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Sample records for controlling broad bean

  1. Thiamin and Salicylic Acid as Biological Alternatives for Controlling Broad Bean Rot Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlHakimi, A.M.A; Alghalibi, Saeed M.S

    2007-01-01

    The interactive effects of fungi (Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani) infection and thiamin or salicylic acid on growth rate, membrane stability, K+ efflux, UV-absorbing metabolites, photosynthetic pigments, cell wall components and lipid fractions of broad bean plants (30-day-old) were studied. Fungal infection induced a reduction in growth rate, membrane stability and content of photosynthetic pigments. Application of thiamin or salicylic acid increased growth rate, membrane stability and content of photosynthetic pigments. The K+ efflux and the leakage of UV-absorbing metabolites were stimulated with fungal infection. However, thiamin and salicylic acid treatment partially retarded the stimulatory effect on leakage of K+ and UV-absorbing metabolites of fungal infected plants. Fungal infection produced a reduction in the content of pectin and cellulose, total lipid, glycolipids and sterols fraction of shoots and roots and phospholipids of roots. On the other hand, the contents of hemicellulose and lignin of shoots and roots and phospholipids of shoots were stimulated by fungal infection. Soaking seeds in thiamin or salicylic acid counteracts partially or completely the adverse effect of fungal infection on pectin and cellulose composition, total lipid, glycolipids and sterols of either shoots or roots. On the other side, thiamin or salicylic acid treatments retarded the phospholipids accumulation in shoots of infected plants, and in roots the phospholipids accumulation was partially or completely alleviated. The content of hemicellulose and lignin of shoots and roots were antagonistically lowered by the application of thiamin or salicylic acid. (author)

  2. Extrusion-cooking to improve the animal feed quality of broad beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscicki, L.; Wojcik, S.; Plaur, K.; Zuilichem, van D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Extrusion-cooking of broad beans with a single-screw extruder has been investigated. Attention was focused on process requirements as well as on the nutritional effects of extrusion-cooked broad beans in a chicken feed formulation. The optimal thermal process conditions required for a product of

  3. Effect of Radiation processing on sensory and chemical characteristics of broad beans (Giza,2)(Vicia Faba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, A.A.; El-Niely, F.G.

    2002-01-01

    Broad bean is the important leguminous protein consumed in egypt as a source of protein diet. The most popular way of preparing beans is the stewd form (Fool Medames). However, great losses due to insect infestation occur during storage. To combat these losses radiation processing has been used as an effective alternative of chemical fumigants to combat insect pets. The beans were irradiated at 25.5, 10 and kgy. The effects of treatments were investigated on sensory and chemical characteristics and on the solubility of broad beans protein, the amino acids content and on the nutritive value of bean protein from the view of its amino acids profile. The results of study indicate that the sensory evaluation of sewed irradiated 2.5 and 5 kGy samples revealed no significantdiffference in hardness, gumminess and acceptability. moreover, no significant changes in adhesivess, between samples irradiated at 5, 10 and 20 KGy, irradiation up to 20 KGy was found to improve the hardness of stewed broad bean which would improve the quality of broad of bean

  4. Characterization of non-host resistance in broad bean to the wheat stripe rust pathogen

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    Cheng Yulin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-host resistance (NHR confers plant species immunity against the majority of microbial pathogens and represents the most robust and durable form of plant resistance in nature. As one of the main genera of rust fungi with economic and biological importance, Puccinia infects almost all cereals but is unable to cause diseases on legumes. Little is known about the mechanism of this kind of effective defense in legumes to these non-host pathogens. Results In this study, the basis of NHR in broad bean (Vicia faba L. against the wheat stripe rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, was characterized. No visible symptoms were observed on broad bean leaves inoculated with Pst. Microscopic observations showed that successful location of stomata and haustoria formation were significantly reduced in Pst infection of broad bean. Attempted infection induced the formation of papillae, cell wall thickening, production of reactive oxygen species, callose deposition and accumulation of phenolic compounds in plant cell walls. The few Pst haustoria that did form in broad bean cells were encased in reactive oxygen and callose materials and those cells elicited cell death. Furthermore, a total of seven defense-related genes were identified and found to be up-regulated during the Pst infection. Conclusions The results indicate that NHR in broad bean against Pst results from a continuum of layered defenses, including basic incompatibility, structural and chemical strengthening of cell wall, posthaustorial hypersensitive response and induction of several defense-related genes, demonstrating the multi-layered feature of NHR. This work also provides useful information for further determination of resistance mechanisms in broad bean to rust fungi, especially the adapted important broad bean rust pathogen, Uromyces viciae-fabae, because of strong similarity and association between NHR of plants to unadapted pathogens and basal

  5. Flavor Compounds in Pixian Broad-Bean Paste: Non-Volatile Organic Acids and Amino Acids

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    Hongbin Lin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-volatile organic acids and amino acids are important flavor compounds in Pixian broad-bean paste, which is a traditional Chinese seasoning product. In this study, non-volatile organic acids, formed in the broad-bean paste due to the metabolism of large molecular compounds, are qualitatively and quantitatively determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Amino acids, mainly produced by hydrolysis of soybean proteins, were determined by the amino acid automatic analyzer. Results indicated that seven common organic acids and eighteen common amino acids were found in six Pixian broad-bean paste samples. The content of citric acid was found to be the highest in each sample, between 4.1 mg/g to 6.3 mg/g, and malic acid were between 2.1 mg/g to 3.6 mg/g ranked as the second. Moreover, fumaric acid was first detected in fermented bean pastes albeit with a low content. For amino acids, savory with lower sour taste including glutamine (Gln, glutamic acid (Glu, aspartic acid (Asp and asparagines (Asn were the most abundant, noted to be 6.5 mg/g, 4.0 mg/g, 6.4 mg/g, 4.9 mg/g, 6.2 mg/g and 10.2 mg/g, and bitter taste amino acids followed. More importantly, as important flavor materials in Pixian broad-bean paste, these two groups of substances are expected to be used to evaluate and represent the flavor quality of Pixian broad-bean paste. Moreover, the results revealed that citric acid, glutamic acid, methionine and proline were the most important flavor compounds. These findings are agreat contribution for evaluating the quality and further assessment of Pixian broad-bean paste.

  6. Flavor Compounds in Pixian Broad-Bean Paste: Non-Volatile Organic Acids and Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongbin; Yu, Xiaoyu; Fang, Jiaxing; Lu, Yunhao; Liu, Ping; Xing, Yage; Wang, Qin; Che, Zhenming; He, Qiang

    2018-05-29

    Non-volatile organic acids and amino acids are important flavor compounds in Pixian broad-bean paste, which is a traditional Chinese seasoning product. In this study, non-volatile organic acids, formed in the broad-bean paste due to the metabolism of large molecular compounds, are qualitatively and quantitatively determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Amino acids, mainly produced by hydrolysis of soybean proteins, were determined by the amino acid automatic analyzer. Results indicated that seven common organic acids and eighteen common amino acids were found in six Pixian broad-bean paste samples. The content of citric acid was found to be the highest in each sample, between 4.1 mg/g to 6.3 mg/g, and malic acid were between 2.1 mg/g to 3.6 mg/g ranked as the second. Moreover, fumaric acid was first detected in fermented bean pastes albeit with a low content. For amino acids, savory with lower sour taste including glutamine (Gln), glutamic acid (Glu), aspartic acid (Asp) and asparagines (Asn) were the most abundant, noted to be 6.5 mg/g, 4.0 mg/g, 6.4 mg/g, 4.9 mg/g, 6.2 mg/g and 10.2 mg/g, and bitter taste amino acids followed. More importantly, as important flavor materials in Pixian broad-bean paste, these two groups of substances are expected to be used to evaluate and represent the flavor quality of Pixian broad-bean paste. Moreover, the results revealed that citric acid, glutamic acid, methionine and proline were the most important flavor compounds. These findings are agreat contribution for evaluating the quality and further assessment of Pixian broad-bean paste.

  7. The Response Strategy of Maize, Pea and Broad Bean Plants to Different Osmotic Potential Stress

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    Hamdia M. Abd El-Samad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted to study the tolerance strategy of maize, broad bean and pea plants to salinity stress with exogenous applications of proline or phenylalanine on seed germination and seedlings growth. From the results obtained, it can be observed that osmotic stress affected adversely the rate of germination in maize, broad bean and pea plants. The excessive inhibition was more prominent at higher concentration of NaCl. The seeds and grains tested were exhibited some differential responses to salinity, in a manner that the inhibitory effect of salinity on seed germination ran in the order, maize higher than broad bean and the later was higher than pea plant. Treatment with proline or phenylalanine (100 ppm significantly increased these seed germination and seedlings growth characteristics even at lowest salinity level tested.

  8. Changes in vicine, con vicine and oligosaccharides contents during germination of broad bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kaisey, T. M.; Al-Hadithi, R. T.; Sahead, A. B.

    1997-01-01

    Seeds of three cultivars of broad beans were subjected to germination at 25 deg. for 24, 48 and 72 hours. Also, three sets of experiments were germinated for 48 hour se and each one was subjected to different concentrations of gibberellin (100), 200 ppm) as growth regulator. Significant levels of variation were found in the contents of vicine and con vicine during seeds germination. Meanwhile, a complete disappearance of raffinose, scythe's and verbascose (the flatus factors in broad beans) were observed. No significant differences were found in the non-flatulent sugars, protein, ash and oil in the un germinated and germinated seed. (authors). 19 refs., 3 tabs

  9. Nutritional and Biochemical Studies on Irradiated Broad Beans (Giza-2)(Vicia Faba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M. D.; Mahmoud, A.A.; El-Niely, H.F.G.; Seda, H. A.; Ibrahim, A. A.

    2000-01-01

    Broad bean is an important source of dietary protein in Egypt. High losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. Radiation processing is an excellent alternative method which could be used to combat these losses. The beans were irradiated at doses of 2.5,5, 10 and 20 kGy. The effects of treatments were investigated on trypsin inhibitor, hemagglutination activity, in vitro protein digestibility, in vivo protein efficiency ratio (PER) and short-term rats feeding. A dose of 20 kGy significantly caused a great reduction in trypsin inhibitor (by 67.12%) and hemagglutination activity (by 87.5%) in broad bean, whereas its in vitro protein digestibility increased from 67.15 to 80, 68% and PER also increased from 1.01 to 1.22. The results of short term of rat feeding experiments indicated that the growth of young rats given raw or irradiated beans at 2.5 and 5 kGy was much lower than that of rats given diet based upon casein or irradiated beans up to 20 kGy. Feeding raw and processed beans at 2.5 and 5 kGy, caused a significant increase in the relative weight of pancreas while feeding irradiated beans at 10 and 20 kGy normalized the relative pancreas weight. No changes have been observed in relative weight for stomach, heart, liver, spleen, kidney and lungs in rats fed casein diet as compared with those fed raw and irradiated beans up to 20 kGy for 8 weeks

  10. Comparative study of the sensitivities of onion and broad bean root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemicals which cause chromosomal aberration (CA) in plant cells frequently produce identical CA in cultured animal cells. Plant species however, differ in sensitivities. Onion and broad bean (BB) root meristem cells were compared for sensitivity to chlorpyrifos (CPF), mercury chloride (HgCl2), ethyl methanesulphonate ...

  11. Nutritional improvement of corn pasta-like product with broad bean (Vicia faba) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, M A; Drago, S R; Bassett, M N; Lobo, M O; Sammán, N C

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the nutritional quality of pasta-like product (spaghetti-type), made with corn (Zea mays) flour enriched with 30% broad bean (Vicia faba) flour and 20% of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour, was determined. Proximate chemical composition and iron, zinc and dietary fiber were determined. A biological assay was performed to assess the protein value using net protein utilization (NPU), true digestibility (TD) and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). Iron and zinc availability were estimated by measuring dialyzable mineral fraction (%Da) resulting from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nutritionally improved, gluten-free spaghetti (NIS) showed significantly increased NPU and decreased TD compared with a non-enriched control sample. One NIS-portion supplied 10-20% of recommended fiber daily intake. Addition of quinoa flour had a positive effect on the FeDa% as did broad bean flour on ZnDa%. EDTA increased Fe- and ZnDa% in all NIS-products, but it also impaired sensorial quality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The Effect of Humic Acid on Nutrient Composition in Broad Bean (Vicia faba L. Roots

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    Sener AKINCI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Humic acids promote the conversion of mineral nutrients into forms available to plants. It also stimulates seed germination and viability, and its main effect usually being more prominent in the roots. The objective of this study was to determine of the influence of humic acid on broad bean (Vicia faba L. cultivar �Eresen 87� on root growth and development as well as nutrient uptake, during investigation in a pot experiment. Treatment with leonardite, as humic acid source positively affected both germination and harvesting, enhancing root length and biomass. Humic acid (HA caused significant increase of fresh (RFW and dry (RDW weights by 30.1% and 56.6% of broad bean roots, respectively. Flame photometer and atomic absorption spectrophotometry analyses revealed that K content was major nutrient among the tested elements. Humic acid increased the contents of Na and K significantly. The content of Ca and Fe was not significantly increased whereas Cu, Mn and Zn content decreased under HA treatment.

  13. Strategies of copper tolerance in root and shoot of broad bean (Vicia faba L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latef, A.A.H.; Alhmad, M.F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in dry mass and some physiological parameters were investigated in root and shoot of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) exposed to different concentrations of CuSO/sub 4/ (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg kg/sup -1/) for 15 days. Low Cu concentration did not affect dry mass of root and shoot. However, the negative effect of copper on dry mass was noticed in root than shoot especially at the higher concentrations of copper due to the accumulation of Cu was higher in root than that in shoot. Cu induced changes in the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, Zn, K and Ca. Exposure to Cu induced the accumulation of organic solutes (soluble sugar, soluble protein and total free amino acids) in root than shoot. Level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was correlated with the concentration of Cu in broad bean tissues. Copper stimulated the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) and this stimulation was more obvious in shoot than root. (author)

  14. Complete genomic characterization of milk vetch dwarf virus isolates from cowpea and broad bean in Anhui province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenhua; Zheng, Hongying; Yan, Dankan; Han, Kelei; Song, Xijiao; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Dongfang; Chen, Jianping; Yan, Fei

    2017-08-01

    Cowpea and broad bean plants showing severe stunting and leaf rolling symptoms were observed in Hefei city, Anhui province, China, in 2014. Symptomatic plants from both species were shown to be infected with milk vetch dwarf virus (MDV) by PCR. The complete genomes of MDV isolates from cowpea and broad bean were sequenced. Each of them had eight genomic DNAs that differed between the two isolates by 10.7% in their overall nucleotide sequences. In addition, the MDV genomes from cowpea and broad bean were associated with two and three alphasatellite DNAs, respectively. This is the first report of MDV on cowpea in China and the first complete genome sequences of Chinese MDV isolates.

  15. Apple Latent Spherical Virus Vector as Vaccine for the Prevention and Treatment of Mosaic Diseases in Pea, Broad Bean, and Eustoma Plants by Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus

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    Nozomi Satoh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic symptoms due to BYMV infection were observed in the challenged plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine. Simultaneous inoculation with the ALSV vaccine and BYMV also prevented mosaic symptoms in broad bean and eustoma plants, and BYMV accumulation was strongly inhibited in the upper leaves of plants treated with the ALSV vaccine. Pea and eustoma plants were pre-inoculated with BYMV followed by inoculation with the ALSV vaccine to investigate the curative effects of the ALSV vaccine. In both plant species, recovery from mosaic symptoms was observed in upper leaves and BYMV accumulation was inhibited in leaves developing post-ALSV vaccination. These results show that ALSV vaccination not only prevents mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma, but that it is also effective in curing these diseases.

  16. Batch-batch stable microbial community in the traditional fermentation process of huyumei broad bean pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linjiang; Fan, Zihao; Kuai, Hui; Li, Qi

    2017-09-01

    During natural fermentation processes, a characteristic microbial community structure (MCS) is naturally formed, and it is interesting to know about its batch-batch stability. This issue was explored in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation process of huyumei, a Chinese broad bean paste product. The results showed that this MCS mainly contained four aerobic Bacillus species (8 log CFU per g), including B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. methylotrophicus, and B. tequilensis, and the facultative anaerobe B. cereus with a low concentration (4 log CFU per g), besides a very small amount of the yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (2 log CFU per g). The dynamic change of the MCS in the brine fermentation process showed that the abundance of dominant species varied within a small range, and in the beginning of process the growth of lactic acid bacteria was inhibited and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability. Also, the MCS and its dynamic change were proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches of fermentation. Therefore, the MCS naturally and stably forms between different batches of the traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei. Revealing microbial community structure and its batch-batch stability is helpful for understanding the mechanisms of community formation and flavour production in a traditional fermentation. This issue in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei broad bean paste was firstly explored. This fermentation process was revealed to be dominated by a high concentration of four aerobic species of Bacillus, a low concentration of B. cereus and a small amount of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Lactic acid bacteria and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability at the beginning of fermentation. Such the community structure was proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Impact of three different fungicides on fungal epi- and endophytic communities of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and broad bean (Vicia faba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, René; Mittelbach, Moritz; Begerow, Dominik

    2017-06-03

    In this study, the impacts of three different fungicides to fungal phyllosphere communities on broad bean (Vicia faba, Fabaceae) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Fabaceae) were analyzed. The fungicides included copper, sulfur, and azoxystrobin. The plants were sowed, grown, and treated under conditions occurring in conventional and organic farming. A culture-based approach was used to identify changes in the phyllosphere fungal community after the treatment. Different effects on species richness and growth index of the epiphytic and endophytic communities for common bean and broad bean could be shown. Treatments with sulfur showed the weakest effect, followed by those based on copper and the systemic azoxystrobin, which showed the strongest effect especially on endophytic communities. The epiphytic fungal community took five weeks to recover after treatment with azoxystrobin. However, the effect of azoxystrobin on the endophytic community lasted more than five weeks. Finally, the data suggest that the surface structure of the host leaves have a huge impact on the mode of action that the fungicides exert.

  18. Vacuolar biogenesis and aquaporin expression at early germination of broad bean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, Galina V; Tournaire-Roux, Colette; Sinkevich, Irina A; Lityagina, Snejana V; Maurel, Christophe; Obroucheva, Natalie

    2014-09-01

    A key event in seed germination is water uptake-mediated growth initiation in embryonic axes. Vicia faba var. minor (broad bean) seeds were used for studying cell growth, vacuolar biogenesis, expression and function of tonoplast water channel proteins (aquaporins) in embryonic axes during seed imbibition, radicle emergence and growth. Hypocotyl and radicle basal cells showed vacuole restoration from protein storage vacuoles, whereas de novo vacuole formation from provacuoles was observed in cells newly produced by root meristem. cDNA fragments of seven novel aquaporin isoforms including five Tonoplast Intrinsic Proteins (TIP) from three sub-types were amplified by PCR. The expression was probed using q-RT-PCR and when possible with isoform-specific antibodies. Decreased expression of TIP3s was associated to the transformation of protein storage vacuoles to vacuoles, whereas enhanced expression of a TIP2 homologue was closely linked to the fast cell elongation. Water channel functioning checked by inhibitory test with mercuric chloride showed closed water channels prior to growth initiation and active water transport into elongating cells. The data point to a crucial role of tonoplast aquaporins during germination, especially during growth of embryonic axes, due to accelerated water uptake and vacuole enlargement resulting in rapid cell elongation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of enhanced UVB on growth and yield of two Syrian crops; wheat (Triticum durum desf. var. Horani) and broad beans field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Baydoun, S.A.; Mohammed, A.

    1998-01-01

    Wheat and broad beans were exposed, under field conditions, to a daily UVB of 20 % above the ambient UVB. The plant height, tiller number, number of flowers, spikletes, dry weight and leaf area in both species showed positive responses to UVB treatment. At harvest, the seeds weight of broad beans was virtually equal in exposed and unexposed plants. In wheat, seeds yield increased significantly by 15 %. In conclusion, broad beans can be considered as a tolerant cultivar to enhanced UVB, while wheat is more tolerant. (Author)

  20. Effects of enhanced UVB on growth and yield of two Syrian crops, wheat (Triticum durum desf. var. horani) and broad beans (Vicia Faba L.) under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Baydoun, S.A.

    1997-04-01

    Wheat and broad beans were exposed, under field conditions, to a daily UVB of 20 % above the ambient UVB. The plant height, tiller number, number of flowers, spikletes, dry weight and leaf area in both species showed positive responses to UVB treatment. At harvest, the seeds weight of broad beans was virtually equal in exposed and unexposed plants. In wheat, seeds yield increased significantly by 15 %. In conclusion, broad beans can be considered as a tolerant cultivar to enhanced UVB, while wheat is more tolerant. (Author). 17 Tabs. 36 Refs

  1. Insecticide Efficacy and Timing for Control of Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Dry and Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudis, L A; Trueman, C L; Baute, T S; Hallett, R H; Gillard, C L

    2016-02-01

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a recent pest of corn, dry,and snap beans, in the Great Lakes region, and best practices for its management in beans need to be established.Insecticide efficacy and application timing field studies, conducted in 2011–2013, determined that lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorantraniliprole were capable of reducing western bean cutworm feeding damage in dry beans from 2.3 to 0.4% in preharvest samples, and in snap beans from 4.8 to 0.1% of marketable pods, respectively. The best application timing in dry beans was determined to be 4–18 d after 50% egg hatch. No economic benefit was found when products were applied to dry beans, and despite high artificial inoculation rates, damage to marketable yield was relatively low. Thiamethoxam, methoxyfenozide, and spinetoram were also found to be effective at reducing western bean cutworm damage in dry bean to as low as 0.3% compared to an untreated control with 2.5% damaged pods. In snap beans, increased return on investment between CAD$400 and CAD$600 was seen with multiple applications of lambda-cyhalothrin, and with chlorantraniliprole applied 4 d after egg mass infestation.

  2. Effects of irradiation with low-energy nitrogen ion injection on root tip cells of broad bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yaqin; Li Jinzhe; Huang Qunce

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the cytogenetic effects of low-energy nitrogen ion irradiation, broad bean seed embryo was irradiated by different doses of nitrogen ions. Micronucleus rate, mitotic index and chromosome aberration in root-tip cells were analyzed. The results showed that the injection of ions inhibited mitosis of root tip cells, interfered the normal process of mitosis, caused aberrations of chromosome structure, behavior and number. The frequency of micronucleus and chromosomal aberrations increased with the increasing radiation dosage, while mitotic index decreased. (authors)

  3. Induced resistant mutations in alfalfa and broad bean against rust, leaf spot and wilh diseases by Gamma rays and ethylmethanesulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In alfalfa after gamma irradiation with 50,100, and 150 krads, 38 rust resistant plants have been selected throughout a screening programme. During four months, cuttings were obtained from these plants individually. Results revealed that 20 plants were remar-kably surpassed the origin in the total fresh weight and in the average weight of each cutting. In broad bean, following gamma irradiation and EMS in two cuitivars for induction of wilt resistance. Seeds of these plants were sown in artificially infested soil . During the growing season, all susceptible plants were removed and at epidemic form of wilt disease

  4. THE STRUCTURE OF THE SEED YIELD OF BROAD BEANS IN THE SOUTH CENTRAL ZONE OF THE SOUTH OF THE CENTRAL BLACK EARTH REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Kurkina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rich in high quality protein, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids and trace elements seeds, green fruits and young leaves broad beans (Vicia faba L. var. major Harz has long been used in the food, and the culture of beans are promising in biological agriculture and horticulture. The aim of this work was to study the structure of seed production of different varieties of broad beans in the South Central zone of the region. At the Botanical garden BelSU (Belgorod to study the structure of seed production of different varieties of broad beans (Belarusiskie, Velena, Russkie chernie, Aquadul and determined the biochemical composition of seeds. Optimal height of attachment of the first fruit for mechanical harvesting (20-25 cm characteristic of plants of all studied varieties. Weight of the fetus, according to the coefficient of variability, equal to 45%, distinguished by a strong variability on grades with a maximum grade of Velena. The length of fruit ranged from 9 to 13 cm and were characterized by moderate variability (V=20%. Seeds production is determinened not only by size of fruits of beans, but and its important components such as 1000 seed weight. Protein content in the seeds at 30% different varieties of broad beans domestic breeding. Contents of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and iron is higher in the cotyledons than in the skin. Dark purple color of the seed varieties of Russian black is due to the biosynthesis useful for human organism anthocyanins in seed peel.

  5. Nutrition education and introduction of broad bean-based complementary food improves knowledge and dietary practices of caregivers and nutritional status of their young children in Hula, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negash, Canaan; Belachew, Tefera; Henry, Carol J; Kebebu, Afework; Abegaz, Kebede; Whiting, Susan J

    2014-12-01

    Nutritious complementary foods are needed in countries where undernutrition and stunting are major problems, but mothers may be reluctant to change from traditional gruels. To test whether a recipe-based complementary feeding education intervention would improve knowledge and practice of mothers with young children in Hula, Ethiopia. A baseline survey of 200 eligible, randomly selected mother-child pairs gathered data on sociodemographic characteristics, food security status, knowledge and practices concerning complementary feeding, food group intakes of children aged 6 to 23 months by 24-hour recalls, and children's anthropometric measurements. Twice a month for 6 months, women in the intervention group received an education session consisting of eight specific messages using Alive and Thrive posters and a demonstration and tasting of a local barley and maize porridge recipe containing 30% broad beans. The control group lived in a different area and had no intervention. At 6 months, knowledge and practice scores regarding complementary feeding were significantly improved (p nutrition education over 6 months that included demonstration of a local porridge recipe with broad beans added improved the complementary feeding practices of caregivers and the nutritional status of their young children.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on the flavour and flatulence causing oligosaccharides from broad bean (Vicia faba L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaddou, H.; Mhaisen, M.T.; Al-Adamy, L.Z.; Naji, E.Z.

    1985-01-01

    Effect of gamma-irradiation (2.5 to 10 KGy) on the flavour and flatulence causing oligosaccharides of broad bean were investigated. The method used for the cooked flavour analysis involved low temperature distillation. Gas-chromatography was used to separate the flavour extracts into their various constituents. The major volatile free fatty acids isolated are C16, C18, C18:1, and C20. Identification of the major peaks from the non-acid fraction were carried out. Identified peaks were hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and phenols. Most of the compounds found to increase with increase in radiation dose. On the other hand, sensory evaluation tests indicated no changes in broad bean flavour quality after irradiation. Sugars were also analysed by gas chromatographic method after TMS-ether derivatization. Fructose, α and β-glucose, sucrose, raffinose and stachyose were the major sugars present. The gas-forming oligosaccharides were found to decrease with increase in dose applied. On the other hand, other sugars found to increase with increase in radiation dose. (author)

  7. Effects of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) extract consumption on leukocytes increase in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro Terrazos, Jony; Moisés Saldaña, Ítalo

    2015-01-01

    We read with interest the article published by Amaro, which shows that there is an increase of leukocytes to manage beets in albino mice of the species Mus musculus Balb / c (1) strain. We want to share the results of a study that bean (Vicia faba L.), a plant that has the role in the diet of rural and urban dwellers for its contribution in proteins characteristic of all legume was used, and for their contribution carbohydrate, minerals and vitamins. The importance of this kind is increasing ...

  8. The Number of Genes Controlling Resistance in Beans to Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten crosses were made between resistant (R), susceptible (S), RxS susceptible and Intermediate (I), SxI and RxR bean lines to common bacterial blight. The F1 were advanced to F2 and in each cross over 250 F2 plants were used to evaluate for the number of genes controlling resistance using Mendelian genetics and ...

  9. Weed Control in White Bean with Various Halosulfuron Tankmixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Soltani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four field trials were conducted over a three-year period (2011–2013 in southwestern Ontario to evaluate the level of weed control provided by various halosulfuron tankmixes applied preplant incorporated (PPI in white bean. Trifluralin, s-metolachlor, halosulfuron, and imazethapyr applied alone or in combination caused 4% or less visible injury 1 and 4 weeks after emergence (WAE in white bean. Trifluralin, s-metolachlor, halosulfuron, and imazethapyr applied PPI provided 80–96%, 84–95%, 83–100%, and 75–92% control of redroot pigweed; 19–28%, 30–40%, 97–99%, and 73–84% control of common ragweed; 94–96%, 63–82%, 96–100%, and 96–100% control of common lambsquarters; 14-15%, 12–35%, 100%, and 96–97% control of wild mustard; and 96–97%, 95–97%, 53–56%, and 80–82% control of green foxtail, respectively. The two- and three-way tankmixes of halosulfuron with trifluralin, s-metolachlor, or imazethapyr provided 85–100% control of redroot pigweed, 90–98% control of common ragweed, 97–100% control of common lambsquarters, 100% control of wild mustard, and 93–98% control of green foxtail. Weed density, weed biomass and white bean seed yields reflected the level of visible weed control.

  10. [Faba bean fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum )control and its mechanism in different wheat varieties and faba bean intercropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Dong, Kun; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li; Yang, Zhi-Xian

    2014-07-01

    significantly higher than that of YM42. In conclusion, intercropping influenced the microbial activity and substrate utilization of soil microorganisms, altered the microbial community diversity in rhizosphere of faba bean, reduced the amount of F. oxysporum and disease index of faba bean fusarium wilt, and promoted faba bean growth. Effects of intercropping on disease control were influenced by the intercropped wheat variety, suggesting that the differences of root exudates of wheat were important factors that affected soil-borne diseases control in intercropping.

  11. In vitro fermentation of lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) and broad beans (Vicia faba): dynamic modulation of the intestinal microbiota and metabolomic output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullón, Patricia; Gullón, Beatriz; Tavaria, Freni; Vasconcelos, Marta; Gomes, Ana Maria

    2015-10-01

    Broad beans (Vicia faba) and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) are legumes rich in a wide range of compounds, which may represent a useful dietary approach for modulating the human gut microbiome. In this work, after in vitro digestion, legume samples were used as carbon sources in anaerobic batch cultures to evaluate their impact on the intestinal microbiota composition and on their metabolic products. The fermentations were monitored by a decrease in pH, generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactate and the changes in the dynamic bacterial populations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The total SCFA at the end of fermentation was 81.52 mM for lupin seeds and 78.41 mM for broad beans accompanied by a decrease of the pH for both legumes. The microbial groups that increased significantly (P spp., Lactobacillus-Enterococcus, Atopobium, Bacteroides-Pretovella, Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia intestinalis. This impact on the intestinal microbiota suggests that lupin seeds and broad beans may be used in the development of novel functional foods, which can be included in dietary strategies for human health promotion.

  12. Mechanical weed control on small-size dry bean and its response to cross-flaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martelloni, L.; Frasconi, C.; Fontanelli, M.; Raffaelli, M.; Peruzzi, A.

    2016-11-01

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can be a profitable crop for farmers; however controlling weeds effectively without a decrease in yield remains a problem. An example where mechanical weed control is difficult to conduct is dry bean ‘Toscanello’, which is a small sized high-income niche product growing low to the ground. Concerning intra-row weed control, also flame weeding could be an opportunity but the dry bean heat tolerance needs to be studied. The aims of this research were to study the weed control efficacy of a spring-tine harrow and an inter-row cultivator in this bean variety, and to test the tolerance of dry bean cultivated under weed-free conditions to cross-flaming applied with different liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) doses. Flame weeding was applied at BBCH 13 and BBCH 14 bean growth stages by pairs of burners producing direct double flame acting into the intra-row space, with bean plants placed in the middle. The results suggest that the spring-tine harrow used two times at BBCH 13 and 14, respectively, lead to a yield similar to that of the weedy control. The inter-row cultivator could be an opportunity for small-sized dry bean crops producers, enabling them to obtain a similar yield compared to the hand-weeded control. Concerning the bean tolerance to cross-flaming the results showed that bean flamed at BBCH 13 stage had little tolerance to cross-flaming. Bean flamed at BBCH 14 stage was tolerant until an LPG dose of 39 kg/ha, giving yield responses similar to those observed in the non-flamed control. (Author)

  13. CHEMICAL CONTROL OF BEAN WEEVIL, ACANTHOSCELIDES OBTECTUS SAY IN STORAGE CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M PORCA

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the positive results obtained by some pesticides applied against the bean weevil - Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, after a synthetic rewiew of the potential chemical methods which may be used in the chemical control of the insectes harmful to the stored bean seeds. The chemical control is realised treatments wits syntetic pyrethroid (permetrin, deltametrin and organophosphoric insecticides (malation, pirimifos metil, fenitrotion and chlrorpirifos-metil.

  14. Studies on the dependence of fructification on the formation and translocation of assimilates in the broad bean (Vicia faba L. var. minor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freye, E.; Schilling, G.

    1983-01-01

    Studies on the net CO 2 assimilation of growing pods in situ and the translocation of assimilates (application of 14 CO 2 ) from individual leaves have revealed that after flowering most of the assimilates (more than 70 %) are utilized by the fruits. Amputation of some pods resulted in a better supply of other organs of this kind, but not in an increased accumulation of 14 C in vegetative parts. The net CO 2 assimilation rate of the donor leaves was not influenced. Obviously, the sink capacity of the fruit was not fully used at normal supply with assimilates. As exposure of whole plants to CO 2 -enriched air (0.13 % by volume) strongly inhibited the early fall of pods, a lack of assimilates seems to be the main cause of weak fruit setting and thus low seed yield. The great yield variations of broad bean are likely to be attributed to the great dependence of its net assimilation rate on environment. (author)

  15. Pea and Broad Bean Pods as a Natural Source of Dietary Fiber: The Impact on Texture and Sensory Properties of Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belghith-Fendri, Lilia; Chaari, Fatma; Kallel, Fatma; Zouari-Ellouzi, Soumaya; Ghorbel, Raoudha; Besbes, Souhail; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi-Aydi, Dhouha

    2016-10-01

    Attention has focused on bakery products such as cake which is one of the most common bakery products consumed by people in the world. Legume by-products, pea pods (PPs) (Pisum sativum L.) and broad bean pods (BBPs) (Vicia faba L.) mediterranean (Tunisian), has been studied for its high dietary fiber content (PP: 43.87 g/100 g; BBP: 53.01 g/100 g). Protein content was also a considerable component for both by-products. We investigated the effect of substituted of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% of PP and BBP flours on the sensory and technological properties in cake. Cakes hardness increased whereas L * and a * color values decreased. The overall acceptability rate showed that a maximum of 15% of PP and BBP flours can be added to prepare acceptable quality cakes. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Infestation of Broad Bean (Vicia faba) by the Green Stink Bug (Nezara viridula) Decreases Shoot Abscisic Acid Contents under Well-Watered and Drought Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederli, Luisa; Brunetti, Cecilia; Centritto, Mauro; Colazza, Stefano; Frati, Francesca; Loreto, Francesco; Marino, Giovanni; Salerno, Gianandrea; Pasqualini, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    The response of broad bean ( Vicia faba ) plants to water stress alone and in combination with green stink bug ( Nezara viridula ) infestation was investigated through measurement of: (1) leaf gas exchange; (2) plant hormone titres of abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites, and of salicylic acid (SA); and (3) hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) content. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of experimentally water-stressed broad-bean plants on N. viridula performance in terms of adult host-plant preference, and nymph growth and survival. Water stress significantly reduced both photosynthesis ( A ) and stomatal conductance ( g s ), while infestation by the green stink bug had no effects on photosynthesis but significantly altered partitioning of ABA between roots and shoots. Leaf ABA was decreased and root ABA increased as a result of herbivore attack, under both well-watered and water-deprived conditions. Water stress significantly impacted on SA content in leaves, but not on H 2 O 2 . However, infestation of N. viridula greatly increased both SA and H 2 O 2 contents in leaves and roots, which suggests that endogenous SA and H 2 O 2 have roles in plant responses to herbivore infestation. No significant differences were seen for green stink bug choice between well-watered and water-stressed plants. However, for green stink bug nymphs, plant water stress promoted significantly lower weight increases and significantly higher mortality, which indicates that highly water-stressed host plants are less suitable for N. viridula infestation. In conclusion two important findings emerged: (i) association of water stress with herbivore infestation largely changes plant response in terms of phytohormone contents; but (ii) water stress does not affect the preference of the infesting insects, although their performance was impaired.

