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Sample records for controlling cold tolerance

  1. Combining Maize Base Germplasm for Cold Tolerance Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Graña, Víctor Manuel; Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Sandoya Miranda, Germán; Ordás Pérez, Amando; Revilla Temiño, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    Early planting can contribute to increased grain yield of maize (Zea mays L.), but it requires cold tolerance. A limited number of cold-tolerant maize genotypes have been reported. The objectives of this study were to test a new strategy to improve cold tolerance in maize searching for broad x narrow genetic combinations that may be useful as base populations for breeding programs, to compare genotype performance under cold-controlled and field conditions, and to establish the major genetic e...

  2. Screening Prosopis (mesquite) for cold tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P. (Texas AandI Univ., Kingsville); Clark, P.R.; Nash, P.; Osborn, J.F.; Cannell, G.H.

    1982-09-01

    Cold tolerance and biomass estimation of Prosopis species were examined under field conditions. Prosopis africana and P. pallida tolerated several minus 1.5/sup 0/C freezes but none survived a minus 5/sup 0/C freeze. P. alba, P. articulata, P. chilensis, P. nigra, and P. tamarugo tolerated several minus 5/sup 0/C freezes but not a 12-hour below 0/sup 0/C freeze. Most North American native species P. glandulosa var. glandulosa, P. glandulosa var. torreyana, and P. velutina tolerated the 12 hour freeze with only moderate damage. In general trees with greater productivity belonged to the most cold sensitive accessions but sufficient variability exists to substantially improve Prosopis biomass production on the coldest areas where it now naturally occurs.

  3. Cold acclimation increases cold tolerance independently of diapause programing in the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozsypal, J; Moos, M; Goto, S G

    2017-10-17

    The bean bug (Riptortus pedestris) is a pest of soybeans and other legumes in Japan and other Asian countries. It enters a facultative adult diapause on exposure to short days. While photoperiodism and diapause are well understood in R. pedestris, knowledge of cold tolerance is very limited, as is information on the effect of diapause on cold tolerance. We examined the effect of photoperiod, cold acclimation, and feeding status on cold tolerance in R. pedestris. We found that cold acclimation significantly increased survival at -10°C in both long- and short-day adult R. pedestris. Since the difference in cold survival between long- and short-day cold-acclimated groups was only marginal, we conclude that entering diapause is not crucial for R. pedestris to successfully pass through cold acclimation and become cold tolerant. We observed similar effects in 5th instar nymphs, with both long- and short-day cold-acclimated groups surviving longer cold exposures compared with non-acclimated groups. Starvation, which was tested only in adult bugs, had only a negligible and negative impact on cold survival. Although cold tolerance significantly increased with cold acclimation in adult bugs, supercooling capacity unexpectedly decreased. Our results suggest that changes in supercooling capacity as well as in water content are unrelated to cold tolerance in R. pedestris. An analysis of metabolites revealed differences between the treatments, and while several metabolites markedly increased with cold acclimation, their concentrations were too low to have a significant effect on cold tolerance.

  4. Relationships of self-identified cold tolerance and cold-induced vasodilatation in the finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonhee; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate relationships of self-identified cold tolerance and cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) in the finger. Nine males and 34 females participated in the following 2 tests: a CIVD test and a self-reported survey. The CIVD test was conducted 30-min cold-water immersion (3.8 ± 0.3 °C) of the middle finger at an air temperature of 27.9 ± 0.1 °C. The self-reported questionnaire consisted of 28 questions about whole and local body cold and heat tolerances. By a cluster analysis on the survey results, the participants were divided into two groups: high self-identified cold tolerance (HSCT, n = 25) and low self-identified cold tolerance (LSCT, n = 18). LSCT had lower self-identified cold tolerance ( P cold or heat tolerance had relationships with cold tolerance index, T max, and amplitude ( P cold tolerance classified through a standardized survey could be a good index to predict physiological cold tolerance.

  5. High Latitude Corals Tolerate Severe Cold Spell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenae A. Tuckett

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Climatically extreme weather events often drive long-term ecological responses of ecosystems. By disrupting the important symbiosis with zooxanthellae, Marine Cold Spells (MCS can cause bleaching and mortality in tropical and subtropical scleractinian corals. Here we report on the effects of a severe MCS on high latitude corals, where we expected to find bleaching and mortality. The MCS took place off the coast of Perth (32°S, Western Australia in 2016. Bleaching was assessed before (2014 and after (2017 the MCS from surveys of permanent plots, and with timed bleaching searches. Temperature data was recorded with in situ loggers. During the MCS temperatures dipped to the coldest recorded in ten years (15.3°C and periods of <17°C lasted for up to 19 days. Only 4.3% of the surveyed coral colonies showed signs of bleaching. Bleaching was observed in 8 species where those most affected were Plesiastrea versipora and Montipora mollis. These findings suggest that high latitude corals in this area are tolerant of cold stress and are not persisting near a lethal temperature minimum. It has not been established whether other environmental conditions are limiting these species, and if so, what the implications are for coral performance on these reefs in a warmer future.

  6. Fault Tolerant Feedback Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.

    2001-01-01

    An architecture for fault tolerant feedback controllers based on the Youla parameterization is suggested. It is shown that the Youla parameterization will give a residual vector directly in connection with the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant feedback controller. It turns out...... that there is a separation be-tween the feedback controller and the fault tolerant part. The closed loop feedback properties are handled by the nominal feedback controller and the fault tolerant part is handled by the design of the Youla parameter. The design of the fault tolerant part will not affect the design...... of the nominal feedback con-troller....

  7. Cold stress alters transcription in meiotic anthers of cold tolerant chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kamal Dev; Nayyar, Harsh

    2014-10-11

    Cold stress at reproductive phase in susceptible chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) leads to pollen sterility induced flower abortion. The tolerant genotypes, on the other hand, produce viable pollen and set seed under cold stress. Genomic information on pollen development in cold-tolerant chickpea under cold stress is currently unavailable. DDRT-PCR analysis was carried out to identify anther genes involved in cold tolerance in chickpea genotype ICC16349 (cold-tolerant). A total of 9205 EST bands were analyzed. Cold stress altered expression of 127 ESTs (90 up-regulated, 37 down-regulated) in anthers, more than two third (92) of which were novel with unknown protein identity and function. Remaining about one third (35) belonged to several functional categories such as pollen development, signal transduction, ion transport, transcription, carbohydrate metabolism, translation, energy and cell division. The categories with more number of transcripts were carbohydrate/triacylglycerol metabolism, signal transduction, pollen development and transport. All but two transcripts in these categories were up-regulated under cold stress. To identify time of regulation after stress and organ specificity, expression levels of 25 differentially regulated transcripts were also studied in anthers at six time points and in four organs (anthers, gynoecium, leaves and roots) at four time points. Limited number of genes were involved in regulating cold tolerance in chickpea anthers. Moreover, the cold tolerance was manifested by up-regulation of majority of the differentially expressed transcripts. The anthers appeared to employ dual cold tolerance mechanism based on their protection from cold by enhancing triacylglycerol and carbohydrate metabolism; and maintenance of normal pollen development by regulating pollen development genes. Functional characterization of about two third of the novel genes is needed to have precise understanding of the cold tolerance mechanisms in chickpea anthers.

  8. Relative expression of genes related with cold tolerance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-18

    Jun 18, 2014 ... Low temperature is one of the main abiotic stresses affecting rice yield in Chile. Alterations ... To find mechanisms of cold tolerance in Chilean cultivars, we ... dependent on the development stage and the intensity of the cold ...

  9. Cold tolerance evaluation in Chilean rice genotypes at the germination stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Donoso Ñanculao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature is the most important abiotic stress affecting rice (Oryza sativa L. yield in Chile. Rice in Chile is usually planted when the minimum air temperatures are below 12 °C. This temperature is lower than the optimum needed for normal rice germination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate cold tolerance in 20 experimental lines from the Rice Breeding Program of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, Chile, at the germination stage. Coleoptile length reduction (CRED, coleoptile length after cold treatment (CLEN, coleoptile length recovery (CREC, and coleoptile regrowth (CREG were evaluated at 13 °C for 4 d using 'Diamante-INIA' as the cold-tolerant control. To find genotypes with cold tolerance (low CRED value and high CLEN, CREC, and CREG values, genotypes were ranked, a biplot of principal components, and cluster analysis were performed. No differences were found among genotypes in the ranking based on CREC value so this trait was not considered. Analysis showed that only three experimental lines had cold tolerance similar to that of 'Diamante-INIA'; all other experimental lines exhibited intermediate to low cold tolerance. These results showed low cold tolerance of some Chilean genotypes at the germination stage, thus confirming the need to evaluate the rest of the germplasm from the Rice Breeding Program.

  10. Heritability of cold tolerance in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charo-Karisa, H.; Rezk, M.A.; Bovenhuis, H.; Komen, J.

    2005-01-01

    The inability of tilapia to tolerate low temperatures is of major economic concern as it reduces their growing season and leads to over winter mortality. In this study, cold tolerance of juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, was investigated and heritability estimates obtained. A total of 80

  11. Fault Tolerant Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, S. A.

    This thesis considered the development of fault tolerant control systems. The focus was on the category of automated processes that do not necessarily comprise a high number of identical sensors and actuators to maintain safe operation, but still have a potential for improving immunity to component...

  12. Critical temperature: A quantitative method of assessing cold tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.H. DeHayes; M.W., Jr. Williams

    1989-01-01

    Critical temperature (Tc), defined as the highest temperature at which freezing injury to plant tissues can be detected, provides a biologically meaningful and statistically defined assessment of the relative cold tolerance of plant tissues. A method is described for calculating critical temperatures in laboratory freezing studies that use...

  13. Chlorophyll fluorescence emission can screen cold tolerance of cold acclimated Arabidopsis thaliana accessions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mishra, Anamika; Heyer, A. G.; Mishra, Kumud

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 38 (2014) ISSN 1746-4811 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0246; GA MŠk 7E12047 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : high-throughput screening * chlorophyll a fluorescence transients * cold tolerance * cold acclimation * whole plant * Arabidopsis thaliana Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.102, year: 2014

  14. Tracking the evolution of a cold stress associated gene family in cold tolerant grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandve, Simen R; Rudi, Heidi; Asp, Torben

    2008-01-01

    to the repeat motifs of the IRI-domain in cold tolerant grasses. Finally we show that the LRR-domain of carrot and grass IRI proteins both share homology to an Arabidopsis thaliana LRR-trans membrane protein kinase (LRR-TPK). Conclusion The diverse IRI-like genes identified in this study tell a tale...... of a complex evolutionary history including birth of an ice binding domain, a burst of gene duplication events after cold tolerant grasses radiated from rice, protein domain structure differentiation between paralogs, and sub- and/or neofunctionalisation of IRI-like proteins. From our sequence analysis we...

  15. Tolerância ao frio do amendoim forrageiro Cold tolerance of forage peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pires Soares Bresolin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A produtividade de uma pastagem perene tropical, em regiões de clima temperado, é dependente de seu comportamento em relação às condições de temperatura. A avaliação da sensibilidade das plantas, através da sua exposição a temperaturas inferiores a 2°C em ambiente controlado, pode ser um procedimento bastante eficiente na predição de resistência, em função de assegurar uma homogeneidade dos níveis de frio. Considerando-se à reduzida disponibilidade de trabalhos científicos relacionados com a avaliação de leguminosas forrageiras tropicais quanto à tolerância ao frio, este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar o comportamento do amendoim forrageiro (cv. "Amarillo" sob temperaturas inferiores a 2°C. O delineamento experimental adotado foi completamente casualizado com 15 repetições e dois tratamentos, com exposição (CE e sem exposição ao frio (SE. Os caracteres mensurados foram: número de folhas por estolho, espessura do estolho e número de brotações novas. Os resultados indicaram que a exposição do amendoim forrageiro a um intervalo de temperatura de -1,0 a 1,3°C por um período de 3 horas é capaz de causar estresse de frio nas plantas, provocando uma redução no número de folhas e estimulando a formação de novas brotações, sem provocar a morte das plantas.The yield of tropical perennial forages in temperate climate areas depends on its cold tolerance. The exposure of genotypes to temperatures below 2oC, under controlled conditions is an efficient methodology to predict cold tolerance, since it maintains homogeneous levels of cold. Due to absence of information related to cold tolerance of tropical forages, this experiment was developed aiming to evaluate the behavior of forage peanut exposed to temperatures below 2oC. The design adopted was completely randomized with 15 replications and two treatments: exposed and not exposed to cold. The traits measured were: number of leaves per stolon; thickness

  16. Plant plasma membrane proteomics for improving cold tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke eTakahashi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants are always exposed to various stresses. We have focused on freezing stress, which causes serious problems for agricultural management. When plants suffer freeze-induced damage, the plasma membrane is thought to be the primary site of injury because of its central role in regulation of various cellular processes. Cold tolerant species, however, adapt to such freezing conditions by modifying cellular components and functions (cold acclimation. One of the most important adaptation mechanisms to freezing is alteration of plasma membrane compositions and functions. Advanced proteomic technologies have succeeded in identification of many candidates that may play roles in adaptation of the plasma membrane to freezing stress. Proteomics results suggest that adaptations of plasma membrane functions to low temperature are associated with alterations of protein compositions during cold acclimation. Some of proteins identified by proteomic approaches have been verified their functional roles in freezing tolerance mechanisms further. Thus, accumulation of proteomic results in the plasma membrane is of importance for application to molecular breeding efforts to increase cold tolerance in crops.

  17. Handling Ibuprofen increases pain tolerance and decreases perceived pain intensity in a cold pressor test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham M Rutchick

    Full Text Available Pain contributes to health care costs, missed work and school, and lower quality of life. Extant research on psychological interventions for pain has focused primarily on developing skills that individuals can apply to manage their pain. Rather than examining internal factors that influence pain tolerance (e.g., pain management skills, the current work examines factors external to an individual that can increase pain tolerance. Specifically, the current study examined the nonconscious influence of exposure to meaningful objects on the perception of pain. Participants (N = 54 completed a cold pressor test, examined either ibuprofen or a control object, then completed another cold pressor test. In the second test, participants who previously examined ibuprofen reported experiencing less intense pain and tolerated immersion longer (relative to baseline than those who examined the control object. Theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Directional selection on cold tolerance does not constrain plastic capacity in a butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Kristin; Dierks, Anneke; Fischer, Klaus

    2012-12-05

    Organisms may respond to environmental change by means of genetic adaptation, phenotypic plasticity or both, which may result in genotype-environment interactions (G x E) if genotypes differ in their phenotypic response. We here specifically target the latter source of variation (i.e. G x E) by comparing plastic responses among lines of the tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana that had been selected for increased cold tolerance and according controls. Our main aim here was to test the hypothesis that directional selection on cold tolerance will interfere with plastic capacities. Plastic responses to temperature and feeding treatments were strong, with e.g. higher compared to lower temperatures reducing cold tolerance, longevity, pupal mass, and development time. We report a number of statistically significant genotype-environment interactions (i.e. interactions between selection regime and environmental variables), but most of these were not consistent across treatment groups. We found some evidence though for larger plastic responses to different rearing temperatures in the selection compared to the control lines, while plastic responses to different adult temperatures and feeding treatments were overall very similar across selection regimes. Our results indicate that plastic capacities are not always constrained by directional selection (on cold tolerance) and therefore genetic changes in trait means, but may operate independently.

  19. Overexpression of a Panax ginseng tonoplast aquaporin alters salt tolerance, drought tolerance and cold acclimation ability in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yanhui; Lin, Wuling; Cai, Weiming; Arora, Rajeev

    2007-08-01

    Water movement across cellular membranes is regulated largely by a family of water channel proteins called aquaporins (AQPs). Since several abiotic stresses such as, drought, salinity and freezing, manifest themselves via altering water status of plant cells and are linked by the fact that they all result in cellular dehydration, we overexpressed an AQP (tonoplast intrinsic protein) from Panax ginseng, PgTIP1, in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants to test its role in plant's response to drought, salinity and cold acclimation (induced freezing tolerance). Under favorable conditions, PgTIP1 overexpression significantly increased plant growth as determined by the biomass production, and leaf and root morphology. PgTIP1 overexpression had beneficial effect on salt-stress tolerance as indicated by superior growth status and seed germination of transgenic plants under salt stress; shoots of salt-stressed transgenic plants also accumulated greater amounts of Na(+) compared to wild-type plants. Whereas PgTIP1 overexpression diminished the water-deficit tolerance of plants grown in shallow (10 cm deep) pots, the transgenic plants were significantly more tolerant to water stress when grown in 45 cm deep pots. The rationale for this contrasting response, apparently, comes from the differences in the root morphology and leaf water channel activity (speed of dehydration/rehydration) between the transgenic and wild-type plants. Plants overexpressed with PgTIP1 exhibited lower (relative to wild-type control) cold acclimation ability; however, this response was independent of cold-regulated gene expression. Our results demonstrate a significant function of PgTIP1 in growth and development of plant cells, and suggest that the water movement across tonoplast (via AQP) represents a rate-limiting factor for plant vigor under favorable growth conditions and also significantly affect responses of plant to drought, salt and cold stresses.

  20. Abscisic acid enhances cold tolerance in honeybee larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturla, Laura; Guida, Lucrezia; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Maggi, Matías; Eguaras, Martín; Zocchi, Elena; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    The natural composition of nutrients present in food is a key factor determining the immune function and stress responses in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). We previously demonstrated that a supplement of abscisic acid (ABA), a natural component of nectar, pollen, and honey, increases honeybee colony survival overwinter. Here we further explored the role of ABA in in vitro-reared larvae exposed to low temperatures. Four-day-old larvae (L4) exposed to 25°C for 3 days showed lower survival rates and delayed development compared to individuals growing at a standard temperature (34°C). Cold-stressed larvae maintained higher levels of ABA for longer than do larvae reared at 34°C, suggesting a biological significance for ABA. Larvae fed with an ABA-supplemented diet completely prevent the low survival rate due to cold stress and accelerate adult emergence. ABA modulates the expression of genes involved in metabolic adjustments and stress responses: Hexamerin 70b, Insulin Receptor Substrate, Vitellogenin, and Heat Shock Proteins 70. AmLANCL2, the honeybee ABA receptor, is also regulated by cold stress and ABA. These results support a role for ABA increasing the tolerance of honeybee larvae to low temperatures through priming effects. PMID:28381619

  1. Abscisic acid enhances cold tolerance in honeybee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Leonor; Negri, Pedro; Sturla, Laura; Guida, Lucrezia; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Maggi, Matías; Eguaras, Martín; Zocchi, Elena; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2017-04-12

    The natural composition of nutrients present in food is a key factor determining the immune function and stress responses in the honeybee ( Apis mellifera ). We previously demonstrated that a supplement of abscisic acid (ABA), a natural component of nectar, pollen, and honey, increases honeybee colony survival overwinter. Here we further explored the role of ABA in in vitro -reared larvae exposed to low temperatures. Four-day-old larvae (L4) exposed to 25°C for 3 days showed lower survival rates and delayed development compared to individuals growing at a standard temperature (34°C). Cold-stressed larvae maintained higher levels of ABA for longer than do larvae reared at 34°C, suggesting a biological significance for ABA. Larvae fed with an ABA-supplemented diet completely prevent the low survival rate due to cold stress and accelerate adult emergence. ABA modulates the expression of genes involved in metabolic adjustments and stress responses: Hexamerin 70b, Insulin Receptor Substrate, Vitellogenin , and Heat Shock Proteins 70. AmLANCL2, the honeybee ABA receptor, is also regulated by cold stress and ABA. These results support a role for ABA increasing the tolerance of honeybee larvae to low temperatures through priming effects. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling cold tolerance in chickpea recombinant RIL population (CRIL2) from Cicer arietinum L. x Cicer reticulatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Published yields for chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) are higher when the crop is planted in the fall rather than in the spring seasons (Singh et al 1989, Singh et al 1997). Because of its lack of cold hardiness alleles to survive freezing temperatures, chickpea is planted in the spring in temperate re...

  3. The Low Temperature Induced Physiological Responses of Avena nuda L., a Cold-Tolerant Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paperaim of the was to study the effect of low temperature stress on Avena nuda L. seedlings. Cold stress leads to many changes of physiological indices, such as membrane permeability, free proline content, malondialdehyde (MDA content, and chlorophyll content. Cold stress also leads to changes of some protected enzymes such as peroxidase (POD, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. We have measured and compared these indices of seedling leaves under low temperature and normal temperature. The proline and MDA contents were increased compared with control; the chlorophyll content gradually decreased with the prolongation of low temperature stress. The activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were increased under low temperature. The study was designated to explore the physiological mechanism of cold tolerance in naked oats for the first time and also provided theoretical basis for cultivation and antibiotic breeding in Avena nuda L.

  4. TOLERANCE TIME OF EXPERIMENTAL THERMAL PAIN (COLD INDUCED) IN VOLUNTEERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaid, V N; Wilkhoo, N S; Jain, A K

    1998-10-01

    Perception of thermal pain (cold induced) was studied in 106 volunteers from troops and civilians deployed in J & K. Thermal stimulus devised was "holding ice". Tolerance time of holding ice was taken to be a measure of thermal sensitivity, volunteers were classified based on their native areas, addiction habits and socio-economic status, out of 106 volunteers, 81 could & 25 could not hold ice over 10 min. Sixteen out of 40 from coastline States and 9 out of 66 from non-coast line States failed to hold ice over 10 min. In "below average" "average" and "high average" socio-economic groups, three out of 27, 19 out of 73 and 03 out of 6 failed to hold ice over 10 min respectively. Fifteen out of 64 from "addiction habit group" and 10 out of 42 from "no addiction habit group" failed to hold ice over 10 min. Statistically no classification used in the study revealed significant difference in "tolerance times" of volunteers except the one based on coastline and non-coastline States.

  5. Analysis of Stress-Responsive Gene Expression in Cultivated and Weedy Rice Differing in Cold Stress Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Borges Bevilacqua

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars show impairment of growth in response to environmental stresses such as cold at the early seedling stage. Locally adapted weedy rice is able to survive under adverse environmental conditions, and can emerge in fields from greater soil depth. Cold-tolerant weedy rice can be a good genetic source for developing cold-tolerant, weed-competitive rice cultivars. An in-depth analysis is presented here of diverse indica and japonica rice genotypes, mostly weedy rice, for cold stress response to provide an understanding of different stress adaptive mechanisms towards improvement of the rice crop performance in the field. We have tested a collection of weedy rice genotypes to: 1 classify the subspecies (ssp. grouping (japonica or indica of 21 accessions; 2 evaluate their sensitivity to cold stress; and 3 analyze the expression of stress-responsive genes under cold stress and a combination of cold and depth stress. Seeds were germinated at 25°C at 1.5- and 10-cm sowing depth for 10d. Seedlings were then exposed to cold stress at 10°C for 6, 24 and 96h, and the expression of cold-, anoxia-, and submergence-inducible genes was analyzed. Control plants were seeded at 1.5cm depth and kept at 25°C. The analysis revealed that cold stress signaling in indica genotypes is more complex than that of japonica as it operates via both the CBF-dependent and CBF-independent pathways, implicated through induction of transcription factors including OsNAC2, OsMYB46 and OsF-BOX28. When plants were exposed to cold + sowing depth stress, a complex signaling network was induced that involved cross talk between stresses mediated by CBF-dependent and CBF-independent pathways to circumvent the detrimental effects of stresses. The experiments revealed the importance of the CBF regulon for tolerance to both stresses in japonica and indica ssp. The mechanisms for cold tolerance differed among weedy indica genotypes and also between weedy indica and

  6. UV and cold tolerance of a pigment-producing Antarctic Janthinobacterium sp. Ant5-2

    KAUST Repository

    Mojib, Nazia; Farhoomand, Amin; Andersen, Dale T.; Bej, Asim K.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the UV and cold tolerance of a purple violet pigment (PVP)-producing Antarctic bacterium, Janthinobacterium sp. Ant5-2 (PVP+) and compared its physiological adaptations with a pigmentless mutant strain (PVP-). A

  7. Transcriptome Profiling of the Pineapple under Low Temperature to Facilitate Its Breeding for Cold Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chengjie; Zhang, Yafeng; Xu, Zhiqiang; Luan, Aiping; Mao, Qi; Feng, Junting; Xie, Tao; Gong, Xue; Wang, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Hao; He, Yehua

    2016-01-01

    The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is cold sensitive. Most cultivars are injured during winter periods, especially in sub-tropical regions. There is a lack of molecular information on the pineapple’s response to cold stress. In this study, high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and gene expression analysis were performed on plantlets of a cold-tolerant genotype of the pineapple cultivar ‘Shenwan’ before and after cold treatment. A total of 1,186 candidate cold responsive genes were identified, and their credibility was confirmed by RT-qPCR. Gene set functional enrichment analysis indicated that genes related to cell wall properties, stomatal closure and ABA and ROS signal transduction play important roles in pineapple cold tolerance. In addition, a protein association network of CORs (cold responsive genes) was predicted, which could serve as an entry point to dissect the complex cold response network. Our study found a series of candidate genes and their association network, which will be helpful to cold stress response studies and pineapple breeding for cold tolerance. PMID:27656892

  8. Phenotypic and genetic characteristics associated with Listeria monocytogenes food chain isolates displaying enhanced and diminished cold tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hingston, P.; Chen, J.; Laing, C.

    between strains with varied cold tolerance. The objective of this study was to determine if Lm isolates with enhanced cold tolerance, exhibit other high risk characteristics that may add to their survival and/or pathogenicity. To accomplish this, 166 predominantly food/food plant Lm isolates were tested...... in brainheart infusion broth, for their ability to tolerate cold (4°C), salt (6% NaCl, 25°C), acid (pH 5, 25°C), and desiccation (33% RH, 20°C) stress. Isolates were considered tolerant or sensitive if they exhibited survival characteristics > or ... with a truncated version (n=47). Cold tolerant isolates were more likely to be tolerant to the other three stresses than intermediate and cold sensitive isolates. Similarly, cold sensitive isolates were more likely to be sensitive to the other stresses. Cold tolerant isolates had shorter (p=0.012) lag phases...

  9. What is Fault Tolerant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Frei, C. W.; Kraus, K.

    2000-01-01

    Faults in automated processes will often cause undesired reactions and shut-down of a controlled plant, and the consequences could be damage to the plant, to personnel or the environment. Fault-tolerant control is the synonym for a set of recent techniques that were developed to increase plant...... availability and reduce the risk of safety hazards. Its aim is to prevent that simple faults develop into serious failure. Fault-tolerant control merges several disciplines to achieve this goal, including on-line fault diagnosis, automatic condition assessment and calculation of remedial actions when a fault...... is detected. The envelope of the possible remedial actions is wide. This paper introduces tools to analyze and explore structure and other fundamental properties of an automated system such that any redundancy in the process can be fully utilized to enhance safety and a availability....

  10. Relative expression of genes related with cold tolerance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low temperature is one of the main abiotic stresses affecting rice yield in Chile. Alterations in phenology and physiology of the crop are observed after a cold event. The objective of this work was to study the relative expression of genes related with cold stress in Chilean cultivars of rice. For this, we analyzed the expression ...

  11. Cloning of Ammopiptanthus mongolicus C-repeat-binding factor gene and its cold-induced tolerance in transgenic tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijiang Gu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available C-repeat-binding factors (CBFs are a type of important regulon in stress-related signal transduction pathways that control plant tolerance of abiotic stress. Ammopiptanthus mongolicus is the only evergreen broadleaf shrub in the northwest desert of China. The species shows strong resistance to environmental stress, especially to cold stress. An A. mongolicus CBF1 gene (AmCBF1 was cloned and transformed into tobacco. Expression of AmCBF1 could be detected in A. mongolicus shortly after exposure to low temperature of 4°C. Analysis on ratio of electrolytic leakage, soluble sugar content, free proline content, malondialdehyde (MDA content and peroxidase (POD activity before and after cold treatment (4°C for 24 h indicated AmCBF1 conferred higher cold tolerance to AmCBF1 transgenic tobacco compared with the wild type and empty vector transformed tobacco.

  12. The effect of fasting and body reserves on cold tolerance in 2 pit-building insect predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Inon; Daniel, Alma; MacMillan, Heath Andrew; Katz, Noa

    2017-06-01

    Pit-building antlions and wormlions are 2 distantly-related insect species, whose larvae construct pits in loose soil to trap small arthropod prey. This convergent evolution of natural histories has led to additional similarities in their natural history and ecology, and thus, these 2 species encounter similar abiotic stress (such as periodic starvation) in their natural habitat. Here, we measured the cold tolerance of the 2 species and examined whether recent feeding or food deprivation, as well as body composition (body mass and lipid content) and condition (quantified as mass-to-size residuals) affect their cold tolerance. In contrast to other insects, in which food deprivation either enhanced or impaired cold tolerance, prolonged fasting had no effect on the cold tolerance of either species, which had similar cold tolerance. The 2 species differed, however, in how cold tolerance related to body mass and lipid content: although body mass was positively correlated with the wormlion cold tolerance, lipid content was a more reliable predictor of cold tolerance in the antlions. Cold tolerance also underwent greater change with ontogeny in wormlions than in antlions. We discuss possible reasons for this lack of effect of food deprivation on both species' cold tolerance, such as their high starvation tolerance (being sit-and-wait predators).

  13. Fault Tolerant Wind Farm Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years the wind turbine industry has focused on optimizing the cost of energy. One of the important factors in this is to increase reliability of the wind turbines. Advanced fault detection, isolation and accommodation are important tools in this process. Clearly most faults are deal...... scenarios. This benchmark model is used in an international competition dealing with Wind Farm fault detection and isolation and fault tolerant control....

  14. Genetic analysis of cold tolerance at the germination and booting stages in rice by association mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghua Pan

    Full Text Available Low temperature affects the rice plants at all stages of growth. It can cause severe seedling injury and male sterility resulting in severe yield losses. Using a mini core collection of 174 Chinese rice accessions and 273 SSR markers we investigated cold tolerance at the germination and booting stages, as well as the underlying genetic bases, by association mapping. Two distinct populations, corresponding to subspecies indica and japonica showed evident differences in cold tolerance and its genetic basis. Both subspecies were sensitive to cold stress at both growth stages. However, japonica was more tolerant than indica at all stages as measured by seedling survival and seed setting. There was a low correlation in cold tolerance between the germination and booting stages. Fifty one quantitative trait loci (QTLs for cold tolerance were dispersed across all 12 chromosomes; 22 detected at the germination stage and 33 at the booting stage. Eight QTLs were identified by at least two of four measures. About 46% of the QTLs represented new loci. The only QTL shared between indica and japonica for the same measure was qLTSSvR6-2 for SSvR. This implied a complicated mechanism of old tolerance between the two subspecies. According to the relative genotypic effect (RGE of each genotype for each QTL, we detected 18 positive genotypes and 21 negative genotypes in indica, and 19 positive genotypes and 24 negative genotypes in japonica. In general, the negative effects were much stronger than the positive effects in both subspecies. Markers for QTL with positive effects in one subspecies were shown to be effective for selection of cold tolerance in that subspecies, but not in the other subspecies. QTL with strong negative effects on cold tolerance should be avoided during MAS breeding so as to not cancel the effect of favorable QTL at other loci.

  15. Evaluation of Fall Sowing of Cold Tolerant Chickpa (Cicer arietinum L. Genotypes under Supplementary Irrigation in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nezami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to investigate of phenological and morphological characteristics, yield components and yield of cold tolerant chickpea genotypes in fall sowing, 9 cold tolerant chickpea genotypes and Karaj 12-60-31 as a control were evaluated in Experimental Field of College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2006-2007. The experiment was carried out based on randomized complete block design with four replications. The planting date was 25 October and three times of irrigation was done as supplementary irrigation at planting stage, 20 days after that and at flowering stage. The control was ruined at seedling stage due to the hard cold. Based on the results, the differences among the genotypes for all of measured traits including growth duration, plant height, number and length of branches, yield components (pod number per plant, seed number per pod and 100 seeds weight, seed yield and biological yield were significant (P≥0.05. There were positive and significant correlations between seed yield and vegetative (r=0.71** and reproductive (r=0.68** periods. MCC291, MCC349 and MCC207 produced the highest seed yield with 231, 229 and 217 g.m-2, respectively. Totally, it appears that some of genotypes have appropriate yield potential for fall sowing under supplementary irrigation at Mashhad. Keywords: Cold tolerant, Chickpea genotypes, Phenological and morphological characteristics, Seed yield, Yield components

  16. A novel cold-inducible zinc finger protein from soybean, SCOF-1, enhances cold tolerance in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J C; Lee, S H; Cheong, Y H; Yoo, C M; Lee, S I; Chun, H J; Yun, D J; Hong, J C; Lee, S Y; Lim, C O; Cho, M J

    2001-02-01

    Cold stress on plants induces changes in the transcription of cold response genes. A cDNA clone encoding C2H2-type zinc finger protein, SCOF-1, was isolated from soybean. The transcription of SCOF-1 is specifically induced by low temperature and abscisic acid (ABA) but not by dehydration or high salinity. Constitutive overexpression of SCOF-1 induced cold-regulated (COR) gene expression and enhanced cold tolerance of non-acclimated transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. SCOF-1 localized to the nucleus but did not bind directly to either C-repeat/dehydration (CRT/DRE) or ABA responsive element (ABRE), cis-acting DNA regulatory elements present in COR gene promoters. However, SCOF-1 greatly enhanced the DNA binding activity of SGBF-1, a soybean G-box binding bZIP transcription factor, to ABRE in vitro. SCOF-1 also interacted with SGBF-1 in a yeast two-hybrid system. The SGBF-1 transactivated the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene driven by the ABRE element in Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts. Furthermore, the SCOF-1 enhanced ABRE-dependent gene expression mediated by SGBF-1. These results suggest that SCOF-1 may function as a positive regulator of COR gene expression mediated by ABRE via protein-protein interaction, which in turn enhances cold tolerance of plants.

  17. TrustRank: a Cold-Start tolerant recommender system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Haitao; Gong, Zhiguo; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Wei; Guo, Jingzhi

    2015-02-01

    The explosive growth of the World Wide Web leads to the fast advancing development of e-commerce techniques. Recommender systems, which use personalised information filtering techniques to generate a set of items suitable to a given user, have received considerable attention. User- and item-based algorithms are two popular techniques for the design of recommender systems. These two algorithms are known to have Cold-Start problems, i.e., they are unable to effectively handle Cold-Start users who have an extremely limited number of purchase records. In this paper, we develop TrustRank, a novel recommender system which handles the Cold-Start problem by leveraging the user-trust networks which are commonly available for e-commerce applications. A user-trust network is formed by friendships or trust relationships that users specify among them. While it is straightforward to conjecture that a user-trust network is helpful for improving the accuracy of recommendations, a key challenge for using user-trust network to facilitate Cold-Start users is that these users also tend to have a very limited number of trust relationships. To address this challenge, we propose a pre-processing propagation of the Cold-Start users' trust network. In particular, by applying the personalised PageRank algorithm, we expand the friends of a given user to include others with similar purchase records to his/her original friends. To make this propagation algorithm scalable to a large amount of users, as required by real-world recommender systems, we devise an iterative computation algorithm of the original personalised TrustRank which can incrementally compute trust vectors for Cold-Start users. We conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the consistently improvement provided by our proposed algorithm over the existing recommender algorithms on the accuracy of recommendations for Cold-Start users.

  18. Tolerance to multiple climate stressors: A case study of Douglas-fir drought and cold hardiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sheel; Harrington, Constance A; St. Clair, John Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Summary: 1. Drought and freeze events are two of the most common forms of climate extremes which result in tree damage or death, and the frequency and intensity of both stressors may increase with climate change. Few studies have examined natural covariation in stress tolerance traits to cope with multiple stressors among wild plant populations. 2. We assessed the capacity of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii), an ecologically and economically important species in the northwestern USA, to tolerate both drought and cold stress on 35 populations grown in common gardens. We used principal components analysis to combine drought and cold hardiness trait data into generalized stress hardiness traits to model geographic variation in hardiness as a function of climate across the Douglas-fir range. 3. Drought and cold hardiness converged among populations along winter temperature gradients and diverged along summer precipitation gradients. Populations originating in regions with cold winters had relatively high tolerance to both drought and cold stress, which is likely due to overlapping adaptations for coping with winter desiccation. Populations from regions with dry summers had increased drought hardiness but reduced cold hardiness, suggesting a trade-off in tolerance mechanisms. 4. Our findings highlight the necessity to look beyond bivariate trait–climate relationships and instead consider multiple traits and climate variables to effectively model and manage for the impacts of climate change on widespread species.

  19. Stock characterization and improvement: DNA fingerprinting and cold tolerance of Populus and Salix clones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Dolly; Hubbes, M.; Zsuffa, L. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Forestry; Tsarouhas, V.; Gullberg, U. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics; Howe, G.; Hackett, W.; Gardner, G.; Furnier, G. [Minnesota Univ., St. Paul, MN (United States). Dept. of Forest Resources; Tuskan, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Molecular characterization of advanced-generation pedigrees and evaluation of cold tolerance are two aspects of Populus and Salix genetic improvement programmes worldwide that have traditionally received little emphasis. As such, chloroplast DNA markers were tested as a means of determining multi-generation parental contributions to hybrid progeny. Likewise, greenhouse, growth chamber and field studies were used to assess cold tolerance in Populus and Salix. Chloroplast DNA markers did not reveal size polymorphisms among four tested Populus species, but did produce sequence polymorphisms between P. maximowiczii and P. trichocarpa. Additional crosses between multiple genotypes from each species are being used to evaluate the utility of the detected polymorphism for ascertaining parentage within interspecific crosses. Short-day, cold tolerance greenhouse studies revealed that bud set date and frost damage are moderately heritable and genetically correlated in Populus. The relationship between greenhouse and field studies suggests that factors other than short days contribute to cold tolerance in Populus. In Salix, response to artificial fall conditioning varied among full-sibling families, with the fastest growing family displaying the greatest amount of cold tolerance 26 refs, 3 tabs

  20. Complex phytohormone responses during the cold acclimation of two wheat cultivars differing in cold tolerance, winter Samanta and spring Sandra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kosová, K.; Prášil, I.T.; Vítámvás, P.; Dobrev, Petre; Motyka, Václav; Floková, Kristýna; Novák, Ondřej; Turečková, Veronika; Rolčík, Jakub; Pešek, Bedřich; Trávníčková, Alena; Gaudinová, Alena; Galiba, G.; Janda, T.; Vlasáková, E.; Prášilová, P.; Vaňková, Radomíra

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 169, č. 6 (2012), s. 567-576 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/09/2058; GA MŠk MEB040713; GA MŠk MEB040924 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GPP501/11/P637 Program:GP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Cold stress * Dehydrin * Frost tolerance Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.699, year: 2012

  1. The ins and outs of water dynamics in cold tolerant soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrup, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Many soil invertebrates have physiological characteristics in common with freshwater animals and represent an evolutionary transition from aquatic to terrestrial life forms. Their high cuticular permeability and ability to tolerate large modifications of internal osmolality are of particular importance for their cold tolerance. A number of cold region species that spend some or most of their life-time in soil are in more or less intimate contact with soil ice during overwintering. Unless such species have effective barriers against cuticular water-transport, they have only two options for survival: tolerate internal freezing or dehydrate. The risk of internal ice formation may be substantial due to inoculative freezing and many species rely on freeze-tolerance for overwintering. If freezing does not occur, the desiccating power of external ice will cause the animal to dehydrate until vapor pressure equilibrium between body fluids and external ice has been reached. This cold tolerance mechanism is termed cryoprotective dehydration (CPD) and requires that the animal must be able to tolerate substantial dehydration. Even though CPD is essentially a freeze-avoidance strategy the associated physiological traits are more or less the same as those found in freeze tolerant species. The most well-known are accumulation of compatible osmolytes and molecular chaperones reducing or protecting against the stress caused by cellular dehydration. Environmental moisture levels of the habitat are important for which type of cold tolerance is employed, not only in an evolutionary context, but also within a single population. Some species use CPD under relatively dry conditions, but freeze tolerance when soil moisture is high. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasticity and stress tolerance override local adaptation in the responses of Mediterranean holm oak seedlings to drought and cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Teresa E; Pías, Beatriz; Lemos-Filho, José P; Valladares, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Plant populations of widely distributed species experience a broad range of environmental conditions that can be faced by phenotypic plasticity or ecotypic differentiation and local adaptation. The strategy chosen will determine a population's ability to respond to climate change. To explore this, we grew Quercus ilex (L.) seedlings from acorns collected at six selected populations from climatically contrasting localities and evaluated their response to drought and late season cold events. Maximum photosynthetic rate (A(max)), instantaneous water use efficiency (iWUE), and thermal tolerance to freeze and heat (estimated from chlorophyll fluorescence versus temperature curves) were measured in 5-month-old seedlings in control (no stress), drought (water-stressed), and cold (low suboptimal temperature) conditions. The observed responses were similar for the six populations: drought decreased A(max) and increased iWUE, and cold reduced A(max) and iWUE. All the seedlings maintained photosynthetic activity under adverse conditions (drought and cold), and rapidly increased their iWUE by closing stomata when exposed to drought. Heat and freeze tolerances were similarly high for seedlings from all the populations, and they were significantly increased by drought and cold, respectively; and were positively related to each other. Differences in seedling performance across populations were primarily induced by maternal effects mediated by seed size and to a lesser extent by idiosyncratic physiologic responses to drought and low temperatures. Tolerance to multiple stresses together with the capacity to physiologically acclimate to heat waves and cold snaps may allow Q. ilex to cope with the increasingly stressful conditions imposed by climate change. Lack of evidence of physiologic seedling adaptation to local climate may reflect opposing selection pressures to complex, multidimensional environmental conditions operating within the distribution range of this species.

  3. CbRCI35, a cold responsive peroxidase from Capsella bursa-pastoris regulates reactive oxygen species homeostasis and enhances cold tolerance in tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature affects gene regulatory networks and alters cellular metabolism to inhibit plant growth. Peroxidases are widely distributed in plants and play a large role in adjusting and controlling reactive oxygen species (ROS homeostasis in response to abiotic stresses such as low temperature. The Rare Cold-Inducible 35 gene from Capsella bursa-pastoris (CbRCI35 belongs to the type III peroxidase family and has been reported to be a cold responsive gene in plants. Here we performed an expressional characterization of CbRCI35 under cold and ionic liquid treatments. The promoter of CbRCI35 was also cloned and its activity was examined using the GUS reporter system. CbRCI35 protein was localized in the cytoplasm according to sequence prediction and GFP fusion assay. Heterologous expression tests revealed that CbRCI35 conferred enhanced resistance to low temperature and activated endogenous cold responsive signaling in tobacco. Furthermore, in the normal condition the ROS accumulation was moderately enhanced while after chilling exposure superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was increased in CbRCI53 transgenic plants. The ROS metabolism related genes expression was altered accordingly. We conclude that CbRCI35 modulates ROS homeostasis and contributes to cold tolerance in plants.

  4. Overwintering biology and limits of cold tolerance in larvae of pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollaei, M; Izadi, H; Šimek, P; Koštál, V

    2016-08-01

    Pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella is an important pest of pistachio trees. It has an univoltine life-cycle and its larvae tunnel and feed inside pistachio twigs for almost 10 months each year. The last larval instars overwinter inside the twigs. Survival/mortality associated with low temperatures during overwintering stage is currently unknown. We found that overwintering larvae of the Rafsanjan (Iran) population of K. pistaciella rely on maintaining a stably high supercooling capacity throughout the cold season. Their supercooling points (SCPs) ranged between -19.4 and -22.7°C from October to February. Larvae were able to survive 24 h exposures to -15°C anytime during the cold season. During December and January, larvae were undergoing quiescence type of dormancy caused probably by low ambient temperatures and/or changes in host tree physiology (tree dormancy). Larvae attain highest cold tolerance (high survival at -20°C) during dormancy, which offers them sufficient protection against geographically and ecologically relevant cold spells. High cold tolerance during dormancy was not associated with accumulation of any low-molecular mass cryoprotective substances. The SCP sets the limit of cold tolerance in pistachio twig borer, meaning that high mortality of overwintering populations can be expected only in the regions or years where or when the temperatures fall below the average larval SCP (i.e., below -20°C). Partial mortality can be expected also when temperatures repeatedly drop close to the SCP on a diurnal basis.

  5. Cold plasma: Quality control and regulatory considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, cold plasma has emerged as a promising antimicrobial treatment for fresh and fresh-cut produce, nuts, spices, seeds, and other foods. Research has demonstrated effective control of human pathogens such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, norovirus, and o...

  6. Glycinebetaine synthesizing transgenic potato plants exhibit enhanced tolerance to salt and cold stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, R.; Hussain, J.

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are the most important contributors towards low productivity of major food crops. Various attempts have been made to enhance abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants by classical breeding and genetic transformation. Genetic transformation with glycinebetaine (GB) synthesizing enzymes' gene(s) in naturally non accumulating plants has resulted in enhanced tolerance against variety of abiotic stresses. Present study was aimed to evaluate the performance of GB synthesizing transgenic potato plants against salt and cold stresses. Transgenic potato plants were challenged against salt and cold stresses at whole plant level. Transgenic lines were characterized to determine the transgene copy number. Different parameters like integrity, chlorophyll contents, tuber yield and vegetative biomass were studied to monitor the stress tolerance of transgenic potato plants. The results were compared with Non-transgenic (NT) plants and statistically analyzed to evaluate significant differences. Multi-copy insertion of expression cassette was found in both transgenic lines. Upon salt stress, transgenic plants maintained better growth as compared to NT plants. The tuber yield of transgenic plants was significantly greater than NT plants in salt stress. Transgenic plants showed improved membrane integrity against cold stress by depicting appreciably reduced ion leakage as compared to NT plants. Moreover, transgenic plants showed significantly less chlorophyll bleaching than NT plants upon cold stress. In addition, NT plants accumulated significantly less biomass, and yielded fewer tubers as compared to transgenic plants after cold stress treatment. The study will be a committed step for field evaluation of transgenic plants with the aim of commercialization. (author)

  7. Evaluation of Durum Wheat Lines for Tolerance to Early Season Cold via Early Planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rashidi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cold stress is one of the environmental factors that affect planting date of durum wheat in mountainous North West areas of Iran. To study tolerance of 36 Durum wheat lines for cold, an experiment was conducted in mid winter (mid of February at the Agricultural Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, in 2007. Experimental design used was simple lattice. The results of analysis of variance showed that the lines under study responded differently to cold as to traits like percentage of survival, yield and its components. This indicates existence of genetic diversity among durum wheat lines. Percentage of survival of the lines 30, 5, 16, 27, 31 and 35 were for higher than those at other lines. Thus, they can be considered to be tolerant to early season cold. Comparison of means showed that lines 35, 31, 16 and 5 possessed higher percentage of survival and other percent survival also correlated positive with plant height, number of fertile spike seed yield and 1000 grain weight. As a whole line 35 was found to be more tolerant to early season cold than the others were. Cluster analysis was divided 36 lines into three groups. Lines in the third group possessed higher percentage of survival, plant height, number of fertile spike, biomass and high yield than their over all means.

  8. Cold tolerance and photosystem function in a montane red spruce population: physiological relationships with foliar carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.G. Shaberg; G.R. Strimbeck; G.J. Hawley; D.H. DeHayes; J.B. Shane; P.F. Murakami; T.D. Perkins; J.R. Donnelly; B.L. Wong

    2000-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) growing in northern montane forests of eastern North America appears to be distinctive with respect to at least two aspects of winter physiology. First, red spruce attains only a modest level of midwinter cold tolerance compared to other north temperate conifers and appears barely capable of avoiding freezing injury at...

  9. Growth characteristics and productivity of cold-tolerant “Kowinearly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth characteristics and productivity of cold-tolerant “Kowinearly” Italian ryegrass in the northern part of South Korea. Gi Jun Choi, Hee Chung Ji, Ki-Yong Kim, Hyung Soo Park, Sung Seo, Ki-Won Lee, Sang-Hoon Lee ...

  10. Metabolite profiling during cold acclimation of Lolium perenne genotypes distinct in the level of frost tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocian, Aleksandra; Zwierzykowski, Zbigniew; Rapacz, Marcin; Koczyk, Grzegorz; Ciesiołka, Danuta; Kosmala, Arkadiusz

    2015-11-01

    Abiotic stresses, including low temperature, can significantly reduce plant yielding. The knowledge on the molecular basis of stress tolerance could help to improve its level in species of relatively high importance to agriculture. Unfortunately, the complex research performed so far mainly on model species and also, to some extent, on cereals does not fully cover the demands of other agricultural plants of temperate climate, including forage grasses. Two Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) genotypes with contrasting levels of frost tolerance, the high frost tolerant (HFT) and the low frost tolerant (LFT) genotypes, were selected for comparative metabolomic research. The work focused on the analysis of leaf metabolite accumulation before and after seven separate time points of cold acclimation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify amino acids (alanine, proline, glycine, glutamic and aspartic acid, serine, lysine and asparagine), carbohydrates (fructose, glucose, sucrose, raffinose and trehalose) and their derivatives (mannitol, sorbitol and inositol) accumulated in leaves in low temperature. The observed differences in the level of frost tolerance between the analysed genotypes could be partially due to the time point of cold acclimation at which the accumulation level of crucial metabolite started to increase. In the HFT genotype, earlier accumulation was observed for proline and asparagine. The increased amounts of alanine, glutamic and aspartic acids, and asparagine during cold acclimation could be involved in the regulation of photosynthesis intensity in L. perenne. Among the analysed carbohydrates, only raffinose revealed a significant association with the acclimation process in this species.

  11. Accident-tolerant control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Hirokazu; Sawabe, Takashi; Ogata, Takanari

    2013-01-01

    Boron carbide (B 4 C) and hafnium (Hf) metal are used for the neutron absorber materials of control rods in BWRs, and silver-indium-cadmium (Ag-In-Cd) alloy is used in PWRs. These materials are clad with stainless steel. The eutectic point of B 4 C and iron (Fe) is about 1150 deg. C and the melting point of Ag-In-Cd alloy is about 800 deg. C, which are lower than the temperature of zircaloy - steam reaction increases rapidly (∼1200 deg. C). Accordingly, it is possible that the control rods melt and collapse before the reactor core is significantly damaged in the case of severe accidents. Since the neutron absorber would be separated from the fuels, there is a risk of re-criticality, when pure water or seawater is injected for emergency cooling. In order to ensure sub-criticality and extend options of emergency cooling in the course of severe accidents, a concept of accident-tolerant control rod (ACT) has been derived. ACT utilises a new absorber material having the following properties: - higher neutron absorption than current control rod; - higher melting or eutectic temperature than 1200 deg. C where rapid zircaloy oxidation occurs; - high miscibility with molten fuel materials. The candidate of a new absorber material for ATC includes gadolinia (Gd 2 O 3 ), samaria (Sm 2 O 3 ), europia (Eu 2 O 3 ), dysprosia (Dy 2 O 3 ), hafnia (HfO 2 ). The melting point of these materials and the liquefaction temperature with Fe are higher than the rapid zircaloy oxidation temperature. ACT will not collapse before the core melt-down. After the core melt-down, the absorber material will be mixed with molten fuel material. The current absorber materials, such as B 4 C, Hf and Ag-In-Cd, are charged at the tip of ATC in which the neutron flux is high, and a new absorber material is charged in the low-flux region. This design could minimise the degradation of a new absorber material by the neutron absorption and the influence of ATC deployment on reactor control procedure. As a

  12. Multiple cold resistance loci confer the high cold tolerance adaptation of Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) to its high-latitude habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Donghai; Yu, Li; Chen, Dazhou; Li, Lanying; Zhu, Yuxing; Xiao, Yeqing; Zhang, Dechun; Chen, Caiyan

    2015-07-01

    Dongxiang wild rice is phylogenetically close to temperate japonica and contains multiple cold resistance loci conferring its adaptation to high-latitude habitat. Understanding the nature of adaptation in wild populations will benefit crop breeding in the development of climate-resilient crop varieties. Dongxiang wild rice (DXWR), the northernmost common wild rice known, possesses a high degree of cold tolerance and can survive overwintering in its native habitat. However, to date, it is still unclear how DXWR evolved to cope with low-temperature environment, resulting in limited application of DXWR in rice breeding programs. In this study, we carried out both QTL mapping and phylogenetic analysis to discern the genetic mechanism underlying the strong cold resistance. Through a combination of interval mapping and single locus analysis in two genetic populations, at least 13 QTLs for seedling cold tolerance were identified in DXWR. A phylogenetic study using both genome-wide InDel markers and markers associated with cold tolerance loci reveals that DXWR belongs to the Or-III group, which is most closely related to cold-tolerant Japonica rice rather than to the Indica cultivars that are predominant in the habitat where DXWR grows. Our study paves the way toward an understanding of the nature of adaptation to a northern habitat in O. rufipogon. The QTLs identified in DXWR in this study will be useful for molecular breeding of cold-tolerant rice.

  13. Involvement of WRKY Transcription Factors in Abscisic-Acid-Induced Cold Tolerance of Banana Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dong-Lan; Ba, Liang-Jie; Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2017-05-10

    Phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and plant-specific WRKY transcription factors (TFs) have been implicated to play important roles in various stress responses. The involvement of WRKY TFs in ABA-mediated cold tolerance of economical fruits, such as banana fruit, however remains largely unknown. Here, we reported that ABA application could induce expressions of ABA biosynthesis-related genes MaNCED1 and MaNCED2, increase endogenous ABA contents, and thereby enhance cold tolerance in banana fruit. Four banana fruit WRKY TFs, designated as MaWRKY31, MaWRKY33, MaWRKY60, and MaWRKY71, were identified and characterized. All four of these MaWRKYs were nuclear-localized and displayed transactivation activities. Their expressions were induced by ABA treatment during cold storage. More importantly, the gel mobility shift assay and transient expression analysis revealed that MaWRKY31, MaWRKY33, MaWRKY60, and MaWRKY71 directly bound to the W-box elements in MaNCED1 and MaNCED2 promoters and activated their expressions. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that banana fruit WRKY TFs are involved in ABA-induced cold tolerance by, at least in part, increasing ABA levels via directly activating NECD expressions.

  14. Overexpression of a New Zinc Finger Protein Transcription Factor OsCTZFP8 Improves Cold Tolerance in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Mei Jin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses in rice. C2H2 zinc finger proteins play important roles in response to abiotic stresses in plants. In the present study, we isolated and functionally characterized a new C2H2 zinc finger protein transcription factor OsCTZFP8 in rice. OsCTZFP8 encodes a C2H2 zinc finger protein, which contains a typical zinc finger motif, as well as a potential nuclear localization signal (NLS and a leucine-rich region (L-box. Expression of OsCTZFP8 was differentially induced by several abiotic stresses and was strongly induced by cold stress. Subcellular localization assay and yeast one-hybrid analysis revealed that OsCTZFP8 was a nuclear protein and has transactivation activity. To characterize the function of OsCTZFP8 in rice, the full-length cDNA of OsCTZFP8 was isolated and transgenic rice with overexpression of OsCTZFP8 driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter was generated using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Among 46 independent transgenic lines, 6 single-copy homozygous overexpressing lines were selected by Southern blot analysis and Basta resistance segregation assay in both T1 and T2 generations. Transgenic rice overexpressing OsCTZFP8 exhibited cold tolerant phenotypes with significantly higher pollen fertilities and seed setting rates than nontransgenic control plants. In addition, yield per plant of OsCTZFP8-expressing lines was significantly (p<0.01 higher than that of nontransgenic control plants under cold treatments. These results demonstrate that OsCTZFP8 was a C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor that plays an important role in cold tolerance in rice.

  15. Proteome dynamics of cold-acclimating Rhododendron species contrasting in their freezing tolerance and thermonasty behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose V Die

    Full Text Available To gain a better understanding of cold acclimation in rhododendron and in woody perennials in general, we used the 2D-DIGE technique to analyze the rhododendron proteome during the seasonal development of freezing tolerance. We selected two species varying in their cold acclimation ability as well as their thermonasty response (folding of leaves in response to low temperature. Proteins were extracted from leaves of non-acclimated (NA and cold acclimated (CA plants of the hardier thermonastic species, R. catawbiense (Cata., and from leaves of cold acclimated plants of the less hardy, non-thermonastic R. ponticum (Pont.. All three protein samples (Cata.NA, Cata.CA, and Pont.CA were labeled with different CyDyes and separated together on a single gel. Triplicate gels were run and protein profiles were compared resulting in the identification of 72 protein spots that consistently had different abundances in at least one pair-wise comparison. From the 72 differential spots, we chose 56 spots to excise and characterize further by mass spectrometry (MS. Changes in the proteome associated with the seasonal development of cold acclimation were identified from the Cata.CA-Cata.NA comparisons. Differentially abundant proteins associated with the acquisition of superior freezing tolerance and with the thermonastic response were identified from the Cata.CA-Pont.CA comparisons. Our results indicate that cold acclimation in rhododendron involves increases in abundance of several proteins related to stress (freezing/desiccation tolerance, energy and carbohydrate metabolism, regulation/signaling, secondary metabolism (possibly involving cell wall remodeling, and permeability of the cell membrane. Cold acclimation also involves decreases in abundance of several proteins involved in photosynthesis. Differences in freezing tolerance between genotypes can probably be attributed to observed differences in levels of proteins involved in these functions. Also

  16. Fault tolerant control design for hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao; Jiang, Bin [Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Cocquempot, Vincent [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-07-01

    This book intends to provide the readers a good understanding on how to achieve Fault Tolerant Control goal of Hybrid Systems. The book can be used as a reference for the academic research on Fault Tolerant Control and Hybrid Systems or used in Ph.D. study of control theory and engineering. The knowledge background for this monograph would be some undergraduate and graduate courses on Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control theory, linear system theory, nonlinear system theory, Hybrid Systems theory and Discrete Event System theory. (orig.)

  17. Diagnosis and fault-tolerant control

    CERN Document Server

    Blanke, Mogens; Lunze, Jan; Staroswiecki, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Fault-tolerant control aims at a gradual shutdown response in automated systems when faults occur. It satisfies the industrial demand for enhanced availability and safety, in contrast to traditional reactions to faults, which bring about sudden shutdowns and loss of availability. The book presents effective model-based analysis and design methods for fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control. Architectural and structural models are used to analyse the propagation of the fault through the process, to test the fault detectability and to find the redundancies in the process that can be used to ensure fault tolerance. It also introduces design methods suitable for diagnostic systems and fault-tolerant controllers for continuous processes that are described by analytical models of discrete-event systems represented by automata. The book is suitable for engineering students, engineers in industry and researchers who wish to get an overview of the variety of approaches to process diagnosis and fault-tolerant contro...

  18. Tolerance of subzero winter cold in kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) and its implications for northward migration in a warming climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) is an important invasive species that was planted throughout southeastern North America until the mid-20th century. Winter survival is commonly assumed to control its distribution; however, its cold tolerance thresholds have not been determined. Here, we used bio...

  19. An architecture for fault tolerant controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    degradation in the sense of guaranteed degraded performance. A number of fault diagnosis problems, fault tolerant control problems, and feedback control with fault rejection problems are formulated/considered, mainly from a fault modeling point of view. The method is illustrated on a servo example including......A general architecture for fault tolerant control is proposed. The architecture is based on the (primary) YJBK parameterization of all stabilizing compensators and uses the dual YJBK parameterization to quantify the performance of the fault tolerant system. The approach suggested can be applied...

  20. Responsiveness of cold tolerant chickpea characteristics in fall and spring planting: II. yield and yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ahmad nezami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research in Mashhad collection chickpeas (MCC has shown that there are some cold tolerant genotypes for fall planting in the highlands. To obtain more detailed information about the reaction of these genotypes to fall and spring planting, the yield and yield component responses of 33 chickpea genotypes (32 cold tolerant genotypes and one susceptible genotypes to four planting dates (28 Sep., 16 Oct., 2 Nov., and 7 Mar. were evaluated in 2000-2001 growing season. The experiment was conducted at the experimental field of college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad as a split plot design with two replications. The planting dates were imposed as main plot and chickpea genotypes as subplot. Effects of planting date and genotype on percent of plant survival (PPS after winter, number. of pod per plant, 100 seed weight, yield and Harvest Index (HI were significant (p

  1. Mass spectrometry-based metabolomic fingerprinting for screening cold tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana accessions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Václavík, L.; Mishra, Anamika; Mishra, Kumud; Hajslova, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 405, č. 8 (2013), s. 2671-2683 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk OC08055 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : cold tolerance * Arabidopsis thaliana * metabolomic fingerprinting * LC-MS * DART-MS * chemometric analysis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.578, year: 2013

  2. Hormonal responses and tolerance to cold of female quail following parathion ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Sileo, L.; Scanes, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-week-old female bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus), maintained at 26 + 1?C, were provided diets containing 0,25, or 100 ppm parathion ad libitum. After 10 days, birds were exposed to mild cold (6 + 1?C) for 4,8, 12, 24, or 48 hr. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in birds receiving 25 and 100 ppm parathion. Body weight, egg production, and plasma luteinizing hormone and progesterone concentrations were reduced in birds receiving 100 ppm parathion compared with other groups. Cold exposure did not alter plasma corticosterone levels in the 0- and 25-ppm parathion groups, but a two- to five fold elevation of plasma corticosterone was observed in birds fed 100 ppm parathion. These findings indicate that (i) short-term ingestion of parathion can impair reproduction possibly by altering gonadotropin or steroid secretion, and (ii) tolerance to cold may be reduced following ingestion of this organophosphate.

