of an Australian native wildflower (Senecio pinnatifolius) in reciprocal transplants to explore how fitness tradeoffs arise across ontogeny. We then assessed whether the survival probability for plants from native and foreign populations was contingent on reaching key developmental stages. We found that fitness tradeoffs emerged as ontogeny progressed when native plants were more successful than foreign plants at reaching seedling establishment and maturity. Native and foreign plants that failed to reach seedling establishment died at the same rate, but plants from foreign populations died quicker than native plants after reaching seedling establishment, and died quicker regardless of whether they reached sexual maturity or not. Development rates were similar for native and foreign populations, but changed depending on the environment. Together, our results suggest that natural selection for environment-specific traits early in life history created tradeoffs between contrasting environments. Plants from foreign populations were either unable to develop to seedling establishment, or they suffered increased mortality as a consequence of reaching seedling establishment. The observation of tradeoffs together with

  2. PEDIATRIC FITNESS: SECULAR TRENDS AND GEOGRAPHIC VARIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant R. Tomkinson

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This book describes and discusses children's physical capacity in terms of aerobic and anaerobic power generation according to secular trends and geographic variability. PURPOSE To discuss the controversial issue of whether present day's children and adolescents are fitter than their equals of the past and whether they are fitter if they live in the more prosperous countries. AUDIENCE Pediatricians, medical practitioners, physical educators, exercise and/or sport scientists, exercise physiologists, personal trainers and graduate students in relevant fields will find this book helpful when dealing with contemporary trends and geographic variability in pediatric fitness. FEATURES The volume starts by examining the general picture on children fitness by the editors. The individual chapter's authors discuses the data gathered since the late 1950s on secular trends and geographic changeability in aerobic and anaerobic pediatric fitness performances of children and adolescents from 23 countries in Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East and North America. There are chapters proposing that there is proof that there has been a world-wide decline in pediatric aerobic performance in recent decades, relative stability in anaerobic performance, and that the best performing children come from northern and central Europe. In final chapters possible causes to that end are considered, including whether weakening in aerobic performance are the result of distributional or widespread declines, and whether increases in obesity alone can explain the failure in aerobic performance. ASSESSMENT The editors have assembled a volume of Medicine and Sports Science that is necessary and essential reading for all who are interested in understanding and improving the fitness of children. The readers will find useful information in this book on secular trends and geographic variability in pediatric fitness. I believe, the book will serve as a first

  3. Lessons learned from health and fitness prescription: a Malaysian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalib A. Latiff

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Proportion of chronic diseases sufferers are increased by age. The usual control measures are therapeutic prescription and clinical counseling. However, its low compliance rate has interfered this effort. Therefore, community intervention can be a suitable prescriptive option to provide a long lasting effect. For that, a package of community intervention has been established in one sub-urban area in Malaysia to observe its acceptability, thus it can be acted as a social instrumentation to bring both biological and social benefits to this group of community. This study used quasi-experimental design on a cohort of elderly citizen aged 45 and above. Respondents are exposed to a mixed and planned prescribed fitness activity using participatory approach. Process involved in program implementation is closely observed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Community participation occurred in a positive and fast mode, with 78% being the elderly people aged above 45 years old. Initial observation revealed that about 47.6% suffering hypertension, while 38.4% hypercholesterolemia, 16.8% obese and 7.1% diabetes mellitus. Physically active members were moderate - about 31.0%. In term of process, participatory approach seems to be very effective to mobilize community towards health and fitness. A planned community fitness program is a form of social instrumentation to bring biological and social benefits to chronic diseases sufferers. It has also useful to promote favorable lifestyle and quality of life of this group of people. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:39-46 Keywords: community intervention, community participation, fitness program, disease burden

  4. Sport specific fitness testing of elite badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, M K; Wong, A S; So, R C; Siu, O T; Steininger, K; Lo, D T

    1995-01-01

    There is a scarcity of descriptive data on the performance capacity of elite badminton players, whose fitness requirements are quite specific. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the physiological response of elite badminton players in a sport-specific fitness test. Twelve Hong Kong national badminton team players performed a field test on a badminton court. Six light bulbs were connected to a programming device causing individual bulbs to light up in a given sequence. The players were instructed to react to the flashes by running towards them, and striking shuttles mounted in the vicinity of the bulbs. Exercise intensity was controlled by altering the interval between successive lightings. A low correlation (r = 0.65) was found between the results of the field test and the rank-order list of subjects, based on an objective on-field physiological assessment and subjective ranking. This may be explained by the requirements of other factors besides physical fitness which contribute to success in elite level badminton competition. These factors may include, for example, technical skill, mental power, and aesthetic judgements on the court. Maximum mean (s.d.) heart rate data (187(8) beats.min-1) and blood lactate values (10.4(2.9) mmol.l-1) in this study showed that players were under maximal load during the field test. From the testing data, it seems reasonable to speculate that the intensity of level 3 (20 light pulses.min-1; 3.0 s.pulse-1) and level 4 (22 light pulses.min-1; 2.7 s.pulse-1) simulates the requirement of actual games energy expenditure of the Hong Kong badminton players exercising at close to their anaerobic threshold. The results also show that an estimate of fitness can be derived from measurements involving exercise closely resembling that which is specific for the sports activity in question. Improved training advice and guidance may result from such studies. PMID:8800846