  17. Control of Bean Rust using Antibiotics Produced by Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic culture filtrates produced by Bacillus (CA5) and Streptomyces spp. were tested for translocation and persistence when applied on snap beans inoculated with rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) in greenhouse pot experiments. The antibiotics were applied on the first trifoliate leaves and translocation was assessed as ...

  18. Automatic and controlled processing and the Broad Autism Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camodeca, Amy; Voelker, Sylvia

    2016-01-30

    Research related to verbal fluency in the Broad Autism Phenotype (BAP) is limited and dated, but generally suggests intact abilities in the context of weaknesses in other areas of executive function (Hughes et al., 1999; Wong et al., 2006; Delorme et al., 2007). Controlled processing, the generation of search strategies after initial, automated responses are exhausted (Spat, 2013), has yet to be investigated in the BAP, and may be evidenced in verbal fluency tasks. One hundred twenty-nine participants completed the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Verbal Fluency test (D-KEFS; Delis et al., 2001) and the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ; Hurley et al., 2007). The BAP group (n=53) produced significantly fewer total words during the 2nd 15" interval compared to the Non-BAP (n=76) group. Partial correlations indicated similar relations between verbal fluency variables for each group. Regression analyses predicting 2nd 15" interval scores suggested differentiation between controlled and automatic processing skills in both groups. Results suggest adequate automatic processing, but slowed development of controlled processing strategies in the BAP, and provide evidence for similar underlying cognitive constructs for both groups. Controlled processing was predictive of Block Design score for Non-BAP participants, and was predictive of Pragmatic Language score on the BAPQ for BAP participants. These results are similar to past research related to strengths and weaknesses in the BAP, respectively, and suggest that controlled processing strategy use may be required in instances of weak lower-level skills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pythium root rot of common bean: biology and control methods. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudoin, JP.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pythium root rot constitutes a highly damaging constraint on the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., grown in several areas of Eastern and Central Africa. Here, this food legume is cultivated intensively under poor conditions of crop rotation due to the exiguity of the land in the region. Yield losses of up to 70% in traditional local bean cultivars have been reported in Kenya and Rwanda. In this study, a detailed analysis of the biology and diversity of the Pythium genus was carried out in order to understand the mechanisms leading to the development of the disease. Various control methods for reducing the damage provoked by this disease were analyzed.

  20. Consuming Iron Biofortified Beans Increases Iron Status in Rwandan Women after 128 Days in a Randomized Controlled Feeding Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jere D; Luna, Sarah V; Lung'aho, Mercy G; Wenger, Michael J; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Beebe, Stephen; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Egli, Ines M

    2016-08-01

    Food-based strategies to reduce nutritional iron deficiency have not been universally successful. Biofortification has the potential to become a sustainable, inexpensive, and effective solution. This randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of iron-biofortified beans (Fe-Beans) to improve iron status in Rwandan women. A total of 195 women (aged 18-27 y) with serum ferritin Beans, with 86 mg Fe/kg, or standard unfortified beans (Control-Beans), with 50 mg Fe/kg, 2 times/d for 128 d in Huye, Rwanda. Iron status was assessed by hemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and body iron (BI); inflammation was assessed by serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). Anthropometric measurements were performed at baseline and at end line. Random weekly serial sampling was used to collect blood during the middle 8 wk of the feeding trial. Mixed-effects regression analysis with repeated measurements was used to evaluate the effect of Fe-Beans compared with Control-Beans on iron biomarkers throughout the course of the study. At baseline, 86% of subjects were iron-deficient (serum ferritin beans/d. The Fe-Beans group consumed 14.5 ± 1.6 mg Fe/d from biofortified beans, whereas the Control-Beans group consumed 8.6 ± 0.8 mg Fe/d from standard beans (P Beans group had significantly greater increases in hemoglobin (3.8 g/L), log serum ferritin (0.1 log μg/L), and BI (0.5 mg/kg) than did controls after 128 d. For every 1 g Fe consumed from beans over the 128 study days, there was a significant 4.2-g/L increase in hemoglobin (P beans significantly improved iron status in Rwandan women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01594359. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Productivity of irrigated beans due to sources of stabilized nitrogen fertilizer and controlled release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiely Gomes Bernardes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT New nitrogen fertilizers are available in the market actually, however, does not have results on the efficiency of the Cerrado conditions. With that objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of urea including stabilized and controlled release urea on yield of irrigated common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L in no-tillage system. The experiment was conducted in the winter crop, at Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, State of Goiás, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five replicates. Treatments consisted of five N sources (urea, urea + NBPT, urea + polymer, ammonium sulphate, and ammonium nitrate and a control (without N being applied 20 kg ha-1 of N at sowing and 80 kg ha-1 onf N in topdressing. We evaluated the chlorophyll content in leaves of common beans, the leaf N content and dry mass weight (MSPA in the flowering of common beans, the number of pods per plant, number of grains per pod, mass of 100 grains, grain yield and final stand of the common beans. The sources of nitrogen fertilizer did not influence, leaf N content, the mass of MSPA and the relative chlorophyll index of common beans. The use of polymerized urea and urea with urease inhibitor, did not produce increases in the number of grains per pod, number of pods per plant, mass of 100 grains and common beans yield compared to traditional sources of N, urea, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate.

  2. Operational performance of the three bean salad control algorithm on the ACRR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Russell M.; Madaras, John J.; Trowbridge, F. Ray; Talley, Darren G.; Parma, Edward J.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental tests on the Annular Core Research Reactor have confirmed that the ``Three-Bean-Salad'' control algorithm based on the Pontryagin maximum principle can change the power of a nuclear reactor many decades with a very fast startup rate and minimal overshoot. The paper describes the results of simulations and operations up to 25 MW and 87 decades per minute.

  3. Operational performance of the three bean salad control algorithm on the ACRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R.M.; Madaras, J.J.; Trowbridge, F.R. Jr.; Talley, D.G.; Parma, E.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental tests on the Annular Core Research Reactor have confirmed that the ''Three-Bean-Salad'' control algorithm based on the Pontryagin maximum principle can change the power of a nuclear reactor many decades with a very fast startup rate and minimal overshoot. The paper describes the results of simulations and operations up to 25 MW and 87 decades per minute

  4. Germination of beans and snap beans seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Milan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate germination of good bean seed of the variety Galeb and the bad bean seed of the same variety. We were also interested in germination of bean and snap bean seed damaged by grain weevil, and in germination of the seed treated by freezing which was aimed at controlling grain weevil by cold. We also recorded the differences between bean and snap bean seed, which was or was not treated by freezing in laboratory conditions. This investigation was carried out by applying the two factorial block system. The obtained results were evaluated by the variance analysis and x2 test These results suggest that the bean seed of a bad fraction had low levels of germination, but still it was present. Although the seed of good appearance was carefully selected, germination was slightly lower than it should have been. The seed with the large amount of grain weevils performed a high level germination in laboratory conditions. There were no differences in germination between the seed injured by grain weevil either in beans or in snap beans. As for the seed treated or untreated by freezing, there also were no differences between beans and snap beans. .

  5. Biological control of white mold by Trichoderma harzianum in common bean under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Diego Costa Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate Trichoderma harzianum isolates for biological control of white mold in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. Five isolates were evaluated for biocontrol of white mold in 'Perola' common bean under field conditions, in the 2009 and 2010 crop seasons. A commercial isolate (1306 and a control treatment were included. Foliar applications at 2x109 conidia mL-1 were performed at 42 and 52 days after sowing (DAS, in 2009, and at 52 DAS in 2010. The CEN287, CEN316, and 1306 isolates decreased the number of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum apothecia per square meter in comparison to the control, in both crop seasons. CEN287, CEN316, and 1306 decreased white mold severity during the experimental period, when compared to the control.

  6. Selection of anthracnose resistant common beans using detached leaves in partially controlled environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Campos Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the possibility of selecting anthracnose resistant common bean plants using detached primary leaves in partially controlled environment of a greenhouse and identify differences in the reaction of genotypes to anthracnose. The common bean cultivars Ouro Negro, OuroVermelho, ManteigãoFosco 11, Rudá, Rudá-R, VP8, BRSMG Madrepérola, Pérola, MeiaNoite and BRSMG Talismãwere characterizedfor resistance to the races 65, 81 and 453 of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and the method of detached primary leaves was compared to the method with the traditional inoculation of plants at the phenological stage V2. The lines Rudá, Rudá-R and Pérola were inoculated with the races 65 and 453 of C. lindemuthianum, aiming to assess the rate of coincidence of anthracnose severity by both inoculation methods. In general, the two methods presented similar results for the reaction of the cultivars. The use of detached primary leaves of common bean plants in the partially controlled environment was feasible for selection of plants resistant to anthracnose and has the advantages of low-needed infrastructure and reduction of resources, space and time.

  7. The use of ionising radiation from 60CO gamma source in controlling mouldiness in dried cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appiah, Victoria

    2001-01-01

    Mouldiness in stored cocoa beans in Ghana and the production of aflatoxin have been studied. Based on actual weight of discarded beans, mouldy beans have been estimated to constitute 0.13 % and 0.00002 % of marketable beans at the farmers' level and the buying agents' depots respectively in the Tafo District. This is contrasted with an estimated value of 0.16 % obtained in a questionnaire type study involving farmers. Estimated mouldy beans at the Tema port was 0.69 % per year (based on the cut test) representing a financial loss of $1,688,637.19 per year at $989/T should the mouldy beans be discarded. Fifty-eight (58) internally- and externally- borne fungal species were isolated from dried cocoa beans. Of these, forty-eight (48) were internally- borne and ten (10) were superficial. Twenty-nine (29) of the internally occurring fungi have been recorded for the first time on cocoa beans in Ghana. Twenty-six (26) of the fungi isolated belong to Aspergillus group. They included A. parasiticus and A. flavus, which can produce aflatoxins. Five (5) belong to Penicillium, eight (8) to Fusarium and nineteen (19) to other species. Ionising radiation effectively controlled fungi associated with mouldiness in cocoa beans in a dose - dependent manner. A radiation dose of 6 kGy completely inactivated the moulds. A. flavus and A. tamarii were the most radiation - resistant moulds encountered. The moisture content of the beans before, during and after irradiation influenced the effect of radiation. The relative humidity during storage and the type of packaging also influenced the radiation effect. Conidia of A. flavus subjected to moist heat at temperatures 20 0 C to 60 0 C for 2.5, 5 and 10 min respectively were not significantly affected by heating up to 50 0 C. Heating an aqueous conidial suspension at 60 0 C for at least 2.5 min reduced the number of fungal colonies by at least 5 log cycles when the suspension was assayed on agar plate media. Heating at 59 0 C for 10 min

  8. Defense reactions of bean genotypes to bacterial pathogens in controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, B.; Bastas, K. K.

    2018-03-01

    This study was focused on the role of antioxidant enzymes and total protein in imparting resistance against common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap) and halo blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Psp) in bean. Activities of Ascorbate peroxidase (APX), Catalase (CAT) and total protein were studied in resistant and susceptible bean genotypes. Five-day-old seedlings were inoculated with a bacterial suspension (108 CFU ml-1) and harvested at different time intervals (0, 12, 24 and 36 up to 72 h) under controlled growing conditions and assayed for antioxidant enzymes and total protein. Temporal increase of CAT, APX enzymes activities showed maximum activity at 12 h after both pathogens inoculation (hpi) in resistant cultivar, whereas in susceptible it increased at 72 h after both pathogens inoculation for CAT and 12, 24 h for APX enzymes. Maximum total protein activities were observed at 12 h and 24 h respectively after Xap, Psp inoculation (hpi) in resistant and maximum activities were observed at 24 h and 72 h respectively after Xap, Psp inoculation (hpi) in susceptible. Increase of antioxidant enzyme and total protein activities might be an important component in the defense strategy of resistance and susceptible bean genotypes against the bacterial infection. These findings suggest that disease protection is proportional to the amount of enhanced CAT, APX enzyme and total protein activity.

  9. Seedling Emergence and Phenotypic Response of Common Bean Germplasm to Different Temperatures under Controlled Conditions and in Open Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. DE RON

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and uniform seed germination and seedling emergence under diverse environmental conditions is a desirable characteristic for crops. Common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L. differ in their low temperature tolerance regarding growth and yield. Cultivars tolerant to low temperature during the germination and emergence stages and carriers of the grain quality standards demanded by consumers are needed for the success of the bean crop. The objectives of this study were i to screen the seedling emergence and the phenotypic response of bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled chamber and field conditions to display stress-tolerant genotypes with good agronomic performances and yield potential, and ii to compare the emergence of bean seedlings under controlled environment and in open field conditions to assess the efficiency of genebanks standard germination tests for predicting the performance of the seeds in the field. Three trials were conducted with 28 dry bean genotypes in open field and in growth chamber under low, moderate and warm temperature. Morpho-agronomic data were used to evaluate the phenotypic performance of the different genotypes. Cool temperatures resulted in a reduction of the rate of emergence in the bean genotypes, however, emergence and early growth of bean could be under different genetic control and these processes need further research to be suitably modeled. Nine groups arose from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA representing variation in emergence time and proportion of emergence in the controlled chamber and in the open field indicating a trend to lower emergence in large and extra-large seeded genotypes. Screening of seedling emergence and phenotypic response of the bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled growth chambers and under field conditions showed several genotypes, as landraces 272, 501, 593 and the cultivar Borlotto, with stress-tolerance at emergence and high

  10. Seedling Emergence and Phenotypic Response of Common Bean Germplasm to Different Temperatures under Controlled Conditions and in Open Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ron, Antonio M; Rodiño, Ana P; Santalla, Marta; González, Ana M; Lema, María J; Martín, Isaura; Kigel, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and uniform seed germination and seedling emergence under diverse environmental conditions is a desirable characteristic for crops. Common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) differ in their low temperature tolerance regarding growth and yield. Cultivars tolerant to low temperature during the germination and emergence stages and carriers of the grain quality standards demanded by consumers are needed for the success of the bean crop. The objectives of this study were (i) to screen the seedling emergence and the phenotypic response of bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled chamber and field conditions to display stress-tolerant genotypes with good agronomic performances and yield potential, and (ii) to compare the emergence of bean seedlings under controlled environment and in open field conditions to assess the efficiency of genebanks standard germination tests for predicting the performance of the seeds in the field. Three trials were conducted with 28 dry bean genotypes in open field and in growth chamber under low, moderate, and warm temperature. Morpho-agronomic data were used to evaluate the phenotypic performance of the different genotypes. Cool temperatures resulted in a reduction of the rate of emergence in the bean genotypes, however, emergence and early growth of bean could be under different genetic control and these processes need further research to be suitably modeled. Nine groups arose from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) representing variation in emergence time and proportion of emergence in the controlled chamber and in the open field indicating a trend to lower emergence in large and extra-large seeded genotypes. Screening of seedling emergence and phenotypic response of the bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled growth chambers and under field conditions showed several genotypes, as landraces 272, 501, 593, and the cultivar Borlotto, with stress-tolerance at emergence, and high yield

  11. Broad Application of a Reconfigurable Motor Controller, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An ultra-miniature (<50 grams) high-performance brushless-motor controller, code named 'Puck', has been developed by Barrett for Earth-based mobile-manipulation...

  12. A Controlled Agitation Process for Improving Quality of Canned Green Beans during Agitation Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anika; Pratap Singh, Anubhav; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2016-06-01

    This work introduces the concept of a controlled agitation thermal process to reduce quality damage in liquid-particulate products during agitation thermal processing. Reciprocating agitation thermal processing (RA-TP) was used as the agitation thermal process. In order to reduce the impact of agitation, a new concept of "stopping agitations after sufficient development of cold-spot temperature" was proposed. Green beans were processed in No. 2 (307×409) cans filled with liquids of various consistency (0% to 2% CMC) at various frequencies (1 to 3 Hz) of RA-TP using a full-factorial design and heat penetration results were collected. Corresponding operator's process time to impart a 10-min process lethality (Fo ) and agitation time (AT) were calculated using heat penetration results. Accordingly, products were processed again by stopping agitations as per 3 agitation regimes, namely; full time agitation, equilibration time agitation, and partial time agitation. Processed products were photographed and tested for visual quality, color, texture, breakage of green beans, turbidity, and percentage of insoluble solids in can liquid. Results showed that stopping agitations after sufficient development of cold-spot temperatures is an effective way of reducing product damages caused by agitation (for example, breakage of beans and its leaching into liquid). Agitations till one-log temperature difference gave best color, texture and visual product quality for low-viscosity liquid-particulate mixture and extended agitations till equilibration time was best for high-viscosity products. Thus, it was shown that a controlled agitation thermal process is more effective in obtaining high product quality as compared to a regular agitation thermal process. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Attempts to control Fusarium root rot of bean by seed dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardi, G; Baudino, M; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A

    2008-01-01

    In summer 2006, a root rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum was observed in commercial farms on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) on the cv Billò and Borlotto. A study was undertaken in order to evaluate the efficacy of different biological control agents applied as seed dressing. In the presence of a medium-high disease incidence, among the biocontrol agents tested, Trichoderma harzianum T 22, Bacillus subtilis QST 713, followed by Pseudomonas chlororaphis, provided generally the best control. Their efficacy was also consistent in the different trials. Also the mixture of T. harzianum + T. viride provide a good disease control. Streptomyces griseoviridis and the 3 strains of Fusarim oxysporum, although less effective, provided a partial control of the disease. The fungicide mancozeb provided only a partial disease control.

  14. Evaluation of Trichoderma Isolates for Biological Control of Rhizoctonia Root Rot of Bean in Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khodae

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rhizoctonia solani is one of the major pathogens causing root rot in the main bean-growing regions in Zanjan province. Under favorable conditions, yield losses in commercial bean fields due to Rhizoctonia root rot have exceeded 50 percent reduction in pod and seed numbers per plants. In 2012 most isolates of the pathogen from severely infected bean fields in Zanjan were assessed to AG-4. R. solani AG-4 can attack other commercial crops such as potato, alfalfa, barley, tomato, cabbage, etc. which are grown in rotation with bean in the area. Thus, the disease is unlikely to be controlled by crop rotation. Moreover, there is no registered resistant bean cultivar against the disease in Iran. Although soil treatment with fungicides is the only effective control method in the region, according to environmental and side effects of fungicides, alternative approaches such as biocontrol method using Trichoderma species is considered. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted using five isolates of Trichoderma (T12-0, T12-N, T19, T6, T95 received from the Department of Plant Pathology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (Dr. H. Rouhani and six isolates of Trichoderma (T36,T125, T131, T93, T89, T25 collected in 2011 from rhizosphere of bean plants in the commercial bean fields of Zanjan province (Table 1. Trichoderma isolates were evaluated for their potential to antagonize in vitro the plant pathogenic fungus R. solani using three different tests. In the first test, each isolate of Trichoderma was grown in a dual culture with R. solani AG-4 strain Rh7 on PDA and incubated at 25˚C. Radii of colony of R. solani were measured after 72 h. In the second test the ability of Trichoderma isolates to produce volatile inhibitors was measured. This experiment was conducted in two conditions involving the same time culturing of Trichoderma and Rhizoctonia and isolating 72 h early growing Trichoderma. For both tests the percentage of inhibition was

  15. Genetic control of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende Viviane Ferreira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic control of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni was studied using segregating populations from the bean variety crosses Jalo x ESAL 686 and ESAL 550 x ESAL 686. F2 plants, together with the parents, were inoculated and evaluated using a scale of values from one (plant without symptoms to nine (completely infected plant. F2 plants were harvested individually, and F2:3 families were obtained. These families were evaluated in an 11 x 11 and 12 x 12 simple lattice statistical design for the Jalo x ESAL 686 and ESAL 550 x ESAL 686 crosses, respectively, using the same value scale as the F2 generation. The segregation observed in F2 plants and F2:3 families indicated that two genes are involved in genetic control, due to a double recessive epistasis. The high linear regression coefficient (b between F2 plants and their F2:3 family, 0.66 for ESAL 550 x ESAL 686 cross, and 0.71 for Jalo x ESAL 686 cross, showed that the trait is highly heritable.

  16. Granular formulation of Fusarium oxysporum for biological control of faba bean and tomato Orobanche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemat Alla, Mamdouh M; Shabana, Yasser M; Serag, Mamdouh M; Hassan, Nemat M; El-Hawary, Mohamed M

    2008-12-01

    Orobanche spp. represent a serious threat to a wide range of crops. They are difficult targets for herbicides, and biological control could provide a possible solution. This work therefore aimed to formulate mycoherbicides of Fusarium with adequate shelf life and virulence against Orobanche but safe to faba bean and tomato. Only two isolates of Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. (Foxy I and Foxy II) obtained from diseased Orobanche shoots were found to be pathogenic to Orobanche crenata Forsk. and Orobanche ramosa L. Conidial suspension of both isolates significantly decreased germination, attachments and tubercles of Orobanche. Microconidia and chlamydospores of both isolates were formulated as mycoherbicides encapsulated in a wheat flour-kaolin matrix (four different formulations). All formulations greatly diminished Orobanche emerged shoots, total shoot number, shoot height, attachment of emerged shoots, the germinated seeds that succeeded in emerging above the soil surface and dry weight. Meanwhile, disease incidence and disease severity of emerged shoots were enhanced. The shelf life was adequate, particularly for coarse, freshly prepared, low-temperature-stored, microconidia-rich formulations. The induced growth reduction of Orobanche-infected host plants seemed to be nullified by formulations, particularly at the highest dose. These formulations seemed to destroy Orobanche but appeared harmless to host plants. Hence, they could be efficiently used as mycoherbicides for biological control of Orobanche in faba bean and tomato.

  17. Limitations in controlling white mold on common beans with Trichoderma spp. at the fall-winter season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trazilbo José de Paula Júnior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effectiveness of application of Trichoderma spp. in controlling white mold on common beans at the fall-winter crop in the Zona da Mata region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. There was no effect of the antagonist in reducing the disease severity, which could be explained by the low temperatures and the high inoculum pressure in the field. We concluded that Trichoderma applications are not recommended for control of white mold on common beans at the fall-winter season in regions with average temperature bellow 20 °C, since this condition favor more the pathogen than the antagonist.

  18. Combining parasitoids and plant resistance for the control of the bruchid Acanthoscelides obtectus in stored beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmale, I.; Wäckers, F.L.; Cardona, C.; Dorn, S.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) are the main bruchid pests of stored beans in widespread regions of Latin America and Africa. Host-plant resistance based on the protein arcelin is effective in reducing damage caused by Z. subfasciatus, but beans containing

  19. Genetic control of the angular leaf spot reaction in common bean leaves and pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo Constantino Borel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Information about genetic control of plant reaction to pathogens is essential in plant breeding programs focusing resistance. This study aimed to obtain information about genetic control of the angular leaf spot reaction in leaves and pods from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. line ESAL 686. This line was crossed with cultivars Jalo EEP 558 (resistant, Cornell 49-242 (resistant and Carioca MG (susceptible. Generations F1, F2 and backcrosses (BC11 and BC21 were obtained. In the dry season (2009, parents and respective populations were evaluated for angular leaf spot reaction under field conditions. Disease severity was evaluated on leaves and pods using diagrammatic scales. Severity scores were obtained and mean and variance genetic components were estimated for both. Segregation of F2 generation was analyzed for some crosses. Different genes control angular leaf spot reaction in leaves and pods. Mean and variance components showed predominance of additive effects. Heritability was high, however, was greater on pods than on leaves which indicated that leaf reaction is more influenced by the environment.

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase Navy Bean or Rice Bran Consumption in Colorectal Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borresen, Erica C; Brown, Dustin G; Harbison, Greg; Taylor, Lynn; Fairbanks, Amanda; O'Malia, Joanne; Bazan, Marlon; Rao, Sangeeta; Bailey, Susan M; Wdowik, Melissa; Weir, Tiffany L; Brown, Regina J; Ryan, Elizabeth P

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of navy beans (NB) and rice bran (RB) have been shown to inhibit colon carcinogenesis. Given the overall poor diet quality in colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors and low reported intake of whole grains and legumes, practical strategies to increase consumption merit attention. This study determined feasibility of increasing NB or RB intake in CRC survivors to increase dietary fiber and examined serum inflammatory biomarkers and telomere lengths. Twenty-nine subjects completed a randomized controlled trial with foods that included cooked NB powder (35 g/day), heat-stabilized RB (30 g/day), or no additional ingredient. Fasting blood, food logs, and gastrointestinal health questionnaires were collected. The amount of NB or RB consumed equated to 4-9% of subjects' daily caloric intake and no major gastrointestinal issues were reported with increased consumption. Dietary fiber amounts increased in NB and RB groups at Weeks 2 and 4 compared to baseline and to control (P ≤ 0.01). Telomere length correlated with age and HDL cholesterol at baseline, and with improved serum amyloid A (SAA) levels at Week 4 (P ≤ 0.05). This study concludes feasibility of increased dietary NB and RB consumption to levels associated with CRC chemoprevention and warrants longer-term investigations with both foods in high-risk populations that include cancer prevention and control outcomes.

  1. Optimizing of Arabica Coffee Bean Fermentation Process Using a Controlled Fermentor

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    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One  of  primary  coffee  processing  steps  which  affect  the  end  quality  isfermentation.  Fermentation  using  a  controlled  fermentor  might  be  usefulbecause  all  of  parameters  which  influence  coffee  quality  can  be  controlled.The  aim of this  research is to evaluate  performance  of  controlled fermentor forfermentation  process  of  Arabica  coffee  beans.  Main  material  of  this  researchwas ripe Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Research Station in Bondowoso district.  Research  parameters  were  temperature  with  four  levels  i.e.:  ambient temperature,  30o C,  35oC  and  40oC,  and  fermentation  time  with  three  levels  i.e.: 6  hours,  12  hours,  and  18  hours.  A  horizontal  type  of  modified  fermentor  has been  tested  with  20  kg/batch  or  50%  of  maximum  loading  capacity.  The  result showed  that  an  electric  heater  as  energy  source  can  raise  temperature  duringfermentation  process.  Fermentation  process  using  fermentor  at  30-40oC had  not  significant  effect  on  physical  properties  change  such  as  density,  beancount  per  100  g  and  distribution  of  beans.  Optimum  condition  for  Arabica fermentation  process  in  a  modified  fermentor  reactor  was  25oC  temperature, and  12  hours  fermentation  time.  By  this  condition,  green  beans  have  good organoleptic  score  than  other  fermentation  process  treatments. Key words: Fermentor, fermentation, coffee, quality, organoleptic, horizontal cylinder.

  2. Genetic control of the number of days to flowering in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Pedroso Mendes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic control of early flowering in common bean. Crosses weremade between the parents Pérola and BRS Radiante and between ESAL 506 and Preto 60 dias. The segregating generations,F3, F2BC11 and F2BC12 of each cross were evaluated in experiments with two replications. F3 plants of both crosses wererandomly taken, and F3:4 progenies evaluated for the trait number of days to flowering. There was good adjustment to theadditive-dominant model of both crosses. The dominance effect was lower than the additive effect in the trait control and, whenpresent, it reduced the number of days to flowering. The value of realized heritability (h2R was similar in both crosses andlower than the h2 estimated for selection among F3:4 progenies. There were indications that aside from the environmental effecton the trait expression, the genotype-environment interaction was also significant.

  3. Genomic basis of broad host range and environmental adaptability of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 which are used in inoculants for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ormeño-Orrillo Ernesto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 are α-Proteobacteria that establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses with a range of legume hosts. These strains are broadly used in commercial inoculants for application to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris in South America and Africa. Both strains display intrinsic resistance to several abiotic stressful conditions such as low soil pH and high temperatures, which are common in tropical environments, and to several antimicrobials, including pesticides. The genetic determinants of these interesting characteristics remain largely unknown. Results Genome sequencing revealed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 share a highly-conserved symbiotic plasmid (pSym that is present also in Rhizobium leucaenae CFN 299, a rhizobium displaying a similar host range. This pSym seems to have arisen by a co-integration event between two replicons. Remarkably, three distinct nodA genes were found in the pSym, a characteristic that may contribute to the broad host range of these rhizobia. Genes for biosynthesis and modulation of plant-hormone levels were also identified in the pSym. Analysis of genes involved in stress response showed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 are well equipped to cope with low pH, high temperatures and also with oxidative and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, the genomes of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 had large numbers of genes encoding drug-efflux systems, which may explain their high resistance to antimicrobials. Genome analysis also revealed a wide array of traits that may allow these strains to be successful rhizosphere colonizers, including surface polysaccharides, uptake transporters and catabolic enzymes for nutrients, diverse iron-acquisition systems, cell wall-degrading enzymes, type I and IV pili, and novel T1SS and T5SS secreted adhesins. Conclusions Availability of the complete genome sequences of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 may be exploited in further efforts to understand the interaction of tropical

  4. Chemical control of wild sorghum (sorghum arundinaceum Del. Stapf. in faba bean (vicia faba L.) in the Northern State of Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedry, K. A. M.; Elamin, A. E. M.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at Merowe Research Station farm, in the Northern State, Sudan, during 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 seasons. The objectives of the experiment were to determine the damage inflicted by a wild sorghum species (Sorghum arundinaceum (Del.) Stapf. ) on the yield of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and to evaluate the efficacy of the post-emergence herbicide clodinafop-propargyl (Topik) on wild sorghum and its effect on faba bean yield. The wild sorghum reduced faba bean crop stand and straw and seed yields by 53% - 76%, 76% - 79% and 88% - 91%, respectively, compared with the hand-weeded control. Faba bean was tolerant to the herbicide. The herbicide, at all rates, effected complete (100%) and persistent control of the wild sorghum and resulted in faba bean seed yield comparable to the hand-weeded control. The lowest dose (0.075 kg a.i/ha) of the herbicide used was equal to 75% of the dose recommended for the control of wild sorghum in wheat. It is concluded that clodinafop-propargyl at 0.075 kg a.e/ha could be used in controlling wild sorghum in faba bean. At this rate, the marginal rate of return was about 35 which indicating that every monetary unit (SDG 1) invested in the mentioned treatment would be returned back, plus additional amount of 35 SDG.(Author)

  5. Evaluation of sowing patterns and weed control on mung bean (Vigna radiate L. Wilczek - black cumin (Nigella sativa L. intercropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parviz Rezvani Moghadam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study different arrangements and weed controls effects on mung bean (Vigna radiate L. Wilczek – black cumin (Nigella sativa L. intercropping an experiment was conducted at the Research Station of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during growing season 2005 – 2006. Sixteen treatments comprising combinations of eight sowing patterns [A1: Sole black cumin, A2: Sole mung bean, A3: 3 rows black cumin– 2 rows mung bean, A4: 3 rows black cumin – 2 rows mung bean, A5: 2 rows black cumin – 1 rows mung bean, A6: 1 row black cumin – 2 rows mung bean, A7: 3 rows black cumin – 3 rows mung bean (Striped, A8: 1 row black cumin – 1 row mung bean (alternative rows] and two weed controls [V1: unweeded, V2: completely hand weeding] were arranged in a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Results showed that in intercropping systems leaf area index (LAI of mung bean reduced but in the case of black cumin increased. Mung bean total dry matter in intercropping system did not differ comparing with sole crop but total dry matter in black cumin increased. All yield components in both crops affected by sowing patterns and weed control treatments. Number of branches/plant, number of pods or follicules/plant and number of seed/pods or follicules increased in A8, A4, A5 and A3 sowing patterns in mung bean and A3, A5 and A7 sowing patterns in black cumin compared with other arrangements. By increasing mung bean ratio in rows, the number of weed species, weed density, dry weight of weeds and abundance of weed species decreased. In unweeded treatment, number of branches/plant, number of pods or follicules/plant and number of seed/pods or follicules decreased in both crops. Land equivalent ratio (LER was more than 1.00 in all sowing patterns.

  6. Immunity induced by a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials is directly controlled by their chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.R. Williams (Gareth); K. Fierens (Kaat); S.G. Preston (Stephen); A.C. Lunn; O. Rysnik (Oliwia); S. de Prijck (Sofie); M. Kool (Mirjam); H.C. Buckley (Hannah); B.N.M. Lambrecht (Bart); D. O'Hare (Dermot); J.M. Austyn (Jonathan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThere is currently no paradigm in immunology that enables an accurate prediction of how the immune system will respond to any given agent. Here we show that the immunological responses induced by members of a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials are controlled purely by their

  7. A legume biofortification quandary: variability and genetic control of seed coat micronutrient accumulation in common beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W.; Izquierdo, Paulo; Astudillo, Carolina; Grusak, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), like many legumes, are rich in iron, zinc, and certain other microelements that are generally found to be in low concentrations in cereals, other seed crops, and root or tubers and therefore are good candidates for biofortification. But a quandary exists in common bean biofortification: namely that the distribution of iron has been found to be variable between the principal parts of seed; namely the cotyledonary tissue, embryo axis and seed coat. The seed coat represents ten or more percent of the seed weight and must be considered specifically as it accumulates much of the anti-nutrients such as tannins that effect mineral bioavailability. Meanwhile the cotyledons accumulate starch and phosphorus in the form of phytates. The goal of this study was to evaluate a population of progeny derived from an advanced backcross of a wild bean and a cultivated Andean bean for seed coat versus cotyledonary minerals to identify variability and predict inheritance of the minerals. We used wild common beans because of their higher seed mineral concentration compared to cultivars and greater proportion of seed coat to total seed weight. Results showed the most important gene for seed coat iron was on linkage group B04 but also identified other QTL for seed coat and cotyledonary iron and zinc on other linkage groups, including B11 which has been important in studies of whole seed. The importance of these results in terms of physiology, candidate genes and plant breeding are discussed. PMID:23908660

  8. Linkage Map of a Gene Controlling Zero Tannins (zt-1 in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. with SSR and ISSR Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwei Hou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba L., a partially allogamous species, is rich in protein. Condensed tannins limit the use of faba beans as food and feed. Two recessive genes, zt-1 and zt-2, control the zero tannin content in faba bean and promote a white flower phenotype. To determine the inheritance and develop a linkage map for the zt-1 gene in the faba bean germplasm M3290, F2 and F3 progenies were derived from the purple flower and high tannin content genotypes Qinghai12 and zt-1 line M3290, respectively. Genetic analysis verified a single recessive gene for zero tannin content and flower colour. In total, 596 SSR markers and 100 ISSR markers were used to test the polymorphisms between the parents and bulks for the contrasting flower colour via Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA. Subsequently, six SSR markers and seven ISSR markers were used to genotype the entire 413 F2 population. Linkage analysis showed that the zt-1 gene was closely linked to the SSR markers SSR84 and M78, with genetic distances of 2.9 and 5.8 cM, respectively. The two flanked SSR markers were used to test 34 faba bean genotypes with different flower colours. The closely linked SSR marker SSR84 predicted the zt-1 genotypes with absolute accuracy. The results from the marker-assisted selection (MAS from this study could provide a solid foundation for further faba bean breeding programmes.