  3. Effect of photoperiod prior to cold acclimation on freezing tolerance and carbohydrate metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Annick; Bipfubusa, Marie; Claessens, Annie; Rocher, Solen; Castonguay, Yves

    2017-11-01

    Cold acclimation proceeds sequentially in response to decreases in photoperiod and temperature. This study aimed at assessing the impact of photoperiod prior to cold acclimation on freezing tolerance and related biochemical and molecular responses in two alfalfa cultivars. The fall dormant cultivar Evolution and semi-dormant cultivar 6010 were grown in growth chambers under different photoperiods (8, 10, 12, 14 or 16h) prior to cold acclimation. Freezing tolerance was evaluated as well as carbohydrate concentrations, levels of transcripts encoding enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism as well as a K-3dehydrin, before and after cold acclimation. The fall dormant cultivar Evolution had a better freezing tolerance than the semi-dormant cultivar 6010. The effect of photoperiod prior to cold acclimation on the level of freezing tolerance differed between the two cultivars: an 8h-photoperiod induced the highest level of freezing tolerance in Evolution and the lowest in 6010. In Evolution, the 8h-induced superior freezing tolerance was associated with higher concentration of raffinose-family oligosaccharides (RFO). The transcript levels of sucrose synthase (SuSy) decreased whereas those of sucrose phosphatase synthase (SPS) and galactinol synthase (GaS) increased in response to cold acclimation in both cultivars. Our results indicate that RFO metabolism could be involved in short photoperiod-induced freezing tolerance in dormant alfalfa cultivars. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the antioxidative system of Coffea sp. under cold conditions in genotypes with contrasting tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Ana S; Lidon, Fernando C; Batista-Santos, Paula; Leitão, António Eduardo; Pais, Isabel P; Ribeiro, Ana I; Ramalho, José Cochicho

    2010-03-15

    Low positive temperature (chilling) is frequently linked to the promotion of oxidative stress conditions, and is of particular importance in the coffee plant due to its severe impact on growth, development, photosynthesis and production. Nevertheless, some acclimation ability has been reported within the Coffea genus, and is possibly related to oxidative stress control. Using an integrated biochemical and molecular approach, the characterization of the antioxidative system of genotypes with different cold acclimation abilities was performed. Experiments were carried out using 1.5-year-old coffee seedlings of Coffea canephora cv. Apoatã, C. arabica cv. Catuaí, C. dewevrei and 2 hybrids, Icatu (C. arabicaxC. canephora) and Piatã (C. dewevreixC. arabica) subjected to a gradual cold treatment and a recovery period. Icatu showed the greatest ability to control oxidative stress, as reflected by the enhancement of several antioxidative components (Cu,Zn-SOD and APX activities; ascorbate, alpha-tocopherol and chlorogenic acids (CGAs) contents) and lower reactive oxygen species contents (H(2)O(2) and OH). Gene expression studies show that GRed, DHAR and class III and IV chitinases might also be involved in the cold acclimation ability of Icatu. Catuaí showed intermediate acclimation ability through the reinforcement of some antioxidative molecules, usually to a lesser extent than that observed in Icatu. On the other hand, C. dewevrei showed the poorest response in terms of antioxidant accumulation, and also showed the greatest increase in OH values. The difference in the triggering of antioxidative traits supports the hypothesis of its importance to cold (and photoinhibition) tolerance in Coffea sp. and could provide a useful probe to identify tolerant genotypes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Does Resistance to Buprofezin Improve Heat and Cold Tolerance of Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongteng; Zhang, Yueliang; Liu, Xiangdong; Guo, Huifang

    2017-08-01

    There is ample evidence that insecticide resistance causes fitness costs and benefits in pests, while the impact of insecticide resistance on thermotolerance of pests is mostly unclear. The Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), is an important rice insect pest, which has developed resistance to buprofezin in China. Here, we investigated differences in heat tolerance and cold tolerance among L. striatellus lines with variable buprofezin resistance. The lethal time for 50% of the individuals to die (LT50) at 40 °C increased with an increase in buprofezin resistance level, whereas both the survival rate under -22 °C and the supercooling point of planthoppers did not differ significantly between resistant and susceptible strains. The metabolic enzyme carboxylesterase was found to have an association with buprofezin resistance. Our research showed that buprofezin resistance was positively related with heat tolerance in L. striatellus, but it had no effect on cold tolerance. Insecticide resistance in L. striatellus may therefore have broader implications for the ecology of L. striatellus, and the management of buprofezin resistance in this pest may be challenging. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Potential Effects of Climate Change on the Distribution of Cold-Tolerant Evergreen Broadleaved Woody Plants in the Korean Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Ah Koo

    Full Text Available Climate change has caused shifts in species' ranges and extinctions of high-latitude and altitude species. Most cold-tolerant evergreen broadleaved woody plants (shortened to cold-evergreens below are rare species occurring in a few sites in the alpine and subalpine zones in the Korean Peninsula. The aim of this research is to 1 identify climate factors controlling the range of cold-evergreens in the Korean Peninsula; and 2 predict the climate change effects on the range of cold-evergreens. We used multimodel inference based on combinations of climate variables to develop distribution models of cold-evergreens at a physiognomic-level. Presence/absence data of 12 species at 204 sites and 6 climatic factors, selected from among 23 candidate variables, were used for modeling. Model uncertainty was estimated by mapping a total variance calculated by adding the weighted average of within-model variation to the between-model variation. The range of cold-evergreens and model performance were validated by true skill statistics, the receiver operating characteristic curve and the kappa statistic. Climate change effects on the cold-evergreens were predicted according to the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. Multimodel inference approach excellently projected the spatial distribution of cold-evergreens (AUC = 0.95, kappa = 0.62 and TSS = 0.77. Temperature was a dominant factor in model-average estimates, while precipitation was minor. The climatic suitability increased from the southwest, lowland areas, to the northeast, high mountains. The range of cold-evergreens declined under climate change. Mountain-tops in the south and most of the area in the north remained suitable in 2050 and 2070 under the RCP 4.5 projection and 2050 under the RCP 8.5 projection. Only high-elevations in the northeastern Peninsula remained suitable under the RCP 8.5 projection. A northward and upper-elevational range shift indicates change in species composition at the alpine and

  7. Potential Effects of Climate Change on the Distribution of Cold-Tolerant Evergreen Broadleaved Woody Plants in the Korean Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kyung Ah; Kong, Woo-Seok; Nibbelink, Nathan P; Hopkinson, Charles S; Lee, Joon Ho

    2015-01-01

    Climate change has caused shifts in species' ranges and extinctions of high-latitude and altitude species. Most cold-tolerant evergreen broadleaved woody plants (shortened to cold-evergreens below) are rare species occurring in a few sites in the alpine and subalpine zones in the Korean Peninsula. The aim of this research is to 1) identify climate factors controlling the range of cold-evergreens in the Korean Peninsula; and 2) predict the climate change effects on the range of cold-evergreens. We used multimodel inference based on combinations of climate variables to develop distribution models of cold-evergreens at a physiognomic-level. Presence/absence data of 12 species at 204 sites and 6 climatic factors, selected from among 23 candidate variables, were used for modeling. Model uncertainty was estimated by mapping a total variance calculated by adding the weighted average of within-model variation to the between-model variation. The range of cold-evergreens and model performance were validated by true skill statistics, the receiver operating characteristic curve and the kappa statistic. Climate change effects on the cold-evergreens were predicted according to the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. Multimodel inference approach excellently projected the spatial distribution of cold-evergreens (AUC = 0.95, kappa = 0.62 and TSS = 0.77). Temperature was a dominant factor in model-average estimates, while precipitation was minor. The climatic suitability increased from the southwest, lowland areas, to the northeast, high mountains. The range of cold-evergreens declined under climate change. Mountain-tops in the south and most of the area in the north remained suitable in 2050 and 2070 under the RCP 4.5 projection and 2050 under the RCP 8.5 projection. Only high-elevations in the northeastern Peninsula remained suitable under the RCP 8.5 projection. A northward and upper-elevational range shift indicates change in species composition at the alpine and subalpine

  8. Cold Plasmas for Biofilm Control: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Brendan F; Flynn, Padrig B; O'Brien, Séamus; Hickok, Noreen; Freeman, Theresa; Bourke, Paula

    2018-06-01

    Bacterial biofilm infections account for a major proportion of chronic and medical device associated infections in humans, yet our ability to control them is compromised by their inherent tolerance to antimicrobial agents. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) represents a promising therapeutic option. CAP treatment of microbial biofilms represents the convergence of two complex phenomena: the production of a chemically diverse mixture of reactive species and intermediates, and their interaction with a heterogeneous 3D interface created by the biofilm extracellular polymeric matrix. Therefore, understanding these interactions and physiological responses to CAP exposure are central to effective management of infectious biofilms. We review the unique opportunities and challenges for translating CAP to the management of biofilms. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Overwintering strategy and mechanisms of cold tolerance in the codling moth (Cydia pomonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rozsypal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The codling moth (Cydia pomonella is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. Fully grown last instar larvae overwinter in diapause state. Their overwintering strategies and physiological principles of cold tolerance have been insufficiently studied. No elaborate analysis of overwintering physiology is available for European populations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We observed that codling moth larvae of a Central European population prefer to overwinter in the microhabitat of litter layer near the base of trees. Reliance on extensive supercooling, or freeze-avoidance, appears as their major strategy for survival of the winter cold. The supercooling point decreases from approximately -15.3 °C during summer to -26.3 °C during winter. Seasonal extension of supercooling capacity is assisted by partial dehydration, increasing osmolality of body fluids, and the accumulation of a complex mixture of winter specific metabolites. Glycogen and glutamine reserves are depleted, while fructose, alanine and some other sugars, polyols and free amino acids are accumulated during winter. The concentrations of trehalose and proline remain high and relatively constant throughout the season, and may contribute to the stabilization of proteins and membranes at subzero temperatures. In addition to supercooling, overwintering larvae acquire considerable capacity to survive at subzero temperatures, down to -15 °C, even in partially frozen state. CONCLUSION: Our detailed laboratory analysis of cold tolerance, and whole-winter survival assays in semi-natural conditions, suggest that the average winter cold does not represent a major threat for codling moth populations. More than 83% of larvae survived over winter in the field and pupated in spring irrespective of the overwintering microhabitat (cold-exposed tree trunk or temperature-buffered litter layer.

  10. Control switching in high performance and fault tolerant control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2010-01-01

    The problem of reliability in high performance control and in fault tolerant control is considered in this paper. A feedback controller architecture for high performance and fault tolerance is considered. The architecture is based on the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization. By usi...

  11. [Analysis of structural characteristics of alpha-tubulins in plants with enhanced cold tolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyporko, A Iu; Demchuk, O N; Blium, Ia B

    2003-01-01

    The uniqueness of the point substitutions in the sequences of two alpha-tubulin isotypes from psychrophilic alga Chloromonas that can determine the increased cold tolerance of this alga was analyzed. The comparison of all known amino acid sequences of plant alpha-tubulins enabled to ascertain that only M268-->V replacement is unique and may have a significant influence on spatial structure of plant alpha-tubulins. Modeling of molecular surfaces of alpha-tubulins from Chloromonas, Chalmydomonas reinhardtii and goose grass Eleusine indica showed that insertion of the amino acid replacement M268-->V into the sequence of goose grace tubulin led to the likening of this protein surface to the surface of native alpha-tubulin from Chloromonas. Alteration of local hydrophobic properties of alpha-tubulin molecular surface in interdimeric contact zone as a result of the mentioned replacement was shown that may play important role in increasing the level of cold resistance of microtubules. The crucial role of amino acid residue in 268 position for forming the interdimeric contact surface of alpha-tubulin molecule was revealed. The assumption is made about the importance of replacements at this position for plant tolerance to abiotic factors of different nature (cold, herbicides).

  12. Development of Cold Spray Coatings for Accident-Tolerant Fuel Cladding in Light Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Benjamin; Yeom, Hwasung; Johnson, Greg; Dabney, Tyler; Walters, Jorie; Romero, Javier; Shah, Hemant; Xu, Peng; Sridharan, Kumar

    2018-02-01

    The cold spray coating process has been developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison for the deposition of oxidation-resistant coatings on zirconium alloy light water reactor fuel cladding with the goal of improving accident tolerance during loss of coolant scenarios. Coatings of metallic (Cr), alloy (FeCrAl), and ceramic (Ti2AlC) materials were successfully deposited on zirconium alloy flats and cladding tube sections by optimizing the powder size, gas preheat temperature, pressure and composition, and other process parameters. The coatings were dense and exhibited excellent adhesion to the substrate. Evaluation of the samples after high-temperature oxidation tests at temperatures up to 1300°C showed that the cold spray coatings significantly mitigate oxidation kinetics because of the formation of thin passive oxide layers on the surface. The results of the study indicate that the cold spray coating process is a viable near-term option for developing accident-tolerant zirconium alloy fuel cladding.

  13. Fault tolerancy in cooperative adaptive cruise control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunen, E. van; Ploeg, J.; Medina, A.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2013-01-01

    Future mobility requires sound solutions in the field of fault tolerance in real-time applications amongst which Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC). This control system cannot rely on the driver as a backup and is constantly active and therefore more prominent to the occurrences of faults

  14. Contribution of polyamines metabolism and GABA shunt to chilling tolerance induced by nitric oxide in cold-stored banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yansheng; Luo, Zisheng; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2016-04-15

    Effect of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) on polyamines (PAs) catabolism, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, proline accumulation and chilling injury of banana fruit under cold storage was investigated. Banana fruit treated with NO sustained lower chilling injury index than the control. Notably elevated nitric oxide synthetase activity and endogenous NO level were observed in NO-treated banana fruit. PAs contents in treated fruit were significantly higher than control fruit, due to the elevated activities of arginine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase. NO treatment increased the activities of diamine oxidase, polyamine oxidase and glutamate decarboxylase, while reduced GABA transaminase activity to lower levels compared with control fruit, which resulted the accumulation of GABA. Besides, NO treatment upregulated proline content and significantly enhanced the ornithine aminotransferase activity. These results indicated that the chilling tolerance induced by NO treatment might be ascribed to the enhanced catabolism of PAs, GABA and proline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiation tolerant power converter controls

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, B; King, Q; Uznanski, S

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) is the world's most powerful particle collider. The LHC has several thousand magnets, both warm and super-conducting, which are supplied with current by power converters. Each converter is controlled by a purpose-built electronic module called a Function Generator Controller (FGC). The FGC allows remote control of the power converter and forms the central part of a closed-loop control system where the power converter voltage is set, based on the converter output current and magnet-circuit characteristics. Some power converters and FGCs are located in areas which are exposed to beam-induced radiation. There are numerous radiation induced effects, some of which lead to a loss of control of the power converter, having a direct impact upon the accelerator's availability. Following the first long shut down (LS1), the LHC will be able to run with higher intensity beams and higher beam energy. This is expected to lead to signifi...

  16. Development of Cr cold spray–coated fuel cladding with enhanced accident tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ševeček

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Accident-tolerant fuels (ATFs are currently of high interest to researchers in the nuclear industry and in governmental and international organizations. One widely studied accident-tolerant fuel concept is multilayer cladding (also known as coated cladding. This concept is based on a traditional Zr-based alloy (Zircaloy-4, M5, E110, ZIRLO etc. serving as a substrate. Different protective materials are applied to the substrate surface by various techniques, thus enhancing the accident tolerance of the fuel. This study focuses on the results of testing of Zircaloy-4 coated with pure chromium metal using the cold spray (CS technique. In comparison with other deposition methods, e.g., Physical vapor deposition (PVD, laser coating, or Chemical vapor deposition techniques (CVD, the CS technique is more cost efficient due to lower energy consumption and high deposition rates, making it more suitable for industry-scale production. The Cr-coated samples were tested at different conditions (500°C steam, 1200°C steam, and Pressurized water reactor (PWR pressurization test and were precharacterized and postcharacterized by various techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, or nanoindentation; results are discussed. Results of the steady-state fuel performance simulations using the Bison code predicted the concept's feasibility. It is concluded that CS Cr coating has high potential benefits but requires further optimization and out-of-pile and in-pile testing. Keywords: Accident-Tolerant Fuel, Chromium, Cladding, Coating, Cold Spray, Nuclear Fuel

  17. Fault tolerant control of systems with saturations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents framework for fault tolerant controllers (FTC) that includes input saturation. The controller architecture known from FTC is based on the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization is extended to handle input saturation. Applying this controller architecture in connec......This paper presents framework for fault tolerant controllers (FTC) that includes input saturation. The controller architecture known from FTC is based on the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization is extended to handle input saturation. Applying this controller architecture...... in connection with faulty systems including input saturation gives an additional YJBK transfer function related to the input saturation. In the fault free case, this additional YJBK transfer function can be applied directly for optimizing the feedback loop around the input saturation. In the faulty case......, the design problem is a mixed design problem involved both parametric faults and input saturation....

  18. Predicting worsening asthma control following the common cold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, M. J.; Castro, M.; Kunselman, S. J.; Chinchilli, V. M.; Reno, M.; Ramkumar, T. P.; Avila, P. C.; Boushey, H. A.; Ameredes, B. T.; Bleecker, E. R.; Calhoun, W. J.; Cherniack, R. M.; Craig, T. J.; Denlinger, L. C.; Israel, E.; Fahy, J. V.; Jarjour, N. N.; Kraft, M.; Lazarus, S. C.; Lemanske, R. F.; Martin, R. J.; Peters, S. P.; Ramsdell, J. W.; Sorkness, C. A.; Sutherland, E. R.; Szefler, S. J.; Wasserman, S. I.; Wechsler, M. E.

    2008-01-01

    The asthmatic response to the common cold is highly variable, and early characteristics that predict worsening of asthma control following a cold have not been identified. In this prospective multicentric cohort study of 413 adult subjects with asthma, the mini-Asthma Control Questionnaire

  19. Characterization of Metarhizium species and varieties based on molecular analysis, heat tolerance and cold activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, E.K.K.; Keyser, C.A.; Chong, J.P.; Rangel, D.E.N.; Miller, M.P.; Roberts, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The genetic relationships and conidial tolerances to high and low temperatures were determined for isolates of several Metarhizium species and varieties. Methods and Results: Molecular-based techniques [AFLP and rDNA (ITS1, ITS2 and 5??8S) gene sequencing] were used to characterize morphologically identified Metarhizium spp. isolates from a wide range of sources. Conidial suspensions of isolates were exposed to wet heat (45 ?? 0??2??C) and plated on potato dextrose agar plus yeast extract (PDAY) medium. After 8-h exposure, the isolates divided clearly into two groups: (i) all isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Ma-an) and Metarhizium from the flavoviride complex (Mf) had virtually zero conidial relative germination (RG), (ii) Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Ma-ac) isolates demonstrated high heat tolerance (c. 70-100% RG). Conidial suspensions also were plated on PDAY and incubated at 5??C for 15 days, during which time RGs for Ma-an and Ma-ac isolates were virtually zero, whereas the two Mf were highly cold active (100% RG). Conclusions: Heat and cold exposures can be used as rapid tools to tentatively identify some important Metarhizium species and varieties. Significance and Impact of the Study: Identification of Metarhizium spp. currently relies primarily on DNA-based methods; we suggest a simple temperature-based screen to quickly obtain tentative identification of isolates as to species or species complexes. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Antibacterial and anticancerous biocompatible silver nanoparticles synthesised from the cold-tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Karthick Raja Namasivayam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To synthesize silver nanoparticles from the biomass of cold tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis and evalute the synthesized nanoparticles against antibacterial and anticancer activity. Methods: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the algal culture and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X ray diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity has been studied with free nanoparticles adopting agar diffusion assay, biofilm inhibition assay and nanoparticles fabricated wound dressing against representative Gram-negative organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive organism Staphylococcus aureus respectively. The in vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles were screened against human Hep2 cell lines by means of MTT assay. Results: Reduction of silver ions by the algal culture was observed during 72 h of incubation and the synthesized nanoparticles were further characterized. Antibacterial study reveals both the strains were susceptible to free nanoparticles and fabricated wound dressing treatment. The in vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles were screened against human Hep 2 cell lines by means of MTT assay which reveals that cell viability has been reduced as dose dependent manner. Conclusions: The observed results imply that silver nanoparticles synthesized from Spirulina platensis cold tolerant strain can be used as potential antibacterial and anticancerous agent.

  1. Antibacterial and anticancerous biocompatible silver nanoparticles synthesised from the cold-tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duraisamy Jayakumar; Ramesh Kumar; Rajan SowriArvind Bharani

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To synthesize silver nanoparticles from the biomass of cold tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis and evalute the synthesized nanoparticles against antibacterial and anticancer activity. Methods: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the algal culture and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X ray diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity has been studied with free nanoparticles adopting agar diffusion assay, biofilm inhibition assay and nanoparticles fabricated wound dressing against representative Gram-negative organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive organism Staphylococcus aureus respectively. The in vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles were screened against human Hep2 cell lines by means of MTT assay. Results: Reduction of silver ions by the algal culture was observed during 72 h of incubation and the synthesized nanoparticles were further characterized. Antibacterial study reveals both the strains were susceptible to free nanoparticles and fabricated wound dressing treatment. The in vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles were screened against human Hep 2 cell lines by means of MTT assay which reveals that cell viability has been reduced as dose dependent manner. Conclusions: The observed results imply that silver nanoparticles synthesized from Spirulina platensis cold tolerant strain can be used as potential antibacterial and anticancerous agent.

  2. Preservation of potassium balance is strongly associated with insect cold tolerance in the field: a seasonal study of Drosophila subobscura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Heath A; Schou, Mads F; Kristensen, Torsten N; Overgaard, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    There is interest in pinpointing genes and physiological mechanisms explaining intra- and interspecific variations in cold tolerance, because thermal tolerance phenotypes strongly impact the distribution and abundance of wild animals. Laboratory studies have highlighted that the capacity to preserve water and ion homeostasis is linked to low temperature survival in insects. It remains unknown, however, whether adaptive seasonal acclimatization in free-ranging insects is governed by the same physiological mechanisms. Here, we test whether cold tolerance in field-caught Drosophila subobscura is high in early spring and lower during summer and whether this transition is associated with seasonal changes in the capacity of flies to preserve water and ion balance during cold stress. Indeed, flies caught during summer were less cold tolerant, and exposure of these flies to sub-zero temperatures caused a loss of haemolymph water and increased the concentration of K(+) in the haemolymph (as in laboratory-reared insects). This pattern of ion and water balance disruption was not observed in more cold-tolerant flies caught in early spring. Thus, we here provide a field verification of hypotheses based on laboratory studies and conclude that the ability to maintain ion homeostasis is important for the ability of free-ranging insects to cope with chilling. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Sorghum Landrace Collections from Cooler Regions of the World Exhibit Magnificent Genetic Differentiation and Early Season Cold Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Maulana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cold temperature is an important abiotic stress affecting sorghum production in temperate regions. It reduces seed germination, seedling emergence and seedling vigor thus limiting the production of the crop both temporally and spatially. The objectives of this study were (1 to assess early season cold temperature stress response of sorghum germplasm from cooler environments and identify sources of tolerance for use in breeding programs, (2 to determine population structure and marker-trait association among these germplasms for eventual development of marker tools for improving cold tolerance. A total of 136 sorghum accessions from cooler regions of the world were phenotyped for seedling growth characteristics under cold temperature imposed through early planting. The accessions were genotyped using 67 simple sequence repeats markers spanning all ten linkage groups of sorghum, of which 50 highly polymorphic markers were used in the analysis. Genetic diversity and population structure analyses sorted the population into four subpopulations. Several accessions distributed in all subpopulations showed either better or comparable level of tolerance to the standard cold tolerance source, Shan qui red. Association analysis between the markers and seedling traits identified markers Xtxp34, Xtxp88, and Xtxp319 as associated with seedling emergence, Xtxp211 and Xtxp304 with seedling dry weight, and Xtxp20 with seedling height. The markers were detected on chromosomes previously found to harbor QTLs associated with cold tolerance in sorghum. Once validated these may serve as genomic tools in marker-assisted breeding or for screening larger pool of genotypes to identify additional sources of cold tolerance.

  4. Effect of Postsowing Compaction on Cold and Frost Tolerance of North China Plain Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyun Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improper postsowing compaction negatively affects soil temperature and thereby cold and frost tolerance, particularly in extreme cold weather. In North China Plain, the temperature falls to 5 degrees below zero, even lower in winter, which is period for winter wheat growing. Thus improving temperature to promote wheat growth is important in this area. A field experiment from 2013 to 2016 was conducted to evaluate effects of postsowing compaction on soil temperature and plant population of wheat at different stages during wintering period. The effect of three postsowing compaction methods—(1 compacting wheel (CW, (2 crosskill roller (CR, and (3 V-shaped compacting roller after crosskill roller (VCRCR—on winter soil temperatures and relation to wheat shoot growth parameters were measured. Results showed that the highest soil midwinter temperature was in the CW treatment. In the 20 cm and 40 cm soil layer, soil temperatures were ranked in the following order of CW > VCRCR > CR. Shoot numbers under CW, CR, and VCRCR treatments were statistically 12.40% and 8.18% higher under CW treatment compared to CR or VCRCR treatments at the end of wintering period. The higher soil temperature under CW treatment resulted in higher shoot number at the end of wintering period, apparently due to reduced shoot death by cold and frost damage.

  5. Actively controlling coolant-cooled cold plate configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2015-07-28

    A method is provided to facilitate active control of thermal and fluid dynamic performance of a coolant-cooled cold plate. The method includes: monitoring a variable associated with at least one of the coolant-cooled cold plate or one or more electronic components being cooled by the cold plate; and dynamically varying, based on the monitored variable, a physical configuration of the cold plate. By dynamically varying the physical configuration, the thermal and fluid dynamic performance of the cold plate are adjusted to, for example, optimally cool the one or more electronic components, and at the same time, reduce cooling power consumption used in cooling the electronic component(s). The physical configuration can be adjusted by providing one or more adjustable plates within the coolant-cooled cold plate, the positioning of which may be adjusted based on the monitored variable.

  6. ESKIMO1 is a key gene involved in water economy as well as cold acclimation and salt tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Agnes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drought is a major social and economic problem resulting in huge yield reduction in the field. Today's challenge is to develop plants with reduced water requirements and stable yields in fluctuating environmental conditions. Arabidopsis thaliana is an excellent model for identifying potential targets for plant breeding. Drought tolerance in the field was successfully conferred to crops by transferring genes from this model species. While involved in a plant genomics programme, which aims to identify new genes responsible for plant response to abiotic stress, we identified ESKIMO1 as a key gene involved in plant water economy as well as cold acclimation and salt tolerance. Results All esk1 mutants were more tolerant to freezing, after acclimation, than their wild type counterpart. esk1 mutants also showed increased tolerance to mild water deficit for all traits measured. The mutant's improved tolerance to reduced water supply may be explained by its lower transpiration rate and better water use efficiency (WUE, which was assessed by carbon isotope discrimination and gas exchange measurements. esk1 alleles were also shown to be more tolerant to salt stress. Transcriptomic analysis of one mutant line and its wild-type background was carried out. Under control watering conditions a number of genes were differentially expressed between the mutant and the wild type whereas under mild drought stress this list of genes was reduced. Among the genes that were differentially expressed between the wild type and mutant, two functional categories related to the response to stress or biotic and abiotic stimulus were over-represented. Under salt stress conditions, all gene functional categories were represented equally in both the mutant and wild type. Based on this transcriptome analysis we hypothesise that in control conditions the esk1 mutant behaves as if it was exposed to drought stress. Conclusion Overall our findings suggest that the

  7. A Concept for fault tolerant controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    This paper describe a concept for fault tolerant controllers (FTC) based on the YJBK (after Youla, Jabr, Bongiorno and Kucera) parameterization. This controller architecture will allow to change the controller on-line in the case of faults in the system. In the described FTC concept, a safe mode...... controller is applied as the basic feedback controller. A controller for normal operation with high performance is obtained by including certain YJBK parameters (transfer functions) in the controller. This will allow a fast switch from normal operation to safe mode operation in case of critical faults...... in the system. The described FTC architecture allow the different feedback controllers to apply different sets of sensors and actuators....

  8. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Reveals that Antioxidation Mechanisms Contribute to Cold Tolerance in Plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.; ABB Group) Seedlings*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiao-Song; Wu, Jun-Hua; Li, Chun-Yu; Wei, Yue-Rong; Sheng, Ou; Hu, Chun-Hua; Kuang, Rui-Bin; Huang, Yong-Hong; Peng, Xin-Xiang; McCardle, James A.; Chen, Wei; Yang, Yong; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.; Zhang, Sheng; Yi, Gan-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Banana and its close relative, plantain are globally important crops and there is considerable interest in optimizing their cultivation. Plantain has superior cold tolerance compared with banana and a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms and responses of plantain to cold stress has great potential value for developing cold tolerant banana cultivars. In this study, we used iTRAQ-based comparative proteomic analysis to investigate the temporal responses of plantain to cold stress. Plantain seedlings were exposed for 0, 6, and 24 h of cold stress at 8 °C and subsequently allowed to recover for 24 h at 28 °C. A total of 3477 plantain proteins were identified, of which 809 showed differential expression from the three treatments. The majority of differentially expressed proteins were predicted to be involved in oxidation-reduction, including oxylipin biosynthesis, whereas others were associated with photosynthesis, photorespiration, and several primary metabolic processes, such as carbohydrate metabolic process and fatty acid beta-oxidation. Western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays were performed on seven differentially expressed, cold-response candidate plantain proteins to validate the proteomics data. Similar analyses of the seven candidate proteins were performed in cold-sensitive banana to examine possible functional conservation, and to compare the results to equivalent responses between the two species. Consistent results were achieved by Western blot and enzyme activity assays, demonstrating that the quantitative proteomics data collected in this study are reliable. Our results suggest that an increase of antioxidant capacity through adapted ROS scavenging capability, reduced production of ROS, and decreased lipid peroxidation contribute to molecular mechanisms for the increased cold tolerance in plantain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a global investigation on molecular responses of plantain to cold stress by

  9. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals that antioxidation mechanisms contribute to cold tolerance in plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.; ABB Group) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiao-Song; Wu, Jun-Hua; Li, Chun-Yu; Wei, Yue-Rong; Sheng, Ou; Hu, Chun-Hua; Kuang, Rui-Bin; Huang, Yong-Hong; Peng, Xin-Xiang; McCardle, James A; Chen, Wei; Yang, Yong; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Zhang, Sheng; Yi, Gan-Jun

    2012-12-01

    Banana and its close relative, plantain are globally important crops and there is considerable interest in optimizing their cultivation. Plantain has superior cold tolerance compared with banana and a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms and responses of plantain to cold stress has great potential value for developing cold tolerant banana cultivars. In this study, we used iTRAQ-based comparative proteomic analysis to investigate the temporal responses of plantain to cold stress. Plantain seedlings were exposed for 0, 6, and 24 h of cold stress at 8 °C and subsequently allowed to recover for 24 h at 28 °C. A total of 3477 plantain proteins were identified, of which 809 showed differential expression from the three treatments. The majority of differentially expressed proteins were predicted to be involved in oxidation-reduction, including oxylipin biosynthesis, whereas others were associated with photosynthesis, photorespiration, and several primary metabolic processes, such as carbohydrate metabolic process and fatty acid beta-oxidation. Western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays were performed on seven differentially expressed, cold-response candidate plantain proteins to validate the proteomics data. Similar analyses of the seven candidate proteins were performed in cold-sensitive banana to examine possible functional conservation, and to compare the results to equivalent responses between the two species. Consistent results were achieved by Western blot and enzyme activity assays, demonstrating that the quantitative proteomics data collected in this study are reliable. Our results suggest that an increase of antioxidant capacity through adapted ROS scavenging capability, reduced production of ROS, and decreased lipid peroxidation contribute to molecular mechanisms for the increased cold tolerance in plantain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a global investigation on molecular responses of plantain to cold stress by

  10. Fault Tolerant Control Using Gaussian Processes and Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaoke

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential ingredients for fault-tolerant control are the ability to represent system behaviour following the occurrence of a fault, and the ability to exploit this representation for deciding control actions. Gaussian processes seem to be very promising candidates for the first of these, and model predictive control has a proven capability for the second. We therefore propose to use the two together to obtain fault-tolerant control functionality. Our proposal is illustrated by several reasonably realistic examples drawn from flight control.

  11. Development of cold and drought tolerant short-season maize germplasm for fuel and feed utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo J Carena

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Maize has become a profitable alternative for North Dakota (ND farmers and ranchers. However, U.S. northern industry hybrids still lack cold and drought stress tolerance as well as adequate grain quality for ethanol and feedstock products. Moreover, there is a need to increase the value of feedstock operations before and after ethanol utilization. The ND maize breeding program initiated the development of hybrids with high quality protein content through the Early Quality Protein Maize for Feedstock (EarlyQPMF project. The North Dakota State University (NDSU maize breeding program acts as a genetic provider to foundation seed companies, retailer seed companies, processing industry, and breeders nationally and internationally. In the past 10 years, NDSU was awarded 9 PVP maize certificates and released 38 maize products. Within those, 13 inbred lines were exclusively released to a foundation seed company for commercial purposes. In addition, 2 hybrids were identified for commercial production in central and western ND.

  12. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing in Passiflora edulis Sims to Identify Genes and Signaling Pathways Involved in Cold Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sian Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims, also known as the purple granadilla, is widely cultivated as the new darling of the fruit market throughout southern China. This exotic and perennial climber is adapted to warm and humid climates, and thus is generally intolerant of cold. There is limited information about gene regulation and signaling pathways related to the cold stress response in this species. In this study, two transcriptome libraries (KEDU_AP vs. GX_AP were constructed from the aerial parts of cold-tolerant and cold-susceptible varieties of P. edulis, respectively. Overall, 126,284,018 clean reads were obtained, and 86,880 unigenes with a mean size of 1449 bp were assembled. Of these, there were 64,067 (73.74% unigenes with significant similarity to publicly available plant protein sequences. Expression profiles were generated, and 3045 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed between the KEDU_AP and GX_AP libraries, including 1075 (35.3% up-regulated and 1970 (64.7% down-regulated. These included 36 genes in enriched pathways of plant hormone signal transduction, and 56 genes encoding putative transcription factors. Six genes involved in the ICE1–CBF–COR pathway were induced in the cold-tolerant variety, and their expression levels were further verified using quantitative real-time PCR. This report is the first to identify genes and signaling pathways involved in cold tolerance using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing in P. edulis. These findings may provide useful insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating cold tolerance and genetic breeding in Passiflora spp.

  13. Deinococcus gobiensis cold shock protein improves salt stress tolerance of escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shijie; Wang Jin; Yang Mingkun; Chen Ming; Zhang Wei; Luo Xuegang

    2013-01-01

    The Deinococcus gobiensis I-0, an extremely radiation-resistant bacterium, isolated from the Gobi, has superior resistance to abiotic stress (e.g radiation, oxidation, dehydration and so on). The two cold-shock proteins encoded by csp1 (Dgo_CA1136) and csp2 (Dgo_PA0041) were identified in the complete genome sequence of D. gobiensis. In this study, we showed that D. gobiensis Csp1 protected Escherichia coli cells against cold shock and other abiotic stresses such as salt and osmotic shocks. The quantitative real-time PCR assay shows that the expression of trehalose synthase (otsA, otsB) was up-regulated remarkably under salt stress in the csp1-expressing strain, while no difference in the expression of the genes involved in trehalose degradation (treB and treC). The results suggested that Csp1 caused the accumulation of the trehalose was a major feature for improving tolerance to salt stress in E. coli. (authors)

  14. Viable cold-tolerant iron-reducing microorganisms in geographically diverse subglacial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Sophie L.; Telling, Jon P.; Wadham, Jemma L.; Cockell, Charles S.

    2017-03-01

    Subglacial environments are known to harbour metabolically diverse microbial communities. These microbial communities drive chemical weathering of underlying bedrock and influence the geochemistry of glacial meltwater. Despite its importance in weathering reactions, the microbial cycling of iron in subglacial environments, in particular the role of microbial iron reduction, is poorly understood. In this study we address the prevalence of viable iron-reducing microorganisms in subglacial sediments from five geographically isolated glaciers. Iron-reducing enrichment cultures were established with sediment from beneath Engabreen (Norway), Finsterwalderbreen (Svalbard), Leverett and Russell glaciers (Greenland), and Lower Wright Glacier (Antarctica). Rates of iron reduction were higher at 4 °C compared with 15 °C in all but one duplicated second-generation enrichment culture, indicative of cold-tolerant and perhaps cold-adapted iron reducers. Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicates Desulfosporosinus were the dominant iron-reducing microorganisms in low-temperature Engabreen, Finsterwalderbreen and Lower Wright Glacier enrichments, and Geobacter dominated in Russell and Leverett enrichments. Results from this study suggest microbial iron reduction is widespread in subglacial environments and may have important implications for global biogeochemical iron cycling and export to marine ecosystems.

  15. Role of Melatonin in Cell-Wall Disassembly and Chilling Tolerance in Cold-Stored Peach Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shifeng; Bian, Kun; Shi, Liyu; Chung, Hsiao-Hang; Chen, Wei; Yang, Zhenfeng

    2018-06-06

    Melatonin reportedly increases chilling tolerance in postharvest peach fruit during cold storage, but information on its effects on cell-wall disassembly in chilling-injured peaches is limited. In this study, we investigated the role of cell-wall depolymerization in chilling-tolerance induction in melatonin-treated peaches. Treatment with 100 μM melatonin alleviated chilling symptoms (mealiness) characterized by a decrease in fruit firmness and increase in juice extractability in treated peaches during storage. The loss of neutral sugars, such as arabinose and galactose, in both the 1,2-cyclohexylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid (CDTA)- and Na 2 CO 3 -soluble fractions was observed at 7 days in treated peaches, but the contents increased after 28 days of storage. Atomic-force-microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed that the polysaccharide widths in the CDTA- and Na 2 CO 3 -soluble fractions in the treated fruit were mainly distributed in a shorter range, as compared with those in the control fruit. In addition, the expression profiles of a series of cell-wall-related genes showed that melatonin treatment maintained the balance between transcripts of PpPME and PpPG, which accompany the up-regulation of several other genes involved in cell-wall disassembly. Taken together, our results suggested that the reduced mealiness by melatonin was probably associated with its positive regulation of numerous cell-wall-modifying enzymes and proteins; thus, the depolymerization of the cell-wall polysaccharides in the peaches treated with melatonin was maintained, and the treated fruit could soften gradually during cold storage.

  16. Changes in cold tolerance due to a 14-day stay in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, S. D.; Romet, T.; Keefe, A. A.; Nolan, R. W.

    1996-12-01

    Responses to cold exposure tests both locally and of the whole body were examined in subjects who stayed in the Arctic (average maximum and minimum temperatures -11 and -21° C respectively) for 14 days of skiing and sleeping in tents. These changes were compared to responses in subjects living working in Ottawa, Canada (average max. and min. temperatures -5 and -11° C respectively). The tests were done before the stay in the Arctic (Pre), immediately after the return (Post 1) and approximately 32 days after the return (Post 2). For the whole-body cold exposure each subject, wearing only shorts and lying on a rope mesh cot, was exposed to an ambient temperature of 10° C. There was no consistent response in the changes of metabolic or body temperature to this exposure in either of groups and, in addition, the changes over time were variable. Cold induced vasodilatation (CIVD) was determined by measuring temperature changes in the middle finger of the nondominant hand upon immersion in ice water for 30 min. CIVD was depressed after the Arctic exposure whilst during the Post 2 testing, although variable, did not return to the Pre values; the responses of the control group were similar. These results indicate that normal seasonal changes may be as important in adaptation as a stay in the Arctic. Caution is advised in the separation of seasonal effects when examining the changes in adaptation after exposure to a cold environment.

  17. Expression of cold and drought regulatory protein (CcCDR) of pigeonpea imparts enhanced tolerance to major abiotic stresses in transgenic rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunitha, Mellacheruvu; Srinath, Tamirisa; Reddy, Vudem Dashavantha; Rao, Khareedu Venkateswara

    2017-06-01

    Transgenic rice expressing pigeonpea Cc CDR conferred high-level tolerance to different abiotic stresses. The multiple stress tolerance observed in CcCDR -transgenic lines is attributed to the modulation of ABA-dependent and-independent signalling-pathway genes. Stable transgenic plants expressing Cajanus cajan cold and drought regulatory protein encoding gene (CcCDR), under the control of CaMV35S and rd29A promoters, have been generated in indica rice. Different transgenic lines of CcCDR, when subjected to drought, salt, and cold stresses, exhibited higher seed germination, seedling survival rates, shoot length, root length, and enhanced plant biomass when compared with the untransformed control plants. Furthermore, transgenic plants disclosed higher leaf chlorophyll content, proline, reducing sugars, SOD, and catalase activities, besides lower levels of MDA. Localization studies revealed that the CcCDR-GFP fusion protein was mainly present in the nucleus of transformed cells of rice. The CcCDR transgenics were found hypersensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) and showed reduced seed germination rates as compared to that of control plants. When the transgenic plants were exposed to drought and salt stresses at vegetative and reproductive stages, they revealed larger panicles and higher number of filled grains compared to the untransformed control plants. Under similar stress conditions, the expression levels of P5CS, bZIP, DREB, OsLEA3, and CIPK genes, involved in ABA-dependent and-independent signal transduction pathways, were found higher in the transgenic plants than the control plants. The overall results amply demonstrate that the transgenic rice expressing CcCDR bestows high-level tolerance to drought, salt, and cold stress conditions. Accordingly, the CcCDR might be deployed as a promising candidate gene for improving the multiple stress tolerance of diverse crop plants.

  18. Solar shading control strategy for office buildings in cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røseth Karlsen, Line; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •Solar shading control strategy for office buildings in cold climate is developed. •Satisfying energy and indoor environmental performance is confirmed. •Importance of integrated evaluations when selecting shading strategy is illustrated.......Highlights •Solar shading control strategy for office buildings in cold climate is developed. •Satisfying energy and indoor environmental performance is confirmed. •Importance of integrated evaluations when selecting shading strategy is illustrated....

  19. Overexpression of a repressor MdMYB15L negatively regulates anthocyanin and cold tolerance in red-fleshed callus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haifeng; Yang, Guanxian; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yicheng; Zhang, Tianliang; Wang, Nan; Jiang, Shenghui; Zhang, Zongying; Chen, Xuesen

    2018-04-14

    The cold-induced metabolic pathway and anthocyanin biosynthesis play important roles in plant growth. In this study, we identified a bHLH binding motif in the MdMYB15L protein using protein sequence analyses. Yeast two-hybrid and pull-down assays showed that MdMYB15L could interact with MdbHLH33. Overexpressing MdMYB15L in red-fleshed callus inhibited the expression of MdCBF2 and resulted in reduced cold tolerance but did not affect anthocyanin levels. Chip-PCR and EMSA analysis showed that MdMYB15L could bind the type II cis-acting element found in the MdCBF2 promoter. Overexpressing MdMYB15L in red-fleshed callus overexpressing MdbHLH33 also reduced cold tolerance and reduced MdbHLH33-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. Knocking out the bHLH binding sequence of MdMYB15L (LBSMdMYB15L) prevented LBSMdMYB15L from interacting with MdbHLH33. Overexpressing LBSMdMYB15L in red-fleshed callus overexpressing MdbHLH33 also reduced cold tolerance and reduced MdbHLH33-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. Together, these results suggested that an apple repressor MdMYB15L might play a key role in the cold signaling and anthocyanin metabolic pathways. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Community composition and cold tolerance of soil Collembola in a collapse karst doline with strong microclimate inversion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raschmanová, N.; Miklisová, D.; Kováč, L.; Šustr, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 6 (2015), s. 802-811 ISSN 0006-3088 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/0199/14; VEGA(SK) 1/3267/06 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cold tolerance * collapse doline * karst landform * microclimatic gradient * soil Collembola Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.719, year: 2015

  1. Evaluation of Diversity Based on Morphological Variabilities and ISSR Molecular Markers in Iranian Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Accessions to Select and Introduce Cold-Tolerant Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, M; Salehi, H; Niazi, A

    2018-04-01

    The main goals of the present study were to screen Iranian common bermudagrasses to find cold-tolerant accessions and evaluate their genetic and morphological variabilities. In this study, 49 accessions were collected from 18 provinces of Iran. One foreign cultivar of common bermudagrass was used as control. Morphological variation was evaluated based on 14 morphological traits to give information about taxonomic position of Iranian common bermudagrass. Data from morphological traits were evaluated to categorize all accessions as either cold sensitive or tolerant using hierarchical clustering with Ward's method in SPSS software. Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) primers were employed to evaluate genetic variability of accessions. The results of our taxonomic investigation support the existence of two varieties of Cynodon dactylon in Iran: var. dactylon (hairless plant) and var. villosous (plant with hairs at leaf underside and/or upper side surfaces or exterior surfaces of sheath). All 15 primers amplified and gave clear and highly reproducible DNA fragments. In total, 152 fragments were produced, of which 144 (94.73%) being polymorphic. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.700 to 0.928. The average PIC value obtained with 15 ISSR primers was 0.800, which shows that all primers were informative. Probability identity (PI) and discriminating power between all primers ranged from 0.029 to 0.185 and 0.815 to 0.971, respectively. Genetic data were converted into a binary data matrix. NTSYS software was used for data analysis. Clustering was done by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages and principle coordinate analysis, separated the accessions into six main clusters. According to both morphological and genetic diversity investigations of accessions, they can be clustered into three groups: cold sensitive, cold semi-tolerant, and cold tolerant. The most cold-tolerant accessions were: Taft, Malayear, Gorgan, Safashahr

  2. ESKIMO1 is a key gene involved in water economy as well as cold acclimation and salt tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchabke-Coussa, O.; Quashie, M.L.; Seoane, Jose Miguel

    2008-01-01

    's improved tolerance to reduced water supply may be explained by its lower transpiration rate and better water use efficiency (WUE), which was assessed by carbon isotope discrimination and gas exchange measurements. esk1 alleles were also shown to be more tolerant to salt stress. Transcriptomic analysis......Background: Drought is a major social and economic problem resulting in huge yield reduction in the field. Today's challenge is to develop plants with reduced water requirements and stable yields in fluctuating environmental conditions. Arabidopsis thaliana is an excellent model for identifying...... as a key gene involved in plant water economy as well as cold acclimation and salt tolerance. Results: All esk1 mutants were more tolerant to freezing, after acclimation, than their wild type counterpart. esk1 mutants also showed increased tolerance to mild water deficit for all traits measured. The mutant...

  3. Genotypes Associated with Listeria monocytogenes Isolates Displaying Impaired or Enhanced Tolerances to Cold, Salt, Acid, or Desiccation Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hingston, Patricia A.; Chen, Jessica; Dhillon, Bhavjinder K

    2017-01-01

    elements. A whole genome single-nucleotide-variants phylogeny revealed sporadic distribution of tolerant isolates and closely related sensitive and tolerant isolates, highlighting that minor genetic differences can influence the stress tolerance of L. monocytogenes. Specifically, a number of cold......The human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is a large concern in the food industry where its continuous detection in food products has caused a string of recalls in North America and Europe. Most recognized for its ability to grow in foods during refrigerated storage, L. monocytogenes can also...... tolerate several other food-related stresses with some strains possessing higher levels of tolerances than others. The objective of this study was to use a combination of phenotypic analyses and whole genome sequencing to elucidate potential relationships between L. monocytogenes genotypes and food...

  4. Comparing Enchytraeus albidus populations from contrasting climatic environments suggest a link between cold tolerance and metabolic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žagar, Anamarija; Holmstrup, Martin; Simčič, Tatjana; Debeljak, Barabara; Slotsbo, Stine

    2018-06-06

    Basal metabolic activity and freezing of body fluids create reactive oxygen species (ROS) in freeze-tolerant organisms. These sources of ROS can have an additive negative effect via oxidative stress. In cells, antioxidant systems are responsible for removing ROS in order to avoid damage due to oxidative stress. Relatively little is known about the importance of metabolic rate for the survival of freezing, despite a good understanding of several cold tolerance related physiological mechanisms. We hypothesized that low basal metabolism would be selected for in freeze-tolerant organisms where winter survival is important for fitness for two reasons. First, avoidance of the additive effect of ROS production from metabolism and freezing, and second, as an energy-saving mechanism under extended periods of freezing where the animal is metabolically active, but unable to feed. We used the terrestrial oligochaete, Enchytraeus albidus, which is widely distributed from Spain to the high Arctic and compared eight populations originating across a broad geographical and climatic gradient after they had been cold acclimated at 5 °C in a common garden experiment. Cold tolerance (lower lethal temperature: LT50) and the potential metabolic activity (PMA, an estimator of the maximal enzymatic potential of the mitochondrial respiration chain) of eight populations were positively correlated amongst each other and correlated negatively with latitude and positively with average yearly temperature and the average temperature of the coldest month. These results indicate that low PMA in cold tolerant populations is important for survival in extremely cold environments. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Adaptive Control Allocation for Fault Tolerant Overactuated Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Tolerant Overactuated Autonomous Vehicles Casavola, A.; Garone, E. (2007) Adaptive Control Allocation for Fault Tolerant Overactuated Autonomous ...Adaptive Control Allocation for Fault Tolerant Overactuated Autonomous Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Tolerant Overactuated Autonomous Vehicles 3.2 - 2 RTO-MP-AVT-145 UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED Control allocation problem (CAP) - Given a virtual input v(t

  6. Diagnosis and Fault-tolerant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Kinnaert, Michel; Lunze, Jan

    the applicability of the presented methods. The theoretical results are illustrated by two running examples which are used throughout the book. The book addresses engineering students, engineers in industry and researchers who wish to get a survey over the variety of approaches to process diagnosis and fault......The book presents effective model-based analysis and design methods for fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control. Architectural and structural models are used to analyse the propagation of the fault through the process, to test the fault detectability and to find the redundancies in the process...

  7. Positron Plasma Control Techniques Applied to Studies of Cold Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Funakoshi, Ryo

    2003-01-01

    In the year 2002, two experiments at CERN succeeded in producing cold antihydrogen atoms, first ATHENA and subsequently ATRAP. Following on these results, it is now feasible to use antihydrogen to study the properties of antimatter. In the ATHENA experiment, the cold antihydrogen atoms are produced by mixing large amounts of antiprotons and positrons in a nested Penning trap. The complicated behaviors of the charged particles are controlled and monitored by plasma manipulation techniques. The antihydrogen events are studied using position sensitive detectors and the evidence of production of antihydrogen atoms is separated out with the help of analysis software. This thesis covers the first production of cold antihydrogen in the first section as well as the further studies of cold antihydrogen performed by using the plasma control techniques in the second section.

  8. Hand immersion in cold water alleviating physiological strain and increasing tolerance to uncompensable heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomenok, Gennadi A; Hadid, Amir; Preiss-Bloom, Orahn; Yanovich, Ran; Erlich, Tomer; Ron-Tal, Osnat; Peled, Amir; Epstein, Yoram; Moran, Daniel S

    2008-09-01

    The current study examines the use of hand immersion in cold water to alleviate physiological strain caused by exercising in a hot climate while wearing NBC protective garments. Seventeen heat acclimated subjects wearing a semi-permeable NBC protective garment and a light bulletproof vest were exposed to a 125 min exercise-heat stress (35 degrees C, 50% RH; 5 km/h, 5% incline). The heat stress exposure routine included 5 min rest in the chamber followed by two 50:10 min work-rest cycles. During the control trial (CO), there was no intervention, whilst in the intervention condition the subjects immersed their hands and forearms in a 10 degrees C water bath (HI). The results demonstrated that hand immersion in cold water significantly reduced physiological strain. In the CO exposure during the first and second resting periods, the average rectal temperature (T (re)) practically did not decrease. With hand immersion, the mean (SD) T (re) decreased by 0.45 (0.05 degrees C) and 0.48 degrees C (0.06 degrees C) during the first and second rest periods respectively (P immersion in cold water for 10 min is an effective method for decreasing the physiological strain caused by exercising under heat stress while wearing NBC protective garments. The method is convenient, simple, and allows longer working periods in hot or contaminated areas with shorter resting periods.

  9. Upper lethal temperatures in three cold-tolerant insects are higher in winter than in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Henry M; Duman, John G

    2017-08-01

    Upper lethal temperatures (ULTs) of cold-adapted insect species in winter have not been previously examined. We anticipated that as the lower lethal temperatures (LLTs) decreased (by 20-30°C) with the onset of winter, the ULTs would also decrease accordingly. Consequently, given the recent increases in winter freeze-thaw cycles and warmer winters due to climate change, it became of interest to determine whether ambient temperatures during thaws were approaching ULTs during the cold seasons. However, beetle Dendroides canadensis (Coleoptera: Pyrochroidae) larvae had higher 24 and 48 h ULT 50 (the temperature at which 50% mortality occurred) in winter than in summer. The 24 and 48 h ULT 50 for D. canadensis in winter were 40.9 and 38.7°C, respectively. For D. canadensis in summer, the 24 and 48 h ULT 50 were 36.7 and 36.4°C. During the transition periods of spring and autumn, the 24 h ULT 50 was 37.3 and 38.5°C, respectively. While D. canadensis in winter had a 24 h LT 50 range between LLT and ULT of 64°C, the summer range was only 41°C. Additionally, larvae of the beetle Cucujus clavipes clavipes (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) and the cranefly Tipula trivittata (Diptera: Tipulidae) also had higher ULTs in winter than in summer. This unexpected phenomenon of increased temperature survivorship at both lower and higher temperatures in the winter compared with that in the summer has not been previously documented. With the decreased high temperature tolerance as the season progresses from winter to summer, it was observed that environmental temperatures are closest to upper lethal temperatures in spring. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Cold Tolerance of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae): An Invasive Pest of Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jessica I; Lamp, William O

    2017-12-08

    Kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), first discovered in the United States in 2009, is an invasive pest of soybeans. From 2013 to 2016, Maryland has been the northern limit of its distribution in the United States. We sought to determine the physiological cold temperature limits, timing of movement to overwintering locations, and to characterize overwintering microhabitat temperature. We measured supercooling point (SCP) on three populations from distinct USDA plant hardiness zones in Maryland and Virginia between October and December of 2015. The average SCP across all sample months and populations was -12.6°C and no consistent trend of month or population location were observed. Additionally, we assessed the lower lethal temperature to kill 50% of the population (LLT50) at the same population locations in October and November 2015. The average LLT50 over both months and all three population locations was -5.1°C. Again, no consistent trend based on population location was observed but we did find a modest depression in the LLT50 values between October and November. We observed that kudzu bug overwinters in leaf litter and begins to move into the litter in late November to early December. Leaf litter moderates day to night temperature differences and was warmer than ambient temperature by an average of 0.7°C. Evidence suggests that the cold tolerance of the kudzu bug limits its distribution north of Maryland. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A cold-induced pectin methyl-esterase inhibitor gene contributes negatively to freezing tolerance but positively to salt tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Chen, Xuehui; Zhang, Qingfeng; Zhang, Yidan; Ou, Xiangli; An, Lizhe; Feng, Huyuan; Zhao, Zhiguang

    2018-03-01

    Plant pectin methyl-esterase (PME) and PME inhibitor (PMEI) belong to large gene families whose members are proposed to be widely involved in growth, development, and stress responses; however, the biological functions of most PMEs and PMEIs have not been characterized. In this study, we studied the roles of CbPMEI1, a cold-induced pectin methyl-esterase inhibitor (PMEI) gene from Chorispora bungeana, under freezing and salt stress. The putative CbPMEI1 peptide shares highest similarity (83%) with AT5G62360 (PMEI13) of Arabidopsis. Overexpression of either CbPMEI1 or PMEI13 in Arabidopsis decreased tissue PME activity and enhanced the degree of methoxylation of cell wall pectins, indicating that both genes encode functional PMEIs. CbPMEI1 and PMEI13 were induced by cold but repressed by salt stress and abscisic acid, suggesting distinct roles of the genes in freezing and salt stress tolerance. Interestingly, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing CbPMEI1 or PMEI13 showed decreased freezing tolerance, as indicated by survival and electrolyte leakage assays. On the other hand, the salt tolerance of transgenic plants was increased, showing higher rates of germination, root growth, and survival under salinity conditions as compared with non-transgenic wild-type plants. Although the transgenic plants were freezing-sensitive, they showed longer roots than wild-type plants under cold conditions, suggesting a role of PMEs in balancing the trade-off between freezing tolerance and growth. Thus, our study indicates that CbPMEI1 and PMEI13 are involved in root growth regulation under cold and salt stresses, and suggests that PMEIs may be potential targets for genetic engineering aimed to improve fitness of plants under stress conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Planting Date on Cold Tolerance of Winter and Spring Barley Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Eivazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate cold tolerance of twenty barley genotypes under field conditions, an experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design at 3 sowing dates of October 5, November 5, and December 5 in Saatlu Agricultural Research Station, West Azarbaijan, Iran, during 2010-11 seasons. Also, another experiment was conducted on the same genotypes based on a completely randomized design under greenhouse conditions. in wich Cold stress was applied up to -25°C at two, four and six leaf development stages. LT50, ion leakage and dry matter were measured and apex photographed. Field experiment results showed the lowest significant differences at p≤0.05 between different levels of sowing date, genotype, and interaction between them for plant height, spike/m2, kernel per spike, 1000-kernel weight, grain yield and total dry matter. Genotypes of winter growth type had higher grain yield (4250kg/ha than those with spring growth type (4190kg/ha. There were significant differences for ion leakage and dry matter at 4 and 6 leaf development stages under greenhouse conditions. Genotype 1 (winter growth type with lowest values of range and standard deviation for grain yield, total dry matter and LT50 = -38 °C showed a relatively low ion leakage. In contrast, genotypes 5, 10 and 14 (spring growth type were identified sensitive to cold stress due to having more values of range, standard deviation for grain yield and total dry matter, LT50 = -18 to -27 °C and ion leakage from 25 to 33µS/m. Regression analysis showed 1000-kernel weight and total dry matter to remain at final model. Cluster analysis indicated that genotypes 2, 18, 1, 17 and 19 were superior genotypes. In principal component analysis, four components showed 80% of total variations, and the first component with 26% of variation was an important yield component for improving grain yield of barley genotypes. In conclusion, grain yields of winter and spring barley genotypes were

  13. IMRT fluence map editing to control hot and cold spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor Cook, J.; Tobler, Matt; Leavitt, Dennis D.; Watson, Gordon

    2005-01-01

    Manually editing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fluence maps effectively controls hot and cold spots that the IMRT optimization cannot control. Many times, re-optimizing does not reduce the hot spots or increase the cold spots. In fact, re-optimizing only places the hot and cold spots in different locations. Fluence-map editing provides manual control of dose delivery and provides the best treatment plan possible. Several IMRT treatments were planned using the Varian Eclipse planning system. We compare the effects on dose distributions between fluence-map editing and re-optimization, discuss techniques for fluence-map editing, and analyze differences between fluence editing on one beam vs. multiple beams. When editing a beam's fluence map, it is essential to choose a beam that least affects dose to the tumor and critical structures. Editing fluence maps gives an advantage in treatment planning and provides controlled delivery of IMRT dose

  14. UV and cold tolerance of a pigment-producing Antarctic Janthinobacterium sp. Ant5-2

    KAUST Repository

    Mojib, Nazia

    2013-03-20

    In this paper, we describe the UV and cold tolerance of a purple violet pigment (PVP)-producing Antarctic bacterium, Janthinobacterium sp. Ant5-2 (PVP+) and compared its physiological adaptations with a pigmentless mutant strain (PVP-). A spontaneous deletion of vioA that codes for tryptophan monooxygenase, the first gene involved in the biosynthesis of PVP was found in PVP- strain. The PVP- culture exhibited significantly reduced survival during exponential and stationary growth phase following exposure to UVB (320 nm) and UVC (254 nm) (dose range: 0-300 J/m2) when compared to wild-type (PVP+) cultures. In addition, upon biochemical inhibition of pigment synthesis by 2(5H)-furanone, wild-type PVP+ cultures exhibited approximately 50-fold growth reduction at a higher dose (300 J/m2) of UV. Increased resistance to UV was observed upon inducing starvation state in both PVP+ and PVP- cultures. There was 80 % (SD = ±8) reduction in extrapolymeric substance (EPS) production in the PVP- cultures along with a compromised survival to freeze-thaw cycles when compared to the PVP+ cultures. Perhaps synthesis of PVP and EPS are among the key adaptive features that define the survival of this bacterium in Antarctic extreme conditions, especially during austral summer months. © 2013 Springer Japan.