  5. Brain perfusion SPECT in children with frequent fits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiskala, H.; Launes, J.; Pihko, H.; Nikkinen, P.; Santavuori, P.

    1993-01-01

    We studied 14 children with frequent fits using 99m Tc-HM-PAO single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). There were 11 patients with partial secondary generalized epilepsy (PSGE) and 3 with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS). The typical regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) finding in PSGE was a single area of abnormally low perfused cortex, and that in LGS, multiple hypoperfused areas. Clinically, the LGS patients were more severely affected. SPECT was more sensitive in detecting abnormalities than EEG, CT or MRI. Extensive impairment of rCBF may thus indicate unfavourable development of intellectual performance and poor seizure control. (author)

  6. Use of nutritional supplements by Danish elite athletes and fitness customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, Sara Amalie; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Ritz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The nutritional supplement (NS) industry is one of the fastest growing in the world, and NS use in Denmark is among the highest in Europe. However, the exact use in elite athletes and fitness customers targeted for doping control is unknown. Information from 634 doping control forms obtained...... an association between NS and doping abuse. The present results demonstrate a very high prevalence of NS usage in both elite athletes and fitness customers. This highlights the importance of a strong national regulation of NS to avoid contamination of NS with doping substances....... in 2014 was evaluated (elite athletes: n = 361; fitness customers: n = 273). The majority of female (92.6%) and male (85.0%) elite athletes and female (100.0%) and male (94.0%) fitness customers declared using one or more NS. The use of non-ergogenic NS was more prevalent in women than in men...

  7. Adiposity, Aerobic Fitness, Muscle Fitness, and Markers of Inflammation in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Kolle, Elin; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe levels of inflammation markers in Norwegian children and to examine the associations of adiposity, aerobic fitness and muscle fitness with markers of inflammation. METHODS: In 2005-2006, 1467 9-year-olds wererandomly selected from all regions...... explosive, isometric and endurance strength. Aerobic fitness was measured directly during a maximal cycle ergometer test. Adiposity was expressed as waist circumference (WC). RESULTS: The girls had significantly higher levels of CRP, leptin, adiponectin and resistin and lower levels of TNF-α compared...

  8. Effects of population outcrossing on rotifer fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Outcrossing between populations can exert either positive or negative effects on offspring fitness. Cyclically parthenogenetic rotifers, like other continental zooplankters, show high genetic differentiation despite their high potential for passive dispersal. Within this context, the effects of outcrossing may be relevant in modulating gene flow between populations through selection for or against interpopulation hybrids. Nevertheless, these effects remain practically unexplored in rotifers. Here, the consequences of outcrossing on the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis were investigated. Cross-mating experiments were performed between a reference population and three alternative populations that differed in their genetic distance with regard to the former. Two offspring generations were obtained: F1 and BC ('backcross'). Fitness of the outcrossed offspring was compared with fitness of the offspring of the reference population for both generations and for three different between-population combinations. Four fitness components were measured throughout the rotifer life cycle: the diapausing egg-hatching proportion, clone viability (for the clones originating from diapausing eggs), initial net growth rate R for each viable clone, and the proportion of male-producing clones. Additionally, both the parental fertilisation proportion and a compound fitness measure, integrating the complete life cycle, were estimated. Results In the F1 generation, hybrid vigour was detected for the diapausing egg-hatching proportion, while R was lower in the outcrossed offspring than in the offspring of the reference population. Despite these contrasting results, hybrid vigour was globally observed for the compound measure of fitness. Moreover, there was evidence that this vigour could increase with the genetic differentiation of the outcrossed populations. In the BC generation, the hybrid vigour detected for the egg-hatching proportion in the F1 generation reverted to outbreeding