  9. Potential candidates for biological control of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković, S.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The black bean aphid is widely spread aphid species in the Palaearctic, known to attack over 1150 plant species. Because some of the host plants are of great agricultural interest, Aphis fabae represent a very important pest. We assembled all data concerning the presence of this pest and connected it in tritrophic associations. In the period of 24 years investigation on the territory of Serbia it has been recorded in 107 trophic associations. In total there are 145 findings of A. fabae parasitized by 19 taxa of Aphidiinae (Brackonidae from seven genera. The most suitable biocontrol agents for the black bean aphid are Lysiphlebus fabarum, Binodoxys angelicae, Lipolesis gracilis and the introduced species Lysiphlebus testaceipes.

  10. Changes in weed infestation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under conditions of strip intercropping and different weed control methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Głowacka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in the years 2004-2006 in a private farm in the village of Frankamionka in Zamość district. There were two experimental factors: I. Cultivation methods - sole cropping and strip intercropping; and II. Tending methods - mechanical, mechanical-chemical, and chemical weed control. The subject of the study was weed infestation of the Mela variety of common bean. Beans were sown between 30 April and 5 May. Weed infestation was assessed in the last week before harvesting by determining its floristic composition and the frequency of occurrence of particular weed species, as well as the air-dry weight of weeds. The dominant weed species were Galinsoga parviflora, Echinochloa crus-galli, Chenopodium album, and Amaranthus retroflexus, which comprised 84.7% of the total number of weeds. Strip intercropping markedly reduced the number of weeds per unit area (by 50%, as well as the dry weight of their aerial parts. The most effective method of weed control was the mechanical-chemical method, which resulted in the lowest occurrence of weeds. It also significantly reduced the weight of weeds.

  11. Comparative genome analysis of the candidate functional starter culture strains Lactobacillus fermentum 222 and Lactobacillus plantarum 80 for controlled cocoa bean fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeghems, Koen; De Vuyst, Luc; Weckx, Stefan

    2015-10-12

    process. Further, these results offered insights into the cocoa bean fermentation ecosystem as a whole and will facilitate the selection of appropriate starter culture strains for controlled cocoa bean fermentation processes.

  12. Chemical and Mechanical Weed Control Methods and Their Effects on Photosynthetic Pigments and Grain Yield of Kidney Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S Ghatari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the integrated management of weeds in red kidney bean, a split-plot experiment using randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted in 2013 in the Damavand County. In this experiment, the mechanical control treatments consisted of two levels (no cultivation and one cultivation asseigned to main plots and controlling chemical treatments consisted of six levels (non-application of herbicides, pre-emergence herbicide application of Pursuit with full dose of 1 liter per hectare, pre-emergence herbicide application of Pursuit a dose decreased 0.5 liters per hectare, post-emergence herbicide application of Pursuit dose reduced to 0.3 liters per hectare + 2 thousand citogate, post-emergence herbicide application of Pursuit with a reduced dose of 0.5 liters per hectare + 2 thousand citogate, post-emergence herbicide application of Pursuit full dose of 1 liter per hectar + 2 thousand citogate to subplots. The results showed that the effects of interaction between herbicide application and cultivation for traits of carotenoids, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll contents, density of weeds and their dry weights were significant at 1 %, and grain yield at the 5% probability levels. The highest bean seed yield with an average of 5461.6 kg.ha-1 and lowest weed dry weight with an average of 345.9 kg.ha-1 were related to pre-emergence herbicide and cultivation with a dose of 1 liter per hectare treatment. The difference between full and reduced doses of chemical weed control was non-significant. It could be concluded that integrated mechanical and chemical weed control not only may increase seed yield but also reduce, environmental hazards.

  13. Controlled release of Lactobacillus rhamnosus biofilm probiotics from alginate-locust bean gum microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheow, Wean Sin; Kiew, Tie Yi; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2014-03-15

    Chitosan-coated alginate microcapsules containing high-density biofilm Lactobacillus rhamnosus have been previously shown to exhibit higher freeze drying- and thermal-tolerance than their planktonic counterparts. However, their cell release profile remains poor due to the capsules' susceptibility to the gastric environment. Herein the effects of adding locust bean (LB) and xanthan (XT) gums to alginate (AGN) capsules on the stress tolerance and cell release profiles in simulated gastrointestinal fluids are investigated. Compared to the AGN-only capsules, the AGN-LB capsules exhibit improved stress tolerance (i.e. ≈ 6x for freeze drying, 100x for thermotolerance, 10x for acid), whereas the AGN-XT capsules only improve the acid tolerance. Importantly, the AGN-LB capsules possess the optimal cell release profile with a majority of cells released in the simulated intestinal juice than in the gastric juice. The AGN-LB capsules' superiority is attributed to their stronger interaction with the chitosan coating and high swelling capacity, thus delaying their bulk dissolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of pest controlling neem and mata-raton leaf extracts on greenhouse gas emissions from urea-amended soil cultivated with beans: A greenhouse experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez-Bautista, Joaquin; Fernandez-Luqueno, Fabian; Lopez-Valdez, Fernando; Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna; Montes-Molina, Joaquin A.; Gutierrez-Miceli, Federico A.; Dendooven, L.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous laboratory experiment, extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as mata-raton, used to control pests on crops, inhibited emissions of CO 2 from a urea-amended soil, but not nitrification and N 2 O emissions. We investigated if these extracts when applied to beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affected their development, soil characteristics and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) in a greenhouse environment. Untreated beans and beans planted with lambda-cyhalothrin, a commercial insecticide, served as controls. After 117 days, shoots of plants cultivated in soil amended with urea or treated with lambda-cyhalothrin, or extracts of neem or G. sepium were significantly higher than when cultivated in the unamended soil, while the roots were significantly longer when plants were amended with urea or treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium than when treated with lambda-cyhalothrin. The number of pods, fresh and dry pod weight and seed yield was significantly higher when bean plants were treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium treatments than when left untreated and unfertilized. The number of seeds was similar for the different treatments. The number of nodules was lower in plants fertilized with urea, treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium, or with lambda-cyhalothrin compared to the unfertilized plants. The concentrations of NH 4 + , NO 2 - and NO 3 - decreased significantly over time with the lowest concentrations generally found at harvest. Treatment had no significant effect on the concentrations of NH 4 + and NO 2 - , but the concentration of NO 3 - was significantly lower in the unfertilized soil compared to the other treatments. It was found that applying extracts of neem or G. sepium leaves to beans favored their development when compared to untreated plants, but had no significant effect on nitrification in soil.

  15. The Effect of Processing Method of Dolichos Bean (Lablob Growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four diets were formulated to contain the control diet with 0.09 soybean meal or ... nutrient availability and overall utilisation of dolichos bean meal for pigs. ..... quick-cooking moth bean (Phaseolus aconitifolius Jacq.). The Indian Journal of Nu-.

  16. Control of the Mexican bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus with kaolin Controle do caruncho-do-feijão Zabrotes subfasciatus com caulim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Yatie Mikami

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae is an important pest of stored beans in tropical regions. The efficiency of kaolin [with or without neem (Azadirachta indica oil] and diatomaceous earth (DE (standard treatment was studied in laboratory aiming to obtain alternatives for chemical control of this insect. Insects were confined in plastic vials containing beans treated with kaolin (2, 4 and 8g kg-1, kaolin + neem [2g kg-1(5% neem oil], diatomaceous earth (1g kg-1 and control. Mortality of adult insects, number of eggs and F1generation beetles emergency were assessed. Kaolin caused mortality of Z. subfasciatus, however higher periods and doses than DE were necessary to promote high mortality (100% or close. Kaolin treatments also affected female behavior because many eggs were placed in the vials walls. Number of emerged adults (F1 was similar between DE and kaolin; hence, kaolin constitutes a promising tool to the management of Z. subfasciatus. The mixture of kaolin and neem oil was not efficient in the control of Z. subfasciatus.O caruncho-do-feijão Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae é uma importante praga de grãos de feijão armazenado nas regiões tropicais. A eficiência do caulim [com ou sem óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica] e terra diatomácea (TD (tratamento padrão foi estudada em laboratório com o intuito de obter alternativas para o controle químico deste inseto. Insetos foram confinados em frascos de plástico com feijão tratado com caulim (2, 4 e 8g kg-1, caulim + nim [2g kg-1(5% óleo de nim], terra diatomácea (1g kg-1 e controle. Mortalidade de insetos adultos, número de ovos e emergência da geração F1 foram avaliados. Caulim causou a mortalidade de Z. subfasciatus, porém foram necessários maiores períodos e doses que a TD para promover elevada mortalidade (100% ou aproximadamente. Os tratamentos com caulim também afetaram o comportamento da f

  17. A case study of an erosion control practice: the broad-based dip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Bold; Pamela Edwards; Karl Williard

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, 19 gravel haul roads with broad-based dips within the Monongahela National Forest were examined to determine if those dips adhered to Forest specifications for cut depth and dip outslope. Data on the azimuth, contributing road lengths, slopes of the contributing lengths, landscape position of the dip, and soil texture of the road bed materials also were...

  18. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide selectivity, for castor bean crops. Weed science research for castor bean crops is scarce. One of the main weed management challenges for castor bean crops is the absence of herbicides registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MALFS. Research for viable herbicides for weed control in castor bean crops should be directed by research and/or rural extension institutions, associations and farmers cooperatives, as well as by manufactures, for the registration of these selective herbicides, which would be primarily used to control eudicotyledons in castor bean crops. New studies involving the integration of weed control methods in castor bean also may increase the efficiency of weed management, for both small farmers using traditional crop methods in the Brazilian Northeast region, as well as for areas with the potential for large scale production, using conservation tillage systems, such as the no-tillage crop production system.

  19. Biological control of Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli the causal agent of root rot of bean using Bacillus subtilis CA32 and Trichoderma harzianum RU01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Abeysinghe

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Root rot, caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli, is one of the main root diseases impacting production of common bean in Sri Lanka. Rhizobacteria were screened in dual Petri plate assays to select antagonistic strains against F. solani f. sp. phaseoli. B. subtilis CA32 effectively antagonized the pathogen. T. harzianum RU01 also showed the antagonistic activity. The efficacy of the B. subtilis CA32 and the T. harzianum RU01 were tested in greenhouse pot experiments against F. solani f. sp. phaseoli. Seed bacterization with B. subtilis CA32 and T. harzianum RU01 significantly protected bean seedlings from F. solani f. sp. phaseoli compared to the untreated control plants. Plant protection was more pronounced in T. harzianum RU01 treated plants than bacterized plants. Enhanced root growth was observed only T. harzianum RU01 treated plants, suggesting that the biotic modifications of the mycorrhizosphere as a result of colonization with T. harzianum RU01.

  20. Influence of low Gamma Irradiation Doses And Weed Control On Faba Bean (VICIA FABA L.) Yield Attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, I.A.A; Abd El Hameed, I.M

    2013-01-01

    Two field experiments were carried out in an administration field at Belbees district, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, during two successive winter seasons (2007⁄08-2008⁄09). The study aimed to investigate the effect of four gamma irradiation doses (un irradiated seeds as a control, 10,20 and 30 Gy)and five treatments of weed management practices 1- Un weeded (control), 2- Two hand hoeings at 21 and 42 days after sowing, 3- prometryn, commercially known as Gizagared,, sprayed at pre-emergence with rate of 1 Kg⁄300 liters⁄fad. 4-Bentazon 48⁒, commercially known as Basagran 48⁒ ,sprayed at pre-emergence with the rate of 500 Cm 3 ⁄200 ;liters water⁄fad. Sprayed at pre-emergence. 5-48⁒ sprayed at pre-emergence with the rate of 500 cm 3 ⁄200 liters water⁄fad. On yield and yield attributes of faba bean. Results indicate that :1- Gamma irradiation with the lowest dose of 10 Gy, gave high values for plant height (112.54 cm) and number of pods⁄plant (12.22), while the highest gamma irradiation dose of 30 Gy, resulted in high values for number of seeds⁄pod (4.52), number of seeds⁄plant (52.3) , seed weight (g)⁄plant, 100- seeds weight (79.79 g), seed yield (11.39 ardab⁄fad) and straw yield (ton⁄fad). The lowest values for each of the aforementioned traits were obtained in non irradiated treatment in the combined analysis 2- Weed control by hand hoeing twice (after 21 and 24 DAS) gave the highest values for each of the aforementioned traits, followed by spraying both herbicides., prometryn + bentazon 48⁒ followed by sole herbicide Bentazon 48⁒ and sole prometryn, while unweeded treatment gave the lowest values for the respective order, in the combined analysis.

  1. Irradiated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F 0 animals and growth and development of the F 1 offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment. (orig.)

  2. Effect of pest controlling neem and mata-raton leaf extracts on greenhouse gas emissions from urea-amended soil cultivated with beans: A greenhouse experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez-Bautista, Joaquin [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Fernandez-Luqueno, Fabian [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Department of Electromechanics, Renewable Energy Engineering, UTTulancingo, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez-Valdez, Fernando [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); C.I.B.A.-I.P.N., Tepetitla de Lardizabal, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Montes-Molina, Joaquin A.; Gutierrez-Miceli, Federico A. [Laboratorio de Biotecnologia Vegetal, Instituto Tecnologico de Tuxtla-Gutierrez, Tuxtla-Gutierrez (Mexico); Dendooven, L., E-mail: dendoove@cinvestav.mx [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-01

    In a previous laboratory experiment, extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as mata-raton, used to control pests on crops, inhibited emissions of CO{sub 2} from a urea-amended soil, but not nitrification and N{sub 2}O emissions. We investigated if these extracts when applied to beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affected their development, soil characteristics and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) in a greenhouse environment. Untreated beans and beans planted with lambda-cyhalothrin, a commercial insecticide, served as controls. After 117 days, shoots of plants cultivated in soil amended with urea or treated with lambda-cyhalothrin, or extracts of neem or G. sepium were significantly higher than when cultivated in the unamended soil, while the roots were significantly longer when plants were amended with urea or treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium than when treated with lambda-cyhalothrin. The number of pods, fresh and dry pod weight and seed yield was significantly higher when bean plants were treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium treatments than when left untreated and unfertilized. The number of seeds was similar for the different treatments. The number of nodules was lower in plants fertilized with urea, treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium, or with lambda-cyhalothrin compared to the unfertilized plants. The concentrations of NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 2}{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} decreased significantly over time with the lowest concentrations generally found at harvest. Treatment had no significant effect on the concentrations of NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 2}{sup -}, but the concentration of NO{sub 3}{sup -} was significantly lower in the unfertilized soil compared to the other treatments. It was found that applying extracts of neem or G. sepium leaves to beans favored their development when compared to untreated plants, but had no significant

  3. The effects of video-game training on broad cognitive transfer in multiple sclerosis: A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Alisha; Boster, Aaron; Lee, HyunKyu; Patterson, Beth; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system that results in diffuse nerve damage and associated physical and cognitive impairments. Of the few comprehensive rehabilitation options that exist for populations with lower baseline cognitive functioning, those that have been successful at eliciting broad cognitive improvements have focused on a multimodal training approach, emphasizing complex cognitive processing that utilizes multiple domains simultaneously. The current study sought to determine the feasibility of an 8-week, hybrid-variable priority training (HVT) program, with a secondary aim to assess the success of this training paradigm at eliciting broad cognitive transfer effects. Capitalizing on the multimodal training modalities offered by the Space Fortress platform, we compared the HVT strategy-based intervention with a waitlist control group, to primarily assess skill acquisition and secondarily determine presence of cognitive transfer. Twenty-eight participants met inclusionary criteria for the study and were randomized to either training or waitlist control groups. To assess broad transfer effects, a battery of neuropsychological tests was administered pre- and post-intervention. The results indicated an overall improvement in skill acquisition and evidence for the feasibility of the intervention, but a lack of broad transfer to tasks of cognitive functioning. Participants in the training group, however, did show improvements on a measure of spatial short-term memory. The current investigation provided support for the feasibility of a multimodal training approach, using the HVT strategy, within the MS population, but lacked broad transfer to multiple domains of cognitive functioning. Future improvements to obtain greater cognitive transfer efficacy would include a larger sample size, a longer course of training to evoke greater game score improvement, the inclusion of only cognitively impaired individuals, and

  4. Early planting and hand sorting effectively controls seed-borne fungi in farm-retained bean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Dube

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Home-saved bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seed can be hand-sorted to remove discoloured seed, thereby reducing the level of contamination by certain seed-borne fungi and improving seed germination. In this study, the effect of planting date on the infection and discolouration of bean seed by seed-borne fungi was investigated in order to improve the quality of hand-sorted, farm-retained bean seeds used by resource poor smallholder farmers. The germination quality and level of seed-borne fungi in hand-sorted first-generation bean seed harvested from an early-, mid- and late-summer season planted crop was therefore assessed. The highest percentage of discoloured seed (68% was obtained from the mid-summer season planting. Non-discoloured seed from early- and late-season plantings had significantly (p"less than"0.001 higher normal germination (82% and 77%, respectively than that from the mid-season planting date (58%. Irrespective of planting date, unsorted seed and discoloured seed had higher levels of infection by Fusarium spp. and Phaeoisariopsis spp. than the non-discoloured seed. Removal of discoloured seed by hand sorting eliminated Rhizoctonia spp. from all seed lots. Farmers can eliminate this pathogen by simply removing discoloured seed. Non-discoloured seed from the early-planted crop had the lowest level of infection by Fusarium spp. and Phaeoisariopsis spp. The results indicate that planting date is an important consideration in improving the quality of hand-sorted farm-retained bean seed.

  5. Baroreflex control of heart rate in the broad-nosed caiman Caiman latirostris is temperature dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagensen, Mette K; Abe, Augusto S; Wang, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that ectothermic vertebrates primarily control blood pressure to protect the pulmonary vasculature from oedema caused by high pressure, while endothermic vertebrates control blood pressure to maintain adequate oxygen delivery to the tissues. In the present study we have...

  6. chitwood on African yam bean, Sphenostylis stenocarpa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... African yam bean is a legume and its production has been reported to be ... determined according to standard methods (IITA, 1989). The .... control experiments were the highest-yielding accession, although ..... Handbook of.

  7. Broad patterns in domestic vector-borne Trypanosoma cruzi transmission dynamics: synanthropic animals and vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jennifer K; Bartsch, Sarah M; Lee, Bruce Y; Dobson, Andrew P

    2015-10-22

    Chagas disease (caused by Trypanosoma cruzi) is the most important neglected tropical disease (NTD) in Latin America, infecting an estimated 5.7 million people in the 21 countries where it is endemic. It is one of the NTDs targeted for control and elimination by the 2020 London Declaration goals, with the first goal being to interrupt intra-domiciliary vector-borne T. cruzi transmission. A key question in domestic T. cruzi transmission is the role that synanthropic animals play in T. cruzi transmission to humans. Here, we ask, (1) do synanthropic animals need to be targeted in Chagas disease prevention policies?, and (2) how does the presence of animals affect the efficacy of vector control? We developed a simple mathematical model to simulate domestic vector-borne T. cruzi transmission and to specifically examine the interaction between the presence of synanthropic animals and effects of vector control. We used the model to explore how the interactions between triatomine bugs, humans and animals impact the number and proportion of T. cruzi-infected bugs and humans. We then examined how T. cruzi dynamics change when control measures targeting vector abundance are introduced into the system. We found that the presence of synanthropic animals slows the speed of T. cruzi transmission to humans, and increases the sensitivity of T. cruzi transmission dynamics to vector control measures at comparable triatomine carrying capacities. However, T. cruzi transmission is amplified when triatomine carrying capacity increases with the abundance of syntathoropic hosts. Our results suggest that in domestic T. cruzi transmission scenarios where no vector control measures are in place, a reduction in synanthropic animals may slow T. cruzi transmission to humans, but it would not completely eliminate transmission. To reach the 2020 goal of interrupting intra-domiciliary T. cruzi transmission, it is critical to target vector populations. Additionally, where vector control measures

  8. Consumption of Iron-Biofortified Beans Positively Affects Cognitive Performance in 18- to 27-Year-Old Rwandan Female College Students in an 18-Week Randomized Controlled Efficacy Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Wenger, Michael J; Scott, Samuel P; Rhoten, Stephanie E; Lung'aho, Mercy G; Haas, Jere D

    2017-11-01

    Background: Evidence shows that iron deficiency in adulthood may affect cognitive performance, possibly by disrupting neurotransmitter regulation or brain energy metabolism. Women of reproductive age (WRA) are among those who are most vulnerable to iron deficiency; however, they have been largely ignored in the literature relating iron status to cognition. Objective: Our aim was to determine the efficacy of iron-biofortified beans in improving cognition in WRA compared with control beans. Methods: A double-blind, randomized intervention study was conducted in 150 women aged 18-27 y with low iron status (ferritin beans (86.1 ppm iron) or control beans (50.1 ppm iron) daily for 18 wk. Iron status was assessed based on hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin receptor, and body iron values and on cognitive performance on 5 computerized tasks at baseline and endline. Results: Groups did not differ on any variables at baseline. Per protocol analyses revealed that consumption of the biofortified beans resulted in a 17% larger improvement in the speed of spatial selective attention; a nearly 7-fold larger improvement in the speed, a 68% greater improvement in the efficiency, and a >2-fold greater improvement in the specificity of memory retrieval; and a >2-fold larger improvement in the speed and a >3-fold larger improvement in the efficiency of memory search-all of which are relative to consumption of the control beans ( P beans for 18 wk improved cognitive performance, especially the efficiency of search and the speed of retrieval on memory tasks, in young adult women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01594359.

  9. Broad-Spectrum Behavioral Treatment for Chronic Alcoholics: Effects of Training Controlled Drinking Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, David W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Assessed unique treatment effects of training controlled drinking skills in a chronic alcoholic population of veterans (N=62). Results of a six-month posttreatment follow-up revealed that subjects in the drinking skills condition had significantly fewer abstinent days and more abusive drinking days than subjects in the untrained condition. (LLL)

  10. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cured meat, vegetables, and bean-curd foods in relation to childhood acute leukemia risk: a population based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen-Yu; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Pan, Pi-Chen; Ho, Chi-Kung; Su, Li; Xu, Xin; Li, Yi; Christiani, David C

    2009-01-13

    Consumption of cured/smoked meat and fish leads to the formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds in the acidic stomach. This study investigated whether consumed cured/smoked meat and fish, the major dietary resource for exposure to nitrites and nitrosamines, is associated with childhood acute leukemia. A population-based case-control study of Han Chinese between 2 and 20 years old was conducted in southern Taiwan. 145 acute leukemia cases and 370 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited between 1997 and 2005. Dietary data were obtained from a questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used in data analyses. Consumption of cured/smoked meat and fish more than once a week was associated with an increased risk of acute leukemia (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.15-2.64). Conversely, higher intake of vegetables (OR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.37-0.83) and bean-curd (OR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.34-0.89) was associated with a reduced risk. No statistically significant association was observed between leukemia risk and the consumption of pickled vegetables, fruits, and tea. Dietary exposure to cured/smoked meat and fish may be associated with leukemia risk through their contents of nitrites and nitrosamines among children and adolescents, and intake of vegetables and soy-bean curd may be protective.

  12. Abamectin, pymetrozine and azadirachtin sequence as a unique solution to control the leafminer Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) infesting garden beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, A S A; Massoud, M A; Abdel-Megeed, A A M; Hamid, N A; Mourad, A K K; Barakat, A S T

    2007-01-01

    Field trails were conducted to determine the performance of three different sequences as a unique solution for the control of the leaf miner Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) infesting garden beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) during the two successive seasons of 2004 and 2005. Furthermore, during the evaluation period, the side effect against the ectoparasite Diglyphus isaea (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) was put into consideration. Meanwhile, the comparative evaluation of the pesticides alone showed that abamectin and azadirachtin were highly effective against Liriomyza trifolii, while carbosulfan, pymetrozine and thiamethoxam provided to be of a moderate effect. Moreover, carbosulfan showed harmful effect to the larvae of the ectoparasite Diglyphus isaea (Walker), while abamectin and azadirachtin gave a moderate effect. Thiamethoxam and the the detergent (Masrol 410) had slight effect in this respect. The highly effective sequence among the sequences was abamectin, pymetrozine and azadirachtin, against Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), with slight harmful effect on Diglyphus isaea (Walker). However the sequence of azadirachtin, pymetrozine and abamectin had a moderate effect on Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) and exhibited a slight toxic effect on Diglyphus isaea (Walker). In contrast, the sequence of carbosulfan, thiamethoxam and pymetrozine was the least effective and represented a slight effect on Diglyphus isaea (Walker). From this study, it was concluded that abamectin, pymetrozine and azadirachtin sequence has proved to be a unique solution for the control of the leaf miner Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) infesting garden beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Egypt.

  13. Phytic acid concentration influences iron bioavailability from biofortified beans in Rwandese women with low iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nicolai; Egli, Ines; Gahutu, Jean B; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Boy, Erick; Hurrell, Richard

    2014-11-01

    The common bean is a staple crop in many African and Latin American countries and is the focus of biofortification initiatives. Bean iron concentration has been doubled by selective plant breeding, but the additional iron is reported to be of low bioavailability, most likely due to high phytic acid (PA) concentrations. The present study evaluated the impact of PA on iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans. Iron absorption, based on erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes, was measured in 22 Rwandese women who consumed multiple, composite bean meals with potatoes or rice in a crossover design. Iron absorption from meals containing biofortified beans (8.8 mg Fe, 1320 mg PA/100 g) and control beans (5.4 mg Fe, 980 mg PA/100 g) was measured with beans containing either their native PA concentration or with beans that were ∼50% dephytinized or >95% dephytinized. The iron concentration of the cooked composite meals with biofortified beans was 54% higher than in the same meals with control beans. With native PA concentrations, fractional iron absorption from the control bean meals was 9.2%, 30% higher than that from the biofortified bean meals (P bean meals (406 μg) was 19% higher (P bean meals. With ∼50% and >95% dephytinization, the quantity of iron absorbed from the biofortified bean meals increased to 599 and 746 μg, respectively, which was 37% (P bean meals. PA strongly decreases iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans, and a high PA concentration is an important impediment to the optimal effectiveness of bean iron biofortification. Plant breeders should focus on lowering the PA concentration of high-iron beans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01521273. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Controle de plantas daninhas com herbicidas na cultura do feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Weed control in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S.P. Cruz

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma pesquisa em 1970, para se conhecer os efeitos de três herbicidas aplicados em pré-plantio incorporado (EPTC a 3,60 kg/ha, nitralin e trifluralin a 0,76 kg/ha e de um em pré-emergência (fluorodifen a 3,00 kg/ha na cultura de feijão comparados com uma testemunha sem herbicida. As duas gramíneas presentes no ensaio, Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn. e Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop. foram eficientemente controladas por todos os herbicidas, com indices de controle superiores a 87,00%, em contagem de plantas daninhas realizada 29 dias após a aplicação dos herbicidas. Dentre as dicotiledóneas presentes, Amaranthus viridis L. também foi eficientemente controlado por todos os herbicidas, com indices de controle superiores a 92,00%. Ageratum conyzoides L. foi eficientemente controlado por fluorodifen (91,60% e regularmente por EPTC (78,99% e por nitralin (79,83%. Trifluralin não foi eficiente contra A. conyzoides L. Nenhum dos herbicidas testados controlou Ipomoea sp e Chenopodium ambrosioides L., também presentes no experimento. EPTC e nitralin apresentaram as menores porcentagens de infestação geral de plantas daninhas, tendo, aos 51 dias da aplicação dos produtos, quando suas parcelas foram capinadas mecanicamente, 8,00 e 17,00% de infestação, respectivamente. Trifluralin e fluorodifen precisaram de limpeza aos 42 dias da aplicação, e a testemunha já aos 29 dias, pois apresentavam parcelas com 25,00%, ou mais, de infestação, naquelas épocas. Os herbicidas experimentados não foram prejudiciais à germinação e ao desenvolvimento vegetativo dos feijoeiros, assim como à sua produção de grãos.The weed control with herbicides in beans crop was studied during 1970 year, in Campinas-SP, on a sandy-loam soil. The treatments employed were EPTC at 3.60 kg/ha, nitralin and trifluralin at 0.76 kg/ha, all applied in preplant i •porated; fluorodifen in preemergence at 3.00 kg/ha and a hoed check. Among the weeds

  15. Methyl and p-Bromobenzyl Esters of Hydrogenated Kaurenoic Acid for Controlling Anthracnose in Common Bean Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Suellen F; Oliveira, Denilson F; Heleno, Vladimir C G; Soares, Ana Carolina F; Midiwo, Jacob O; Souza, Elaine A

    2017-03-01

    Kaurenoic acid derivatives were prepared and submitted to in vitro assays with the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, which causes anthracnose disease in the common bean. The most active substances were found to be methyl and p-bromobenzylesters, 7 and 9, respectively, of the hydrogenated kaurenoic acid, which presented a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.097 and 0.131 mM, respectively, while the commercial fungicide methyl thiophanate (MT) presented a MIC of 0.143 mM. Substances 7 (1.401 mM) and 9 (1.886 mM) reduced the severity of anthracnose in common bean to values statistically comparable to MT (2.044 mM). According to an in silico study, both compounds 7 and 9 are inhibitors of the ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) enzyme produced by other organisms, the amino acid sequence of which could be detected in fungal genomes. These substances appeared to act against C. lindemuthianum by inhibiting its KSI. Therefore, substances 7 and 9 are promising for the development of new fungicides.

  16. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants...

  17. Controle de fungos presentes no ar e em sementes de feijão durante armazenamento Control of fungi present in the air and bean seeds during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio M. Borém

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, avaliar a eficácia de um equipamento redutor de inóculo (ERI na preservação da qualidade sanitária de sementes de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. durante o armazenamento em estruturas herméticas com circulação de ar forçado. A presença de inóculo no ar foi monitorada a partir da exposição de placas de Petri com meio de cultura BDA salino, contando-se o número de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC dos fungos Aspergillus spp. e Penicillium spp. As análises sanitárias das sementes foram realizada pelo método do papel de filtro (Blotter test, calculando-se o índice de ocorrência de Aspergillus spp. e Penicillium spp. Durante o período de armazenamento, houve um aumento na incidência de fungos nas sementes, independente da presença dos ERI. Nas amostragens realizadas na entrada da caixa com a presença dos ERI, não foram encontradas unidades formadoras de colônias. Com o aumento do fluxo de ar utilizado no sistema, notou-se que este efeito foi transferido para a saída da caixa. Nas condições especificadas, os ERI foram incapazes de controlar os fungos de armazenamento, Aspergillus spp e Penicillium spp, nas sementes de feijão, porém foram eficazes no controle dos seus esporos presentes no ar.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the efficiency of inoculum reducing equipment (IRE in the maintenance of quality of bean seeds during storage in hermetic structures with circulation of forced air. The inoculum's presence in the air was monitored by the exposition of Petri dishes with culture medium (saline BDA by counting the number of colonies units of Aspergillus and Penicillium. The quality analysis of seeds were performed by the blotter test. The occurrence index was calculated for Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp. The fungal occurrence increased during the storage period, in spite of the IRE presence. Fungal colonies were not found in the air samples collected at the box

  18. The Effective Design of Bean Bag as a Vibroimpact Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of a bean bag damper has been effectively applied in many engineering fields to control the vibroimpact of a structural system. In this study, the basic parameters responsible for the design of an effective bean bag: the size of beans, the mass ratio of the bean bag to the structure to which it is attached, the clearance distance and the position of the bag, are studied by both theoretical and experimental analyses. These will provide a better understanding of the performance of the bean bag for optimisation of damper design. It was found that reducing the size of beans would increase the exchange of momentum in the system due to the increase in the effective contact areas. Within the range of mass ratios studied, the damping performance of the damper was found to improve with higher mass ratios. There was an optimum clearance for any specific damper whereby the maximum attenuation could be achieved. The position of the bag with respect to nodes and antipodes of the primary structure determined the magnitude of attenuation attainable. Furthermore, the limitations of bean bags have been identified and a general criteria for the design of a bean bag damper has been formulated based on the study undertaken. It was shown that an appropriately configured bean bag damper was capable of reducing the amplitude of vibration by 80% to 90%.

  19. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  20. A broad-spectrum, efficient and nontransgenic approach to control plant viruses by application of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jing; Xi, De-Hui; Xu, Fei; Wang, Shao-Dong; Cao, Sen; Xu, Mo-Yun; Zhao, Ping-Ping; Wang, Jian-Hui; Jia, Shu-Dan; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Yuan, Shu; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2011-02-01

    Plant viruses cause many diseases that lead to significant economic losses. However, most of the approaches to control plant viruses, including transgenic processes or drugs are plant-species-limited or virus-species-limited, and not very effective. We introduce an application of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA), a broad-spectrum, efficient and nontransgenic method, to improve plant resistance to RNA viruses. Applying 0.06 mM JA and then 0.1 mM SA 24 h later, enhanced resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) in Arabidopsis, tobacco, tomato and hot pepper. The inhibition efficiency to virus replication usually achieved up to 80-90%. The putative molecular mechanism was investigated. Some possible factors affecting the synergism of JA and SA have been defined, including WRKY53, WRKY70, PDF1.2, MPK4, MPK2, MPK3, MPK5, MPK12, MPK14, MKK1, MKK2, and MKK6. All genes involving in the synergism of JA and SA were investigated. This approach is safe to human beings and environmentally friendly and shows potential as a strong tool for crop protection against plant viruses.