  15. Environmental systems biology of cold-tolerant phenotype in Saccharomyces species adapted to grow at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paget, Caroline Mary; Schwartz, Jean-Marc; Delneri, Daniela

    2014-11-01

    Temperature is one of the leading factors that drive adaptation of organisms and ecosystems. Remarkably, many closely related species share the same habitat because of their different temporal or micro-spatial thermal adaptation. In this study, we seek to find the underlying molecular mechanisms of the cold-tolerant phenotype of closely related yeast species adapted to grow at different temperatures, namely S. kudriavzevii CA111 (cryo-tolerant) and S. cerevisiae 96.2 (thermo-tolerant). Using two different systems approaches, i. thermodynamic-based analysis of a genome-scale metabolic model of S. cerevisiae and ii. large-scale competition experiment of the yeast heterozygote mutant collection, genes and pathways important for the growth at low temperature were identified. In particular, defects in lipid metabolism, oxidoreductase and vitamin pathways affected yeast fitness at cold. Combining the data from both studies, a list of candidate genes was generated and mutants for two predicted cold-favouring genes, GUT2 and ADH3, were created in two natural isolates. Compared with the parental strains, these mutants showed lower fitness at cold temperatures, with S. kudriavzevii displaying the strongest defect. Strikingly, in S. kudriavzevii, these mutations also significantly improve the growth at warm temperatures. In addition, overexpression of ADH3 in S. cerevisiae increased its fitness at cold. These results suggest that temperature-induced redox imbalances could be compensated by increased glycerol accumulation or production of cytosolic acetaldehyde through the deletion of GUT2 or ADH3, respectively. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. DAF-16 and Δ9 desaturase genes promote cold tolerance in long-lived Caenorhabditis elegans age-1 mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona R Savory

    Full Text Available In Caenorhabditis elegans, mutants of the conserved insulin/IGF-1 signalling (IIS pathway are long-lived and stress resistant due to the altered expression of DAF-16 target genes such as those involved in cellular defence and metabolism. The three Δ(9 desaturase genes, fat-5, fat-6 and fat-7, are included amongst these DAF-16 targets, and it is well established that Δ(9 desaturase enzymes play an important role in survival at low temperatures. However, no assessment of cold tolerance has previously been reported for IIS mutants. We demonstrate that long-lived age-1(hx546 mutants are remarkably resilient to low temperature stress relative to wild type worms, and that this is dependent upon daf-16. We also show that cold tolerance following direct transfer to low temperatures is increased in wild type worms during the facultative, daf-16 dependent, dauer stage. Although the cold tolerant phenotype of age-1(hx546 mutants is predominantly due to the Δ(9 desaturase genes, additional transcriptional targets of DAF-16 are also involved. Surprisingly, survival of wild type adults following a rapid temperature decline is not dependent upon functional daf-16, and cellular distributions of a DAF-16::GFP fusion protein indicate that DAF-16 is not activated during low temperature stress. This suggests that cold-induced physiological defences are not specifically regulated by the IIS pathway and DAF-16, but expression of DAF-16 target genes in IIS mutants and dauers is sufficient to promote cross tolerance to low temperatures in addition to other forms of stress.

  17. Melatonin enhances cold tolerance in drought-primed wild-type and abscisic acid-deficient mutant barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangnan; Tan, Dun-Xian; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai

    2016-10-01

    Melatonin is involved in multiple plant developmental processes and various stress responses. To explore the roles of melatonin played as well as its association with abscisic acid (ABA) in a process of drought priming-induced cold tolerance (DPICT), a wild-type barley and its ABA-deficient mutant Az34 counterpart were selected for comparison, in which the effects of melatonin application (either foliarly or rhizospherically) and/or drought priming on the cold tolerance of both types of barleys were systematically investigated. It was demonstrated that the early drought priming induced an increase of endogenous melatonin production, which is not ABA dependent. In addition, exogenously applied melatonin resulted in higher ABA concentration in the drought-primed plants than in the nonprimed plants when exposed to cold stress, indicating that ABA responded in a drought-dependent manner. The interplay of melatonin and ABA leads to plants maintaining better water status. Drought priming-induced melatonin accumulation enhanced the antioxidant capacity in both chloroplasts and mitochondria, which sustained the photosynthetic electron transport in photosynthetic apparatus of the plants under cold stress. These results suggest that the exogenous melatonin application enhances the DPICT by modulating subcellular antioxidant systems and ABA levels in barley. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Control of biological hazards in cold smoked salmon production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huss, Hans Henrik; Embarek, Peter Karim Ben; Jeppesen, V.F.

    1995-01-01

    An outline of the common processing technology for cold smoked salmon in Denmark is presented. The safety hazards related to pathogenic bacteria, parasites and biogenic amines are discussed with special emphasis on hazards related to Clostridium botulinum and Listeria monocytogenes. Critical...... control points are identified for all hazards except growth of L. monocytogenes. For this reason a limitation of shelf life to three weeks at +5 degrees C far cold smoked vacuum-packed salmon having greater than or equal to 3% water phase salt is recommended...

  19. Community phylogenetics at the biogeographical scale: cold tolerance, niche conservatism and the structure of North American forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Bradford A; Rueda, Marta; Rangel, Thiago F; Field, Richard; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre F; Linder, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Aim The fossil record has led to a historical explanation for forest diversity gradients within the cool parts of the Northern Hemisphere, founded on a limited ability of woody angiosperm clades to adapt to mid-Tertiary cooling. We tested four predictions of how this should be manifested in the phylogenetic structure of 91,340 communities: (1) forests to the north should comprise species from younger clades (families) than forests to the south; (2) average cold tolerance at a local site should be associated with the mean family age (MFA) of species; (3) minimum temperature should account for MFA better than alternative environmental variables; and (4) traits associated with survival in cold climates should evolve under a niche conservatism constraint. Location The contiguous United States. Methods We extracted angiosperms from the US Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis database. MFA was calculated by assigning age of the family to which each species belongs and averaging across the species in each community. We developed a phylogeny to identify phylogenetic signal in five traits: realized cold tolerance, seed size, seed dispersal mode, leaf phenology and height. Phylogenetic signal representation curves and phylogenetic generalized least squares were used to compare patterns of trait evolution against Brownian motion. Eleven predictors structured at broad or local scales were generated to explore relationships between environment and MFA using random forest and general linear models. Results Consistent with predictions, (1) southern communities comprise angiosperm species from older families than northern communities, (2) cold tolerance is the trait most strongly associated with local MFA, (3) minimum temperature in the coldest month is the environmental variable that best describes MFA, broad-scale variables being much stronger correlates than local-scale variables, and (4) the phylogenetic structures of cold tolerance and at least one other trait

  20. The ability of a cold-adapted Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain from Tibet to control blue mold in pear fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Yan, Fujie; Wilson, Charles; Shen, Qing; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2015-12-01

    Cold-adapted yeasts were isolated from soil samples collected in Tibet and evaluated as potential biocontrol agents against blue mold (Penicillium expansum) of pear fruit in cold storage. YC1, an isolate identified as Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, was found to exhibit the greatest biocontrol activity among the different isolates that were screened. A washed cell suspension of YC1 exhibited the best biocontrol activity among three different preparations that were used in the current study. A concentration of 10(8) cells/ml reduced the incidence of decay to 35 %, compared to the control where decay incidence was 100 %. A higher intracellular level of trehalose and a higher proportion of polyunsaturated acids present in YC1, was associated with increased the tolerance of this strain to low temperatures, relative to the other strains that were evaluated. The increased tolerance to low temperature allowed the YC1 strain of yeast to more effectively compete for nutrients and space in wounded pear fruit that had been inoculated with spores of P. expansum and placed in cold storage. The present study demonstrated the ability to select cold-adapted yeasts from cold climates and use them as biocontrol agents of postharvest diseases of fruit placed in cold storage.

  1. Responses of Picea mariana to elevated CO2 concentration during growth, cold hardening and dehardening : phenology, cold tolerance, photosynthesis and growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigras, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Although elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) can promote growth in seedlings, CO 2 may adversely affect bud phenology and cold tolerance. In this study, seedlings from a northern and southern provenance of black spruce were exposed to 37 and 71 Pa of CO 2 during growth, cold hardening and dehardening in a greenhouse. The aim of the study was to assess the photosynthetic response and its impact on growth of black spruce during fall, winter and spring in the context of anticipated climate change. The effects of elevated CO 2 on nonstructural sugars, chlorophyll and nitrogen (N) concentrations were also investigated. Bud set occurred earlier in seedlings with elevated CO 2 than in ambient CO 2 . An increase in seedling cold tolerance in early fall was related to early bud set in elevated CO 2 . Photochemical efficiency, effective quantum yield, photochemical quenching, light-saturated rate of carboxylation, and electron transport decreased during hardening and recovered during dehardening. Elevated CO 2 reduced gene expression of the small subunit of Rubisco and decreased chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b ratio and N concentration in needles, confirming down-regulation of photosynthesis. Total seedling dry mass was higher in elevated CO 2 than in ambient CO 2 at the end of the growing season. Results suggested that differences in photosynthetic rate observed during fall, winter and spring accounted for the inter-annual variations in carbon assimilation of the seedlings. It was concluded that the variations need to be considered in carbon budget studies. It was concluded that total dry mass was 38 per cent higher in seedlings growing in elevated CO 2 at the end of the growing season. 84 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  2. Pavlovian control of cross-tolerance between pentobarbital and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappell, H; Roach, C; Poulos, C X

    1981-01-01

    Tolerance to several effects of a number of drugs has been shown to depend on Pavlovian conditioning processes. Experiment I extended the compensatory conditioning model (Siegel 1975) to tolerance to the hypothermic effect of pentobarbital (30 mg/kg). In Experiment I, rats that acquired hypothermic tolerance in one environment did not display tolerance when tested in an environment not previously associated with drug administration. In Experiment II, rats were made tolerant to the hypothermic effect of pentobarbital (30 mg/kg) and tested for cross-tolerance to ethanol (2.5 g/kg). Cross-tolerance was observed, but it was significantly reduced if the test was in an environment different from the one in which tolerance to pentobarbital was originally acquired. Thus, the compensatory conditioning model accounts for at least part of the tolerance and cross-tolerance to the thermic effects of alcohol and pentobarbital. The physiological processes in the CNS underlying tolerance and cross-tolerance for these drugs, therefore, are controlled by associative processes.

  3. Fault Tolerant Control: A Simultaneous Stabilization Result

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Blondel, V.D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of designing fault tolerant compensators that stabilize a given system both in the nominal situation, as well as in the situation where one of the sensors or one of the actuators has failed. It is shown that such compensators always exist, provided that the system...... is detectable from each output and that it is stabilizable. The proof of this result is constructive, and a worked example shows how to design a fault tolerant compensator for a simple, yet challeging system. A family of second order systems is described that requires fault tolerant compensators of arbitrarily...

  4. Control of the Dipole Cold Mass Geometry at CERN to Optimize LHC Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Wildner, E; La China, M; Tommasini, D

    2006-01-01

    The detailed shape of the 15 m long superconducting LHC dipole cold mass is of high importance as it determines three key parameters: the beam aperture, nominally of the order of 10 beam standard deviations; the connectivity of the beam- and technical lines between magnets; the transverse position of non-linear correctors mounted on the dipole ends. An offset of the latter produces unwanted beam dynamics perturbations. The tolerances are in the order of mm over the length of the magnet. The natural flexibility of the dipole and its mechanical structure allow deformations during handling and transportation which exceed the tolerances. This paper presents the observed deformations of the geometry during handling and various operations at CERN, deformations which are interpreted thanks to a simple mechanical model. These observations have led to a strategy of dipole geometry control at CERN, based on adjustment of the position of its central support (the dipole is supported at three positions, horizontally and v...

  5. Fault tolerant controllers for sampled-data systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    A general compensator architecture for fault tolerant control (FTC) for sampled-data systems is proposed. The architecture is based on the YJBK parameterization of all stabilizing controllers, and uses the dual YJBK parameterization to quantify the performance of the fault tolerant system. The FTC...

  6. Fault tolerant control for uncertain systems with parametric faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2006-01-01

    A fault tolerant control (FTC) architecture based on active fault diagnosis (AFD) and the YJBK (Youla, Jarb, Bongiorno and Kucera)parameterization is applied in this paper. Based on the FTC architecture, fault tolerant control of uncertain systems with slowly varying parametric faults...... is investigated. Conditions are given for closed-loop stability in case of false alarms or missing fault detection/isolation....

  7. Cold urticaria patients exhibit normal skin levels of functional mast cells and histamine after tolerance induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring Tannert, Line; Stahl Skov, Per; Bjerremann Jensen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Cold urticaria is a skin condition characterized by rapid appearance of itchy wheals and occasionally angioedema in response to cold stimulation. Antihistamines do not sufficiently protect all patients from symptoms, even when used in higher than standard doses. In these patients, desensitization...

  8. Expression responses of five cold tolerant related genes to two temperature dropping treatments in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengze; Chang, Yaqing; Pang, Zhenguo; Ding, Jun; Ji, Nanjing

    2015-03-01

    Environmental conditions, including ambient temperature, play important roles in survival, growth development, and reproduction of the Japanese sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus. Low temperatures result in slowed growth and skin ulceration disease. In a previous study, we investigated the effect of low temperature on gene expression profiles in A. japonicus by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Genes encoding Ferritin, Lysozyme, Hsp70, gp96, and AjToll were selected from a subtracted cDNA library of A. japonicus under acute cold stress. The transcriptional expression profiles of these genes were investigated in different tissues (coelomocyte, respiratory tree, intestine, longitudinal muscle) after exposure to acute and mild temperature dropping treatments. The results show that (1) the five cold-tolerance-related genes were found in all four tissues and the highest mRNA levels were observed in coelomocyte and respiratory tree; (2) under the temperature dropping treatments, three types of transcriptional regulation patterns were observed: primary suppression followed by up-regulation at -2°C, suppressed expression throughout the two treatments, and more rarely an initial stimulation followed by suppression; and (3) gene expression suppression was more severe under acute temperature dropping than under mild temperature dropping treatment. The five cold-tolerance-related genes that were distributed mainly in coelomocyte and respiratory tissues were generally down-regulated by low temperature stress but an inverse up-regulation event was found at the extreme temperature (-2°C).

  9. Overexpression of Arabidopsis NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C (AtNTRC) confers freezing and cold shock tolerance to plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Jeong Chan [National Institute of Ecology, 1210 Geumgang-ro, Maseo-myeon, Seocheon-gun 325-813 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangmin [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Su Young [National Institute of Ecology, 1210 Geumgang-ro, Maseo-myeon, Seocheon-gun 325-813 (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Ho Byoung; Jung, Young Jun [Division of Applied Life Science - BK21+ program, PMBBRC, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hyun Suk [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyun Oh [Division of Applied Life Science - BK21+ program, PMBBRC, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Ro, E-mail: leejr73@nie.re.kr [National Institute of Ecology, 1210 Geumgang-ro, Maseo-myeon, Seocheon-gun 325-813 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX (United States); Lee, Sang Yeol, E-mail: sylee@gnu.ac.kr [Division of Applied Life Science - BK21+ program, PMBBRC, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-07

    Overexpression of AtNTRC (AtNTRC{sup OE}) in Arabidopsis thaliana led to a freezing and cold stress tolerance, whereas a knockout mutant (atntrc) showed a stress-sensitive phenotype. Biochemical analyses showed that the recombinant AtNTRC proteins exhibited a cryoprotective activity for malate dehydrogenase and lactic dehydrogenase. Furthermore, conclusive evidence of its interaction with nucleic acids in vitro is provided here on the basis of gel shift and electron microscopy analysis. Recombinant AtNTRC efficiently protected RNA and DNA from RNase A and metal catalyzed oxidation damage, respectively. The C-terminal thioredoxin domain is required for the nucleic acid–protein complex formation. From these results, it can be hypothesized that AtNTRC, which is known to be an electron donor of peroxiredoxin, contributes the stability of macromolecules under cold stress. - Highlights: • AtNTRC has a cryoprotective activity in vitro. • Overexpression of AtNTRC increases tolerance to freezing and cold shock stresses. • Thioredoxin domain of AtNTRC protects nucleic acids in vitro. • AtNTRC inhibits protein aggregation under freezing stress in vitro.

  10. Overexpression of Arabidopsis NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C (AtNTRC) confers freezing and cold shock tolerance to plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jeong Chan; Lee, Sangmin; Shin, Su Young; Chae, Ho Byoung; Jung, Young Jun; Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Kyun Oh; Lee, Jung Ro; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of AtNTRC (AtNTRC OE ) in Arabidopsis thaliana led to a freezing and cold stress tolerance, whereas a knockout mutant (atntrc) showed a stress-sensitive phenotype. Biochemical analyses showed that the recombinant AtNTRC proteins exhibited a cryoprotective activity for malate dehydrogenase and lactic dehydrogenase. Furthermore, conclusive evidence of its interaction with nucleic acids in vitro is provided here on the basis of gel shift and electron microscopy analysis. Recombinant AtNTRC efficiently protected RNA and DNA from RNase A and metal catalyzed oxidation damage, respectively. The C-terminal thioredoxin domain is required for the nucleic acid–protein complex formation. From these results, it can be hypothesized that AtNTRC, which is known to be an electron donor of peroxiredoxin, contributes the stability of macromolecules under cold stress. - Highlights: • AtNTRC has a cryoprotective activity in vitro. • Overexpression of AtNTRC increases tolerance to freezing and cold shock stresses. • Thioredoxin domain of AtNTRC protects nucleic acids in vitro. • AtNTRC inhibits protein aggregation under freezing stress in vitro

  11. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization, and Expression Profiling of Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) Family in Pumpkin Reveals Likely Role in Cold-Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Kayum, Md.; Nath, Ujjal Kumar; Park, Jong-In; Choi, Eung Kyoo; Song, Jae-Young; Kim, Hoy-Taek; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2018-01-01

    Plant growth and development can be adversely affected by cold stress, limiting productivity. The glutathione S-transferase (GST) family comprises important detoxifying enzymes, which play major roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses by reducing the oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species. Pumpkins (Cucurbita maxima) are widely grown, economically important, and nutritious; however, their yield can be severely affected by cold stress. The identification of putative candidate genes responsible for cold-stress tolerance, including the GST family genes, is therefore vital. For the first time, we identified 32 C. maxima GST (CmaGST) genes using a combination of bioinformatics approaches and characterized them by expression profiling. These CmaGST genes represent seven of the 14 known classes of plant GSTs, with 18 CmaGSTs categorized into the tau class. The CmaGSTs were distributed across 13 of pumpkin’s 20 chromosomes, with the highest numbers found on chromosomes 4 and 6. The large number of CmaGST genes resulted from gene duplication; 11 and 5 pairs of CmaGST genes were segmental- and tandem-duplicated, respectively. In addition, all CmaGST genes showed organ-specific expression. The expression of the putative GST genes in pumpkin was examined under cold stress in two lines with contrasting cold tolerance: cold-tolerant CP-1 (C. maxima) and cold-susceptible EP-1 (Cucurbita moschata). Seven genes (CmaGSTU3, CmaGSTU7, CmaGSTU8, CmaGSTU9, CmaGSTU11, CmaGSTU12, and CmaGSTU14) were highly expressed in the cold-tolerant line and are putative candidates for use in breeding cold-tolerant crop varieties. These results increase our understanding of the cold-stress-related functions of the GST family, as well as potentially enhancing pumpkin breeding programs. PMID:29439434

  12. Large-scale evaluation of pea (Pisum sativum L.) germplasm for cold tolerance in the open field during winter in Qingdao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a cool season crop, pea (Pisum sativum L.) can tolerate frost at the vegetative stage but has yield loss when freezing stress occurs at reproductive stage. Cold tolerance improvement of pea varieties is important for the stable yield and the expansion of winter pea planting area. Under the natura...

  13. Genotypes Associated with Listeria monocytogenes Isolates Displaying Impaired or Enhanced Tolerances to Cold, Salt, Acid, or Desiccation Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingston, Patricia; Chen, Jessica; Dhillon, Bhavjinder K.; Laing, Chad; Bertelli, Claire; Gannon, Victor; Tasara, Taurai; Allen, Kevin; Brinkman, Fiona S. L.; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth; Wang, Siyun

    2017-01-01

    The human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is a large concern in the food industry where its continuous detection in food products has caused a string of recalls in North America and Europe. Most recognized for its ability to grow in foods during refrigerated storage, L. monocytogenes can also tolerate several other food-related stresses with some strains possessing higher levels of tolerances than others. The objective of this study was to use a combination of phenotypic analyses and whole genome sequencing to elucidate potential relationships between L. monocytogenes genotypes and food-related stress tolerance phenotypes. To accomplish this, 166 L. monocytogenes isolates were sequenced and evaluated for their ability to grow in cold (4°C), salt (6% NaCl, 25°C), and acid (pH 5, 25°C) stress conditions as well as survive desiccation (33% RH, 20°C). The results revealed that the stress tolerance of L. monocytogenes is associated with serotype, clonal complex (CC), full length inlA profiles, and the presence of a plasmid which was identified in 55% of isolates. Isolates with full length inlA exhibited significantly (p monocytogenes sequence types, a new inlA PMSC, and several connections between CCs and the presence/absence or variations of specific genetic elements. A whole genome single-nucleotide-variants phylogeny revealed sporadic distribution of tolerant isolates and closely related sensitive and tolerant isolates, highlighting that minor genetic differences can influence the stress tolerance of L. monocytogenes. Specifically, a number of cold and desiccation sensitive isolates contained PMSCs in σB regulator genes (rsbS, rsbU, rsbV). Collectively, the results suggest that knowing the sequence type of an isolate in addition to screening for the presence of full-length inlA and a plasmid, could help food processors and food agency investigators determine why certain isolates might be persisting in a food processing environment. Additionally, increased

  14. Divergent regulation of CBF regulon on cold tolerance and plant phenotype in cassava overexpressing Arabidopsis CBF3 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong An

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a tropical origin plant that is sensitive to chilling stress. In order to understand the CBF cold response pathway, a well-recognized regulatory mechanism in temperate plants, in cassava, overexpression of an Arabidopsis CBF3 gene is studied. This gene renders cassava increasingly tolerant to cold and drought stresses but is associated with retarded plant growth, leaf curling, reduced storage root yield, and reduced anthocyanin accumulation in a transcript abundance-dependent manner. Physiological analysis revealed that the transgenic cassava increased proline accumulation, reduced malondialdehyde production, and electrolyte leakage under cold stress. These transgenic lines also showed high relative water content when faced with drought. The expression of partial CBF-targeted genes in response to cold displayed temporal and spatial variations in the wild-type and transgenic plants: highly inducible in leaves and less altered in apical buds. In addition, anthocyanin accumulation was inhibited by downregulating the expression of genes involved in its biosynthesis and by interplaying between the CBF3 and the endogenous transcription factors. Thus, the heterologous CBF3 modulates the expression of stress-related genes and carries out a series of physiological adjustments under stressful conditions, showing a varied regulation pattern of CBF regulon from that of cassava CBFs.

  15. SGD1, a key enzyme in tocopherol biosynthesis, is essential for plant development and cold tolerance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Wang, Yunlong; Long, Wuhua; Niu, Mei; Zhao, Zhigang; Teng, Xuan; Zhu, Xiaopin; Zhu, Jianping; Hao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yongfei; Liu, Yi; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Yihua; Wan, Jianmin

    2017-07-01

    Tocopherols, a group of Vitamin E compounds, are essential components of the human diet. In contrast to well documented roles in animals, the functions of tocopherols in plants are less understood. In this study, we characterized two allelic rice dwarf mutant lines designated sgd1-1 and sgd1-2 (small grain and dwarf1). Histological observations showed that the dwarf phenotypes were mainly due to cell elongation defects. A map-based cloning strategy and subsequent complementation test showed that SGD1 encodes homogentisate phytyltransferase (HPT), a key enzyme in tocopherol biosynthesis. Mutation of SGD1 resulted in tocopherol deficiency in both sgd1mutants. No oxidant damage was detected in the sgd1 mutants. Further analysis showed that sgd1-2 was hypersensitive to cold stress. Our results indicate that SGD1 is essential for plant development and cold tolerance in rice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effect of Spermidine on Cold Tolerance Induction in Cucumber Seedlings ‘Cv. Super-Dominus’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnar GhazianTafrishi

    2017-09-01

    than 5% leaf area necrotic by using 0.25 and 0.5 mg/L spermidine. The symptoms enhanced by 50% by applying 0.75 mg/L spermidine at 6°C. Analysis of variance showed that there was significant difference between temperature levels, spermidine levels and interaction between them in respect to root length, shoot length, shoot dry weight and root and leaf electrical leakage. Root dry weight, root to shoot ratio and chlorophyll content just affected by temperature and spermidines levels but not by interaction between them. Root and shoot length and dry weight decreased by low temperature. At cold stress condition growth decreased due to a reduction in photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism .Root and shoot length decreased more than 79% at 6°C compare with 12°. Root to shoot ratio increased at cold condition which was the result of lower root weight loss in response to cold temperature compared with shoot weight losses. Electrical leakage (EL enhanced in leaf and root cells at chilling temperature, but the enhancement was significantly more at root cells. Electrical leakage enhanced more than 52% in root cells at 6°C compared with 35% in leaf cells. EL suppressed, using 0.25 and 0.5 mg/L spermidine while an increase observed in El at 0.75 mg/L spermidine. The lowest EL percentage observed for leaf samples treated with 0.25 and 0.5 mg/L spermidine at 12°C. The highest EL percentage belonged to root samples treated with 0.75 mg/L Spd at 6°C .Chlorophyll content (ChlC decreased at cold condition. ChlC was 52% at12°C compared with 37% at 6°C. High significant correlation observed between chlorophyll content and shoot dry matter (r2= 0.96**. Root and shoot length and dry weight and leaf chlorophyll content enhanced using 0.25 and 0.5 mg/L spermidine at both chilling and control temperatures. A decrease observed in measured traits applying 0.75mg/L spermidine. There was no significant difference between 0.25 and 0.5 mg/L spermidine levels in respect of measured traits

  17. Fault tolerant control schemes using integral sliding modes

    CERN Document Server

    Hamayun, Mirza Tariq; Alwi, Halim

    2016-01-01

    The key attribute of a Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) system is its ability to maintain overall system stability and acceptable performance in the face of faults and failures within the feedback system. In this book Integral Sliding Mode (ISM) Control Allocation (CA) schemes for FTC are described, which have the potential to maintain close to nominal fault-free performance (for the entire system response), in the face of actuator faults and even complete failures of certain actuators. Broadly an ISM controller based around a model of the plant with the aim of creating a nonlinear fault tolerant feedback controller whose closed-loop performance is established during the design process. The second approach involves retro-fitting an ISM scheme to an existing feedback controller to introduce fault tolerance. This may be advantageous from an industrial perspective, because fault tolerance can be introduced without changing the existing control loops. A high fidelity benchmark model of a large transport aircraft is u...

  18. Hemolymph metabolites and osmolality are tightly linked to cold tolerance of Drosophila species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Trine; MacMillan, Heath A.; Nyberg, Nils

    2016-01-01

    osmolality was similar among all species despite chill-tolerant species having lower hemolymph [Na(+)]. Using NMR spectroscopy, we found that chill-tolerant species instead have higher levels of sugars and free amino acids in their hemolymph, including classical 'cryoprotectants' such as trehalose...

  19. Lipophilic Contaminants Influence Cold Tolerance of Invertebrates through Changes in Cell Membrane Fluidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Bouvrais, Hélène; Westh, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Contaminants taken up by living organisms in the environment as a result of anthropogenic contamination can reduce the tolerance of natural stressors, e.g., low temperatures, but the physiological mechanisms behind these interactions of effects are poorly understood. The tolerance to low temperat...

  20. Fault tolerant digital control systems for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Cash, N.R.

    1986-01-01

    In a Boiling Water Reactor nuclear power plant, the power generation control function is divided into several systems, each system controlling only a part of the total plant. Presently, each system is controlled by conventional analog or digital logic circuits with little interaction for coordinated control. The advent of microprocessors has allowed the development of distributed fault-tolerant digital controls. The objective is to replace these conventional controls with fault-tolerant digital controls connected together with digital communication links to form a fully integrated nuclear power plant control system

  1. Mapping and validation of QTLs for cold tolerance at seedling stage in rice from an indica cultivar Habiganj Boro VI (Hbj.BVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Partha S; Khatun, Hasina; Das, Nomita; Sarker, Md Mahathir; Anisuzzaman, M

    2017-12-01

    Yellowing, stunting, and seedling death associated with cold stress is a common problem in many Asian countries for winter rice cultivation. Improvement of cultivars through marker-assisted selection of QTLs for cold tolerance at seedling stage from locally adapted germplasm/cultivar is the most effective and sustainable strategy to resolve this problem. A study was undertaken to map QTLs from 151 F 2:3 progenies of a cross between a cold susceptible variety, BR1 and a locally adapted traditional indica cultivar, Hbj.BVI. A total of six significant QTLs were identified for two cold tolerance indices-cold-induced leaf discoloration and survival rate after a recovery period of seven days on chromosomes 6, 8, 11, and 12. Among these QTLs, qCTSL - 8 - 1 and qCTSS - 8 - 1 being co-localized into RM7027-RM339 on chromosome 8 and qCTSL - 12 - 1 and qCTSS - 12 - 1 into RM247-RM2529 on chromosome 12 showed 12.78 and 14.96% contribution, respectively, to the total phenotypic variation for cold tolerance. Validation of QTL effect in BC 1 F 3 population derived a cross between a cold susceptible BRRI dhan28 and Hbj.BVI showed dominating effect of qCTSL - 12 - 1 on cold tolerance at seedling stage and it became stronger when one or more other QTLs were co-segregated with it. These results suggest that the QTLs identified in this study are stable and effective on other genetic background also, which warrant the use of these QTLs for further study aiming to cultivar development for seedling stage cold tolerance.

  2. Process control of an HTGR fuel reprocessing cold pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rode, J.S.

    1976-10-01

    Development of engineering-scale systems for a large-scale HTGR fuel reprocessing demonstration facility is currently underway in a cold pilot plant. These systems include two fluidized-bed burners, which remove the graphite (carbon) matrix from the crushed HTGR fuel by high temperature (900 0 C) oxidation. The burners are controlled by a digital process controller with an all analog input/output interface which has been in use since March, 1976. The advantages of such a control system to a pilot plant operation can be summarized as follows: (1) Control loop functions and configurations can be changed easily; (2) control constants, alarm limits, output limits, and scaling constants can be changed easily; (3) calculation of data and/or interface with a computerized information retrieval system during operation are available; (4) diagnosis of process control problems is facilitated; and (5) control panel/room space is saved

  3. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Tan

    Full Text Available Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp. is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars-"Dubai bean" and "Ningjiang-3", which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively-were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18% had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic

  4. The evolution of high summit metabolism and cold tolerance in birds and its impact on present-day distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David L; Garland, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Summit metabolic rate (M(sum), maximum cold-induced metabolic rate) is positively correlated with cold tolerance in birds, suggesting that high M(sum) is important for residency in cold climates. However, the phylogenetic distribution of high M(sum) among birds and the impact of its evolution on current distributions are not well understood. Two potential adaptive hypotheses might explain the phylogenetic distribution of high M(sum) among birds. The cold adaptation hypothesis contends that species wintering in cold climates should have higher M(sum) than species wintering in warmer climates. The flight adaptation hypothesis suggests that volant birds might be capable of generating high M(sum) as a byproduct of their muscular capacity for flight; thus, variation in M(sum) should be associated with capacity for sustained flight, one indicator of which is migration. We collected M(sum) data from the literature for 44 bird species and conducted both conventional and phylogenetically informed statistical analyses to examine the predictors of M(sum) variation. Significant phylogenetic signal was present for log body mass, log mass-adjusted M(sum), and average temperature in the winter range. In multiple regression models, log body mass, winter temperature, and clade were significant predictors of log M(sum). These results are consistent with a role for climate in determining M(sum) in birds, but also indicate that phylogenetic signal remains even after accounting for associations indicative of adaptation to winter temperature. Migratory strategy was never a significant predictor of log M(sum) in multiple regressions, a result that is not consistent with the flight adaptation hypothesis.

  5. Overexpression of WsSGTL1 Gene of Withania somnifera Enhances Salt Tolerance, Heat Tolerance and Cold Acclimation Ability in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Manoj K.; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Singh, Ruchi; Singh, Gaurav; Sharma, Lokendra K.; Pandey, Vibha; Kumari, Nishi; Misra, Pratibha

    2013-01-01

    Background Sterol glycosyltrnasferases (SGT) are enzymes that glycosylate sterols which play important role in plant adaptation to stress and are medicinally important in plants like Withania somnifera. The present study aims to find the role of WsSGTL1 which is a sterol glycosyltransferase from W. somnifera, in plant’s adaptation to abiotic stress. Methodology The WsSGTL1 gene was transformed in Arabidopsis thaliana through Agrobacterium mediated transformation, using the binary vector pBI121, by floral dip method. The phenotypic and physiological parameters like germination, root length, shoot weight, relative electrolyte conductivity, MDA content, SOD levels, relative electrolyte leakage and chlorophyll measurements were compared between transgenic and wild type Arabidopsis plants under different abiotic stresses - salt, heat and cold. Biochemical analysis was done by HPLC-TLC and radiolabelled enzyme assay. The promoter of the WsSGTL1 gene was cloned by using Genome Walker kit (Clontech, USA) and the 3D structures were predicted by using Discovery Studio Ver. 2.5. Results The WsSGTL1 transgenic plants were confirmed to be single copy by Southern and homozygous by segregation analysis. As compared to WT, the transgenic plants showed better germination, salt tolerance, heat and cold tolerance. The level of the transgene WsSGTL1 was elevated in heat, cold and salt stress along with other marker genes such as HSP70, HSP90, RD29, SOS3 and LEA4-5. Biochemical analysis showed the formation of sterol glycosides and increase in enzyme activity. When the promoter of WsSGTL1 gene was cloned from W. somnifera and sequenced, it contained stress responsive elements. Bioinformatics analysis of the 3D structure of the WsSGTL1 protein showed functional similarity with sterol glycosyltransferase AtSGT of A. thaliana. Conclusions Transformation of WsSGTL1 gene in A. thaliana conferred abiotic stress tolerance. The promoter of the gene in W.somnifera was found to have stress

  6. The induction of menadione stress tolerance in the marine microalga, Dunaliella viridis, through cold pretreatment and modulation of the ascorbate and glutathione pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadkar Haghjou, Maryam; Colville, Louise; Smirnoff, Nicholas

    2014-11-01

    The effect of cold pretreatment on menadione tolerance was investigated in the cells of the marine microalga, Dunaliella viridis. In addition, the involvement of ascorbate and glutathione in the response to menadione stress was tested by treating cell suspensions with l-galactono-1,4-lactone, an ascorbate precursor, and buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis. Menadione was highly toxic to non cold-pretreated cells, and caused a large decrease in cell number. Cold pretreatment alleviated menadione toxicity and cold pretreated cells accumulated lower levels of reactive oxygen species, and had enhanced antioxidant capacity due to increased levels of β-carotene, reduced ascorbate and total glutathione compared to non cold-pretreated cells. Cold pretreatment also altered the response to l-galactono-1,4-lactone and buthionine sulfoximine treatments. Combined l-galactono-1,4-lactone and menadione treatment was lethal in non-cold pretreated cells, but in cold-pretreated cells it had a positive effect on cell numbers compared to menadione alone. Overall, exposure of Dunaliella cells to cold stress enhanced tolerance to subsequent oxidative stress induced by menadione. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Overexpression of Pyrabactin Resistance-Like Abscisic Acid Receptors Enhances Drought, Osmotic, and Cold Tolerance in Transgenic Poplars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingling Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA has been known participate in a wider range of adaptive responses to diverse environmental abiotic stresses such as drought, osmosis, and low temperatures. ABA signaling is initiated by its receptors PYR/PYL/RCARs, a type of soluble proteins with a conserved START domain which can bind ABA and trigger the downstream pathway. Previously, we discovered that poplar (Populus trichocarpa genome encodes 14 PYR/PYL/RCAR orthologs (PtPYRLs, and two of them, PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5 have been functionally characterized to positively regulate drought tolerance. However, the physiological function of these ABA receptors in poplar remains uncharacterized. Here, we generated transgenic poplar plants overexpressing PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5 and found that they exhibited more vigorous growth and produced greater biomass when exposed to drought stress. The improved drought tolerance was positively correlated with the key physiological responses dictated by the ABA signaling pathway, including increase in stomatal closure and decrease in leaf water loss. Further analyses revealed that overexpression lines showed improved capacity in scavenging reactive oxygen species and enhanced the activation of antioxidant enzymes under drought stress. Moreover, overexpression of PtPYRL1 or PtPYRL5 significantly increased the poplar resistance to osmotic and cold stresses. In summary, our results suggest that constitutive expression of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5 significantly enhances the resistance to drought, osmotic and cold stresses by positively regulating ABA signaling in poplar.

  8. Fault tolerance and reliability in integrated ship control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Schiøler, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Various strategies for achieving fault tolerance in large scale control systems are discussed. The positive and negative impacts of distribution through network communication are presented. The ATOMOS framework for standardized reliable marine automation is presented along with the corresponding...

  9. Passive Fault tolerant Control of an Inverted Double Pendulum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, H.; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    A passive fault tolerant control scheme is suggested, in which a nominal controller is augmented with an additional block, which guarantees stability and performance after the occurrence of a fault. The method is based on the Youla parameterization, which requires the nominal controller to be imp......A passive fault tolerant control scheme is suggested, in which a nominal controller is augmented with an additional block, which guarantees stability and performance after the occurrence of a fault. The method is based on the Youla parameterization, which requires the nominal controller...

  10. Comet assay as a cold chain control tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Renato Cesar

    2009-01-01

    Bearing in mind an ever more demanding market regarding the quality of food, it has been necessary to develop processes that meet the demands of consumers. Within the existing processes the cold chain and irradiation stand out. The cold chain comprises all the stages of conserving food from production, cooling, freezing, storing and transportation to the final consumer. Irradiation, as a means of conserving food, prolongs the shelf life, inhibits budding and reduces pathogenic contamination among other benefits. Is very important the identification of food degradation in function of failure on the processes which they were subjected. The comet assay is a screening test widely studied, considerate fast and with low cost. By the fact of the test identify breaks on the DNA, may be possible use the comet test on the control of cold chain failures that degrade de food. The labels and stamp, do not consider the previous food situation and indicate failures from the moment where they be placed in contact with the product. With the comet assay is possible to check the degradation that has occurred in liver chicken samples until the moment of comet's test realization. (author)

  11. Cold tolerance is unaffected by oxygen availability despite changes in anaerobic metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boardman, L.; Sorensen, J. G.; Košťál, Vladimír; Šimek, Petr; Terblanche, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, SEPT 13 (2016), č. článku 32856. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18509S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : hypoxia * cold * insect Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016 http://www.nature.com/articles/srep32856

  12. Overwintering biology and limits of cold tolerance in larvae of pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mollaei, Maedeh; Izadi, H.; Šimek, Petr; Košťál, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 4 (2016), s. 538-545 ISSN 0007-4853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18509S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cold hardiness * supercooling * quiescence Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.758, year: 2016

  13. Cold stress increases salt tolerance of the extremophytes Eutrema salsugineum (Thellungiella salsuginea) and Eutrema (Thellungiella) botschantzevii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamustakimova, A. O.; Leonova, G.; Taranov, V. V.; de Boer, A. H.; Babakov, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    A comparative study was performed to analyze the effect of cold acclimation on improving the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana, Eutrema salsugineum and Eutrema botschantzevii plants to salt stress. Shoot FW, sodium and potassium accumulation, metabolite content, expression of proton pump genes

  14. Concepts and Methods in Fault-tolerant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Staroswiecly, M.; Wu, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Faults in automated processes will often cause undesired reactions and shut-down of a controlled plant, and the consequences could be damage to technical parts of the plant, to personnel or the environment. Fault-tolerant control combines diagnosis with control methods to handle faults...

  15. Identification of X-linked quantitative trait loci affecting cold tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster and fine mapping by selective sweep analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetec, Nicolas; Werzner, Annegret; Wilches, Ricardo; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Alvarez-Castro, José M; Broman, Karl W; Metzler, Dirk; Stephan, Wolfgang

    2011-02-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a cosmopolitan species that colonizes a great variety of environments. One trait that shows abundant evidence for naturally segregating genetic variance in different populations of D. melanogaster is cold tolerance. Previous work has found quantitative trait loci (QTL) exclusively on the second and the third chromosomes. To gain insight into the genetic architecture of cold tolerance on the X chromosome and to compare the results with our analyses of selective sweeps, a mapping population was derived from a cross between substitution lines that solely differed in the origin of their X chromosome: one originates from a European inbred line and the other one from an African inbred line. We found a total of six QTL for cold tolerance factors on the X chromosome of D. melanogaster. Although the composite interval mapping revealed slightly different QTL profiles between sexes, a coherent model suggests that most QTL overlapped between sexes, and each explained around 5-14% of the genetic variance (which may be slightly overestimated). The allelic effects were largely additive, but we also detected two significant interactions. Taken together, this provides evidence for multiple QTL that are spread along the entire X chromosome and whose effects range from low to intermediate. One detected transgressive QTL influences cold tolerance in different ways for the two sexes. While females benefit from the European allele increasing their cold tolerance, males tend to do better with the African allele. Finally, using selective sweep mapping, the candidate gene CG16700 for cold tolerance colocalizing with a QTL was identified. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Chlorophyll fluorescence emission as a reporter on cold tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana accessions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mishra, Anamika; Mishra, Kumud; Höermiller, I. I.; Heyer, A. G.; Nedbal, Ladislav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2011), s. 301-310 ISSN 1559-2316 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk OC08055; GA MŠk 2B06068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : chlorophyll fluorescence * cold acclimation * electrolyte leakage * high - throughput screening * natural accessions Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  17. Cold in the common garden: comparative low-temperature tolerance of boreal and temperate conifer foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Richard Strimbeck; Trygve D. Kjellsen; Paul G. Schaberg; Paula F. Murakami

    2007-01-01

    Because they maintain green foliage throughout the winter season, evergreen conifers may face special physiological challenges in a warming world. We assessed the midwinter low-temperature (LT) tolerance of foliage from eight temperate and boreal species in each of the genera Abies, Picea, and Pinus growing in an arboretum in...

  18. Tolerance to multiple climate stressors: a case study of Douglas-fir drought and cold hardiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheel Bansal; Connie Harrington; Brad St. Clair

    2016-01-01

    1. Drought and freeze events are two of the most common forms of climate extremes which result in tree damage or death, and the frequency and intensity of both stressors may increase with climate change. Few studies have examined natural covariation in stress tolerance traits to cope with multiple stressors among wild plant populations. 2. We assessed the...

  19. Real-time fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Zhiwei; Ding, Steven X.; Cecati, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This "Special Section on Real-Time Fault Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Control" of the IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics is motivated to provide a forum for academic and industrial communities to report recent theoretic/application results in real-time monitoring, diagnosis, and fault-tolerant design, and exchange the ideas about the emerging research direction in this field. Twenty-three papers were eventually selected through a strict peer-reviewed procedure, which represent the mo...

  20. Complete genome sequence of Arthrobacter alpinus ERGS4:06, a yellow pigmented bacterium tolerant to cold and radiations isolated from Sikkim Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakshak; Singh, Dharam; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay

    2016-02-20

    Arthrobacter alpinus ERGS4:06, a yellow pigmented bacterium which exhibited tolerance to cold and UV radiations was isolated from the glacial stream of East Rathong glacier in Sikkim Himalaya. Here we report the 4.3Mb complete genome assembly that has provided the basis for potential role of pigments as a survival strategy to combat stressed environment of cold and high UV-radiation and additionally the ability to produce cold active industrial enzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Adaptive Automatic Gauge Control of a Cold Strip Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMAN, N.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper tackles with thickness control structure of the cold rolled strips. This structure is based on the rolls position control of a reversible quarto rolling mill. The main feature of the system proposed in the paper consists in the compensation of the errors introduced by the deficient dynamics of the hydraulic servo-system used for the rolls positioning, by means of a dynamic compensator that approximates the inverse system of the servo-system. Because the servo-system is considered variant over time, an on-line identification of the servo-system and parameter adapting of the compensator are achieved. The results obtained by numerical simulation are presented together with the data taken from real process. These results illustrate the efficiency of the proposed solutions.

  2. Autonomous Congestion Control in Delay-Tolerant Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott; Jennings, Esther; Schoolcraft, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    This presentation highlights communication congestion control in delay-tolerant networks (DTNs). Large-scale future space exploration will offer complex communication challenges that may be best addressed by establishing a network infrastructure. However, current internet techniques for congestion control are not well suited for operation of a network over interplanetary distances. An alternative, delay-tolerant technique for congestion control in a delay-tolerant network is presented. A simple DTN was constructed and an experimental congestion control mechanism was applied. The mechanism appeared to be effective and each router was able to make its bundle acceptance decisions autonomously. Future research will examine more complex topologies and alternative bundle acceptance rules that might enhance performance.

  3. Active Fault Tolerant Control of Livestock Stable Ventilation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    Modern stables and greenhouses are equipped with different components for providing a comfortable climate for animals and plant. A component malfunction may result in loss of production. Therefore, it is desirable to design a control system, which is stable, and is able to provide an acceptable d...... are not included, while due to the physical limitation, the input signal can not have any value. In continuing, a passive fault tolerant controller (PFTC) based on state feedback is proposed to track a reference signal while the control inputs are bounded....... of fault. Designing a fault tolerant control scheme for the climate control system. In the first step, a conceptual multi-zone model for climate control of a live-stock building is derived. The model is a nonlinear hybrid model. Hybrid systems contain both discrete and continuous components. The parameters...... affine (PWA) components such as dead-zones, saturation, etc or contain piecewise nonlinear models which is the case for the climate control systems of the stables. Fault tolerant controller (FTC) is based on a switching scheme between a set of predefined passive fault tolerant controller (PFTC...

  4. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    is linked to a different set of circumstances than the ones suggested by existing models in contemporary democratic theory. Reorienting the discussion of tolerance, the book raises the question of how to disclose new possibilities within our given context of affect and perception. Once we move away from......Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated...... by the desire to experiment and to become otherwise. The objective is to discuss what gets lost, conceptually as well as politically, when we neglect the subsistence of active tolerance within other practices of tolerance, and to develop a theory of active tolerance in which tolerance's mobilizing character...

  5. Design of fault tolerant control system for steam generator using

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Ki; Seo, Mi Ro [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A controller and sensor fault tolerant system for a steam generator is designed with fuzzy logic. A structure of the proposed fault tolerant redundant system is composed of a supervisor and two fuzzy weighting modulators. A supervisor alternatively checks a controller and a sensor induced performances to identify which part, a controller or a sensor, is faulty. In order to analyze controller induced performance both an error and a change in error of the system output are chosen as fuzzy variables. The fuzzy logic for a sensor induced performance uses two variables : a deviation between two sensor outputs and its frequency. Fuzzy weighting modulator generates an output signal compensated for faulty input signal. Simulations show that the proposed fault tolerant control scheme for a steam generator regulates well water level by suppressing fault effect of either controllers or sensors. Therefore through duplicating sensors and controllers with the proposed fault tolerant scheme, both a reliability of a steam generator control and sensor system and that of a power plant increase even more. 2 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  6. A Ship Propulsion System Model for Fault-tolerant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    This report presents a propulsion system model for a low speed marine vehicle, which can be used as a test benchmark for Fault-Tolerant Control purposes. The benchmark serves the purpose of offering realistic and challenging problems relevant in both FDI and (autonomous) supervisory control area...

  7. Fault Tolerant Control of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Kinnaert, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a test benchmark model for the evaluation of fault detection and accommodation schemes. This benchmark model deals with the wind turbine on a system level, and it includes sensor, actuator, and system faults, namely faults in the pitch system, the drive train, the generator......, and the converter system. Since it is a system-level model, converter and pitch system models are simplified because these are controlled by internal controllers working at higher frequencies than the system model. The model represents a three-bladed pitch-controlled variable-speed wind turbine with a nominal power...

  8. Fault Tolerant Autonomous Lateral Control for Heavy Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, Craig Matthew; Papadimitriou, Iakovos; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the research results of TO4233, "Fault Tolerant Autonomous Lateral Control for Heavy Vehicles". This project represents a continuing effort of PATH's research on Automated Highway Systems (AHS) and more specifically in the area of heavy vehicles. Research on the lateral control of heavy vehicles for AHS has been going on at PATH since 1993. MOU129, "Steering and Braking Control of Heavy Duty Vehicles" was the first project and it was followed by MOU242, "Lateral Control...

  9. Mine-hoist active fault tolerant control system and strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.; Wang, Y.; Meng, J.; Zhao, P.; Chang, Y. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)] wzjsdstu@163.com

    2005-06-01

    Based on fault diagnosis and fault tolerant technologies, the mine-hoist active fault-tolerant control system (MAFCS) is presented with corresponding strategies, which includes the fault diagnosis module (FDM), the dynamic library (DL) and the fault-tolerant control model (FCM). When a fault is judged from some sensor by the FDM, FCM reconfigures the state of the MAFCS by calling the parameters from all sub libraries in DL, in order to ensure the reliability and safety of the mine hoist. The simulating result shows that MAFCS is of certain intelligence, which can adopt the corresponding control strategies according to different fault modes, even when there is quite a difference between the real data and the prior fault modes. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Fault-tolerant Control of a Cyber-physical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxana, Rusu-Both; Eva-Henrietta, Dulf

    2017-10-01

    Cyber-physical systems represent a new emerging field in automatic control. The fault system is a key component, because modern, large scale processes must meet high standards of performance, reliability and safety. Fault propagation in large scale chemical processes can lead to loss of production, energy, raw materials and even environmental hazard. The present paper develops a multi-agent fault-tolerant control architecture using robust fractional order controllers for a (13C) cryogenic separation column cascade. The JADE (Java Agent DEvelopment Framework) platform was used to implement the multi-agent fault tolerant control system while the operational model of the process was implemented in Matlab/SIMULINK environment. MACSimJX (Multiagent Control Using Simulink with Jade Extension) toolbox was used to link the control system and the process model. In order to verify the performance and to prove the feasibility of the proposed control architecture several fault simulation scenarios were performed.

  11. Fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control based on adaptive control approach

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Qikun; Shi, Peng

    2017-01-01

    This book provides recent theoretical developments in and practical applications of fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control for complex dynamical systems, including uncertain systems, linear and nonlinear systems. Combining adaptive control technique with other control methodologies, it investigates the problems of fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control for uncertain dynamic systems with or without time delay. As such, the book provides readers a solid understanding of fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control based on adaptive control technology. Given its depth and breadth, it is well suited for undergraduate and graduate courses on linear system theory, nonlinear system theory, fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control techniques. Further, it can be used as a reference source for academic research on fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control, and for postgraduates in the field of control theory and engineering. .

  12. Mechanisms Controlling Species Responses to Climate Change: Thermal Tolerances and Shifting Range Limits. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, R. F.; Bykova, O.; Coiner, H.

    2010-12-01

    One of the main effects of anthropogenic climate change will be widespread shifts in species distribution, with the common assumption that they will migrate to higher elevation and latitude. While this assumption is supported by migration patterns following climate warming in the past 20,000 years, it has not been rigorously evaluated in terms of physiological mechanism, despite the implication that migration in response to climate warming is controlled by some form of thermal adaptation. We have been evaluating the degree to which species range limits are controlled by physiological patterns of thermal tolerance in bioinvaders of North America. Bioinvaders presumably have few biotic controls over their distribution and thus are more likely to fully exploit their thermal niche. In cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), the minimum lethal temperature in winter is -32C, which corresponds to the mean winter minimum temperature at its northern range limit. In red brome (Bromus rubens), the minimum lethal temperature is also near -32C, which is well below the minimum winter temperature near -20C that corresponds to its northern distribution limit. In kudzu (Pueraria lobata), the minimum lethal temperature is near -20C, which corresponds to the midwinter minimum at its northern distribution limit; however, overwintering kudzu tissues are insulated by soil and snow cover, and thus do not experience lethal temperatures at kudzu's northern range limit. These results demonstrate that some invasive species can exploit the potential range defined by their low temperature tolerance and thus can be predicted by mechanistic models to migrate to higher latitudes with moderation of winter cold. The distribution of other invaders such as kudzu and red brome are not controlled by tolerance of midwinter cold. Developing mechanistic models of their distributions, and how these might change with climate warming, will require extensive physiological study.

  13. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated by the d...... these alternatives by returning to the notion of tolerance as the endurance of pain, linking this notion to exemplars and theories relevant to the politics of multiculturalism, religious freedom, and free speech....

  14. Myo-inositol as a main metabolite in overwintering flies: seasonal metabolomic profiles and cold stress tolerance in a northern drosophilid fly

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vesala, L.; Salminen, T. S.; Košťál, Vladimír; Zahradníčková, Helena; Hoikkala, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 215, č. 16 (2012), s. 2891-2897 ISSN 0022-0949 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0269 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : chill coma recovery * cold tolerance * cryoprotectant Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.236, year: 2012

  15. Insect cold tolerance and repair of chill-injury at fluctuating thermal regimes: Role of 70kDa heat shock protein expression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tollarová-Borovanská, Michaela; Lalouette, L.; Košťál, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 5 (2009), s. 312-319 ISSN 0143-2044 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0269 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : insect * cold tolerance * heat shock proteins Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.074, year: 2009

  16. Active Fault Tolerant Control for Ultrasonic Piezoelectric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhnifer, Moussa

    2012-07-01

    Ultrasonic piezoelectric motor technology is an important system component in integrated mechatronics devices working on extreme operating conditions. Due to these constraints, robustness and performance of the control interfaces should be taken into account in the motor design. In this paper, we apply a new architecture for a fault tolerant control using Youla parameterization for an ultrasonic piezoelectric motor. The distinguished feature of proposed controller architecture is that it shows structurally how the controller design for performance and robustness may be done separately which has the potential to overcome the conflict between performance and robustness in the traditional feedback framework. A fault tolerant control architecture includes two parts: one part for performance and the other part for robustness. The controller design works in such a way that the feedback control system will be solely controlled by the proportional plus double-integral PI2 performance controller for a nominal model without disturbances and H∞ robustification controller will only be activated in the presence of the uncertainties or an external disturbances. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fault tolerant control architecture.

  17. Flatness-based fault tolerant control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Martínez-Torres

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un método de control tolerante a fallas para sistemas no lineales planos. Las propiedades intrínsecas d e los sistemas planos generan redundancia analítica y permiten calcular todos los estados y las entradas de control del sistema. Los residuo s son calculados comparando las medidas reales provenientes de los se nsores y las señales obtenidas gracias al conjunto de ecuacione s del sistema plano. Fallas multiplicativas y aditivas se pueden man ejar de manera indistinta. Las señales redundantes obtenidas co n las ecuaciones del sistema plano son usadas para reconfigurar el si stema con falla. La factibilidad del método propuesto es verifi cada para fallas aditivas en un sistema de tres tanques.

  18. Constitutive expression of DaCBF7, an Antarctic vascular plant Deschampsia antarctica CBF homolog, resulted in improved cold tolerance in transgenic rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Mi Young; Lee, Jungeun; Cui, Li Hua; Kang, Yoonjee; Oh, Tae Kyung; Park, Hyun; Lee, Hyoungseok; Kim, Woo Taek

    2015-07-01

    Deschampsia antarctica is an Antarctic hairgrass that grows on the west coast of the Antarctic peninsula. In this report, we have identified and characterized a transcription factor, D. antarctica C-repeat binding factor 7 (DaCBF7), that is a member of the monocot group V CBF homologs. The protein contains a single AP2 domain, a putative nuclear localization signal, and the typical CBF signature. DaCBF7, like other monocot group V homologs, contains a distinct polypeptide stretch composed of 43 amino acids in front of the AP2 motif. DaCBF7 was predominantly localized to nuclei and interacted with the C-repeat/dehydration responsive element (CRT/DRE) core sequence (ACCGAC) in vitro. DaCBF7 was induced by abiotic stresses, including drought, cold, and salinity. To investigate its possible cellular role in cold tolerance, a transgenic rice system was employed. DaCBF7-overexpressing transgenic rice plants (Ubi:DaCBF7) exhibited markedly increased tolerance to cold stress compared to wild-type plants without growth defects; however, overexpression of DaCBF7 exerted little effect on tolerance to drought or salt stress. Transcriptome analysis of a Ubi:DaCBF7 transgenic line revealed 13 genes that were up-regulated in DaCBF7-overexpressing plants compared to wild-type plants in the absence of cold stress and in short- or long-term cold stress. Five of these genes, dehydrin, remorin, Os03g63870, Os11g34790, and Os10g22630, contained putative CRT/DRE or low-temperature responsive elements in their promoter regions. These results suggest that overexpression of DaCBF7 directly and indirectly induces diverse genes in transgenic rice plants and confers enhanced tolerance to cold stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fault Tolerant Control System Design Using Automated Methods from Risk Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.

    Fault tolerant controls have the ability to be resilient to simple faults in control loop components.......Fault tolerant controls have the ability to be resilient to simple faults in control loop components....

  20. Wind turbine fault detection and fault tolerant control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Johnson, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    In this updated edition of a previous wind turbine fault detection and fault tolerant control challenge, we present a more sophisticated wind turbine model and updated fault scenarios to enhance the realism of the challenge and therefore the value of the solutions. This paper describes...

  1. Data Driven Fault Tolerant Control : A Subspace Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, J.

    2009-01-01

    The main stream research on fault detection and fault tolerant control has been focused on model based methods. As far as a model is concerned, changes therein due to faults have to be extracted from measured data. Generally speaking, existing approaches process measured inputs and outputs either by

  2. Chemical stability of a cold-active cellulase with high tolerance toward surfactants and chaotropic agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís V. Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CelE1 is a cold-active endo-acting glucanase with high activity at a broad temperature range and under alkaline conditions. Here, we examined the effects of pH on the secondary and tertiary structures, net charge, and activity of CelE1. Although variation in pH showed a small effect in the enzyme structure, the activity was highly influenced at acidic conditions, while reached the optimum activity at pH 8. Furthermore, to estimate whether CelE1 could be used as detergent additives, CelE1 activity was evaluated in the presence of surfactants. Ionic and nonionic surfactants were not able to reduce CelE1 activity significantly. Therefore, CelE1 was found to be promising candidate for use as detergent additives. Finally, we reported a thermodynamic analysis based on the structural stability and the chemical unfolding/refolding process of CelE1. The results indicated that the chemical unfolding proceeds as a reversible two-state process. These data can be useful for biotechnological applications.

  3. Fault tolerant homopolar magnetic bearings with flux invariant control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Uhn Joo

    2006-01-01

    The theory for a novel fault-tolerant 4-active-pole homopolar magnetic bearing is developed. If any one coil of the four coils in the bearing actuator fail, the remaining three coil currents change via an optimal distribution matrix such that the same opposing pole, C-core type, control fluxes as those of the un-failed bearing are produced. The homopolar magnetic bearing thus provides unaltered magnetic forces without any loss of the bearing load capacity even if any one coil suddenly fails. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the novel fault-tolerant, 4-active pole homopolar magnetic bearings

  4. Evaluation of Cold Tolerant High Yielding Oil Palm Germplasm in Guangdong Province of South China, a Northern Tropical Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xianhai, Z.; Denglang, P.; Zhao, L.; Junming, C.; Weifu, L.