  9. Effects of population outcrossing on rotifer fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra Manuel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outcrossing between populations can exert either positive or negative effects on offspring fitness. Cyclically parthenogenetic rotifers, like other continental zooplankters, show high genetic differentiation despite their high potential for passive dispersal. Within this context, the effects of outcrossing may be relevant in modulating gene flow between populations through selection for or against interpopulation hybrids. Nevertheless, these effects remain practically unexplored in rotifers. Here, the consequences of outcrossing on the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis were investigated. Cross-mating experiments were performed between a reference population and three alternative populations that differed in their genetic distance with regard to the former. Two offspring generations were obtained: F1 and BC ('backcross'. Fitness of the outcrossed offspring was compared with fitness of the offspring of the reference population for both generations and for three different between-population combinations. Four fitness components were measured throughout the rotifer life cycle: the diapausing egg-hatching proportion, clone viability (for the clones originating from diapausing eggs, initial net growth rate R for each viable clone, and the proportion of male-producing clones. Additionally, both the parental fertilisation proportion and a compound fitness measure, integrating the complete life cycle, were estimated. Results In the F1 generation, hybrid vigour was detected for the diapausing egg-hatching proportion, while R was lower in the outcrossed offspring than in the offspring of the reference population. Despite these contrasting results, hybrid vigour was globally observed for the compound measure of fitness. Moreover, there was evidence that this vigour could increase with the genetic differentiation of the outcrossed populations. In the BC generation, the hybrid vigour detected for the egg-hatching proportion in the F1

  10. Fitting in of cogeneration into central heating systems; Inpassing warmte/kracht in cv-systemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rulkens, L.J.W. [FD-Bouwzaken, Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuurbeheer en Visserij LNV, Wageningen (Netherlands); Tijs, J.C. [Tijs Energy Systems, Wijk bij Duurstede (Netherlands); Wammes, J.A. [Emicon, Veenendaal (Netherlands)

    1997-02-01

    The choice for the size of a combined heat and power generating unit as well as the hydraulic and control engineering fitting in into existing central heating systems bears some pitfalls in practice. Those problems are inventorized and compiled for the manual `Design rules for the fitting in of cogeneration into central heating systems`. A brief overview is given of the contents of the manual. 3 figs., 3 ills., 1 tab.

  11. The fitness of apps: a theory-based examination of mobile fitness app usage over 5 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsook

    2017-01-01

    Background There are thousands of fitness-related smartphone applications (“apps”) available for free and purchase, but there is uncertainty if these apps help individuals achieve and maintain personal fitness. Technology usage attrition is also a concern among research studies on health technologies. Methods Usage of three fitness apps was examined over 5 months to assess adherence and effectiveness. Initially, 64 participants downloaded three free apps available on Android and iOS and 47 remained in the study until posttest. With a one group pre-posttest design and checkpoints at months 1, 3, and 5, exercise and exercise with fitness apps were examined in the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) using a validated survey. Apps were selected based on their function from the Functional Triad. Perceived fitness was also measured. T-tests, sign tests, Fisher’s exact tests, and linear and logistic regression were used to compare pre to posttests and users to non-users of the apps. Results Forty-seven participants completed both pre and posttests. Individual item scores indicated no significant change pre to posttest except for decreases observed in usefulness of using apps for exercise (attitude) (−0.78, Papps (subjective norm) (−1.02, Papps (perceived behavioral control) (−1.29, Papps over the next 2 weeks (behavioral intention) (Papps (−1.72, Papps (−2.56, Papp users (n=32) to non-users (n=15), there was only a significant difference in subscale total scores at posttest for attitude toward exercising using apps, which was significantly more favorable among users than non-users (32.3 vs. 27.6, PApp usage and effectiveness appears to have a connection to usefulness (attitude) and to perceived difficulties of exercising using apps (perceived behavioral control). Exercise and exercise using apps are not influenced by peer influence (subjective norm). Intention to exercise using these particular apps decreased (behavioral intention). Those who

  12. Physical fitness in relation to transport to school in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Lawlor, D A; Cooper, A R

    2008-01-01

    effects on fitness and, if so, whether different modes of transport affect different aspects of fitness. In this study, we examined the association of active transport with different aspects of fitness in a representative Danish sample of 545 boys and 704 girls, 15-19 years of age. Physical fitness...

  13. The congruence between actual and perceived person-organization fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vuuren, Hubrecht A.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Seydel, E.R.

    2007-01-01

    Person-organization fit (P-O fit) is an important and often-researched variable, which sheds light on the way employees perceive their relationship with the organization they work for. In this study, two different assessments of P-O fit are compared, i.e. actual fit (an indirect measurement based on

  14. 49 CFR 192.191 - Design pressure of plastic fittings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design pressure of plastic fittings. 192.191... Components § 192.191 Design pressure of plastic fittings. (a) Thermosetting fittings for plastic pipe must conform to ASTM D 2517, (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7). (b) Thermoplastic fittings for plastic...

  15. Reconceptualizing fit in strategic human resource management: 'Lost in translation?'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paauwe, J.; Boon, C.; Boselie, P.; den Hartog, D.; Paauwe, J.; Guest, D.; Wright, P.