  1. Formulation of a complementary food fortified with broad beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate nutrient intake, especially of protein and micronutrients, enhances growth of children and decreases susceptibility to disease. Major contributing factors to malnutrition among infants and children are low purchasing power of the family resulting in poor quality foods. A cross-sectional and laboratory-based study ...

  2. Effects of Defatted Jack Bean Flour and Jack Bean Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effects of substituting wheat flour with defatted Jack bean flour and Jack bean protein concentrate on bread quality. Jack bean flour milled from the seed nibs was defatted with n-hexane and part of the defatted flour (DJF) extracted in acid medium (pH; 4.5) for protein concentrate (JPC). Both the DJF ...

  3. Effects of irradiation on the physicochemical properties of carioca beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Damaris Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    The common bean is an important component in the diet of the average Brazilian person. Each harvest of beans, losses occur due to attacks of insects and rodents. One of the ways to preserve the beans, and at the same time keep its nutritional characteristics, is the use of gamma radiation. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different doses of gamma radiation on the physical and chemical properties of the carioca variety of common beans subject to cooking of soaked and unsoaked beans. Portions of raw beans were used as control and the other was subject to ionizing radiation at doses of 1, 5 and 10 kGy. Following irradiation, a portion of the samples (control and irradiated) were soaked and the other was not, then all beans were cooked. The cooked samples were lyophilized, milled and then accommodated in pots and stored at -23 deg C temperatures. The analysis of chemical composition, determination of protein digestibility, condensed tannin and phytic acid content were performed using the milled samples. Using whole grains, were performed analysis of expansion capability and hydration, cooking time and instrumental color. Irradiation did not alter the chemical composition of soaked and unsoaked samples. The condensed tannin levels did not reduce according to increased doses. The phytic acid concentrations were reduced at the doses of 5 and 10 kGy for soaked samples, whereas for the not soaked beans, gamma irradiation did not influence the phytate content. The protein digestibility decreased on soaked samples, at doses of 1 kGy and in the other doses, the reduction was not significant. As for not soaked beans, increases in digestibility were observed at dose of 10 kGy. As the doses increased, reduction in cooking time on soaked and unsoaked beans was noted. At a dose of 10 kGy, the bean expansion capability increased. The samples' color did not change significantly, as the doses increased. Therefore, it is concluded that ionizing radiation has no effect

  4. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T; Riskin, Shelby H; Krusche, Alex V; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A

    2013-06-05

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales.

  5. Sharing Beans with Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Clare V.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have known for decades that the use of storybooks can have a positive impact on students' experiences with mathematics. This article describes how first graders in an urban public school actively engage with mathematics by using the story "Bean Thirteen" as a context for developing number sense. This…

  6. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winham, Donna M; Armstrong Florian, Traci L; Thompson, Sharon V

    2016-01-01

    Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States. A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70%) low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing "bean health benefits" and "food behaviors." Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA. The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471). Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65%) and were satiating (62%). Over 50% answered 'neutral' to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%), control blood glucose (56%) or reduce cancer risk (56%), indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation. Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition.

  7. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M Winham

    Full Text Available Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States.A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70% low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing "bean health benefits" and "food behaviors." Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA.The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471. Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65% and were satiating (62%. Over 50% answered 'neutral' to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%, control blood glucose (56% or reduce cancer risk (56%, indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation.Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition.

  8. Limitations in controlling white mold on common beans with Trichoderma spp. at the fall-winter season Limitações do controle do mofo-branco do feijoeiro com Trichoderma spp. no cultivo de outono-inverno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trazilbo José de Paula Júnior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effectiveness of application of Trichoderma spp. in controlling white mold on common beans at the fall-winter crop in the Zona da Mata region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. There was no effect of the antagonist in reducing the disease severity, which could be explained by the low temperatures and the high inoculum pressure in the field. We concluded that Trichoderma applications are not recommended for control of white mold on common beans at the fall-winter season in regions with average temperature bellow 20 °C, since this condition favor more the pathogen than the antagonist.Estudou-se a eficácia da aplicação de Trichoderma spp. no controle do mofo-branco do feijoeiro cultivado no outono-inverno na Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais. Não houve efeito do antagonista em reduzir a severidade da doença, o que pode ser explicado pelas baixas temperaturas e pela alta pressão de inóculo no campo. Conclui-se que aplicações de Trichoderma não são recomendadas para o controle do mofo-branco do feijoeiro no outono-inverno em regiões com temperatura média abaixo de 20 °C, considerando que essa condição climática favorece mais o desenvolvimento do patógeno do que o do antagonista.

  9. A proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): a review of clinical studies on weight loss and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Marilyn L; Udani, Jay K

    2011-03-17

    Obesity, and resultant health hazards which include diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, are worldwide medical problems. Control of diet and exercise are cornerstones of the management of excess weight. Foods with a low glycemic index may reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as their complications. As an alternative to a low glycemic index diet, there is a growing body of research into products that slow the absorption of carbohydrates through the inhibition of enzymes responsible for their digestion. These products include alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitors. The common white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) produces an alpha-amylase inhibitor, which has been characterized and tested in numerous clinical studies. A specific and proprietary product named Phase 2® Carb Controller (Pharmachem Laboratories, Kearny, NJ) has demonstrated the ability to cause weight loss with doses of 500 to 3000 mg per day, in either a single dose or in divided doses. Clinical studies also show that Phase 2 has the ability to reduce the post-prandial spike in blood glucose levels. Experiments conducted incorporating Phase 2 into food and beverage products have found that it can be integrated into various products without losing activity or altering the appearance, texture or taste of the food. There have been no serious side effects reported following consumption of Phase 2. Gastro-intestinal side effects are rare and diminish upon extended use of the product. In summary, Phase 2 has the potential to induce weight loss and reduce spikes in blood sugar caused by carbohydrates through its alpha-amylase inhibiting activity.

  10. A proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris: A review of clinical studies on weight loss and glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Marilyn L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity, and resultant health hazards which include diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, are worldwide medical problems. Control of diet and exercise are cornerstones of the management of excess weight. Foods with a low glycemic index may reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as their complications. As an alternative to a low glycemic index diet, there is a growing body of research into products that slow the absorption of carbohydrates through the inhibition of enzymes responsible for their digestion. These products include alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitors. The common white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris produces an alpha-amylase inhibitor, which has been characterized and tested in numerous clinical studies. A specific and proprietary product named Phase 2® Carb Controller (Pharmachem Laboratories, Kearny, NJ has demonstrated the ability to cause weight loss with doses of 500 to 3000 mg per day, in either a single dose or in divided doses. Clinical studies also show that Phase 2 has the ability to reduce the post-prandial spike in blood glucose levels. Experiments conducted incorporating Phase 2 into food and beverage products have found that it can be integrated into various products without losing activity or altering the appearance, texture or taste of the food. There have been no serious side effects reported following consumption of Phase 2. Gastro-intestinal side effects are rare and diminish upon extended use of the product. In summary, Phase 2 has the potential to induce weight loss and reduce spikes in blood sugar caused by carbohydrates through its alpha-amylase inhibiting activity.

  11. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting, and Dutch processing on epicatechin and catechin content of cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Mark J; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Miller, Kenneth B; Rank, Craig; Stuart, David A

    2010-10-13

    Low molecular weight flavan-3-ols are thought to be responsible, in part, for the cardiovascular benefits associated with cocoa powder and dark chocolate. The levels of epicatechin and catechin were determined in raw and conventionally fermented cacao beans and during conventional processing, which included drying, roasting, and Dutch (alkali) processing. Unripe cacao beans had 29% higher levels of epicatechin and the same level of catechin compared to fully ripe beans. Drying had minimal effect on the epicatechin and catechin levels. Substantial decreases (>80%) in catechin and epicatechin levels were observed in fermented versus unfermented beans. When both Ivory Coast and Papua New Guinea beans were subjected to roasting under controlled conditions, there was a distinct loss of epicatechin when bean temperatures exceeded 70 °C. When cacao beans were roasted to 120 °C, the catechin level in beans increased by 696% in unfermented beans, by 650% in Ivory Coast beans, and by 640% in Papua New Guinea fermented beans compared to the same unroasted beans. These results suggest that roasting in excess of 70 °C generates significant amounts of (-)-catechin, probably due to epimerization of (-)-epicatechin. Compared to natural cocoa powders, Dutch processing caused a loss in both epicatechin (up to 98%) and catechin (up to 80%). The epicatechin/catechin ratio is proposed as a useful and sensitive indicator for the processing history of cacao beans.

  12. Bean grain hysteresis with induced mechanical damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C. Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of mechanical damage on the hysteresis of beans with induced mechanical damage under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity. Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. harvested manually with 35% water content (w.b. were used. Part of this product was subjected to induced mechanical damage by Stein Breakage Tester and controlled drying (damaged and control sample, for sorption processes. The sorption isotherms of water were analyzed for different temperature conditions: 20, 30, 40 and 50 oC; and relative humidity: 0.3; 0.4; 0.5; 0.7 and 0.9 (decimal. Equilibrium moisture content data were correlated with six mathematical models, and the Modified Oswin model was the one that best fitted to the experimental data. According to the above mentioned isotherms, it was possible to observe the phenomenon of hysteresis of damaged and control samples, and this phenomenon was more pronounced in control ones.

  13. The Effects of Soy Bean Flour Enriched Bread Intake on Anthropometric Indices and Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetic Women: A Crossover Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Salari Moghaddam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that soy bean has the potential to improve many aspects of diabetes state and provide metabolic benefits that aid in weight management. We aimed to determine the effects of soy bean flour enriched bread on anthropometric indices and blood pressure among type 2 diabetic patients. This randomized, crossover, clinical trial was performed in 30 type 2 diabetic women. There were two trial periods for 6 weeks and a wash-out period for 4 weeks. In the soy bread diet period, 120 g of soy bean flour enriched bread was consumed each day instead of the same amount of their usual bread or other cereal products. After a 4-week wash-out period, participants were crossed over for another 6 weeks. Mean (±SD age of study participants was 45.7 ± 3.8 years. The results of our study showed no significant effects of soy bean flour enriched bread on anthropometric indices and blood pressure among diabetic patients. Despite the slight reduction in BMI, waist circumference, and percent of body fat, there were no significant differences in changes of these values between two groups. No significant changes in waist to hip ratio and blood pressure were seen.

  14. The effects of soy bean flour enriched bread intake on anthropometric indices and blood pressure in type 2 diabetic women: a crossover randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari Moghaddam, Asma; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan; Iraj, Bijan; Askari, Gholamreza; Sharifi Zahabi, Elham; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies showed that soy bean has the potential to improve many aspects of diabetes state and provide metabolic benefits that aid in weight management. We aimed to determine the effects of soy bean flour enriched bread on anthropometric indices and blood pressure among type 2 diabetic patients. This randomized, crossover, clinical trial was performed in 30 type 2 diabetic women. There were two trial periods for 6 weeks and a wash-out period for 4 weeks. In the soy bread diet period, 120 g of soy bean flour enriched bread was consumed each day instead of the same amount of their usual bread or other cereal products. After a 4-week wash-out period, participants were crossed over for another 6 weeks. Mean (±SD) age of study participants was 45.7 ± 3.8 years. The results of our study showed no significant effects of soy bean flour enriched bread on anthropometric indices and blood pressure among diabetic patients. Despite the slight reduction in BMI, waist circumference, and percent of body fat, there were no significant differences in changes of these values between two groups. No significant changes in waist to hip ratio and blood pressure were seen.

  15. Simulated radiation disinfestation of infested cocoa beans in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako-Atta, B.

    1979-01-01

    Four major insect pests persistently affect the cocoa industry in Ghana, the world's leading exporter of cocoa, despite the conventional methods of chemical control in practice. The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission currently is investigating the possible use of radiation for the control of both insect attack and microbial spoilage of cocoa beans in storage. Radiation response studies of the four major insect pests that significantly affect the quality of dried cocoa beans in storage have been evaluated. Results herein reported were based on simulated bulk infestation radiation disinfestation of dried cocoa under field and laboratory conditions at ambient temperature (25 to 32 0 C). The comparative efficiency of locally available packaging materials best suited for bagging of the dried cocoa beans at and after irradiation have been assessed concurrently. The author concludes by identifying and discussing possible factors that could affect the technology of radiation disinfestation of cocoa beans under the Ghanaian context. (author)

  16. Industrial processing of canned beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderleia Schoeninger

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Beans are popular as a protein-filled legume of high nutritional value, being one of the most planted species in the world. However, recent years have seen a decrease in the consumption of beans, owing to the time necessary to cook it domestically. Thus, it is being replaced in people’s diets by other foods. An alternative preparation that supplies modern consumers’ demands is industrially processed beans. This article aimed to provide a literature review on the processing of canned beans. Few recent studies have been performed in Brazil on this subject, as most studies have focused instead on the technological quality of dry bean grains processing. In this article industrial processing concepts and features, production unit operations, and canned beans quality standards will be discussed. These efforts are expected to contribute to the Brazilian beans production chain, and consequently to increase consumption of canned beans and the demand for industrial processing of beans in both the domestic market and future product exports.

  17. Investigation of Relative Time Constant Influence of Inertial Part of Superheater on Quality of Steam Temperature Control Behind Boiler in Broad Band of Loading Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Kulakov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to computational investigation of influence relative time constant of an object which changes in broad band on quality of steam temperature control behind a boiler with due account of value of regulating action in the system with PI- and PID- regulator. The simulation has been based on a single-loop automatic control system (ACS. It has been revealed that the less value of the relative time constant of an object leads to more integral control error in system with PID- regulator while operating external ACS perturbation. Decrease of numerical value of relative time constant of an object while operating external perturbation causes decrease of relative time concerning appearance of maximum dynamic control error from common relative control time.

  18. Modification of whole flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea by steam jet cooking and drum drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole bean flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea were processed by excess steam jet cooking, drum drying, and milling to a state resembling the raw flours. Analysis of the structure and size of the particles, color, solubility and pasting characteristics, dietary fiber, and protei...

  19. Variation in caffeine concentration in single coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Glen P; Wu, Alex; Yiran, Liang; Force, Lesleigh

    2013-11-13

    Twenty-eight coffee samples from around the world were tested for caffeine levels to develop near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations for whole and ground coffee. Twenty-five individual beans from five of those coffees were used to develop a NIRS calibration for caffeine concentration in single beans. An international standard high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to analyze for caffeine content. Coffee is a legal stimulant and possesses a number of heath properties. However, there is variation in the level of caffeine in brewed coffee and other caffeinated beverages. Being able to sort beans on the basis of caffeine concentration will improve quality control in the level of caffeine in those beverages. The range in caffeine concentration was from 0.01 mg/g (decaffeinated coffee) to 19.9 mg/g (Italian coffee). The majority of coffees were around 10.0-12.0 mg/g. The NIRS results showed r(2) values for bulk unground and ground coffees were >0.90 with standard errors coffee beans. One application of this calibration could be sorting beans on caffeine concentration to provide greater quality control for high-end markets. Furthermore, bean sorting may open new markets for novel coffee products.

  20. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even...... though the global average grain yield has almost doubled during the past 50 years the total area sown to faba beans has declined by 56% over the same period. The season-to-season fluctuations in grain yield of faba bean and the progressive replacement of traditional farming systems, which utilized...... legumes to provide N to maintain soil N fertility, with industrialized, largely cereal-based systems that are heavily reliant upon fossil fuels (=N fertilizers, heavy mechanization) are some of the explanations for this decline in importance. Past studies of faba bean in cropping systems have tended...

  1. In Rwandese Women with Low Iron Status, Iron Absorption from Low-Phytic Acid Beans and Biofortified Beans Is Comparable, but Low-Phytic Acid Beans Cause Adverse Gastrointestinal Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nicolai; Rohner, Fabian; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Campion, Bruno; Boy, Erick; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Zimmerman, Michael Bruce; Zwahlen, Christian; Wirth, James P; Moretti, Diego

    2016-05-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is a major inhibitor of iron bioavailability from beans, and high PA concentrations might limit the positive effect of biofortified beans (BBs) on iron status. Low-phytic acid (lpa) bean varieties could increase iron bioavailability. We set out to test whether lpa beans provide more bioavailable iron than a BB variety when served as part of a composite meal in a bean-consuming population with low iron status. Dietary iron absorption from lpa, iron-biofortified, and control beans (CBs) (regular iron and PA concentrations) was compared in 25 nonpregnant young women with low iron status with the use of a multiple-meal crossover design. Iron absorption was measured with stable iron isotopes. PA concentration in lpa beans was ∼10% of BBs and CBs, and iron concentration in BBs was ∼2- and 1.5-fold compared with CBs and lpa beans, respectively. Fractional iron absorption from lpa beans [8.6% (95% CI: 4.8%, 15.5%)], BBs [7.3% (95% CI: 4.0%, 13.4%)], and CBs [8.0% (95% CI: 4.4%, 14.6%)] did not significantly differ. The total amount of iron absorbed from lpa beans and BBs was 421 μg (95% CI: 234, 756 μg) and 431 μg (95% CI: 237, 786 μg), respectively, and did not significantly differ, but was >50% higher (P beans were hard to cook, and their consumption caused transient adverse digestive side effects in ∼95% of participants. Gel electrophoresis analysis showed phytohemagglutinin L (PHA-L) residues in cooked lpa beans. BBs and lpa beans provided more bioavailable iron than control beans and could reduce dietary iron deficiency. Digestive side effects of lpa beans were likely caused by PHA-L, but it is unclear to what extent the associated digestive problems reduced iron bioavailability. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02215278. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Healthy food trends - beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as a side dish at breakfast, lunch, or dinner. Mash them up for dips and spreads. Use bean flour to bake them. To reduce the gas caused by eating beans: Always soak dried beans. If you do not eat a lot of beans, gradually add them to ...

  3. High levels of whole raw soya beans in dairy cow diets: digestibility and animal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Freitas Junior, J E; Verdurico, L C; Mingoti, R D; Bettero, V P; Benevento, B C; Vilela, F G; Rennó, F P

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high levels of whole raw soya beans in the diets of lactating cows. Twelve Holstein dairy cows were used, randomized in three 4 ×  4 balanced and contemporary Latin squares and fed the following diets: (i) control (C), without including whole raw soya beans; (ii) 80 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G80); (iii) 160 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G160); and (iv) 240 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G240). There was significant reduction (p beans in dairy cow diets improves the unsaturated fatty acid profile in milk, and the diets (G80 and G160) led to minor alterations in the digestive processes and animal metabolism. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Polyether ionophores: broad-spectrum and promising biologically active molecules for the control of drug-resistant bacteria and parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Ii, Dion A; Meujo, Damaris Af; Hamann, Mark T

    2009-02-01

    As multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens continue to emerge, there is a substantial amount of pressure to identify new drug candidates. Carboxyl polyethers, also referred to as polyether antibiotics, are a unique class of compounds with outstanding potency against a variety of critical infectious disease targets including protozoa, bacteria and viruses. The characteristics of these molecules that are of key interest are their selectivity and high potency against several MDR etiological agents. Although many studies have been published about carboxyl polyether antibiotics, there are no recent reviews of this class of drugs. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with an overview of the spectrum of activity of polyether antibiotics, their mechanism of action, toxicity and potential as drug candidates to combat drug-resistant infectious diseases. Polyether ionophores show a high degree of promise for the potential control of drug-resistant bacterial and parasitic infections. Despite the long history of use of this class of drugs, very limited medicinal chemistry and drug optimization studies have been reported, thus leaving the door open to these opportunities in the future. Scifinder and PubMed were the main search engines used to locate articles relevant to the topic presented in the present review. Keywords used in our search were specific names of each of the 88 compounds presented in the review as well as more general terms such as polyethers, ionophores, carboxylic polyethers and polyether antibiotics.

  5. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  6. Rice and Bean Targets for Biofortification Combined with High Carotenoid Content Crops Regulate Transcriptional Mechanisms Increasing Iron Bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Desirrê Morais; de Castro Moreira, Maria Eliza; Gomes, Mariana Juste Contin; Lopes Toledo, Renata Celi; Nutti, Marilia Regini; Pinheiro Sant’Ana, Helena Maria; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency affects thousands of people worldwide. Biofortification of staple food crops aims to support the reduction of this deficiency. This study evaluates the effect of combinations of common beans and rice, targets for biofortification, with high carotenoid content crops on the iron bioavailability, protein gene expression, and antioxidant effect. Iron bioavailability was measured by the depletion/repletion method. Seven groups were tested (n = 7): Pontal bean (PB); rice + Pontal bean (R + BP); Pontal bean + sweet potato (PB + SP); Pontal bean + pumpkin (PB + P); Pontal bean + rice + sweet potato (PB + R + P); Pontal bean + rice + sweet potato (PB + R + SP); positive control (Ferrous Sulfate). The evaluations included: hemoglobin gain, hemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), gene expression of divalente metal transporter 1 (DMT-1), duodenal citocromo B (DcytB), ferroportin, hephaestin, transferrin and ferritin and total plasma antioxidant capacity (TAC). The test groups, except the PB, showed higher HRE (p bioavailability and antioxidant capacity. PMID:26610564

  7. Eficácia de extratos de nim para o controle do oídio do feijoeiro Effectiveness of neem extracts in controlling the powdery mildew of bean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Monteiro de Toledo Piza Gomes Carneiro

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O nim, Azadirachta indica, vem sendo estudado nos últimos anos para o controle de fitopatógenos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do óleo, do extrato de sementes e do extrato de folhas de nim no controle do oídio do feijoeiro, em casa de vegetação. Uma formulação comercial de óleo emulsionável de nim foi testada em concentrações entre 0,25 e 2,0%, em aplicações antes ou após o surgimento dos sintomas da doença. O extrato de sementes foi produzido em laboratório por meio da trituração das sementes em água destilada, sendo pulverizado 48 horas antes ou 24 horas após a inoculação do patógeno. Avaliou-se, após o surgimento dos sintomas, a eficiência de uma formulação comercial de extrato de folhas, nas concentrações de 0,25 e 0,5%. Verificou-se que o óleo de nim foi eficiente para o controle da doença quando aplicado antes ou depois do surgimento dos sintomas. O extrato de sementes controlou a doença nas três concentrações testadas. Por outro lado, o extrato de folhas não foi eficiente no controle do oídio do feijoeiro.The neem, Azadirachta indica, has been studied in the last years for the use in controlling plant pathogens. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the neem oil, seed kernel extract and leaf extract on the control of the powdery mildew of the bean plant under green house conditions. The emulsified neem oil was tested for concentrations between 0.25 and 2.0% and sprayed before or after the appearance of the symptoms of the disease. The seed kernel extract was produced under laboratory conditions by grinding the kernels in distilled water, which was sprayed 48 hours before or 24 hours after the inoculation of the pathogen. It was also evaluated the efficiency of a commercial leaf extract at the concentrations of 0.25 and 0.5% which was sprayed after the appearance of the symptoms. The results of this work showed that the neem oil was efficient in the control of the

  8. Locomotion of Mexican jumping beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, Daniel M; K Lal, Ishan; Leamy, Michael J; Hu, David L

    2012-01-01

    The Mexican jumping bean, Laspeyresia saltitans, consists of a hollow seed housing a moth larva. Heating by the sun induces movements by the larva which appear as rolls, jumps and flips by the bean. In this combined experimental, numerical and robotic study, we investigate this unique means of rolling locomotion. Time-lapse videography is used to record bean trajectories across a series of terrain types, including one-dimensional channels and planar surfaces of varying inclination. We find that the shell encumbers the larva's locomotion, decreasing its speed on flat surfaces by threefold. We also observe that the two-dimensional search algorithm of the bean resembles the run-and-tumble search of bacteria. We test this search algorithm using both an agent-based simulation and a wheeled Scribbler robot. The algorithm succeeds in propelling the robot away from regions of high temperature and may have application in biomimetic micro-scale navigation systems. (paper)

  9. africa bean research alliance (pabra)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    (NARS), public and private sector actors along the varied bean product value chains, and technology end-users. This model .... centralised information and decision-processing is inefficient ... technologies to farmers, as illustrated by the case.

  10. Visualization of resistance responses in Phaseolus vulgaris using reporter tagged clones of Bean common mosaic virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderpour, Masoud; Johansen, Ida Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Reporter tagged virus clones can provide detailed information on virus–host interactions. In Phaseolus vulgaris (bean), four recessive and one dominant gene are known to control infection by strains of the potyvirus species Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). To study the interactions between BCMV...

  11. Differential proteomics reveals the hallmarks of seed development in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parreira, J R; Bouraada, J; Fitzpatrick, M A; Silvestre, S; Bernardes da Silva, A; Marques da Silva, J; Almeida, A M; Fevereiro, P; Altelaar, A F M; Araújo, S S

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most consumed staple foods worldwide. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling seed development. This study aims to comprehensively describe proteome dynamics during seed development of common bean. A high-throughput gel-free

  12. QTL analysis of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in a black bean RIL population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) acquires nitrogen (N) from the atmosphere through symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) but it has a low efficiency to fix nitrogen. The objective of this study is to map the genes controlling nitrogen fixation in common bean. A mapping population consisting of 122 recomb...

  13. NetBeans GUI Builder

    OpenAIRE

    Pusiankova, Tatsiana

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at making readers familiar with the powerful tool NetBeans IDE GUI Builder and helping them make their first steps to creation of their own graphical user interface in the Java programming language. The work includes theoretical description of NetBeans IDE GUI Builder, its most important characteristics and peculiarities and also a set of practical instructions that will help readers in creation of their first GUI. The readers will be introduced to the environment of this tool ...

  14. Tests for sensitisation in occupational medicine practice--the soy bean example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roodt, L; Rees, D

    1995-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of sensitisation to soy bean measured by specific IgE and skin prick tests (SPTs) and to examine the association between evidence of sensitisation to soy bean allergens and symptoms of allergic disease. Cross-sectional study. Questionnaire survey. A venous blood sample was taken for specific IgE testing, and SPTs for common allergens and soy bean dust were performed. Soy bean mill. A volunteer sample of 22 workers exposed to soy bean dust; the first 20 non-exposed workers presenting to the National Centre for Occupational Health clinic formed the control group. Immunological tests for sensitisation and symptoms of respiratory and allergic disease. Eight of the exposed workers had positive skin reactions to either full-fat or defatted soy bean. None of the controls was SPT-positive. Eight of the exposed workers had increased levels of soy-specific IgE of whom only 4 were SPT-positive and had an increased level of soy-specific IgE. One of the control workers had an increased level of soy-specific IgE. Workers with an increased specific IgE or SPT positive to soy bean did not have more symptoms than workers with negative tests. However, work-related breathlessness was significantly higher in the exposed group (P soy bean-related disease but that tests for sensitisation were linked to exposure.

  15. The 2010 Broad Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A new data analysis, based on data collected as part of The Broad Prize process, provides insights into which large urban school districts in the United States are doing the best job of educating traditionally disadvantaged groups: African-American, Hispanics, and low-income students. Since 2002, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation has awarded The…

  16. Simultaneous determination of levodopa and carbidopa from fava bean, green peas and green beans by high performance liquid gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran S M, Mohseni; B, Golshani

    2013-06-01

    According to many studies, sprouted fava beans are a rich source of levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) the precursor of dopamine, and they are now being investigated for use in the management of Parkinson's disease. The addition of Carbidopa (C-dopa) can reduce the daily use of the L-dopa dosage requirements and it can also reduce the side effects which are associated with the L-dopa administration. The present research was conducted to find the levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) and Carbidopa (C-dopa) in fava beans, green peas and green beans by High Performance Gas Chromatography (HPLC). Carbidopa (C-dopa) is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor. As a substitution therapy, it used in combination to treat Parkinson's disease. We obtained L-dopa and C-dopa from fava beans which were in the fresh and dry sprouted form, whose concentrations were 1.4,1.5 and 2.6,2.4 mg/ml respectively. The maximal stimulation of the L-DOPA content was seen on day 8 for the fava beans, which was 100% higher than that of the control level. The results of this study indicate that faba beans are a good source of natural L-dopa and C-dopa. The quantification of this capacity according to the stage and the plant part could be suitable for applications in the food industry and in plant medicine. The consumption of fava beans can increase the levels of L-dopa and C-dopa in the blood, with a marked improvement in the motor performance of the patients with parkinson disease, without any side effects.

  17. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    .... APHIS-2010-0101] RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya... French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States. As a condition of entry... French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States while continuing to...

  18. Effect of fungal infection on phenolic compounds during the storage of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This work was undertaken to study the effect of Aspergillus infection on phenolic compounds in beans from four cultivars of the coffee plant (Coffea arabica L.. The effects of storage conditions of the coffee beans were also examined. Methodology and results: Beans from four varieties of coffee were artificially infected with three species of Aspergillus: A. niger, A. melleus and A. alliacus, and stored at 0, 8 and 25 ± 2 °C. After 3, 6 and 9 months, the contents of phenolic compounds in the beans were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Conclusion, significance and impact study: The results of this study showed that phenolic compounds were qualitatively and quantitatively higher in the inoculated beans as compared with the uninfected control beans, reflecting a possible induced defense mechanism in the infected beans. Increased storage periods resulted in higher levels of phenols, but the average total, bound and free phenols did not differ between the cultivars tested. Effective control of Apergillus infection in coffee beans can prevent such changes in phenolics that may affect their commercial value.

  19. Effect of local tree seeds in the control of root knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica (Treub chitwood and growth promotion of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab M. Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of local trees, such Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Adenanthera pavonina L., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit and Eucalyptus spp., were used as aqueous extract at 25, 50 and 100 % concentration to control the activity of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Citwood. All seed extracts showed lethal effect on M. javanica eggs, and a gradual decrease in egg hatching and an increase in mortality of second-stage juveniles were observed with the increase in extract concentration. L. leucocephala was found to be most effective in reducing egg hatching, whereas 100 % mortality of juveniles was observed in the case of A. indica seed extract. Number of knots was significantly reduced at 100 % concentration when seeds of chick pea and mung bean were treated and soil was drenched with A. pavonina and Eucalyptus spp. seed extract.

  20. Effect of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance and digestion of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, A B; Freitas Júnior, J E; Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Takiya, C S; Vendramini, T H A; Mingoti, R D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Differing soya bean particle sizes may affect productive performance and ruminal fermentation due to the level of fatty acid (FA) exposure of the cotyledon in soya bean grain and because the protein in small particles is more rapidly degraded than the protein in large particles, which influence ruminal fibre digestion and the amounts of ruminally undegradable nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance, digestion and milk FA profile of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows were assigned to three 4 × 4 Latin squares with 21-day periods. At the start of the experiment, cows were 121 days in milk (DIM) and yielded 30.2 kg/day of milk. Cows were fed 4 diets: (i) control diet (CO), without raw soya bean; (ii) whole raw soya bean (WRS); (iii) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 4-mm screen (CS4); and (iv) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 2-mm screen (CS2). The inclusion of soya beans (whole or cracked) was 200 g/kg on dry matter (DM) basis and partially replaced ground corn and soya bean meal. Uncorrected milk yield and composition were not influenced by experimental diets; however, fat-corrected milk (FCM) decreased when cows were fed soya bean treatments. Soya bean diets increased the intake of ether extract (EE) and net energy of lactation (NEL ), and decreased the intake of DM and non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC). Ruminal propionate concentration was lower in cows fed WRS than cows fed CS2 or CS4. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented lower nitrogen in faeces than cows fed WRS. The milk of cows fed WRS, CS2 and CS4 presented higher unsaturated FA than cows fed CO. The addition of raw soya bean in cow diets, regardless of the particle size, did not impair uncorrected milk yield and nutrient digestion, and increased the concentration of unsaturated FA in milk. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented similar productive performance to cows fed whole raw soya bean. Journal of

  1. Characteristics of water absorption of beans

    OpenAIRE

    上中, 登紀子; 森, 孝夫; 豊沢, 功; Tokiko, Uenaka; Takao, Mori; Isao, Toyosawa

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of water absorption of soybean, azuki bean and kidney beans (cv. Toramame and Taishokintoki) were investigated. The way of water absorption of soybean was different from that of other beans, because soybeans absorbed water from whole surface of seed coat immediately after the immersion. Azuki beans absorbed extremely slowly water from only strophiole, and then the water absorption in other tissue was induced by a certain amount of water absorption playing a role of trigger. Th...

  2. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  3. Arizona Registered Dietitians Show Gaps in Knowledge of Bean Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sharon V.; Dougherty, Mariah K.

    2018-01-01

    Registered Dietitians (RDs) promote nutrition practices and policies and can influence food consumption patterns to include nutrient dense foods such as beans. Although many evidence-based health benefits of bean consumption (e.g., cholesterol reduction, glycemic control) have been demonstrated, there is limited research on the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of RDs regarding the inclusion of beans in a healthy diet. To fill this existing research gap, this cross-sectional survey explored the perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes of 296 RDs in Arizona, USA, toward beans. The RDs largely held positive attitudes toward the healthfulness of beans and were aware of many health benefits. Some gaps in awareness were evident, including effect on cancer risk, intestinal health benefits, folate content, and application with celiac disease patients. RDs with greater personal bean consumption had significantly higher bean health benefit knowledge. Twenty-nine percent of the RDs did not know the meaning of ‘legume’, and over two-thirds could not define the term ‘pulse’. It is essential that RDs have up-to-date, evidence-based information regarding bean benefits to provide appropriate education to patients, clients, and the public. PMID:29316699

  4. Improving the detection of cocoa bean fermentation-related changes using image fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Daniel; Criollo, Ronald; Liao, Wenzhi; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan; Castro, Rodrigo; Bayona, Oswaldo

    2017-05-01

    Complex chemical processes occur in during cocoa bean fermentation. To select well-fermented beans, experts take a sample of beans, cut them in half and visually check its color. Often farmers mix high and low quality beans therefore, chocolate properties are difficult to control. In this paper, we explore how close-range hyper- spectral (HS) data can be used to characterize the fermentation process of two types of cocoa beans (CCN51 and National). Our aim is to find spectral differences to allow bean classification. The main issue is to extract reliable spectral data as openings resulting from the loss of water during fermentation, can cover up to 40% of the bean surface. We exploit HS pan-sharpening techniques to increase the spatial resolution of HS images and filter out uneven surface regions. In particular, the guided filter PCA approach which has proved suitable to use high-resolution RGB data as guide image. Our preliminary results show that this pre-processing step improves the separability of classes corresponding to each fermentation stage compared to using the average spectrum of the bean surface.