    2016-01-01

    An evaluation of the vegetative growth, yield components and cold resistance traits from 38 pre-selected individual oil palm plants grown in six regions (populations) at the latitude (LAT) range between 20 degree N and 23 degree N in Guangdong Province, China was carried out during the period from April 2010 to April 2015. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in traits between the individual palms or the populations [except sex-ratio of female inflorescence and fruit bunch to female inflorescence, male inflorescence and fruit bunch (%) (SR)]. Phenotypic correlation analysis showed that bunch number (NB) was positively correlated with fresh fruit bunch (FFB), but not significantly with average bunch weight (ABW). For the individual palms, it was found that the higher the LAT the lower the frond production (FP) and LT 50 and the higher fruit compaction rate (FCR), and the higher the LT 50 the lower the ABW. For the populations, the higher the LAT the higher the ABW and the lower the abortion ratio of female inflorescence to female inflorescence and fruit bunch (%) (RAFM). Path coefficient analysis further revealed that for the individual palms ABW was the major determinant in both FFB and NB, and mainly determined by normal fruit higher per bunch (kg) (ANFW) and percent of ANFW to ABW (%) (F/B). For the populations, the major determining factors were ratio of aborted fruit bunch to fruit bunch (%) (ABR) for FFB and NB, and inflorescence (male, female, bisexual and non-anthesis) and fruit bunch numbers per year (No.) NIB and LT 50 for ABW. MM5 palm and Huazhou population were selected based on the major determining factors as high-yielding cold tolerant palm and population, respectively, which was consistent with the results of analysis of variance. (author)

  5. Cold Vacuum Drying Safety Class Instrumentation and Control System Design Description SYS 93-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WHITEHURST, R.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Safety Class Instrumentation and Control system (SCIC). The SCIC provides safety functions and features to protect the environment, off-site and on-site personnel and equipment. The function of the SCIC is to provide automatic trip features, valve interlocks, alarms, indication and control for the cold vacuum drying process

  6. Cold Vacuum Drying Safety Class Instrumentation and Control System Design Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WHITEHURST, R.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Safety Class Instrumentation and Control system (SCIC). The SCIC provides safety functions and features to protect the environment, off-site and on-site personnel and equipment. The function of the SCIC is to provide automatic trip features, valve interlocks, alarms, indication and control for the cold vacuum drying process

  7. The enhancement of tolerance to salt and cold stresses by modifying the redox state and salicylic acid content via the cytosolic malate dehydrogenase gene in transgenic apple plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Jie; Sun, Hong; Dong, Qing-Long; Sun, Tian-Yu; Jin, Zhong-Xin; Hao, Yu-Jin; Yao, Yu-Xin

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we characterized the role of an apple cytosolic malate dehydrogenase gene (MdcyMDH) in the tolerance to salt and cold stresses and investigated its regulation mechanism in stress tolerance. The MdcyMDH transcript was induced by mild cold and salt treatments, and MdcyMDH-overexpressing apple plants possessed improved cold and salt tolerance compared to wild-type (WT) plants. A digital gene expression tag profiling analysis revealed that MdcyMDH overexpression largely altered some biological processes, including hormone signal transduction, photosynthesis, citrate cycle and oxidation-reduction. Further experiments verified that MdcyMDH overexpression modified the mitochondrial and chloroplast metabolisms and elevated the level of reducing power, primarily caused by increased ascorbate and glutathione, as well as the increased ratios of ascorbate/dehydroascorbate and glutathione/glutathione disulphide, under normal and especially stress conditions. Concurrently, the transgenic plants produced a high H2 O2 content, but a low O2·- production rate was observed compared to the WT plants. On the other hand, the transgenic plants accumulated more free and total salicylic acid (SA) than the WT plants under normal and stress conditions. Taken together, MdcyMDH conferred the transgenic apple plants a higher stress tolerance by producing more reductive redox states and increasing the SA level; MdcyMDH could serve as a target gene to genetically engineer salt- and cold-tolerant trees. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Arabidopsis UDP-glycosyltransferases UGT79B2 and UGT79B3, contribute to cold, salt and drought stress tolerance via modulating anthocyanin accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Li, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Feng-Ju; Zhang, Gui-Zhi; Jiang, Xiao-Yi; Yu, Hui-Min; Hou, Bing-Kai

    2017-01-01

    The plant family 1 UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are the biggest GT family in plants, which are responsible for transferring sugar moieties onto a variety of small molecules, and control many metabolic processes; however, their physiological significance in planta is largely unknown. Here, we revealed that two Arabidopsis glycosyltransferase genes, UGT79B2 and UGT79B3, could be strongly induced by various abiotic stresses, including cold, salt and drought stresses. Overexpression of UGT79B2/B3 significantly enhanced plant tolerance to low temperatures as well as drought and salt stresses, whereas the ugt79b2/b3 double mutants generated by RNAi (RNA interference) and CRISPR-Cas9 strategies were more susceptible to adverse conditions. Interestingly, the expression of UGT79B2 and UGT79B3 is directly controlled by CBF1 (CRT/DRE-binding factor 1, also named DREB1B) in response to low temperatures. Furthermore, we identified the enzyme activities of UGT79B2/B3 in adding UDP-rhamnose to cyanidin and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside. Ectopic expression of UGT79B2/B3 significantly increased the anthocyanin accumulation, and enhanced the antioxidant activity in coping with abiotic stresses, whereas the ugt79b2/b3 double mutants showed reduced anthocyanin levels. When overexpressing UGT79B2/B3 in tt18 (transparent testa 18), a mutant that cannot synthesize anthocyanins, both genes fail to improve plant adaptation to stress. Taken together, we demonstrate that UGT79B2 and UGT79B3, identified as anthocyanin rhamnosyltransferases, are regulated by CBF1 and confer abiotic stress tolerance via modulating anthocyanin accumulation. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Exploiting transcriptome data for the development and characterization of gene-based SSR markers related to cold tolerance in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yong; Zhou, Lixia; Xia, Wei; Mason, Annaliese S; Yang, Yaodong; Ma, Zilong; Peng, Ming

    2014-12-19

    The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, 2n = 32) has the highest oil yield of any crop species, as well as comprising the richest dietary source of provitamin A. For the tropical species, the best mean growth temperature is about 27°C, with a minimal growth temperature of 15°C. Hence, the plantation area is limited into the geographical ranges of 10°N to 10°S. Enhancing cold tolerance capability will increase the total cultivation area and subsequently oil productivity of this tropical species. Developing molecular markers related to cold tolerance would be helpful for molecular breeding of cold tolerant Elaeis guineensis. In total, 5791 gene-based SSRs were identified in 51,452 expressed sequences from Elaeis guineensis transcriptome data: approximately one SSR was detected per 10 expressed sequences. Of these 5791 gene-based SSRs, 916 were derived from expressed sequences up- or down-regulated at least two-fold in response to cold stress. A total of 182 polymorphic markers were developed and characterized from 442 primer pairs flanking these cold-responsive SSR repeats. The polymorphic information content (PIC) of these polymorphic SSR markers across 24 lines of Elaeis guineensis varied from 0.08 to 0.65 (mean = 0.31 ± 0.12). Using in-silico mapping, 137 (75.3%) of the 182 polymorphic SSR markers were located onto the 16 Elaeis guineensis chromosomes. Total coverage of 473 Mbp was achieved, with an average physical distance of 3.4 Mbp between adjacent markers (range 96 bp - 20.8 Mbp). Meanwhile, Comparative analysis of transcriptome under cold stress revealed that one ICE1 putative ortholog, five CBF putative orthologs, 19 NAC transcription factors and four cold-induced orhologs were up-regulated at least two fold in response to cold stress. Interestingly, 5' untranslated region of both Unigene21287 (ICE1) and CL2628.Contig1 (NAC) both contained an SSR markers. In the present study, a series of SSR markers were developed based on sequences

  10. Reliable, fault tolerant control systems for nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, T.O.; Olmstead, R.A.; Schafer, S.

    1990-01-01

    Two operational features of CANDU Nuclear Power Stations provide for high plant availability. First, the plant re-fuels on-line, thereby eliminating the need for periodic and lengthy refuelling 'outages'. Second, the all plants are controlled by real-time computer systems. Later plants are also protected using real-time computer systems. In the past twenty years, the control systems now operating in 21 plants have achieved an availability of 99.8%, making significant contributions to high CANDU plant capacity factors. This paper describes some of the features that ensure the high degree of system fault tolerance and hence high plant availability. The emphasis will be placed on the fault tolerant features of the computer systems included in the latest reactor design - the CANDU 3 (450MWe). (author)

  11. Hybrid controller design and verification for the METIS Cold Chopper Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Robert; Jayawardhana, Bayu; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the design and validation of a hybrid controller for the METIS Cold Chopper Mechanism (MCCD)(1). The described control strategy has been chosen to meet the stringent performance requirements of the mechanism subject to constraints on the input.

  12. Development and Evaluation of Fault-Tolerant Flight Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong D.; Gupta, Kajal (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The research is concerned with developing a new approach to enhancing fault tolerance of flight control systems. The original motivation for fault-tolerant control comes from the need for safe operation of control elements (e.g. actuators) in the event of hardware failures in high reliability systems. One such example is modem space vehicle subjected to actuator/sensor impairments. A major task in flight control is to revise the control policy to balance impairment detectability and to achieve sufficient robustness. This involves careful selection of types and parameters of the controllers and the impairment detecting filters used. It also involves a decision, upon the identification of some failures, on whether and how a control reconfiguration should take place in order to maintain a certain system performance level. In this project new flight dynamic model under uncertain flight conditions is considered, in which the effects of both ramp and jump faults are reflected. Stabilization algorithms based on neural network and adaptive method are derived. The control algorithms are shown to be effective in dealing with uncertain dynamics due to external disturbances and unpredictable faults. The overall strategy is easy to set up and the computation involved is much less as compared with other strategies. Computer simulation software is developed. A serious of simulation studies have been conducted with varying flight conditions.

  13. Fault tolerant control for steam generators in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Zhihong; Shi Xiaocheng; Xia Guoqing; Fu Mingyu

    2010-01-01

    Based on the nonlinear system with stochastic noise, a bank of extended Kalman filters is used to estimate the state of sensors. It can real-time detect and isolate the single sensor fault, and reconstruct the sensor output to keep steam generator water level stable. The simulation results show that the methodology of employing a bank of extended Kalman filters for steam generator fault tolerant control design is feasible. (authors)

  14. The influence of cold pack on labour pain relief and birth outcomes: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvani, Marjan Ahmad; Ganji, Zhila

    2014-09-01

    (1) To evaluate the influence of local cold on severity of labour pain and (2) to identify the effect of local cold on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Fear of labour pain results in an increase in pain and duration of labour, maternal discontent and demand for caesarean section. Regarding maternal and foetal complications of analgesic medications, the attention to application of nonpharmacological methods including cold therapy is increased. Randomised controlled trial. Sixty-four pregnant women, at initiation of active phase of labour, were allocated randomly to cold therapy and control groups (n = 64). Null parity, term pregnancy, presence of single foetus, cephalic presentation and completing informed consent were considered as inclusion criteria. Administration of analgesic and anaesthesia, foetal distress, skin lesions in regions of cold therapy and high-risk pregnancy provided exclusion criteria. Cold pack was applied over abdomen and back, for 10 minutes every 30 minutes during first phase of labour. Additionally, cold pack was placed over perineum, for 5 minutes every 15 minutes during second phase. Pain severity was assessed based on the visual analogue scale. The two groups were not significantly different considering demographic data, gestational age, foetal weight, rupture of membranes and primary severity of pain. Degree of pain was lower in cold therapy group during all parts of active phase and second stage. Duration of all phases was shorter in cold therapy group in all phases. Foetal heart rate, perineal laceration, type of birth, application of oxytocin and APGAR score were not significantly different between two groups. Labour pain is probably reduced based on gate theory using cold. Pain control by cold maybe improves labour progression without affecting mother and foetus adversely. Local cold therapy could be included in labour pain management. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Drosophila melanogaster Muc68E Mucin Gene Influences Adult Size, Starvation Tolerance, and Cold Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Micael; Silva, Ana C; Vieira, Cristina P; Vieira, Jorge

    2016-07-07

    Mucins have been implicated in many different biological processes, such as protection from mechanical damage, microorganisms, and toxic molecules, as well as providing a luminal scaffold during development. Nevertheless, it is conceivable that mucins have the potential to modulate food absorption as well, and thus contribute to the definition of several important phenotypic traits. Here we show that the Drosophila melanogaster Muc68E gene is 40- to 60-million-yr old, and is present in Drosophila species of the subgenus Sophophora only. The central repeat region of this gene is fast evolving, and shows evidence for repeated expansions/contractions. This and/or frequent gene conversion events lead to the homogenization of its repeats. The amino acid pattern P[ED][ED][ST][ST][ST] is found in the repeat region of Muc68E proteins from all Drosophila species studied, and can occur multiple times within a single conserved repeat block, and thus may have functional significance. Muc68E is a nonessential gene under laboratory conditions, but Muc68E mutant flies are smaller and lighter than controls at birth. However, at 4 d of age, Muc68E mutants are heavier, recover faster from chill-coma, and are more resistant to starvation than control flies, although they have the same percentage of lipids as controls. Mutant flies have enlarged abdominal size 1 d after chill-coma recovery, which is associated with higher lipid content. These results suggest that Muc68E has a role in metabolism modulation, food absorption, and/or feeding patterns in larvae and adults, and under normal and stress conditions. Such biological function is novel for mucin genes. Copyright © 2016 Reis et al.

  16. Engineering and control of cold molecules. Making manipulating and exploiting ultra-cold polar molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, N.P.; Haimberger, C.; Kleinert, J.; Tscherneck, M.; Holmes, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    In the last 12 months several groups have demonstrated the use of photo association to create cold heteronuclear (polar) molecules. We report on the formation of translationally cold NaCs molecules starting from a laser-cooled atomic vapor of Na and Cs atoms. Colliding atoms are transferred into bound molecular states in a two-step photoactivated process. We find a translational temperature of T ≅ 260 mK. To increase the density and number of trapped atoms, dark-spot techniques are used on the MOT and a Zeeman slowed sodium beam is used to load the sodium atoms into the trap. Spectroscopy of these molecules is underway using time-of-flight ion detection and trap-loss. Initial REMPI measurements indicate that both singlet and triplet states are being populated by the spontaneous-decay driven process. We measure a rate constant for molecule formation of K NaCs = 7.43 · 10 15 cm 3 s -1 . (author)

  17. GsLRPK, a novel cold-activated leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase from Glycine soja, is a positive regulator to cold stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang; Wu, Kangcheng; Gao, Peng; Liu, Xiaojuan; Li, Guangpu; Wu, Zujian

    2014-02-01

    Plant LRR-RLKs serve as protein interaction platforms, and as regulatory modules of protein activation. Here, we report the isolation of a novel plant-specific LRR-RLK from Glycine soja (termed GsLRPK) by differential screening. GsLRPK expression was cold-inducible and shows Ser/Thr protein kinase activity. Subcellular localization studies using GFP fusion protein indicated that GsLRPK is localized in the plasma membrane. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that temperature, salt, drought, and ABA treatment can alter GsLRPK gene transcription in G. soja. However, just protein induced by cold stress not by salinity and ABA treatment in tobacco was found to possess kinase activity. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of GsLRPK in yeast and Arabidopsis can enhance resistance to cold stress and increase the expression of a number of cold responsive gene markers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic Architecture of Cold Tolerance in Rice (Oryza sativa) Determined through High Resolution Genome-Wide Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cold temperature is an important abiotic stress which negatively affects morphological development and seed production in rice (Oryza sativa L.). At the seedling stage, cold stress causes poor germination, seedling injury and poor stand establishment; and at the reproductive stage cold decreases se...

  19. Overexpression of the OsIMP Gene Increases the Accumulation of Inositol and Confers Enhanced Cold Tolerance in Tobacco through Modulation of the Antioxidant Enzymes’ Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Xiang Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Inositol is a cyclic polyol that is involved in various physiological processes, including signal transduction and stress adaptation in plants. l-myo-inositol monophosphatase (IMPase is one of the metal-dependent phosphatase family members and catalyzes the last reaction step of biosynthesis of inositol. Although increased IMPase activity induced by abiotic stress has been reported in chickpea plants, the role and regulation of the IMP gene in rice (Oryza sativa L. remains poorly understood. In the present work, we obtained a full-length cDNA sequence coding IMPase in the cold tolerant rice landraces in Gaogonggui, which is named as OsIMP. Multiple alignment results have displayed that this sequence has characteristic signature motifs and conserved enzyme active sites of the phosphatase super family. Phylogenetic analysis showed that IMPase is most closely related to that of the wild rice Oryza brachyantha, while transcript analysis revealed that the expression of the OsIMP is significantly induced by cold stress and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA treatment. Meanwhile, we cloned the 5’ flanking promoter sequence of the OsIMP gene and identified several important cis-acting elements, such as LTR (low-temperature responsiveness, TCA-element (salicylic acid responsiveness, ABRE-element (abscisic acid responsiveness, GARE-motif (gibberellin responsive, MBS (MYB Binding Site and other cis-acting elements related to defense and stress responsiveness. To further investigate the potential function of the OsIMP gene, we generated transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing the OsIMP gene and the cold tolerance test indicated that these transgenic tobacco plants exhibit improved cold tolerance. Furthermore, transgenic tobacco plants have a lower level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA, and a higher content of total chlorophyll as well as increased antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD

  20. Overexpression of the OsIMP Gene Increases the Accumulation of Inositol and Confers Enhanced Cold Tolerance in Tobacco through Modulation of the Antioxidant Enzymes' Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong-Xiang; Qin, Li-Jun; Zhao, De-Gang

    2017-07-20

    Inositol is a cyclic polyol that is involved in various physiological processes, including signal transduction and stress adaptation in plants. l- myo -inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) is one of the metal-dependent phosphatase family members and catalyzes the last reaction step of biosynthesis of inositol. Although increased IMPase activity induced by abiotic stress has been reported in chickpea plants, the role and regulation of the IMP gene in rice ( Oryza sativa L.) remains poorly understood. In the present work, we obtained a full-length cDNA sequence coding IMPase in the cold tolerant rice landraces in Gaogonggui, which is named as OsIMP . Multiple alignment results have displayed that this sequence has characteristic signature motifs and conserved enzyme active sites of the phosphatase super family. Phylogenetic analysis showed that IMPase is most closely related to that of the wild rice Oryza brachyantha , while transcript analysis revealed that the expression of the OsIMP is significantly induced by cold stress and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Meanwhile, we cloned the 5' flanking promoter sequence of the OsIMP gene and identified several important cis -acting elements, such as LTR (low-temperature responsiveness), TCA-element (salicylic acid responsiveness), ABRE-element (abscisic acid responsiveness), GARE-motif (gibberellin responsive), MBS (MYB Binding Site) and other cis -acting elements related to defense and stress responsiveness. To further investigate the potential function of the OsIMP gene, we generated transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing the OsIMP gene and the cold tolerance test indicated that these transgenic tobacco plants exhibit improved cold tolerance. Furthermore, transgenic tobacco plants have a lower level of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and a higher content of total chlorophyll as well as increased antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD

  1. Shifts in metabolomic profiles of the parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis associated with elevated cold tolerance induced by the parasitoid's diapause, host diapause and host diet augmentation with proline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Li, Y.; Zhang, L.; Chen, H.; Košťál, Vladimír; Šimek, Petr; Moos, Martin; Denlinger, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 63, AUG 01 (2015), s. 34-46 ISSN 0965-1748 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12103 Grant - others:National Science Foundation Grant(US) IOS-08440772 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : metabolomics * cold tolerance * proline Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.767, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0965174815001022

  2. Effects of heat, cold, acid and bile salt adaptations on the stress tolerance and protein expression of kefir-isolated probiotic Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Ju; Tang, Hsin-Yu; Chiang, Ming-Lun

    2017-09-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 is a probiotic strain isolated from Taiwanese kefir grains. The present study evaluated the effects of heat, cold, acid and bile salt adaptations on the stress tolerance of L. kefiranofaciens M1. The regulation of protein expression of L. kefiranofaciens M1 under these adaptation conditions was also investigated. The results showed that adaptation of L. kefiranofaciens M1 to heat, cold, acid and bile salts induced homologous tolerance and cross-protection against heterologous challenge. The extent of induced tolerance varied depending on the type and condition of stress. Proteomic analysis revealed that 27 proteins exhibited differences in expression between non-adapted and stress-adapted L. kefiranofaciens M1 cells. Among these proteins, three proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism (triosephosphate isomerase, enolase and NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), two proteins involved in pH homeostasis (ATP synthase subunits AtpA and AtpB), two stress response proteins (chaperones DnaK and GroEL) and one translation-related protein (30S ribosomal protein S2) were up-regulated by three of the four adaptation treatments examined. The increased synthesis of these stress proteins might play a critical protective role in the cellular defense against heat, cold, acid and bile salt stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel cold-regulated gene from Phlox subulata, PsCor413im1, enhances low temperature tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aimin; Sun, Hongwei; Feng, Shuang; Zhou, Mi; Gong, Shufang; Wang, Jingang; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2018-01-08

    Low temperature stress adversely affects plant growth, development, and crop productivity. Analysis of the function of genes in the response of plants to low temperature stress is essential for understanding the mechanism of chilling and freezing tolerance. In this study, PsCor413im1, a novel cold-regulated gene isolated from Phlox subulata, was transferred to Arabidopsis to investigate its function under low temperature stress. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that PsCor413im1 expression was induced by cold and abscisic acid. Subcellular localization revealed that PsCor413im1-GFP fusion protein was localized to the periphery of the chloroplast, consistent with the localization of chloroplast inner membrane protein AtCor413im1, indicating that PsCor413im1 is a chloroplast membrane protein. Furthermore, the N-terminal of PsCor413im1 was determined to be necessary for its localization. Compared to the wild-type plants, transgenic plants showed higher germination and survival rates under cold and freezing stress. Moreover, the expression of AtCor15 in transgenic plants was higher than that in the wild-type plants under cold stress. Taken together, our results suggest that the overexpression of PsCor413im1 enhances low temperature tolerance in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A cold-induced myo-inositol transporter-like gene confers tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambe, Mame Abdou Nahr; He, Xueying; Tu, Qinghua; Guo, Zhenfei

    2015-03-01

    A full length cDNA encoding a myo-inositol transporter-like protein, named as MfINT-like, was cloned from Medicago sativa subsp. falcata (herein falcata), a species with greater cold tolerance than alfalfa (M. sativa subsp. sativa). MfINT-like is located on plasma membranes. MfINT-like transcript was induced 2-4 h after exogenous myo-inositol treatment, 24-96 h with cold, and 96 h by salinity. Given that myo-inositol accumulates higher in falcata after 24 h of cold treatment, myo-inositol is proposed to be involved in cold-induced expression of MfINT-like. Higher levels of myo-inositol was observed in leaves of transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing MfINT-like than the wild-type but not in the roots of plants grown on myo-inositol containing medium, suggesting that transgenic plants had higher myo-inositol transport activity than the wild-type. Transgenic plants survived better to freezing temperature, and had lower ion leakage and higher maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv /Fm ) after chilling treatment. In addition, greater plant fresh weight was observed in transgenic plants as compared with the wild-type when plants were grown under drought or salinity stress. The results suggest that MfINT-like mediated transport of myo-inositol is associated with plant tolerance to abiotic stresses. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. A Benchmark Evaluation of Fault Tolerant Wind Turbine Control Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    As the world’s power supply to a larger and larger degree depends on wind turbines, it is consequently and increasingly important that these are as reliable and available as possible. Modern fault tolerant control (FTC) could play a substantial part in increasing reliability of modern wind turbin...... accommodation is handled in software sensor and actuator blocks. This means that the wind turbine controller can continue operation as in the fault free case. The other two evaluated solutions show some potential but probably need improvements before industrial applications....

  6. Fault Tolerant Position-mooring Control for Offshore Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Nguyen, Trong Dong

    2018-01-01

    Fault-tolerance is crucial to maintain safety in offshore operations. The objective of this paper is to show how systematic analysis and design of fault-tolerance is conducted for a complex automation system, exemplified by thruster assisted Position-mooring. Using redundancy as required....... Functional faults that are only detectable, are rendered isolable through an active isolation approach. Once functional faults are isolated, they are handled by fault accommodation techniques to meet overall control objectives specified by class requirements. The paper illustrates the generic methodology...... by a system to handle faults in mooring lines, sensors or thrusters. Simulations and model basin experiments are carried out to validate the concept for scenarios with single or multiple faults. The results demonstrate that enhanced availability and safety are obtainable with this design approach. While...

  7. A Multi-Environment Thermal Control System With Freeze-Tolerant Radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weibo; Fogg, David; Mancini, Nick; Steele, John; Quinn, Gregory; Bue, Grant; Littibridge, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Future space exploration missions require advanced thermal control systems (TCS) to dissipate heat from spacecraft, rovers, or habitats operating in environments that can vary from extremely hot to extremely cold. A lightweight, reliable TCS is being developed to effectively control cabin and equipment temperatures under widely varying heat loads and ambient temperatures. The system uses freeze-tolerant radiators, which eliminate the need for a secondary circulation loop or heat pipe systems. Each radiator has a self-regulating variable thermal conductance to its ambient environment. The TCS uses a nontoxic, water-based working fluid that is compatible with existing lightweight aluminum heat exchangers. The TCS is lightweight, compact, and requires very little pumping power. The critical characteristics of the core enabling technologies were demonstrated. Functional testing with condenser tubes demonstrated the key operating characteristics required for a reliable, freeze-tolerant TCS, namely (1) self-regulating thermal conductance with short transient responses to varying thermal loads, (2) repeatable performance through freeze-thaw cycles, and (3) fast start-up from a fully frozen state. Preliminary coolant tests demonstrated that the corrosion inhibitor in the water-based coolant can reduce the corrosion rate on aluminum by an order of magnitude. Performance comparison with state-of-the-art designs shows significant mass and power saving benefits of this technology.

  8. Fault Tolerant Control for Civil Structures Based on LMI Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxu Qu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The control system may lose the performance to suppress the structural vibration due to the faults in sensors or actuators. This paper designs the filter to perform the fault detection and isolation (FDI and then reforms the control strategy to achieve the fault tolerant control (FTC. The dynamic equation of the structure with active mass damper (AMD is first formulated. Then, an estimated system is built to transform the FDI filter design problem to the static gain optimization problem. The gain is designed to minimize the gap between the estimated system and the practical system, which can be calculated by linear matrix inequality (LMI approach. The FDI filter is finally used to isolate the sensor faults and reform the FTC strategy. The efficiency of FDI and FTC is validated by the numerical simulation of a three-story structure with AMD system with the consideration of sensor faults. The results show that the proposed FDI filter can detect the sensor faults and FTC controller can effectively tolerate the faults and suppress the structural vibration.

  9. SIFT - Design and analysis of a fault-tolerant computer for aircraft control. [Software Implemented Fault Tolerant systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensley, J. H.; Lamport, L.; Goldberg, J.; Green, M. W.; Levitt, K. N.; Melliar-Smith, P. M.; Shostak, R. E.; Weinstock, C. B.

    1978-01-01

    SIFT (Software Implemented Fault Tolerance) is an ultrareliable computer for critical aircraft control applications that achieves fault tolerance by the replication of tasks among processing units. The main processing units are off-the-shelf minicomputers, with standard microcomputers serving as the interface to the I/O system. Fault isolation is achieved by using a specially designed redundant bus system to interconnect the processing units. Error detection and analysis and system reconfiguration are performed by software. Iterative tasks are redundantly executed, and the results of each iteration are voted upon before being used. Thus, any single failure in a processing unit or bus can be tolerated with triplication of tasks, and subsequent failures can be tolerated after reconfiguration. Independent execution by separate processors means that the processors need only be loosely synchronized, and a novel fault-tolerant synchronization method is described.

  10. Identification of Sweet Sorghum accessions with seedling cold tolerance using both lab cold germination test and field early Spring planting evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivars with quick seedling emergence and stand establishment at early spring cold conditions may be planted early in the same region with an extended period of plant growth and can potentially increase either grain yield, stem sugar yield, or biomass production of sorghum. Planting cultivars with...

  11. Osmotic versus adrenergic control of ion transport by ionocytes of Fundulus heteroclitus in the cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Janet C; Mercer, Evan W; Gerber, Lucie; Robertson, George N; Marshall, William S

    2017-01-01

    In eurythermic vertebrates, acclimation to the cold may produce changes in physiological control systems. We hypothesize that relatively direct osmosensitive control will operate better than adrenergic receptor mediated control of ion transport in cold vs. warm conditions. Fish were acclimated to full strength seawater (SW) at 21°C and 5°C for four weeks, gill samples and blood were taken and opercular epithelia mounted in Ussing style chambers. Short-circuit current (I sc ) at 21°C and 5°C (measured at acclimation temperature), was significantly inhibited by the α 2 -adrenergic agonist clonidine but the ED 50 dose was significantly higher in cold conditions (93.8±16.4nM) than in warm epithelia (47.8±8.1nM) and the maximum inhibition was significantly lower in cold (-66.1±2.2%) vs. warm conditions (-85.6±1.3%), indicating lower sensitivity in the cold. β-Adrenergic responses were unchanged. Hypotonic inhibition of I sc , was higher in warm acclimated (-95%), compared to cold acclimated fish (-75%), while hypertonic stimulations were the same, indicating equal responsiveness to hyperosmotic stimuli. Plasma osmolality was significantly elevated in cold acclimated fish and, by TEM, gill ionocytes from cold acclimated fish had significantly shorter mitochondria. These data are consistent with a shift in these eurythermic animals from complex adrenergic control to relatively simple biomechanical osmotic control of ion secretion in the cold. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Fault tolerant control based on active fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2005-01-01

    An active fault diagnosis (AFD) method will be considered in this paper in connection with a Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) architecture based on the YJBK parameterization of all stabilizing controllers. The architecture consists of a fault diagnosis (FD) part and a controller reconfiguration (CR......) part. The FTC architecture can be applied for additive faults, parametric faults, and for system structural changes. Only parametric faults will be considered in this paper. The main focus in this paper is on the use of the new approach of active fault diagnosis in connection with FTC. The active fault...... diagnosis approach is based on including an auxiliary input in the system. A fault signature matrix is introduced in connection with AFD, given as the transfer function from the auxiliary input to the residual output. This can be considered as a generalization of the passive fault diagnosis case, where...

  13. System Configuration Management Implementation Procedure for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Monitoring and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANGLESEY, M.O.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to establish the System Configuration Management Implementation Procedure (SCMIP) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Monitoring and Control System (MCS). This procedure provides configuration management for the process control system. The process control system consists of equipment hardware and software that controls and monitors the instrumentation and equipment associated with the CVDF processes. Refer to SNF-3090, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Monitoring and Control System Design Description, HNF-3553, Annex B, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, and AP-CM-6-037-00, SNF Project Process Automation Software and Equipment Configuration. This SCMIP identifies and defines the system configuration items in the control system, provides configuration control throughout the system life cycle, provides configuration status accounting, physical protection and control, and verifies the completeness and correctness of these items

  14. Generation of American elm trees with tolerance to Dutch elm disease through controlled crosses and selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Slavicek; Kathleen S. Knight

    2012-01-01

    The goal of our research and development efforts is to generate new and/or improved selections of the American elm (Ulmus americana L.) with tolerance/resistance to Dutch elm disease (DED). The approaches we are taking for this effort include: 1) controlled breeding using known DED -tolerant selections, 2) controlled breeding using DED-tolerant...

  15. Overexpression of MfPIP2-7 from Medicago falcata promotes cold tolerance and growth under NO3 (-) deficiency in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Chunliu; Wang, Ting; Guo, Zhenfei; Lu, Shaoyun

    2016-06-14

    Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), which belong to aquaporins (AQPs) superfamily, are subdivided into two groups, PIP1 and PIP2, based on sequence similarity. Several PIP2s function as water channels, while PIP1s have low or no water channel activity, but have a role in water permeability through interacting with PIP2. A cold responsive PIP2 named as MfPIP2-7 was isolated from Medicago falcata (hereafter falcata), a forage legume with great cold tolerance, and transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing MfPIP2-7 were analyzed in tolerance to multiple stresses including freezing, chilling, and nitrate reduction in this study. MfPIP2-7 transcript was induced by 4 to 12 h of cold treatment and 2 h of abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Pretreatment with inhibitor of ABA synthesis blocked the cold induced MfPIP2-7 transcript, indicating that ABA was involved in cold induced transcription of MfPIP2-7 in falcata. Overexpression of MfPIP2-7 resulted in enhanced tolerance to freezing, chilling and NO3 (-) deficiency in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants as compared with the wild type. Moreover, MfPIP2-7 was demonstrated to facilitate H2O2 diffusion in yeast. Higher transcript levels of several stress responsive genes, such as NtERD10B, NtERD10C, NtDREB1, and 2, and nitrate reductase (NR) encoding genes (NtNIA1, and NtNIA2) were observed in transgenic plants as compared with the wild type with dependence upon H2O2. In addition, NR activity was increased in transgenic plants, which led to alterations in free amino acid components and concentrations. The results suggest that MfPIP2-7 plays an important role in plant tolerance to freezing, chilling, and NO3 (-) deficiency by promoted H2O2 diffusion that in turn up-regulates expression of NIAs and multiple stress responsive genes.

  16. Robust Tension Control of Strip for 5-Stand Tandem Cold Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Shafiei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandem cold rolling process is a nonlinear complex system with external and internal uncertainties and significant disturbances. The improvement in the quality of the final output depends on the control strategy of centerline thickness and interstand tension. This paper focuses on interstand tension control problem in 5-stand tandem cold rolling mills. Tension dynamics can be described by a nominal model perturbed by parametric uncertainties. In order to overcome the model uncertainties and external disturbances, suboptimal H∞ and μ controllers are proposed and the Hankel-norm approximation is used to reduce the order of μ controller. The performance of the proposed controllers is demonstrated by some simulations.

  17. Fault tolerant vector control of induction motor drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odnokopylov, G; Bragin, A

    2014-01-01

    For electric composed of technical objects hazardous industries, such as nuclear, military, chemical, etc. an urgent task is to increase their resiliency and survivability. The construction principle of vector control system fault-tolerant asynchronous electric. Displaying recovery efficiency three-phase induction motor drive in emergency mode using two-phase vector control system. The process of formation of a simulation model of the asynchronous electric unbalance in emergency mode. When modeling used coordinate transformation, providing emergency operation electric unbalance work. The results of modeling transient phase loss motor stator. During a power failure phase induction motor cannot save circular rotating field in the air gap of the motor and ensure the restoration of its efficiency at rated torque and speed

  18. De novo transcriptome assembly of a Chinese locoweed (Oxytropis ochrocephala species provides insights into genes associated with drought, salinity and cold tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eHe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Locoweeds (toxic Oxytropis and Astraglus species, containing the toxic agent swainsonine, pose serious threats to animal husbandry on grasslands in both China and the US. Some locoweeds have evolved adaptations in order to resist various stress conditions such as drought, salt and cold. As a result they replace other plants in their communities and become an ecological problem. Currently very limited genetic information of locoweeds is available and this hinders our understanding in the molecular basis of their environmental plasticity, and the interaction between locoweeds and their symbiotic swainsonine producing endophytes. Next-generation sequencing provides a means of obtaining transcriptomic sequences in a timely manner, which is particularly useful for non-model plants. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing of Oxytropis ochrocephala plants followed by a de nove assembly. Our primary aim was to provide an enriched pool of genetic sequences of an Oxytropis sp. for further locoweed research. Results: Transcriptomes of four different O. ochrocephala samples, from control (CK plants, and those that had experienced either drought (20% PEG, salt (150 mM NaCl or cold (4 °C stress were sequenced using an Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform. From 232,209,506 clean reads 23,220,950,600 (~23 G nucleotides, 182,430 transcripts and 88,942 unigenes were retrieved, with an N50 value of 1,237. Differential expression analysis revealed putative genes encoding heat shock proteins (HSPs and late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins, enzymes in secondary metabolite and plant hormone biosyntheses, and transcription factors which are involved in stress tolerance in O. ochrocephala. In order to validate our sequencing results, we further analyzed the expression profiles of nine genes by quantitative real-time PCR. Finally, we discuss the possible mechanism of O. ochrocephala’s adaptations to stress environment. Conclusion: Our

  19. Optimization of control parameters of a hot cold controller by means of Simplex type methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, C.; Caron-Poussin, M.; Carot, S.; Couriol, C.; Moreno, M. Martin; Delacroix, A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a hot/cold controller for regulating crystallization operations. The system was identified with a common method (the Broida method) and the parameters were obtained by the Ziegler-Nichols method. The paper shows that this empirical method will only allow a qualitative approach to regulation and that, in some instances, the parameters obtained are unreliable and therefore cannot be used to cancel variations between the set point and the actual values. Optimization methods were used to determine the regulation parameters and solve this identcation problem. It was found that the weighted centroid method was the best one. PMID:18924791

  20. Fault Tolerance Automotive Air-Ratio Control Using Extreme Learning Machine Model Predictive Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Pak Kin Wong; Hang Cheong Wong; Chi Man Vong; Tong Meng Iong; Ka In Wong; Xianghui Gao

    2015-01-01

    Effective air-ratio control is desirable to maintain the best engine performance. However, traditional air-ratio control assumes the lambda sensor located at the tail pipe works properly and relies strongly on the air-ratio feedback signal measured by the lambda sensor. When the sensor is warming up during cold start or under failure, the traditional air-ratio control no longer works. To address this issue, this paper utilizes an advanced modelling technique, kernel extreme learning machine (...

  1. A novel cold-regulated gene from Camellia sinensis, CsCOR1, enhances salt- and dehydration-tolerance in tobacco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xian-Wen, E-mail: xianwenli01@sina.com [College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Life Science, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China); Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology of the Ministry of Education, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Feng, Zhi-Guo; Yang, Hui-Min; Zhu, Xiao-Pei [College of Life Science, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China); Liu, Jun, E-mail: liujun@mail.hzau.edu.cn [College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology of the Ministry of Education, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yuan, Hong-Yu, E-mail: yhongyu92@163.com [College of Life Science, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China)

    2010-04-02

    In present research, the full-length cDNA and the genomic sequence of a novel cold-regulated gene, CsCOR1, were isolated from Camellia sinensis L. The deduced protein CsCOR1 contains a hydrophobic N-terminus as a signal peptide and a hydrophilic C-terminal domain that is rich in glycine, arginine and proline. Two internal repetitive tridecapeptide fragments (HSVTAGRGGYNRG) exist in the middle of the C-terminal domain and the two nucleotide sequences encoding them are identical. CsCOR1 was localized in the cell walls of transgenic-tobaccos via CsCOR1::GFP fusion approach. The expression of CsCOR1 in tea leaves was enhanced dramatically by both cold- and dehydration-stress. And overexpression of CsCOR1 in transgenic-tobaccos improved obviously the tolerance to salinity and dehydration.

  2. Cold acclimation improves chill tolerance in the migratory locust through preservation of ion balance and membrane potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads; Folkersen, Rasmus; MacMillan, Heath Andrew

    2017-01-01

    potential (Vm). Several studies have therefore suggested a link between preservation of Vm and cellular survival after cold stress, but none has measured Vm in this context. We tested this hypothesis by acclimating locusts (Locusta migratoria) to high (31°C) and low temperature (11°C) for 4 days before...... revealed that cellular injury during cold exposure occurs when Vm becomes severely depolarized. Interestingly, we found that cellular sensitivity to hypothermic hyperkalaemia was lower in cold-acclimated locusts that were better able to defend Vm whilst exposed to high extracellular [K+]. Together...

  3. Evaluation of Freezing Tolerance of Three Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi (Linn. Sprague Ecotypes in Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Boroumand Rezazadeh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ajowan is one of the endemic plants in Khorasan province, and there is a little information on its tolerance to cold stress. In order to study freezing tolerance of ajowan, an experiment was conducted in faculty of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, based on factorial-completely randomized design with three replications and three ecotypes of ajowan (Neishabour, Birjand and Torbat-e-Heidarieh were imposed on eight freezing temperatures (0 (control, -1.5, -3, -4.5, -6,-7.5, -9 and -10.5 °C. Plants were grown in natural environment till 4-5 leaf stage, then for freezing treatments transferred to thermo-gradient freezer. The cell membrane stability was evaluated by electrolyte leakage index (EL and temperature for killing 50% of samples according to the electrolyte leakage (LT50el was determined. Furthermore, survival percentage, leaf number and dry weight, temperature for killing 50% of samples according to survival (LT50su and reduced dry matter temperature 50 (RDMT50 were determined after three weeks recovery in the glasshouse. Response of ajowan ecotypes for electrolyte leakage was different and birjand ecotype had the lowest %EL, whereas the slope of %EL in mentioned ecotype was lower than two other ecotypes. However there were no significant differences among ajowan ecotypes on LT50su. Decreasing temperature to -7.5 °C reduced survival percentage of Neishabour and Torbat-e-Heidarieh ecotypes to lower than 20 percent, whiles in this temperature Birjand’s survival percentage was about 60 percent. It seems that Birjand ecotype with the lowest electrolyte leakage, the highest survival and dry matter and the lowest LT50su was more tolerant than two other ecotypes.

  4. Cold War Arms Control Motivations and Techniques - A Guide for the Future?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Elmer

    1996-01-01

    .... This paper provides a brief historical account of some of the arms control agreements between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, examines their major motivations to enter into negotiations, and illustrates some successful negotiation techniques. The author hypothesizes on the utility of this Cold War arms control experience as a useful guide for arms control in a single superpower world.

  5. Parameter Estimation Analysis for Hybrid Adaptive Fault Tolerant Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshak, Peter B.

    Research efforts have increased in recent years toward the development of intelligent fault tolerant control laws, which are capable of helping the pilot to safely maintain aircraft control at post failure conditions. Researchers at West Virginia University (WVU) have been actively involved in the development of fault tolerant adaptive control laws in all three major categories: direct, indirect, and hybrid. The first implemented design to provide adaptation was a direct adaptive controller, which used artificial neural networks to generate augmentation commands in order to reduce the modeling error. Indirect adaptive laws were implemented in another controller, which utilized online PID to estimate and update the controller parameter. Finally, a new controller design was introduced, which integrated both direct and indirect control laws. This controller is known as hybrid adaptive controller. This last control design outperformed the two earlier designs in terms of less NNs effort and better tracking quality. The performance of online PID has an important role in the quality of the hybrid controller; therefore, the quality of the estimation will be of a great importance. Unfortunately, PID is not perfect and the online estimation process has some inherited issues; the online PID estimates are primarily affected by delays and biases. In order to ensure updating reliable estimates to the controller, the estimator consumes some time to converge. Moreover, the estimator will often converge to a biased value. This thesis conducts a sensitivity analysis for the estimation issues, delay and bias, and their effect on the tracking quality. In addition, the performance of the hybrid controller as compared to direct adaptive controller is explored. In order to serve this purpose, a simulation environment in MATLAB/SIMULINK has been created. The simulation environment is customized to provide the user with the flexibility to add different combinations of biases and delays to

  6. Active Disturbance Rejection Approach for Robust Fault-Tolerant Control via Observer Assisted Sliding Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cortés-Romero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes an active disturbance rejection approach for the establishment of a sliding mode control strategy in fault-tolerant operations. The core of the proposed active disturbance rejection assistance is a Generalized Proportional Integral (GPI observer which is in charge of the active estimation of lumped nonlinear endogenous and exogenous disturbance inputs related to the creation of local sliding regimes with limited control authority. Possibilities are explored for the GPI observer assisted sliding mode control in fault-tolerant schemes. Convincing improvements are presented with respect to classical sliding mode control strategies. As a collateral advantage, the observer-based control architecture offers the possibility of chattering reduction given that a significant part of the control signal is of the continuous type. The case study considers a classical DC motor control affected by actuator faults, parametric failures, and perturbations. Experimental results and comparisons with other established sliding mode controller design methodologies, which validate the proposed approach, are provided.

  7. Evaluation of Freeze Tolerance in Lancelot Plantain (Plantago lanceolata L. Ecotypes under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Janalizadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Lancelot Plantain (Ribwort, narrow-leaf or English plantain is a deep-rooted, short-lived perennial herb from Plantaginaceae family which has been used for various medicinal purposes for centuries, especially in Europe and only more recently has been proposed as a forage plant. The leaf of plantain is highly palatable for grazing animals, providing mineral-rich forage. Recently two productive upright cultivars of plantain have been bred and introduced, Grasslands Lancelot and the more erect winter active Ceres Tonic. Plantain grows moderately in winter but its main growth periods beings in spring and autumn with opportunistic summer growth. Although it reveals suitable winter survival in natural conditions, but there is not a lot of information about cold tolerance of this plant. So it is important to recognize the freeze tolerance of narrow leaf plantain for successful planting and utilization in cold regions such as Mashhad in Khorasan Razavi Province (Northeast of Iran. Determining LT50 point or critical temperature for survival of plant is the most reliable and simple method for evaluating cold tolerance of plants. Another reliable method for freeze tolerance of plants is estimation of temperature at which 50 % of dry matter reduces (RDMT50. This experiment was carried out to evaluate freeze tolerance of five ecotypes of Lancelot plantain according to the LT50su and RDMT50 indices. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate freeze tolerance of Lancelot plantain, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was carried out under controlled conditions at college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Five ecotypes of Lancelot plantain (Bojnourd, Kalat, Mashhad, Ghayen and Birjand after three months growth and hardening in natural environment were transferred to a Thermo gradient freezer on January 20th, 2012 and exposed to eight freezing temperatures (Zero, -3, -6, -9, -12, -15, -18

  8. Fuzzy Control of Cold Storage Refrigeration System with Dynamic Coupling Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiliang Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold storage refrigeration systems possess the characteristics of multiple input and output and strong coupling, which brings challenges to the optimize control. To reduce the adverse effects of the coupling and improve the overall control performance of cold storage refrigeration systems, a control strategy with dynamic coupling compensation was studied. First, dynamic model of a cold storage refrigeration system was established based on the requirements of the control system. At the same time, the coupling between the components was studied. Second, to reduce the adverse effects of the coupling, a fuzzy controller with dynamic coupling compensation was designed. As for the fuzzy controller, a self-tuning fuzzy controller was served as the primary controller, and an adaptive neural network was adopted to compensate the dynamic coupling. Finally, the proposed control strategy was employed to the cold storage refrigeration system, and simulations were carried out in the condition of start-up, variable load, and variable degree of superheat, respectively. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the fuzzy control method with dynamic coupling compensation.

  9. Fault tolerant control of multivariable processes using auto-tuning PID controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ding-Li; Chang, T K; Yu, Ding-Wen

    2005-02-01

    Fault tolerant control of dynamic processes is investigated in this paper using an auto-tuning PID controller. A fault tolerant control scheme is proposed composing an auto-tuning PID controller based on an adaptive neural network model. The model is trained online using the extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm to learn system post-fault dynamics. Based on this model, the PID controller adjusts its parameters to compensate the effects of the faults, so that the control performance is recovered from degradation. The auto-tuning algorithm for the PID controller is derived with the Lyapunov method and therefore, the model predicted tracking error is guaranteed to converge asymptotically. The method is applied to a simulated two-input two-output continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with various faults, which demonstrate the applicability of the developed scheme to industrial processes.

  10. Guaranteed Cost Fault-Tolerant Control for Networked Control Systems with Sensor Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixin Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the large scale and complicated structure of networked control systems, time-varying sensor faults could inevitably occur when the system works in a poor environment. Guaranteed cost fault-tolerant controller for the new networked control systems with time-varying sensor faults is designed in this paper. Based on time delay of the network transmission environment, the networked control systems with sensor faults are modeled as a discrete-time system with uncertain parameters. And the model of networked control systems is related to the boundary values of the sensor faults. Moreover, using Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequalities (LMI approach, the guaranteed cost fault-tolerant controller is verified to render such networked control systems asymptotically stable. Finally, simulations are included to demonstrate the theoretical results.

  11. The Effect of Cold Showering on Health and Work: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierevelt, Inger N.; van der Heijden, Bas C. J. M.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the cumulative effect of a routine (hot-to-) cold shower on sickness, quality of life and work productivity. Methods Between January and March 2015, 3018 participants between 18 and 65 years without severe comorbidity and no routine experience of cold showering were randomized (1:1:1:1) to a (hot-to-) cold shower for 30, 60, 90 seconds or a control group during 30 consecutive days followed by 60 days of showering cold at their own discretion for the intervention groups. The primary outcome was illness days and related sickness absence from work. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, work productivity, anxiety, thermal sensation and adverse reactions. Results 79% of participants in the interventions groups completed the 30 consecutive days protocol. A negative binomial regression model showed a 29% reduction in sickness absence for (hot-to-) cold shower regimen compared to the control group (incident rate ratio: 0.71, P = 0.003). For illness days there was no significant group effect. No related serious advents events were reported. Conclusion A routine (hot-to-) cold shower resulted in a statistical reduction of self-reported sickness absence but not illness days in adults without severe comorbidity. Trial Registration Netherlands National Trial Register NTR5183 PMID:27631616

  12. Novel neural networks-based fault tolerant control scheme with fault alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qikun; Jiang, Bin; Shi, Peng; Lim, Cheng-Chew

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, the problem of adaptive active fault-tolerant control for a class of nonlinear systems with unknown actuator fault is investigated. The actuator fault is assumed to have no traditional affine appearance of the system state variables and control input. The useful property of the basis function of the radial basis function neural network (NN), which will be used in the design of the fault tolerant controller, is explored. Based on the analysis of the design of normal and passive fault tolerant controllers, by using the implicit function theorem, a novel NN-based active fault-tolerant control scheme with fault alarm is proposed. Comparing with results in the literature, the fault-tolerant control scheme can minimize the time delay between fault occurrence and accommodation that is called the time delay due to fault diagnosis, and reduce the adverse effect on system performance. In addition, the FTC scheme has the advantages of a passive fault-tolerant control scheme as well as the traditional active fault-tolerant control scheme's properties. Furthermore, the fault-tolerant control scheme requires no additional fault detection and isolation model which is necessary in the traditional active fault-tolerant control scheme. Finally, simulation results are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the developed techniques.

  13. Temperature-dependent development, cold tolerance, and potential distribution of Cricotopus lebetis (Diptera: Chironomidae), a tip miner of Hydrilla verticillata (Hydrocharitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratman, Karen N; Overholt, William A; Cuda, James P; Mukherjee, A; Diaz, R; Netherland, Michael D; Wilson, Patrick C

    2014-10-15

    A chironomid midge, Cricotopus lebetis (Sublette) (Diptera: Chironomidae), was discovered attacking the apical meristems of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f. Royle) in Crystal River, Citrus Co., Florida in 1992. The larvae mine the stems of H. verticillata and cause basal branching and stunting of the plant. Temperature-dependent development, cold tolerance, and the potential distribution of the midge were investigated. The results of the temperature-dependent development study showed that optimal temperatures for larval development were between 20 and 30°C, and these data were used to construct a map of the potential number of generations per year of C. lebetis in Florida. Data from the cold tolerance study, in conjunction with historical weather data, were used to generate a predicted distribution of C. lebetis in the United States. A distribution was also predicted using an ecological niche modeling approach by characterizing the climate at locations where C. lebetis is known to occur and then finding other locations with similar climate. The distributions predicted using the two modeling approaches were not significantly different and suggested that much of the southeastern United States was climatically suitable for C. lebetis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  14. Cloning and characterization of a new cold-adapted and thermo-tolerant ι-carrageenase from marine bacterium Flavobacterium sp. YS-80-122.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shangyong; Hao, Jianhua; Sun, Mi

    2017-09-01

    ι-Carrageenases play a role in marine ι-carrageenan degradation, and their enzymatic hydrolysates are thought to be excellent antioxidants. In this study, we identified a new ι-carrageenase, encoded by cgiF, in psychrophilic bacterium Flavobacterium sp. YS-80-122. The deduced ι-carrageenase, CgiF, belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 82 and shows less than 40% amino acid identity with characterized ι-carrageenases. The activity of recombinant CgiF peaked at 30°C (1,207.8U/mg). Notably, CgiF is a cold-adapted ι-carrageenase, which showed 36.5% and 57% of the maximum activity at 10°C and 15°C, respectively. In addition, it is a thermo-tolerant enzyme that recovered 58.2% of its initial activity after heat shock. Furthermore, although the activity of CgiF was enhanced by NaCl, the enzyme is active in absence of NaCl. This study also shows that CgiF is an endo-type ι-carrageenase that hydrolyzes β-1,4-linkages of ι-carrageenan, yielding neo-ι-carratetraose as the main product. Its cold-adaptation, thermo-tolerance, NaCl independence and high neo-ι-carratetraose yield make CgiF an excellent candidate for industrial applications in production of ι-carrageen oligosaccharides from seaweed polysaccharides. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. High-Throughput microRNA and mRNA Sequencing Reveals that microRNAs May Be Involved in Melatonin-Mediated Cold Tolerance in Citrullus Lanatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulation of cold-responsive genes is crucial for exogenous melatonin-mediated cold tolerance in plants. Nonetheless, how melatonin regulates cold-responsive genes is largely unknown. In this study, we found that exogenous melatonin improved cold tolerance in watermelon by regulating expression of microRNAs (miRNAs. We identified a set of miRNAs that were regulated by melatonin under unstressed or cold conditions. Importantly, mRNA-seq analysis revealed that melatonin-induced downregulation of some miRNAs, such as miR159-5p, miR858, miR8029-3p, and novel-m0048-3p correlated with the upregulation of target genes involved in signal transduction (CDPK, BHLH, WRKY, MYB, and DREB and protection/detoxification (LEA and MDAR under cold stress. These results suggest that miRNAs may be involved in melatonin-mediated cold tolerance in watermelon by negatively regulating the expression of target mRNAs.

  16. High-Throughput MicroRNA and mRNA Sequencing Reveals That MicroRNAs May Be Involved in Melatonin-Mediated Cold Tolerance in Citrullus lanatus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Dong, Yuchuan; Chang, Jingjing; He, Jie; Chen, Hejie; Liu, Qiyan; Wei, Chunhua; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation of cold-responsive genes is crucial for exogenous melatonin-mediated cold tolerance in plants. Nonetheless, how melatonin regulates cold-responsive genes is largely unknown. In this study, we found that exogenous melatonin improved cold tolerance in watermelon by regulating expression of microRNAs (miRNAs). We identified a set of miRNAs that were regulated by melatonin under unstressed or cold conditions. Importantly, mRNA-seq analysis revealed that melatonin-induced downregulation of some miRNAs, such as miR159-5p, miR858, miR8029-3p, and novel-m0048-3p correlated with the upregulation of target genes involved in signal transduction (CDPK, BHLH, WRKY, MYB, and DREB) and protection/detoxification (LEA and MDAR) under cold stress. These results suggest that miRNAs may be involved in melatonin-mediated cold tolerance in watermelon by negatively regulating the expression of target mRNAs. PMID:27574526

  17. Plant Tolerance: A Unique Approach to Control Hemipteran Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Kyle G; Chapman, Kaitlin; Louis, Joe; Heng-Moss, Tiffany; Sarath, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Plant tolerance to insect pests has been indicated to be a unique category of resistance, however, very little information is available on the mechanism of tolerance against insect pests. Tolerance is distinctive in terms of the plant's ability to withstand or recover from herbivore injury through growth and compensatory physiological processes. Because plant tolerance involves plant compensatory characteristics, the plant is able to harbor large numbers of herbivores without interfering with the insect pest's physiology or behavior. Some studies have observed that tolerant plants can compensate photosynthetically by avoiding feedback inhibition and impaired electron flow through photosystem II that occurs as a result of insect feeding. Similarly, the up-regulation of peroxidases and other oxidative enzymes during insect feeding, in conjunction with elevated levels of phytohormones can play an important role in providing plant tolerance to insect pests. Hemipteran insects comprise some of the most economically important plant pests (e.g., aphids, whiteflies), due to their ability to achieve high population growth and their potential to transmit plant viruses. In this review, results from studies on plant tolerance to hemipterans are summarized, and potential models to understand tolerance are presented.

  18. Uncovering the benefits of fluctuating thermal regimes on cold tolerance of drosophila flies by combined metabolomic and lipidomic approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Colinet, H.; Renault, D.; Javal, M.; Berková, Petra; Šimek, Petr; Košťál, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1861, č. 11 (2016), s. 1736-1745 ISSN 1388-1981 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18509S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cold stress * fluctuating thermal regimes * recovery Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 5.547, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1388198116302281

  19. Insect cold tolerance and repair of chill-injury at fluctuating thermal regimes: Role of ion homeostasis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košťál, Vladimír; Renault, D.; Mehrabianová, A.; Bastl, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 147, č. 1, (2007), s. 231-238 ISSN 1095-6433 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0099 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Insecta * cold hardiness * thermal fluctuations Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.863, year: 2007

  20. Control of surface thermal scratch of strip in tandem cold rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinshan; Li, Changsheng

    2014-07-01

    The thermal scratch seriously affects the surface quality of the cold rolled stainless steel strip. Some researchers have carried out qualitative and theoretical studies in this field. However, there is currently a lack of research on effective forecast and control of thermal scratch defects in practical production, especially in tandem cold rolling. In order to establish precise mathematical model of oil film thickness in deformation zone, the lubrication in cold rolling process of SUS410L stainless steel strip is studied, and major factors affecting oil film thickness are also analyzed. According to the principle of statistics, mathematical model of critical oil film thickness in deformation zone for thermal scratch is built, with fitting and regression analytical method, and then based on temperature comparison method, the criterion for deciding thermal scratch defects is put forward. Storing and calling data through SQL Server 2010, a software on thermal scratch defects control is developed through Microsoft Visual Studio 2008 by MFC technique for stainless steel in tandem cold rolling, and then it is put into practical production. Statistics indicate that the hit rate of thermal scratch is as high as 92.38%, and the occurrence rate of thermal scratch is decreased by 89.13%. Owing to the application of the software, the rolling speed is increased by approximately 9.3%. The software developed provides an effective solution to the problem of thermal scratch defects in tandem cold rolling, and helps to promote products surface quality of stainless steel strips in practical production.

  1. Fault detection and fault-tolerant control for nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Linlin

    2016-01-01

    Linlin Li addresses the analysis and design issues of observer-based FD and FTC for nonlinear systems. The author analyses the existence conditions for the nonlinear observer-based FD systems to gain a deeper insight into the construction of FD systems. Aided by the T-S fuzzy technique, she recommends different design schemes, among them the L_inf/L_2 type of FD systems. The derived FD and FTC approaches are verified by two benchmark processes. Contents Overview of FD and FTC Technology Configuration of Nonlinear Observer-Based FD Systems Design of L2 nonlinear Observer-Based FD Systems Design of Weighted Fuzzy Observer-Based FD Systems FTC Configurations for Nonlinear Systems< Application to Benchmark Processes Target Groups Researchers and students in the field of engineering with a focus on fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control fields The Author Dr. Linlin Li completed her dissertation under the supervision of Prof. Steven X. Ding at the Faculty of Engineering, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany...

  2. Control and manipulation of cold atoms in optical tweezers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muldoon, Cecilia; Brandt, Lukas; Dong Jian; Stuart, Dustin; Brainis, Edouard; Himsworth, Matthew; Kuhn, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Neutral atoms trapped by laser light are among the most promising candidates for storing and processing information in a quantum computer or simulator. The application certainly calls for a scalable and flexible scheme for addressing and manipulating the atoms. We have now made this a reality by implementing a fast and versatile method to dynamically control the position of neutral atoms trapped in optical tweezers. The tweezers result from a spatial light modulator (SLM) controlling and shaping a large number of optical dipole-force traps. Trapped atoms adapt to any change in the potential landscape, such that one can rearrange and randomly access individual sites within atom-trap arrays. (paper)

  3. Passive Fault Tolerant Control of Piecewise Affine Systems Based on H Infinity Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Mehdi; Cocquempot, vincent; Schiøler, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we design a passive fault tolerant controller against actuator faults for discretetime piecewise affine (PWA) systems. By using dissipativity theory and H analysis, fault tolerant state feedback controller design is expressed as a set of Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs). In the cur...

  4. Congestion control for vehicular delay tolerant network routing protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Oham, Chuka Finbars

    2014-01-01

    The Vehicular Delay Tolerant Network (VDTN) is a special and challenging type of the Delay Tolerant Network because of its high mobility, frequent disconnections and nodal congestion features. These challenging features make it prone to congestion which leads to a considerable amount of message drops in the network. To minimize the impact of congestion in the network, we designed and implemented the Congestion Aware Spray and Wait (CASaW) routing protocol. We varied the buffer sizes of the no...

  5. Fault Tolerant Flight Control Using Sliding Modes and Subspace Identification-Based Predictive Control

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Bilal A.; El-Ferik, Sami; Abdelkader, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a cascade structure of a time-scale separated integral sliding mode and model predictive control is proposed as a viable alternative for fault-tolerant control. A multi-variable sliding mode control law is designed as the inner loop of the flight control system. Subspace identification is carried out on the aircraft in closed loop. The identified plant is then used for model predictive controllers in the outer loop. The overall control law demonstrates improved robustness to measurement noise, modeling uncertainties, multiple faults and severe wind turbulence and gusts. In addition, the flight control system employs filters and dead-zone nonlinear elements to reduce chattering and improve handling quality. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed controller using conventional fighter aircraft without control redundancy.

  6. Fault Tolerant Flight Control Using Sliding Modes and Subspace Identification-Based Predictive Control

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Bilal A.

    2016-07-26

    In this work, a cascade structure of a time-scale separated integral sliding mode and model predictive control is proposed as a viable alternative for fault-tolerant control. A multi-variable sliding mode control law is designed as the inner loop of the flight control system. Subspace identification is carried out on the aircraft in closed loop. The identified plant is then used for model predictive controllers in the outer loop. The overall control law demonstrates improved robustness to measurement noise, modeling uncertainties, multiple faults and severe wind turbulence and gusts. In addition, the flight control system employs filters and dead-zone nonlinear elements to reduce chattering and improve handling quality. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed controller using conventional fighter aircraft without control redundancy.

  7. Evaluation of digital fault-tolerant architectures for nuclear power plant control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Four fault tolerant architectures were evaluated for their potential reliability in service as control systems of nuclear power plants. The reliability analyses showed that human- and software-related common cause failures and single points of failure in the output modules are dominant contributors to system unreliability. The four architectures are triple-modular-redundant (TMR), both synchronous and asynchronous, and also dual synchronous and asynchronous. The evaluation includes a review of design features, an analysis of the importance of coverage, and reliability analyses of fault tolerant systems. An advantage of fault-tolerant controllers over those not fault tolerant, is that fault-tolerant controllers continue to function after the occurrence of most single hardware faults. However, most fault-tolerant controllers have single hardware components that will cause system failure, almost all controllers have single points of failure in software, and all are subject to common cause failures. Reliability analyses based on data from several industries that have fault-tolerant controllers were used to estimate the mean-time-between-failures of fault-tolerant controllers and to predict those failures modes that may be important in nuclear power plants. 7 refs., 4 tabs

  8. Air dehumidification by membrane with cold water for manned spacecraft environmental control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Yonghong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional condensation dehumidification method requires additional gas-liquid separation and water recovery process in the manned spacecraft humidity control system, which would increase weight and complexity of systems. A new membrane dehumidification with cold water is proposed, which uses water vapor partial pressure difference to promote water vapor transmembrane mass transfer for dehumidification. The permeability of the membrane was measured and the experimental results agree well with the theoretical calculations. Based on the simulation of dehumidification process of cold water-membrane, the influence of module structure and working condition on dehumidification performance was analyzed, which provided reference for the design of membrane module construct. It can be seen from the simulation and experiments that the cold water-membrane dehumidification can effectively reduce the thermal load of the manned spacecraft.

  9. Electrically heated catalysts for cold-start emission control on gasoline- and methanol-fueled vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimrich, M.J.; Albu, S.; Ahuja, M.