    2013-01-01

    To date, studies that focus on the concept of 'fit' in strategic human resource management (SHRM) fail to show consistent evidence. A variety of fit approaches are available, but there is no general consensus about what constitutes fit. This chapter aims to reconceptualize fit through a literature

  16. Track fitting and resolution with digital detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerdoth, I.

    1982-01-01

    The analysis of data from detectors which give digitised measurements, such as MWPCs, is considered. These measurements are necessarily correlated and it is shown that the uncertainty in the combination of N measurements may fall faster than the canonical 1/√N. A new method of track fitting is described which exploits the digital aspects and which takes the correlations into account. It divides the parameter space into cells and the centroid of a cell is taken as the best estimate. The method is shown to have some advantages over the standard least-squares analysis. If the least-squares method is used for digital detectors the goodness-of-fit may not be a reliable estimate of the accuracy. The cell method is particularly suitable for implementation on microcomputers which lack floating point and divide facilities. (orig.)

  17. Move! Eat better: try the FIT formula

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2013-01-01

    In the physics world, some formulas lead to a Nobel prize. In the world of health and physical activity, the Medical Service also has a winning formula...   FIT (physical activity) =       Frequency x Intensity x Time Frequency = more than 3 times per week. Intensity = physical activity which slightly increases your heart rate and breathing rate. Time = more than 30 minutes (per session). As part of our Move! Eat better campaign, the Medical Service is still offering the use of a pedometer (available on loan from the infirmary), which is a really useful tool to help you reach the winning FIT formula. Interested in borrowing a CERN pedometer?  Click here!

  18. HERAFitter, Open Source QCD Fit Project

    CERN Document Server

    Alekhin, S.; Belov, P.; Borroni, S.; Botje, M.; Britzger, D.; Camarda, S.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Daum, K.; Diaconu, C.; Feltesse, J.; Gizhko, A.; Glazov, A.; Guffanti, A.; Guzzi, M.; Hautmann, F.; Jung, A.; Jung, H.; Kolesnikov, V.; Kowalski, H.; Kuprash, O.; Kusina, A.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; Lobodzinski, B.; Lohwasser, K.; Luszczak, A.; Malaescu, B.; McNulty, R.; Myronenko, V.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nowak, K.; Olness, F.; Perez, E.; Pirumov, H.; Plačakytė, R.; Rabbertz, K.; Radescu, V.; Sadykov, R.; Salam, G.P.; Sapronov, A.; Schöning, A.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Shushkevich, S.; Slominski, W.; Spiesberger, H.; Starovoitov, P.; Sutton, M.; Tomaszewska, J.; Turkot, O.; Vargas, A.; Watt, G.; Wichmann, K.

    2015-07-02

    HERAFitter is an open-source package that provides a framework for the determination of the parton distribution functions (PDFs) of the proton and for many different kinds of analyses in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). It encodes results from a wide range of experimental measurements in lepton-proton deep inelastic scattering and proton-proton (proton-antiproton) collisions at hadron colliders. These are complemented with a variety of theoretical options for calculating PDF-dependent cross section predictions corresponding to the measurements. The framework covers a large number of the existing methods and schemes used for PDF determination. The data and theoretical predictions are brought together through numerous methodological options for carrying out PDF fits and plotting tools to help visualise the results. While primarily based on the approach of collinear factorisation, HERAFitter also provides facilities for fits of dipole models and transverse-momentum dependent PDFs. The package can be used to study t...

  19. Variational mesh segmentation via quadric surface fitting

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2012-11-01

    We present a new variational method for mesh segmentation by fitting quadric surfaces. Each component of the resulting segmentation is represented by a general quadric surface (including plane as a special case). A novel energy function is defined to evaluate the quality of the segmentation, which combines both L2 and L2 ,1 metrics from a triangle to a quadric surface. The Lloyd iteration is used to minimize the energy function, which repeatedly interleaves between mesh partition and quadric surface fitting. We also integrate feature-based and simplification-based techniques in the segmentation framework, which greatly improve the performance. The advantages of our algorithm are demonstrated by comparing with the state-of-the-art methods. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Emerging Multinational Companies and Strategic Fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Filatotchev, Igor; Hobdari, Bersant

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness in international business that institutional factors need to be better incorporated into the understanding of international investments decisions of multinational companies. This applies equally to outward foreign direct investment by emerging economy firms...... has been suggested in terms of integrating various theoretical frameworks however and developing a more holistic understanding of these new investment flows. In this Editorial we propose that outward FDI from emerging economies can be better understood by analyzing them within a broad institutional...... which considers flows of outward investment from emerging economies as framed by institutional pressures at the firm level towards achieving fit between the environment, strategies, structures, resources and practices of the firm. For the multinational firm this fit must be attained along multiple...