  5. Arizona Registered Dietitians Show Gaps in Knowledge of Bean Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Winham

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Registered Dietitians (RDs promote nutrition practices and policies and can influence food consumption patterns to include nutrient dense foods such as beans. Although many evidence-based health benefits of bean consumption (e.g., cholesterol reduction, glycemic control have been demonstrated, there is limited research on the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of RDs regarding the inclusion of beans in a healthy diet. To fill this existing research gap, this cross-sectional survey explored the perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes of 296 RDs in Arizona, USA, toward beans. The RDs largely held positive attitudes toward the healthfulness of beans and were aware of many health benefits. Some gaps in awareness were evident, including effect on cancer risk, intestinal health benefits, folate content, and application with celiac disease patients. RDs with greater personal bean consumption had significantly higher bean health benefit knowledge. Twenty-nine percent of the RDs did not know the meaning of ‘legume’, and over two-thirds could not define the term ‘pulse’. It is essential that RDs have up-to-date, evidence-based information regarding bean benefits to provide appropriate education to patients, clients, and the public.

  6. Development of Texturized Vegetable Protein from Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus and African Oil Bean Seed [Pentaclethrama crophylla (Benth]: Optimization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arueya Gibson. L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of measures to combat protein shortages in form of meat analogues, extrusion processing conditions for the development of Texturized Vegetable Protein (TVP from under-utilized sources (Lima bean and African oil bean seed are analysed. Optimum parameters for processing were established as being: barrel temperature (92.45°C, screw speed (101.48 rpm, feed moisture (59.63% and African oil bean seed protein concentrates (AOBSPC of 1%. Concentrations of essential amino-acids were also found to be significant (0.90-7.3% with a near absence of anti-nutritional factors (0.0022–1.0008 g/kg. Sensory evaluation showed that TVP5 (100% LBPC compared favourably with the control sample (cooked meat in overall acceptability. An Acceptable and nutritious meat analogue had been developed.

  7. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcenaro, Delfia; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, 'INTA Rojo'. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum), Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis) were seedborne in cultivar 'INTA Rojo' and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the epidemiology

  8. Preclinical optimization of a broad-spectrum anti-bladder cancer tri-drug regimen via the Feedback System Control (FSC) platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Zhang, Cheng; Ding, Xianting; Deng, Hui; Zhang, Daming; Cui, Wei; Xu, Hongwei; Wang, Yingwei; Xu, Wanhai; Lv, Lei; Zhang, Hongyu; He, Yinghua; Wu, Qiong; Szyf, Moshe; Ho, Chih-Ming; Zhu, Jingde

    2015-06-01

    Therapeutic outcomes of combination chemotherapy have not significantly advanced during the past decades. This has been attributed to the formidable challenges of optimizing drug combinations. Testing a matrix of all possible combinations of doses and agents in a single cell line is unfeasible due to the virtually infinite number of possibilities. We utilized the Feedback System Control (FSC) platform, a phenotype oriented approach to test 100 options among 15,625 possible combinations in four rounds of assaying to identify an optimal tri-drug combination in eight distinct chemoresistant bladder cancer cell lines. This combination killed between 82.86% and 99.52% of BCa cells, but only 47.47% of the immortalized benign bladder epithelial cells. Preclinical in vivo verification revealed its markedly enhanced anti-tumor efficacy as compared to its bi- or mono-drug components in cell line-derived tumor xenografts. The collective response of these pathways to component drugs was both cell type- and drug type specific. However, the entire spectrum of pathways triggered by the tri-drug regimen was similar in all four cancer cell lines, explaining its broad spectrum killing of BCa lines, which did not occur with its component drugs. Our findings here suggest that the FSC platform holdspromise for optimization of anti-cancer combination chemotherapy.

  9. Two-year follow-up of the MOSAIC trial: A multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing two psychological treatments in adult outpatients with broadly defined anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ulrike; Ryan, Elizabeth G; Bartholdy, Savani; Renwick, Bethany; Keyes, Alexandra; O'Hara, Caitlin; McClelland, Jessica; Lose, Anna; Kenyon, Martha; Dejong, Hannah; Broadbent, Hannah; Loomes, Rachel; Serpell, Lucy; Richards, Lorna; Johnson-Sabine, Eric; Boughton, Nicky; Whitehead, Linette; Bonin, Eva; Beecham, Jennifer; Landau, Sabine; Treasure, Janet

    2016-08-01

    This study reports follow-up data from a multicenter randomized controlled trial (n = 142) comparing the Maudsley Model of Anorexia Nervosa Treatment for Adults (MANTRA) with Specialist Supportive Clinical Management (SSCM) in outpatients with broadly defined anorexia nervosa (AN). At 12 months postrandomization, all patients had statistically significant improvements in body mass index (BMI), eating disorder (ED) symptomatology and other outcomes with no differences between groups. MANTRA was more acceptable to patients. The present study assessed whether gains were maintained at 24 months postrandomization. Follow-up data at 24 months were obtained from 73.2% of participants. Outcome measures included BMI, ED symptomatology, distress, impairment, and additional service utilization during the study period. Outcomes were analyzed using linear mixed models. There were few differences between groups. In both treatment groups, improvements in BMI, ED symptomatology, distress levels, and clinical impairment were maintained or increased further. Estimated mean BMI change from baseline to 24 months was 2.16 kg/m(2) for SSCM and 2.25 kg/m(2) for MANTRA (effect sizes of 1.75 and 1.83, respectively). Most participants (83%) did not require any additional intensive treatments (e.g., hospitalization). Two SSCM patients became overweight through binge-eating. Both treatments have value as outpatient interventions for patients with AN. © 2016 Crown copyright. International Journal of Eating Disorders. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:793-800). © 2016 Crown copyright. International Journal of Eating Disorders.

  10. Response of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) may occur due to boron (B) deficiency when the susceptible cultivars are grown in calcareous boron deficient soils. The study was therefore aimed at investigating the effects of three B doses: control (0.0 kg ha-1), soil application (3.0 kg ha-1) and foliar fertilization (0.3 kg ...

  11. Variability in yield of faba beans (Vicia faba L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grashoff, C.

    1992-01-01

    Yield variability is one of the major problems in growing faba beans. In this thesis, the effect of water supply pattern on yield variability of the crop is studied with experiments in the field and under controlled conditions, and with a simulation model. In a series of field experiments,

  12. Immune Control of Burkholderia pseudomallei––Common, High-Frequency T-Cell Responses to a Broad Repertoire of Immunoprevalent Epitopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnone Nithichanon

    2018-03-01

    findings suggest that a large repertoire of CD4 T cells, high in frequency and with broad coverage of antigens and epitopes, is important in controlling Bp infection. This offers an attractive potential strategy for subunit or epitope-based vaccines.

  13. Use of Wild Relatives and Closely Related Species to Adapt Common Bean to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Kelly

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is an important legume crop worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stress limits bean yields to <600 kg ha−1 in low-income countries. Current low yields result in food insecurity, while demands for increased yields to match the rate of population growth combined with the threat of climate change are significant. Novel and significant advances in genetic improvement using untapped genetic diversity available in crop wild relatives and closely related species must be further explored. A meeting was organized by the Global Crop Diversity Trust to consider strategies for common bean improvement. This review resulted from that meeting and considers our current understanding of the genetic resources available for common bean improvement and the progress that has been achieved thus far through introgression of genetic diversity from wild relatives of common bean, and from closely related species, including: P. acutifolius, P. coccineus, P. costaricensis and P. dumosus. Newly developed genomic tools and their potential applications are presented. A broad outline of research for use of these genetic resources for common bean improvement in a ten-year multi-disciplinary effort is presented.

  14. Interaction between beans and objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction between the X-ray beans and objects are studied, with the modification in the intensity. The kilovolt, the bundle filtration, the structure and composition of the patient and the quantity of scattered radiation are also described, as the main parameters for the contrast and for the dose of the patient. (C.G.C.) [pt

  15. Angus McBean - Portraits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepper, T.

    2007-01-01

    Angus McBean (1904-90) was one of the most extraordinary British photographers of the twentieth century. In a career that spanned the start of the Second World War through the birth of the 'Swinging Sixties' to the 1980s, he became the most prominent theatre photographer of his generation and, along

  16. The bean rhizosphere Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RZ9 strongly reduces Fusarium culmorum growth and infectiveness of plant roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddoudi, I.; Sendi, Y.; Batnini, M.; Romdhane, S.B.; Mhadhbi, H.; Mrabet, M.

    2017-07-01

    A faba bean rhizospheric Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate RZ9 was used for studying its antifungal activity and protecting effects of faba bean and common bean against the root pathogen Fusarium culmorum strain MZB47. The dual culture tests showed that RZ9 inhibits MZB47 in vitro growth by 56%. When mixing RZ9 cell suspension with MZB47 macroconidia at equal proportion, the macroconidia viability was reduced with 70%. Pathogenicity tests conducted in sterile conditions showed that MZB47 caused an intense root rotting in faba bean ‘Aquadulce’ plantlets and a slight level in common bean ‘Coco blanc’. This was associated to significant decreases in plant growth only in ‘Aquadulce’, reducing shoot dry weight (DW) by 82% and root DW by 70%. In soil samples, MZB47 caused severe root rotting and induced significant decreases in shoot DW (up to 51%) and root DW (up to 60%) for both beans. It was associated to a decrease in nodule number by 73% and 52% for faba bean and common bean, respectively. Biocontrol assays revealed that the inoculation of RZ9 to MZB47-treated plantlets enhanced shoot DWs (25% and 110%) and root DWs (29% and 67%), in faba bean and common bean, respectively. Moreover, root rotting levels decreased and nodule number increased in treated compared to untreated plantlets. Collected data highlighted the disease severity of F. culmorum and demonstrated the potential of using RZ9 in controlling Fusaria root diseases in beans. Thereby, the current study represents the first report on the biocontrol effectiveness of P. aeruginosa against F. culmorum in beans.

  17. The bean rhizosphere Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RZ9 strongly reduces Fusarium culmorum growth and infectiveness of plant roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Haddoudi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A faba bean rhizospheric Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate RZ9 was used for studying its antifungal activity and protecting effects of faba bean and common bean against the root pathogen Fusarium culmorum strain MZB47. The dual culture tests showed that RZ9 inhibits MZB47 in vitro growth by 56%. When mixing RZ9 cell suspension with MZB47 macroconidia at equal proportion, the macroconidia viability was reduced with 70%. Pathogenicity tests conducted in sterile conditions showed that MZB47 caused an intense root rotting in faba bean ‘Aquadulce’ plantlets and a slight level in common bean ‘Coco blanc’. This was associated to significant decreases in plant growth only in ‘Aquadulce’, reducing shoot dry weight (DW by 82% and root DW by 70%. In soil samples, MZB47 caused severe root rotting and induced significant decreases in shoot DW (up to 51% and root DW (up to 60% for both beans. It was associated to a decrease in nodule number by 73% and 52% for faba bean and common bean, respectively. Biocontrol assays revealed that the inoculation of RZ9 to MZB47-treated plantlets enhanced shoot DWs (25% and 110% and root DWs (29% and 67%, in faba bean and common bean, respectively. Moreover, root rotting levels decreased and nodule number increased in treated compared to untreated plantlets. Collected data highlighted the disease severity of F. culmorum and demonstrated the potential of using RZ9 in controlling Fusaria root diseases in beans. Thereby, the current study represents the first report on the biocontrol effectiveness of P. aeruginosa against F. culmorum in beans.

  18. Locust bean gum: processing, properties and food applications--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Sheweta; Mudgil, Deepak

    2014-05-01

    Locust bean gum or carob gum is a galactomannan obtained from seed endosperm of carob tree i.e. Ceratonia siliqua. It is widely utilized as an additive in various industries such as food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, oil well drilling and cosmetics. Industrial applications of locust bean gum are due to its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movements, heart disease and colon cancer due to its dietary fiber action. This article focuses on production, processing, composition, properties, food applications and health benefits of locust bean gum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification and analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. transcriptomes by massively parallel pyrosequencing

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    Thimmapuram Jyothi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris is the most important food legume in the world. Although this crop is very important to both the developed and developing world as a means of dietary protein supply, resources available in common bean are limited. Global transcriptome analysis is important to better understand gene expression, genetic variation, and gene structure annotation in addition to other important features. However, the number and description of common bean sequences are very limited, which greatly inhibits genome and transcriptome research. Here we used 454 pyrosequencing to obtain a substantial transcriptome dataset for common bean. Results We obtained 1,692,972 reads with an average read length of 207 nucleotides (nt. These reads were assembled into 59,295 unigenes including 39,572 contigs and 19,723 singletons, in addition to 35,328 singletons less than 100 bp. Comparing the unigenes to common bean ESTs deposited in GenBank, we found that 53.40% or 31,664 of these unigenes had no matches to this dataset and can be considered as new common bean transcripts. Functional annotation of the unigenes carried out by Gene Ontology assignments from hits to Arabidopsis and soybean indicated coverage of a broad range of GO categories. The common bean unigenes were also compared to the bean bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC end sequences, and a total of 21% of the unigenes (12,724 including 9,199 contigs and 3,256 singletons match to the 8,823 BAC-end sequences. In addition, a large number of simple sequence repeats (SSRs and transcription factors were also identified in this study. Conclusions This work provides the first large scale identification of the common bean transcriptome derived by 454 pyrosequencing. This research has resulted in a 150% increase in the number of Phaseolus vulgaris ESTs. The dataset obtained through this analysis will provide a platform for functional genomics in common bean and related legumes and

  20. CULTIVAR RELEASE - BRSMG União: common bean cultivar with jalo grain for the state of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The bean cultivar BRSMG União as a new option of a bean cultivar with jalo grains for the state of Minas Gerais. The cultivar BRSMG União had an average grain yield of 9.8% above the mean of the controls (Jalo EEP 558 and BRS Radiante and was resistant to powdery-mildew.

  1. Iron absorption from beans with different contents of iron, evaluated by stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira-Franco, Márcia Varella Morandi; Dutra de Oliveira, José Eduardo; Nutti, Marilia Regini; Pereira, Helton Santos; Carvalho, José Luiz Vianna de; Abrams, Steven A; Brandão, Camila Fernanda Cunha; Marchini, Júlio Sérgio

    2018-06-01

    The introduction of biofortified foods such as beans with higher iron content may be a useful tool in preventing iron deficiency. The biofortification aims to reach the root of the problem of malnutrition, targets the neediest population, uses embedded distribution mechanisms, is scientifically feasible and effective in terms of cost, and complements other ongoing interventions to control micronutrient deficiency. However, to ensure effectiveness, measurement of the absorption of minerals is essential. The objective of this study was to evaluate the iron bioavailability of common bean BRS Pontal (PO), targeted for biofortification, compared with common bean BRS Estilo in man through reliable techniques that have not been previously used in Brazil. The study included 29 young adult volunteers divided into 2 groups: Group CB (13 subjects) received 100 g of common beans (BRS-Estilo) cooked labeled with iron-58 ( 58 Fe) and Group TBB (16 patients) received 100 g common bean target for iron biofortification (BRS-Pontal), cooked and labeled with iron58 ( 58 Fe). The next day they received the reference dose of ferrous sulfate enriched iron-57 ( 57 Fe). Isotopic evaluation of iron for measurement of iron incorporation into erythrocytes was performed 14 days after consumption. The beans used, were produced, through conventional breeding program, by EMBRAPA/Rice and Beans. The iron absorption was evaluated by assessing the isotopic enrichment of the stable isotope. Mean iron absorption from the meal with common beans was 0.409% (±0.040%) and mean iron incorporation from the meal with target beans for biofortification 0.407% (±0.038%) and did not differ between the groups. This study tested the iron absorption from a single bean meal in healthy volunteers or non anemics, In the present study the iron absorption ratio from common bean Pontal (PO), targeted for biofortification and compared with common bean BRS Estilo was not significantly different. The iron concentration

  2. Chemical and biological studies on sweet biscuits produced from irradiated phaseolus beans flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassef, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition of beans such as minerals, amino acids, total carbohydrates and fiber to produce high quality sweet biscuits for treating some special diseases. In this study, the Phaseolus beans flour was used as a new source of very important composition. Beans flour was irradiated at two doses (0.5 and 1.0 KGy) for preservation. Sweet biscuits were made with supplementation of 5, 10, 15% beans flour. All samples of sweet biscuits were examined for chemical composition and organoleptic characteristics. Biological assay was carried out in rats maintained on 15% either irradiated or non-irradiated beans flour sweet biscuits through determining the weight gain, serum cholesterol and triglycerides and investigating the internal organs. The results obtained showed that sweet biscuits containing 15% Phaseolus beans flour had highest content of protein, minerals and fiber and scored a good grade. Weight gain, cholesterol and triglycerides levels were reduced comparable to control and there was no effect of irradiated beans flour on the internal organs

  3. Gamma radiosensitivity of a common bean cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colaco, W.; Martinez, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary experiment was conducted to evaluate the radiosensitivity of common bean (Phaseolous vulgaris L.), cultivar to gamma rays from a 60 Co source. Sets of seeds (60 seed/sample) irradiated with 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 Gy, were compared to a control without irradiation (0 Gy), under greenhouse conditions. The radiosensitivity was evaluated through seedling height reduction, determined at 15 days after emergence (DAE), and also through seedling survival, root length, and dry matter production of leaves, shoots and roots. Seedling height was significantly reduced for the treatments with 150 and 250 Gy, in relation to the control. The dose causing reduction of 50% seedling height was between 150 and 200 Gy. Survival rates corresponding to these doses, were, respectively, 85% and 60%. Root length and dry matter of leaves, shoots and roots, were inversely related to the doses. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  4. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, linear dose, crossover study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a green coffee bean extract in overweight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinson JA

    2012-01-01

    .Keywords: green coffee bean extract, chlorogenic acid, body mass index, weight loss, body fat mass, blood pressure, heart rate

  5. A Prospective Randomized, Double-Blind, Two-Period Crossover Pharmacokinetic Trial Comparing Green Coffee Bean Extract-A Botanically Sourced Caffeine-With a Synthetic USP Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Kayce; Knight, Katelin; Kalman, Douglas; Hewlings, Susan

    2018-04-16

    Coffee is a primary dietary source of the chlorogenic acids (CGAs) of phenolic compounds. Coffee contains caffeine and other phytonutrients, including CGAs. Caffeine on its own has been well characterized and descried pharmacokinetically in the literature, less so for CGAs. The purpose of this double-blind crossover study was to determine the comparative pharmacokinetics of CGAs with caffeine (natural extract) with synthetic caffeine (US Pharmacopeia [USP] standard). Sixteen healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to take 1 dose of product 1, 60 mg of botanically sourced caffeine from 480 mg of green coffee bean extract, or product 2, 60 mg of synthetic USP caffeine, with 5 days between. Blood analysis was done to determine the levels of CGA compounds, more specifically 3-, 4-, and 5-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA), and serum caffeine. The natural caffeine extract exhibited mean peak concentrations (C max ) of 3-CQA (11.4 ng/mL), 4-CQA (6.84 ng/mL), and 5-CQA (7.20 ng/mL). The mean systemic 4-hour exposure (AUC 0-4 h ) was 3-CQA (27.3 ng·h/mL), 4-CQA (16.1 ng·h/mL), and 5-CQA (15.7 ng·h/mL). The median t max was 3-CQA (1.00 hour), 4-CQA (1.00 hour), and 5-CQA (1.50 hours). The t max of caffeine was 0.75 hours (natural extract) and 0.63 hours (synthetic caffeine). C max and AUC 0-4 h of serum caffeine were statistically equivalent between products. The geometric least-squares mean ratios (GMRs) of C max and AUC 0-4 h of caffeine were 97.77% (natural extract) and 98.33% (synthetic caffeine). It would appear that CGA compounds from the natural caffeine extract are bioavailable, and 3-CGA may be the compound most absorbed. In addition, caffeine sourced from natural extract versus synthetic were statistically similar for pharmacokinetic parameters. There were no adverse events or safety concerns. © 2018 The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  6. POP levels in beans from Mediterranean and tropical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, Giuseppa; Haddaoui, Imen; Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Fede, Maria Rita; Dugo, Giacomo

    2017-06-01

    Despite the importance of beans as food, few studies are conducted to control their contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), compounds of great importance because of their toxicity and tendency to accumulate in food chains. In order to evaluate the human exposure to POPs by the consumption of beans a monitoring programme was conducted on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues in samples coming from Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast. All beans were extracted with an accelerated solvents extractor in triplicate; the clean-up step was done with a Florisil column; identification and quantification was carried out using a TSQ Quantum XLS Ultra GC-MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring mode. Results revealed concentrations of ∑PAHs ranged from 7.31 µg kg -1 to 686 µg kg -1 , ∑PCBs between 1.85 µg kg -1 and 43.1 µg kg -1 and ∑OCPs ranged from 1.37 µg kg -1 to 71.8 µg kg -1 . Our results showed that beans coming from Ivory Coast are the most exposed to the risk of contamination by all the pollutants investigated. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. BEAN CULTURE IN CHERNOZEM ZONE OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. Balashova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Beans (Vicia faba L. is the one of the ancient crops which have been cultivated and used for food. The historical note about bean utilization in ancient world and in Russia, and the information aboutcenters of origin, food value of seeds are presented in this review. Botanical characteristics of three bean varieties of VNIISSOK breeding are described.

  8. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  9. Chemical Composition, Starch Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity of Tortilla Made with a Blend of Quality Protein Maize and Black Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Bello-Pérez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tortilla and beans are the basic components in the diet of people in the urban and rural areas of Mexico. Quality protein maize is suggested for tortilla preparation because it presents an increase in lysine and tryptophan levels. Beans contain important amounts of dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to prepare tortilla with bean and assesses the chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity using a quality protein maize variety. Tortilla with bean had higher protein, ash, dietary fiber and resistant starch content, and lower digestible starch than control tortilla. The hydrolysis rate (60 to 50% and the predicted glycemic index (88 to 80 of tortilla decreased with the addition of bean in the blend. Extractable polyphenols and proanthocyanidins were higher in the tortilla with bean than control tortilla. This pattern produced higher antioxidant capacity of tortilla with bean (17.6 μmol Trolox eq/g than control tortilla (7.8 μmol Trolox eq/g. The addition of bean to tortilla modified the starch digestibility and antioxidant characteristics of tortilla, obtaining a product with nutraceutical characteristics.

  10. Bioprospecção de macroalgas marinhas e plantas aquáticas para o controle da antracnose do feijoeiro Bioprospecting of marine seaweeds and aquatic plants for controlling the bean anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Fernandes de Abreu

    2008-02-01

    collected, identified, dried into an oven at 50ºC for 48 h, ground to powder and their compounds extracted with ethanol. Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Uirapuru were grown in pots under greenhouse conditions. The 19 extracts were shared into two independent groups for screening and comparison in a completely randomized design, with five replications (pot with 3 plants. Plants at the first trifoliolate leaf stage were sprayed with extracts at concentration of 50 mg dry weight/mL. To assess the local effect, plants were inoculated with a suspension of 1.2 x 10(6 conidia/mL 4 h after the treatment, whereas to study the residual and systemic effects, inoculation was performed after 7 days. Disease severity was evaluated 7 days after inoculation (dai on either whole plants or the non-treated leaf (systemic effect, using a scale from 1 to 9. Seaweeds and plants which significantly reduced anthracnose were compared in a follow-up experiment evaluated at both 7 and 12 dai. The extract of Bryothamnion seaforthii revealed local effect reducing the anthracnose severity by 35%. Ulva fasciata extract showed residual effect reducing the anthracnose at 12 dai by 22%. Compared to control, only extracts of Lemna sp. and U. fasciata systemically reduced the disease severity at 7 dai by 55 e 44%, respectively. The possible mode of action of these extracts is discussed.

  11. Trichoderma spp. decrease Fusarium root rot in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of six Trichoderma-based commercial products (TCP in controlling Fusarium root rot (FRR in common bean was assessed under field conditions. Three TCP, used for seed treatment or applied in the furrow, increased seedling emergence as much as the fungicide fludioxonil. FRR incidence was not affected, but all TCP and fludioxonil reduced the disease severity, compared to control. Application of Trichoderma-based products was as effective as that of fludioxonil in FRR management.

  12. Response of bean cultures' water use efficiency against climate warming in semiarid regions of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guoju, Xiao; Fengju, Zhang; Juying, Huang; Chengke, Luo; Jing, Wang; Fei, Ma; Yubi, Yao; Runyuan, Wang; Zhengji, Qiu

    2016-07-31

    Farm crop growing and high efficiency water resource utilizing are directly influenced by global warming, and a new challenge will be given to food and water resource security. A simulation experiment by farm warming with infrared ray radiator was carried out, and the result showed photosynthesis of broad bean was significantly faster than transpiration during the seedling stage, ramifying stage, budding stage, blooming stage and podding stage when the temperate was increased by 0.5-1.5 °C. But broad bean transpiration was faster than photosynthesis during the budding stage, blooming stage and podding stage when the temperature was increased by 1.5 °C above. The number of grain per hill and hundred-grain weight were significantly increased when the temperature was increased by 0.5-1.0 °C. But they significantly dropped and finally the yield decreased when the temperature was increased by 1.0 °C above. The broad bean yield decreased by 39.2-88.4% when the temperature was increased by 1.5-2.0 °C. The broad bean water use efficiency increased and then decreased with temperature rising. The water use efficiency increased when the temperature was increased by 1.0 °C below, and it quickly decreased when the temperature was increased by 1.0 °C above. In all, global warming in the future will significantly influence the growth, yield and water use efficiency of bean cultures in China's semiarid regions.

  13. Diets enriched with cranberry beans alter the microbiota and mitigate colitis severity and associated inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Lepp, Dion; Zhang, Claire P; Wu, Wenqing; Zarepoor, Leila; Lu, Jenifer T; Pauls, K Peter; Tsao, Rong; Wood, Geoffrey A; Robinson, Lindsay E; Power, Krista A

    2016-02-01

    Common beans are rich in phenolic compounds and nondigestible fermentable components, which may help alleviate intestinal diseases. We assessed the gut health priming effect of a 20% cranberry bean flour diet from two bean varieties with differing profiles of phenolic compounds [darkening (DC) and nondarkening (NDC) cranberry beans vs. basal diet control (BD)] on critical aspects of gut health in unchallenged mice, and during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis (2% DSS wt/vol, 7 days). In unchallenged mice, NDC and DC increased (i) cecal short-chain fatty acids, (ii) colon crypt height, (iii) crypt goblet cell number and mucus content and (iv) Muc1, Klf4, Relmβ and Reg3γ gene expression vs. BD, indicative of enhanced microbial activity and gut barrier function. Fecal 16S rRNA sequencing determined that beans reduced abundance of the Lactobacillaceae (Ruminococcus gnavus), Clostridiaceae (Clostridium perfringens), Peptococcaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Rikenellaceae and Pophyromonadaceae families, and increased abundance of S24-7 and Prevotellaceae. During colitis, beans reduced (i) disease severity and colonic histological damage, (ii) increased gene expression of barrier function promoting genes (Muc1-3, Relmβ, and Reg3γ) and (iii) reduced colonic and circulating inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IFNγ and TNFα). Therefore, prior to disease induction, bean supplementation enhanced multiple concurrent gut health promoting parameters that translated into reduced colitis severity. Moreover, both bean diets exerted similar effects, indicating that differing phenolic content did not influence the endpoints assessed. These data demonstrate a proof-of-concept regarding the gut-priming potential of beans in colitis, which could be extended to mitigate the severity of other gut barrier-associated pathologies. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rice and Bean Targets for Biofortification Combined with High Carotenoid Content Crops Regulate Transcriptional Mechanisms Increasing Iron Bioavailability

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    Desirrê Morais Dias

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency affects thousands of people worldwide. Biofortification of staple food crops aims to support the reduction of this deficiency. This study evaluates the effect of combinations of common beans and rice, targets for biofortification, with high carotenoid content crops on the iron bioavailability, protein gene expression, and antioxidant effect. Iron bioavailability was measured by the depletion/repletion method. Seven groups were tested (n = 7: Pontal bean (PB; rice + Pontal bean (R + BP; Pontal bean + sweet potato (PB + SP; Pontal bean + pumpkin (PB + P; Pontal bean + rice + sweet potato (PB + R + P; Pontal bean + rice + sweet potato (PB + R + SP; positive control (Ferrous Sulfate. The evaluations included: hemoglobin gain, hemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE, gene expression of divalente metal transporter 1 (DMT-1, duodenal citocromo B (DcytB, ferroportin, hephaestin, transferrin and ferritin and total plasma antioxidant capacity (TAC. The test groups, except the PB, showed higher HRE (p < 0.05 than the control. Gene expression of DMT-1, DcytB and ferroportin increased (p < 0.05 in the groups fed with high content carotenoid crops (sweet potato or pumpkin. The PB group presented lower (p < 0.05 TAC than the other groups. The combination of rice and common beans, and those with high carotenoid content crops increased protein gene expression, increasing the iron bioavailability and antioxidant capacity.

  15. Perceptions of flatulence from bean consumption among adults in 3 feeding studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winham Donna M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many consumers avoid eating beans because they believe legume consumption will cause excessive intestinal gas or flatulence. An increasing body of research and the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans supports the benefits of a plant-based diet, and legumes specifically, in the reduction of chronic disease risks. The purpose of the current research was to investigate the perception of increased flatulence and gastrointestinal discomfort among participants who consumed a ½ cup of beans daily for 8 or 12 weeks. Methods Participants in three studies to test the effects of beans on heart disease biomarkers completed the same weekly questionnaire to assess gastrointestinal discomfort issues such as increased flatulence, stool changes, and bloating. Studies 1 and 2 were randomized crossover trials. Participants consumed ½ cup of pinto beans, black-eyed peas, and canned carrots as control (n = 17 in Study 1 for three randomized 8-week phases. For Study 2, participants ate ½ cup baked beans or canned carrots as control (n = 29 for two randomized 8-week phases. Study 3 was a parallel arm trial with 40 subjects receiving ½ cup pinto beans and 40 consuming a control soup for 12 weeks. Changes in the frequency of perceived flatulence, stool characteristics, and bloating were the primary outcome measures. Chi-square distributions were examined for the presence or absence of symptoms and demographic characteristics to determine differences by gender, age, body mass index (BMI, and bean type. Results Less than 50% reported increased flatulence from eating pinto or baked beans during the first week of each trial, but only 19% had a flatulence increase with black-eyed peas. A small percentage (3-11% reported increased flatulence across the three studies even on control diets without flatulence-producing components. Conclusions People's concerns about excessive flatulence from eating beans may be exaggerated. Public health nutritionists

  16. Broad spectrum bioactive sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Sarruf, Fernanda Daud; Salgado-Santos, Idalina Maria Nunes; Haroutiounian-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Baby, André Rolim

    2008-11-03

    The development of sunscreens containing reduced concentration of chemical UV filters, even though, possessing broad spectrum effectiveness with the use of natural raw materials that improve and infer UV absorption is of great interest. Due to the structural similarities between polyphenolic compounds and organic UV filters, they might exert photoprotection activity. The objective of the present research work was to develop bioactive sunscreen delivery systems containing rutin, Passiflora incarnata L. and Plantago lanceolata extracts associated or not with organic and inorganic UV filters. UV transmission of the sunscreen delivery system films was performed by using diffuse transmittance measurements coupling to an integrating sphere. In vitro photoprotection efficacy was evaluated according to the following parameters: estimated sun protection factor (SPF); Boot's Star Rating category; UVA/UVB ratio; and critical wavelength (lambda(c)). Sunscreen delivery systems obtained SPF values ranging from 0.972+/-0.004 to 28.064+/-2.429 and bioactive compounds interacted with the UV filters positive and negatively. This behavior may be attributed to: the composition of the delivery system; the presence of inorganic UV filter and quantitative composition of the organic UV filters; and the phytochemical composition of the P. incarnata L. and P. lanceolata extracts. Among all associations of bioactive compounds and UV filters, we found that the broad spectrum sunscreen was accomplished when 1.68% (w/w) P. incarnata L. dry extract was in the presence of 7.0% (w/w) ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, 2.0% (w/w) benzophenone-3 and 2.0% (w/w) TiO(2). It was demonstrated that this association generated estimated SPF of 20.072+/-0.906 and it has improved the protective defense against UVA radiation accompanying augmentation of the UVA/UVB ratio from 0.49 to 0.52 and lambda(c) from 364 to 368.6nm.

  17. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF COMMON BEAN FLOUR ON THE COOKING QUALITY AND ANTIOXIDANT CHARACTERISTICS OF SPAGHETTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pasta is a nutritionally unbalanced food, due to its low fat and fiber and low value of its protein. It is considered an adequate vehicle for food supplementation with minerals, proteins and other healthy components such as bioactive compounds present in common beans. The effect of composite pasta (wheat – common bean; 30 % w/w on the cooking quality (optimal cooking time, cooking loss, weight loss, firmness, color, total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity by DPPH and ORAC assays and phenolic acid profile was investigated. According to the quality parameters, pasta added with bean flour was less hard with respect to the pasta made from durum wheat. The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity by DPPH and ORAC assays were higher in the pasta with common bean flour than in the pasta control. Also, more phenolic acids were identified in cooked pasta containing common bean flour as analyzed by HPLC.

  18. Classifying Physical Morphology of Cocoa Beans Digital Images using Multiclass Ensemble Least-Squares Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawi, Armin; Adhitya, Yudhi

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the quality of cocoa beans through morphology of their digital images. Samples of cocoa beans were scattered on a bright white paper under a controlled lighting condition. A compact digital camera was used to capture the images. The images were then processed to extract their morphological parameters. Classification process begins with an analysis of cocoa beans image based on morphological feature extraction. Parameters for extraction of morphological or physical feature parameters, i.e., Area, Perimeter, Major Axis Length, Minor Axis Length, Aspect Ratio, Circularity, Roundness, Ferret Diameter. The cocoa beans are classified into 4 groups, i.e.: Normal Beans, Broken Beans, Fractured Beans, and Skin Damaged Beans. The model of classification used in this paper is the Multiclass Ensemble Least-Squares Support Vector Machine (MELS-SVM), a proposed improvement model of SVM using ensemble method in which the separate hyperplanes are obtained by least square approach and the multiclass procedure uses One-Against- All method. The result of our proposed model showed that the classification with morphological feature input parameters were accurately as 99.705% for the four classes, respectively.