    1992-01-01

    Cold-start emissions from current technology vehicles equipped with catalytic converters can account for over 80 percent of the emissions produced during the Federal Test Procedure (FTP). Excessive pollutants can be emitted for a period of one to two minutes following cold engine starting, partially because the catalyst has not reached an efficient operating temperature. Electrically heated catalysts, which are heated prior to engine starting, have been identified as a potential strategy for controlling cold-start emissions. This paper summarizes the emission results of three gasoline-fueled and three methanol-fueled vehicles equipped with electrically heated catalyst systems. Results from these vehicles demonstrate that heated catalyst technology can provide FTP emission levels of nonmethane organic gases (NMOG), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) that show promise of meeting the Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) standards established by the California Air Resources Board

  10. Research and Development Trend of Shape Control for Cold Rolling Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Min; Liu, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Shape is an important quality index of cold rolling strip. Up to now, many problems in the shape control domain have not been solved satisfactorily, and a review on the research progress in the shape control domain can help to seek new breakthrough directions. In the past 10 years, researches and applications of shape control models, shape control means, shape detection technology, and shape control system have achieved significant progress. In the aspect of shape control models, the researches in the past improve the accuracy, speed and robustness of the models. The intelligentization of shape control models should be strengthened in the future. In the aspect of the shape control means, the researches in the past focus on the roll optimization, mill type selection, process optimization, local strip shape control, edge drop control, and so on. In the future, more attention should be paid to the coordination control of both strip shape and other quality indexes, and the refinement of control objective should be strengthened. In the aspects of shape detection technology and shape control system, some new types of shape detection meters and shape control systems are developed and have successfully industrial applications. In the future, the standardization of shape detection technology and shape control system should be promoted to solve the problem of compatibility. In general, the four expected development trends of shape control for cold rolling strip in the future are intelligentization, coordination, refinement, and standardization. The proposed research provides new breakthrough directions for improving shape quality.

  11. Acupuncture in subjects with cold hands sensation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jung-Chul; Lee, Hyun-jong; Kwak, Min-Ah; Park, Sung-Hoon; Shin, ImHee; Yun, Woo-Sung; Park, Kihyuk

    2014-09-04

    Cold hands sensation is a common disorder within the Korean population. Many Korean family physicians believe that it is a mild early manifestation of Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), or may be related to RP. RP is characterized by reversible digital vasospasm provoked by cold temperatures and/or emotional stress, and doctors often prescribe medications that are used in treatment of RP for subjects with cold hands. However, this has not shown a clear benefit, and these medications can cause unwanted side effects. It is also reported that traditional Korean medicine, including acupuncture, is widely used to treat cold hands, although the current level of evidence for this approach is also poor and to date, there have been no published randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for cold hands. We have therefore designed a pilot RCT to obtain information for the design of a further full-scale trial. The proposed study is a five-week pilot RCT. A total of 14 subjects will be recruited and randomly allocated to two groups: an acupuncture plus medication group (experimental group) and a medication-only group (control group). All subjects will take nifedipine (5 mg once daily) and beraprost (20 mg three times daily) for three weeks. The experimental group will receive additional treatment with three acupuncture sessions per week for three weeks (nine sessions total). The primary outcome will be measured using a visual analogue scale. Secondary outcomes will be measured by blood perfusion in laser Doppler perfusion imaging of the hands, frequency and duration of episodes of cold hands, and heart rate variability. Assessments will be made at baseline and at one, three, and five weeks thereafter. This study will provide an indication of the feasibility and a clinical foundation for a future large-scale trial. This study was registered at Korean Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS) registry on 5 August 2013 with the

  12. Transgenic Centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides [Munro] Hack. Overexpressing S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase (SAMDC Gene for Improved Cold Tolerance Through Involvement of H2O2 and NO Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhao Luo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides [Munro] Hack. is an important warm-season turfgrass species. Transgenic centipedgrass plants overexpressing S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase from bermudagrass (CdSAMDC1 that was induced in response to cold were generated in this study. Higher levels of CdSAMDC1 transcript and sperimidine (Spd and spermin (Spm concentrations and enhanced freezing and chilling tolerance were observed in transgenic plants as compared with the wild type (WT. Transgenic plants had higher levels of polyamine oxidase (PAO activity and H2O2 than WT, which were blocked by pretreatment with methylglyoxal bis (guanylhydrazone or MGBG, inhibitor of SAMDC, indicating that the increased PAO and H2O2 were a result of expression of CdSAMDC1. In addition, transgenic plants had higher levels of nitrate reductase (NR activity and nitric oxide (NO concentration. The increased NR activity were blocked by pretreatment with MGBG and ascorbic acid (AsA, scavenger of H2O2, while the increased NO level was blocked by MGBG, AsA, and inhibitors of NR, indicating that the enhanced NR-derived NO was dependent upon H2O2, as a result of expression CdSAMDC1. Elevated superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities were observed in transgenic plants than in WT, which were blocked by pretreatment with MGBG, AsA, inhibitors of NR and scavenger of NO, indicating that the increased activities of SOD and CAT depends on expression of CdSAMDC1, H2O2, and NR-derived NO. Our results suggest that the elevated cold tolerance was associated with PAO catalyzed production of H2O2, which in turn led to NR-derived NO production and induced antioxidant enzyme activities in transgenic plants.

  13. Transgenic Centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides [Munro] Hack.) Overexpressing S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase (SAMDC) Gene for Improved Cold Tolerance Through Involvement of H2O2 and NO Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianhao; Liu, Mingxi; Zhang, Chendong; Zhang, Peipei; Chen, Jingjing; Guo, Zhenfei; Lu, Shaoyun

    2017-01-01

    Centipedegrass ( Eremochloa ophiuroides [Munro] Hack.) is an important warm-season turfgrass species. Transgenic centipedgrass plants overexpressing S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase from bermudagrass ( CdSAMDC1 ) that was induced in response to cold were generated in this study. Higher levels of CdSAMDC1 transcript and sperimidine (Spd) and spermin (Spm) concentrations and enhanced freezing and chilling tolerance were observed in transgenic plants as compared with the wild type (WT). Transgenic plants had higher levels of polyamine oxidase (PAO) activity and H 2 O 2 than WT, which were blocked by pretreatment with methylglyoxal bis (guanylhydrazone) or MGBG, inhibitor of SAMDC, indicating that the increased PAO and H 2 O 2 were a result of expression of CdSAMDC1 . In addition, transgenic plants had higher levels of nitrate reductase (NR) activity and nitric oxide (NO) concentration. The increased NR activity were blocked by pretreatment with MGBG and ascorbic acid (AsA), scavenger of H 2 O 2 , while the increased NO level was blocked by MGBG, AsA, and inhibitors of NR, indicating that the enhanced NR-derived NO was dependent upon H 2 O 2 , as a result of expression CdSAMDC1 . Elevated superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were observed in transgenic plants than in WT, which were blocked by pretreatment with MGBG, AsA, inhibitors of NR and scavenger of NO, indicating that the increased activities of SOD and CAT depends on expression of CdSAMDC1 , H 2 O 2 , and NR-derived NO. Our results suggest that the elevated cold tolerance was associated with PAO catalyzed production of H 2 O 2 , which in turn led to NR-derived NO production and induced antioxidant enzyme activities in transgenic plants.

  14. Meat Processing Plant Microbiome and Contamination Patterns of Cold-Tolerant Bacteria Causing Food Safety and Spoilage Risks in the Manufacture of Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultman, Jenni; Rahkila, Riitta; Ali, Javeria; Rousu, Juho; Björkroth, K Johanna

    2015-10-01

    Refrigerated food processing facilities are specific man-made niches likely to harbor cold-tolerant bacteria. To characterize this type of microbiota and study the link between processing plant and product microbiomes, we followed and compared microbiota associated with the raw materials and processing stages of a vacuum-packaged, cooked sausage product affected by a prolonged quality fluctuation with occasional spoilage manifestations during shelf life. A total of 195 samples were subjected to culturing and amplicon sequence analyses. Abundant mesophilic psychrotrophs were detected within the microbiomes throughout the different compartments of the production plant environment. However, each of the main genera of food safety and quality interest, e.g., Leuconostoc, Brochothrix, and Yersinia, had their own characteristic patterns of contamination. Bacteria from the genus Leuconostoc, commonly causing spoilage of cold-stored, modified-atmosphere-packaged foods, were detected in high abundance (up to >98%) in the sausages studied. The same operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were, however, detected in lower abundances in raw meat and emulsion (average relative abundance of 2%±5%), as well as on the processing plant surfaces (food safety concerns related to their resilient existence on surfaces. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Comparative proteomic and metabolomic analyses reveal mechanisms of improved cold stress tolerance in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) by exogenous calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Zhong, Bao; Liu, Xun; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-11-01

    As an important second messenger, calcium is involved in plant cold stress response, including chilling (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.). Physiological analyses showed that CaCl2 treatment alleviated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and cell damage triggered by chilling stress, via activating antioxidant enzymes, non-enzymatic glutathione antioxidant pool, while EGTA treatment had the opposite effects. Additionally, comparative proteomic analysis identified 51 differentially expressed proteins that were enriched in redox, tricarboxylicacid cycle, glycolysis, photosynthesis, oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and amino acid metabolisms. Consistently, 42 metabolites including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols were regulated by CaCl2 treatment under control and cold stress conditions, further confirming the common modulation of CaCl2 treatment in carbon metabolites and amino acid metabolism. Taken together, this study reported first evidence of the essential and protective roles of endogenous and exogenous calcium in bermudagrass response to cold stress, partially via activation of the antioxidants and modulation of several differentially expressed proteins and metabolic homeostasis in the process of cold acclimation. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Fault-tolerant design of local controller for the poloidal field converter control system on ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Jun; Fu, Peng; Gao, Ge; He, Shiying; Huang, Liansheng; Zhu, Lili; Chen, Xiaojiao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The requirements on the Local Control Cubicles (LCC) for ITER Poloidal Field Converter are analyzed. • Decoupled service-based software architecture is proposed to make control loops on LCC running at varying cycle-time. • Fault detection and recovery methods for the LCC are developed to enhance the system. • The performance of the LCC with or without fault-tolerant feature is tested and compared. - Abstract: The control system for the Poloidal Field (PF) on ITER is a synchronously networked control system, which has several kinds of computational controllers. The Local Control Cubicles (LCC) play a critical role in the networked control system for they are the interface to all input and output signals. Thus, some additional work must be done to guarantee the LCCs proper operation under influence of faults. This paper mainly analyzes the system demands of the LCCs and faults which have been encountered recently. In order to handle these faults, decoupled service-based software architecture has been proposed. Based on this architecture, fault detection and system recovery methods, such as redundancy and rejuvenation, have been incorporated to achieve a fault-tolerant private network with the aid of QNX operating system. Unlike the conventional method, this method requires no additional hardware and can be achieved relatively easily. To demonstrate effectiveness the LCCs have been successfully tested during the recent PF Converter Unit performance tests for ITER.

  17. Fault-tolerant design of local controller for the poloidal field converter control system on ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Jun; Fu, Peng; Gao, Ge; He, Shiying; Huang, Liansheng, E-mail: huangls@ipp.ac.cn; Zhu, Lili; Chen, Xiaojiao

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The requirements on the Local Control Cubicles (LCC) for ITER Poloidal Field Converter are analyzed. • Decoupled service-based software architecture is proposed to make control loops on LCC running at varying cycle-time. • Fault detection and recovery methods for the LCC are developed to enhance the system. • The performance of the LCC with or without fault-tolerant feature is tested and compared. - Abstract: The control system for the Poloidal Field (PF) on ITER is a synchronously networked control system, which has several kinds of computational controllers. The Local Control Cubicles (LCC) play a critical role in the networked control system for they are the interface to all input and output signals. Thus, some additional work must be done to guarantee the LCCs proper operation under influence of faults. This paper mainly analyzes the system demands of the LCCs and faults which have been encountered recently. In order to handle these faults, decoupled service-based software architecture has been proposed. Based on this architecture, fault detection and system recovery methods, such as redundancy and rejuvenation, have been incorporated to achieve a fault-tolerant private network with the aid of QNX operating system. Unlike the conventional method, this method requires no additional hardware and can be achieved relatively easily. To demonstrate effectiveness the LCCs have been successfully tested during the recent PF Converter Unit performance tests for ITER.

  18. Passive Fault-tolerant Control of Discrete-time Piecewise Affine Systems against Actuator Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Seyed Mojtaba; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Bak, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for passive fault-tolerant control of discrete time piecewise affine systems. Actuator faults are considered. A reliable piecewise linear quadratic regulator (LQR) state feedback is designed such that it can tolerate actuator faults. A sufficient condition f...... is illustrated on a numerical example and a two degree of freedom helicopter....

  19. Modular Multilevel Converter Control Strategy with Fault Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Eni, Emanuel-Petre; Mathe, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    The Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) technology has recently emerged in VSC-HVDC applications where it demonstrated higher efficiency and fault tolerance compared to the classical 2-level topology. Due to the ability of MMC to connect to HV levels, MMC can be also used in transformerless STATCOM...

  20. Responses of sympathetic nervous system to cold exposure in vibration syndrome subjects and age-matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, M

    1990-01-01

    Plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine in vibration syndrome subjects and age-matched healthy controls were measured for the purpose of estimating the responsibility of the sympathetic nervous system to cold exposure. In preliminary experiment, it was confirmed that cold air exposure of the whole body was more suitable than one-hand immersion in cold water. In the main experiment, 195 subjects were examined. Sixty-five subjects had vibration syndrome with vibration-induced white finger (VWF + group) and 65 subjects had vibration syndrome without VWF (VWF- group) and 65 controls had no symptoms (control group). In the three groups, plasma norepinephrine levels increased during cold air exposure of whole body at 7 degrees +/- 1.5 degrees C. Blood pressure increased and skin temperature decreased during cold exposure. Percent increase of norepinephrine in the VWF+ group was the highest while that in VWF- group followed and that in the control group was the lowest. This whole-body response of the sympathetic nervous system to cold conditions reflected the VWF which are characteristic symptoms of vibration syndrome. Excluding the effects of shivering and a cold feeling under cold conditions, it was confirmed that the sympathetic nervous system in vibration syndrome is activated more than in the controls. These results suggest that vibration exposure to hand and arm affects the sympathetic nervous system.

  1. Development Status of the Rad-Tolerant TTEthernet Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidi, Christian; van Masar, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    The use of switched networking technologies for aerospace and more recently automotive brings additional advantages for space applications like the increase in performance of the overall avionics of a spacecraft. These networks are characterized by a central device (switch) and a point-to-point structure between switch and terminal devices that eases electrical and logical insulation.However, for a use in highly-reliable or highly-available applications as in launchers or satellites systems, these network technologies need to provide built-in determinism and redundancy to fulfill the tight latency and jitter requirements of the avionics control loops and the respective hardware redundancy. Therefore a state of the art networking technology already provides these features and allows the modularity and scalability to be used for the different space applications and would allow combining the deterministic avionics with the high speed payload network in a spacecraft [1].Introducing the time-triggered principle to Ethernet allows combining the open industry standard IEE802.3 Ethernet currently use in almost all GSE platforms, with full control of latency and jitter of the time-triggered approach. To allow the time-triggered data flow over Ethernet, a network- wide synchronization time-base has to be established to allow deriving all network events on a globally known time which is typically done in software in almost all spacecrafts. The additional synchronization service of Time-triggered Ethernet has been implemented as additional quality of service (QoS) on layer 2 of the ISO/OSI network model and been standardized in the SAE AS6802 [3].Within a launcher, the communication system ensured the data exchanges between avionic functions during all phases of the launcher lifecycle which is composed of three areas: AIT operations, ground phase and flight phase. To ensure the use of a single network for the different phases, the network needs to support features like the

  2. Database mirroring in fault-tolerant continuous technological process control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Danel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementations of mirroring technology of the selected database systems – Microsoft SQL Server, MySQL and Caché. By simulating critical failures the systems behavior and their resilience against failure were tested. The aim was to determine whether the database mirroring is suitable to use in continuous metallurgical processes for ensuring the fault-tolerant solution at affordable cost. The present day database systems are characterized by high robustness and are resistant to sudden system failure. Database mirroring technologies are reliable and even low-budget projects can be provided with a decent fault-tolerant solution. The database system technologies available for low-budget projects are not suitable for use in real-time systems.

  3. Design of passive fault-tolerant controllers of a quadrotor based on sliding mode theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merheb Abdel-Razzak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, sliding mode control is used to develop two passive fault tolerant controllers for an AscTec Pelican UAV quadrotor. In the first approach, a regular sliding mode controller (SMC augmented with an integrator uses the robustness property of variable structure control to tolerate partial actuator faults. The second approach is a cascaded sliding mode controller with an inner and outer SMC loops. In this configuration, faults are tolerated in the fast inner loop controlling the velocity system. Tuning the controllers to find the optimal values of the sliding mode controller gains is made using the ecological systems algorithm (ESA, a biologically inspired stochastic search algorithm based on the natural equilibrium of animal species. The controllers are tested using SIMULINK in the presence of two different types of actuator faults, partial loss of motor power affecting all the motors at once, and partial loss of motor speed. Results of the quadrotor following a continuous path demonstrated the effectiveness of the controllers, which are able to tolerate a significant number of actuator faults despite the lack of hardware redundancy in the quadrotor system. Tuning the controller using a faulty system improves further its ability to afford more severe faults. Simulation results show that passive schemes reserve their important role in fault tolerant control and are complementary to active techniques

  4. Tolerance of Volume Control Noninvasive Ventilation in Subjects With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Daniel; Sancho, Jesús; Servera, Emilio; Marín, Julio

    2015-12-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) tolerance has been identified as an independent predictor of survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Volume control continuous mandatory ventilation (VC-CMV) NIV has been associated with poor tolerance. The aim of this study was to determine the tolerance of subjects with ALS to VC-CMV NIV. This was a prospective study involving subjects with ALS who were treated with VC-CMV NIV. Respiratory and functional parameters were recorded when the subjects began ventilatory support. NIV tolerance was evaluated after 3 months. Eighty-seven subjects with ALS were included. After 3 months, 80 subjects (92%) remained tolerant of NIV. Tolerant subjects presented greater survival (median 22.0 months, 95% CI 14.78-29.21) than intolerant subjects (median 6.0 months, 95% CI 0.86-11.13) (P = .03). The variables that best predicted NIV tolerance were mechanically assisted cough peak flow (P = .01) and percentage of time spent with SpO2 NIV (P = .03) CONCLUSIONS: VC-CMV NIV provides high rates of NIV tolerance in subjects with ALS. Mechanically assisted cough peak flow and percentage of time spent with SpO2 NIV are the 2 factors associated with tolerance of VC-CMV NIV in subjects with ALS. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  5. Controlled fragmentation of multimaterial fibres and films via polymer cold-drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabahang, Soroush; Tao, Guangming; Kaufman, Joshua J; Qiao, Yangyang; Wei, Lei; Bouchenot, Thomas; Gordon, Ali P; Fink, Yoel; Bai, Yuanli; Hoy, Robert S; Abouraddy, Ayman F

    2016-06-23

    Polymer cold-drawing is a process in which tensile stress reduces the diameter of a drawn fibre (or thickness of a drawn film) and orients the polymeric chains. Cold-drawing has long been used in industrial applications, including the production of flexible fibres with high tensile strength such as polyester and nylon. However, cold-drawing of a composite structure has been less studied. Here we show that in a multimaterial fibre composed of a brittle core embedded in a ductile polymer cladding, cold-drawing results in a surprising phenomenon: controllable and sequential fragmentation of the core to produce uniformly sized rods along metres of fibre, rather than the expected random or chaotic fragmentation. These embedded structures arise from mechanical-geometric instabilities associated with 'neck' propagation. Embedded, structured multimaterial threads with complex transverse geometry are thus fragmented into a periodic train of rods held stationary in the polymer cladding. These rods can then be easily extracted via selective dissolution of the cladding, or can self-heal by thermal restoration to re-form the brittle thread. Our method is also applicable to composites with flat rather than cylindrical geometries, in which case cold-drawing leads to the break-up of an embedded or coated brittle film into narrow parallel strips that are aligned normally to the drawing axis. A range of materials was explored to establish the universality of this effect, including silicon, germanium, gold, glasses, silk, polystyrene, biodegradable polymers and ice. We observe, and verify through nonlinear finite-element simulations, a linear relationship between the smallest transverse scale and the longitudinal break-up period. These results may lead to the development of dynamical and thermoreversible camouflaging via a nanoscale Venetian-blind effect, and the fabrication of large-area structured surfaces that facilitate high-sensitivity bio-detection.

  6. Towards Robust Predictive Fault–Tolerant Control for a Battery Assembly System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seybold Lothar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the modeling and fault-tolerant control of a real battery assembly system which is under implementation at the RAFI GmbH company (one of the leading electronic manufacturing service providers in Germany. To model and control the battery assembly system, a unified max-plus algebra and model predictive control framework is introduced. Subsequently, the control strategy is enhanced with fault-tolerance features that increase the overall performance of the production system being considered. In particular, it enables tolerating (up to some degree mobile robot, processing and transportation faults. The paper discusses also robustness issues, which are inevitable in real production systems. As a result, a novel robust predictive fault-tolerant strategy is developed that is applied to the battery assembly system. The last part of the paper shows illustrative examples, which clearly exhibit the performance of the proposed approach.

  7. Internal Leakage Fault Detection and Tolerant Control of Single-Rod Hydraulic Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of internal leakage fault detection and tolerant control for single-rod hydraulic actuators is present in this paper. Fault detection is a potential technique to provide efficient condition monitoring and/or preventive maintenance, and fault tolerant control is a critical method to improve the safety and reliability of hydraulic servo systems. Based on quadratic Lyapunov functions, a performance-oriented fault detection method is proposed, which has a simple structure and is prone to implement in practice. The main feature is that, when a prescribed performance index is satisfied (even a slight fault has occurred, there is no fault alarmed; otherwise (i.e., a severe fault has occurred, the fault is detected and then a fault tolerant controller is activated. The proposed tolerant controller, which is based on the parameter adaptive methodology, is also prone to realize, and the learning mechanism is simple since only the internal leakage is considered in parameter adaptation and thus the persistent exciting (PE condition is easily satisfied. After the activation of the fault tolerant controller, the control performance is gradually recovered. Simulation results on a hydraulic servo system with both abrupt and incipient internal leakage fault demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fault detection and tolerant control method.

  8. Industrial Cost-Benefit Assessment for Fault-tolerant Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Blanke, M.

    1998-01-01

    Economic aspects are decisive for industrial acceptance of research concepts including the promising ideas in fault tolerant control. Fault tolerance is the ability of a system to detect, isolate and accommodate a fault, such that simple faults in a sub-system do not develop into failures....... The objective of this paper is to help, in the early product development state, to find the economical most suitable scheme. A salient result is that with increased customer awareness of total cost of ownership, new products can benefit significantly from applying fault tolerant control principles....

  9. Organization of cytoskeleton controls the changes in cytosolic calcium of cold-shocked Nicotiana plumbaginifolia protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazars, C; Thion, L; Thuleau, P; Graziana, A; Knight, M R; Moreau, M; Ranjeva, R

    1997-11-01

    Using Nicotiana plumbaginifolia constitutively expressing the recombinant bioluminescent calcium indicator, aequorin, it has been previously demonstrated that plant cells react to cold-shock by an immediate rise in cytosolic calcium. Such an opportune system has been exploited to address the regulatory pathway involved in the calcium response. For this purpose, we have used protoplasts derived from N. plumbaginifolia leaves that behave as the whole plant but with a better reproducibility. By both immunodetecting cytoskeletal components on membrane ghosts and measuring the relative change in cytosolic calcium, we demonstrate that the organization of the cytoskeleton has profound influences on the calcium response. The disruption of the microtubule meshwork by various active drugs, such as colchicin, oryzalin and vinblastin, leads to an important increase in the cytosolic calcium (up to 400 nM) in cold-shocked protoplasts over control. beta-Lumicolchicin, an inactive analogue of colchicin, is ineffective either on cytoplasmic calcium increase or on microtubule organization. A microfilament disrupting drug, cytochalasin D, exerts a slight stimulatory effect, whereas the simultaneous disruption of microtubule and microfilament meshworks results in a dramatic increase in the calcium response to cold-shock. The results described in the present paper illustrate the role of the intracellular organization and, more specifically, the role of cytoskeleton in controlling the intensity of calcium response to an extracellular stimulus.

  10. Homology modeling and docking studies of a Δ9-fatty acid desaturase from a Cold-tolerant Pseudomonas sp. AMS8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawal Garba

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Membrane-bound fatty acid desaturases perform oxygenated desaturation reactions to insert double bonds within fatty acyl chains in regioselective and stereoselective manners. The Δ9-fatty acid desaturase strictly creates the first double bond between C9 and 10 positions of most saturated substrates. As the three-dimensional structures of the bacterial membrane fatty acid desaturases are not available, relevant information about the enzymes are derived from their amino acid sequences, site-directed mutagenesis and domain swapping in similar membrane-bound desaturases. The cold-tolerant Pseudomonas sp. AMS8 was found to produce high amount of monounsaturated fatty acids at low temperature. Subsequently, an active Δ9-fatty acid desaturase was isolated and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. In this paper we report homology modeling and docking studies of a Δ9-fatty acid desaturase from a Cold-tolerant Pseudomonas sp. AMS8 for the first time to the best of our knowledge. Three dimensional structure of the enzyme was built using MODELLER version 9.18 using a suitable template. The protein model contained the three conserved-histidine residues typical for all membrane-bound desaturase catalytic activity. The structure was subjected to energy minimization and checked for correctness using Ramachandran plots and ERRAT, which showed a good quality model of 91.6 and 65.0%, respectively. The protein model was used to preform MD simulation and docking of palmitic acid using CHARMM36 force field in GROMACS Version 5 and Autodock tool Version 4.2, respectively. The docking simulation with the lowest binding energy, −6.8 kcal/mol had a number of residues in close contact with the docked palmitic acid namely, Ile26, Tyr95, Val179, Gly180, Pro64, Glu203, His34, His206, His71, Arg182, Thr85, Lys98 and His177. Interestingly, among the binding residues are His34, His71 and His206 from the first, second, and third conserved histidine motif, respectively

  11. Evaluation of digital fault-tolerant architectures for nuclear power plant control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on four fault-tolerant architectures that were evaluated for their potential reliability in service as control systems of nuclear power plants. The reliability analyses showed that human- and software-related common cause failures and single points of failure in the output modules are dominant contributors to system unreliability. The four architectures are triple-modular-redundant, both synchronous and asynchronous, and also dual synchronous and asynchronous. The evaluation includes a review of design features, an analysis of the importance of coverage, and reliability analyses of fault-tolerant systems. Reliability analyses based on data from several industries that have fault-tolerant controllers were used to estimate the mean-time-between-failures of fault-tolerant controllers and to predict those failure modes that may be important in nuclear power plants

  12. Usnic acid controls the acidity tolerance of lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauck, Markus; Juergens, Sascha-Rene

    2008-01-01

    The hypotheses were tested that, firstly, lichens producing the dibenzofuran usnic acid colonize substrates characterized by specific pH ranges, secondly, this preferred pH is in a range where soluble usnic acid and its corresponding anion occur in similar concentrations, and thirdly, usnic acid makes lichens vulnerable to acidity. Lichens with usnic acid prefer an ambient pH range between 3.5 and 5.5 with an optimum between 4.0 and 4.5. This optimum is close to the pK a1 value of usnic acid of 4.4. Below this optimum pH, dissolved SO 2 reduces the chlorophyll fluorescence yield more in lichens with than without their natural content of usnic acid. This suggests that usnic acid influences the acidity tolerance of lichens. The putative mechanism of the limited acidity tolerance of usnic acid-containing lichens is the acidification of the cytosol by molecules of protonated usnic acid shuttling protons through the plasma membrane at an apoplastic pH a1 . - Combined field and experimental data suggest that usnic acid makes lichens sensitive to acidity at pH <3.5

  13. Data-driven design of fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Steven X

    2014-01-01

    Data-driven Design of Fault Diagnosis and Fault-tolerant Control Systems presents basic statistical process monitoring, fault diagnosis, and control methods, and introduces advanced data-driven schemes for the design of fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control systems catering to the needs of dynamic industrial processes. With ever increasing demands for reliability, availability and safety in technical processes and assets, process monitoring and fault-tolerance have become important issues surrounding the design of automatic control systems. This text shows the reader how, thanks to the rapid development of information technology, key techniques of data-driven and statistical process monitoring and control can now become widely used in industrial practice to address these issues. To allow for self-contained study and facilitate implementation in real applications, important mathematical and control theoretical knowledge and tools are included in this book. Major schemes are presented in algorithm form and...

  14. Active fault-tolerant control strategy of large civil aircraft under elevator failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xingjian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft longitudinal control is the most important actuation system and its failures would lead to catastrophic accident of aircraft. This paper proposes an active fault-tolerant control (AFTC strategy for civil aircraft with different numbers of faulty elevators. In order to improve the fault-tolerant flight control system performance and effective utilization of the control surface, trimmable horizontal stabilizer (THS is considered to generate the extra pitch moment. A suitable switching mechanism with performance improvement coefficient is proposed to determine when it is worthwhile to utilize THS. Furthermore, AFTC strategy is detailed by using model following technique and the proposed THS switching mechanism. The basic fault-tolerant controller is designed to guarantee longitudinal control system stability and acceptable performance degradation under partial elevators failure. The proposed AFTC is applied to Boeing 747-200 numerical model and simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed AFTC approach.

  15. Robust Backstepping Control for Cold Rolling Main Drive System with Nonlinear Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear model of main drive system in cold rolling process, which considers the influence with parameter uncertainties such as clearance and variable friction coefficient, as well as external disturbance by roll eccentricity and variation of strip material quality, is built. By transformation, the lower triangular structure form of main drive system is obtained. The backstepping algorithm based on signal compensation is proposed to design a linear time-invariant (LTI robust controller, including a nominal controller and a robust compensator. A comparison with PI controller shows that the controller has better disturbance attenuation performance and tracking behaviors. Meanwhile, according to its LTI characteristic, the robust controller can be realized easily; therefore it is also appropriated to high speed dynamic rolling process.

  16. Industrial Cost-Benefit Assessment for Fault-tolerant Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Claus; Blanke, Mogens

    1998-01-01

    Economic aspects are decisive for industrial acceptance of research concepts including the promising ideas in fault tolerant control. Fault tolerance is the ability of a system to detect, isolate and accommodate a fault, such that simple faults in a sub-system do not develop into failures...... at a system level. In a design phase for an industrial system, possibilities span from fail safe design where any single point failure is accommodated by hardware, over fault-tolerant design where selected faults are handled without extra hardware, to fault-ignorant design where no extra precaution is taken...

  17. Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Control for Thruster-Assisted Position Mooring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Trong Dong; Blanke, Mogens; Sørensen, Asgeir

    2007-01-01

    Development of fault-tolerant control systems is crucial to maintain safe operation of o®shore installations. The objective of this paper is to develop a fault- tolerant control for thruster-assisted position mooring (PM) system with faults occurring in the mooring lines. Faults in line......'s pretension or line breaks will degrade the performance of the positioning of the vessel. Faults will be detected and isolated through a fault diagnosis procedure. When faults are detected, they can be accommodated through the control action in which only parameter of the controlled plant has to be updated...... to cope with the faulty condition. Simulations will be carried out to verify the advantages of the fault-tolerant control strategy for the PM system....

  18. Controlling Brochothrix thermosphacta as a spoilage risk using in-package atmospheric cold plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patange, Apurva; Boehm, Daniela; Bueno-Ferrer, Carmen; Cullen, P J; Bourke, Paula

    2017-09-01

    Brochothrix thermosphacta is the predominant spoilage microorganism in meat and its control in processing environments is important to maintain meat product quality. Atmospheric cold plasma is of interest for control of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in foods. This study ascertained the potential of dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (DBD-ACP) for control of B. thermosphacta, taking microbial and food environment factors into consideration, and investigated the shelf-life of lamb chop after in-package plasma treatment in modified atmosphere. Community profiling was used to assess the treatment effects on the lamb microflora. ACP treatment (80 kV) for 30s inactivated B. thermosphacta populations below detection levels in PBS, while 5 min treatment achieved a 2 Log cycle reduction using a complex meat model medium and attached cells. The antimicrobial efficacy of plasma was reduced but still apparent on lamb chop surface-inoculated with high concentrations of B. thermosphacta. Lamb chop treated under modified atmosphere exhibited reduced microbial growth over the product shelf-life and community profiling showed no evident changes to the microbial populations after the treatment. The overall results indicated potential of ACP to enhance microbial control leading to meat storage life extension through adjusting the modality of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Peak load shifting control using different cold thermal energy storage facilities in commercial buildings: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yongjun; Wang, Shengwei; Xiao, Fu; Gao, Diance

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Little study reviews the load shifting control using different facilities. • This study reviews load shifting control using building thermal mass. • This study reviews load shifting control using thermal energy storage systems. • This study reviews load shifting control using phase change material. • Efforts for developing more applicable load shifting control are addressed. - Abstract: For decades, load shifting control, one of most effective peak demand management methods, has attracted increasing attentions from both researchers and engineers. Different load shifting control strategies have been developed when diverse cold thermal energy storage facilities are used in commercial buildings. The facilities include building thermal mass (BTM), thermal energy storage system (TES) and phase change material (PCM). Little study has systematically reviewed these load shifting control strategies and therefore this study presents a comprehensive review of peak load shifting control strategies using these thermal energy storage facilities in commercial buildings. The research and applications of the load shifting control strategies are presented and discussed. The further efforts needed for developing more applicable load shifting control strategies using the facilities are also addressed

  20. A Design Method for Fault Reconfiguration and Fault-Tolerant Control of a Servo Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A design scheme that integrates fault reconfiguration and fault-tolerant position control is proposed for a nonlinear servo system with friction. Analysis of the non-linear friction torque and fault in the system is used to guide design of a sliding mode position controller. A sliding mode observer is designed to achieve fault reconfiguration based on the equivalence principle. Thus, active fault-tolerant position control of the system can be realized. A real-time simulation experiment is performed on a hardware-in-loop simulation platform. The results show that the system reconfigures well for both incipient and abrupt faults. Under the fault-tolerant control mechanism, the output signal for the system position can rapidly track given values without being influenced by faults.

  1. A modal H∞-norm-based performance requirement for damage-tolerant active controller design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genari, Helói F. G.; Mechbal, Nazih; Coffignal, Gérard; Nóbrega, Eurípedes G. O.

    2017-04-01

    Damage-tolerant active control (DTAC) is a recent research area that encompasses control design methodologies resulting from the application of fault-tolerant control methods to vibration control of structures subject to damage. The possibility of damage occurrence is not usually considered in the active vibration control design requirements. Damage changes the structure dynamics, which may produce unexpected modal behavior of the closed-loop system, usually not anticipated by the controller design approaches. A modal H∞ norm and a respective robust controller design framework were recently introduced, and this method is here extended to face a new DTAC strategy implementation. Considering that damage affects each vibration mode differently, this paper adopts the modal H∞ norm to include damage as a design requirement. The basic idea is to create an appropriate energy distribution over the frequency range of interest and respective vibration modes, guaranteeing robustness, damage tolerance, and adequate overall performance, taking into account that it is common to have previous knowledge of the structure regions where damage may occur during its operational life. For this purpose, a structural health monitoring technique is applied to evaluate modal modifications caused by damage. This information is used to create modal weighing matrices, conducting to the modal H∞ controller design. Finite element models are adopted for a case study structure, including different damage severities, in order to validate the proposed control strategy. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology with respect to damage tolerance.

  2. Evaporator unit as a benchmark for plug and play and fault tolerant control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Vinther, Kasper; Mojallali, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a challenging industrial benchmark for implementation of control strategies under realistic working conditions. The developed control strategies should perform in a plug & play manner, i.e. adapt to varying working conditions, optimize their performance, and provide fault...... tolerance. A fault tolerant strategy is needed to deal with a faulty sensor measurement of the evaporation pressure. The design and algorithmic challenges in the control of an evaporator include: unknown model parameters, large parameter variations, varying loads, and external discrete phenomena...... such as compressor switch on/o or abrupt change in compressor speed....

  3. Fault-tolerant reference generation for model predictive control with active diagnosis of elevator jamming faults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferranti, L.; Wan, Y.; Keviczky, T.

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on the longitudinal control of an Airbus passenger aircraft in the presence of elevator jamming faults. In particular, in this paper, we address permanent and temporary actuator jamming faults using a novel reconfigurable fault-tolerant predictive control design. Due to their

  4. Fault tolerant control of wind turbines using unknown input observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a scheme for accommodating faults in the rotor and generator speed sensors in a wind turbine. These measured values are important both for the wind turbine controller as well as the supervisory control of the wind turbine. The scheme is based on unknown input observers, which...

  5. Aircraft Attitude Distributed Fault-tolerant Control Based on Dynamic Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Hong-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For attitude control system, based on decentralized fault-tolerant control framework, actuators damage and stuck fault detection and identification unit are designed for the flight control system. And observer-based auxiliary system unit is also designed. The auxiliary system implies control surface damage faults and disturbances information. Firstly, we give the attitude control system under actuator stuck, lose of effectiveness, and control surface damages faults. Secondly, a multi-observer is designed for actuator fault detection and identification using a decision-making mechanism to determine current actuator failure modes. Then, an adaptive sliding mode observer is designed for implicit control surface damages and interference information. The reconfigurable controller can achieve fault tolerant using the information of adaptive sliding mode observer. Finally, the simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Adaptive Observer-Based Fault-Tolerant Control Design for Uncertain Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the design of the robust fault-tolerant control (FTC system based on adaptive observer for uncertain linear time invariant (LTI systems. In order to improve robustness, rapidity, and accuracy of traditional fault estimation algorithm, an adaptive fault estimation algorithm (AFEA using an augmented observer is presented. By utilizing a new fault estimator model, an improved AFEA based on linear matrix inequality (LMI technique is proposed to increase the performance. Furthermore, an observer-based state feedback fault-tolerant control strategy is designed, which guarantees the stability and performance of the faulty system. Moreover, the adaptive observer and the fault-tolerant controller are designed separately, whose performance can be considered, respectively. Finally, simulation results of an aircraft application are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed design methods.

  7. Utilization of mathematical models to manage risk of holding cold food without temperature control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Donald W

    2013-06-01

    This document describes the development of a tool to manage the risk of the transportation of cold food without temperature control. The tool uses predictions from ComBase predictor and builds on the 2009 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code and supporting scientific data in the Food Code annex. I selected Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes as the organisms for risk management. Salmonella spp. were selected because they are associated with a wide variety of foods and grow rapidly at temperatures >17°C. L. monocytogenes was selected because it is frequently present in the food processing environment, it was used in the original analysis contained in the Food Code Annex, and it grows relatively rapidly at temperatures supplier collected as part of this project. The resulting model-based tool will be a useful aid to risk managers and customers of wholesale cash and carry food service suppliers, as well as to anyone interested in assessing and managing the risks posed by holding cold foods out of temperature control in supermarkets, delis, restaurants, cafeterias, and homes.

  8. Active fault tolerant control of piecewise affine systems with reference tracking and input constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, M.; Cocquempot, V.; Schiøler, H.

    2014-01-01

    An active fault tolerant control (AFTC) method is proposed for discrete-time piecewise affine (PWA) systems. Only actuator faults are considered. The AFTC framework contains a supervisory scheme, which selects a suitable controller in a set of controllers such that the stability and an acceptable...... performance of the faulty system are held. The design of the supervisory scheme is not considered here. The set of controllers is composed of a normal controller for the fault-free case, an active fault detection and isolation controller for isolation and identification of the faults, and a set of passive...... fault tolerant controllers (PFTCs) modules designed to be robust against a set of actuator faults. In this research, the piecewise nonlinear model is approximated by a PWA system. The PFTCs are state feedback laws. Each one is robust against a fixed set of actuator faults and is able to track...

  9. Large-area cold-cathode grid-controlled electron gun for Antares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlett, W.R.; Andrews, K.; Jansen, J.

    1979-01-01

    The CO 2 laser amplifiers used in the Antares inertial confinement fusion project require large-area radial beams of high-energy electrons to ionize the laser medium before the main discharge pulse is applied. We have designed a grid-controlled, cold-cathode electron gun with a cylindrical anode having a window area of 9.3 m 2 . A full diameter, 1/4 length prototype of the Antares gun has been built and tested. The design details of the Antares electron gun will be presented as well as test results from the prototype. Techniques used for the prevention and control of emission and breakdown from the grid will also be discussed

  10. Implication of altered autonomic control for orthostatic tolerance in SCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wecht, Jill Maria; Bauman, William A

    2018-01-01

    Neural output from the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are integrated to appropriately control cardiovascular responses during routine activities of daily living including orthostatic positioning. Sympathetic control of the upper extremity vasculature and the heart arises from the thoracic cord between T1 and T5, whereas splanchnic bed and lower extremity vasculature receive sympathetic neural input from the lower cord between segments T5 and L2. Although the vasculature is not directly innervated by the parasympathetic nervous system, the SA node is innervated by post-ganglionic vagal nerve fibers via cranial nerve X. Segmental differences in sympathetic cardiovascular innervation highlight the effect of lesion level on orthostatic cardiovascular control following spinal cord injury (SCI). Due to impaired sympathetic cardiovascular control, many individuals with SCI, particularly those with lesions above T6, are prone to orthostatic hypotension (OH) and orthostatic intolerance (OI). Symptomatic OH, which may result in OI, is a consequence of episodic reductions in cerebral perfusion pressure and the symptoms may include: dizziness, lightheadedness, nausea, blurred vision, ringing in the ears, headache and syncope. However, many, if not most, individuals with SCI who experience persistent and episodic hypotension and OH do not report symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion and therefore do not raise clinical concern. This review will discuss the mechanism underlying OH and OI following SCI, and will review our knowledge to date regarding the prevalence, consequences and possible treatment options for these conditions in the SCI population. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Fault Tolerant Emergency Control to Preserve Power System Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Andreas Søndergaard; Richter, Jan H.; Tabatabaeipour, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for fault-masking and system reconfiguration in power transmission systems. The paper demonstrates how faults are handled by reconfiguring remaining controls through utilisation of wide-area measurement in real time. It is shown how reconfiguration can be obtained u...

  12. A fault tolerant superheat control strategy for supermarket refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    , based on a maximum slope-seeking control method and only a single temperature sensor, is developed to drive the evaporator outlet temperature to a level that gives a suitable superheat of the refrigerant. The FTC strategy requires no a priori system knowledge or additional hardware and functions...

  13. Fault tolerant computer control for a Maglev transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Nagle, Gail A.; Anagnostopoulos, George

    1994-01-01

    Magnetically levitated (Maglev) vehicles operating on dedicated guideways at speeds of 500 km/hr are an emerging transportation alternative to short-haul air and high-speed rail. They have the potential to offer a service significantly more dependable than air and with less operating cost than both air and high-speed rail. Maglev transportation derives these benefits by using magnetic forces to suspend a vehicle 8 to 200 mm above the guideway. Magnetic forces are also used for propulsion and guidance. The combination of high speed, short headways, stringent ride quality requirements, and a distributed offboard propulsion system necessitates high levels of automation for the Maglev control and operation. Very high levels of safety and availability will be required for the Maglev control system. This paper describes the mission scenario, functional requirements, and dependability and performance requirements of the Maglev command, control, and communications system. A distributed hierarchical architecture consisting of vehicle on-board computers, wayside zone computers, a central computer facility, and communication links between these entities was synthesized to meet the functional and dependability requirements on the maglev. Two variations of the basic architecture are described: the Smart Vehicle Architecture (SVA) and the Zone Control Architecture (ZCA). Preliminary dependability modeling results are also presented.

  14. Development of fault tolerant adaptive control laws for aerospace systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Rocha, Andres E.

    The main topic of this dissertation is the design, development and implementation of intelligent adaptive control techniques designed to maintain healthy performance of aerospace systems subjected to malfunctions, external parameter changes and/or unmodeled dynamics. The dissertation is focused on the development of novel adaptive control configurations that rely on non-linear functions that appear in the immune system of living organisms as main source of adaptation. One of the main goals of this dissertation is to demonstrate that these novel adaptive control architectures are able to improve overall performance and protect the system while reducing control effort and maintaining adequate operation outside bounds of nominal design. This research effort explores several phases, ranging from theoretical stability analysis, simulation and hardware implementation on different types of aerospace systems including spacecraft, aircraft and quadrotor vehicles. The results presented in this dissertation are focused on two main adaptivity approaches, the first one is intended for aerospace systems that do not attain large angles and use exact feedback linearization of Euler angle kinematics. A proof of stability is presented by means of the circle Criterion and Lyapunov's direct method. The second approach is intended for aerospace systems that can attain large attitude angles (e.g. space systems in gravity-less environments), the adaptation is incorporated on a baseline architecture that uses partial feedback linearization of quaternions kinematics. In this case, the closed loop stability was analyzed using Lyapunov's direct method and Barbalat's Lemma. It is expected that some results presented in this dissertation can contribute towards the validation and certification of direct adaptive controllers.

  15. Advanced I&C for Fault-Tolerant Supervisory Control of Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Daniel G. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2018-01-30

    In this research, we have developed a supervisory control approach to enable automated control of SMRs. By design the supervisory control system has an hierarchical, interconnected, adaptive control architecture. A considerable advantage to this architecture is that it allows subsystems to communicate at different/finer granularity, facilitates monitoring of process at the modular and plant levels, and enables supervisory control. We have investigated the deployment of automation, monitoring, and data collection technologies to enable operation of multiple SMRs. Each unit's controller collects and transfers information from local loops and optimize that unit’s parameters. Information is passed from the each SMR unit controller to the supervisory controller, which supervises the actions of SMR units and manage plant processes. The information processed at the supervisory level will provide operators the necessary information needed for reactor, unit, and plant operation. In conjunction with the supervisory effort, we have investigated techniques for fault-tolerant networks, over which information is transmitted between local loops and the supervisory controller to maintain a safe level of operational normalcy in the presence of anomalies. The fault-tolerance of the supervisory control architecture, the network that supports it, and the impact of fault-tolerance on multi-unit SMR plant control has been a second focus of this research. To this end, we have investigated the deployment of advanced automation, monitoring, and data collection and communications technologies to enable operation of multiple SMRs. We have created a fault-tolerant multi-unit SMR supervisory controller that collects and transfers information from local loops, supervise their actions, and adaptively optimize the controller parameters. The goal of this research has been to develop the methodologies and procedures for fault-tolerant supervisory control of small modular reactors. To achieve

  16. A Fault Tolerant Direct Control Allocation Scheme with Integral Sliding Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamayun Mirza Tariq

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, integral sliding mode control ideas are combined with direct control allocation in order to create a fault tolerant control scheme. Traditional integral sliding mode control can directly handle actuator faults; however, it cannot do so with actuator failures. Therefore, a mechanism needs to be adopted to distribute the control effort amongst the remaining functioning actuators in cases of faults or failures, so that an acceptable level of closed-loop performance can be retained. This paper considers the possibility of introducing fault tolerance even if fault or failure information is not provided to the control strategy. To demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed scheme, a high fidelity nonlinear model of a large civil aircraft is considered in the simulations in the presence of wind, gusts and sensor noise.

  17. Fault-tolerant control for current sensors of doubly fed induction generators based on an improved fault detection method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hui; Yang, Chao; Hu, Yaogang

    2014-01-01

    Fault-tolerant control of current sensors is studied in this paper to improve the reliability of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). A fault-tolerant control system of current sensors is presented for the DFIG, which consists of a new current observer and an improved current sensor fault...... detection algorithm, and fault-tolerant control system are investigated by simulation. The results indicate that the outputs of the observer and the sensor are highly coherent. The fault detection algorithm can efficiently detect both soft and hard faults in current sensors, and the fault-tolerant control...

  18. Enhanced Maritime Safety through Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    Faults in steering, navigation instruments or propulsion machinery are serious on a marine vessel since the consequence could be loss of maneuvering ability, and imply risk of damage to vessel personnel or environment. Early diagnosis and accomodation of faults could enhance safety. Fault...... of properties of a falty system; means to determine remedial actions. The paper illustrates the techniques by two marine examples, sensor fusion for automatic steering and control of the main engine....

  19. Coherent control of the formation of cold heteronuclear molecules by photoassociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Emanuel F.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the formation of cold diatomic molecules in the electronic ground state by photoassociation of atoms of dissimilar species. A combination of two transition pathways from the free colliding pair of atoms to a bound vibrational level of the electronic molecular ground state is envisioned. The first pathway consists of a pump-dump scheme with two time-delayed laser pulses in the near-infrared frequency domain. The pump pulse drives the transition to a bound vibrational level of an excited electronic state, while the dump pulse transfers the population to a bound vibrational level of the electronic ground state. The second pathway takes advantage of the existing permanent dipole moment and employs a single pulse in the far-infrared domain to drive the transition from the unbound atoms directly to a bound vibrational level in the electronic ground state. We show that this scheme offers the possibility to coherently control the photoassociation yield by manipulating the relative phase and timing of the pulses. The photoassociation mechanism is illustrated for the formation of cold LiCs molecules.

  20. Nanophotonic Optical Isolator Controlled by the Internal State of Cold Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Sayrin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The realization of nanophotonic optical isolators with high optical isolation even at ultralow light levels and low optical losses is an open problem. Here, we employ the link between the local polarization of strongly confined light and its direction of propagation to realize low-loss nonreciprocal transmission through a silica nanofiber at the single-photon level. The direction of the resulting optical isolator is controlled by the spin state of cold atoms. We perform our experiment in two qualitatively different regimes, i.e., with an ensemble of cold atoms where each atom is weakly coupled to the waveguide and with a single atom strongly coupled to the waveguide mode. In both cases, we observe simultaneously high isolation and high forward transmission. The isolator concept constitutes a nanoscale quantum optical analog of microwave ferrite resonance isolators, can be implemented with all kinds of optical waveguides and emitters, and might enable novel integrated optical devices for fiber-based classical and quantum networks.

  1. Effects of Controlled Cooling-Induced Ferrite-Pearlite Microstructure on the Cold Forgeability of XC45 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chengliang; Chen, Lunqiang; Zhao, Zhen; Gong, Aijun; Shi, Weibing

    2018-05-01

    The combination of hot/warm and cold forging with an intermediate controlled cooling process is a promising approach to saving costs in the manufacture of automobile parts. In this work, the effects of the ferrite-pearlite microstructure, which formed after controlled cooling, on the cold forgeability of a medium-carbon steel were investigated. Different specimens for both normal and notched tensile tests were directly heated to high temperature and then cooled down at different cooling rates, producing different ferrite volume fractions, ranging from 6.69 to 40.53%, in the ferrite-pearlite microstructure. The yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, elongation rate, percentage reduction of area, and fracture strain were measured by tensile testing. The yield strength, indicating deformation resistance, and fracture strain, indicating formability, were used to evaluate the cold forgeability. As the ferrite volume fraction increased, the cold forgeability of the dual-phase ferritic-pearlitic steel improved. A quantitatively relationship between the ferrite volume fraction and the evaluation indexes of cold forgeability for XC45 steel was obtained from the test data. To validate the mathematical relationship, different tensile specimens machined from real hot-forged workpieces were tested. There was good agreement between the predicted and measured values. Our predictions from the relationship for cold forgeability had an absolute error less than 5%, which is acceptable for industrial applications and will help to guide the design of combined forging processes.

  2. Sliding Mode Fault Tolerant Control with Adaptive Diagnosis for Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lingfei; Du, Yanbin; Hu, Jixiang; Jiang, Bin

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a novel sliding mode fault tolerant control method is presented for aircraft engine systems with uncertainties and disturbances on the basis of adaptive diagnostic observer. By taking both sensors faults and actuators faults into account, the general model of aircraft engine control systems which is subjected to uncertainties and disturbances, is considered. Then, the corresponding augmented dynamic model is established in order to facilitate the fault diagnosis and fault tolerant controller design. Next, a suitable detection observer is designed to detect the faults effectively. Through creating an adaptive diagnostic observer and based on sliding mode strategy, the sliding mode fault tolerant controller is constructed. Robust stabilization is discussed and the closed-loop system can be stabilized robustly. It is also proven that the adaptive diagnostic observer output errors and the estimations of faults converge to a set exponentially, and the converge rate greater than some value which can be adjusted by choosing designable parameters properly. The simulation on a twin-shaft aircraft engine verifies the applicability of the proposed fault tolerant control method.

  3. Fault Tolerant and Optimal Control of Wind Turbines with Distributed High-Speed Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Giger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the control scheme of a distributed high-speed generator system with a total amount of 12 generators and nominal generator speed of 7000 min − 1 is studied. Specifically, a fault tolerant control (FTC scheme is proposed to keep the turbine in operation in the presence of up to four simultaneous generator faults. The proposed controller structure consists of two layers: The upper layer is the baseline controller, which is separated into a partial load region with the generator torque as an actuating signal and the full-load operation region with the collective pitch angle as the other actuating signal. In addition, the lower layer is responsible for the fault diagnosis and FTC characteristics of the distributed generator drive train. The fault reconstruction and fault tolerant control strategy are tested in simulations with several actuator faults of different types.

  4. Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold Antihydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-24

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP012494 TITLE: Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold...part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP012489 thru ADP012577 UNCLASSIFIED Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold Antihydrogen G...and positrons. The antiprotons come initially from the new Antiproton Decel- erator facility at CERN. Good control of such cold antimatter plasmas is

  5. Implementation of fault tolerant control for modular multilevel converter using EtherCAT communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burlacu, Paul Dan; Mathe, Laszlo; Rejas, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) is very promising technology this days. It offers fault tolerant capabilities and ensures high efficiency with low output voltage harmonic content which results in need for smaller filter size. A disadvantage of the system is that the control becomes more...

  6. Active and passive fault-tolerant LPV control of wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Esbensen, Thomas; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the design and comparison of active and passive fault-tolerant linear parameter-varying (LPV) controllers for wind turbines. The considered wind turbine plant model is characterized by parameter variations along the nominal operating trajectory and includes a model of an inci...

  7. Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control with Application on a Wind Turbine Low Speed Shaft Encoder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Sardi, Hector Eloy Sanchez; Escobet, Teressa

    2015-01-01

    tolerant control of wind turbines using a benchmark model. In this paper, the fault diagnosis scheme is improved and integrated with a fault accommodation scheme which enables and disables the individual pitch algorithm based on the fault detection. In this way, the blade and tower loads are not increased...

  8. Active Fault-Tolerant Control for Wind Turbine with Simultaneous Actuator and Sensor Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show a novel fault-tolerant tracking control (FTC strategy with robust fault estimation and compensating for simultaneous actuator sensor faults. Based on the framework of fault-tolerant control, developing an FTC design method for wind turbines is a challenge and, thus, they can tolerate simultaneous pitch actuator and pitch sensor faults having bounded first time derivatives. The paper’s key contribution is proposing a descriptor sliding mode method, in which for establishing a novel augmented descriptor system, with which we can estimate the state of system and reconstruct fault by designing descriptor sliding mode observer, the paper introduces an auxiliary descriptor state vector composed by a system state vector, actuator fault vector, and sensor fault vector. By the optimized method of LMI, the conditions for stability that estimated error dynamics are set up to promote the determination of the parameters designed. With this estimation, and designing a fault-tolerant controller, the system’s stability can be maintained. The effectiveness of the design strategy is verified by implementing the controller in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s 5-MW nonlinear, high-fidelity wind turbine model (FAST and simulating it in MATLAB/Simulink.

  9. Quantum control of ultra-cold atoms: uncovering a novel connection between two paradigms of quantum nonlinear dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiao; Mouritzen, Anders Sørrig; Gong, Jiangbin

    2009-01-01

    Controlling the translational motion of cold atoms using optical lattice potentials is of both theoretical and experimental interest. By designing two on-resonance time sequences of kicking optical lattice potentials, a novel connection between two paradigms of nonlinear mapping systems, i.e. the...... sequences of control fields. Extensions of this study are also discussed. The results are intended to open up a new generation of cold-atom experiments of quantum nonlinear dynamics.......Controlling the translational motion of cold atoms using optical lattice potentials is of both theoretical and experimental interest. By designing two on-resonance time sequences of kicking optical lattice potentials, a novel connection between two paradigms of nonlinear mapping systems, i...

  10. Cold tolerance at the germination stage of rice: methods of evaluation and characterization of genotypes Tolerância ao frio no estádio de germinação em arroz: métodos de avaliação e caracterização de genótipos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pereira da Cruz

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice cold tolerance at the germination stage is important in Rio Grande do Sul (RS where temperatures below 15°C prevent or reduce germination and plant establishment in early sowings. The present study aimed at identifying an adequate method for cold tolerance evaluation of the rice germination stage and at verifying the variability among 24 rice genotypes of different origins. Cold tolerance was evaluated in experiment I, germination under two conditions: 13°C for 28 days and 28°C for seven days, and in experiment II, germination under 28°C for 72 hours, 13°C for 96 hours and again 28°C for 72 hours. In experiment I measured characteristics were germination index, percentage of seeds with coleoptile length superior to 5 mm and percentage of reduction in coleoptile length due to cold. In experiment II the measured characteristic was coleoptile regrowth after the cold period. Cold tolerance varied among genotypes studied in both experiments, but only the percentage of reduction in coleoptile length and coleoptile regrowth allowed a better distinction between the tolerant checks and the susceptible one. In general, genotypes belonging to the Japonica subspecies presented higher cold tolerance than Indica, but there was variability within subspecies. The most adequate method of evaluation of cold tolerance is through percentage of reduction in coleoptile length and coleoptile regrowth. Among Japonica genotypes, Quilla 64117 and Diamante presented the highest cold tolerance, and among Indica, cultivars BR-IRGA 410 and IRGA 416 were the most cold tolerant at the germination stage.A tolerância ao frio em arroz no estádio de germinação é importante no Rio Grande do Sul (RS onde temperaturas abaixo de 15°C impedem ou reduzem a germinação e o estabelecimento das plantas em semeaduras precoces. O presente trabalho teve por objetivos identificar uma metodologia adequada para avaliação da tolerância ao frio na germinação em arroz e

  11. A fault-tolerant strategy based on SMC for current-controlled converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Peter M.; Marei, Mostafa I.; Sattar, Ahmed A.

    2018-05-01

    The sliding mode control (SMC) is used to control variable structure systems such as power electronics converters. This paper presents a fault-tolerant strategy based on the SMC for current-controlled AC-DC converters. The proposed SMC is based on three sliding surfaces for the three legs of the AC-DC converter. Two sliding surfaces are assigned to control the phase currents since the input three-phase currents are balanced. Hence, the third sliding surface is considered as an extra degree of freedom which is utilised to control the neutral voltage. This action is utilised to enhance the performance of the converter during open-switch faults. The proposed fault-tolerant strategy is based on allocating the sliding surface of the faulty leg to control the neutral voltage. Consequently, the current waveform is improved. The behaviour of the current-controlled converter during different types of open-switch faults is analysed. Double switch faults include three cases: two upper switch fault; upper and lower switch fault at different legs; and two switches of the same leg. The dynamic performance of the proposed system is evaluated during healthy and open-switch fault operations. Simulation results exhibit the various merits of the proposed SMC-based fault-tolerant strategy.

  12. Distributed Fault-Tolerant Control of Networked Uncertain Euler-Lagrange Systems Under Actuator Faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Song, Yongduan; Lewis, Frank L

    2016-05-03

    This paper investigates the distributed fault-tolerant control problem of networked Euler-Lagrange systems with actuator and communication link faults. An adaptive fault-tolerant cooperative control scheme is proposed to achieve the coordinated tracking control of networked uncertain Lagrange systems on a general directed communication topology, which contains a spanning tree with the root node being the active target system. The proposed algorithm is capable of compensating for the actuator bias fault, the partial loss of effectiveness actuation fault, the communication link fault, the model uncertainty, and the external disturbance simultaneously. The control scheme does not use any fault detection and isolation mechanism to detect, separate, and identify the actuator faults online, which largely reduces the online computation and expedites the responsiveness of the controller. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a test-bed of multiple robot-arm cooperative control system is developed for real-time verification. Experiments on the networked robot-arms are conduced and the results confirm the benefits and the effectiveness of the proposed distributed fault-tolerant control algorithms.

  13. Fault-Tolerant Control Strategy for Steering Failures in Wheeled Planetary Rovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Carvalho Leite

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault-tolerant control design of wheeled planetary rovers is described. This paper covers all steps of the design process, from modeling/simulation to experimentation. A simplified contact model is used with a multibody simulation model and tuned to fit the experimental data. The nominal mode controller is designed to be stable and has its parameters optimized to improve tracking performance and cope with physical boundaries and actuator saturations. This controller was implemented in the real rover and validated experimentally. An impact analysis defines the repertory of faults to be handled. Failures in steering joints are chosen as fault modes; they combined six fault modes and a total of 63 possible configurations of these faults. The fault-tolerant controller is designed as a two-step procedure to provide alternative steering and reuse the nominal controller in a way that resembles a crab-like driving mode. Three fault modes are injected (one, two, and three failed steering joints in the real rover to evaluate the response of the nonreconfigured and reconfigured control systems in face of these faults. The experimental results justify our proposed fault-tolerant controller very satisfactorily. Additional concluding comments and an outlook summarize the lessons learned during the whole design process and foresee the next steps of the research.

  14. Calcium addition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest increases the capacity for stress tolerance and carbon capture in red spruce (Picea rubens) trees during the cold season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long; Joshua M. Halman; Gary J. Hawley; Christopher. Eagar

    2011-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) trees are uniquely vulnerable to foliar freezing injury during the cold season (fall and winter), but are also capable of photosynthetic activity if temperatures moderate. To evaluate the influence of calcium (Ca) addition on the physiology of red spruce during the cold season, we measured concentrations of foliar...