  19. Enterprise JavaBeans 31

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinger, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Learn how to code, package, deploy, and test functional Enterprise JavaBeans with the latest edition of this bestselling guide. Written by the developers of JBoss EJB 3.1, this book not only brings you up to speed on each component type and container service in this implementation, it also provides a workbook with several hands-on examples to help you gain immediate experience with these components. With version 3.1, EJB's server-side component model for building distributed business applications is simpler than ever. But it's still a complex technology that requires study and lots of practi

  20. Reação de linhagens de feijoeiro ao fungo Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli em condições controladas Reaction of common bean lines to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli in controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Juliani Zavaglia Pereira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Entre os patógenos que mais contribuem para a redução da produtividade do feijoeiro no Brasil está o Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli. O emprego de cultivares resistentes é o controle mais eficaz para esse patógeno. Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar linhagens de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. do banco de germoplasma da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, quanto a reação ao Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli e, ao mesmo tempo, estimar os parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos que possam auxiliar em futuros programas de melhoramento para esse caráter. Foram avaliadas 367 linhagens em dez experimentos. As testemunhas 'Carioca' (suscetível e 'Carioca MG' (resistente foram utilizadas em todos os experimentos. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco repetições e parcelas de uma planta por vaso. As inoculações foram realizadas segundo a metodologia de corte e imersão de raízes na suspensão de esporos do fungo e as avaliações realizadas aos 21 dias após a inoculação com base no índice de severidade da doença empregando-se notas de 1 (plantas sem sintomas a 9 (plantas mortas.Das linhagens do banco de germoplasma da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA avaliadas, 36,5% foram resistentes ao Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli. Entre as resistentes, a maioria foi linhagens obtidas antes de 1990. Das 18 linhagens dos experimentos de VCU, do período de 2005/06, apenas quatro foram suscetíveis. A estimativa da herdabilidade (h² foi elevada (h² = 87%, indicando que, a princípio, o caráter é de fácil seleção.Among the pathogens that most contribute for reducing the productivity of beans in Brazil is the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli. The use of resistant cultivars is the most effective control for this pathogen. The aim of this study was to evaluate germoplasm bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. lines of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA as the reaction to the Fusarium oxysporum f

  1. Magnet systems for ''Bean-Shaped'' tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.; Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Mendelsohn, S.; Okabayashi, M.; Raynes, D.; Stiner, D.J.; Todd, A.M.; Williams, J.E.C.

    1983-01-01

    Bean-shaping of tokamak plasmas offers a method of reaching stable operation at (beta) > 10%. In order to establish the indentation of the ''bean'', a set of high- current ''pushing coils'' (> 5 MA in a reactor) must be located at the midplane as close as possible to the inboard edge of the plasma. If located in the bore of the TF coils, then maintenance of the pushing coils may be impossible, and the interlocking coils may prevent reactor modularity. If located outside, the required pushing-coil current may be unacceptably large. This dilemma is overcome with a unique TF coil design in which the inboard leg is bent outward in the form of an arc. The pushing coils are housed in the midplane indentation of this arc, just outside the TF coils but adequately close to the plasma. The arched coil transfers forces to the top and bottom legs, where it can be reacted by a clamp structure if necessary. This technique would allow demountable joints to be placed near the inoard leg (for copper TF coils). Another design approach to the pushing coils is to use liquid Li or Na as the conductor and coolant. The liquid metal ''coils'' can be placed immediately adjacent to the plasma, giving optimal control of the plasma shape with minimal coil current, although modularity of the reactor may have to be surrendered. Conceptual designs are presented of PF and TF coil systems for an ignition test reactor with about 14% and for a full-scale demonstration reactor with about 20%, both using copper TF coils

  2. Induction of mutants with higher protein content in soy bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraiwa, S.; Tanaka, S.; Nakamura, S.

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to examine the effects of ionizing radiation on protein content of soy beans and to estimate the potential value of ionizing radiation in soy bean breeding. In the first experiment seeds of three cultivars were acutely irradiated by gamma ray doses of 8 krad and 16 krad. Seeds of M 3 plants were analysed for protein content by the Biuret method. Selection within each variety was made to isolate plants having about 2% higher protein content than the control populations. In the second experiment growing plants of a soy bean cultivar were irradiated with 2.9 krad and 6.1 krad, from germination to maturation, in a 60 Co gamma field. Seeds on individual lines in M 5 , M 6 and M 7 plants were determined for their protein contents by the Kjeldahl method and the upper 10% of the treated lines were selected for progeny testing. From the results of the analysis of variance for each trait, significant differences were observed between the control variety and selected lines for all the traits. Six out of 19 lines showed significant increases in both 100 seed weight and protein content, and four lines promising. The mean protein content of selected lines increased 0.68% compared with the control variety. Genetic gain expected from selection for high protein content was therefore considered at about 1%; however, the likelihood of a large increase in protein content would greatly increase if large populations derived from irradiated seeds were observed

  3. Table 5 Mineral content of ashed bean samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Mamiro

    2012-08-05

    Aug 5, 2012 ... vegetables; dry bean grains are used in various food preparations, and both are used as relish or side dishes together ... Eastern Africa and Latin America. Zinc content of beans is one of the ... Kidney bean leaves and fresh bean grains, which are prepared as relish and consumed by a number of families in ...

  4. Key odorants in cured Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of differing bean quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The odor-active volatiles in Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of two grades, red whole beans as standard quality and cuts beans as substandard quality, were characterized by instrumental and sensory analyses. The higher contents of vanillin and β-damascenone in red whole beans than in cuts beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the sweet and dried fruit-like notes, while the higher contents of guaiacol and 3-phenylpropanoic acid in cuts beans than in red whole beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the phenolic and metallic notes. A sensory evaluation to compare red whole beans and their reconstituted aroma characterized both samples as being similar, while in respect of the phenolic note, the reconstituted aroma significantly differed from the reconstituted aroma with guaiacol added at the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol in cuts beans. It is suggested from these results that the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol could be used as an index for the quality of Madagascar vanilla beans.

  5. Resíduos orgânicos para o controle das doenças do feijoeiro causadas por Sclerotium rolfsii / Organic residues for the control of bean diseases caused by Sclerotium rolfsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Nataline Tomazeli

    2011-04-01

    -borne plant pathogens. The effect of this agricultural practice, especially on sclerotium-forming pathogens such as Sclerotium rolfsii, is not yet completely understood. The experiment, conducted over a two-year cultivation period, was carried out at UTFPR’s experimental field in one-square meter plots containing soil infested with 100g per plot of the substrate (unhulled rice containing the pathogen. Treatments consisted of liquid swine manure, poultry bedding (PB, ground cabbage, and a control, only pathogen, with four replicates. Eighty bean seeds were sown per plot one week after the treatments were applied. Disease intensity was evaluated based on plantlet emergence, damping-off, incidence, and severity. Factors such as microbial activity, soil fertility levels, number and survival of sclerodia, and plant green matter were evaluated at the end of the cropping cycle. Poultry bed incorporation into the soil showed significant results in reducing intensity of the disease and the pathogen’s inoculum, in both cropping seasons. The organic compound, poultry bedding, had the greatest reduction in incidence and severity of disease and the damping-off. However, although reducing the amount of disease, no increase in emergency first two crops. This beneficial effect of PB may be associated with increased soil organic matter and thus microbial activity, responsible for reducing the pathogenicity of the fungus. As a result of the impact caused by the incorporation of PB to the ground, there was an increase of fresh weight of plant and reducing the number of sclerodia. So based on these results, we can conclude that PB has a suppressive effect on diseases caused by S. rolfsii.

  6. Biological Nitrogen Fixation Efficiency in Brazilian Common Bean Genotypes as Measured by {sup 15}N Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzini, V. I.; Mendes, F. L. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, EMBRAPA-Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil); Muraoka, T.; Trevisam, A. R. [Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Adu-Gyamfi, J. J. [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2013-11-15

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) represents the main source of protein for the Brazilian and other Latin-American populations. Unlike soybean, which is very efficient in fixing atmospheric N{sub 2} symbiotically, common bean does not dispense with the need for N fertilizer application, as the biologically fixed N (BNF) seems incapable to supplement the total N required by the crop. A experiment under controlled conditions was conducted in Piracicaba, Brazil, to assess N{sub 2} fixation of 25 genotypes of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). BNF was measured by {sup 15}N isotope dilution using a non-N{sub 2} fixing bean genotype as a reference crop. The common bean genotypes were grown in low (2.2 mg N kg{sup -1} soil) or high N content soil (200 mg N kg{sup -1} soil), through N fertilizer application, as urea-{sup 15}N (31.20 and 1.4 atom % {sup 15}N, respectively). The bean seeds were inoculated with Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 strain and the plants were harvested at grain maturity stage. The contribution of BNF was on average 75% of total plant N content, and there were differences in N fixing capacity among the bean genotypes. The most efficient genotypes were Horizonte, Roxo 90, Grafite, Apore and Vereda, when grown in high N soil. None of the genotypes grown in low N soil was efficient in producing grains compared to those grown in high N soil, and therefore the BNF was not able to supply the total N demand of the bean crop. (author)

  7. Bioavailability of Trace Elements in Beans and Zinc-Biofortified Wheat in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Dorthe; Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Torun, B

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to study bioavailability of trace elements in beans and wheat containing different levels of zinc and to study how the water solubility of trace elements was related to the bioavailability in pigs. Three wheat and two bean types were used: wheat of Danish...... origin as a control (CtrlW), two Turkish wheat types low (LZnW) and high (HZnW) in zinc, a common bean (Com), and a faba bean (Faba). Two diets were composed by combining 81 % CtrlW and 19 % Com or Faba beans. Solubility was measured as the trace element concentration in the supernatant of feedstuffs......, and diets incubated in distilled water at pH 4 and 38°C for 3 h. The bioavailability of zinc and copper of the three wheat types and the two bean-containing diets were evaluated in the pigs by collection of urine and feces for 7 days. The solubility of zinc was 34–63 %, copper 18–42 %, and iron 3...

  8. 76 FR 68057 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    .... APHIS-2010-0101] RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya.... SUMMARY: We are amending the fruits and vegetables regulations to allow the importation of French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States. As a condition of entry, both...

  9. Ecotoxicological study of insecticide effects on arthropods in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Emerson Cristi; Ventura, Hudson Vaner; Gontijo, Pablo Costa; Pereira, Renata Ramos; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    Arthropods are an important group of macroorganisms that work to maintain ecosystem health. Despite the agricultural benefits of chemical control against arthropod pests, insecticides can cause environmental damage. We examined the effects of one and two applications of the insecticides chlorfenapyr (0.18 liters a.i. ha-1) and methamidophos (0.45 liters a.i. ha-1), both independently and in combination, on arthropods in plots of common bean. The experiment was repeated for two growing seasons. Principal response curve, richness estimator, and Shannon-Wiener diversity index analyses were performed. The insecticides generally affected the frequency, richness, diversity, and relative abundance of the arthropods. In addition, the arthropods did not experience recovery after the insecticide applications. The results suggest that the insecticide impacts were sufficiently drastic to eliminate many taxa from the studied common bean plots. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  10. Gamma radiosensitivity in common bean plant and cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Sandra da Silva; Colaco, Waldeciro

    2002-01-01

    An indispensable step in mutation induction experiments is the determination of the sensitivity to mutagens to be used. Taking this into consideration the radiosensitivity of bean cultivars Carioca, Princesa (P. vulgaris L.), and IPA-206 [V. unguiculata (L.) Walp] to gamma rays from a 60 Co source was evaluated. Sets of seeds (40 seeds/sample) were irradiated with 100, 150, 200, 250 Gy, and compared to a control without irradiation (0 Gy), under greenhouse conditions. Bean and cowpea seeds were respectively inoculated with a suspension of Rhizobium (SEMIA-4077) and Bradyrhizobium (SEMIA-6145) strains. The radiosensitivity was evaluated through seedling height reduction determined at 15 days after emergence (15-DAE), and also through dry matter yield of above-ground part and root nodules at 40-DAE. Seedling height was significantly reduced with increased dose of radiation in relation to the control. The dose causing reduction of 50% seedling height for P. vulgaris cultivar Princesa was set up between 150-250 Gy. Cowpea (IPA-206) was less sensitive to radiation than common bean cultivars, considering the dose range of radiation studied, and a 75% seedling height reduction was reached in the range of 150-250 Gy. Dry mater yield of the above-ground part, root and nodule, were inversely related to the doses. It is recommended a dose range of 300-350 Gy for mutation breeding purposes using the cowpea cultivar (IPA-206). (author)

  11. Identification and Molecular Analysis of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV in Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Moradi

    2016-06-01

    , B. Iranian isolate (BCMNV-MAZ with NL8 isolate (USA were classified in the subgroup IIA. Isolates in group IIB included a number of USA isolates and one isolate from the UK. Isolate of BCMV-MAZ (from Sari showed the highest (96.8% - 98.7% and the lowest (79.5%-91.6% nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity with RU1M isolate (USA and Habin1 (Korea, respectively. Also BCMNV-MAZ (from Jouybar displayed the highest (97.8% and the lowest (96.9% nucleotide sequence identity with NL-3 K, NL5 and NL8, respectively. This isolate was 97.7 % identical with other isolates of the BCMNV at the amino acid identity level. Conclusions: BCMV and BCMNV are widespread in almost all bean growing areas of Iran and often present in the mixture. In this study, for the first time we reported the occurrence of BCMV and BCMNV in common beans in Mazandaran province based on the RT-PCR, and CI gene analyses, and determining their phylogenetic relationship with other isolates of these viruses available in the GenBank. Primary detection was performed by using CI F/R degenerate primer based on the potyvirus CI gene motifs I and V. Since the sequence identity of CI gene is higher when compared to that of the CP gene and is involved in helicase activity during replication, the use of CI is more accurate in defining orders in potyvirus taxonomy and in evolutionary relationships. Due to ease in the spread of these viruses by seed and vectors, detection of such viruses has a crucial role in the control of these diseases. The data obtained in this study will be beneficial to improve control strategies for these viruses in Iran. Study on the distribution of BCMV and BCMNV will be useful for breeders to incorporate virus resistance into bean cultivars, where any or both of the two viral species occur.

  12. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE RESISTANCE OF SOME BULGARIAN COMMON BEAN GENOTYPES TOWARDS BEAN WEEVIL (ACANTHOSCELIDES OBTECTUS SAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dimitrova Apostolova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The most effective, environmentally sound and safety way to fight pests with biological means is the use of resistant varieties to them. In the present study were indicated the reactions of 30 Bulgarian common bean genotypes to the most economically important enemy – bean weevil (Acanthoscelidis obtectus Say. For this purpose, the following indicators were traced – seed damages and young adult insects, which largely characterized the response of different common bean genotypes to that biological pest enemy. The results of this investigation present a sensitive response to the sustainability of different genotypes to the bean weevil. The Bulgarian common bean varieties Plovdiv 11M, Abritus, Crystal and Bulgari can be used in breeding programs as donors of resistance to the bean weevil.

  13. Stability of tetrachlorvinphos residues in faba beans and soya bean oil towards different processing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Farghaly, M.

    1987-01-01

    Cooking of contaminated faba beans did not degrade the originally present potentially toxic residues, namely, tetrachlorvinphos and its desmethyl derivative to any appreciable extent. Processing of contaminated soya bean oil, on the other hand, led to degradation of tetrachlorvinphos and its metabolites to give mono and dimethyl phosphates. Feeding of mice with bound residues of tetrachlorvinphos in beans for 90 days led to an apparent decrease in the rate of body weight gain. (author)

  14. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Transient nature of long-term nonprogression and broad virus-specific proliferative T-cell responses with sustained thymic output in HIV-1 controllers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Westrop

    Full Text Available HIV-1(+ individuals who, without therapy, conserve cellular anti-HIV-1 responses, present with high, stable CD4(+ T-cell numbers, and control viral replication, facilitate analysis of atypical viro-immunopathology. In the absence of universal definition, immune function in such HIV controllers remains an indication of non-progression.CD4 T-cell responses to a number of HIV-1 proteins and peptide pools were assessed by IFN-gamma ELISpot and lymphoproliferative assays in HIV controllers and chronic progressors. Thymic output was assessed by sjTRECs levels. Follow-up of 41 HIV-1(+ individuals originally identified as "Long-term non-progressors" in 1996 according to clinical criteria, and longitudinal analysis of two HIV controllers over 22 years, was also performed. HIV controllers exhibited substantial IFN-gamma producing and proliferative HIV-1-specific CD4 T-cell responses to both recombinant proteins and peptide pools of Tat, Rev, Nef, Gag and Env, demonstrating functional processing and presentation. Conversely, HIV-specific T-cell responses were limited to IFN-gamma production in chronic progressors. Additionally, thymic output was approximately 19 fold higher in HIV controllers than in age-matched chronic progressors. Follow-up of 41 HIV-1(+ patients identified as LTNP in 1996 revealed the transitory characteristics of this status. IFN-gamma production and proliferative T-cell function also declines in 2 HIV controllers over 22 years.Although increased thymic output and anti-HIV-1 T-cell responses are observed in HIV controllers compared to chronic progressors, the nature of nonprogressor/controller status appears to be transitory.

  16. Short-Term Local Adaptation of Historical Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Varieties and Implications for In Situ Management of Bean Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Klaedtke

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing both the stakes of traditional European common bean diversity and the role farmers’ and gardeners’ networks play in maintaining this diversity, the present study examines the role that local adaptation plays for the management of common bean diversity in situ. To the purpose, four historical bean varieties and one modern control were multiplied on two organic farms for three growing seasons. The fifteen resulting populations, the initial ones and two populations of each variety obtained after the three years of multiplication, were then grown in a common garden. Twenty-two Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR markers and 13 phenotypic traits were assessed. In total, 68.2% of tested markers were polymorphic and a total of 66 different alleles were identified. FST analysis showed that the genetic composition of two varieties multiplied in different environments changed. At the phenotypic level, differences were observed in flowering date and leaf length. Results indicate that three years of multiplication suffice for local adaptation to occur. The spatial dynamics of genetic and phenotypic bean diversity imply that the maintenance of diversity should be considered at the scale of the network, rather than individual farms and gardens. The microevolution of bean populations within networks of gardens and farms emerges as a research perspective.

  17. Study of some chemical and physical quality parameters of irradiated cocoa beans. Part of a coordinated programme on technological and economic feasibility of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegeman, H.; Kooij, J.G. van

    1980-12-01

    Cocoa beans were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 2 and 4 kGy. To prevent decay of cocoa beans by moulds a radiation dose of at least 4 kGy appears necessary for long storage at 28 0 C and 80% relative humidity. Storage of cocoa beans, whether irradiated or not, at relative humidity of 95% was found to be unsuitable owing to a rapid deterioration in bean quality. The radiation dose for preventing mould growth could be reduced by using a combination of decontamination methods. Treatment with infrared light followed by irradiation with gamma rays permits the radiation dose required for mould control on cocoa beans to be reduced by a factor of 2. Radiation-induced chemical and organoleptical changes after roasting of the cocoa beans were investigated. The nibs were carefully separated from the irradiated and untreated beans and roasted at 130 0 C and at 140 0 C respectively. The roasted nibs were ground and then pulverized. The flakes were tested organoleptically as cocoa drinks. Untreated and irradiated cocoa bean samples were analyzed for fat, theobromine and crude fiber contents. Cocoa butter extracted from the beans of each sample was analyzed for fatty acid composition and various chemical and physical characteristics. The higher roasting temperature resulted certainly in an improved sensoric quality of the cocoa flakes of both untreated and irradiated beans. No organoleptic difference was found in cocoa drinks between prepared from irradiated and untreated beans roasted at 140 0 C. Results of chemical analyses of untreated and irradiated beans showed no detectable difference. The solidification point of cocoa butter was found to decrease with increasing radiation doses

  18. Faba beans and peas in poultry feed: economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskina, Liga; Cerina, Sallija

    2017-10-01

    Broiler diets mainly consist of cereals and protein-rich feed sources; in the EU-27, poultry farming consumes 24% of the total amount of protein-rich feedstuffs. Since the EU produces only 30% of the total quantity of protein crops used for feed, it is necessary to promote the use of traditional European protein crops (beans, peas) for feed in livestock farming. The research aim is to identify economic gains from the production of broiler chicken meat, replacing soybean meal with domestic faba beans and field peas in broiler chicken diets. Adding field peas and faba beans to the broiler feed ration resulted in a significant live weight increase (5.74-11.95%) at the selling age, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio by 0.61-6.06%, and decrease in the product unit cost (15.34-37.06%) as well as an increase in the production efficiency factor (8.70-48.54), compared with the control group. The optimum kind of legume species used in the broiler diet was peas, which were added in the amount of 200 g kg -1 , resulting in live weight gain, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio and an increase in the production efficiency factor. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Adzuki beans (Vigna angularis seed quality under several drying conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Resende

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the drying process and the seed quality of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis. Grains of adzuki beans, with moisture content of 1.14 (decimal dry basis at harvest and dried until the moisture content of 0.11 (decimal dry basis. were used. Drying was done in an experimental drier maintened at controlled temperatures of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC and relative humidity of 52.0, 28.0, 19.1, 13.1, and 6.8%, respectively. Physiological and technological seed quality was evaluated using the germination test, Index of Germination Velocity (IGV, electrical conductivity, and water absorption, respectively. Under the conditions tested in the present study, it can be concluded that drying time for adzuki beans decreases with the higher air temperatures of 60 and 70 ºC, and it affected the physiological and technological seed quality. Thus, to avoid compromising adzuki seeds quality, it is recommended to promote its drying up to 50 ºC.

  20. The Effects of Consumption of Bread Fortified With Soy Bean Flour on Metabolic Profile in Type 2 Diabetic Women: A Cross-over Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Asma Salari; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan; Iraj, Bijan; Askari, Gholam Reza; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world and has become a major threat for global health. Recent studies reported that the soy has beneficial effects in diabetic mellitus patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of soybean flour fortified bread consumption on metabolic profile in type 2 diabetic women. This randomized, cross-over, controlled clinical trial was carried out in 30 type 2 diabetic women. At first, a 2-week run-in period was applied. Then, participants were randomly assigned to either intervention or control groups. Participants in the intervention group were asked to replace 120 g of soybean flour fortified bread with the same amount of their usual bread intake or other cereal products for 6 weeks. After a 4 weeks washout period, participants were crossed over for another 6 weeks. Mean (±standard deviation) age and body mass index of subjects was 45.7 ± 3.8 years and 29.5 ± 3.9 kg/m(2), respectively. The results of our study showed no significant effects of soybean flour fortified bread on metabolic profile. We found a reduction in serum triglycerides (change difference: -3.7, P = 0.82), serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (change difference: -11.2, P = 0.50), insulin (change difference: -3.6, P = 0.7), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (change differences: -0.57, P = 0.45) after 6 weeks but these changes were not statistically significant. No significant effects of soybean flour fortified bread on serum concentrations of fasting blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin, high-density lipoproteins and total cholesterol levels were found. Six weeks consumption of soybean flour fortified bread among diabetic patients had no significant effects on metabolic profile.

  1. The effects of consumption of bread fortified with soy bean flour on metabolic profile in type 2 diabetic women: A cross-over randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Salari Moghaddam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world and has become a major threat for global health. Recent studies reported that the soy has beneficial effects in diabetic mellitus patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of soybean flour fortified bread consumption on metabolic profile in type 2 diabetic women. Methods: This randomized, cross-over, controlled clinical trial was carried out in 30 type 2 diabetic women. At first, a 2-week run-in period was applied. Then, participants were randomly assigned to either intervention or control groups. Participants in the intervention group were asked to replace 120 g of soybean flour fortified bread with the same amount of their usual bread intake or other cereal products for 6 weeks. After a 4 weeks washout period, participants were crossed over for another 6 weeks. Results: Mean (±standard deviation age and body mass index of subjects was 45.7 ± 3.8 years and 29.5 ± 3.9 kg/m 2 , respectively. The results of our study showed no significant effects of soybean flour fortified bread on metabolic profile. We found a reduction in serum triglycerides (change difference: -3.7, P = 0.82, serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (change difference: -11.2, P = 0.50, insulin (change difference: -3.6, P = 0.7, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (change differences: -0.57, P = 0.45 after 6 weeks but these changes were not statistically significant. No significant effects of soybean flour fortified bread on serum concentrations of fasting blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin, high-density lipoproteins and total cholesterol levels were found. Conclusions: Six weeks consumption of soybean flour fortified bread among diabetic patients had no significant effects on metabolic profile.

  2. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

  3. Synthesis of epoxidised soya bean oil acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussin bin Mohd Nor; Mohamad Hilmi bin Mahmood; Dahlan bin Haji Mohd.

    1988-10-01

    An epoxy acrylate was synthesized from Asahi's epoxy resin AER 331 which is an epoxidised soya bean oil (ESBO). Triethylamine (TEA) and Hydroquinone (HQ) were used as catalyst and inhibitor respectively. Observations of the experiment are described. (author)

  4. 7804 PERFORMANCE OF IMPROVED BEAN VARIETIES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... 3. June 2013. ABSTRACT. A project aimed at improving bean production in Kigoma Region was carried out ... Some rain is required during the flowering and pod setting stages [2]. ..... library.ciat.cgiar.org/articulos/ciat/paperb.

  5. PROCESSING AND UTILIZATION OF AFRICAN LOCUST BEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    (2012) P. biglobosa has important socio-economic and cultural values .... It is a common knowledge that Parkia bean processing is a chain activity which is ... that P. biglobosa trees are not productive even when found in the study area.

  6. MedlinePlus: Quinoa Black Bean Salad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/quinoablackbeansalad.html Quinoa Black Bean Salad To use the sharing features ... a side dish. Ingredients 1/2 cup dry quinoa 1 and 1/2 cups water 1 and ...

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF DIFFERENT ORIGIN BEANS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. ON TOLERANCE TO THE BEAN WEEVIL (ACANTHOSCELIDES OBTECTUS SAY STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A ODAGIU

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say is a very harmful pest. When pest control lacks it can produce 100% damages in stocked seeds. Research performed in Romania emphasized the importance of resistant or tolerant origins use besides the quarantine and fight measures in order to limit the stroke of this pest (Manolache et al., 1966; Marghitu et al., 1978. Research aimed to establish the chemical composition of the beans of different origins in the same time with correlation between the different chemical components and their tolerance against A. obtectus stroke.

  8. Attempts to induce mutants resistant or tolerant to golden mosaic virus in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.; Ando, A.; Costa, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    The golden mosaic of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that is present in the tropical parts of the American continent has become a major hindrance for the cultivation of this food legume of great importance to many Latin America countries. Good control measures are not known and bean germ plasm resistant or tolerant to this virus disease is not yet available. Attempts to induce bean mutants with this desirable characteristic were made using gamma radiation and chemical mutagen. Some M 2 plants from one progeny of the cultivar Carioca treated with 0.48% ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), 6 hours of treatment at 20 0 C, showed milder symptoms than the control progenies, and at the same time they showed a tendency to recover. This mutant is being tested under field conditions and used in crosses with other bean types that show a certain degree of tolerance, aiming at adding the favourable characters of both parents. Seeds of the hybrids, as well as those of the parent types, are also being further submitted to mutagenic treatments in order to obtain still better mutants that will be satisfactory for direct or indirect control of bean golden mosaic. (author)

  9. Broad band exciplex dye lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienes, A.; Shank, C.V.; Trozzolo, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    The disclosure is concerned with exciplex dye lasers, i.e., lasers in which the emitting species is a complex formed only from a constituent in an electronically excited state. Noting that an exciplex laser, favorable from the standpoint of broad tunability, results from a broad shift in the peak emission wavelength for the exciplex relative to the unreacted species, a desirable class resulting in such broad shift is described. Preferred classes of laser media utilizing specified resonant molecules are set forth. (auth)

  10. Comparative study of the sensitivities of onion and broad bean root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... Department of Biology, National University of Lesotho, P.O. Roma 180 ... organophosphate contact and stomach insecticide (EPA, ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... 21) using the 100X objective lens with oil immersion.

  11. Top-down control of herbivory by birds and bats in the canopy of temperate broad-leaved oaks (Quercus robur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan M Böhm

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The intensive foraging of insectivorous birds and bats is well known to reduce the density of arboreal herbivorous arthropods but quantification of collateral leaf damage remains limited for temperate forest canopies. We conducted exclusion experiments with nets in the crowns of young and mature oaks, Quercus robur, in south and central Germany to investigate the extent to which aerial vertebrates reduce herbivory through predation. We repeatedly estimated leaf damage throughout the vegetation period. Exclusion of birds and bats led to a distinct increase in arthropod herbivory, emphasizing the prominent role of vertebrate predators in controlling arthropods. Leaf damage (e.g., number of holes differed strongly between sites and was 59% higher in south Germany, where species richness of vertebrate predators and relative oak density were lower compared with our other study site in central Germany. The effects of bird and bat exclusion on herbivory were 19% greater on young than on mature trees in south Germany. Our results support previous studies that have demonstrated clear effects of insectivorous vertebrates on leaf damage through the control of herbivorous arthropods. Moreover, our comparative approach on quantification of leaf damage highlights the importance of local attributes such as tree age, forest composition and species richness of vertebrate predators for control of arthropod herbivory.

  12. Nutritional and histopathological studies on Black Cutworm Agrotis Ipsilon (HUFN.) fed on irradiated Canola and bean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizk, S.A.; Mansour, W.; Abdel-Hamid, I.A.

    2006-01-01

    The black cutworm (fifth instar) were fed on leaves of canola and bean plants irradiated as seeds at the dose levels 10, 20 and 30 Gy. Their effects on food utilization, consumption, digestion and on the mid gut were detected. It was noticed that using irradiated bean and canola plants leads to decrease in values of consumption index and growth rate than control. Also, approximate digest ability (A.D), efficiency of conversion of digested food (E.C.D) and efficiency of conversion of ingested food (E.C.I) were also less than control in most treatments. A. ipsilon larvae fed on bean and canola plants gamma irradiated at the dose levels 10 and 30 Gy in both bean and canola plants, respectively, caused some histopathological changes such as separation of muscle layers, breakdown of epithelium with the appearance of some gaps as well as disintegration of epithelial cells and appearance of vacuoles

  13. ARTICLE - Inbreeding depression in castor bean (Ricinus communis L. progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Krieger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate inbreeding depression (DE in castor bean. From a population derived from the Guarani cultivar, 60 mother plants were sampled. Three types of progenies were obtained from each one: from self-pollination (AU, from crosses (CR and from open pollination (PL. Grain yield of the progenies was evaluated in two locations. There was a strong interaction of progenies x locations, which led to obtaining estimates within each location. Broad variation was observed in inbreeding depression, with mean values of 6.7% and 13.4%, comparing AU progenies with PL progenies. It was observed that the population has high potential for selecting promising inbred lines. The frequency of mother plants generating progenies with simultaneous high general combination capacity and low inbreeding depression was low. Recurrent selection will increase the occurrence of parent plants associating these two properties, which is necessary for obtaining superior synthetic varieties.

  14. Dietary arsenic exposure in Brazil: The contribution of rice and beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciminelli, Virginia S T; Gasparon, Massimo; Ng, Jack C; Silva, Gabriela C; Caldeira, Claudia L

    2017-02-01

    The human health risk associated with arsenic in food in Southeast Brazil was quantified. Based on the most commonly consumed food types in the Brazilian diet, the maximum inorganic As (iAs) daily intake from food (0.255 μg kg -1 body weight per day) is approximately 9% of the Benchmark Dose Lower Limit (BMDL 0.5 ) of 3 μg kg -1 body weight per day set by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Joint Expert Committee in Food Additives (JECFA). When water is included, the contribution of food to the total intake varies from 96.9% to 39.7%. Rice and beans, the main Brazilian staple food, contribute between 67 and 90% of the total As intake from food (46-79% from rice and 11-23% from beans). The substantial contribution of beans to total As food intake is reported for the first time. The broad range of As concentrations in rice and beans highlights the variable and potentially large contribution of both to As food intake in places where diet consists largely of these two food categories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Aktivitas Antivirus Beberapa Ekstrak Tanaman terhadap Bean Common Mosaic Virus strain Black Eye Cowpea (BCMV-BIC pada Kacang Panjang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Asmira Damayanti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Antivirus actitivity of several plant extracts against Bean common mosaic virus strain Black eye cowpea (BCMV-BlC on Yard long beanBean common mosaic virus (BCMV is an important virus on yard long bean and it is difficult to control. One of control effort way by utilizing antiviral substances of plant origin. The research was done to select and test the effectiveness of plant extracts in suppressing BCMV infection on yard long bean. Twenty two plant extracts were selected by (1 spraying the crude extract to Chenopodium amaranticolor leaves, then plant inoculated by BCMV 1 hour after spraying, and (2 mixturing the crude extract with sap containing BCMV, then inoculated mechanically to C. amaranticolor.  Local necrotic lesion  number and inhibition percentage are measured. All plant extract treatments were able to reduce Necrotic lokal lesion  formation significantly  compared to untreatment control. Further, fifteen plant extracts were selected to test their effectiveness in controlling BCMV on yard long bean in green house trial. The results showed that except geranium and red ginger treatment, other extract treatments were able to reduce significantly the disease incidence and severity, symptoms, and  BCMV titer, respectively. Among tested extracts, Bougainvillea spectabilis, Mirabilis jalapa, and Celosia cristata are the most effective crude extracts in suppressing BCMV infection.

  16. Effects of hydrogen fluoride fumigation of bean plants on the growth, development, and reproduction of the Mexican bean beetle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, L H; McCune, D C; Mancini, J F; van Leuken, P

    1973-01-01

    The growth and behavior of Mexican bean beetle populations on control and hydrogen fluoride-fumigated bean plants (P. vulgaris L.) were investigated to assess the effects of such fumigation on beetle growth, development and reproduction. Beetles that were cultured on HF-fumigated plants were generally lighter than controls, although the occurrence and magnitude of this effect depended upon stage of development, age, and sex of the adult beetle and the number of generations of culture on HF-fumigated plants. A consistently decreased mass of larvae cultured on HF-fumigated tissue pupated and enclosed three to six days later than controls, and the adults commenced reproductive activity with the same lag in time. Beetles cultured on the fumigated plants also contained greater amounts of fluoride than the controls, and the fluoride content of females was greater than that of males on both HF-fumigated and control plants. Beetles raised on fumigated plants laid fewer egg masses and fewer eggs per mass, although when the first generation was repeated at a later date there was no significant effect. Feeding activity was reduced in both larval and adult stages in beetles cultured on the fumigated plants, and adults showed less flight activity than controls. A difference in color of the elytra was also noted; beetles on HF-fumigated plants were paler than controls.

  17. Effects of Thiamethoxam-Treated Seed on Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Nontarget Arthropods, and Crop Performance in Southwestern Virginia Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L; Kuhar, T P; Kring, T; Herbert, D A; Arancibia, R; Schultz, P

    2017-12-08

    Thiamethoxam is a neonicotinoid insecticide commonly applied directly to the seeds (seed-treatment) of commercial snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. While previous studies have examined target and nontarget effects of thiamethoxam seed-treatments in snap beans and other crops, to our knowledge, none have been conducted in agroecosystems predominated by the pest Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). This study examined the effects of thiamethoxam-treated snap beans on E. varivestis, other arthropods, and crop performance in southwestern Virginia. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate residual toxicity of treated snap beans to E. varivestis and a key predator, Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Treated plants were highly toxic to E. varivestis at 13 d, moderately toxic from 16 to 20 d, and minimally toxic at 24 d. P. maculiventris was unaffected by exposure to treated plants or by feeding on E. varivestis that consumed treated plants. Small plot field experiments in 2014 and 2015 showed no significant effects of thiamethoxam seed-treatments on E. varivestis densities, other arthropods, crop injury, or yield. In 2016, planting was delayed by persistent rain, resulting in early E. varivestis colonization. In this year, thiamethoxam-treated plants had significantly lower densities and feeding injury from E. varivestis, followed by significantly higher yields. Natural enemies were unaffected by seed-treatments in all field experiments. These experiments demonstrated that thiamethoxam seed-treatments provide control of E. varivestis when beetles infest fields within 2 to 3 wk after planting; but otherwise provide negligible advantages. Negative effects from thiamethoxam seed-treatments on nontarget arthropods appear minimal for snap beans in this region. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please

  18. Broad-spectrum antibiotic or G-CSF as potential countermeasures for impaired control of bacterial infection associated with an SPE exposure during spaceflight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghong Li

    Full Text Available A major risk for astronauts during prolonged space flight is infection as a result of the combined effects of microgravity, situational and confinement stress, alterations in food intake, altered circadian rhythm, and radiation that can significantly impair the immune system and the body's defense systems. We previously reported a massive increase in morbidity with a decrease in the ability to control a bacterial challenge when mice were maintained under hindlimb suspension (HS conditions and exposed to solar particle event (SPE-like radiation. HS and SPE-like radiation treatment alone resulted in a borderline significant increase in morbidity. Therefore, development and testing of countermeasures that can be used during extended space missions in the setting of exposure to SPE radiation becomes a serious need. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of enrofloxacin (an orally bioavailable antibiotic and Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF (Neulasta on enhancing resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in mice subjected to HS and SPE-like radiation. The results revealed that treatment with enrofloxacin or G-CSF enhanced bacterial clearance and significantly decreased morbidity and mortality in challenged mice exposed to suspension and radiation. These results establish that antibiotics, such as enrofloxacin, and G-CSF could be effective countermeasures to decrease the risk of bacterial infections after exposure to SPE radiation during extended space flight, thereby reducing both the risk to the crew and the danger of mission failure.

  19. faba bean and field pea seed proportion for intercropping system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    reduced with increase in the seeding rate of field pea. ... productivity of the Faba bean/field pea was obtained from intercropping system. Growing Faba bean both as a ..... Management: Proceedings of the First and ... Population, time and crop.

  20. Beans and Other Legumes: Types and Cooking Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition and healthy eating Want to add nutritious beans and legumes to your diet but aren't ... Staff Legumes — a class of vegetables that includes beans, peas and lentils — are among the most versatile ...

  1. Growth Performance of Five Bean (Phaseolus spp) Varieties as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    had significant (P≤ 0.05) effect on bean plant girth, number of leaves, number of branches, mean number of flowers, total fresh ... Beans (Phaseolus spp) belong to one of several genera .... Meng (2016), that found that applying coffee pulp.

  2. New bean products to improve food security | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    ... Agricultural Research Organisation and the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research ... New bean products to improve food security. April 21, 2016. Image ... more lucrative market for smallholder bean farmers, most of whom are women.

  3. Effects of Kidney Bean, Phaseolus vulgaris Meal on the Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Oreochromis niloticus (mean weight 1.36 + 0.05 g) fed diets containing varying levels of the kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris were investigated under laboratory conditions. The kidney bean was incorporated at separate levels of 60, 40, ...

  4. Java EE 7 development with NetBeans 8

    CERN Document Server

    Heffelfinger, David R

    2015-01-01

    The book is aimed at Java developers who wish to develop Java EE applications while taking advantage of NetBeans functionality to automate repetitive tasks. Familiarity with NetBeans or Java EE is not assumed.

  5. The BROAD study: A randomised controlled trial using a whole food plant-based diet in the community for obesity, ischaemic heart disease or diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, N; Wilson, L; Smith, M; Duncan, B; McHugh, P

    2017-03-20

    There is little randomised evidence using a whole food plant-based (WFPB) diet as intervention for elevated body mass index (BMI) or dyslipidaemia. We investigated the effectiveness of a community-based dietary programme. Primary end points: BMI and cholesterol at 6 months (subsequently extended). Ages 35-70, from one general practice in Gisborne, New Zealand. Diagnosed with obesity or overweight and at least one of type 2 diabetes, ischaemic heart disease, hypertension or hypercholesterolaemia. Of 65 subjects randomised (control n=32, intervention n=33), 49 (75.4%) completed the study to 6 months. Twenty-three (70%) intervention participants were followed up at 12 months. All participants received normal care. Intervention participants attended facilitated meetings twice-weekly for 12 weeks, and followed a non-energy-restricted WFPB diet with vitamin B 12 supplementation. At 6 months, mean BMI reduction was greater with the WFPB diet compared with normal care (4.4 vs 0.4, difference: 3.9 kg m -2 (95% confidence interval (CI)±1), P<0.0001). Mean cholesterol reduction was greater with the WFPB diet, but the difference was not significant compared with normal care (0.71 vs 0.26, difference: 0.45 mmol l -1 (95% CI±0.54), P=0.1), unless dropouts were excluded (difference: 0.56 mmol l -1 (95% CI±0.54), P=0.05). Twelve-month mean reductions for the WFPB diet group were 4.2 (±0.8) kg m - 2 BMI points and 0.55 (±0.54, P=0.05) mmol l -1 total cholesterol. No serious harms were reported. This programme led to significant improvements in BMI, cholesterol and other risk factors. To the best of our knowledge, this research has achieved greater weight loss at 6 and 12 months than any other trial that does not limit energy intake or mandate regular exercise.

  6. Effects of hydrogen peroxide, modified atmosphere and their combination on quality of minimally processed cluster beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghmare, Roji B; Annapure, Uday S

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on quality of fresh-cut cluster beans. Fresh-cut cluster beans were dipped in a solution of 2% H 2 O 2 for 2 min, packed in an atmosphere of (5% O 2 , 10% CO 2 , 85% N 2 ) and stored in polypropylene bags at 5 °C for 35 days. Passive MAP was created by consuming O 2 and producing CO 2 by fresh-cut cluster beans. The combined effect of H 2 O 2 and MAP on physico-chemical analysis (Headspace gas, weight loss, chlorophyll, hardness and color), microbial quality (mesophilic aerobics and yeasts and molds) and sensory analysis were studied. Chemical treatment and MAP both are equally effective in extending the shelf life at 5 °C for 28 days. Hence, MAP can be an alternative for chemical treatment to achieve a shelf life of 28 days for fresh-cut cluster beans. Control samples, without chemical treatment and modified atmosphere, stored at 5 °C were spoiled after 14 days. Chemical treatment followed by MAP underwent minimum changes in weight, chlorophyll, hardness and color of fresh-cut cluster beans. Combination treatment gives a storage life of 35 days.

  7. Fermented soya bean (tempe) extracts reduce adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos-van den Hil, P J; Nout, M J R; Beumer, R R; van der Meulen, J; Zwietering, M H

    2009-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of processed soya bean, during the successive stages of tempe fermentation and different fermentation times, on adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 to intestinal brush border cells as well as Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells; and to clarify the mechanism of action. Tempe was prepared at controlled laboratory scale using Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus as the inoculum. Extracts of raw, soaked and cooked soya beans reduced ETEC adhesion to brush border cells by 40%. Tempe extracts reduced adhesion by 80% or more. ETEC adhesion to Caco-2 cells reduced by 50% in the presence of tempe extracts. ETEC K88 bacteria were found to interact with soya bean extracts, and this may contribute to the observed decrease of ETEC adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells. Fermented soya beans (tempe) reduce the adhesion of ETEC to intestinal epithelial cells of pig and human origin. This reduced adhesion is caused by an interaction between ETEC K88 bacteria and soya bean compounds. The results strengthen previous observations on the anti-diarrhoeal effect of tempe. This effect indicates that soya-derived compounds may reduce adhesion of ETEC to intestinal cells in pigs as well as in humans and prevent against diarrhoeal diseases.

  8. Biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) B biotype (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on six bean genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriani, Maria A. de G.

    2008-01-01

    The silverleaf whitefly is one of the most harmful pests that attack bean crops, mainly for extracting large quantities of phloem sap and transmitting the bean golden mosaic virus. Resistant germplasm plants can be an important method for controlling this pest. The biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci B biotype on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes were evaluated. The tests were conducted under laboratory conditions, with the following genotypes: Arc 1, Arc 3s, Arc 5s, G13028, G11056 and Porrillo 70. The bean plants in a stage IV-1 were infested during one day with silverleaf white flies. Afterwards the eggs and nymphs were observed until adult emergence. Longevity and fecundity of emerged insects were also evaluated. The longest development time occurred for nymphs fed on Arc 3s genotype (26.5 days), following by G11056 (25.9 days) and G13028 (25.3 days). The development period was 5.5 days longer in Arc 3s when compared with Porrillo 70. Also, the wild genotypes Arc 3s and G11056 showed higher mortality rates (94.7% and 83.1%, respectively), which may suggest antibiosis and/or feeding non preference resistance type. For this reason, although longevity and fecundity were not influenced when the whitefly fed on resistant genotypes (Arc 3s, G11056, G13028 and Arc 5s), those genotypes can be used for bean breeding program towards B. tabaci B biotype. (author)

  9. Effects of Intercropping (Canola-Faba Bean on Density and Diversity of Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hossain GHARINEH

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the biological effect and interference of crop and weed in canola-faba bean intercropping in comparison with mono culture, an experiment was conducted in randomize completely blocks design with three replication at Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources, University. In this experiment treatments were different compositions of canola (Brassica napus L. var. haylo and faba bean (local cultivar. Plant densities (0, 20 and 40 plants per m2 for canola and four levels include (0, 20, 40 and 60 plants per m2 for faba bean in accordance with additive form mixed culture system respectively. Weed dry weight was affected by culture system and different levels of plant densities in mixed culture and there were significant difference 1%. Lowest weed dry weight was obtained in 20-60 and 40-60 plants m-2 canola-bean intercropping. In the intercropping parts only two species was observed while in the sole culture more than three species were exist. Results showed that with increasing in bean diversity, weed dry weight declines. According to our results, it is possible to control weed effectively by using intercropping system, but more studied is required. Diversity of weeds had been clearly affected. Results showed that only Beta and Malva species were existed in intercropping comparing to sole cultures that Brassica, Beta, Rumex and Malva were existed.

  10. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-02-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated. The hardness of the legumes cooked by APC or HPC were not statistically different (P > 0.05). APC resulted in higher percentage of seed coat splits than HPC. Both cooking methods decreased Hunter "L" value significantly (P < 0.05). The "a" and "b" values of dark-colored seeds decreased after cooking, while these values tended to increase for the light-colored seeds. The total amounts of solid lost from legume seeds were higher after HPC compared with APC. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) percentages increased considerably after both cooking methods. High pressure cooked legumes resulted in higher levels of resistant starch (RS) but lower levels of slowly digestible starch (SDS) than the atmospheric pressure cooked legumes.

  11. Silicon and Nitrate Differentially Modulate the Symbiotic Performances of Healthy and Virus-Infected Bradyrhizobium-nodulated Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Yardlong Bean (V. unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) and Mung Bean (V. radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre-Mayoral, Maria Luisa; Brito, Miriam; Baral, Bikash; Garrido, Mario José

    2017-09-15

    The effects of 2 mM silicon (Si) and 10 mM KNO₃ (N)-prime signals for plant resistance to pathogens-were analyzed in healthy and Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) or Cowpea mild mottle virus (CMMV)-infected Bradyrhizobium -nodulated cowpea, yardlong bean and mung bean plants. In healthy plants of the three Vigna taxa, nodulation and growth were promoted in the order of Si + N > N > Si > controls. In the case of healthy cowpea and yardlong bean, the addition of Si and N decreased ureide and α-amino acids (AA) contents in the nodules and leaves in the order of Si + N> N > Si > controls. On the other hand, the addition of N arrested the deleterious effects of CCMV or CMMV infections on growth and nodulation in the three Vigna taxa. However, the addition of Si or Si + N hindered growth and nodulation in the CCMV- or CMMV-infected cowpea and yardlong bean, causing a massive accumulation of ureides in the leaves and nodules. Nevertheless, the AA content in leaves and nodules of CCMV- or CMMV-infected cowpea and yardlong bean was promoted by Si but reduced to minimum by Si + N. These results contrasted to the counteracting effects of Si or Si + N in the CCMV- and CMMV-infected mung bean via enhanced growth, nodulation and levels of ureide and AA in the leaves and nodules. Together, these observations suggest the fertilization with Si + N exclusively in virus-free cowpea and yardlong bean crops. However, Si + N fertilization must be encouraged in virus-endangered mung bean crops to enhance growth, nodulation and N-metabolism. It is noteworthy to see the enhanced nodulation of the three Vigna taxa in the presence of 10 mM KNO₃.

  12. Evaluation of the recycle of nitrogen in a succession bean - corn -bean By means of the isotopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duennas Graciela; Munniz, Olegario; Sanchez, Tamara; Gomez, Luis

    1999-01-01

    To determine the recycle of Nitrogen in a succession bean - corn - bean a was developed I experience under field conditions, on Red Ferralitic soils (Rhodic Ferrasols) with the one I use of the stable isotope 15 Nitrogen

  13. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  14. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  15. Agronomic description of new improved climbing bean varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . 21. David, S and Hoogendijk,M. 1997. Bean production systems in MbaJe district, Uganda with emphasis on varietal diversity and the adoption of new climbing beans. Network on bean research in Africa. CIA T. CIA T, occasional publication ...

  16. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This

  17. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1975-01-01

    The 14 C activity in unroasted [ 14 C]-methyl bromide fumigated cocoa beans was used to study the fate and persistence of CH 3 Br in the stored beans. About 70% of the residues occurred in the shells. Unchanged CH 3 Br could not be detected, all the sorbed CH 3 Br having reacted with bean constituents apparently to form 14 C-methylated derivatives and inorganic bromide. No 14 C activity was found in the lipid fraction. Roasting decreased the bound (non-volatile) residues, with corresponding changes in the activities and amounts of free sugars, free and protein amino acids. Roasted nibs and shells showed a two-fold increase in the volatile fraction of the 14 C residue. This fraction may be related to the volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard-type reactions. (author)

  18. Effects of gamma radiation and irradiated bean seeds on the dry bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.; Brzostek, G.

    1988-01-01

    Low dosages of gamma radiation affected the development of immature stages of the bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus Say. Radiosensitivity of the bean weevils decreased during their development, and adults seemed to be the most resistant stage for gamma radiation. There were no significant differences in mortality of immature stages of the pest during their development in beans treated with gamma radiation at dosages up to 1.06 kGy. Moreover, the females showed no ovipositional preference for untreated or irradiated beans

  19. Navy Bean and Rice Bran Intake Alters the Plasma Metabolome of Children at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J. Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal cholesterol in childhood predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in adulthood. Navy beans and rice bran have demonstrated efficacy in regulating blood lipids in adults and children; however, their effects on modulating the child plasma metabolome has not been investigated and warrants investigation. A pilot, randomized-controlled, clinical trial was conducted in 38 children (10 ± 0.8 years old with abnormal cholesterol. Participants consumed a snack for 4 weeks containing either: no navy bean or rice bran (control; 17.5 g/day cooked navy bean powder; 15 g/day heat-stabilized rice bran; or 9 g/day navy beans and 8 g/day rice bran. Plasma metabolites were extracted using 80% methanol for global, non-targeted metabolic profiling via ultra-high performance liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Differences in plasma metabolite levels after 4 weeks of dietary intervention compared to control and baseline were analyzed using analysis of variance and Welch’s t-tests (p ≤ 0.05. Navy bean and/or rice bran consumption influenced 71 plasma compounds compared to control (p ≤ 0.05, with lipids representing 46% of the total plasma metabolome. Significant changes were determined for 18 plasma lipids in the navy bean group and 10 plasma lipids for the rice bran group compared to control, and 48 lipids in the navy bean group and 40 in the rice bran group compared to baseline. These results support the hypothesis that consumption of these foods impact blood lipid metabolism with implications for reducing CVD risk in children. Complementary and distinct lipid pathways were affected by the diet groups, including acylcarnitines and lysolipids (navy bean, sphingolipids (rice bran, and phospholipids (navy bean + rice bran. Navy bean consumption decreased free fatty acids associated with metabolic diseases (palmitate and arachidonate and increased the relative abundance of endogenous anti-inflammatory lipids

  20. Effects of irradiation on the physicochemical properties of carioca beans; Efeitos da irradiacao nas propriedades fisico-quimicas do feijao carioca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Damaris Carvalho

    2016-10-01

    The common bean is an important component in the diet of the average Brazilian person. Each harvest of beans, losses occur due to attacks of insects and rodents. One of the ways to preserve the beans, and at the same time keep its nutritional characteristics, is the use of gamma radiation. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different doses of gamma radiation on the physical and chemical properties of the carioca variety of common beans subject to cooking of soaked and unsoaked beans. Portions of raw beans were used as control and the other was subject to ionizing radiation at doses of 1, 5 and 10 kGy. Following irradiation, a portion of the samples (control and irradiated) were soaked and the other was not, then all beans were cooked. The cooked samples were lyophilized, milled and then accommodated in pots and stored at -23 deg C temperatures. The analysis of chemical composition, determination of protein digestibility, condensed tannin and phytic acid content were performed using the milled samples. Using whole grains, were performed analysis of expansion capability and hydration, cooking time and instrumental color. Irradiation did not alter the chemical composition of soaked and unsoaked samples. The condensed tannin levels did not reduce according to increased doses. The phytic acid concentrations were reduced at the doses of 5 and 10 kGy for soaked samples, whereas for the not soaked beans, gamma irradiation did not influence the phytate content. The protein digestibility decreased on soaked samples, at doses of 1 kGy and in the other doses, the reduction was not significant. As for not soaked beans, increases in digestibility were observed at dose of 10 kGy. As the doses increased, reduction in cooking time on soaked and unsoaked beans was noted. At a dose of 10 kGy, the bean expansion capability increased. The samples' color did not change significantly, as the doses increased. Therefore, it is concluded that ionizing radiation has no effect

  1. Foliar absorption of phosphorus by common bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaretto, A.E.; Rosa, J.P.P.

    1984-01-01

    The effet of urea and/or sucrose on P uptake from H 3 PO 4 and monoammonium phosphate by bean leaves. A solution containing 0.145% P and specific activity 10μ Ci/ml is sprayed early in the morning or late afternoon. Besides the treatment without urea and sucrose, these substances are added in two concentrations 0.66% N + sucrose, and 1.32% N + sucrose. Twenty four hous after application, 52% of the applied P is absorved by the bean trifoliate leaf. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. Sunning as a technique for disinfecting stored beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinwada, P.; Giga, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    The effectiveness of sunning (solar heating) as a small farm technique for controlling the bean bruchids Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) and Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) was investigated. Bean seeds infested with mixed-stage larvae were placed on clear or black polyethylene sheets or inside polyethylene pouches with clear upper and black lower surfaces and exposed to the sun for five hours each day for 0, 3 and 5 successive days. No live insects emerged from seeds heated in the pouches while the few that emerged from seeds on the black sheets resulted in damage to less than 1% of the seeds. Of the three polyethylene systems used, the clear sheet was the least useful, while the pouches even for only 3 days, were the most effective in eliminating infestations. These studies demonstrated that effective bruchid control can be achieved with daily 5-h exposure periods of seeds for a successive 5-day duration. However, the success of the method of control may be influenced by the time of the year and prevailing environmental conditions

  3. Reduction in flatulent factors in mung bean using low dose - radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaiah, J.P.; Pednekar, M.D.; Thomas, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Mung beans, γ-irradiated at the disinfestation dose of 0.25 to 0.75 kGy and germinated (0-6 days), contained significantly lower levels of flatulence causing digosaccharides compared to the control, thus enhancing their nutritional quality and acceptability. (author). 2 refs., 3 figs

  4. Effect of selenium treatment on biomass production and mineral content in common bean varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mineral selenium is important to human health. The goal of the research was to evaluate common bean cultivars for their responses to and abilities to accumulate selenium. The experimental design was completely randomized and the treatments consisted of control (in modified Hoagland and Arnon's s...

  5. The Definitive Guide to NetBeans Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, Heiko

    2009-01-01

    The Definitive Guide to NetBeans(t) Platform is a thorough and definitive introduction to the NetBeans Platform, covering all its major APIs in detail, with relevant code examples used throughout. The original German book on which this title is based was well received. The NetBeans Platform Community has put together this English translation, which author Heiko Bock updated to cover the latest NetBeans Platform 6.5 APIs. With an introduction by known NetBeans Platform experts Jaroslav Tulach, Tim Boudreau, and Geertjan Wielenga, this is the most up-to-date book on this topic at the moment. All

  6. Influence of high-pressure processing on the generation of γ-aminobutyric acid and microbiological safety in coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bang-Yuan; Huang, Hsiao-Wen; Cheng, Ming-Ching; Wang, Chung-Yi

    2018-04-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of high-pressure processing (HPP) on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content, glutamic acid (Glu) content, glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity, growth of Aspergillus fresenii, and accumulated ochratoxin A (OTA) content in coffee beans. The results indicated that coffee beans subjected to HPP at pressures ≥50 MPa for 5 min increased GAD activity and promoted the conversion of Glu to GABA, and showed a significantly doubling of GABA content compared with unprocessed coffee beans. Additionally, investigation of the influence of HPP on A. fresenii growth on coffee beans showed that application ≥400 MPa reduced A. fresenii concentrations to beans subjected to processing pressures of 600 MPa was 0.0066 μg g -1 , which was significantly lower than the OTA content of 0.1143 μg g -1 in the control group. This study shows that HPP treatment can simultaneously increase GABA content and inhibit the growth of A. fresenii, thereby effectively reducing the production and accumulation of OTA and maintaining the microbiological safety of coffee beans. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Prediction of fermentation index of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) based on color measurement and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Roque, Noemí; Abderrahim, Mohamed; Nuñez-Alejos, Luis; Arribas, Silvia M; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2016-12-01

    Several procedures are currently used to assess fermentation index (FI) of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) for quality control. However, all of them present several drawbacks. The aim of the present work was to develop and validate a simple image based quantitative procedure, using color measurement and artificial neural network (ANNs). ANN models based on color measurements were tested to predict fermentation index (FI) of fermented cocoa beans. The RGB values were measured from surface and center region of fermented beans in images obtained by camera and desktop scanner. The FI was defined as the ratio of total free amino acids in fermented versus non-fermented samples. The ANN model that included RGB color measurement of fermented cocoa surface and R/G ratio in cocoa bean of alkaline extracts was able to predict FI with no statistical difference compared with the experimental values. Performance of the ANN model was evaluated by the coefficient of determination, Bland-Altman plot and Passing-Bablok regression analyses. Moreover, in fermented beans, total sugar content and titratable acidity showed a similar pattern to the total free amino acid predicted through the color based ANN model. The results of the present work demonstrate that the proposed ANN model can be adopted as a low-cost and in situ procedure to predict FI in fermented cocoa beans through apps developed for mobile device. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dry heat and radiation combination effects on Aspergillus flavus Link. infecting cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako-Atta, B.; Meier, H.; Odamtten, G.T.

    1981-01-01

    The paper deals with the effect of heat and radiation combination treatments on the control of microbial spoilage of cocoa beans caused by toxigenic Aspergillus flavus Link. The heat and radiation sources were from dry air oven heat and 60 Co gammacell 220 irradiator, respectively. The radiation doses used were either 0, 50, 100, 150 or 200 krad, with combined heat temperatures of 30, 60 or 90 0 C. At each temperature level three different exposure time intervals of either 15 min, 30 min or 60 min respectively, were used. Two reversible sequential heat/radiation combination effects were evaluated. The first sequence involved cocoa beans inoculated with A. flavus spores exposed first to dry heat at pre-determined temperature heat exposure time, followed by radiation treatment, then retention of samples in a constant humidity environmental chamber set at 80% for daily observation up to forty days post-treatment. The second sequence involved exposure of the inoculated beans first to radiation, then to heat before retention under fixed RH for observation. From their results, the authors arrive at four conclusions: first, that there is a critical radiation/heat combination range (200, 150 and 100 krad/90 0 C for 15 min) that significantly decontaminates (less than 5% mouldiness) A. flavus infected cocoa beans even under high relative humidity (80% RH) environment; second, that a temperature level of 90 0 C combined with 200, 150 or 100 krad maximizes such effect but the heat exposure time is a major factor; third, that low heat temperature ranges of 30 or 60 0 C, combined with low radiation dosages of 150 krad or below, enhance the rate of A. flavus spoilage effects of cocoa beans; and, lastly, that the sequence of exposure of the inoculated cocoa beans to heat/radiation combination influenced the spore germination; exposure to heat before radiation would sensitize the spores (200 krad/90 0 C) but results in an increased radioresistance. (author)

  9. Navy and black bean supplementation attenuates colitis-associated inflammation and colonic epithelial damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Wu, Wenqing; Hutchinson, Amber L; Pauls, Peter; Robinson, Lindsay E; Power, Krista A

    2018-02-27

    The enriched levels of nondigestible fermentable carbohydrates and phenolic compounds found in common beans can exert immunomodulatory effects within the colon that improve gut health and mitigate the severity of colitis-associated inflammatory pathology. Prior to acute colitis onset, C57Bl/6 mice were prefed isocaloric 20% cooked navy bean (NB) or black bean (BB) diets for 3 weeks and switched to control basal diet (BD) 24 h prior to colitis induction via 5-day exposure to dextran sodium sulfate (2% w/v in drinking water)+3 days of fresh water. The severity of the acute colitis phenotype was attenuated by bean prefeeding, evidenced by reduced colon tissue inflammatory transcription factor activation (NFκB, STAT3) and inflammatory mediator levels in the colon (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18 and MCP-1) and serum (TNFα, IL-6, IL-1β, MCP-1) versus BD (P≤.05). Additionally, biomarkers of enhanced wound repair responses were increased by bean prefeeding including colon tissue protein levels of IL-22, IL-27 and activated (i.e., GTP-bound) Cdc42 and Rac1 versus BD (P≤.05). mRNA expressions of genes involved in normal colonic epithelial function and the promotion of epithelial barrier integrity, defense and/or restitution and wound closure including MUC1, RELMβ, IgA and REG3γ were all increased in NB and BB prefed mice versus BD (P≤.05). Collectively, bean supplementation prior to colitis induction (i.e., mimicking disease relapse) primes the colonic microenvironment to attenuate the severity of the colitis inflammatory phenotype and maintain aspects of epithelial barrier function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanistic insight into softening of Canadian wonder common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigwedere, Claire Maria; Olaoye, Taye Foyeke; Kyomugasho, Clare; Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Pallares Pallares, Andrea; Van Loey, Ann M; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2018-04-01

    The relative contributions of cotyledons and seed coats towards hardening of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were investigated and the rate-limiting process which controls bean softening during cooking was determined. Fresh or aged whole beans and cotyledons were soaked and cooked in demineralised water or 0.1 M NaHCO 3 solution, and texture evolution, microstructure changes and thermal properties were studied. Fresh and aged whole beans cooked in demineralised water had significantly different softening rate constants and so did fresh and aged cotyledons. The comparable softening rate constants of aged whole beans and cotyledons indicated an insignificant role of the seed coat in hardening during storage. All samples cooked faster in 0.1 M NaHCO 3 solution. Disintegration of cooked tissues followed by microscopic examination revealed a transition from cell breakage through a phase of cell breakage and separation to complete cell separation with increased cooking time wherefore texture decayed. Therefore, progressive solubilization of pectin in the middle lamella greatly promoted texture decay. While residual birefringence even after substantial cooking time suggested some molecular order of the starch, calorimetric analyses revealed complete starch gelatinisation before complete cell separation occurred. This implies an insignificant role of starch in texture decay during cooking but its hindered uncoiling into a viscous gel after gelatinisation due to the restricting cell wall could promote its retrogradation. Therefore, we suggest that the rate-determining process in bean softening relates to cell wall/middle lamella changes influencing pectin solubilization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biological treatment to bean seeds before sowing them.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Edel Castro Mayo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Even in some bibliography about the bean cultivation is recommended the use of Rhizobium which association with the cultivation is very advantageous for the fixation of the atmospheric nitrogen, as well as the employment of the antagonistic mushroom Trichoderma spp., for the control of fungous illnesses of the floor and knowing that the cultivation has its fertilization demands and of the plagues control and illnesses that are in definitive the causes that limit the yields of the cultivation, these practices are not used. We proceeded to the disinfection of bean seeds with the resulting solution of the laundry of 1Kg of Trichoderma harzianum of the stock A-34 with 2 liters of water and the mixture of this fluid with 1 Kg of Rhizobium, more a package (134 grams of Gaucho PS 70 for 45.35 kg (100 pounds of t seed. The disinfection of the seed was made by hand, 12 hour before sowing them and the results were very encouraging, so much in the delay of days in appearing the illnesses and the plagues and its low attack intensity as the increase of the yields with relationship to the not treated seed.

  12. Final Comments from Professors George and Beane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beane, James; George, Paul S.

    1996-01-01

    Concludes this journal focus section on curriculum integration with transcripts of questions asked by conference attendees and answers by Professors Beane and George. Areas addressed included experience levels with children and teachers, studies that point to the failure of curriculum integration, and how teachers can continue curriculum…

  13. Beans (Phaseolus spp.) - model food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, W.J.; Hemandez, H.; Blair, M.; Beebe, S.; Gepts, P.; Vanderleyden, J.

    2001-01-01

    Globally, 800 million people are malnourished. Heavily subsidised farmers in rich countries produce sufficient surplus food to feed the hungry, but not at a price the poor can afford. Even donating the rich world's surplus to the poor would not solve the problem. Most poor people earn their living from agriculture, so a deluge of free food would destroy their livelihoods. Thus, the only answer to world hunger is to safeguard and improve the productivity of farmers in poor countries. Diets of subsistence level farmers in Africa and Latin America often contain sufficient carbohydrates (through cassava, corn/maize, rice, wheat, etc.), but are poor in proteins. Dietary proteins can take the form of scarce animal products (eggs, milk, meat, etc.), but are usually derived from legumes (plants of the bean and pea family). Legumes are vital in agriculture as they form associations with bacteria that 'fix-nitrogen' from the air. Effectively this amounts to internal fertilisation and is the main reason that legumes are richer in proteins than all other plants. Thousands of legume species exist but more common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are eaten than any other. In some countries such as Mexico and Brazil, beans are the primary source of protein in human diets. As half the grain legumes consumed worldwide are common beans, they represent the species of choice for the study of grain legume nutrition. Unfortunately, the yields of common beans are low even by the standards of legumes, and the quality of their seed proteins is sub-optimal. Most probably this results from millennia of selection for stable rather than high yield, and as such, is a problem that can be redressed by modem genetic techniques. We have formed an international consortium called 'Phaseomics' to establish the necessary framework of knowledge and materials that will result in disease-resistant, stress-tolerant, high-quality protein and high-yielding beans. Phaseomics will be instrumental in improving

  14. Wild beans (Phaseolus L.) of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wild relatives of the five domesticated species of bean (Phaseolus L.) are widely distributed across the tropics and subtropics of the New World, with taxa extending to the Canadian border, the Caribbean islands and Bermuda, the Galapagos Islands, and south to Argentina. Mesoamerica holds the la...

  15. Synthesis of a jojoba bean disaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, A; Marnera, G; d'Alarcao, M

    1998-08-01

    A synthesis of the disaccharide recently isolated from jojoba beans, 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-chiro-inositol, has been achieved. The suitably protected chiro-inositol unit was prepared by an enantiospecific synthesis from L-xylose utilizing SmI2-mediated pinacol coupling as a key step.

  16. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  17. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  18. Determination of physicomechanical properties of velvet bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected physical and mechanical properties of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) were studied at two moisture content levels of 13% and 20% (db). Compression strength characteristics were conducted under quasi-static compressive force at longitudinal and latitudinal (lateral) loading positions and the rupture forces, ...

  19. Registration of ‘Alpena' navy bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Alpena’ navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI -), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2014 as an upright, midseason cultivar with uniform dry down and excellent canning quality. Alpena was developed using pedigree breeding method to the F3 generation ...

  20. Castor bean response to zinc fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Henrique Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Zinc is a trace element and it is absolutely essential for the normal healthy growth of plants. This element plays a part of several enzyme systems and other metabolic functions in the plants. Castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) crop is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor beans yield, few researches has been made on this issue, mainly on the use of zinc. In order to evaluate the effects of zinc on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Zn (0; 2; 4; 6 and 8 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Under conditions that the experiment was carried out the results showed that the Zn levels used, did not affect the castor bean plants growth. (author)

  1. Genetic divergence of common bean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, J S; Silva, W; Pinheiro, L R; Dos Santos, J B; Fonseca, N S; Euzebio, M P

    2015-09-22

    The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic divergence in the 'Carioca' (beige with brown stripes) common bean cultivar used by different institutions and in 16 other common bean cultivars used in the Rede Cooperativa de Pesquisa de Feijão (Cooperative Network of Common Bean Research), by using simple sequence repeats associated with agronomic traits that are highly distributed in the common bean genome. We evaluated 22 polymorphic loci using bulks containing DNA from 30 plants. There was genetic divergence among the Carioca cultivar provided by the institutions. Nevertheless, there was lower divergence among them than among the other cultivars. The cultivar used by Instituto Agronômico do Paraná was the most divergent in relation to the Carioca samples. The least divergence was observed among the samples used by Universidade Federal de Lavras and by Embrapa Arroz e Feijão. Of all the cultivars, 'CNFP 10104' and 'BRSMG Realce' showed the greatest dissimilarity. The cultivars were separated in two groups of greatest similarity using the Structure software. Genetic variation among cultivars was greater than the variation within or between the groups formed. This fact, together with the high estimate of heterozygosity observed and the genetic divergence of the samples of the Carioca cultivar in relation to the original provided by Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, indicates a mixture of cultivars. The high divergence among cultivars provides potential for the utilization of this genetic variability in plant breeding.