  15. Cooperative Fault Tolerant Tracking Control for Multiagent Systems: An Intermediate Estimator-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun-Wei; Yang, Guang-Hong; Zhang, Wen-An; Yu, Li

    2017-10-17

    This paper studies the observer based fault tolerant tracking control problem for linear multiagent systems with multiple faults and mismatched disturbances. A novel distributed intermediate estimator based fault tolerant tracking protocol is presented. The leader's input is nonzero and unavailable to the followers. By applying a projection technique, the mismatched disturbances are separated into matched and unmatched components. For each node, a tracking error system is established, for which an intermediate estimator driven by the relative output measurements is constructed to estimate the sensor faults and a combined signal of the leader's input, process faults, and matched disturbance component. Based on the estimation, a fault tolerant tracking protocol is designed to eliminate the effects of the combined signal. Besides, the effect of unmatched disturbance component can be attenuated by directly adjusting some specified parameters. Finally, a simulation example of aircraft demonstrates the effectiveness of the designed tracking protocol.This paper studies the observer based fault tolerant tracking control problem for linear multiagent systems with multiple faults and mismatched disturbances. A novel distributed intermediate estimator based fault tolerant tracking protocol is presented. The leader's input is nonzero and unavailable to the followers. By applying a projection technique, the mismatched disturbances are separated into matched and unmatched components. For each node, a tracking error system is established, for which an intermediate estimator driven by the relative output measurements is constructed to estimate the sensor faults and a combined signal of the leader's input, process faults, and matched disturbance component. Based on the estimation, a fault tolerant tracking protocol is designed to eliminate the effects of the combined signal. Besides, the effect of unmatched disturbance component can be attenuated by directly adjusting some

  16. Effects of photoperiod, growth temperature and cold acclimatisation on glucosinolates, sugars and fatty acids in kale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindal, Anne Linn Hykkerud; Rødven, Rolf; Hansen, Espen; Mølmann, Jørgen

    2015-05-01

    Curly kale is a robust, cold tolerant plant with a high content of health-promoting compounds, grown at a range of latitudes. To assess the effects of temperature, photoperiod and cold acclimatisation on levels of glucosinolates, fatty acids and soluble sugars in kale, an experiment was set up under controlled conditions. Treatments consisted of combinations of the temperatures 15/9 or 21/15 °C, and photoperiods of 12 or 24h, followed by a cold acclimatisation period. Levels of glucosinolates and fatty acid types in leaves were affected by growth conditions and cold acclimatisation, being generally highest before acclimatisation. The effects of growth temperature and photoperiod on freezing tolerance were most pronounced in plants grown without cold acclimatisation. The results indicate that cold acclimatisation can increase the content of soluble sugar and can thereby improve the taste, whilst the content of unsaturated fatty and glucosinolates acids may decrease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cold Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  18. Stabilization of Continuous-Time Random Switching Systems via a Fault-Tolerant Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the stabilization problem of continuous-time random switching systems via exploiting a fault-tolerant controller, where the dwell time of each subsystem consists of a fixed part and random part. It is known from the traditional design methods that the computational complexity of LMIs related to the quantity of fault combination is very large; particularly system dimension or amount of subsystems is large. In order to reduce the number of the used fault combinations, new sufficient LMI conditions for designing such a controller are established by a robust approach, which are fault-free and could be solved directly. Moreover, the fault-tolerant stabilization realized by a mode-independent controller is considered and suitably applied to a practical case without mode information. Finally, a numerical example is used to demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed methods.

  19. Adaptive robust fault-tolerant control for linear MIMO systems with unmatched uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kangkang; Jiang, Bin; Yan, Xing-Gang; Mao, Zehui

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, two novel fault-tolerant control design approaches are proposed for linear MIMO systems with actuator additive faults, multiplicative faults and unmatched uncertainties. For time-varying multiplicative and additive faults, new adaptive laws and additive compensation functions are proposed. A set of conditions is developed such that the unmatched uncertainties are compensated by actuators in control. On the other hand, for unmatched uncertainties with their projection in unmatched space being not zero, based on a (vector) relative degree condition, additive functions are designed to compensate for the uncertainties from output channels in the presence of actuator faults. The developed fault-tolerant control schemes are applied to two aircraft systems to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approaches.

  20. Finger cold-induced vasodilation of older Korean female divers, haenyeo: effects of chronic cold exposure and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Park, Joonhee; Koh, Eunsook; Cha, Seongwon

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the local cold tolerance of older Korean female divers, haenyeo ( N = 22) in terms of cold acclimatization and ageing. As control groups, older non-diving females ( N = 25) and young females from a rural area ( N = 15) and an urban area ( N = 51) participated in this study. To evaluate local cold tolerance, finger cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) during finger immersion of 4 °C water was examined. As a result, older haenyeos showed greater minimum finger temperature and recovery finger temperature than older non-diving females ( P < 0.05), but similar responses in onset time, peak time, maximum finger temperature, frequency of CIVD, heart rate, blood pressure, and thermal and pain sensations as those of older non-diving females. Another novel finding was that young urban females showed more vulnerable responses to local cold in CIVD variables and subjective sensations when compared to older females, whereas young rural females had the most excellent cold tolerance in terms of maximum temperature and frequency of CIVD among the four groups ( P < 0.05). The present results imply that older haenyeos still retain cold acclimatized features on the periphery even though they changed their cotton diving suits to wet suits in the early 1980s. However, cardiovascular responses and subjective sensations to cold reflect aging effects. In addition, we suggest that young people who have been adapted to highly insulated clothing and indoor heating systems in winter should be distinguished from young people who were exposed to less modern conveniences when compared to the aged in terms of cold tolerance.

  1. The Effect of Cold Showering on Health and Work: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijze, Geert A.; Sierevelt, Inger N.; van der Heijden, Bas C. J. M.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the cumulative effect of a routine (hot-to-) cold shower on sickness, quality of life and work productivity. Between January and March 2015, 3018 participants between 18 and 65 years without severe comorbidity and no routine experience of cold showering were

  2. Supra-optimal expression of the cold-regulated OsMyb4 transcription factor in transgenic rice changes the complexity of transcriptional network with major effects on stress tolerance and panicle development

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Myoungryoul

    2010-09-28

    The R2R3-type OsMyb4 transcription factor of rice has been shown to play a role in the regulation of osmotic adjustment in heterologous overexpression studies. However, the exact composition and organization of its underlying transcriptional network has not been established to be a robust tool for stress tolerance enhancement by regulon engineering. OsMyb4 network was dissected based on commonalities between the global chilling stress transcriptome and the transcriptome configured by OsMyb4 overexpression. OsMyb4 controls a hierarchical network comprised of several regulatory sub-clusters associated with cellular defense and rescue, metabolism and development. It regulates target genes either directly or indirectly through intermediary MYB, ERF, bZIP, NAC, ARF and CCAAT-HAP transcription factors. Regulatory sub-clusters have different combinations of MYB-like, GCC-box-like, ERD1-box-like, ABRE-like, G-box-like, as1/ocs/TGA-like, AuxRE-like, gibberellic acid response element (GARE)-like and JAre-like cis-elements. Cold-dependent network activity enhanced cellular antioxidant capacity through radical scavenging mechanisms and increased activities of phenylpropanoid and isoprenoid metabolic processes involving various abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene and reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsive genes. OsMyb4 network is independent of drought response element binding protein/C-repeat binding factor (DREB/CBF) and its sub-regulons operate with possible co-regulators including nuclear factor-Y. Because of its upstream position in the network hierarchy, OsMyb4 functions quantitatively and pleiotrophically. Supra-optimal expression causes misexpression of alternative targets with costly trade-offs to panicle development. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Supra-optimal expression of the cold-regulated OsMyb4 transcription factor in transgenic rice changes the complexity of transcriptional network with major effects on stress tolerance and panicle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Ryoul; Yun, Kil-Young; Mohanty, Bijayalaxmi; Herath, Venura; Xu, Fuyu; Wijaya, Edward; Bajic, Vladimir B; Yun, Song-Joong; De Los Reyes, Benildo G

    2010-12-01

    The R2R3-type OsMyb4 transcription factor of rice has been shown to play a role in the regulation of osmotic adjustment in heterologous overexpression studies. However, the exact composition and organization of its underlying transcriptional network has not been established to be a robust tool for stress tolerance enhancement by regulon engineering. OsMyb4 network was dissected based on commonalities between the global chilling stress transcriptome and the transcriptome configured by OsMyb4 overexpression. OsMyb4 controls a hierarchical network comprised of several regulatory sub-clusters associated with cellular defense and rescue, metabolism and development. It regulates target genes either directly or indirectly through intermediary MYB, ERF, bZIP, NAC, ARF and CCAAT-HAP transcription factors. Regulatory sub-clusters have different combinations of MYB-like, GCC-box-like, ERD1-box-like, ABRE-like, G-box-like, as1/ocs/TGA-like, AuxRE-like, gibberellic acid response element (GARE)-like and JAre-like cis-elements. Cold-dependent network activity enhanced cellular antioxidant capacity through radical scavenging mechanisms and increased activities of phenylpropanoid and isoprenoid metabolic processes involving various abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene and reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsive genes. OsMyb4 network is independent of drought response element binding protein/C-repeat binding factor (DREB/CBF) and its sub-regulons operate with possible co-regulators including nuclear factor-Y. Because of its upstream position in the network hierarchy, OsMyb4 functions quantitatively and pleiotrophically. Supra-optimal expression causes misexpression of alternative targets with costly trade-offs to panicle development. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Operation and control strategies in pre-series testing of cold circulating pumps for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Vaghela, H.; Sarkar, B.; Srinivas, M.; Choukekar, K.

    2013-01-01

    Cryo-distribution system of ITER is responsible for the distribution and control of forced-flow supercritical helium for cooling of the superconducting magnets and the cryo-pumps. The requirements of cold circulating pumps (CCP) for mass flow rates and performance are much higher than presently existing and commercially available one used at 4.0 K helium. Design up-scaling with pre-series test of CCP has been proposed including test infrastructure. Operation and control strategies for the test distribution box (TDB) of test infrastructure have been developed and analyzed using steady state and dynamic process simulation to cope with the functional requirements of CCPs. Off-normal scenario with CCP inlet pressure variation is an important concern, dynamic process responses during such scenario have been evaluated to verify the operability of CCP. The paper describes process simulation to cope with the functional requirements of CCPs along with evaluation of off-normal scenario to verify the operability of CCP. (author)

  5. Susceptibility to hypoxia and breathing control changes after short-term cold exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila T. Kovtun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Hypoxia is the reduction of oxygen availability due to external or internal causes. There is large individual variability of response to hypoxia. Objective . The aim of this study was to define individual and typological features in susceptibility to hypoxia, its interrelation with hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses (HVR and HCVR, respectively and their changes after cold acclimation. Design . Twenty-four healthy men were tested. HVR and HCVR were measured by the rebreathing method during hypoxic and hypercapnic tests, respectively. These tests were carried out in thermoneutral conditions before and after cold exposures (nude, at 13°C, 2 h daily, for 10 days. Susceptibility to hypoxia (sSaO2 was determined as haemoglobin saturation slope during hypoxic test. Results . It was found that HVR and HCVR significantly increased and susceptibility to hypoxia (sSaO2 tended to decrease after cold acclimation. According to sSaO2 results before cold exposures, the group was divided into 3: Group 1 – with high susceptibility to hypoxia, Group 2 – medium and Group 3 – low susceptibility. Analysis of variances (MANOVA shows the key role of susceptibility to hypoxia and cold exposures and their interrelation. Posterior analysis (Fisher LSD showed significant difference in susceptibility to hypoxia between the groups prior to cold acclimation, while HVR and HCVR did not differ between the groups. After cold acclimation, susceptibility to hypoxia was not significantly different between the groups, while HCVR significantly increased in Groups 1 and 3, HVR significantly increased in Group 3 and HCVR, HVR did not change in Group 2. Conclusions . Short-term cold exposures caused an increase in functional reserves and improved oxygen supply of tissues in Group 1. Cold exposure hypoxia has caused energy loss in Group 3. Group 2 showed the most appropriate energy conservation reaction mode to cold exposures. No relation was found between

  6. Melatonin alleviates low PS I-limited carbon assimilation under elevated CO2 and enhances the cold tolerance of offspring in chlorophyll b-deficient mutant wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiangnan; Brestic, Marian; Tan, Dun-xian

    2018-01-01

    the activities of ATPase and sucrose synthesis and maintaining a relatively higher level of total chlorophyll concentration in leaves. In addition, melatonin priming in maternal plants at grain filling promoted the seed germination in offspring by accelerating the starch degradation and improved the cold...... tolerance of seedlings through activating the antioxidant enzymes and enhancing the photosynthetic electron transport efficiency. These findings suggest the important roles of melatonin in plant response to future climate change, indicating that the melatonin priming at grain filling in maternal plants...

  7. Dynamic Output Feedback Based Active Decentralized Fault-Tolerant Control for Reconfigurable Manipulator with Concurrent Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanchun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to describe an active decentralized fault-tolerant control (ADFTC strategy based on dynamic output feedback for reconfigurable manipulators with concurrent actuator and sensor failures. Consider each joint module of the reconfigurable manipulator as a subsystem, and treat the fault as the unknown input of the subsystem. Firstly, by virtue of linear matrix inequality (LMI technique, the decentralized proportional-integral observer (DPIO is designed to estimate and compensate the sensor fault online; hereafter, the compensated system model could be derived. Then, the actuator fault is estimated similarly by another DPIO using LMI as well, and the sufficient condition of the existence of H∞ fault-tolerant controller in the dynamic output feedback is presented for the compensated system model. Furthermore, the dynamic output feedback controller is presented based on the estimation of actuator fault to realize active fault-tolerant control. Finally, two 3-DOF reconfigurable manipulators with different configurations are employed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in simulation. The main advantages of the proposed scheme lie in that it can handle the concurrent faults act on the actuator and sensor on the same joint module, as well as there is no requirement of fault detection and isolation process; moreover, it is more feasible to the modularity of the reconfigurable manipulator.

  8. Stochastic Model Predictive Fault Tolerant Control Based on Conditional Value at Risk for Wind Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Tao Shi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy has been drawing considerable attention in recent years. However, due to the random nature of wind and high failure rate of wind energy conversion systems (WECSs, how to implement fault-tolerant WECS control is becoming a significant issue. This paper addresses the fault-tolerant control problem of a WECS with a probable actuator fault. A new stochastic model predictive control (SMPC fault-tolerant controller with the Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR objective function is proposed in this paper. First, the Markov jump linear model is used to describe the WECS dynamics, which are affected by many stochastic factors, like the wind. The Markov jump linear model can precisely model the random WECS properties. Second, the scenario-based SMPC is used as the controller to address the control problem of the WECS. With this controller, all the possible realizations of the disturbance in prediction horizon are enumerated by scenario trees so that an uncertain SMPC problem can be transformed into a deterministic model predictive control (MPC problem. Finally, the CVaR object function is adopted to improve the fault-tolerant control performance of the SMPC controller. CVaR can provide a balance between the performance and random failure risks of the system. The Min-Max performance index is introduced to compare the fault-tolerant control performance with the proposed controller. The comparison results show that the proposed method has better fault-tolerant control performance.

  9. Optimal fault-tolerant control strategy of a solid oxide fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaojuan; Gao, Danhui

    2017-10-01

    For solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) development, load tracking, heat management, air excess ratio constraint, high efficiency, low cost and fault diagnosis are six key issues. However, no literature studies the control techniques combining optimization and fault diagnosis for the SOFC system. An optimal fault-tolerant control strategy is presented in this paper, which involves four parts: a fault diagnosis module, a switching module, two backup optimizers and a controller loop. The fault diagnosis part is presented to identify the SOFC current fault type, and the switching module is used to select the appropriate backup optimizer based on the diagnosis result. NSGA-II and TOPSIS are employed to design the two backup optimizers under normal and air compressor fault states. PID algorithm is proposed to design the control loop, which includes a power tracking controller, an anode inlet temperature controller, a cathode inlet temperature controller and an air excess ratio controller. The simulation results show the proposed optimal fault-tolerant control method can track the power, temperature and air excess ratio at the desired values, simultaneously achieving the maximum efficiency and the minimum unit cost in the case of SOFC normal and even in the air compressor fault.

  10. Heat shock protection against cold stress of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Vicky; Mitchell, Herschel K.; Young, Patricia; Petersen, Nancy S.

    1988-01-01

    Heat shock protein synthesis can be induced during recovery from cold treatment of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Survival of larvae after a cold treatment is dramatically improved by a mild heat shock just before the cold shock. The conditions which induce tolerance to cold are similar to those which confer tolerance to heat.

  11. Postharvest biological control of brown rot in peaches after cold storage preceded by preharvest chemical control 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandra Pivotto Pavanello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pathogenic fungi cause skin darkening and peach quality depreciation in post harvest. Therefore, alternative techniques to chemical treatment are necessary in order to reduce risks to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the application of Trichoderma harzianum in association with different fungicides applied before harvest to 'Eldorado' peaches for brown rot control and other quality parameters during storage. The treatments consisted of five preharvest fungicide applications (control, captan, iprodione, iminoctadine and tebuconazole associated with postharvest application of T. harzianum, after cold storage (with and without application, in three evaluation times (zero, two and four days at 20 °C, resulting in a 5x2x3 factorial design. The application of T. harzianum only brought benefits to the control of brown rot when combined with the fungicide captan, at zero day shelf life. After two days, there was a greater skin darkening in peaches treated with T. harzianum compared with peaches without the treatment, except for peaches treated with the fungicide iprodione and T. harzianum The application of T. harzianum during postharvest showed no benefits for the control of brown rot, however, the association with fungicides reduced the incidence of Rhizopus stolonifer during the shelf life.

  12. Design of passive fault-tolerant flight controller against actuator failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Yu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of designing passive fault-tolerant flight controller is addressed when the normal and faulty cases are prescribed. First of all, the considered fault and fault-free cases are formed by polytopes. As considering that the safety of a post-fault system is directly related to the maximum values of physical variables in the system, peak-to-peak gain is selected to represent the relationships among the amplitudes of actuator outputs, system outputs, and reference commands. Based on the parameter dependent Lyapunov and slack methods, the passive fault-tolerant flight controllers in the absence/presence of system uncertainty for actuator failure cases are designed, respectively. Case studies of an airplane under actuator failures are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  13. Distributed Interplanetary Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN) Monitor and Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shin-Ywan

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of Distributed interplanetary Delay Tolerant Network Monitor and Control System as a DTN system network management implementation in JPL is defined to provide methods and tools that can monitor the DTN operation status, detect and resolve DTN operation failures in some automated style while either space network or some heterogeneous network is infused with DTN capability. In this paper, "DTN Monitor and Control system in Deep Space Network (DSN)" exemplifies a case how DTN Monitor and Control system can be adapted into a space network as it is DTN enabled.

  14. 1985 seminar on power plant digital control and fault-tolerant microcomputers: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divakaruni, S.M.

    1986-09-01

    An EPRI Seminar to address Power Plant Digital Controls and Fault-Tolerant Microcomputers Technology was hosted by Arizona Public Service Company in Phoenix, Arizona on April 9-12, 1986. The attendees represented a broad spectrum of US and foreign utilities, architect and consulting firms, and NSSS and computer system hardware vendors. These proceedings contain the text of the formal presentations as well as the papers and slides used during the short courses offered

  15. Cold Therapy in Migraine Patients: Open-label, Non-controlled, Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Ucler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Some patients with headache report that they have frequently used physical therapies such as application of cold to relieve their headache. There are only a few reported studies related to cold therapies in patients with migraine. In this study, we investigated the effect of cold application on migraine patients. Twenty-eight migraine patients were included. Cold therapy was administered to them by gel cap. Patients used this cap during their two migraine attacks. Before and after the cold therapy, headache severity was recorded by using visual analogue scale (VAS. Patients used this cap for 25 min in each application. They recorded their VAS score just after the therapy and 25 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h later. Two patients could not use this therapy due to side effects (one due to cold intolerance and one due to vertigo in both applications. Therefore, therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in 26 patients. Twenty-five minutes after treatment of the first attack, VAS score was decreased from 7.89 ± 1.93 to 5.54 ± 2.96 (P < 0.01. Twenty-five minutes after treatment of the second attack, VAS score was decreased from 7.7 ± 1.8 to 5.4 ± 3.55 (P < 0.01. Cold application alone may be effective in some patients suffering from migraine attacks. Its combination with conventional drugs should be investigated in future studies.

  16. A randomised controlled trial of coblation, diode laser and cold dissection in paediatric tonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbadawey, M R; Hegazy, H M; Eltahan, A E; Powell, J

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the efficacy of diode laser, coblation and cold dissection tonsillectomy in paediatric patients. A total of 120 patients aged 10-15 years with recurrent tonsillitis were recruited. Participants were prospectively randomised to diode laser, coblation or cold dissection tonsillectomy. Operative time and blood loss were recorded. Pain was recorded on a Wong-Baker FACES(®) pain scale. The operative time (10 ± 0.99 minutes), blood loss (20 ± 0.85 ml) and pain were significantly lower with coblation tonsillectomy than with cold dissection tonsillectomy (20 ± 1.0 minutes and 30 ± 1.0 ml; p = 0.0001) and diode laser tonsillectomy (15 ± 0.83 minutes and 25 ± 0.83 ml; p = 0.0001). Diode laser tonsillectomy had a shorter operative time (p = 0.0001) and less blood loss (p = 0.001) compared with cold dissection tonsillectomy. However, at post-operative day seven, the diode laser tonsillectomy group had significantly higher pain scores compared with the cold dissection (p = 0.042) and coblation (p = 0.04) tonsillectomy groups. Both coblation and diode laser tonsillectomy are associated with significantly reduced blood loss and shorter operative times compared with cold dissection tonsillectomy. However, we advocate coblation tonsillectomy because of the lower post-operative pain scores compared with diode laser and cold dissection tonsillectomy.

  17. Cold temperatures increase cold hardiness in the next generation Ophraella communa beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Shi Zhou

    Full Text Available The leaf beetle, Ophraella communa, has been introduced to control the spread of the common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, in China. We hypothesized that the beetle, to be able to track host-range expansion into colder climates, can phenotypically adapt to cold temperatures across generations. Therefore, we questioned whether parental experience of colder temperatures increases cold tolerance of the progeny. Specifically, we studied the demography, including development, fecundity, and survival, as well as physiological traits, including supercooling point (SCP, water content, and glycerol content of O. communa progeny whose parents were maintained at different temperature regimes. Overall, the entire immature stage decreased survival of about 0.2%-4.2% when parents experienced cold temperatures compared to control individuals obtained from parents raised at room temperature. However, intrinsic capacity for increase (r, net reproductive rate (R 0 and finite rate of increase (λ of progeny O. communa were maximum when parents experienced cold temperatures. Glycerol contents of both female and male in progeny was significantly higher when maternal and paternal adults were cold acclimated as compared to other treatments. This resulted in the supercooling point of the progeny adults being significantly lower compared to beetles emerging from parents that experienced room temperatures. These results suggest that cold hardiness of O. communa can be promoted by cold acclimation in previous generation, and it might counter-balance reduced survival in the next generation, especially when insects are tracking their host-plants into colder climates.

  18. The peer effect on pain tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Solveig; Frigessi, Arnoldo; Engø-Monsen, Kenth; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Stubhaug, Audun; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben; Nielsen, Christopher Sivert

    2018-05-19

    Twin studies have found that approximately half of the variance in pain tolerance can be explained by genetic factors, while shared family environment has a negligible effect. Hence, a large proportion of the variance in pain tolerance is explained by the (non-shared) unique environment. The social environment beyond the family is a potential candidate for explaining some of the variance in pain tolerance. Numerous individual traits have previously shown to be associated with friendship ties. In this study, we investigate whether pain tolerance is associated with friendship ties. We study the friendship effect on pain tolerance by considering data from the Tromsø Study: Fit Futures I, which contains pain tolerance measurements and social network information for adolescents attending first year of upper secondary school in the Tromsø area in Northern Norway. Pain tolerance was measured with the cold-pressor test (primary outcome), contact heat and pressure algometry. We analyse the data by using statistical methods from social network analysis. Specifically, we compute pairwise correlations in pain tolerance among friends. We also fit network autocorrelation models to the data, where the pain tolerance of an individual is explained by (among other factors) the average pain tolerance of the individual's friends. We find a significant and positive relationship between the pain tolerance of an individual and the pain tolerance of their friends. The estimated effect is that for every 1 s increase in friends' average cold-pressor tolerance time, the expected cold-pressor pain tolerance of the individual increases by 0.21 s (p-value: 0.0049, sample size n=997). This estimated effect is controlled for sex. The friendship effect remains significant when controlling for potential confounders such as lifestyle factors and test sequence among the students. Further investigating the role of sex on this friendship effect, we only find a significant peer effect of male friends

  19. The Design and Semi-Physical Simulation Test of Fault-Tolerant Controller for Aero Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Tianhong

    2017-11-01

    A new fault-tolerant control method for aero engine is proposed, which can accurately diagnose the sensor fault by Kalman filter banks and reconstruct the signal by real-time on-board adaptive model combing with a simplified real-time model and an improved Kalman filter. In order to verify the feasibility of the method proposed, a semi-physical simulation experiment has been carried out. Besides the real I/O interfaces, controller hardware and the virtual plant model, semi-physical simulation system also contains real fuel system. Compared with the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation, semi-physical simulation system has a higher degree of confidence. In order to meet the needs of semi-physical simulation, a rapid prototyping controller with fault-tolerant control ability based on NI CompactRIO platform is designed and verified on the semi-physical simulation test platform. The result shows that the controller can realize the aero engine control safely and reliably with little influence on controller performance in the event of fault on sensor.

  20. Data-Reconciliation Based Fault-Tolerant Model Predictive Control for a Biomass Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palash Sarkar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel, effective method to handle critical sensor faults affecting a control system devised to operate a biomass boiler. In particular, the proposed method consists of integrating a data reconciliation algorithm in a model predictive control loop, so as to annihilate the effects of faults occurring in the sensor of the flue gas oxygen concentration, by feeding the controller with the reconciled measurements. Indeed, the oxygen content in flue gas is a key variable in control of biomass boilers due its close connections with both combustion efficiency and polluting emissions. The main benefit of including the data reconciliation algorithm in the loop, as a fault tolerant component, with respect to applying standard fault tolerant methods, is that controller reconfiguration is not required anymore, since the original controller operates on the restored, reliable data. The integrated data reconciliation–model predictive control (MPC strategy has been validated by running simulations on a specific type of biomass boiler—the KPA Unicon BioGrate boiler.

  1. Radio-Frequency-Controlled Cold Collisions and Universal Properties of Unitary Bose Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yijue

    This thesis investigates two topics: ultracold atomic collisions in a radio-frequency field and universal properties of a degenerate unitary Bose gas. One interesting point of the unitary Bose gas is that the system has only one length scale, that is, the average interparticle distance. This single parameter determines all properties of the gas, which is called the universality of the system. We first introduce a renormalized contact interaction to extend the validity of the zero-range interaction to large scattering lengths. Then this renormalized interaction is applied to many-body theories to determined those universal relations of the system. From the few-body perspective, we discuss the scattering between atoms in a single-color radio-frequency field. Our motivation is proposing the radio-frequency field as an effective tool to control interactions between cold atoms. Such a technique may be useful in future experiments such as creating phase transitions in spinor condensates. We also discuss the formation of ultracold molecules using radio-freqency fields from a time-dependent approach.

  2. Lessons learned from a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled study with a iota-carrageenan nasal spray as medical device in children with acute symptoms of common cold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazekas Tamas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common cold is caused by a variety of respiratory viruses. The prevalence in children is high, and it potentially contributes to significant morbidity. Iota-carragenan, a polymer derived from red seaweed, has reduced viral load in nasal secretions and alleviated symptoms in adults with common cold. Methods We have assessed the antiviral and therapeutic activity of a nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan in children with acute symptoms of common cold. A cohort of 153 children between 1–18 years (mean age 5 years, displaying acute symptoms of common cold were randomly assigned to treatment with a nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan (0.12% as verum or 0.9% sodium chloride solution as placebo for seven days. Symptoms of common cold were recorded and the viral load of respiratory viruses in nasal secretions was determined at two consecutive visits. Results The results of the present study showed no significant difference between the iota carrageenan and the placebo group on the mean of TSS between study days 2–7. Secondary endpoints, such as reduced time to clearance of disease (7.6 vs 9.4 days; p = 0.038, reduction of viral load (p = 0.026, and lower incidence of secondary infections with other respiratory viruses (p = 0.046 indicated beneficial effects of iota-carrageenan in this population. The treatment was safe and well tolerated, with less side effects observed in the verum group compared to placebo. Conclusion In this study iota-carrageenan did not alleviate symptoms in children with acute symptoms of common cold, but significantly reduced viral load in nasal secretions that may have important implications for future studies. Trial registration ISRCTN52519535, http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN52519535/

  3. Lessons learned from a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled study with a iota-carrageenan nasal spray as medical device in children with acute symptoms of common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazekas, Tamas; Eickhoff, Philipp; Pruckner, Nathalie; Vollnhofer, Georg; Fischmeister, Gustav; Diakos, Christopher; Rauch, Margit; Verdianz, Maria; Zoubek, Andreas; Gadner, Helmut; Lion, Thomas

    2012-09-05

    Common cold is caused by a variety of respiratory viruses. The prevalence in children is high, and it potentially contributes to significant morbidity. Iota-carragenan, a polymer derived from red seaweed, has reduced viral load in nasal secretions and alleviated symptoms in adults with common cold. We have assessed the antiviral and therapeutic activity of a nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan in children with acute symptoms of common cold. A cohort of 153 children between 1-18 years (mean age 5 years), displaying acute symptoms of common cold were randomly assigned to treatment with a nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan (0.12%) as verum or 0.9% sodium chloride solution as placebo for seven days. Symptoms of common cold were recorded and the viral load of respiratory viruses in nasal secretions was determined at two consecutive visits. The results of the present study showed no significant difference between the iota carrageenan and the placebo group on the mean of TSS between study days 2-7. Secondary endpoints, such as reduced time to clearance of disease (7.6 vs 9.4 days; p = 0.038), reduction of viral load (p = 0.026), and lower incidence of secondary infections with other respiratory viruses (p = 0.046) indicated beneficial effects of iota-carrageenan in this population. The treatment was safe and well tolerated, with less side effects observed in the verum group compared to placebo. In this study iota-carrageenan did not alleviate symptoms in children with acute symptoms of common cold, but significantly reduced viral load in nasal secretions that may have important implications for future studies. ISRCTN52519535, http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN52519535/

  4. Neuroadaptive Fault-Tolerant Control of Nonlinear Systems Under Output Constraints and Actuation Faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Song, Yongduan; Shen, Zhixi

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a neuroadaptive fault-tolerant tracking control method is proposed for a class of time-delay pure-feedback systems in the presence of external disturbances and actuation faults. The proposed controller can achieve prescribed transient and steady-state performance, despite uncertain time delays and output constraints as well as actuation faults. By combining a tangent barrier Lyapunov-Krasovskii function with the dynamic surface control technique, the neural network unit in the developed control scheme is able to take its action from the very beginning and play its learning/approximating role safely during the entire system operational envelope, leading to enhanced control performance without the danger of violating compact set precondition. Furthermore, prescribed transient performance and output constraints are strictly ensured in the presence of nonaffine uncertainties, external disturbances, and undetectable actuation faults. The control strategy is also validated by numerical simulation.

  5. CEGB philosophy and experience with fault-tolerant micro-computer application for power plant controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinch, D.A.L.

    1986-01-01

    From the mid-1960s until the late 1970s, automatic modulating control of the main boiler plant on CEGB fossil-fired power stations was largely implemented with hard wired electronic equipment. Mid-way through this period, the CEGB formulated a set of design requirements for this type of equipment; these laid particular emphasis on the fault tolerance of a control system and specified the nature of the interfaces with a control desk and with plant regulators. However, the automatic control of an Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (AGR) is based upon measured values which are derived by processing a large number of thermocouple signals. This is more readily implemented digitally than with hard-wired equipment. Essential to the operation of an AGR power station is a data processing (DP) computer for monitoring the plant; so the first group of AGR power stations, designed in the 1960s, employed their DP computers for modulating control. Since the late 1970s, automatic modulating control of major plants, for new power stations and for re-fits on established power stations, has been implemented with micro-computers. Wherever practicable, the policy formulated earlier for hard-wired equipment has been retained, particularly in respect of the interfaces. This policy forms the foundation of the fault tolerance of these micro-computer systems

  6. ALLIANCE: An architecture for fault tolerant, cooperative control of heterogeneous mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control in robot missions involving loosely coupled, largely independent tasks. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, the author describes in detail experimental results of an implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative box pushing demonstration. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes in the capabilities of the robot team.

  7. A Piecewise Affine Hybrid Systems Approach to Fault Tolerant Satellite Formation Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Bak, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a procedure for modelling satellite formations   including failure dynamics as a piecewise-affine hybrid system is   shown. The formulation enables recently developed methods and tools   for control and analysis of piecewise-affine systems to be applied   leading to synthesis of fault...... tolerant controllers and analysis of   the system behaviour given possible faults.  The method is   illustrated using a simple example involving two satellites trying   to reach a specific formation despite of actuator faults occurring....

  8. Fault Diagnosis and Tolerant Control Using Observer Banks Applied to Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin F. Pico

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on studying the problem of fault tolerant control (FTC, including a detailed fault detection and diagnosis (FDD module using observer banks which consists of output and unknown input observers applied to a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. The main objective of this paper is to use a FDD module here proposed to estimate the fault in order to apply this result in a FTC system (FTCS, to prevent a lost of of the control system performance. The benefits of the observer bank and fault adaptation here studied are illustrated by numerical simulations which assumes faults in manipulated and measuring elements of the CSTR.

  9. Association Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and the Determinants of Glycemic Control Across the Entire Glucose Tolerance Continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas P. J.; Malin, Steven K.; Karstoft, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) is associated with glycemic control, yet the relationship between VO2max and the underlying determinants of glycemic control is less clear. Our aim was to determine whether VO2max is associated with insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and the disp...... fitness and compromised pancreatic β-cell compensation across the entire glucose tolerance continuum provides additional evidence highlighting the importance of fitness in protection against the onset of a fundamental pathophysiological event that leads to type 2 diabetes....

  10. The antianginal efficacy and tolerability of controlled-release metoprolol once daily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, K; Gundersen, T; Härkönen, R

    1988-01-01

    In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study treatment with a new controlled-release (CR) preparation of metoprolol, given once daily, was compared with treatment with conventional metoprolol tablets, given twice daily, in 115 patients with stable effort angina pectoris. The patients were...... questionnaire. When all patients were analysed together there were no differences in antianginal efficacy between the two treatment regimens. However, when the group taking 200 mg daily was analysed separately better exercise tolerance was found during metoprolol CR therapy, as measured by onset of chest pain...... and ST-segment change, compared with conventional metoprolol therapy. The two formulations were well tolerated. When given once daily in a total daily dose of 100 mg, the CR preparation induced less adverse effects than the conventional tablets, 50 mg twice daily. It was concluded that the new metoprolol...

  11. Economic modeling of fault tolerant flight control systems in commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, G. B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the current development of a comprehensive model which will supply the assessment and analysis capability to investigate the economic viability of Fault Tolerant Flight Control Systems (FTFCS) for commercial aircraft of the 1990's and beyond. An introduction to the unique attributes of fault tolerance and how they will influence aircraft operations and consequent airline costs and benefits is presented. Specific modeling issues and elements necessary for accurate assessment of all costs affected by ownership and operation of FTFCS are delineated. Trade-off factors are presented, aimed at exposing economically optimal realizations of system implementations, resource allocation, and operating policies. A trade-off example is furnished to graphically display some of the analysis capabilities of the comprehensive simulation model now being developed.

  12. Chilling- and Freezing-Induced Alterations in Cytosine Methylation and Its Association with the Cold Tolerance of an Alpine Subnival Plant, Chorispora bungeana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Song

    Full Text Available Chilling (0-18°C and freezing (<0°C are two distinct types of cold stresses. Epigenetic regulation can play an important role in plant adaptation to abiotic stresses. However, it is not yet clear whether and how epigenetic modification (i.e., DNA methylation mediates the adaptation to cold stresses in nature (e.g., in alpine regions. Especially, whether the adaptation to chilling and freezing is involved in differential epigenetic regulations in plants is largely unknown. Chorispora bungeana is an alpine subnival plant that is distributed in the freeze-thaw tundra in Asia, where chilling and freezing frequently fluctuate daily (24 h. To disentangle how C. bungeana copes with these intricate cold stresses through epigenetic modifications, plants of C. bungeana were treated at 4°C (chilling and -4°C (freezing over five periods of time (0-24 h. Methylation-sensitive amplified fragment-length polymorphism markers were used to investigate the variation in DNA methylation of C. bungeana in response to chilling and freezing. It was found that the alterations in DNA methylation of C. bungeana largely occurred over the period of chilling and freezing. Moreover, chilling and freezing appeared to gradually induce distinct DNA methylation variations, as the treatment went on (e.g., after 12 h. Forty-three cold-induced polymorphic fragments were randomly selected and further analyzed, and three of the cloned fragments were homologous to genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase, UDP-glucosyltransferase and polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein. These candidate genes verified the existence of different expressive patterns between chilling and freezing. Our results showed that C. bungeana responded to cold stresses rapidly through the alterations of DNA methylation, and that chilling and freezing induced different DNA methylation changes. Therefore, we conclude that epigenetic modifications can potentially serve as a rapid and flexible mechanism for C. bungeana

  13. Fault-Tolerant Region-Based Control of an Underwater Vehicle with Kinematically Redundant Thrusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zool H. Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new control approach for an underwater vehicle with a kinematically redundant thruster system. This control scheme is derived based on a fault-tolerant decomposition for thruster force allocation and a region control scheme for the tracking objective. Given a redundant thruster system, that is, six or more pairs of thrusters are used, the proposed redundancy resolution and region control scheme determine the number of thruster faults, as well as providing the reference thruster forces in order to keep the underwater vehicle within the desired region. The stability of the presented control law is proven in the sense of a Lyapunov function. Numerical simulations are performed with an omnidirectional underwater vehicle and the results of the proposed scheme illustrate the effectiveness in terms of optimizing the thruster forces.

  14. A hybrid robust fault tolerant control based on adaptive joint unscented Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbouei Hagh, Yashar; Mohammadi Asl, Reza; Cocquempot, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new hybrid robust fault tolerant control scheme is proposed. A robust H ∞ control law is used in non-faulty situation, while a Non-Singular Terminal Sliding Mode (NTSM) controller is activated as soon as an actuator fault is detected. Since a linear robust controller is designed, the system is first linearized through the feedback linearization method. To switch from one controller to the other, a fuzzy based switching system is used. An Adaptive Joint Unscented Kalman Filter (AJUKF) is used for fault detection and diagnosis. The proposed method is based on the simultaneous estimation of the system states and parameters. In order to show the efficiency of the proposed scheme, a simulated 3-DOF robotic manipulator is used. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nuclear materials control technology in the post-cold war world: Radiation-based methods and information management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tape, J.W.; Eccleston, G.W.; Ensslin, N.; Markin, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    The end of the cold war is providing both opportunities and requirements for improving the control of nuclear materials around the world. The dismantlement of nuclear weapons and the growth of nuclear power, including the use of plutonium in light water reactors and breeder reactor programs, coupled with enhanced proliferation concerns, drive the need for improved nuclear materials control. We describe nuclear materials control and the role of technology in making controls more effective and efficient. The current use and anticipated development in selected radiation-based methods and related information management systems am described briefly

  16. Sliding observer-based demagnetisation fault-tolerant control in permanent magnet synchronous motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changfan Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a fault-tolerant control method for permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs based on the active flux linkage concept, which addresses permanent magnet (PM demagnetisation faults in PMSMs. First, a mathematical model for a PMSM is established based on active flux linkage, and then the effect of PM demagnetisation on the PMSM is analysed. Second, the stator current in the static coordinate is set as the state variable, an observer is designed based on a sliding-mode variable structure, and an equation for active flux linkage is established for dynamic estimation based on the equivalent control principle of sliding-mode variable structure. Finally, the active flux linkage for the next moment is predicted according to the operating conditions of the motor and the observed values of the current active flux linkage. The deadbeat control strategy is applied to eliminate errors in the active flux linkage and realise the objective of fault-tolerant control. A timely and effective control for demagnetisation faults is achieved using the proposed method, which validity and feasibility are verified by the simulation and experiment results.

  17. Adaptive extended-state observer-based fault tolerant attitude control for spacecraft with reaction wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Dechao; Chen, Xiaoqian; de Ruiter, Anton; Xiao, Bing

    2018-04-01

    This study presents an adaptive second-order sliding control scheme to solve the attitude fault tolerant control problem of spacecraft subject to system uncertainties, external disturbances and reaction wheel faults. A novel fast terminal sliding mode is preliminarily designed to guarantee that finite-time convergence of the attitude errors can be achieved globally. Based on this novel sliding mode, an adaptive second-order observer is then designed to reconstruct the system uncertainties and the actuator faults. One feature of the proposed observer is that the design of the observer does not necessitate any priori information of the upper bounds of the system uncertainties and the actuator faults. In view of the reconstructed information supplied by the designed observer, a second-order sliding mode controller is developed to accomplish attitude maneuvers with great robustness and precise tracking accuracy. Theoretical stability analysis proves that the designed fault tolerant control scheme can achieve finite-time stability of the closed-loop system, even in the presence of reaction wheel faults and system uncertainties. Numerical simulations are also presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed control scheme over existing methodologies.

  18. Design of neuro fuzzy fault tolerant control using an adaptive observer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anita, R.; Umamaheswari, B.; Viswanathan, B.

    2001-01-01

    New methodologies and concepts are developed in the control theory to meet the ever-increasing demands in industrial applications. Fault detection and diagnosis of technical processes have become important in the course of progressive automation in the operation of groups of electric drives. When a group of electric drives is under operation, fault tolerant control becomes complicated. For multiple motors in operation, fault detection and diagnosis might prove to be difficult. Estimation of all states and parameters of all drives is necessary to analyze the actuator and sensor faults. To maintain system reliability, detection and isolation of failures should be performed quickly and accurately, and hardware should be properly integrated. Luenberger full order observer can be used for estimation of the entire states in the system for the detection of actuator and sensor failures. Due to the insensitivity of the Luenberger observer to the system parameter variations, state estimation becomes inaccurate under the varying parameter conditions of the drives. Consequently, the estimation performance deteriorates, resulting in ordinary state observers unsuitable for fault detection technique. Therefore an adaptive observe, which can estimate the system states and parameter and detect the faults simultaneously, is designed in our paper. For a Group of D C drives, there may be parameter variations for some of the drives, and for other drives, there may not be parameter variations depending on load torque, friction, etc. So, estimation of all states and parameters of all drives is carried out using an adaptive observer. If there is any deviation with the estimated values, it is understood that fault has occurred and the nature of the fault, whether sensor fault or actuator fault, is determined by neural fuzzy network, and fault tolerant control is reconfigured. Experimental results with neuro fuzzy system using adaptive observer-based fault tolerant control are good, so as

  19. Cassava C-repeat binding factor 1 gene responds to low temperature and enhances cold tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis and cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Dong; Ma, Qiuxiang; Wang, Hongxia; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Wenzhi; Zhang, Peng

    2017-05-01

    Cassava MeCBF1 is a typical CBF transcription factor mediating cold responses but its low expression in apical buds along with a retarded response cause inefficient upregulation of downstream cold-related genes, rendering cassava chilling-sensitive. Low temperature is a major abiotic stress factor affecting survival, productivity and geographic distribution of important crops worldwide. The C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding transcription factors (CBF/DREB) are important regulators of abiotic stress response in plants. In this study, MeCBF1, a CBF-like gene, was identified in the tropical root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). The MeCBF1 encodes a protein that shares strong homology with DREB1As/CBFs from Arabidopsis as well as other species. The MeCBF1 was localized to the nucleus and is mainly expressed in stem and mature leaves, but not in apical buds or stem cambium. MeCBF1 expression was not only highly responsive to cold, but also significantly induced by salt, PEG and ABA treatment. Several stress-associated cis-elements were found in its promoter region, e.g., ABRE-related, MYC recognition sites, and MYB responsive element. Compared with AtCBF1, the MeCBF1 expression induced by cold in cassava was retarded and upregulated only after 4 h, which was also confirmed by its promoter activity. Overexpression of MeCBF1 in transgenic Arabidopsis and cassava plants conferred enhanced crytolerance. The CBF regulon was smaller and not entirely co-regulated with MeCBF1 expression in overexpressed cassava. The retarded MeCBF1 expression in response to cold and attenuated CBF-regulon might lead cassava to chilling sensitivity.

  20. A Fault-tolerable Control Scheme for an Open-frame Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Open-frame is one of the major types of structures of Remote Operated Vehicles (ROV because it is easy to place sensors and operations equipment onboard. Firstly, this paper designed a petri-based recurrent neural network (PRFNN to improve the robustness with response to nonlinear characteristics and strong disturbance of an open-frame underwater vehicle. A threshold has been set in the third layer to reduce the amount of calculations and regulate the training process. The whole network convergence is guaranteed with the selection of learning rate parameters. Secondly, a fault tolerance control (FTC scheme is established with the optimal allocation of thrust. Infinity-norm optimization has been combined with 2-norm optimization to construct a bi-criteria primal-dual neural network FTC scheme. In the experiments and simulation, PRFNN outperformed fuzzy neural networks in motion control, while bi-criteria optimization outperformed 2-norm optimization in FTC, which demonstrates that the FTC controller can improve computational efficiency, reduce control errors, and implement fault tolerable thrust allocation.

  1. Engineering tolerance using biomaterials to target and control antigen presenting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostanoski, Lisa H; Gosselin, Emily A; Jewell, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    Autoimmune diseases occur when cells of the adaptive immune system incorrectly recognize and attack "self" tissues. Importantly, the proliferation and differentiation of these cells is triggered and controlled by interactions with antigen presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells. Thus, modulating the signals transduced by APCs (e.g., cytokines, costimulatory surface proteins) has emerged as a promising strategy to promote tolerance for diseases such as multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, and lupus. However, many approaches have been hindered by non-specific activity of immunosuppressive or immunoregulatory cues, following systemic administration of soluble factors via traditional injections routes (e.g., subcutaneous, intravenous). Biomaterials offer a unique opportunity to control the delivery of tolerogenic signals in vivo via properties such as controlled particle size, tunable release kinetics, and co-delivery of multiple classes of cargo. In this review, we highlight recent reports that exploit these properties of biomaterials to target APCs and promote tolerance via three strategies, i) passive or active targeting of particulate carriers to APCs, ii) biomaterial-mediated control over antigen localization and processing, and iii) targeted delivery of encapsulated or adsorbed immunomodulatory signals. These reports represent exciting advances toward the goal of more effective therapies for autoimmune diseases, without the broad suppressive effects associated with current clinically-approved therapies.

  2. Implementation of fault-tolerant quantum logic gates via optimal control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigmatullin, R; Schirmer, S G

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of fault-tolerant quantum gates on encoded logic qubits is considered. It is shown that transversal implementation of logic gates based on simple geometric control ideas is problematic for realistic physical systems suffering from imperfections such as qubit inhomogeneity or uncontrollable interactions between qubits. However, this problem can be overcome by formulating the task as an optimal control problem and designing efficient algorithms to solve it. In particular, we can find solutions that implement all of the elementary logic gates in a fixed amount of time with limited control resources for the five-qubit stabilizer code. Most importantly, logic gates that are extremely difficult to implement using conventional techniques even for ideal systems, such as the T-gate for the five-qubit stabilizer code, do not appear to pose a problem for optimal control.

  3. Fault-tolerant Control of Discrete-time LPV systems using Virtual Actuators and Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Mojtaba; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bak, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new fault-tolerant control (FTC) method for discrete-time linear parameter varying (LPV) systems using a reconfiguration block. The basic idea of the method is to achieve the FTC goal without re-designing the nominal controller by inserting a reconfiguration block between......, it transforms the output of the controller for the faulty system such that the stability and performance goals are preserved. Input-to-state stabilizing LPV gains of the virtual actuator and sensor are obtained by solving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). We show that separate design of these gains guarantees....... Finally, the effectiveness of the method is demonstrated via a numerical example and stator current control of an induction motor....

  4. Robust Fault Tolerant Control for a Class of Time-Delay Systems with Multiple Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyin Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust fault tolerant control (FTC approach is addressed for a class of nonlinear systems with time delay, actuator faults, and multiple disturbances. The first part of the multiple disturbances is supposed to be an uncertain modeled disturbance and the second one represents a norm-bounded variable. First, a composite observer is designed to estimate the uncertain modeled disturbance and actuator fault simultaneously. Then, an FTC strategy consisting of disturbance observer based control (DOBC, fault accommodation, and a mixed H2/H∞ controller is constructed to reconfigure the considered systems with disturbance rejection and attenuation performance. Finally, simulations for a flight control system are given to show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  5. Perspective Research Progress in Cold Responses of Capsella bursa-pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Noman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants respond to cold stress by modulating biochemical pathways and array of molecular events. Plant morphology is also affected by the onset of cold conditions culminating at repression in growth as well as yield reduction. As a preventive measure, cascades of complex signal transduction pathways are employed that permit plants to endure freezing or chilling periods. The signaling pathways and related events are regulated by the plant hormonal activity. Recent investigations have provided a prospective understanding about plant response to cold stress by means of developmental pathways e.g., moderate growth involved in cold tolerance. Cold acclimation assays and bioinformatics analyses have revealed the role of potential transcription factors and expression of genes like CBF, COR in response to low temperature stress. Capsella bursa-pastoris is a considerable model plant system for evolutionary and developmental studies. On different occasions it has been proved that C. bursa-pastoris is more capable of tolerating cold than A. thaliana. But, the mechanism for enhanced low or freezing temperature tolerance is still not clear and demands intensive research. Additionally, identification and validation of cold responsive genes in this candidate plant species is imperative for plant stress physiology and molecular breeding studies to improve cold tolerance in crops. We have analyzed the role of different genes and hormones in regulating plant cold resistance with special reference to C. bursa-pastoris. Review of collected data displays potential ability of Capsella as model plant for improvement in cold stress regulation. Information is summarized on cold stress signaling by hormonal control which highlights the substantial achievements and designate gaps that still happen in our understanding.

  6. Position, Attitude, and Fault-Tolerant Control of Tilting-Rotor Quadcopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rumit

    The aim of this thesis is to present algorithms for autonomous control of tilt-rotor quadcopter UAV. In particular, this research work describes position, attitude and fault tolerant control in tilt-rotor quadcopter. Quadcopters are one of the most popular and reliable unmanned aerial systems because of the design simplicity, hovering capabilities and minimal operational cost. Numerous applications for quadcopters have been explored all over the world but very little work has been done to explore design enhancements and address the fault-tolerant capabilities of the quadcopters. The tilting rotor quadcopter is a structural advancement of traditional quadcopter and it provides additional actuated controls as the propeller motors are actuated for tilt which can be utilized to improve efficiency of the aerial vehicle during flight. The tilting rotor quadcopter design is accomplished by using an additional servo motor for each rotor that enables the rotor to tilt about the axis of the quadcopter arm. Tilting rotor quadcopter is a more agile version of conventional quadcopter and it is a fully actuated system. The tilt-rotor quadcopter is capable of following complex trajectories with ease. The control strategy in this work is to use the propeller tilts for position and orientation control during autonomous flight of the quadcopter. In conventional quadcopters, two propellers rotate in clockwise direction and other two propellers rotate in counter clockwise direction to cancel out the effective yawing moment of the system. The variation in rotational speeds of these four propellers is utilized for maneuvering. On the other hand, this work incorporates use of varying propeller rotational speeds along with tilting of the propellers for maneuvering during flight. The rotational motion of propellers work in sync with propeller tilts to control the position and orientation of the UAV during the flight. A PD flight controller is developed to achieve various modes of the

  7. Development of an interface for an ultrareliable fault-tolerant control system and an electronic servo-control unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Charles; Williamson, Michael

    1986-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center sponsors a research program for the investigation of Intelligent Flight Control Actuation systems. The use of artificial intelligence techniques in conjunction with algorithmic techniques for autonomous, decentralized fault management of flight-control actuation systems is explored under this program. The design, development, and operation of the interface for laboratory investigation of this program is documented. The interface, architecturally based on the Intel 8751 microcontroller, is an interrupt-driven system designed to receive a digital message from an ultrareliable fault-tolerant control system (UFTCS). The interface links the UFTCS to an electronic servo-control unit, which controls a set of hydraulic actuators. It was necessary to build a UFTCS emulator (also based on the Intel 8751) to provide signal sources for testing the equipment.

  8. Fault-tolerant design of adaptive digital control systems for power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlos, A.G.; Menon, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    An adaptive controller has been designed for the water level of a Westinghouse type U-tube steam generator, and its operation has been demonstrated in the entire power range via computer simulations. The proposed design exhibits improved performance, at low operating powers, a,s compared to existing controller types. The continuous-time controller design is performed systematically via the Linear Quadratic Gaussian/Loop Transfer Recovery method, followed by gain adaptation allowing controller operation in the entire power range. Digital implementation of the controller is accomplished by a digital redesign which results in matching the digital and continuous-time system and controller states. It is only at this stage of the control system design process that issues such as microprocessor induced quantization effects are taken into account. The use of computer-aided-design software greatly expedites the design cycle, allowing the designer to maximize the controller stability robustness to uncertainties via numerous iterations. This inherent controller robustness can be exploited to tolerate incipient plant faults, such as deteriorating U-tube heat transfer properties, without significant loss of controller performance

  9. Zinc Sulfate: An Effective Micronutrient for Common Colds in Children: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Gholamzadeh Baeis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Cold is defined as a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. The disease is more common in children than in adults and usually requires greater attention and care. Methods This double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial (zinc versus placebo of zinc was carried out using a repeated measures design. After excluding the cases that met the exclusion criteria, data was collected from 120 participants and analyzed. The study was conducted over a period of 3 months (June 2015 to August 2015. The intervention group received Zinc (1 mg/kg for 7 days and the control group received the same amount of placebo. Results The durations of runny nose and nasal congestion was significantly shorter in patients in the intervention group, who had received zinc, when compared with the control group (P = 0.017 and P = 0.001, respectively. Moreover, there were significant differences between patients, who received zinc and those, who did not receive the drug, in terms of the duration, severity of signs and symptoms, severity of illness, and weakness (P = 0.018. Conclusions Based on the results of this study and other similar studies, zinc sulfate has positive effects on children with colds. Thus, the results of these studies could be utilized by medical teams to adopt a more accurate and complete clinical approach towards the use of zinc sulfate for patients with colds.

  10. Intelligent on-line fault tolerant control for unanticipated catastrophic failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Gary G; Ho, Liang-Wei

    2004-10-01

    As dynamic systems become increasingly complex, experience rapidly changing environments, and encounter a greater variety of unexpected component failures, solving the control problems of such systems is a grand challenge for control engineers. Traditional control design techniques are not adequate to cope with these systems, which may suffer from unanticipated dynamic failures. In this research work, we investigate the on-line fault tolerant control problem and propose an intelligent on-line control strategy to handle the desired trajectories tracking problem for systems suffering from various unanticipated catastrophic faults. Through theoretical analysis, the sufficient condition of system stability has been derived and two different on-line control laws have been developed. The approach of the proposed intelligent control strategy is to continuously monitor the system performance and identify what the system's current state is by using a fault detection method based upon our best knowledge of the nominal system and nominal controller. Once a fault is detected, the proposed intelligent controller will adjust its control signal to compensate for the unknown system failure dynamics by using an artificial neural network as an on-line estimator to approximate the unexpected and unknown failure dynamics. The first control law is derived directly from the Lyapunov stability theory, while the second control law is derived based upon the discrete-time sliding mode control technique. Both control laws have been implemented in a variety of failure scenarios to validate the proposed intelligent control scheme. The simulation results, including a three-tank benchmark problem, comply with theoretical analysis and demonstrate a significant improvement in trajectory following performance based upon the proposed intelligent control strategy.

  11. Fault Detection and Isolation and Fault Tolerant Control of Wind Turbines Using Set-Valued Observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casau, Pedro; Rosa, Paulo Andre Nobre; Tabatabaeipour, Seyed Mojtaba

    2012-01-01

    Research on wind turbine Operations & Maintenance (O&M) procedures is critical to the expansion of Wind Energy Conversion systems (WEC). In order to reduce O&M costs and increase the lifespan of the turbine, we study the application of Set-Valued Observers (SVO) to the problem of Fault Detection...... and Isolation (FDI) and Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) of wind turbines, by taking advantage of the recent advances in SVO theory for model invalidation. A simple wind turbine model is presented along with possible faulty scenarios. The FDI algorithm is built on top of the described model, taking into account...

  12. Fault-tolerant controlled quantum secure direct communication over a collective quantum noise channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chun-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelih; Tsai, Chia-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This work proposes controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC) over an ideal channel. Based on the proposed CQSDC, two fault-tolerant CQSDC protocols that are robust under two kinds of collective noises, collective-dephasing noise and collective-rotation noise, respectively, are constructed. Due to the use of quantum entanglement of the Bell state (or logical Bell state) as well as dense coding, the proposed protocols provide easier implementation as well as better qubit efficiency than other CQSDC protocols. Furthermore, the proposed protocols are also free from correlation-elicitation attack and other well-known attacks. (paper)

  13. Context-dependent effects of cold stress on behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits of the red flour beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Inon; Wertheimer, Keren-Or; Xin, Joy Lim; Gilad, Tomer; Goldenberg, Inna; Subach, Aziz

    2017-06-20

    Animals are exposed in nature to a variety of stressors. While stress is generally harmful, mild stress can also be beneficial and contribute to reproduction and survival. We studied the effect of five cold shock events versus a single cold shock and a control group, representing three levels of stress (harsh, mild, and no stress), on behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits of the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum, Herbst 1797). Beetles exposed to harsh cold stress were less active than a control group: they moved less and failed more frequently to detect a food patch. Their probability to mate was also lower. Beetle pairs exposed to harsh cold stress frequently failed to reproduce at all, and if reproducing, females laid fewer eggs, which were, as larvae in mid-development, smaller than those in the control group. However, harsh cold stress led to improved female starvation tolerance, probably due to enhanced lipid accumulation. Harsh cold shock also improved tolerance to an additional cold shock compared to the control. Finally, a single cold shock event negatively affected fewer measured response variables than the harsh cold stress, but also enhanced neither starvation tolerance nor tolerance to an additional cold shock. The consequences of a harsher cold stress are thus not solely detrimental but might even enhance survival under stressful conditions. Under benign conditions, nevertheless, harsh stress impedes beetle performance. The harsh stress probably shifted the balance point of the survival-reproduction trade-off, a shift that did not take place following exposure to mild stress. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Preventive and curative effects of acupuncture on the common cold: a multicentre randomized controlled trial in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Kenji; Shichidou, Toshiyuki; Inoue, Etsuko; Nabeta, Tomoyuki; Kitakouji, Hiroshi; Aizawa, Shigekatsu; Nishida, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Nobuo; Takahashi, Norihito; Yano, Tadashi; Tanzawa, Syouhachi

    2004-12-01

    To determine the preventive and curative effects of manual acupuncture on the symptoms of the common cold. Students and staff in five Japanese acupuncture schools (n=326) were randomly allocated to acupuncture and no-treatment control groups. A specific needling point (Y point) on the neck was used bilaterally. Fine acupuncture needles were gently manipulated for 15 s, evoking de qi sensation. Acupuncture treatments were performed four times during the 2-week experimental period with a 2-week follow-up period. A common cold diary was scored daily for 4 weeks, and a common cold questionnaire was scored before each acupuncture treatment and twice at weekly intervals. A reliability test for the questionnaire was performed on the last day of recording. Five of the 326 subjects who were recruited dropped out. The diary score in the acupuncture group tended to decrease after treatment, but the difference between groups was not significant (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, log rank test P=0.53, Cox regression analysis, P>0.05). Statistically significantly fewer symptoms were reported in the questionnaire by the acupuncture group than control group (P=0.024, general linear model, repeated measure). Significant inter-centre (Pcold. A significantly positive effect of acupuncture was demonstrated in the summed questionnaire data, although a highly significant inter-centre difference was observed. Needling on the neck using the Japanese fine needle manipulating technique was shown to be effective and safe. The use of acupuncture for symptoms of the common cold symptoms should be considered, although further evidence from placebo controlled RCTs is required.

  15. Fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control and guidance for aerospace vehicles from theory to application

    CERN Document Server

    Zolghadri, Ali; Cieslak, Jerome; Efimov, Denis; Goupil, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Fault Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Control and Guidance for Aerospace demonstrates the attractive potential of recent developments in control for resolving such issues as improved flight performance, self-protection and extended life of structures. Importantly, the text deals with a number of practically significant considerations: tuning, complexity of design, real-time capability, evaluation of worst-case performance, robustness in harsh environments, and extensibility when development or adaptation is required. Coverage of such issues helps to draw the advanced concepts arising from academic research back towards the technological concerns of industry. Initial coverage of basic definitions and ideas and a literature review gives way to a treatment of important electrical flight control system failures: the oscillatory failure case, runaway, and jamming. Advanced fault detection and diagnosis for linear and nonlinear systems are described. Lastly recovery strategies appropriate to remaining acuator/sensor/c...

  16. Dynamics of cold acclimation and complex phytohormone responses in Triticum monococcum lines G3116 and DV92 differing in vernalization and frost tolerance level

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaňková, Radomíra; Kosová, K.; Dobrev, Petre; Vítámvás, P.; Trávníčková, Alena; Cvikrová, Milena; Pešek, Bedřich; Gaudinová, Alena; Přerostová, Sylva; Musilová, J.; Galiba, G.; Prášil, I.T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 101, MAY 2014 (2014), s. 12-25 ISSN 0098-8472 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/09/2058 Grant - others:GA ČR GPP501/11/P637 Program:GP Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Cold stress * Dehydrin * Einkorn wheat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.359, year: 2014

  17. Fault Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Control of Wind Turbines via a Discrete Time Controller with a Disturbance Compensator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Vidal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a fault diagnosis (FD and fault-tolerant control (FTC of pitch actuators in wind turbines. This is accomplished by combining a disturbance compensator with a controller, both of which are formulated in the discrete time domain. The disturbance compensator has a dual purpose: to estimate the actuator fault (which is used by the FD algorithm and to design the discrete time controller to obtain an FTC. That is, the pitch actuator faults are estimated, and then, the pitch control laws are appropriately modified to achieve an FTC with a comparable behavior to the fault-free case. The performance of the FD and FTC schemes is tested in simulations with the aero-elastic code FAST.

  18. A Controlled Trial of CPAP Therapy on Metabolic Control in Individuals with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Tanya G.; Wang, Xuelei; Rueschman, Michael; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Aylor, Joan; Babineau, Denise C.; Mehra, Reena; Redline, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To address whether treatment of sleep apnea improves glucose tolerance. Design: Randomized, double-blind crossover study. Setting: Sleep clinic referrals. Patients: 50 subjects with moderate to severe sleep apnea (AHI > 15) and impaired glucose tolerance. Interventions: Subjects were randomized to 8 weeks of CPAP or sham CPAP, followed by the alternate therapy after a one-month washout. After each treatment, subjects underwent 2-hour OGTT, polysomnography, actigraphy, and measurements of indices of glucose control. Measurements and Results: The primary outcome was normalization of the mean 2-h OGTT; a secondary outcome was improvement in the Insulin Sensitivity Index (ISI (0,120). Subjects were 42% men, mean age of 54 (10), BMI of 39 (8), and AHI of 44 (27). Baseline fasting glucose was 104 (12), and mean 2-h OGTT was 110 (57) mg/dL. Seven subjects normalized their mean 2-h OGTT after CPAP but not after sham CPAP, while 5 subjects normalized after sham CPAP but not after CPAP. Overall, there was no improvement in ISI (0,120) between CPAP and sham CPAP (3.6%; 95% CI: [-2.2%, 9.7%]; P = 0.22). However, in those subjects with baseline AHI ≥ 30 (n = 25), there was a 13.3% (95% CI: [5.2%, 22.1%]; P CPAP compared to sham CPAP. Conclusions: This study did not show that IGT normalizes after CPAP in subjects with moderate sleep apnea and obesity. However, insulin sensitivity improved in those with AHI ≥ 30, suggesting beneficial metabolic effects of CPAP in severe sleep apnea. Clinical Trials Information: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01385995. Citation: Weinstock TG; Wang X; Rueschman M; Ismail-Beigi F; Aylor J; Babineau DC; Mehra R; Redline S. A controlled trial of CPAP therapy on metabolic control in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance and sleep apnea. SLEEP 2012;35(5):617-625. PMID:22547887

  19. A Framework for Probabilistic Evaluation of Interval Management Tolerance in the Terminal Radar Control Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercencia-Zapana, Heber; Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Neogi, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    Projections of future traffic in the national airspace show that most of the hub airports and their attendant airspace will need to undergo significant redevelopment and redesign in order to accommodate any significant increase in traffic volume. Even though closely spaced parallel approaches increase throughput into a given airport, controller workload in oversubscribed metroplexes is further taxed by these approaches that require stringent monitoring in a saturated environment. The interval management (IM) concept in the TRACON area is designed to shift some of the operational burden from the control tower to the flight deck, placing the flight crew in charge of implementing the required speed changes to maintain a relative spacing interval. The interval management tolerance is a measure of the allowable deviation from the desired spacing interval for the IM aircraft (and its target aircraft). For this complex task, Formal Methods can help to ensure better design and system implementation. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic framework to quantify the uncertainty and performance associated with the major components of the IM tolerance. The analytical basis for this framework may be used to formalize both correctness and probabilistic system safety claims in a modular fashion at the algorithmic level in a way compatible with several Formal Methods tools.

  20. An improved 99mTc-Aprotinin kit formulation: quality control analysis of cold kit shelf life and radiotracer stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, D.R.; Tsopelas, C.

    2005-01-01

    Aprotinin is a small protein that inhibits serine proteases and has been shown to bind to amyloid fibrils of varying chemical composition in-vitro. 99 mTc-aprotinin has demonstrated potential for imaging cardiac and pleuropulmonary AL amyloidosis and other forms of amyloidosis present as deposits in joints, the tongue or intestines and other sites excluding the kidneys and liver. Radiolabelling of aprotinin was previously achieved by addition of 99 mTc-pertech-netate to an alkaline mixture of Trasylol (aprotinin injection) and stannous chloride, followed by a necessary filtration step after 20-30 minutes. We have developed a modified cold kit formulation, utilising pharmaceutical starting materials, that provides a more convenient and efficient radiolabelling procedure where filtration is not required prior to injection. The shelf life of the cold kits was validated after storage in a freezer. The reducing agent used was stannous-pyrophosphate (PYP) and the alkaline buffer was a phosphate-glycine mixture (pH 10.5). Quality control testing of the cold kits was performed after 0, 1, 2, 3 and 6 months storage by assessing the % RCP of 99 mTc-apro-tinin by ITLC-SG. Radiotracer stability was examined in the same way 25, 85 and 265 minutes post reconstitution (pr) via a three strip system employing acetone, saline and ammonia:ethanol:water mixture (1:2:5). A rapid quality control cartridge method was also investigated. Radiolabelling of the cold kits yielded RCP > 95% at 25 mins pr and all other time points, from a formulation that avoided a filtration step. The impurities were quantified as TcO., ( 99 mTc-PYP (< 0.7%) by paper methods. The improved Tc-aprotinin kit formulation has greater convenience and efficiency in the clinical setting

  1. Tolerating dissimilar other when primed with death: neural evidence of self-control engaged by interdependent people in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Kuniaki; Kashima, Emiko S; Moriya, Hiroki; Masui, Keita; Furutani, Kaichiro; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Ura, Mitsuhiro; Nomura, Michio

    2017-06-01

    Mortality salience (MS) has been shown to lead to derogation of others with dissimilar worldviews, yet recent research has shown that Asian-Americans who presumably adopt an interdependent self-construal (SC) tend to reveal greater tolerance after MS induction. In the present study, we demonstrated that Japanese individuals who are high on interdependent SC indeed show greater tolerance toward worldview-threatening other in the MS (vs control) condition, thus replicating the prior research. Extending this research, we also found that interdependent people's tolerance toward worldview-threatening other was mediated by increased activity in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in the MS condition. These data suggested that when exposed to death-related stimuli, highly interdependent individuals may spontaneously activate their neural self-control system which may serve to increase tolerance toward others. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Tracking Control of Nonaffine Nonlinear Systems with Actuator Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongcheng Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an adaptive fault-tolerant control scheme for nonaffine nonlinear systems. A model approximation method which is a solution that bridges the gap between affine and nonaffine control systems is developed firstly. A joint estimation approach is based on unscented Kalman filter, in which both failure parameters and states are simultaneously estimated by means of the argument state vector composed of the unknown faults and states. Then, stability analysis is given for the closed-loop system. Finally, the proposed approach is verified using a three-degree-of-freedom simulation of a typical fighter aircraft and the significantly improved system response demonstrates the practical potential of the theoretic results obtained.

  3. Sensor-driven, fault-tolerant control of a maintenance robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, M.M.; Davidson, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    A robot system has been designed to do routine maintenance tasks on the Sandia Pulsed Reactor (SPR). The use of this Remote Maintenance Robot (RMR) is expected to significantly reduce the occupational radiation exposure of the reactor operators. Reactor safety was a key issue in the design of the robot maintenance system. Using sensors to detect error conditions and intelligent control to recover from the errors, the RMR is capable of responding to error conditions without creating a hazard. This paper describes the design and implementation of a sensor-driven, fault-tolerant control for the RMR. Recovery from errors is not automatic; it does rely on operator assistance. However, a key feature of the error recovery procedure is that the operator is allowed to reenter the programmed operation after the error has been corrected. The recovery procedure guarantees that the moving components of the system will not collide with the reactor during recovery

  4. Temporal interference with frequency-controllable long photons from independent cold atomic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Peng; Gu, Zhenjie; Wen, Rong; Zhang, Weiping; Chen, J. F.

    2018-01-01

    The interference of single photons from independent sources is an essential tool in quantum information processing. However, the interfering of photons with long temporal states in a time-resolved manner has rarely been studied. This is because without transmitting spectral filters or coupling to a cavity mode single photons generated in traditional nonlinear crystals suffer from a short temporal profile below 1 ns. With spectral correlation maintained in the biphotons generated from spontaneous four-wave mixing process in cold atom clouds, here we demonstrate the temporal interference of two frequency-tunable long photons from two independent cold atomic sources. We observe and analyze the interference of frequency-mismatched photons, where the phenomenon of the quantum beat at megahertz separation is displayed. Our paper provides more details for the quantum beat of two independent narrow-band single photons, which may find potential application in frequency-encoded photonic qubits in quantum information processing.

  5. Shell growth and environmental control of methanophyllic Thyasirid bivalves from Svalbard cold seeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Michael; Åström, Emmelie; Ambrose, William; Locke, William; Oliver, Graham; Hong, Wei-Li; Carroll, JoLynn

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of molluscan shell material (sclerochronology) can provide information about an organism's age, growth history, and environmental conditions during its lifetime. Bivalve molluscs are common members of hydrothermal vents and methane cold seeps communities where, supported by chemosynthetic symbionts, they can reach high density and biomass. But little is known about methane-associated bivalve populations inhabiting high-Arctic cold seeps, and sclerochronological analysis of methane-influenced bivalves is rare. We measured growth rates and elemental and isotopic shell signatures in a newly discovered species of bivalve (Thyasiridae) from cold seeps at 350-390m depth southwest of Svalbard. First discovered in 2014, recently described shells of Thyasira capitanea sp.nov. were found at 2 independent seep systems in Storfjordrenna. Mean shell carbon isotopic ratios from inorganic δ13C (mean = -4.8‰) and organic δ13C (mean = -26.9‰) fractions clearly indicate a methane influenced habitat and food source for these organisms. Shell mineral ratios (Li/Ca, Mg/Ca, Mn/Ca, Fe/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Pb/Ca) sampled along the axis of growth with laser-ablated ICP-MS exhibit variability through time and between sites, suggesting that concentrations of these elements that may be affected by methane emissions. The mineralogical data also elucidates the internal pattern of shell deposition and growth checks, and combined with the isotopic and growth rate data, enables us to interpret the temporal history of methane release from these locations.

  6. Final report on the Controlled Cold Helium Spill Test in the LHC tunnel at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Dufay-Chanat, L; Casas-Cubillos, J; Chorowski, M; Grabowski, M; Jedrusyna, A; Lindell, G; Nonis, M; Koettig, T; Vauthier, N; van Weelderen, R; Winkler, T

    2015-01-01

    The 27 km circumference LHC underground tunnel is a space in which the helium cooled LHC magnets are installed. The vacuum enclosures of the superconducting magnets are protected by over-pressure safety relief devices that open whenever cold helium escapes either from the magnet cold enclosure or from the helium supply headers, into this vacuum enclosure. A 3-m long no stay zone around these devices is defined based on scale model studies, protecting the personnel against cold burns or asphyxia caused by such a helium release event. Recently, several simulation studies have been carried out modelling the propagation of the helium/air mixture, resulting from the opening of such a safety device, along the tunnel. The released helium flows vary in the range between 1 kg/s and 0.1 kg/s. To validate these different simulation studies, real life mock-up tests have been performed inside the LHC tunnel, releasing helium flow rates of 1 kg/s, 0.3 kg/s and 0.1 kg/s. For each test, up to 1000 liters of liquid helium wer...

  7. Hybridization of an invasive shrub affects tolerance and resistance to defoliation by a biological control agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wyatt I.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Gaskin, John F.; Norton, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has contributed to the successful invasion of exotic plant species in their introduced ranges, but how evolution affects particular control strategies is still under evaluation. For instance, classical biological control, a common strategy involving the utilization of highly specific natural enemies to control exotic pests, may be negatively affected by host hybridization because of shifts in plant traits, such as root allocation or chemical constituents. We investigated introgression between two parent species of the invasive shrub tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in the western United States, and how differences in plant traits affect interactions with a biological control agent. Introgression varied strongly with latitude of origin and was highly correlated with plant performance. Increased levels of T. ramosissima introgression resulted in both higher investment in roots and tolerance to defoliation and less resistance to insect attack. Because tamarisk hybridization occurs predictably on the western U.S. landscape, managers may be able to exploit this information to maximize control efforts. Genetic differentiation in plant traits in this system underpins the importance of plant hybridization and may explain why some biological control releases are more successful than others.

  8. Cold working room temperature increased moderate/severe qualitative work stressor risk in Air Traffic Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Astuti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Pemandu lalu lintas udara (PLLU kemungkinan lebih besar terkena stresor kerja kualitatif. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengidentifikasi beberapa faktor yang berkaitan dengan stresor kerja kualitatif moderat (SBKL sedang di antara PLLU di Bandar Udara Internasional Soekarno-Hatta.Metode:  Studi  potong  lintang  dilakukan  pada  bulan  November 2008  dengan  subjek  PLLU  aktif  bekerja minimal  6  bulan. Penelitian  menggunakan  kuesioner  standar  survei  diagnostik stres  dan  kuesioner  stresor rumah tangga. Kuesioner diisi oleh subjek.Hasil: Subjek berumur 27-55 tahun terdiri dari 122 PLLU dengan SBKL sedang/berat dan serta 13 (9,6% PLLU dengan SBKL rendah. Model menunjukkan bahwa mereka yang merasa dibandingkan dengan yang tidak merasa suhu ruangan terlalu dingin mempunyai 11-lipat risiko SBKL sedang/berat [rasio odds suaian (ORa = 10,63: 95% interval kepercayaan (CI = 1,79-65,59]. Dibandingkan dengan subjek tanpa stresor ketaksaan peran, mereka yang mempunyai stresor ketaksaan peran sedang/berat berisiko 8,2-lipat SBKL sedang/berat (ORa = 8,23: 95% CI = 1,13-59,90. Di samping itu, mereka yang mempunyai stresor tanggung jawab sedang/berat mendapatkan dibandingkan dengan tanpa stesor ini 6,6-kali berisiko SBKL sedang/berat (ORa = 6,64: 95% CI = 1.13-38.85, Selanjutntya mereka yang mempunyai dibandingkan dengan yang tanpa stresor pengembangan karir sedang/berat mempunyai 3,7-kali risiko SBKL sedang/berat  (ORa = 3,67: 95% CI = 0.88-15.35; P = 0,075.Kesimpulan: Subjek LLU yang merasa suhu ruangan terlalu dingin, stresor ketaksaan peran, tanggung jawab personal dan pengembangan karir sedang/berat mengalami peningkatan risiko SBKL sedang/berat. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:58-65.AbstractBack ground: Air traffic controllers (ATCs have a high level of responsibility which may lead to qualitative work load stressor (QLWS. This study identified several risk factors related to moderate qualitative

  9. Transient fault tolerant control for vehicle brake-by-wire systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shuang; Zhou, Chunjie; Yang, Lili; Qin, Yuanqing; Huang, Xiongfeng; Hu, Bowen

    2016-01-01

    Brake-by-wire (BBW) systems that have no mechanical linkage between the brake pedal and the brake mechanism are expected to improve vehicle safety through better braking capability. However, transient faults in BBW systems can cause dangerous driving situations. Most existing research in this area focuses on the brake control mechanism, but very few studies try to solve the problem associated with transient fault propagation and evolution in the brake control system hierarchy. In this paper, a hierarchical transient fault tolerant scheme with embedded intelligence and resilient coordination for BBW system is proposed based on the analysis of transient fault propagation characteristics. In this scheme, most transient faults are tackled rapidly by a signature-based detection method at the node level, and the remaining transient faults, which cannot be detected directly at the node level and could degrade the system performance through fault propagation and evolution, are detected and recovered through function and structure models at the system level. To jointly accommodate these BBW transient faults at the system level, a sliding mode control algorithm and a task reallocation strategy are designed. A simulation platform based on Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) is established to evaluate the task reallocation strategy, and a hardware-in-the-loop simulation is carried out to validate the proposed scheme systematically. Experimental results show the effectiveness of this new approach to BBW systems. - Highlights: • We propose a hierarchical transient fault tolerant scheme for BBW systems. • A sliding mode algorithm and a task strategy are designed to tackle transient fault. • The effectiveness of the scheme is verified in both simulation and HIL environments.

  10. Supervisory Fault Tolerant Control of the GTM UAV Using LPV Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péni Tamás

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A multi-level reconfiguration framework is proposed for fault tolerant control of over-actuated aerial vehicles, where the levels indicate how much authority is given to the reconfiguration task. On the lowest, first level the fault is accommodated by modifying only the actuator/sensor configuration, so the fault remains hidden from the baseline controller. A dynamic reallocation scheme is applied on this level. The allocation mechanism exploits the actuator/sensor redundancy available on the aircraft. When the fault cannot be managed at the actuator/sensor level, the reconfiguration process has access to the baseline controller. Based on the LPV control framework, this is done by introducing fault-specific scheduling parameters. The baseline controller is designed to provide an acceptable performance level along all fault scenarios coded in these scheduling variables. The decision on which reconfiguration level has to be initiated in response to a fault is determined by a supervisor unit. The method is demonstrated on a full six-degrees-of-freedom nonlinear simulation model of the GTM UAV.

  11. Sensor fault-tolerant control for gear-shifting engaging process of automated manual transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; He, Kai; Wang, Xiangyu; Liu, Yahui

    2018-01-01

    Angular displacement sensor on the actuator of automated manual transmission (AMT) is sensitive to fault, and the sensor fault will disturb its normal control, which affects the entire gear-shifting process of AMT and results in awful riding comfort. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a method of fault-tolerant control for AMT gear-shifting engaging process. By using the measured current of actuator motor and angular displacement of actuator, the gear-shifting engaging load torque table is built and updated before the occurrence of the sensor fault. Meanwhile, residual between estimated and measured angular displacements is used to detect the sensor fault. Once the residual exceeds a determined fault threshold, the sensor fault is detected. Then, switch control is triggered, and the current observer and load torque table estimates an actual gear-shifting position to replace the measured one to continue controlling the gear-shifting process. Numerical and experiment tests are carried out to evaluate the reliability and feasibility of proposed methods, and the results show that the performance of estimation and control is satisfactory.

  12. A Hybrid Sensor Based Backstepping Control Approach with its Application to Fault-Tolerant Flight Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, L.G.; De Visser, C.C.; Chu, Q.P.; Falkena, W.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, an incremental type sensor based backstepping (SBB) control approach, based on singular perturbation theory and Tikhonov’s theorem, has been proposed. This Lyapunov function based method uses measurements of control variables and less model knowledge, and it is not susceptible to the model

  13. Comparison of subjective symptoms and cold prevention measures in winter between traffic control workers and construction workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Ryoichi; Kurokawa, Junichi; Mirbod, Seyed Mohammad

    2009-07-01

    To help making comfortable workplaces and to prevent health disorders induced by the exposure to moderate cold in two different groups of out-door workers, we conducted a survey to compare subjective symptoms and cold prevention measures in winter between traffic control workers and construction workers. The subjects of this study were 98 male traffic control workers and 149 male workers engaged in building construction. Work loads of traffic control workers and construction workers were estimated at RMR1-2 and RMR2-4, respectively. All subjects were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire covering age, occupational career, working figure, present illness, past history of diseases, individual preventive measures to the cold, subjective symptoms in the winter (43 items) and subjective symptoms occurred during daytime working in the winter (6 items). In two parts of the construction workplaces (the place where a morning assembly was held and on the 7th floor of the construction site) dry bulb, wet bulb and globe temperatures were measured in January. Windchill Index (kcal/cm,(2) x h) was calculated by the measured dry bulb temperature and wind velocity. Mean values of dry bulb temperature between 9:00 and 16:30 in the place where a morning assembly was held for three days were between 4.8 +/- 1.2 degrees C at 9:00 am and 9.3 +/- 1.1 degrees C at noon. Mean values of Windchill Index in the place where a morning assembly was held were between 490.8+/-23.9 kcal/cm(2) x h at 9:30 am and 608.2+/-47.3 kcal/cm(2) x h at 2:30 pm. Occupational career, monthly working days, daily working hours, one way commuting hours, and daily smoking numbers of the traffic control workers were significantly shorter than the construction workers (pconstruction workers (0.7%). Prevalence of wearing a warm underwear, body warmer, warm trousers, underpants, warm socks, shoe warmer and muffler in the traffic control workers were significantly higher than the construction workers. The

  14. Final report on the Controlled Cold Helium Spill Test in the LHC tunnel at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufay-Chanat, L; Bremer, J; Casas-Cubillos, J; Koettig, T; Vauthier, N; Van Weelderen, R; Winkler, T; Chorowski, M; Grabowski, M; Jedrusyna, A; Lindell, G; Nonis, M

    2015-01-01

    The 27 km circumference LHC underground tunnel is a space in which the helium cooled LHC magnets are installed. The vacuum enclosures of the superconducting magnets are protected by over-pressure safety relief devices that open whenever cold helium escapes either from the magnet cold enclosure or from the helium supply headers, into this vacuum enclosure. A 3-m long no stay zone around these devices is defined based on scale model studies, protecting the personnel against cold burns or asphyxia caused by such a helium release event. Recently, several simulation studies have been carried out modelling the propagation of the helium/air mixture, resulting from the opening of such a safety device, along the tunnel. The released helium flows vary in the range between 1 kg/s and 0.1 kg/s. To validate these different simulation studies, real life mock-up tests have been performed inside the LHC tunnel, releasing helium flow rates of 1 kg/s, 0.3 kg/s and 0.1 kg/s. For each test, up to 1000 liters of liquid helium were released under standard operational tunnel conditions. The data recorded include oxygen concentration, temperature and flow speed measurements, and video footage used to assess qualitatively the visibility. These measurements have been made in the up- and downstream directions, with respect to the air ventilation flow, of the spill point.This paper presents the experimental set-up under which these release tests were made, the effects of these releases on the atmospheric tunnel condition as a function of the release flow rate. We discuss the modification to the personnel access conditions to the LHC tunnel that are presently implemented as a result of these tests. (paper)

  15. Final report on the Controlled Cold Helium Spill Test in the LHC tunnel at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufay-Chanat, L.; Bremer, J.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Chorowski, M.; Grabowski, M.; Jedrusyna, A.; Lindell, G.; Nonis, M.; Koettig, T.; Vauthier, N.; van Weelderen, R.; Winkler, T.

    2015-12-01

    The 27 km circumference LHC underground tunnel is a space in which the helium cooled LHC magnets are installed. The vacuum enclosures of the superconducting magnets are protected by over-pressure safety relief devices that open whenever cold helium escapes either from the magnet cold enclosure or from the helium supply headers, into this vacuum enclosure. A 3-m long no stay zone around these devices is defined based on scale model studies, protecting the personnel against cold burns or asphyxia caused by such a helium release event. Recently, several simulation studies have been carried out modelling the propagation of the helium/air mixture, resulting from the opening of such a safety device, along the tunnel. The released helium flows vary in the range between 1 kg/s and 0.1 kg/s. To validate these different simulation studies, real life mock-up tests have been performed inside the LHC tunnel, releasing helium flow rates of 1 kg/s, 0.3 kg/s and 0.1 kg/s. For each test, up to 1000 liters of liquid helium were released under standard operational tunnel conditions. The data recorded include oxygen concentration, temperature and flow speed measurements, and video footage used to assess qualitatively the visibility. These measurements have been made in the up- and downstream directions, with respect to the air ventilation flow, of the spill point. This paper presents the experimental set-up under which these release tests were made, the effects of these releases on the atmospheric tunnel condition as a function of the release flow rate. We discuss the modification to the personnel access conditions to the LHC tunnel that are presently implemented as a result of these tests.

  16. Specific oral tolerance induction with raw hen's egg in children with very severe egg allergy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dello Iacono, Iride; Tripodi, Salvatore; Calvani, Mauro; Panetta, Valentina; Verga, Maria Carmela; Miceli Sopo, Stefano

    2013-02-01

    Treatment of severe egg allergy is avoidance of hen's egg (HE) and carrying self-injectable epinephrine. Specific oral tolerance induction (SOTI) seems a promising alternative treatment. However, some aspects of SOTI are still considered experimental. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of an original 6-month SOTI protocol in children with very severe HE allergy using raw HE emulsion. Twenty children (age range: 5-11 yr) were randomized equally into a SOTI treatment group and a control group. The treatment group started SOTI and underwent a second challenge 6 months later. Control children were kept on an egg-free diet for 6 months and then underwent a second challenge. After 6 months, 9/10 children of the SOTI group (90%) achieved partial tolerance (at least 10 ml, but <40 ml of raw HE emulsion, in a single dose) and 1 (10%) was able to tolerate only 5 ml (no tolerance). After 6 months, nine control children tested positive to the second challenge at a dose ≤0.9 ml of raw HE emulsion, and one reacted to 1.8 ml (SOTI vs. control group p<0.0001). All children in the SOTI group had side effects, but no child had a grade 5 reaction according to the Sampson grading. Six months of SOTI with raw HE emulsion resulted in partial tolerance, with regular intake, in a significant percentage of children with severe egg allergy. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Data-based fault-tolerant control for affine nonlinear systems with actuator faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chun-Hua; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the fault-tolerant control (FTC) problem for unknown nonlinear systems with actuator faults including stuck, outage, bias and loss of effectiveness. The upper bounds of stuck faults, bias faults and loss of effectiveness faults are unknown. A new data-based FTC scheme is proposed. It consists of the online estimations of the bounds and a state-dependent function. The estimations are adjusted online to compensate automatically the actuator faults. The state-dependent function solved by using real system data helps to stabilize the system. Furthermore, all signals in the resulting closed-loop system are uniformly bounded and the states converge asymptotically to zero. Compared with the existing results, the proposed approach is data-based. Finally, two simulation examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A data-driven fault-tolerant control design of linear multivariable systems with performance optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, an integrated data-driven fault-tolerant control (FTC) design scheme is proposed under the configuration of the Youla parameterization for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. With unknown system model parameters, the canonical form identification technique is first applied to design the residual observer in fault-free case. In faulty case, with online tuning of the Youla parameters based on the system data via the gradient-based algorithm, the fault influence is attenuated with system performance optimization. In addition, to improve the robustness of the residual generator to a class of system deviations, a novel adaptive scheme is proposed for the residual generator to prevent its over-activation. Simulation results of a two-tank flow system demonstrate the optimized performance and effect of the proposed FTC scheme. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Design of a fault-tolerant reversible control unit in molecular quantum-dot cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Golnaz; Houshmand, Monireh; Zomorodi-Moghadam, Mariam

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is a promising emerging nanotechnology that has been attracting considerable attention due to its small feature size, ultra-low power consuming, and high clock frequency. Therefore, there have been many efforts to design computational units based on this technology. Despite these advantages of the QCA-based nanotechnologies, their implementation is susceptible to a high error rate. On the other hand, using the reversible computing leads to zero bit erasures and no energy dissipation. As the reversible computation does not lose information, the fault detection happens with a high probability. In this paper, first we propose a fault-tolerant control unit using reversible gates which improves on the previous design. The proposed design is then synthesized to the QCA technology and is simulated by the QCADesigner tool. Evaluation results indicate the performance of the proposed approach.

  20. Transcriptomic analysis of (group I Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 cold shock response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Dahlsten

    Full Text Available Profound understanding of the mechanisms foodborne pathogenic bacteria utilize in adaptation to the environmental stress they encounter during food processing and storage is of paramount importance in design of control measures. Chill temperature is a central control measure applied in minimally processed foods; however, data on the mechanisms the foodborne pathogen Clostridium botulinum activates upon cold stress are scarce. Transcriptomic analysis on the C. botulinum ATCC 3502 strain upon temperature downshift from 37°C to 15°C was performed to identify the cold-responsive gene set of this organism. Significant up- or down-regulation of 16 and 11 genes, respectively, was observed 1 h after the cold shock. At 5 h after the temperature downshift, 199 and 210 genes were up- or down-regulated, respectively. Thus, the relatively small gene set affected initially indicated a targeted acute response to cold shock, whereas extensive metabolic remodeling appeared to take place after prolonged exposure to cold. Genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis, oxidative stress response, and iron uptake and storage were induced, in addition to mechanisms previously characterized as cold-tolerance related in bacteria. Furthermore, several uncharacterized DNA-binding transcriptional regulator-encoding genes were induced, suggesting involvement of novel regulatory mechanisms in the cold shock response of C. botulinum. The role of such regulators, CBO0477 and CBO0558A, in cold tolerance of C. botulinum ATCC 3502 was demonstrated by deteriorated growth of related mutants at 17°C.

  1. A review of fault tolerant control strategies applied to proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijoux, Etienne; Steiner, Nadia Yousfi; Benne, Michel; Péra, Marie-Cécile; Pérez, Brigitte Grondin

    2017-08-01

    Fuel cells are powerful systems for power generation. They have a good efficiency and do not generate greenhouse gases. This technology involves a lot of scientific fields, which leads to the appearance of strongly inter-dependent parameters. This makes the system particularly hard to control and increases fault's occurrence frequency. These two issues call for the necessity to maintain the system performance at the expected level, even in faulty operating conditions. It is called "fault tolerant control" (FTC). The present paper aims to give the state of the art of FTC applied to the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The FTC approach is composed of two parts. First, a diagnosis part allows the identification and the isolation of a fault; it requires a good a priori knowledge of all the possible faults. Then, a control part allows an optimal control strategy to find the best operating point to recover/mitigate the fault; it requires the knowledge of the degradation phenomena and their mitigation strategies.

  2. A radiation tolerance study of the ALICE TPC Readout Control Unit 2

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Chengxin; Balk, Helge; Alme, Johan

    2017-11-17

    ALICE is a general-purpose detector that is designed to study the physics of quark-gluon plasma. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is one of the major detectors of ALICE. The TPC electronics consists of 4356 Front-end cards (FECs), which are controlled by 216 Readout Control Units (RCU). Each RCU connects to between 18 and 25 FECs using a multi-drop bus. In LHC Run1, the Readout Control Unit 1 (RCU1) performed even better than specification. However, in Run2 the energy of colliding beams is increased from 8 TeV to 14 TeV (maximum value) and higher luminosity, which leads to larger event size and higher radiation load on the electronics. As a solution, the Readout Control Unit 2 (RCU2) is designed to provide faster readout speed and improved radiation tolerance with respect to the RCU1. The RCU2 is conceptually similar to the RCU1 and it reuses the existing infrastructure and readout architecture of the TPC electronics. However, the multi-drop bus is split into four branches from the two branches and the bandw...

  3. Efficacy and tolerability of intravenous morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) in women undergoing cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andziak, Marta; Beta, Jarosław; Barwijuk, Michal; Issat, Tadeusz; Jakimiuk, Artur J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate analgesic efficacy and tolerability of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with intravenous morphine. Our observational study included 50 women who underwent a Misgav-Ladach or modified Misgav-Ladach cesarean section. Automated PCA infusion device (Medima S-PCA Syringe Pump, Medima, Krakow, Poland) was used for postoperative pain control. Time of morphine administration or initiation of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) with morphine was recorded, as well as post-operative pain at rest assessed by a visual analogue scale (VAS). All patients were followed up for 24 hours after discharge from the operating room, taking into account patient records, worst pain score at rest, number of IV PCA attempts, and drug consumption. Median of total morphine doses used during the postoperative period was 42.9mg (IQR 35.6-48.5), with median infusion time of 687.0 min. (IQR 531.0-757.5). Pain severity and total drug consumption improved after the first 3 hours following cesarean delivery (p PCA attempts per patient was 33 (IQR: 24-37), with median of 11 placebo attempts (IQR: 3-27). Patient-controlled analgesia with morphine is an efficient and acceptable analgesic method in women undergoing cesarean section.

  4. Fault-tolerant control with mixed aerodynamic surfaces and RCS jets for hypersonic reentry vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing He

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a fault-tolerant strategy for hypersonic reentry vehicles with mixed aerodynamic surfaces and reaction control systems (RCS under external disturbances and subject to actuator faults. Aerodynamic surfaces are treated as the primary actuator in normal situations, and they are driven by a continuous quadratic programming (QP allocator to generate torque commanded by a nonlinear adaptive feedback control law. When aerodynamic surfaces encounter faults, they may not be able to provide sufficient torque as commanded, and RCS jets are activated to augment the aerodynamic surfaces to compensate for insufficient torque. Partial loss of effectiveness and stuck faults are considered in this paper, and observers are designed to detect and identify the faults. Based on the fault identification results, an RCS control allocator using integer linear programming (ILP techniques is designed to determine the optimal combination of activated RCS jets. By treating the RCS control allocator as a quantization element, closed-loop stability with both continuous and quantized inputs is analyzed. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Major differences observed in transcript profiles of blueberry during cold acclimation under field and cold room conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanaraj, Anik L; Alkharouf, Nadim W; Beard, Hunter S; Chouikha, Imed B; Matthews, Benjamin F; Wei, Hui; Arora, Rajeev; Rowland, Lisa J

    2007-02-01

    Our laboratory has been working toward increasing our understanding of the genetic control of cold hardiness in blueberry (Vaccinium section Cyanococcus) to ultimately use this information to develop more cold hardy cultivars for the industry. Here, we report using cDNA microarrays to monitor changes in gene expression at multiple times during cold acclimation under field and cold room conditions. Microarrays contained over 2,500 cDNA inserts, approximately half of which had been picked and single-pass sequenced from each of two cDNA libraries that were constructed from cold acclimated floral buds and non-acclimated floral buds of the fairly cold hardy cv. Bluecrop (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). Two biological samples were examined at each time point. Microarray data were analyzed statistically using t tests, ANOVA, clustering algorithms, and online analytical processing (OLAP). Interestingly, more transcripts were found to be upregulated under cold room conditions than under field conditions. Many of the genes induced only under cold room conditions could be divided into three major types: (1) genes associated with stress tolerance; (2) those that encode glycolytic and TCA cycle enzymes, and (3) those associated with protein synthesis machinery. A few of the genes induced only under field conditions appear to be related to light stress. Possible explanations for these differences are discussed in physiological context. Although many similarities exist in how plants respond during cold acclimation in the cold room and in the field environment, there are major differences suggesting caution should be taken in interpreting results based only on artificial, cold room conditions.

  6. Controlled Cold Helium Spill Test in the LHC Tunnel at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koettig, T.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Chorowski, M.; Dufay-Chanat, L.; Grabowski, M.; Jedrusyna, A.; Lindell, G.; Nonis, M.; Vauthier, N.; van Weelderen, R.; Winkler, T.; Bremer, J.

    The helium cooled magnets of the LHC particle accelerator are installed in a confined space, formed by a 27 km circumference 3.8 m diameter underground tunnel. The vacuum enclosures of the superconducting LHC magnets are protected by a lift plate against excessive overpressure created by eventual leaks from the magnet helium bath, or from the helium supply headers. A three-meter long no stay zone has been defined centered to these plates, based on earlier scale model studies, to protect the personnel against the consequences of an eventual opening of such a lift plate. More recently several simulation studies have been carried out modelling the propagation of the resulting helium/air mixture along the tunnel in case of such a cold helium release at a rate in the range of 1 kg/s. To validate the different scale models and simulation studies, real life mock-up tests have been performed in the LHC, releasing about 1000 liter of liquid helium under standard operational tunnel conditions. Data recorded during these tests include oxygen level, temperature and flow speed as well as video recordings, taken up- and downstream of the spill point (-100 m to +200 m) with respect to the ventilation direction in the LHC tunnel. The experimental set-up and measurement results are presented. Generic effects found during the tests will be discussed to allow the transposal to possible cold helium release cases in similar facilities.

  7. The effect of cold priming on the fitness of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions under natural and controlled conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvetkovic, Jelena; Müller, Klaus; Baier, Margarete

    2017-01-01

    Priming improves an organism's performance upon a future stress. To test whether cold priming supports protection in spring and how it is affected by cold acclimation, we compared seven Arabidopsis accessions with different cold acclimation potentials in the field and in the greenhouse for growth......, photosynthetic performance and reproductive fitness in March and May after a 14 day long cold-pretreatment at 4 °C. In the plants transferred to the field in May, the effect of the cold pretreatment on the seed yield correlated with the cold acclimation potential of the accessions. In the March transferred...

  8. A comparison of the low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of three plant species that differ in freezing tolerance: Solanum commersonii, Solanum tuberosum, and Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Carvallo, Marcela A.; Pino, María-Teresa; Jeknić, Zoran; Zou, Cheng; Doherty, Colleen J.; Shiu, Shin-Han; Chen, Tony H. H.; Thomashow, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Solanum commersonii and Solanum tuberosum are closely related plant species that differ in their abilities to cold acclimate; whereas S. commersonii increases in freezing tolerance in response to low temperature, S. tuberosum does not. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cold-regulated genes have been shown to contribute to freezing tolerance, including those that comprise the CBF regulon, genes that are controlled by the CBF transcription factors. The low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of ...

  9. The GBT-SCA, a radiation tolerant ASIC for detector control applications in SLHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielli, A; Kloukinas, K; Marchioro, A; Moreira, P; Ranieri, A; De Robertis, D

    2009-01-01

    This work describes the architecture of the GigaBit Transceiver – Slow Control Adapter (GBT–SCA) ASIC suitable for the control and monitoring applications of the embedded front-end electronics in the future SLHC experiments. The GBT–SCA is part the GBT chipset currently under development for the SLHC detector upgrades. It is designed for radiation tolerance and it will be fabricated in a commercial 130 nm CMOS technology. The paper discusses the GBT-SCA architecture, the data transfer protocol, the ASIC interfaces, and its integration with the GBT optical link. The GBT–SCA is one the components of the GBT system chipset. It is proposed for the future SLHC experiments and is designed to be configurable matching different front-end system requirements. The GBT-SCA is intended for the slow control and monitoring of the embedded front end electronics and implements a point-to-multi point connection between one GBT optical link ASIC and several front end ASICs. The GBT-SCA connects to a dedicated electrica...

  10. Finite Time Fault Tolerant Control for Robot Manipulators Using Time Delay Estimation and Continuous Nonsingular Fast Terminal Sliding Mode Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Mien; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Ren, Hongliang

    2016-04-28

    In this paper, a novel finite time fault tolerant control (FTC) is proposed for uncertain robot manipulators with actuator faults. First, a finite time passive FTC (PFTC) based on a robust nonsingular fast terminal sliding mode control (NFTSMC) is investigated. Be analyzed for addressing the disadvantages of the PFTC, an AFTC are then investigated by combining NFTSMC with a simple fault diagnosis scheme. In this scheme, an online fault estimation algorithm based on time delay estimation (TDE) is proposed to approximate actuator faults. The estimated fault information is used to detect, isolate, and accommodate the effect of the faults in the system. Then, a robust AFTC law is established by combining the obtained fault information and a robust NFTSMC. Finally, a high-order sliding mode (HOSM) control based on super-twisting algorithm is employed to eliminate the chattering. In comparison to the PFTC and other state-of-the-art approaches, the proposed AFTC scheme possess several advantages such as high precision, strong robustness, no singularity, less chattering, and fast finite-time convergence due to the combined NFTSMC and HOSM control, and requires no prior knowledge of the fault due to TDE-based fault estimation. Finally, simulation results are obtained to verify the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  11. Transcriptomic variation among six Arabidopsis thaliana accessions identified several novel genes controlling aluminium tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunoki, Kazutaka; Nakano, Yuki; Tanaka, Keisuke; Sakata, Yoichi; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Yuriko

    2017-02-01

    Differences in the expression levels of aluminium (Al) tolerance genes are a known determinant of Al tolerance among plant varieties. We combined transcriptomic analysis of six Arabidopsis thaliana accessions with contrasting Al tolerance and a reverse genetic approach to identify Al-tolerance genes responsible for differences in Al tolerance between accession groups. Gene expression variation increased in the signal transduction process under Al stress and in growth-related processes in the absence of stress. Co-expression analysis and promoter single nucleotide polymorphism searching suggested that both trans-acting polymorphisms of Al signal transduction pathway and cis-acting polymorphisms in the promoter sequences caused the variations in gene expression associated with Al tolerance. Compared with the wild type, Al sensitivity increased in T-DNA knockout (KO) lines for five genes, including TARGET OF AVRB OPERATION1 (TAO1) and an unannotated gene (At5g22530). These were identified from 53 Al-inducible genes showing significantly higher expression in tolerant accessions than in sensitive accessions. These results indicate that the difference in transcriptional signalling is partly associated with the natural variation in Al tolerance in Arabidopsis. Our study also demonstrates the feasibility of comparative transcriptome analysis by using natural genetic variation for the identification of genes responsible for Al stress tolerance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Redundant and fault-tolerant algorithms for real-time measurement and control systems for weapon equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Hu, Xiaoguang

    2017-03-01

    Because of the high availability requirements from weapon equipment, an in-depth study has been conducted on the real-time fault-tolerance of the widely applied Compact PCI (CPCI) bus measurement and control system. A redundancy design method that uses heartbeat detection to connect the primary and alternate devices has been developed. To address the low successful execution rate and relatively large waste of time slices in the primary version of the task software, an improved algorithm for real-time fault-tolerant scheduling is proposed based on the Basic Checking available time Elimination idle time (BCE) algorithm, applying a single-neuron self-adaptive proportion sum differential (PSD) controller. The experimental validation results indicate that this system has excellent redundancy and fault-tolerance, and the newly developed method can effectively improve the system availability. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cold stratification, but not stratification in salinity, enhances seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... Cold stratification was reported to release seed dormancy and enhance plant tolerance to salt stress. ... Key words: Cold stratification, salt stress, seedling emergence, ... methods used to cope with salinity, seed pre-sowing.

  14. An improved fault-tolerant control scheme for PWM inverter-fed induction motor-based EVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbache, Bekheïra; Benbouzid, Mohamed; Kheloui, Abdelaziz; Bourgeot, Jean-Matthieu; Mamoune, Abdeslam

    2013-11-01

    This paper proposes an improved fault-tolerant control scheme for PWM inverter-fed induction motor-based electric vehicles. The proposed strategy deals with power switch (IGBTs) failures mitigation within a reconfigurable induction motor control. To increase the vehicle powertrain reliability regarding IGBT open-circuit failures, 4-wire and 4-leg PWM inverter topologies are investigated and their performances discussed in a vehicle context. The proposed fault-tolerant topologies require only minimum hardware modifications to the conventional off-the-shelf six-switch three-phase drive, mitigating the IGBTs failures by specific inverter control. Indeed, the two topologies exploit the induction motor neutral accessibility for fault-tolerant purposes. The 4-wire topology uses then classical hysteresis controllers to account for the IGBT failures. The 4-leg topology, meanwhile, uses a specific 3D space vector PWM to handle vehicle requirements in terms of size (DC bus capacitors) and cost (IGBTs number). Experiments on an induction motor drive and simulations on an electric vehicle are carried-out using a European urban driving cycle to show that the proposed fault-tolerant control approach is effective and provides a simple configuration with high performance in terms of speed and torque responses. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Discrepancy between stimulus response and tolerance of pain in Alzheimer disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Werner, Mads U; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Affective-motivational and sensory-discriminative aspects of pain were investigated in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) and healthy elderly controls using the cold pressor test tolerance and repetitive stimuli of warmth and heat stimuli, evaluating the stimulus....... The results further suggest that the attenuated cold pressor pain tolerance may relate to impairment of coping abilities. Paradoxically, we found an attenuated stimulus-response function, compared to controls, suggesting that AD dementia interferes with pain ratings over time, most likely due to memory...

  16. Does acetaminophen/hydrocodone affect cold pulpal testing in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis? A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Sara; Fullmer, Spencer; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to determine the effects of a combination dose of 1000 mg acetaminophen/10 mg hydrocodone on cold pulpal testing in patients experiencing symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. One hundred emergency patients in moderate to severe pain diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth randomly received, in a double-blind manner, identical capsules of either a combination of 1000 mg acetaminophen/10 hydrocodone or placebo. Cold testing with Endo-Ice (1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroethane; Hygenic Corp, Akron, OH) was performed at baseline and every 10 minutes for 60 minutes. Pain to cold testing was recorded by the patient using a Heft-Parker visual analog scale. Patients' reaction to the cold application was also rated. Cold testing at baseline and at 10 minutes resulted in severe pain for both the acetaminophen/hydrocodone and placebo groups. Although pain ratings decreased from 20-60 minutes, the ratings still resulted in moderate pain. Patient reaction to cold testing showed that 56%-62% had a severe reaction. Although the reactions decreased in severity over the 60 minutes, 20%-34% still had severe reactions at 60 minutes. Regarding pain and patients' reactions to cold testing, there were no significant differences between the combination acetaminophen/hydrocodone and placebo groups at any time period. A combination dose of 1000 mg of acetaminophen/10 mg of hydrocodone did not statistically affect cold pulpal testing in patients presenting with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Patients experienced moderate to severe pain and reactions to cold testing. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Output Information Based Fault-Tolerant Iterative Learning Control for Dual-Rate Sampling Process with Disturbances and Output Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfeng Tao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For a class of single-input single-output (SISO dual-rate sampling processes with disturbances and output delay, this paper presents a robust fault-tolerant iterative learning control algorithm based on output information. Firstly, the dual-rate sampling process with output delay is transformed into discrete system in state-space model form with slow sampling rate without time delay by using lifting technology; then output information based fault-tolerant iterative learning control scheme is designed and the control process is turned into an equivalent two-dimensional (2D repetitive process. Moreover, based on the repetitive process stability theory, the sufficient conditions for the stability of system and the design method of robust controller are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs technique. Finally, the flow control simulations of two flow tanks in series demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Fault Diagnosis and Fault-tolerant Control of Modular Multi-level Converter High-voltage DC System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hui; Ma, Ke; Wang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    of failures and lower the reliability of the MMC-HVDC system. Therefore, research on the fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control of MMC-HVDC system is of great significance in order to enhance the reliability of the system. This paper provides a comprehensive review of fault diagnosis and fault handling...

  19. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong

    2018-02-13

    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  20. Deep Super-SAGE transcriptomic analysis of cold acclimation in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Abel; Caminero, Constantino; García, Pedro; Krezdorn, Nicolas; Hoffmeier, Klaus; Winter, Peter; Pérez de la Vega, Marcelino

    2017-06-30

    Frost is one of the main abiotic stresses limiting plant distribution and crop production. To cope with the stress, plants evolved adaptations known as cold acclimation or chilling tolerance to maximize frost tolerance. Cold acclimation is a progressive acquisition of freezing tolerance by plants subjected to low non-freezing temperatures which subsequently allows them to survive exposure to frost. Lentil is a cool season grain legume that is challenged by winter frost in some areas of its cultivation. To better understand the genetic base of frost tolerance differential gene expression in response to cold acclimation was investigated. Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the cross Precoz x WA8649041 were first classified as cold tolerant or cold susceptible according to their response to temperatures between -3 to -15 °C. Then, RILs from both extremes of the response curve were cold acclimated and the leaf transcriptomes of two bulks each of eight frost tolerant and seven cold susceptible RILs were investigated by Deep Super-SAGE transcriptome profiling. Thus, four RNA bulks were analysed: the acclimated susceptible, the acclimated tolerant and the respective controls (non-acclimated susceptible and non-acclimated tolerant). Approximately 16.5 million 26 nucleotide long Super-SAGE tags were sequenced in the four sets (between ~3 and 5.4 millions). In total, 133,077 different unitags, each representing a particular transcript isoform, were identified in these four sets. Tags which showed a significantly different abundance in any of the bulks (fold change ≥4.0 and a significant p-value <0.001) were selected and used to identify the corresponding lentil gene sequence. Three hundred of such lentil sequences were identified. Most of their known homologs coded for glycine-rich, cold and drought-regulated proteins, dormancy-associated proteins, proline-rich proteins (PRPs) and other membrane proteins. These were generally but not exclusively over-expressed in the

  1. Enhancing water stress tolerance improves fitness in biological control strains of Lactobacillus plantarum in plant environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daranas, Núria; Badosa, Esther; Francés, Jesús; Montesinos, Emilio; Bonaterra, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum strains PM411 and TC92 can efficiently control bacterial plant diseases, but their fitness on the plant surface is limited under unfavourable low relative humidity (RH) conditions. To increase tolerance of these strains to water stress, an adaptive strategy was used consisting of hyperosmotic and acidic conditions during growth. Adapted cells had higher survival rates under desiccation than non-adapted cells. Transcript levels and patterns of general stress-related genes increased immediately after the combined-stress adaptation treatment, and remained unaltered or repressed during the desiccation challenge. However, there were differences between strains in the transcription patterns that were in agreement with a better performance of adapted cells of PM411 than TC92 in plant surfaces under low RH environmental conditions. The combined-stress adaptation treatment increased the survival of PM411 cells consistently in different plant hosts in the greenhouse and under field conditions. Stress-adapted cells of PM411 had similar biocontrol potential against bacterial plant pathogens than non-adapted cells, but with less variability within experiments.

  2. Enhancing water stress tolerance improves fitness in biological control strains of Lactobacillus plantarum in plant environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Daranas

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum strains PM411 and TC92 can efficiently control bacterial plant diseases, but their fitness on the plant surface is limited under unfavourable low relative humidity (RH conditions. To increase tolerance of these strains to water stress, an adaptive strategy was used consisting of hyperosmotic and acidic conditions during growth. Adapted cells had higher survival rates under desiccation than non-adapted cells. Transcript levels and patterns of general stress-related genes increased immediately after the combined-stress adaptation treatment, and remained unaltered or repressed during the desiccation challenge. However, there were differences between strains in the transcription patterns that were in agreement with a better performance of adapted cells of PM411 than TC92 in plant surfaces under low RH environmental conditions. The combined-stress adaptation treatment increased the survival of PM411 cells consistently in different plant hosts in the greenhouse and under field conditions. Stress-adapted cells of PM411 had similar biocontrol potential against bacterial plant pathogens than non-adapted cells, but with less variability within experiments.

  3. Control of pouring molten charge out of a levitation type cold crucible; Fuyogata cold crucible kara no hiyukaibutsu no chuto seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, K.; Iwai, K.; Asai, S. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-10-25

    The cold crucible is a high-frequency induced heating melting process consisting of the cold copper crucible, coil, and charge. The levitation type crucible is of the cup type device, with the magnetic field concentrated to the vicinity of the hole in its bottom, so that the whole charge is melted and non-contact retention is achieved by the Lorentz`s force. However, when the vacuum suction method or the tilting method is used to take out or pour a charge from the crucible, defects such as contamination due to contact with the wall and heat transfer are unavoidable. This report proposes a new pouring method using the electromagnetic force, providing the logical and experimental examinations. As a result of analysis of the electromagnetic force applied on the side of the charge levitating in the crucible, it was confirmed that changing the current value through the coil varies the pouring phenomenon, depending on the followability of the levitating position, and changing the relative position of the coil to the crucible enables pouring. Thus, the pouring form measuring method was established. 9 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  4. The giant Mauritanian cold-water coral mound province: Oxygen control on coral mound formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienberg, Claudia; Titschack, Jürgen; Freiwald, André; Frank, Norbert; Lundälv, Tomas; Taviani, Marco; Beuck, Lydia; Schröder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Krengel, Thomas; Hebbeln, Dierk

    2018-04-01

    The largest coherent cold-water coral (CWC) mound province in the Atlantic Ocean exists along the Mauritanian margin, where up to 100 m high mounds extend over a distance of ∼400 km, arranged in two slope-parallel chains in 400-550 m water depth. Additionally, CWCs are present in the numerous submarine canyons with isolated coral mounds being developed on some canyon flanks. Seventy-seven Uranium-series coral ages were assessed to elucidate the timing of CWC colonisation and coral mound development along the Mauritanian margin for the last ∼120,000 years. Our results show that CWCs were present on the mounds during the Last Interglacial, though in low numbers corresponding to coral mound aggradation rates of 16 cm kyr-1. Most prolific periods for CWC growth are identified for the last glacial and deglaciation, resulting in enhanced mound aggradation (>1000 cm kyr-1), before mound formation stagnated along the entire margin with the onset of the Holocene. Until today, the Mauritanian mounds are in a dormant state with only scarce CWC growth. In the canyons, live CWCs are abundant since the Late Holocene at least. Thus, the canyons may serve as a refuge to CWCs potentially enabling the observed modest re-colonisation pulse on the mounds along the open slope. The timing and rate of the pre-Holocene coral mound aggradation, and the cessation of mound formation varied between the individual mounds, which was likely the consequence of vertical/lateral changes in water mass structure that placed the mounds near or out of oxygen-depleted waters, respectively.

  5. Implementation of a Fault Tolerant Control Unit within an FPGA for Space Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perez Casanova, Gaspar M

    2006-01-01

    .... The Configurable Fault Tolerant Processor (CFTP) developed at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) was intended to work as a platform for the implementation and testing of designs and experiments for space applications...

  6. A distributed fault tolerant architecture for nuclear reactor control and safety functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, M.; Agron, J.; Hochhauser, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a fault tolerance architecture that provides tolerance to a broad scope of hardware, software, and communications faults which is being developed. This architecture relies on widely commercially available operating systems, local area networks, and software standards. Thus, development time is significantly shortened, and modularity allows for continuous and inexpensive system enhancement throughout the expected 20- year life. The fault containment and parallel processing capabilites of computers network are being exploited to provide a high performance, high availability network capable of tolerating a broad scope of hardware software, and operating system faults. The system can tolerate all but one known (and avoidable) single fault, two known and avoidable dual faults, and will detect all higher order fault sequences and provide diagnostics to allow for rapid manual recovery

  7. Cold injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  8. Long-term tolerability of inhaled human insulin (Exubera) in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnett, A H; Lange, P; Dreyer, M

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Inhaled human insulin (Exubera; EXU) has shown encouraging tolerability in short-term trials. We evaluated the safety profile of EXU after long-term exposure. DESIGN: In two, open-label, 2-year studies patients poorly controlled on a sulphonylurea were randomised to adjunctive EXU...... or metformin (study 1) and patients poorly controlled on metformin were randomised to adjunctive EXU or the sulphonylurea, glibenclamide (study 2). PATIENTS: The studies included 446 (study 1) and 476 (study 2) patients with type 2 diabetes, no clinically significant respiratory disease and glycosylated....... There was no discernable effect of long-term EXU therapy on pulmonary gas exchange. Insulin antibody binding reached a plateau at 6 months and did not correlate with HbA(1c) or lung function changes. Glycaemic control was maintained over 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: Exubera was well tolerated during long-term use. Pulmonary...

  9. Climate control: United States weather modification in the cold war and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Kristine C

    2008-03-01

    Rainmaking, hail busting, fog lifting, snowpack enhancing, lightning suppressing, hurricane snuffing...weather control. At the lunatic fringe of scientific discussion in the early twentieth century--and the subject of newspaper articles with tones ranging from skeptical titters to awestruck wonder--weather modification research became more serious after World War II. In the United States, the 'seeds' of silver iodide and dry ice purported to enhance rainfall and bust hailstorms soon became seeds of controversy from which sprouted attempts by federal, state and local government to control the controllers and exploit 'designer weather' for their own purposes.

  10. Improvement of deposition efficiency and control of hardness for cold-sprayed coatings using high carbon steel/mild steel mixture powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kazuhiro; Amao, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Nobuyuki; Ootaki, Kousuke

    2011-01-01

    In this study, in order to make high carbon steel coating by cold spray technique, spray conditions such as carrier gas temperature and pressure etc. were investigated. And also, in order to improve deposition efficiency and control coating hardness of cold-sprayed high carbon steel, high carbon and mild steel mixed powder and its mechanical milled powder were developed and were optimized. By using the cold-spray technique, particle deposition of a high carbon steel was successful. Moreover, by applying mixed and mechanical milled powders, the porosity ratio was decreased and deposition efficiency was improved. Furthermore, using these powders, it is possible to control the hardness value. Especially, when using mechanical milled powder, it is very difficult to identify the interface between the coating and the substrate. The bonding between the coating and the substrate is thus considered to be excellent. (author)

  11. Weed control changes and genetically modified herbicide tolerant crops in the USA 1996-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Crops that have been genetically modified (GM) to be tolerant to herbicides have been widely grown in the USA since 1996. The rapid and widespread adoption of this technology reflects the important economic and environmental benefits that farmers have derived from its use (equal to $21.7 billion additional farm income and a 225 million kg reduction in herbicide active ingredient use 1996-2012). During this time, weed control practices in these crops relative to the 'conventional alternative' have evolved to reflect experience of using the technology, the challenges that have arisen and the increasing focus in recent years on developing sustainable production systems. This paper examines the evidence on the changing nature of herbicides used with these crops and in particular how farmers addressed the challenge of weed resistance. The evidence shows that use of the technology has resulted in a net reduction in both the amount of herbicide used and the associated environmental impact, as measured by the EIQ indicator when compared to what can reasonably be expected if the area planted to GM HT crops reverted to conventional production methods. It also facilitated many farmers being able to derive the economic and environmental benefits associated with switching from a plough-based to a no tillage or conservation tillage production system. In terms of herbicide use, the technology has also contributed to a change the profile of herbicides used. A broad range of, mostly selective herbicides has been replaced by one or 2 broad-spectrum herbicides (mostly glyphosate) used in conjunction with one or 2 other (complementary) herbicides. Since the mid-2000s, the average amount of herbicide applied and the associated environmental load, as measured by the EIQ indicator, have increased on both GM HT and conventional crops. A primary reason for these changes has been increasing incidence of weed species developing populations resistant to herbicides and increased awareness of

  12. Is Detrusor Contraction during Rapid Bladder Filling Caused by Cold or Warm Water? A Randomized, Controlled, Double-Blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozomara, Marko; Mehnert, Ulrich; Seifert, Burkhardt; Kessler, Thomas M

    2018-01-01

    We investigated whether detrusor contraction during rapid bladder filling is provoked by cold or warm water. Patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction were included in this randomized, controlled, double-blind trial. At the end of a standard urodynamic investigation patients underwent 2 bladder fillings using a 4C ice water test or a 36C warm water test saline solution at a filling speed of 100 ml per minute. The order was randomly selected, and patients and investigators were blinded to the order. The primary outcome measure was detrusor overactivity, maximum detrusor pressure and maximum bladder filling volume during the ice and warm water tests. Nine women and 31 men were the subject of data analysis. Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction was caused by spinal cord injury in 33 patients and by another neurological disorder in 7. Irrespective of test order detrusor overactivity occurred significantly more often during the ice water test than during the warm water test (30 of 40 patients or 75% vs 25 of 40 or 63%, p = 0.02). When comparing the ice water test to the warm water test, maximum detrusor pressure was significantly higher and maximum bladder filling volume was significantly lower during the ice water test (each p warm water first) had no effect on the parameters. Our findings imply that the more frequent detrusor overactivity, higher maximum detrusor pressure and lower bladder filling volume during the ice water test compared to the warm water test were caused by cold water. This underlies the theory of a C-fiber mediated bladder cooling reflex in humans. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Overcoming beta-agonist tolerance: high dose salbutamol and ipratropium bromide. Two randomised controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haney Sarah

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthmatics treated with long-acting beta-agonists have a reduced bronchodilator response to moderate doses of inhaled short acting beta-agonists during acute bronchoconstriction. It is not known if the response to higher doses of nebulised beta-agonists or other bronchodilators is impaired. We assessed the effect of long-acting beta-agonist treatment on the response to 5 mg nebulised salbutamol and to ipratropium bromide. Methods Two double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies of inhaled formoterol 12 μg twice daily in patients with asthma. High-dose salbutamol: 36 hours after the last dose of 1 week of formoterol or placebo treatment, 11 subjects inhaled methacholine to produce a 20% fall in FEV1. Salbutamol 5 mg was then administered via nebuliser and the FEV1 was monitored for 20 minutes. Ipratropium: 36 hours after the last dose of 1 week of formoterol or placebo treatment, 11 subjects inhaled 4.5% saline to produce a 20% fall in FEV1. Salbutamol 200 μg or ipratropium bromide 40 μg was then inhaled and the FEV1 was monitored for 30 minutes. Four study arms compared the response to each bronchodilator after formoterol and placebo. Analyses compared the area under the bronchodilator response curves, adjusting for changes in pre-challenge FEV1, dose of provocational agent and FEV1 fall during the challenge procedure. Results The response to nebulised salbutamol was 15% lower after formoterol therapy compared to placebo (95% confidence 5 to 25%, p = 0.008. The response to ipratropium was unchanged. Conclusion Long-acting beta-agonist treatment induces tolerance to the bronchodilator effect of beta-agonists, which is not overcome by higher dose nebulised salbutamol. However, the bronchodilator response to ipratropium bromide is unaffected.

  14. Pricing Weather Index Insurance Based on Artificial Controlled Experiment - A Case Study of Cold Temperature for Early Rice in Jiangxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUN, Q.; Yang, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The growth of early rice is often threated by a phenomenon known as Grain Buds Cold, a period of anomalously cold temperature that occurs during the booting and flowering stage. Therefore, quantifying the impact of weather on crop yield is a core issue in design of weather index insurance. A high yield loss will lead to an increasing premium rate. In this paper, we explored a new way to investigate the relationship between yield loss rate and cold temperature durations. A two-year artificial controlled experiment was used to build logarithm and linear yield loss model. Moreover, an information diffusion model was applied to calculate the probability of different durations which lasting for 3-20 days. The results show that pure premium rates of logarithm yield loss model had better premium rates performance than that of linear yield loss model. The premium rates of Grain Buds Cold Weather Index Insurance fluctuated between 7.085% and 10.151% in Jiangxi Province. Compared with common statistical methods, the artificial controlled experiment provides an easier and more robust way to determine the relationship between yield and single meteorological factor. Meanwhile, this experiment would be very important for some regions where were lacking in historical yield data and climate data and could help farmers cope with extreme cold weather risks under varying weather conditions.

  15. Marine cold seeps and their manifestations: geological control, biogeochemical criteria and environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Erwin

    2014-10-01

    Characteristics of cold seeps at different geologic settings are the subject of this review primarily based on results of the Research Consortium SFB 574. Criteria are drawn from examples on the erosive convergent margin off Costa Rica, the accretionary margin off Chile supplemented by examples from the transform margin of the Golf of Cadiz and the convergent Hikurangi margin off New Zealand. Others are from well-studied passive margins of the Black Sea, the Golf of Mexico, the eastern Mediterranean Sea and the South China Sea. Seeps at all settings transport water and dissolved compounds to the ocean through the seafloor by different forcing mechanism and from different depths of the submerged geosphere (10s of meters to 10s of km). The compounds sustain oasis-type ecosystems by providing bioactive reductants sulfide, methane and hydrogen. Hereby, the interaction between fluid composition, flux rates and biota results in a diagnostic hydrocarbon-metazoan-microbe-carbonate association; currently, well over 100 active sites are known. The single most important reaction is microbially mediated anaerobic oxidation of methane with secondary reactions involving S-biogeochemistry and carbonate mineral precipitation. Seep fluids and their seafloor manifestations provide clues as to source depth, fluid-sediment/rock interaction during ascent, lifetime and cyclicity of seepage events but less so on the magnitude of return flow. At erosive margins, Cl-depleted and B-enriched fluids from clay dehydration provide criteria for source depth and temperature. The upward material flow generates mud volcanoes at the seafloor above the projected location of dehydration at depth. At accretionary margins, fluids are derived from more shallow depths by compaction of sediments as they ride on the incoming oceanic plate; they are emitted through thrust faults. At highly sedimented margins, organic-rich and evaporite-containing strata (when present) determine the final fluid composition

  16. Dence Cold Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavinskiy Alexey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Possible way to create dense cold baryonic matter in the laboratory is discussed. The density of this matter is comparable or even larger than the density of neutron star core. The properties of this matter can be controlled by trigger conditions. Experimental program for the study of properties of dense cold matter for light and heavy ion collisions at initial energy range √sNN~2-3GeV is proposed..

  17. Waterhammer modeling for the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System cold flow development test article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan Hunter

    The Upper Stage Reaction Control System provides in-flight three-axis attitude control for the Ares I Upper Stage. The system design must accommodate rapid thruster firing to maintain proper launch trajectory and thus allow for the possibility to pulse multiple thrusters simultaneously. Rapid thruster valve closure creates an increase in static pressure, known as waterhammer, which propagates throughout the propellant system at pressures exceeding nominal design values. A series of development tests conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center in 2009 were performed using a water-flow test article to better understand fluid characteristics of the Upper Stage Reaction Control System. A subset of the tests examined the waterhammer pressure and frequency response in the flight-representative system and provided data to anchor numerical models. This thesis presents a comparison of waterhammer test results with numerical model and analytical results. An overview of the flight system, test article, modeling and analysis are also provided.

  18. Fault tolerant control of a three-phase three-wire shunt active filter system based on reliability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poure, P. [Laboratoire d' Instrumentation Electronique de Nancy LIEN, EA 3440, Nancy-Universite, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); Weber, P.; Theilliol, D. [Centre de Recherche en Automatique de Nancy UMR 7039, Nancy-Universite, CNRS, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); Saadate, S. [Groupe de Recherches en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy UMR 7037, Nancy-Universite, CNRS, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France)

    2009-02-15

    This paper deals with fault tolerant shunt three-phase three-wire active filter topologies for which reliability is very important in industry applications. The determination of the optimal reconfiguration structure among various ones with or without redundant components is discussed based on reliability criteria. First, the reconfiguration of the inverter is detailed and a fast fault diagnosis method for power semi-conductor or driver fault detection and compensation is presented. This method avoids false fault detection due to power semi-conductors switching. The control architecture and algorithm are studied and a fault tolerant control strategy is considered. Simulation results in open and short circuit cases validate the theoretical study. Finally, the reliability of the studied three-phase three-wire filter shunt active topologies is analyzed to determine the optimal one. (author)

  19. Active fault tolerance control of a wind turbine system using an unknown input observer with an actuator fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shanzhi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a fault tolerant control scheme based on an unknown input observer for a wind turbine system subject to an actuator fault and disturbance. Firstly, an unknown input observer for state estimation and fault detection using a linear parameter varying model is developed. By solving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs and linear matrix equalities (LMEs, the gains of the unknown input observer are obtained. The convergence of the unknown input observer is also analysed with Lyapunov theory. Secondly, using fault estimation, an active fault tolerant controller is applied to a wind turbine system. Finally, a simulation of a wind turbine benchmark with an actuator fault is tested for the proposed method. The simulation results indicate that the proposed FTC scheme is efficient.

  20. Photoperiod and cold night temperature in control of flowering in Kalanchoë

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes Coelho, Lívia; Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Lütken, Henrik Vlk

    2015-01-01

    was used as control species to validate treatments that consisted of combining short day photoperiod (8 h) and different night temperature (18, 12 and 6C). While K. prittwitzii had 100% flowering for all treatments, K. marmorata only flowered at 12C (33% plants flowering) and 6C (25% plants flowering...

  1. Confinement of activating receptors at the plasma membrane controls natural killer cell tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guia, Sophie; Jaeger, Baptiste N; Piatek, Stefan; Mailfert, Sébastien; Trombik, Tomasz; Fenis, Aurore; Chevrier, Nicolas; Walzer, Thierry; Kerdiles, Yann M; Marguet, Didier; Vivier, Eric; Ugolini, Sophie

    2011-04-05

    Natural killer (NK) cell tolerance to self is partly ensured by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-specific inhibitory receptors on NK cells, which dampen their reactivity when engaged. However, NK cells that do not detect self MHC class I are not autoreactive. We used dynamic fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to show that MHC class I-independent NK cell tolerance in mice was associated with the presence of hyporesponsive NK cells in which both activating and inhibitory receptors were confined in an actin meshwork at the plasma membrane. In contrast, the recognition of self MHC class I by inhibitory receptors "educated" NK cells to become fully reactive, and activating NK cell receptors became dynamically compartmentalized in membrane nanodomains. We propose that the confinement of activating receptors at the plasma membrane is pivotal to ensuring the self-tolerance of NK cells.

  2. Evaluation of Freezing Tolerance of Hexaploid Triticale Genotypes under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad, NEZAMI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate freezing tolerance of different triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack genotypes, an experiment was carried out under controlled conditions in 2007 and 2008 at college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. In this study seeven triticale genotypes (�Juanilo-92�, �ET-82-15�, �ET-82-8�, �ET-83-20�, �ET-83-19�, �ET-83-18� and �ET-79-17�, across six temperatures (0�C, -4�C, -8�C, -12�C, -16�C and -20�C were evaluated within a factorial-completely randomized design with three replications. Plants were kept until 2 leaf stage in chamber with temperature of 20/15�C (day/night and 12.5 h photoperiod. At the end of this stage, plants were under acclimation for three weeks. After exposing to acclimation freezing the cell membrane integrity was measured through electrolyte leakage (EL and the lethal temperature (LT50 of samples was measured. After the exposure to freezing temperatures the samples were transferred to the greenhouse. Survival percentage, plant height, leaf area and number, chlorophyll content, and plant dry weight were determined after 3 weeks. Results showed that the effect of different freezing temperature and genotypes were significant on all plant characteristics. As temperature decreased, %EL of all genotypes was increased. Minimum and Maximum EL % in leaf and crown were observed at 0�C (21% and -20�C (88.5%. �ET-79-17� and �Juanilo-92� genotypes showed the highest EL% (55.5% and 44.8% and �ET-83-20� the lowest EL% (47.3% and 41.2% in leaf and crown. Dry weight and leaf area decreased by 48% and 42% respectively compared to non frozen control plants. �ET-79-17� and �ET-82-15� genotypes showed the highest dry weight (83.8 mg and highest leaf area (14.3 cm2 respectively and �ET-83-20� cultivar showed the lowest dry weight and leaf area (58.2 mg and 8.7 cm2.

  3. Evaluation of Freezing Tolerance of Hexaploid Triticale Genotypes under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad, NEZAMI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate freezing tolerance of different triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack genotypes, an experiment was carried out under controlled conditions in 2007 and 2008 at college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. In this study seeven triticale genotypes (Juanilo-92, ET-82-15, ET-82-8, ET-83-20, ET-83-19, ET-83-18 and ET-79-17, across six temperatures (0C, -4C, -8C, -12C, -16C and -20C were evaluated within a factorial-completely randomized design with three replications. Plants were kept until 2 leaf stage in chamber with temperature of 20/15C (day/night and 12.5 h photoperiod. At the end of this stage, plants were under acclimation for three weeks. After exposing to acclimation freezing the cell membrane integrity was measured through electrolyte leakage (EL and the lethal temperature (LT50 of samples was measured. After the exposure to freezing temperatures the samples were transferred to the greenhouse. Survival percentage, plant height, leaf area and number, chlorophyll content, and plant dry weight were determined after 3 weeks. Results showed that the effect of different freezing temperature and genotypes were significant on all plant characteristics. As temperature decreased, %EL of all genotypes was increased. Minimum and Maximum EL % in leaf and crown were observed at 0C (21% and -20C (88.5%. ET-79-17 and Juanilo-92 genotypes showed the highest EL% (55.5% and 44.8% and ET-83-20 the lowest EL% (47.3% and 41.2% in leaf and crown. Dry weight and leaf area decreased by 48% and 42% respectively compared to non frozen control plants. ET-79-17 and ET-82-15 genotypes showed the highest dry weight (83.8 mg and highest leaf area (14.3 cm2 respectively and ET-83-20 cultivar showed the lowest dry weight and leaf area (58.2 mg and 8.7 cm2.

  4. Treatment of Common Cold Patients with the Shi-Cha Capsule: A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Escalation Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jing; Dong, Shou-Jin; She, Bin; Zhang, Rui-Ming; Meng, Mao-Bin; Xu, Yan-Ling; Wan, Li-Ling; Shi, Ke-Hua; Pan, Jun-Hun; Mao, Bing

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the therapeutic efficacy and safety of the Shi-cha capsule, a Chinese herbal formula, in the treatment of patients with wind-cold type common cold. In our multi-center, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial, patients with wind-cold type common cold received 0.6 g of Shi-cha capsule plus 0.6 g placebo (group A), 1.2 g of Shi-cha capsule (group B), or 1.2 g placebo (group C), three times daily for 3 days and followed up to 10 days. The primary end point was all symptom duration. The secondary end points were main symptom duration, minor symptom duration, the changes in cumulative symptom score, main symptom score, and minor symptom score 4 days after the treatment, as well as adverse events. A total of 377 patients were recruited and 360 met the inclusive criteria; 120 patients constituted each treatment group. Compared with patients in group C, patients in groups A and B had significant improvement in the all symptom duration, main symptom duration, minor symptom duration, as well as change from baseline of cumulative symptom score, main symptom score, and minor symptom score at day 4. The symptom durations and scores showed slight superiority of group B over group A, although these differences were not statistically significant. There were no differences in adverse events. The Shi-cha capsule is efficacious and safe for the treatment of patients with wind-cold type common cold. Larger trials are required to fully assess the benefits and safety of this treatment for common cold. PMID:23346193

  5. Fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant finite control set-model predictive control of a multiphase voltage-source inverter supplying BLDC motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehifar, Mehdi; Moreno-Equilaz, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Due to its fault tolerance, a multiphase brushless direct current (BLDC) motor can meet high reliability demand for application in electric vehicles. The voltage-source inverter (VSI) supplying the motor is subjected to open circuit faults. Therefore, it is necessary to design a fault-tolerant (FT) control algorithm with an embedded fault diagnosis (FD) block. In this paper, finite control set-model predictive control (FCS-MPC) is developed to implement the fault-tolerant control algorithm of a five-phase BLDC motor. The developed control method is fast, simple, and flexible. A FD method based on available information from the control block is proposed; this method is simple, robust to common transients in motor and able to localize multiple open circuit faults. The proposed FD and FT control algorithm are embedded in a five-phase BLDC motor drive. In order to validate the theory presented, simulation and experimental results are conducted on a five-phase two-level VSI supplying a five-phase BLDC motor. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cold Sore

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may reduce how often they return. Symptoms A cold sore usually passes through several stages: Tingling and itching. Many people feel an itching, burning or tingling sensation around their lips for a day or so ...

  7. Effects of methadone hydrochloride on the growth of organotypic cerebellar cultures prepared from methadone-tolerant and control rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, N J; Schneider, J F; Roizin, L; Fleiss, J F; Rivers, W; Demartini, J E

    1976-11-01

    Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given dl-methadone (5 mg/kg) for at least 3 months and then mated. The drug was continued throughout pregnancy and after delivery. The newly born pups were divided into two groups. One group was tested for in vivo methadone tolerance, while the animals in the othergroup were used to prepare organotypic cerebellar cultures. Various amounts of dl-methadone were added to the media of half of these cerebellum cultures. The effect of the drug in the medium was assessed by measuring explant outgrowth. Similar experiments were carried out with control animals. Statistical analysis of the data obtained in the in vivo portion of the experiment indicates that the pups of methadone-treated mothers tolerate methadone better than those of untreated mothers. The culture experiments revealed that the addition of methadone to the medium reduced explant outgrowth size and this was a dose-related effect. Also, there was significantly less outgrowth from explants prepared using pups of methadone-treated mothers as compared to the controls. There was no significant difference in the effect of methadone on the growth of cultures prepared from the methadone-tolerant and control animals.

  8. Air temperature optimisation for humidity-controlled cold storage of the predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, Noureldin Abuelfadl; Suzuki, Takeshi; Amano, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Katsumi

    2014-03-01

    Humidity-controlled cold storage, in which the water vapour pressure is saturated, can prolong the survival of the predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). However, information on the optimum air temperature for long-term storage by this method is limited. The authors evaluated the survival of mated adult females of N. californicus and P. persimilis at 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 °C under saturated water vapour condition (vapour pressure deficit 0.0 kPa). N. californicus showed a longer survival time than P. persimilis at all the air temperatures. The longest mean survival time of N. californicus was 11 weeks at 7.5 °C, whereas that of P. persimilis was 8 weeks at 5.0 °C. After storage at 7.5 °C for 8 weeks, no negative effect on post-storage oviposition was observed in N. californicus, whereas the oviposition of P. persimilis stored at 5.0 °C for 8 weeks was significantly reduced. The interspecific variation in the response of these predators to low air temperature might be attributed to their natural habitat and energy requirements. These results may be useful for the long-term storage of these predators, which is required for cost-effective biological control. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Use of gamma irradiation for control of postharvest Botrytis cinerea bunch rot of table grapes in cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Kock, P.J.; Holz, G.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of employing gamma irradiation for the control of postharvest Botrytis bunch rot of table grapes in cold storage was studied. Table grape cultivars from commercial vineyards in the Paarl and Hex River Valley areas were packed as for export in vented corrugated cartons. The cartons were irradiated at 0; 1,5; 2,0 or 3,0 kGy. After irradiation, grapes were kept for 4 weeks at -0,5 degrees C, followed by another week at 10 degrees C. Less decay was observed when table grapes were irradiated soon after picking than after a storage period. Irradiation at 1,5; 2,0 and 3,0 kGy reduced the effects of Botrytis cinerea on Barlinka grapes stored without sulphur dioxide. Irradiation of Waltham Cross and Barlinka grapes at a dose of 2,0 kGy, combined with reduced SO 2 treatments, resulted in similar control as with the standard practice of enclosing an SO 2 generator. Browning of Waltham Cross berries and bacterial and yeast growth occurred on the surface of berries irradiated at a dose of 3,0 kGy. Irradiation had no adverse effect on other aspects of quality. 25 refs., 3 tabs

  10. Waterhammer Modeling for the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System Cold Flow Development Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan H.

    2010-01-01

    The Upper Stage Reaction Control System provides three-axis attitude control for the Ares I launch vehicle during active Upper Stage flight. The system design must accommodate rapid thruster firing to maintain the proper launch trajectory and thus allow for the possibility to pulse multiple thrusters simultaneously. Rapid thruster valve closure creates an increase in static pressure, known as waterhammer, which propagates throughout the propellant system at pressures exceeding nominal design values. A series of development tests conducted in the fall of 2009 at Marshall Space Flight Center were performed using a water-flow test article to better understand fluid performance characteristics of the Upper Stage Reaction Control System. A subset of the tests examined waterhammer along with the subsequent pressure and frequency response in the flight-representative system and provided data to anchor numerical models. This thesis presents a comparison of waterhammer test results with numerical model and analytical results. An overview of the flight system, test article, modeling and analysis are also provided.

  11. Note: implementation of a cold spot setup for controlled variation of vapor pressures and its application to an InBr containing discharge lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefi, S

    2013-02-01

    In order to allow for a systematic investigation of the plasma properties of discharges containing indium halides, which are proposed as an efficient alternative for mercury based low pressure discharge lamps, a controlled variation of the indium halide density is mandatory. This can be achieved by applying a newly designed setup in which a well-defined cold spot location is implemented and the cold spot temperature can be adjusted between 50 and 350 °C without influencing the gas temperature. The performance of the setup has been proved by comparing the calculated evaporated InBr density (using the vapor pressure curve) with the one measured via white light absorption spectroscopy.

  12. Robust Fault-Tolerant Control for Satellite Attitude Stabilization Based on Active Disturbance Rejection Approach with Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a robust fault-tolerant control algorithm for satellite stabilization based on active disturbance rejection approach with artificial bee colony algorithm. The actuating mechanism of attitude control system consists of three working reaction flywheels and one spare reaction flywheel. The speed measurement of reaction flywheel is adopted for fault detection. If any reaction flywheel fault is detected, the corresponding fault flywheel is isolated and the spare reaction flywheel is activated to counteract the fault effect and ensure that the satellite is working safely and reliably. The active disturbance rejection approach is employed to design the controller, which handles input information with tracking differentiator, estimates system uncertainties with extended state observer, and generates control variables by state feedback and compensation. The designed active disturbance rejection controller is robust to both internal dynamics and external disturbances. The bandwidth parameter of extended state observer is optimized by the artificial bee colony algorithm so as to improve the performance of attitude control system. A series of simulation experiment results demonstrate the performance superiorities of the proposed robust fault-tolerant control algorithm.

  13. A New Adaptive Control for Five-Phase Fault-Tolerant Flux-Switching Permanent Magnet Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The five-phase fault-tolerant flux-switching permanent magnet (FT-FSPM motor can offer high efficiency and high fault-tolerant capability. In this paper, its operation principle is presented briefly and its mathematical model is derived. Further, a new adaptive control for an FT-FSPM motor, based on the backstepping method and the sliding mode control strategy, is proposed. According to the backstepping method, the current controllers and voltage control laws are designed to track the speed and minimize the current static error, which enhance the dynamic response and the ability to suppress external disturbances. In order to overcome the influence of parameter variations, according to sliding mode control theory, the virtual control variables and the adaptive algorithm are utilized to approach uncertainty terms. Three Lyapunov functions are designed, and the stability of the closed-loop system is analyzed in detail. Finally, both simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the proposed control method.

  14. RAP2.4a Is Transported through the Phloem to Regulate Cold and Heat Tolerance in Papaya Tree (Carica papaya cv. Maradol: Implications for Protection Against Abiotic Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Figueroa-Yañez

    Full Text Available Plants respond to stress through metabolic and morphological changes that increase their ability to survive and grow. To this end, several transcription factor families are responsible for transmitting the signals that are required for these changes. Here, we studied the transcription factor superfamily AP2/ERF, particularly, RAP2.4 from Carica papaya cv. Maradol. We isolated four genes (CpRap2.4a, CpRAap2.4b, CpRap2.1 and CpRap2.10, and an in silico analysis showed that the four genes encode proteins that contain a conserved APETALA2 (AP2 domain located within group I and II transcription factors of the AP2/ERF superfamily. Semiquantitative PCR experiments indicated that each CpRap2 gene is differentially expressed under stress conditions, such as extreme temperatures. Moreover, genetic transformants of tobacco plants overexpressing CpRap2.4a and CpRap2.4b genes show a high level of tolerance to cold and heat stress compared to non-transformed plants. Confocal microscopy analysis of tobacco transgenic plants showed that CpRAP2.4a and CpRAP2.4b proteins were mainly localized to the nuclei of cells from the leaves and roots and also in the sieve elements. Moreover, the movement of CpRap2.4a RNA in tobacco grafting was analyzed. Our results indicate that CpRap2.4a and CpRap2.4b RNA in the papaya tree have a functional role in the response to stress conditions such as exposure to extreme temperatures via direct translation outside the parental RNA cell.

  15. Effects of Combining a Brief Cognitive Intervention with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Pain Tolerance: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Abigail; Madan, Alok; Hilbert, Megan; Reeves, Scott T; George, Mark; Nash, Michael R; Borckardt, Jeffrey J

    2018-04-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy has been shown to be effective for treating chronic pain, and a growing literature shows the potential analgesic effects of minimally invasive brain stimulation. However, few studies have systematically investigated the potential benefits associated with combining approaches. The goal of this pilot laboratory study was to investigate the combination of a brief cognitive restructuring intervention and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in affecting pain tolerance. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled laboratory pilot. Medical University of South Carolina. A total of 79 healthy adult volunteers. Subjects were randomized into one of six groups: 1) anodal tDCS plus a brief cognitive intervention (BCI); 2) anodal tDCS plus pain education; 3) cathodal tDCS plus BCI; 4) cathodal tDCS plus pain education; 5) sham tDCS plus BCI; and 6) sham tDCS plus pain education. Participants underwent thermal pain tolerance testing pre- and postintervention using the Method of Limits. A significant main effect for time (pre-post intervention) was found, as well as for baseline thermal pain tolerance (covariate) in the model. A significant time × group interaction effect was found on thermal pain tolerance. Each of the five groups that received at least one active intervention outperformed the group receiving sham tDCS and pain education only (i.e., control group), with the exception of the anodal tDCS + education-only group. Cathodal tDCS combined with the BCI produced the largest analgesic effect. Combining cathodal tDCS with BCI yielded the largest analgesic effect of all the conditions tested. Future research might find stronger interactive effects of combined tDCS and a cognitive intervention with larger doses of each intervention. Because this controlled laboratory pilot employed an acute pain analogue and the cognitive intervention did not authentically represent cognitive behavioral

  16. Commensal Lactobacillus Controls Immune Tolerance during Acute Liver Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Nakamoto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Gut-derived microbial antigens trigger the innate immune system during acute liver injury. During recovery, regulatory immunity plays a role in suppressing inflammation; however, the precise mechanism underlying this process remains obscure. Here, we find that recruitment of immune-regulatory classical dendritic cells (cDCs is crucial for liver tolerance in concanavalin A-induced acute liver injury. Acute liver injury resulted in enrichment of commensal Lactobacillus in the gut. Notably, Lactobacillus activated IL-22 production by gut innate lymphoid cells and raised systemic IL-22 levels. Gut-derived IL-22 enhanced mucosal barrier function and promoted the recruitment of regulatory cDCs to the liver. These cDCs produced IL-10 and TGF-β through TLR9 activation, preventing further liver inflammation. Collectively, our results indicate that beneficial gut microbes influence tolerogenic immune responses in the liver. Therefore, modulation of the gut microbiota might be a potential option to regulate liver tolerance. : Nakamoto et.al. find that Lactobacillus accumulates in the gut and activates IL-22 production by innate lymphoid cells during acute liver injury. Gut-derived IL-22 contributes to liver tolerance via induction of regulatory DCs. Keywords: immune tolerance, dendritic cell, innate lymphoid cell, acute liver injury, interleukin-10, interleukin-22, microbiota, dysbiosis

  17. Melatonin for Sleep in Children with Autism: A Controlled Trial Examining Dose, Tolerability, and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malow, Beth; Adkins, Karen W.; McGrew, Susan G.; Wang, Lily; Goldman, Suzanne E.; Fawkes, Diane; Burnette, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    Supplemental melatonin has shown promise in treating sleep onset insomnia in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Twenty-four children, free of psychotropic medications, completed an open-label dose-escalation study to assess dose-response, tolerability, safety, feasibility of collecting actigraphy data, and ability of outcome measures…

  18. Climate Control Load Reduction Strategies for Electric Drive Vehicles in Cold Weather: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffers, Matthew; Chaney, Lawrence; Rugh, John

    2016-03-31

    When operated, the climate control system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle. This load has significant impact on fuel economy for conventional and hybrid vehicles, and it drastically reduces the driving range of all electric vehicles (EVs). Heating is even more detrimental to EV range than cooling because no engine waste heat is available. Reducing the thermal loads on the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system will extend driving range and increase the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have evaluated strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction with special attention toward grid connected electric vehicles. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing and computational modeling were used to assess potential strategies for improved thermal management and to evaluate the effectiveness of thermal load reduction technologies. A human physiology model was also used to evaluate the impact on occupant thermal comfort. Experimental evaluations of zonal heating strategies demonstrated a 5.5% to 28.5% reduction in cabin heating energy over a 20-minute warm-up. Vehicle simulations over various drive cycles show a 6.9% to 18.7% improvement in EV range over baseline heating using the most promising zonal heating strategy investigated. A national-level analysis was conducted to determine the overall national impact. If all vehicles used the best zonal strategy, the range would be improved by 7.1% over the baseline heating range. This is a 33% reduction in the range penalty for heating.

  19. Nuclear weapons, scientists, and the post-Cold War challenge selected papers on arms control

    CERN Document Server

    Drell, Sidney D

    2007-01-01

    This volume includes a representative selection of Sidney Drell's recent writings and speeches (circa 1993 to the present) on public policy issues with substantial scientific components. Most of the writings deal with national security, nuclear weapons, and arms control and reflect the author's personal involvement in such issues dating back to 1960. Fifteen years after the demise of the Soviet Union, the gravest danger presented by nuclear weapons is the spread of advanced technology that may result in the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Of most concern would be their acquisition by hostile governments and terrorists who are unconstrained by accepted norms of civilized behavior. The current challenges are to prevent this from happening and, at the same time, to pursue aggressively the opportunity to escape from an outdated nuclear deterrence trap.

  20. Fault tolerant control with torque limitation based on fault mode for ten-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Hong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel fault tolerant control with torque limitation based on the fault mode for the ten-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM under various open-circuit and short-circuit fault conditions, which includes the optimal torque control and the torque limitation control based on the fault mode. The optimal torque control is adopted to guarantee the ripple-free electromagnetic torque operation for the ten-phase motor system under the post-fault condition. Furthermore, we systematically analyze the load capacity of the ten-phase motor system under different fault modes. And a torque limitation control approach based on the fault mode is proposed, which was not available earlier. This approach is able to ensure the safety operation of the faulted motor system in long operating time without causing the overheat fault. The simulation result confirms that the proposed fault tolerant control for the ten-phase motor system is able to guarantee the ripple-free electromagnetic torque and the safety operation in long operating time under the normal and fault conditions.

  1. Decoupling control of a five-phase fault-tolerant permanent magnet motor by radial basis function neural network inverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Liu, Guohai; Xu, Dezhi; Xu, Liang; Xu, Gaohong; Aamir, Nazir

    2018-05-01

    This paper proposes a new decoupled control for a five-phase in-wheel fault-tolerant permanent magnet (IW-FTPM) motor drive, in which radial basis function neural network inverse (RBF-NNI) and internal model control (IMC) are combined. The RBF-NNI system is introduced into original system to construct a pseudo-linear system, and IMC is used as a robust controller. Hence, the newly proposed control system incorporates the merits of the IMC and RBF-NNI methods. In order to verify the proposed strategy, an IW-FTPM motor drive is designed based on dSPACE real-time control platform. Then, the experimental results are offered to verify that the d-axis current and the rotor speed are successfully decoupled. Besides, the proposed motor drive exhibits strong robustness even under load torque disturbance.

  2. Decentralized Sliding Mode Observer Based Dual Closed-Loop Fault Tolerant Control for Reconfigurable Manipulator against Actuator Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhao

    Full Text Available This paper considers a decentralized fault tolerant control (DFTC scheme for reconfigurable manipulators. With the appearance of norm-bounded failure, a dual closed-loop trajectory tracking control algorithm is proposed on the basis of the Lyapunov stability theory. Characterized by the modularization property, the actuator failure is estimated by the proposed decentralized sliding mode observer (DSMO. Moreover, the actuator failure can be treated in view of the local joint information, so its control performance degradation is independent of other normal joints. In addition, the presented DFTC scheme is significantly simplified in terms of the structure of the controller due to its dual closed-loop architecture, and its feasibility is highly reflected in the control of reconfigurable manipulators. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed DFTC scheme is demonstrated using simulations.

  3. Decentralized Sliding Mode Observer Based Dual Closed-Loop Fault Tolerant Control for Reconfigurable Manipulator against Actuator Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Li, Yuanchun

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a decentralized fault tolerant control (DFTC) scheme for reconfigurable manipulators. With the appearance of norm-bounded failure, a dual closed-loop trajectory tracking control algorithm is proposed on the basis of the Lyapunov stability theory. Characterized by the modularization property, the actuator failure is estimated by the proposed decentralized sliding mode observer (DSMO). Moreover, the actuator failure can be treated in view of the local joint information, so its control performance degradation is independent of other normal joints. In addition, the presented DFTC scheme is significantly simplified in terms of the structure of the controller due to its dual closed-loop architecture, and its feasibility is highly reflected in the control of reconfigurable manipulators. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed DFTC scheme is demonstrated using simulations. PMID:26181826

  4. Cold stratification, but not stratification in salinity, enhances seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cold stratification, but not stratification in salinity, enhances seedling growth of wheat under salt treatment. L Wang, HL Wang, CH Yin, CY Tian. Abstract. Cold stratification was reported to release seed dormancy and enhance plant tolerance to salt stress. Experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that cold ...

  5. Characteristic Analysis and Fault-Tolerant Control of Circulating Current for Modular Multilevel Converters under Sub-Module Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A modular multilevel converter (MMC is considered to be a promising topology for medium- or high-power applications. However, a significantly increased amount of sub-modules (SMs in each arm also increase the risk of failures. Focusing on the fault-tolerant operation issue for the MMC under SM faults, the operation characteristics of MMC with different numbers of faulty SMs in the arms are analyzed and summarized in this paper. Based on the characteristics, a novel circulating current-suppressing (CCS fault-tolerant control strategy comprised of a basic control unit (BCU and virtual resistance compensation control unit (VRCCU in two parts is proposed, which has three main features: (i it can suppress the multi-different frequency components of the circulating current under different SM fault types simultaneously; (ii it can help fast limiting of the transient fault current caused at the faulty SM bypassed moment; and (iii it does not need extra communication systems to acquire the information of the number of faulty SMs. Moreover, by analyzing the stability performance of the proposed controller using the Root-Locus criterion, the election principle of the value of virtual resistance is revealed. Finally, the efficiency of the control strategy is confirmed with the simulation and experiment studies under different fault conditions.

  6. Integration of error tolerance into the design of control rooms of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepanloo, Kamran

    1998-08-01

    Many complex technological systems' failures have been attributed to human errors. Today, based on extensive research on the role of human element in technological systems it is known that human error can not totally be eliminated in modern, flexible, or changing work environments by conventional style design strategies(e.g. defence in depth), or better instructions nor should they be. Instead, the operators' ability to explore degrees of freedom should be supported and means for recovering from the effects of errors should be included. This calls for innovative error tolerant design of technological systems. Integration of error tolerant concept into the design, construction, startup, and operation of nuclear power plants provides an effective means of reducing human error occurrence during all stages of life of it and therefore leads to considerable enhancement of plant's safety

  7. Biochemical Tolerance During Low Dose Propylene Glycol Exposure in Neonates: A Formulation-Controlled Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Kulo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study: Propylene glycol (PG is a frequently co-administered solvent in formulations administered to neonates, but reports on its (intolerance are limited. We aimed to report on renal, metabolic and hepatic tolerance before, during and following intravenous (iv PG-paracetamol exposure and compared these data with similar datasets reported in literature on neonates exposed to PG without paracetamol or paracetamol without PG.Methods: Renal (diuresis, creatinemia, sodium, metabolic (Base Excess, Anion Gap, lactate, bicarbonate and hepatic (liver enzymes, bilirubinemia indicators before, during and following iv paracetamol-PG exposure in neonates as included in the PARANEO (paracetamol in neonates study (intra-individual trends, ANOVA were collected and analysed.Comparison with observations collected in cases exposed to either iv phenobarbital-PG or iv paracetamol-mannitol (inter-individual comparison, Mann Whitney-U test were made. Results: PG exposure (median 34.1 mg/kg/24 h did not affect postnatal renal, metabolic and hepatic adaptations in 60 cases exposed to paracetamol-PG. These indicators were similar when compared to 29 cases exposed to phenobarbital- PG or 172 cases exposed to paracetamol-mannitol.Major conclusion: Based on observations in 89 neonates, low dose PG exposure was tolerated well. Studies on PG pharmacokinetics and its covariates are needed to estimate the upper level of PG tolerance in neonates.

  8. Dosages of cold-water immersion post exercise on functional and clinical responses: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, A F; Almeida, A C; Micheletti, J K; Vanderlei, F M; Tribst, M F; Netto Junior, J; Pastre, C M

    2017-11-01

    Cold-water immersion (CWI) is one of the recovery techniques commonly used by athletes for post-exercise recovery. Nevertheless, the effects of CWI using different temperatures and the dose-response relationship of this technique have not yet been investigated. The aims of this study were to compare the effects of two strategies of CWI, using different water temperatures with passive recovery post exercise in the management of some markers of muscle damage, and to observe whether any of the techniques used caused deleterious effects on performance. Sixty healthy male participants performed an eccentric protocol to induce muscle damage and were then randomized to one of three groups (CWI1: 15 min at 9 °C; CWI2: 15 min at 14 °C; CG: control group). Levels of creatine kinase, muscle soreness, pain threshold, perception of recovery, and maximal voluntary isometric contraction were monitored up to 96 h post exercise. A large effect for time for all outcomes was observed [P < 0.001; CK (ES = 0.516), muscle soreness (ES = 0.368); pain threshold (ES = 0.184); perception of recovery (ES = 0.565); MVIC (ES = 0.273)]. CWI groups presented an earlier recovery for muscle soreness with lower ratings immediately post recovery. For delayed effects, the application of CWI2 (15 min at 14 °C) presented earlier recovery compared with CWI1 and control condition for maximal voluntary isometric contraction (P < 0.05). There were no significant group and interaction (Group × Time) effects. CWI groups acted more efficiently for muscle soreness and performance considering the time of recovery was observed. No evidence was found to suggest dose-response relationship and deleterious effects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. YF22 Model With On-Board On-Line Learning Microprocessors-Based Neural Algorithms for Autopilot and Fault-Tolerant Flight Control Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Napolitano, Marcello

    2002-01-01

    This project focused on investigating the potential of on-line learning 'hardware-based' neural approximators and controllers to provide fault tolerance capabilities following sensor and actuator failures...

  10. Indirect adaptive fuzzy fault-tolerant tracking control for MIMO nonlinear systems with actuator and sensor failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounemeur, Abdelhamid; Chemachema, Mohamed; Essounbouli, Najib

    2018-05-10

    In this paper, an active fuzzy fault tolerant tracking control (AFFTTC) scheme is developed for a class of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) unknown nonlinear systems in the presence of unknown actuator faults, sensor failures and external disturbance. The developed control scheme deals with four kinds of faults for both sensors and actuators. The bias, drift, and loss of accuracy additive faults are considered along with the loss of effectiveness multiplicative fault. A fuzzy adaptive controller based on back-stepping design is developed to deal with actuator failures and unknown system dynamics. However, an additional robust control term is added to deal with sensor faults, approximation errors, and external disturbances. Lyapunov theory is used to prove the stability of the closed loop system. Numerical simulations on a quadrotor are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fault Tolerant Operation of ISOP Multicell Dc-Dc Converter Using Active Gate Controlled SiC Protection Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Hayashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An active gate controlled semiconductor protection switch using SiC-MOSFET is proposed to achieve the fault tolerant operation of ISOP (Input Series and Output Parallel connected multicell dc-dc converter. The SiC-MOSFET with high temperature capability simplifies the configuration of the protection circuit, and its on-resistance control by the active gate controller realizes the smooth protection without the voltage and the current surges. The first laboratory prototype of the protection switch is fabricated by using a SiC-MOSFET with a high frequency buck chopper for the active gate controller. The effectiveness of the proposed protection switch is verified, taking the impact of the volume reduction into account.

  12. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, J.

    1989-01-01

    In this contribution the author the phenomenom of so-called cold fusion, inspired by the memorable lecture of Moshe Gai on his own search for this effect. Thus much of what follows was presented by Dr. Gai; the rest is from independent reading. What is referred to as cold fusion is of course the observation of possible products of deuteron-deuteron (d-d) fusion within deuterium-loaded (dentended) electrodes. The debate over the two vanguard cold fusion experiments has raged under far more public attention than usually accorded new scientific phenomena. The clamor commenced with the press conference of M. Fleishmann and S. Pons on March 23, 1989 and the nearly simultaneous wide circulation of a preprint of S. Jones and collaborators. The majority of work attempting to confirm these observations has at the time of this writing yet to appear in published form, but contributions to conferences and electronic mail over computer networks were certainly filled with preliminary results. To keep what follows to a reasonable length the author limit this discussion to the searches for neutron (suggested by ref. 2) or for excessive heat production (suggested by ref. 1), following a synopsis of the hypotheses of cold fusion

  13. Project COLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  14. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Suk Yong; You, Jae Jun

    1996-01-01

    Nearly every technical information is chased in the world. All of them are reviewed and analyzed. Some of them are chosen to study further more to review every related documents. And a probable suggestion about the excitonic process in deuteron absorbed condensed matter is proposed a way to cold fusion. 8 refs. (Author)

  15. Cold water injection nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kura, Masaaki; Maeda, Masamitsu; Endo, Takio.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To inject cold water in a reactor without applying heat cycles to a reactor container and to the inner wall of a feedwater nozzle by securing a perforated plate at the outlet of the cold water injection nozzle. Constitution: A disc-like cap is secured to the final end of a return nozzle of a control rod drive. The cap prevents the flow of a high temperature water flowing downward in the reactor from entering into the nozzle. The cap is perforated with a plurality of bore holes for injecting cold water into the reactor. The cap is made to about 100 mm in thickness so that the cold water passing through the bore holes is heated by the heat conduction in the cap. Accordingly, the flow of high temperature water flowing downwardly in the reactor is inhibited by the cap from backward flowing into the nozzle. Moreover, the flow of the cold water in the nozzle is controlled and rectified when passed through the bore holes in the cap and then injected into the reactor. (Yoshino, Y.)

  16. Control of microstructure to increase the tolerance of zirconium alloys to hydride cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.E.; Sagat, S.; Amouzouvi, K.F.

    1987-12-01

    The microstructure of Zr-2.5 Nb has been altered in three ways in attempts to increase the alloy's tolerance to delayed hydride cracking, namely by breaking up the β-phase which reduces diffusivity of hydrogen and decreases crack velocity, by means of a gettering element (yttrium) which reduces susceptibility to cracking although the yttrium alloy has low toughness and poor corrosion resistance, and by reducing the number of basal plane normals in the main stressing direction which improves resistance to crack growth

  17. Fault tolerant, multiplexed control rod position detection and indication system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufek, W.L.; Jelovich, J.J.; Neuner, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    The majority of Westinghouse nuclear plants placed in service thus far have incorporated a Rod Position Indication system based upon an analog design philosophy. This system, while meeting all functional and accuracy requirements, has proven somewhat cumbersome, particularly in the area of initial field calibration and maintenance. This paper describes a new Digital Rod Position Indication system (DRPI) developed for use with pressurized water reactors. The system is based upon a digital design philosophy and meets all previous design constraints and environmental requirements. Further, fault tolerance, improved accuracy, interference from adjacent rods and the elimination of adjustments and calibration has been provided

  18. Fault-Tolerant Control of ANPC Three-Level Inverter Based on Order-Reduction Optimal Control Strategy under Multi-Device Open-Circuit Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shi-Zhou; Wang, Chun-Jie; Lin, Fang-Li; Li, Shi-Xiang

    2017-10-31

    The multi-device open-circuit fault is a common fault of ANPC (Active Neutral-Point Clamped) three-level inverter and effect the operation stability of the whole system. To improve the operation stability, this paper summarized the main solutions currently firstly and analyzed all the possible states of multi-device open-circuit fault. Secondly, an order-reduction optimal control strategy was proposed under multi-device open-circuit fault to realize fault-tolerant control based on the topology and control requirement of ANPC three-level inverter and operation stability. This control strategy can solve the faults with different operation states, and can works in order-reduction state under specific open-circuit faults with specific combined devices, which sacrifices the control quality to obtain the stability priority control. Finally, the simulation and experiment proved the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  19. A Soft Sensor-Based Fault-Tolerant Control on the Air Fuel Ratio of Spark-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jia Zhai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The air/fuel ratio (AFR regulation for spark-ignition (SI engines has been an essential and challenging control problem for engineers in the automotive industry. The feed-forward and feedback scheme has been investigated in both academic research and industrial application. The aging effect can often cause an AFR sensor fault in the feedback loop, and the AFR control performance will degrade consequently. In this research, a new control scheme on AFR with fault-tolerance is proposed by using an artificial neural network model based on fault detection and compensation, which can provide the satisfactory AFR regulation performance at the stoichiometric value for the combustion process, given a certain level of misreading of the AFR sensor.

  20. Adaptive Fuzzy Output-Constrained Fault-Tolerant Control of Nonlinear Stochastic Large-Scale Systems With Actuator Faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongming; Ma, Zhiyao; Tong, Shaocheng

    2017-09-01

    The problem of adaptive fuzzy output-constrained tracking fault-tolerant control (FTC) is investigated for the large-scale stochastic nonlinear systems of pure-feedback form. The nonlinear systems considered in this paper possess the unstructured uncertainties, unknown interconnected terms and unknown nonaffine nonlinear faults. The fuzzy logic systems are employed to identify the unknown lumped nonlinear functions so that the problems of structured uncertainties can be solved. An adaptive fuzzy state observer is designed to solve the nonmeasurable state problem. By combining the barrier Lyapunov function theory, adaptive decentralized and stochastic control principles, a novel fuzzy adaptive output-constrained FTC approach is constructed. All the signals in the closed-loop system are proved to be bounded in probability and the system outputs are constrained in a given compact set. Finally, the applicability of the proposed controller is well carried out by a simulation example.

  1. Cold-adapted live attenuated influenza vaccines developed in Russia: Can they contribute to meeting the needs for influenza control in other countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendal, Alan P.

    1997-01-01

    It is now more than 30 years since the first cold-adapted influenza viruses were developed in Russia as potential live, attenuated vaccines. In the past 15-20 years considerable experience has been gained from Russian and joint Russian-US laboratory and clinical studies with type A monovalent and bivalent vaccines prepared with genetic reassortant viruses derived from one of these cold-adapted viruses in particular, A/Leningrad/134/57. More recent experiences include use of trivalent cold-adapted vaccines with a type B component. The overall high level of safety of individual and combined vaccines in pre-school and school-aged children, with illness reductions in open field trials equivalent to that seen with inactivated vaccines, is such as to suggest that practical measures might now be justified to facilitate expansion of the use of these vaccines to other countries. It is proposed that further experimentation with the Russian cold-adapted live attenuated vaccines should be focused on issues that will relate to the public health perspective, i.e. selection of the single best candidate type A and B vaccines for intense study using as criteria their potential for meeting licensing requirements outside Russia, and documenting the clinical protective efficacy of a single vaccine dose compared to two doses as studied until now. Resolution of these issues is important to ensure that costs for future live vaccine production, control, and utilization will be kept at lowest levels so that expanded use of live vaccines will have maximum cost-benefit and affordability. To guide those interested in these issues, examples are given of populations for whom a licensed live cold-adapted vaccine might be considered, together with indications of extra data needed to fully validate each suggested use

  2. Control of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. tolerance to chilling stress – evaluating the role of ascorbic acid and glutathione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Lukatkin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chilling temperatures (1-10 ºC are known to disturb cellular physiology, cause oxidative stress via creating imbalance between generation and metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS leading finally to cell and/or plant death. Owing to known significance of low molecular antioxidants - ascorbic acid (AsA and glutathione (GSH in plant stress-tolerance, this work analyzes the role of exogenously applied AsA and GSH in the alleviation of chilling stress (3°C-impact in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Vjaznikowskij 37 plants. Results revealed AsA and GSH concentration dependent metabolism of ROS such as superoxide (O2•‾ and the mitigation of ROS-effects such as lipid peroxidation (LPO as well as membrane permeability (measured as electrolyte leakage in C. sativus leaf discs. AsA concentration (750 µM and GSH (100 µM exhibited maximum reduction in O2•‾ generation, LPO intensity as well as electrolyte leakage, all of these were increased in cold water (3°C and 25°C-treated leaf discs. However, AsA, in particular, had a pronounced antioxidative effect, more expressed in case of leaf discs during chilling (3°C; whereas, at temperature 25°C, some AsA concentrations (such as 50 and 100 mM AsA exhibited a prooxidative effect that requires molecular-genetic studies. Overall, it is inferred that AsA and GSH have high potential for sustainably increasing chilling-resistance in plants.

  3. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik

    1995-02-01

    So called 'cold fusion phenomena' are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording 4 He, 3 He, 3 H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of 4 He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author)

  4. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  5. Bayesian inference for the genetic control of water deficit tolerance in spring wheat by stochastic search variable selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Parviz; Danyali, Syyedeh Fatemeh; Rahimi, Mehdi

    2018-06-02

    Drought is the main abiotic stress seriously influencing wheat production. Information about the inheritance of drought tolerance is necessary to determine the most appropriate strategy to develop tolerant cultivars and populations. In this study, generation means analysis to identify the genetic effects controlling grain yield inheritance in water deficit and normal conditions was considered as a model selection problem in a Bayesian framework. Stochastic search variable selection (SSVS) was applied to identify the most important genetic effects and the best fitted models using different generations obtained from two crosses applying two water regimes in two growing seasons. The SSVS is used to evaluate the effect of each variable on the dependent variable via posterior variable inclusion probabilities. The model with the highest posterior probability is selected as the best model. In this study, the grain yield was controlled by the main effects (additive and non-additive effects) and epistatic. The results demonstrate that breeding methods such as recurrent selection and subsequent pedigree method and hybrid production can be useful to improve grain yield.

  6. Fault detection and fault tolerant control of a smart base isolation system with magneto-rheological damper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Han; Song, Gangbing

    2011-01-01

    Fault detection and isolation (FDI) in real-time systems can provide early warnings for faulty sensors and actuator signals to prevent events that lead to catastrophic failures. The main objective of this paper is to develop FDI and fault tolerant control techniques for base isolation systems with magneto-rheological (MR) dampers. Thus, this paper presents a fixed-order FDI filter design procedure based on linear matrix inequalities (LMI). The necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a solution for detecting and isolating faults using the H ∞ formulation is provided in the proposed filter design. Furthermore, an FDI-filter-based fuzzy fault tolerant controller (FFTC) for a base isolation structure model was designed to preserve the pre-specified performance of the system in the presence of various unknown faults. Simulation and experimental results demonstrated that the designed filter can successfully detect and isolate faults from displacement sensors and accelerometers while maintaining excellent performance of the base isolation technology under faulty conditions

  7. A two-stage approach for managing actuators redundancy and its application to fault tolerant flight control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Lunlong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In safety-critical systems such as transportation aircraft, redundancy of actuators is introduced to improve fault tolerance. How to make the best use of remaining actuators to allow the system to continue achieving a desired operation in the presence of some actuators failures is the main subject of this paper. Considering that many dynamical systems, including flight dynamics of a transportation aircraft, can be expressed as an input affine nonlinear system, a new state representation is adopted here where the output dynamics are related with virtual inputs associated with the intended operation. This representation, as well as the distribution matrix associated with the effectiveness of the remaining operational actuators, allows us to define different levels of fault tolerant governability with respect to actuators’ failures. Then, a two-stage control approach is developed, leading first to the inversion of the output dynamics to get nominal values for the virtual inputs and then to the solution of a linear quadratic (LQ problem to compute the solicitation of each operational actuator. The proposed approach is applied to the control of a transportation aircraft which performs a stabilized roll maneuver while a partial failure appears. Two fault scenarios are considered and the resulting performance of the proposed approach is displayed and discussed.

  8. The Radiation Tolerant Electronics for the LHC Cryogenic Controls: Basic Design and First Operational Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Casas-Cubillos, J; Rodríguez-Ruiz, M A

    2008-01-01

    The LHC optics is based in the extensive use of superconducting magnets covering 23 km inside the tunnel. The associated cryogenic system for keeping the magnets in nominal conditions is hence distributed all around the 27 km LHC tunnel and the cryogenic instrumentation submitted to the LHC radiation environment is composed of about 18’000 sensors and actuators. Radiation Tolerant (RadTol) electronics was designed and procured in order to keep the signals integrity against electromagnetic interference and to reduce cabling costs required in case of sending the analog signals into the 30 radiation protected areas. This paper presents the basic design, the qualification of the main RadTol components and the first operational results.

  9. Growth control of Listeria monocytogenes on cold-smoked salmon using a competitive lactic acid bacteria flora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Lilian; Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1999-01-01

    diffusion assay. Cell-free supernatants of two strains of C. piscicola and L. sake LKE5 were also antilisterial because of the production of bacteriocins. The presence of high cell numbers of strains of C. piscicola had no influence on the sensory quality of cold-smoked salmon stored at 5 degrees C, but L...

  10. Long-term tolerability of inhaled human insulin (Exubera) in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnett, A H; Lange, P; Dreyer, M

    2007-01-01

    or metformin (study 1) and patients poorly controlled on metformin were randomised to adjunctive EXU or the sulphonylurea, glibenclamide (study 2). PATIENTS: The studies included 446 (study 1) and 476 (study 2) patients with type 2 diabetes, no clinically significant respiratory disease and glycosylated....... There was no discernable effect of long-term EXU therapy on pulmonary gas exchange. Insulin antibody binding reached a plateau at 6 months and did not correlate with HbA(1c) or lung function changes. Glycaemic control was maintained over 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: Exubera was well tolerated during long-term use. Pulmonary...... function changes compared with comparator groups were small, non-progressive and reversed upon treatment discontinuation. Importantly, rates of lung function change were indistinguishable between EXU and comparator after 6 months of therapy. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Oct...

  11. USAGE OF STANDARD PERSONAL COMPUTER PORTS FOR DESIGNING OF THE DOUBLE REDUNDANT FAULT-TOLERANT COMPUTER CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafig SAMEDOV

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, for designing of the fault-tolerant control systems by using standard personal computers, the ports have been investigated, different structure versions have been designed and the method for choosing of an optimal structure has been suggested. In this scope, first of all, the ÇİFTYAK system has been defined and its work principle has been determined. Then, data transmission ports of the standard personal computers have been classified and analyzed. After that, the structure versions have been designed and evaluated according to the used data transmission methods, the numbers of ports and the criterions of reliability, performance, truth, control and cost. Finally, the method for choosing of the most optimal structure version has been suggested.

  12. The catabolite repression control protein Crc plays a role in the development of antimicrobial-tolerant subpopulations in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lianbo; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Gao, Qingguo

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria form complex surface-attached biofilm communities in nature. Biofilm cells differentiate into subpopulations which display tolerance towards antimicrobial agents. However, the signal transduction pathways regulating subpopulation differentiation in biofilms are largely unelucidated. In t....... In the present study, we show that the catabolite repression control protein Crc regulates the metabolic state of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells in biofilms, and plays an important role in the development of antimicrobial-tolerant subpopulations in P. aeruginosa biofilms....

  13. Effects of Virtual Reality and External Cold and Vibration on Pain in 7- to 12-Year-Old Children During Phlebotomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerçeker, Gülçin Ö; Binay, Şeyda; Bilsin, Elif; Kahraman, Ayşe; Yılmaz, Hatice B

    2018-03-17

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the virtual reality (VR) and external cold and vibration methods on pain scores in children aged 7 to 12 years during phlebotomy. A randomized controlled study. The sample of children (n = 121) was allocated to the groups (group 1, VR; group 2, external cold and vibration; group 3, control) by blocked randomization. Pain scores were assessed after the phlebotomy using self-report, parent's reports, report from the nurse who attempted the phlebotomy, and researchers' report with the Wong-Baker FACES scale. Pain scores were determined to be lower in groups 1 and 2. Although there was no difference between the groups 1 and 2, a statistically significant difference was found between groups 1 or 2 and group 3 based on all pain scores. Results suggest that VR and external cold and vibration are effective in reducing the pain in 7- to 12-year-old children during phlebotomy. VR can be used safely for the pain management of children who are growing up in the age of technology. Copyright © 2018 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of cold water sponging and acetaminophen in control of fever among children attending a tertiary hospital in South Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony M Aluka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A wide range of childhood illnesses are accompanied by fever, leading to varied attempts at treatment by caregivers at home before coming to a hospital. Common modalities of treatment include use of antipyretics and physical methods such as cold water sponging, fanning and removal of clothing. These treatment modalities have been received with varied attitudes among physicians and the scientific community. This study was to assess the efficacy of both modalities in first-line management of fever in our area. Objectives: The main aim of the study is to compare the effectiveness of cold water sponging with that of oral paracetamol in the treatment of fever in children attending the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. Subjects and Methods: This is a randomized clinical trial. Eighty-eight children aged 12-120 months who presented to the Children Outpatient Clinic (CHOP and the Children Emergency Room (CHER of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, with acute febrile illness and axillary temperatures spanning ≥ 38.0-40.0°C. All children within the age limit whose caregivers gave consent were recruited into the study and were randomized to receive either cold water sponging or oral paracetamol. Axillary temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate and assessment of discomforts (crying, shivering, goose pimples and convulsions were recorded every 30 min for 2 h. The results were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software and have been presented in the tables. Results: Cold water sponging was very effective in temperature reduction within the first 30 min, with 29 (70.73% having their temperature reduced to within normal limits. This declined to 12 (29.26% at 60 min and 4 (10.53% at 120 min, with the mean temperature differences from the baseline value following the same trends (1.63°C by 30 min, 0.91°C by 60 min and 0.39°C by 120 min. When compared with paracetamol, cold water sponging was more effective in

  15. Cold hardiness research on agricultural and horticultural crops in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. LINDÉN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents an overview of cold hardiness research conducted on agricultural and horticultural crops, as well as on amenity plants in Finland. Inadequate freezing tolerance and/or winter hardiness often prevents introduction of new species and cultivars to Finland. Field observations on winter hardiness and more recently the results from laboratory freezing tests, have assisted breeders to select hardy genotypes. Research approaches for agricultural crops have evolved from observations on winter and frost damage to studies on molecular mechanisms of cold acclimation and freezing injury. The results of experiments on survival of winter cereals, grasses and clovers and frost tolerance of potato and turnip rape are discussed. The studies conducted on horticultural crops, including apple, strawberry, raspberry, currants, blueberry, sea buckthorn, perennial herbs as well as on ornamental trees and shrubs have included field evaluations of cultivars, or selections for winter hardiness, and studies on the effects of cultural management practices on winter survival. During the last decade detailed studies including controlled freezing tests have provided tools to assist in explanation of the underlying mechanisms of cold hardiness also in horticultural plants. ;

  16. Elevated Temperature and CO2 Stimulate Late-Season Photosynthesis But Impair Cold Hardening in Pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Christine Y; Fréchette, Emmanuelle; Unda, Faride; Mansfield, Shawn D; Ensminger, Ingo

    2016-10-01

    Rising global temperature and CO 2 levels may sustain late-season net photosynthesis of evergreen conifers but could also impair the development of cold hardiness. Our study investigated how elevated temperature, and the combination of elevated temperature with elevated CO 2 , affected photosynthetic rates, leaf carbohydrates, freezing tolerance, and proteins involved in photosynthesis and cold hardening in Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus). We designed an experiment where control seedlings were acclimated to long photoperiod (day/night 14/10 h), warm temperature (22°C/15°C), and either ambient (400 μL L -1 ) or elevated (800 μmol mol -1 ) CO 2 , and then shifted seedlings to growth conditions with short photoperiod (8/16 h) and low temperature/ambient CO 2 (LTAC), elevated temperature/ambient CO 2 (ETAC), or elevated temperature/elevated CO 2 (ETEC). Exposure to LTAC induced down-regulation of photosynthesis, development of sustained nonphotochemical quenching, accumulation of soluble carbohydrates, expression of a 16-kD dehydrin absent under long photoperiod, and increased freezing tolerance. In ETAC seedlings, photosynthesis was not down-regulated, while accumulation of soluble carbohydrates, dehydrin expression, and freezing tolerance were impaired. ETEC seedlings revealed increased photosynthesis and improved water use efficiency but impaired dehydrin expression and freezing tolerance similar to ETAC seedlings. Sixteen-kilodalton dehydrin expression strongly correlated with increases in freezing tolerance, suggesting its involvement in the development of cold hardiness in P. strobus Our findings suggest that exposure to elevated temperature and CO 2 during autumn can delay down-regulation of photosynthesis and stimulate late-season net photosynthesis in P. strobus seedlings. However, this comes at the cost of impaired freezing tolerance. Elevated temperature and CO 2 also impaired freezing tolerance. However, unless the frequency and timing of extreme low

  17. Event-triggered decentralized adaptive fault-tolerant control of uncertain interconnected nonlinear systems with actuator failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Ho; Yoo, Sung Jin

    2018-06-01

    This paper investigates the event-triggered decentralized adaptive tracking problem of a class of uncertain interconnected nonlinear systems with unexpected actuator failures. It is assumed that local control signals are transmitted to local actuators with time-varying faults whenever predefined conditions for triggering events are satisfied. Compared with the existing control-input-based event-triggering strategy for adaptive control of uncertain nonlinear systems, the aim of this paper is to propose a tracking-error-based event-triggering strategy in the decentralized adaptive fault-tolerant tracking framework. The proposed approach can relax drastic changes in control inputs caused by actuator faults in the existing triggering strategy. The stability of the proposed event-triggering control system is analyzed in the Lyapunov sense. Finally, simulation comparisons of the proposed and existing approaches are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical result in the presence of actuator faults. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Feedback Linearization approach for Standard and Fault Tolerant control: Application to a Quadrotor UAV Testbed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghandour, J; Aberkane, S; Ponsart, J-C

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the control problem of a quadrotor vehicle experiencing a rotor failure is investigated. We develop a Feedback linearization approach to design a controller whose task is to make the vehicle performs trajectory following. Then we use the same approach to design a controller whose task is to make the vehicle enter a stable spin around its vertical axis, while retaining zero angular velocities around the other axis when a rotor failure is present. These conditions can be exploited to design a second control loop, which is used to perform trajectory following. The proposed double control loop architecture allows the vehicle to perform both trajectory and roll/pitch control. At last, to test the robustness of the feedback linearization technique, we applied wind to the quadrotor in mid flight

  19. Hybridization of an invasive shrub affects tolerance and resistance to defoliation by a biological control agent

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Wyatt I; Friedman, Jonathan M; Gaskin, John F; Norton, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has contributed to the successful invasion of exotic plant species in their introduced ranges, but how evolution affects particular control strategies is still under evaluation. For instance, classical biological control, a common strategy involving the utilization of highly specific natural enemies to control exotic pests, may be negatively affected by host hybridization because of shifts in plant traits, such as root allocation or chemical constituents. We investigated introgressi...

  20. Influence of skin cold sensation threshold in the occurrence of dental sensitivity during dental bleaching: a placebo controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Rahal; Marjorie de Oliveira Gallinari; Juliana Stuginski Barbosa; Reynaldo Leite Martins-Junior; Paulo Henrique dos Santos; Luciano Tavares Angelo Cintra; André Luiz Fraga Briso

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study verified the occurrence of dental sensitivity in patients submitted to a 35% hydrogen peroxide based product (Whiteness HP Maxx 35% – FGM), skin cold sensation threshold (SCST) and its influence on dental sensitivity. Material and Methods Sixty volunteers were divided into 4 groups (n = 15), according to SCST (low: GI and GIII, and high: GII and IV) and bleaching treatment (hydrogen peroxide: GI and GII, and placebo: GIII and GIV). SCST was determined in the in...