  2. Effects of gamma radiation on faba bean seed beetle Bruchus Dentipes Bande

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, Mohammed; Al-Bachir, Mahfouz

    1993-04-01

    Faba bean, Vivia bata, is one of the most important agricultural legume plants in Syria. Like any other crop, it is attacked by several insect pests. The most important of these is the faba bean seed beetle, Bruchus Dentipes Baudi. Infestation occurs only in the field and the major source of infestation is infested seed used for planting. The average infestation rate is about 45% and this reduces the economic value of the seeds to less than 50%. Chemical control in the field is effective but too expensive. Treating seeds in storage with fumigants is not as effective as it used to be, probably because of the pest developing resistance. Biological control has been investigated but their is no practically acceptable biological control agent at present. The lack of an effective biological control agent and/or economically acceptable and environmentally sound chemical control has led us to investigate the possibility of using gamma radiation to disinfest faba bean seeds as soon as possible after harvest when the insect is still in its early development stages. Infested faba bean seeds were treated immediately after harvest with 4 levels of gamma radiation ranged from 30 to 120 Gy with 30 Gy intervals. Treatment was repeated 15 and 30 days later and the effect of gamma radiation on larval survival was evaluated. The results showed that 90 Gy was sufficient to stop larval development and cause a 100% mortality. This dose, however, affected negatively seed germination. These results indicate that it is possible to disinfest faba bean seeds stored for human consumption with 90 Gy of gamma radiation. However, seeds destined for planting can not be treated with this dose. (author). 35 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs

  3. The oomycete broad-host-range pathogen Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamour, Kurt H; Stam, Remco; Jupe, Julietta; Huitema, Edgar

    2012-05-01

    Phytophthora capsici is a highly dynamic and destructive pathogen of vegetables. It attacks all cucurbits, pepper, tomato and eggplant, and, more recently, snap and lima beans. The disease incidence and severity have increased significantly in recent decades and the molecular resources to study this pathogen are growing and now include a reference genome. At the population level, the epidemiology varies according to the geographical location, with populations in South America dominated by clonal reproduction, and populations in the USA and South Africa composed of many unique genotypes in which sexual reproduction is common. Just as the impact of crop loss as a result of P. capsici has increased in recent decades, there has been a similar increase in the development of new tools and resources to study this devastating pathogen. Phytophthora capsici presents an attractive model for understanding broad-host-range oomycetes, the impact of sexual recombination in field populations and the basic mechanisms of Phytophthora virulence. Kingdom Chromista; Phylum Oomycota; Class Oomycetes; Order Peronosporales; Family Peronosporaceae; Genus Phytophthora; Species capsici. Symptoms vary considerably according to the host, plant part infected and environmental conditions. For example, in dry areas (e.g. southwestern USA and southern France), infection on tomato and bell or chilli pepper is generally on the roots and crown, and the infected plants have a distinctive black/brown lesion visible at the soil line (Fig. 1). In areas in which rainfall is more common (e.g. eastern USA), all parts of the plant are infected, including the roots, crown, foliage and fruit (Fig. 1). Root infections cause damping off in seedlings, whereas, in older plants, it is common to see stunted growth, wilting and, eventually, death. For tomatoes, it is common to see significant adventitious root growth just above an infected tap root, and the stunted plants, although severely compromised, may not die

  4. Properties of soya milk and tofu prepared with gamma-irradiated soya beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, M.W.; Kang, I.J.

    1995-01-01

    Soya beans (Glycine max) 'hwang keum' were gamma-irradiated at dose levels of 0, 2 5, 5, 10 and 20 kGy and the effects of the irradiated soya beans on soya milk and tofu properties were studied. An irradiation dose of 5 kGy caused an increase in yield of soya milk and tofu while having very little effect on their quality. The properties of tofu prepared with the soya beans irradiated at 2.5-5 kGy showed no significant difference from the non-irradiated control. However, at higher doses (10-20 kGy), decreases in yield, water holding capacity and sag value of tofu were observed. Compared with the non-irradiated control, hardness and fracturability in the texture of tofu were both significantly increased when the soya bean had been irradiated at 10-20 kGy, while cohesiveness and adhesiveness decreased. The changes in color values of soya milk and tofu were pronounced at 20 kGy

  5. Salinity and cationic nature of irrigation water on castor bean cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovani S. de Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the water relations, cell damage percentage and growth of the castor bean cv. ‘BRS Energia’ as a function of salinity and cationic nature of the water used in irrigation. The experiment was conducted in drainage lysimeters under greenhouse conditions in eutrophic Grey Argisol of sandy loam texture. Six combinations of water salinity and cations were studied (S1 - Control; S2 - Na+, S3 - Ca2+, S4 - Na+ + Ca2+; S5 - K+ and S6 - Na+ + Ca2+ + Mg2+, in a randomized block design with four replicates. In the control (S1, plants were irrigated with 0.6 dS m-1 water, whereas the other treatments received 4.5 dS m-1 water, obtained by adding different salts, all in the chloride form. Higher relative water content in the leaf blade of plants irrigated with K+-salinized water associated with leaf succulence are indicative of tolerance of the castor bean cv. ‘BRS Energia’ to salinity. Saline stress negatively affected castor bean growth, regardless of cationic nature of water. Among the ions studied, ‘BRS Energia’ castor bean was more sensitive to the presence of sodium in the irrigation water, in terms of both water relations and leaf succulence.

  6. Acceptability and characterization of extruded pinto, navy and black beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Courtney W; Hall, Clifford; Tulbek, Mehmet; Mendis, Mihiri; Heck, Taylor; Ogunyemi, Samuel

    2015-08-30

    Consumption of dry beans has been relatively flat over the last decade. Creating new bean products may increase the consumption of beans and allow more consumers to obtain the health benefits of beans. In this study, pinto, navy and black beans were milled and the resulting flours extruded into puffs. Unflavored extruded puffs were evaluated by untrained panelists using a hedonic scale for appearance, flavor, texture and overall acceptability. The compositions of raw flours and extrudates were characterized. Sensory results indicated that all beans met or exceeded the minimum requirement for acceptability. Overall acceptability of navy and pinto beans was not significantly different, while acceptability of black bean puffs was significantly lower. Total protein (198-217 g kg(-1)) in extrudates was significantly different among the three beans. Total starch ranged from 398 to 406 g kg(-1) and was not significantly different. Resistant starch, total extractable lipid and raffinose contents were significantly reduced by extrusion. Extrusion did not affect crude fiber and phytic acid contents. The minimal effects on protein and fiber contents, the significant reduction in raffinose content and the acceptability of the unflavored extruded puffs support using various bean flours as ingredients in extruded puffed products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Methylxanthine and catechin content of fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa beans, and cocoa liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Peláez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theobromine and catechin content can affect the quality of cocoa liquor and is influenced by cacao variety, production area (PA, and fermentation, as well as the method of drying beans (FDB and cocoa liquor production (CLP. This study examined variationsin methylxanthine and catechin levels in fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa grains, and in cocoa liquor from Trinitario, Criollo, and Forastero cacao varieties. A total of 123 cocoa bean samples from three Peruvian PAs at different altitudes, Tingo María (TM, San Alejandro (SA, and Curimana (CU, were evaluated. The theobromine (Tb and caffeine (Cf contents in fresh cocoa beans were affected by both cocoa type and PA. The caffeine content was higher in Trinitario cacao than in Criollo and Forastero varieties (p ≤ 0.05. The Tb and CF contents decreased in dry cocoa grain and was affected by FDB (p ≤ 0.05 (1.449 ± 0.004 to 1.140 ± 0.010 and 0.410 ± 0.03 to 0.165 ± 0.02 g Tb and C, respectively, per 100 g dry weight. Cocoa beans from Tingo María, which has thehighest altitude, had higher Tb and CF contents than those from other PAs. The catechin (C and epicatechin (EC contents were affected by the FDB and CLP, and were highestin fresh cocoa beans from the Tingo María area (range: 0.065 ± 0.01 to 0.020 ± 0.00 g C/100 g. The C and EC contents decreased during FDB and CLP (0.001 g C/100 g of cocoa liquor. Taken together, these results show that higher concentrations of Tb, Cf, C,and EC are present in fresh cocoa beans. Moreover, the cocoa variety influenced cocoa liquor quality. Overall, cocoa from the Tingo María PA had the most desirable chemical composition.

  8. Breeding common bean populations for traits using selection index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Cristina Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A common bean (Phaseolus vulgarisL. cultivar must combine desirable genotypes for several traits in order to be accepted by producers and consumers. This study aimed to evaluate selection efficiency when segregating bean populations for traits, by means of a selection index, in order to obtain superior progenies for traits considered. A total of 16 populations from the F4 and F5generations were evaluated in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The traits evaluated were plant architecture, plant disease, grain type and yield. Using standard scores (Z, the sum of the four traits (∑Z was obtained and, based on this information, the best populations were identified. The evaluation of selection effectiveness was performed on 31 progenies from each population. The 496 progenies plus eight controls were evaluated in the F5:6and F5:7 generations for the same traits in July and November 2012, respectively. The selection, using the index based on the sum of standardized variables (∑Z, was efficient for identifying populations with superior progenies for all the traits considered.

  9. quality of corn-field bean gluten-free pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dib Ahlem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn semolina supplemented by field bean semolina in ratio of 2/1 (w/w were used for obtaining protein and fiber enriched gluten-free pasta. The effect of hydrothermal treatment of corn flour on its applicability as gluten-free pasta improver was tested. A central composite design involving water hydration level and the amount of hydrothermal treated corn flour were used. Instrumental analyses of pasta (cooking loss, water absorption capacity, hydration and pasting properties, textural parameters and microstructure were carried out to assess the impact of experimental factors. Results showed that hydrothermal treatment of corn flour affected in different extent on pasta properties, improving cooking and textural characteristics of pasta. The optimum formulation of corn-field bean contained 7.41 g of treated corn flour and 77.26 mL of water was selected on the base of desirability function approach with value of 0.825 which showed the best pasta properties. Obtained results showed also that addition of treated flour induced significant differences (p < 0.05 in all parameters in comparison with control pasta.

  10. THE EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACTS FROM WINTER SAVORY ON BLACK BEAN APHID MORTALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Rusin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water extracts prepared from fresh and dry matter of winter savory (Satureja montana L. on mortality of wingless females and larvae of black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in six replicates. Dry extracts were prepared at concentration of 2%, 5% and 10%, while the fresh plant at concentration of 10%, 20% and 30%. Stomach poisoning of extracts was determined by soaking broad bean leaves in the respective solutions, and then determining mortality of wingless female and larvae feeding on leaves thus prepared at 12 hour intervals. The results of the experiment showed that the extract prepared from dry matter at the highest concentration (10%, as well as the extracts from fresh matter at concentration of 20% and 30% contributed to an increase in mortality of wingless female of black bean aphid. Meanwhile, extracts prepared from both dry and fresh matter at two highest concentrations caused an increase in mortality of larvae of this pest. Furthermore, with increasing concentrations of analysed extracts prepared from both fresh and dry matter of winter savory, their negative effect on wingless females and larvae usually increase.

  11. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, DM and NFC intakes were negatively affected (p = 0.04 and p raw soya beans for EE (p raw soya beans. However, the nutritive characteristics of excreted grains were not altered. Milk (kg), milk lactose (kg) and protein (kg) yield decreased linearly (p milk fat content (%) increased linearly (p raw soya beans inclusion. Increasing addition of whole raw soya beans affected milk fatty acid profile with a linear decrease of cis-9-trans 11CLA and total saturated FA; and linear increase of total unsaturated and C18:3 FA. Energy balance was positively affected (p = 0.03) by whole raw soya beans as well as efficiency of NEL milk/DE intake (p = 0.02). Nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis were not affected by whole raw soya

  12. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean ( var. minor as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Tufarelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized faba bean (130 g/kg as the main protein source. Substituting SBM with faba bean had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative weight of the guinea fowls. Conversely, a decrease (p<0.05 of abdominal fat was found in guinea fowls fed the faba bean-diet. Breast muscle of birds fed faba bean had higher L* score (p<0.05 and water-holding capacity (p<0.05 than the SBM control diet. Meat from guinea fowls fed faba bean had less total lipids (p<0.05 and cholesterol (p<0.01, and higher concentrations of phospholipids (p<0.01. Feeding faba bean increased polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in breast meat and decreased the saturated fatty acid levels. Moreover, dietary faba bean improved the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in guinea fowl breast meat. Results indicated that substitution of SBM with faba bean meal in guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative traits, enhancing also meat lipid profile without negatively affecting growth performance.

  13. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-06

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.

  14. Dynamics of Cocoa Bean Pulp Degradation during Cocoa Bean Fermentation: Effects of Yeast Starter Culture Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laras Cempaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is a crucial step in the post-harvest processing of cocoa beans. This process comprises mixed culture microbial activities on the cocoa bean pulp, producing metabolites that act as important precursors for cocoa flavour development. Variations in the microbial population dynamics during the fermentation process may induce changes in the overall process. Thus, the introduction of a specific microbial starter culture may improve the quality of the fermentation. This article discusses the effects ofthe addition of Saccharomyces cerevisae var. Chevalieri starter culture on cocoa bean fermentation. The dynamics in the yeast concentration, sugary pulp compounds and metabolic products were measured during fermentation. The alterations in the dynamic metabolite profile were significant, although only a slight difference was observed in the yeast population. A higher fermentation index was measured for the cocoa bean fermentation with yeast starter culture, 1.13 compared to 0.84. In conclusion, this method can potentially be applied to shorten the cocoa bean fermentation time.

  15. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans

  16. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debastiani, R., E-mail: rafa_debas@yahoo.com.br; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  17. Puffing, a novel coffee bean processing technique for the enhancement of extract yield and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooki; Kim, Sang-Youn; Kim, Dae-Ok; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2018-02-01

    Puffing of coffee beans, which induces heat- and pressure-derived physicochemical changes, was applied as an alternative to roasting. Roasted or puffed coffee beans with equivalent lightness values were compared. The moisture content was higher while the crude fat and protein compositions were lower in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The pH was lower and the acid content was higher in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The roasted beans exhibited greater specific volumes, while the puffed beans displayed greater extraction yields. The trigonelline and total phenolic contents were greater in puffed beans than in roasted beans resulting in an enhanced antioxidant capacity. Sensory evaluation of roasted and puffed coffee bean brews revealed that puffing did not affect the flavor or overall acceptance. The current study provides evidence that puffing is an alternative to roasting coffee beans with various benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid differentiation of Ghana cocoa beans by FT-NIR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teye, Ernest; Huang, Xingyi; Dai, Huang; Chen, Quansheng

    2013-10-01

    Quick, accurate and reliable technique for discrimination of cocoa beans according to geographical origin is essential for quality control and traceability management. This current study presents the application of Near Infrared Spectroscopy technique and multivariate classification for the differentiation of Ghana cocoa beans. A total of 194 cocoa bean samples from seven cocoa growing regions were used. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract relevant information from the spectral data and this gave visible cluster trends. The performance of four multivariate classification methods: Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN), Back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and Support vector machine (SVM) were compared. The performances of the models were optimized by cross validation. The results revealed that; SVM model was superior to all the mathematical methods with a discrimination rate of 100% in both the training and prediction set after preprocessing with Mean centering (MC). BPANN had a discrimination rate of 99.23% for the training set and 96.88% for prediction set. While LDA model had 96.15% and 90.63% for the training and prediction sets respectively. KNN model had 75.01% for the training set and 72.31% for prediction set. The non-linear classification methods used were superior to the linear ones. Generally, the results revealed that NIR Spectroscopy coupled with SVM model could be used successfully to discriminate cocoa beans according to their geographical origins for effective quality assurance.

  19. Soil loss by water erosion in areas under maize and jack beans intercropped and monocultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Terra Lima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adequate soil management can create favorable conditions to reduce erosion and water runoff, consequently increase water soil recharge. Among management systems intercropping is highly used, especially for medium and small farmers. It is a system where two or more crops with different architectures and vegetative cycles are explored simultaneously at the same location. This research investigated the effects of maize intercropped with jack bean on soil losses due to water erosion, estimate C factor of Universal Soil Losses Equation (USLE and how it can be affected by soil coverage. The results obtained also contribute to database generation, important to model and estimate soil erosion. Total soil loss by erosion caused by natural rain, at Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were: 4.20, 1.86, 1.38 and 1.14 Mg ha-1, respectively, for bare soil, maize, jack bean and the intercropping of both species, during evaluated period. Values of C factor of USLE were: 0.039, 0.054 and 0.077 Mg ha Mg-1 ha-1 for maize, jack bean and intercropping between both crops, respectively. Maize presented lower vegetation cover index, followed by jack beans and consortium of the studied species. Intercropping between species showed greater potential on soil erosion control, since its cultivation resulted in lower soil losses than single crops cultivation, and this aspect is really important for small and medium farmers in the studied region.

  20. INSETICIDAS APLICADOS VIA TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES VISANDO AO CONTROLE DAS MOSCAS BRANCAS (Bemisia tabaci, GENN. E MINADORA (Liriomyza sp. NA CULTURA DO FEIJOEIRO CHEMICAL CONTROL OF THE WHITE FLY Bemisia tabaci GENN. AND LEAFMINER Liriomyza sp. IN BEAN CROPS BY SEED TREATMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Lopes da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Realizou-se o presente experimento no campo experimental da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, de março a maio de 1993, para avaliar o controle das moscas brancas (Bemisia tabaci, GENN. e minadora (Liriomyza sp. na fase inicial da cultura do feijoeiro, com produtos aplicados via tratamento de sementes. Os tratamentos constaram de: imidacloprid 700 PM nas dosagens de 140, 210, 280 e 350 gramas de ingrediente ativo (i.a/l00 kg de sementes; carbosulfan + zinco 250 TS nas dosagens de 375 e 500g i.a./100kg de sementes, comparados com o carbofuran 350 TS na dosagem de 525 g i.a./100kg de sementes (padrão. Pelos resultados, concluiu-se que todos os tratamentos foram eficientes no controle da mosca minadora, com porcentagens de eficiência que variaram de 93 a 99%. Imidacloprid, a partir de 280g i.a./100kg de sementes, foi igual aos outros produtos em eficiência no controle da mosca branca, com porcentagens de controle variando entre 83 a 89%.

    A trial to control the white fly Bemisia tabaci, GENN. and leafminer Liriomyza sp. was carried out in Goiânia, state of Goiás. The treatments and dosages of the insecticides per 100kg of seed were: imidacloprid (140, 210, 280 and 350g a.i., carbofuran (525 g a.i., carbosulfan (375 and 500g a.i, plus an untreated check. The application of the treatments were made on the seeds. The results of the experiment showed that all insecticides were efficient in controlling the leafminer at all dosages tested and imidacloprid at the dosages of 280 and 350g a.i. per 100kg seed was similar in controlling the white fly in bean crops.

  1. Volatile aldehydes are promising broad-spectrum postharvest insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, D G; Rangel, S; Kubo, I

    2000-09-01

    A variety of naturally occurring aldehydes common in plants have been evaluated for their insecticidal activity and for phytotoxicity to postharvest fruits, vegetables, and grains. Twenty-nine compounds were initially screened for their activity against aphids on fava bean leaf disks. Application under reduced pressure (partial vacuum) for the first quarter of fumigation increased insecticidal activity severalfold. The 11 best aldehydes were assayed against aphids placed under the third leaf of whole heads of iceberg lettuce using the same two-tier reduced-pressure regime, which caused no additional detriment to the commodity over fumigation at atmospheric pressure. Phytotoxicity to naked and wrapped iceburg lettuce, green and red table grapes, lemon, grapefruit, orange, broccoli, avocado, cabbage, pinto bean, and rice at doses that killed 100% of aphids was recorded for three promising fumigants: propanal, (E)-2-pentenal, and 2-methyl-(E)-2-butenal. These three compounds have excellent potential as affordable postharvest insect control agents, killing 100% of the aphids with little or no detectable harm to a majority of the commodities tested. Preliminary assays indicate that similar doses are also effective against mealybugs, thrips, and whitefly.

  2. Glycemic Response to Black Beans and Chickpeas as Part of a Rice Meal: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winham, Donna M; Hutchins, Andrea M; Thompson, Sharon V

    2017-10-04

    Legumes, such as black beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and chickpeas ( Cicer arietinum L.), have a low glycemic index, and may reduce the glycemic load of meals in which they are included. Although the low glycemic response of beans consumed alone has been documented, few studies have examined the glycemic response to traditional food combinations such as black beans and rice or chickpeas and rice. This randomized cross-over study examined the glycemic and insulinemic impact of 50 grams of available carbohydrate from three test meals: plain white rice (control), black beans with rice, and chickpeas with rice among healthy adult women ( n = 12, 18-65 years). Treatments were consumed on different mornings, a minimum of 7 days apart. Blood samples were collected at time 0 (fasting), and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min postprandial, and were subsequently analyzed for glucose and insulin concentrations. Glucose response based on the incremental area under the curve showed a significant difference by treatment ( p = 0.027). Changes in blood glucose concentrations were significantly different for the black bean meal and the chickpea meal in comparison to rice alone at 60 min ( p = 0.026 and p = 0.024), 90 min ( p = 0.001 and p = 0.012) and 120 min post prandial ( p = 0.024; black bean meal). Findings indicate that combinations of black beans and chickpeas with white rice improve glycemic response, providing evidence that has promising implications for dietary guidance to reduce postprandial glucose and related health risks through traditional food patterns.

  3. White and dark kidney beans reduce colonic mucosal damage and inflammation in response to dextran sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Zhang, Claire P; Wu, Wenqing; Zarepoor, Leila; Lu, Jenifer T; Liu, Ronghua; Pauls, K Peter; Wood, Geoffrey A; Tsao, Rong; Robinson, Lindsay E; Power, Krista A

    2015-07-01

    Common beans are a rich source of nondigestible fermentable components and phenolic compounds that have anti-inflammatory effects. We assessed the gut-health-promoting potential of kidney beans in healthy mice and their ability to attenuate colonic inflammation following dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) exposure (via drinking water, 2% DSS w/v, 7 days). C57BL/6 mice were fed one of three isocaloric diets: basal diet control (BD), or BD supplemented with 20% cooked white (WK) or dark red kidney (DK) bean flour for 3 weeks. In healthy mice, anti-inflammatory microbial-derived cecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels (acetate, butyrate and propionate), colon crypt height and colonic Mucin 1 (MUC1) and Resistin-like Molecule beta (Relmβ) mRNA expression all increased in WK- and DK-fed mice compared to BD, indicative of enhanced microbial activity, gut barrier integrity and antimicrobial defense response. During colitis, both bean diets reduced (a) disease severity, (b) colonic histological damage and (c) increased mRNA expression of antimicrobial and barrier integrity-promoting genes (Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4), MUC1-3, Relmβ and Trefoil Factor 3 (TFF3)) and reduced proinflammatory mediator expression [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN)γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1], which correlated with reduced colon tissue protein levels. Further, bean diets exerted a systemic anti-inflammatory effect during colitis by reducing serum levels of IL-17A, IFNγ, TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6. In conclusion, both WK and DK bean-supplemented diets enhanced microbial-derived SCFA metabolite production, gut barrier integrity and the microbial defensive response in the healthy colon, which supported an anti-inflammatory phenotype during colitis. Collectively, these data demonstrate a beneficial colon-function priming effect of bean consumption that mitigates colitis severity. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  4. Performance, Carcass Production, and Meat Quality of Sumba Ongole Bulls Fed Ration Containing Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Yantika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study performance, carcass production, meat quality, and economic feasibility of male Sumba Ongole cattle fed ration supplemented with velvet bean (M. pruriens. The research was designed in a completely randomized block design using 16 cattle with average body weight of 488+37.08 kg. The treatments were: T0= 15% straw + 85% concentrate; T1= T0 + 12% of velvet bean flour supplement; T2= T0 + 16% of velvet bean tempeh supplement; and T3= T0 + 200 mg/head/d of ractopamine hydrocloride. Data were analyzed by using analysis of variance with orthogonal contrast. The observed variables included feed consumption, average daily body weight gain (ADG, feed efficiency (FE, income over feed cost (IOFC, hot carcass weight (HCW, carcass percentage, subcutaneous fat thickness, meat pH, tenderness, cooking loss, and water holding capacity (WHC. The result revealed that the addition of 12% velvet bean flour into the rations increased dry matter consumption (P<0.05, but did not affect ADG, FE, IOFC, carcass production, and meat quality. The addition of 12% velvet bean flour produced the lowest cooking loss (P<0.05. The addition of 16% velvet bean tempeh into the rations significantly increased (P<0.05 dry matter consumption, however reduced (P<0.05 ADG, FE, and IOFC compared to control treatment. It is concluded that velvet bean flour at the level of 12% can be used as an alternative feed supplement in the ration of Sumba Ongole cattle and can replace the use of synthetic ß-agonist.

  5. Pathogenic seedborne viruses are rare but Phaseolus vulgaris endornaviruses are common in bean varieties grown in Nicaragua and Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noora Nordenstedt

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris is an annual grain legume that was domesticated in Mesoamerica (Central America and the Andes. It is currently grown widely also on other continents including Africa. We surveyed seedborne viruses in new common bean varieties introduced to Nicaragua (Central America and in landraces and improved varieties grown in Tanzania (eastern Africa. Bean seeds, harvested from Nicaragua and Tanzania, were grown in insect-controlled greenhouse or screenhouse, respectively, to obtain leaf material for virus testing. Equal amounts of total RNA from different samples were pooled (30-36 samples per pool, and small RNAs were deep-sequenced (Illumina. Assembly of the reads (21-24 nt to contiguous sequences and searches for homologous viral sequences in databases revealed Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 (PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 in the bean varieties in Nicaragua and Tanzania. These viruses are not known to cause symptoms in common bean and are considered non-pathogenic. The small-RNA reads from each pool of samples were mapped to the previously characterized complete PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 sequences (genome lengths ca. 14 kb and 15 kb, respectively. Coverage of the viral genomes was 87.9-99.9%, depending on the pool. Coverage per nucleotide ranged from 5 to 471, confirming virus identification. PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 are known to occur in Phaseolus spp. in Central America, but there is little previous information about their occurrence in Nicaragua, and no information about occurrence in Africa. Aside from Cowpea mild mosaic virus detected in bean plants grown from been seeds harvested from one region in Tanzania, no other pathogenic seedborne viruses were detected. The low incidence of infections caused by pathogenic viruses transmitted via bean seeds may be attributable to new, virus-resistant CB varieties released by breeding programs in Nicaragua and Tanzania.

  6. Effect of partial replacement of fishmeal with african yam bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of partial replacement of fishmeal with african yam bean ( Sphenostylis stenocarpa ) meal on eggs, sperm quality and spawning performance of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) broodstock.

  7. Elemental characterization of Brazilian beans using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilian Seiko Kato; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. De; Marcio Arruda Bacchi; Gabriel Adrian Sarries; Andres Enrique Lai Reyes

    2015-01-01

    Beans are important for many developing countries as a source of protein and mineral nutrients. Here, ten commercial types of Brazilian beans, from the species Phaseolus vulgaris (common beans) and Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas), were analyzed by neutron activation analysis for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Mo, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn. There were statistical differences (p/0.05) amongst the commercial types, except for Br, Rb and Sc. In general, non-essential elements showed high variability, indicating that the origin of beans had a strong influence on the mass fraction of such elements. (author)

  8. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A.

    2013-01-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of 210 Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of 210 Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of 210 Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg -1 fresh wt. obtained here is according to 210 Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg -1 . (author)

  9. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A., E-mail: mingote@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh wt. obtained here is according to {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg{sup -1}. (author)

  10. Mung bean proteins and peptides: nutritional, functional and bioactive properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yi-Shen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To date, no extensive literature review exists regarding potential uses of mung bean proteins and peptides. As mung bean has long been widely used as a food source, early studies evaluated mung bean nutritional value against the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO/the World Health Organization (WHO amino acids dietary recommendations. The comparison demonstrated mung bean to be a good protein source, except for deficiencies in sulphur-containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine. Methionine and cysteine residues have been introduced into the 8S globulin through protein engineering technology. Subsequently, purified mung bean proteins and peptides have facilitated the study of their structural and functional properties. Two main types of extraction methods have been reported for isolation of proteins and peptides from mung bean flours, permitting sequencing of major proteins present in mung bean, including albumins and globulins (notably 8S globulin. However, the sequence for albumin deposited in the UniProt database differs from other sequences reported in the literature. Meanwhile, a limited number of reports have revealed other useful bioactivities for proteins and hydrolysed peptides, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity, anti-fungal activity and trypsin inhibitory activity. Consequently, several mung bean hydrolysed peptides have served as effective food additives to prevent proteolysis during storage. Ultimately, further research will reveal other nutritional, functional and bioactive properties of mung bean for uses in diverse applications.

  11. Effects of Management Practices on Meloidogyne incognita and Snap Bean Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smittle, D A; Johnson, A W

    1982-01-01

    Phenamiphos applied at 6.7 kg ai/ha through a solid set or a center pivot irrigation system with 28 mm of water effectively controlled root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita, and resulted in greater snap bean growth and yields irrespective of growing season, tillage method, or cover crop system. The percentage yield increases attributed to this method of M. incognita control over nontreated controls were 45% in the spring crop, and 90% and 409% in the fall crops following winter rye and fallow, respectively. Root galling was not affected by tillage systems or cover crop, but disk tillage resulted in over 50% reduction in bean yield compared with yields from the subsoil-bed tillage system.

  12. Identification and Verification of QTL Associated with Frost Tolerance Using Linkage Mapping and GWAS in Winter Faba Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Ahmed; Arbaoui, Mustapha; El-Esawi, Mohamed; Abshire, Nathan; Martsch, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Frost stress is one of the abiotic stresses that causes a significant reduction in winter faba bean yield in Europe. The main objective of this work is to genetically improve frost tolerance in winter faba bean by identifying and validating QTL associated with frost tolerance to be used in marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two different genetic backgrounds were used: a biparental population (BPP) consisting of 101 inbred lines, and 189 genotypes from single seed descent (SSD) from the Gottingen Winter bean Population (GWBP). All experiments were conducted in a frost growth chamber under controlled conditions. Both populations were genotyped using the same set of 189 SNP markers. Visual scoring for frost stress symptoms was used to define frost tolerance in both populations. In addition, leaf fatty acid composition (FAC) and proline content were analyzed in BPP as physiological traits. QTL mapping (for BPP) and genome wide association studies (for GWBP) were performed to detect QTL associated with frost tolerance. High genetic variation between genotypes, and repeatability estimates, were found for all traits. QTL mapping and GWAS identified new putative QTL associated with promising frost tolerance and related traits. A set of 54 SNP markers common in both genetic backgrounds showed a high genetic diversity with polymorphic information content (PIC) ranging from 0.31 to 0.37 and gene diversity ranging from 0.39 to 0.50. This indicates that these markers may be polymorphic for many faba bean populations. Five SNP markers showed a significant marker-trait association with frost tolerance and related traits in both populations. Moreover, synteny analysis between Medicago truncatula (a model legume) and faba bean genomes was performed to identify candidate genes for these markers. Collinearity was evaluated between the faba bean genetic map constructed in this study and the faba bean consensus map, resulting in identifying possible genomic regions in faba bean which may

  13. Identification and Verification of QTL Associated with Frost Tolerance Using Linkage Mapping and GWAS in Winter Faba Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Ahmed; Arbaoui, Mustapha; El-Esawi, Mohamed; Abshire, Nathan; Martsch, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Frost stress is one of the abiotic stresses that causes a significant reduction in winter faba bean yield in Europe. The main objective of this work is to genetically improve frost tolerance in winter faba bean by identifying and validating QTL associated with frost tolerance to be used in marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two different genetic backgrounds were used: a biparental population (BPP) consisting of 101 inbred lines, and 189 genotypes from single seed descent (SSD) from the Gottingen Winter bean Population (GWBP). All experiments were conducted in a frost growth chamber under controlled conditions. Both populations were genotyped using the same set of 189 SNP markers. Visual scoring for frost stress symptoms was used to define frost tolerance in both populations. In addition, leaf fatty acid composition (FAC) and proline content were analyzed in BPP as physiological traits. QTL mapping (for BPP) and genome wide association studies (for GWBP) were performed to detect QTL associated with frost tolerance. High genetic variation between genotypes, and repeatability estimates, were found for all traits. QTL mapping and GWAS identified new putative QTL associated with promising frost tolerance and related traits. A set of 54 SNP markers common in both genetic backgrounds showed a high genetic diversity with polymorphic information content (PIC) ranging from 0.31 to 0.37 and gene diversity ranging from 0.39 to 0.50. This indicates that these markers may be polymorphic for many faba bean populations. Five SNP markers showed a significant marker-trait association with frost tolerance and related traits in both populations. Moreover, synteny analysis between Medicago truncatula (a model legume) and faba bean genomes was performed to identify candidate genes for these markers. Collinearity was evaluated between the faba bean genetic map constructed in this study and the faba bean consensus map, resulting in identifying possible genomic regions in faba bean which may

  14. Broad-Application Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motloch, C.G.

    1992-05-01

    This report is about a new, safe, and operationally efficient DOE reactor of nuclear research and testing proposed for the early to mid- 21st Century. Dubbed the Broad-Application Test Reactor (BATR), the proposed facility incorporates a multiple-application, multiple-mission design to support DOE programs such as naval reactors and space power and propulsion, as well as research in medical, science, isotope, and electronics arenas. DOE research reactors are aging, and implementing major replacement projects requires long lead times. Primary design drivers include safety, low risk, minimum operation cost, mission flexibility, waste minimization, and long life. Scientists and engineers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory are evaluating possible fuel forms, structural materials, reactor geometries, coolants, and moderators

  15. Broad-band beam buncher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, D.A.; Flood, W.S.; Arthur, A.A.; Voelker, F.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a broad-band beam buncher. This beam buncher consists of: a housing adapted to be eacuated, an electron gun in the housing for producing a beam of electrons, buncher means in the housing forming a buncher cavity which has an entrance opening for receiving the electron beam and an exit opening through which the electron beam passes out of the buncher cavity, a drift tube electrode in the buncher cavity and disposed between the entrance opening and the exit opening with first and second gaps between the drift tube electrode and the entrance and exit openings, the drift tube electrode which has a first drift space through which the electron beam passes in traveling between the entrance and exit openings, modulating means for supplying an ultrahigh frequeny modulating signal to the drift tube electrode for producing velocity modulation of the electrons in the electron beam as the electrons pass through the buncher cavity and the drift tube electrode between the entrance opening and the exit opening, drift space means in the housing forming a second drift space for receiving the velocity modulated electron beam from the exit opening, the velocity modulated electron beam being bunched as it passes along the second drift space, the drift space means has a discharge opening through which the electron beam is discharged from the second drift space after being bunched therein, the modulating means containing a signal source for producing an ultrahigh frequency signal, a transmission line connected between the signal source and the drift tube electrode, and terminating means connected to the drift tube electrode for terminating the transmission line in approximately its characteristic impedance to afford a broad response band with minimum 6 variations therein

  16. Antifungal activity of various essential oils against Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina as major bean pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaledi, N; Taheri, P; Tarighi, S

    2015-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of various essential oils (EOs) to decrease the activity of cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) produced by fungal phytopathogens, which are associated with disease progress. Also, effect of seed treatment and foliar application of peppermint EO and its main constituent, menthol, on diseases caused by two necrotrophic pathogens on bean was investigated. Antifungal activity of EOs on Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina, as bean pathogens, was evaluated. The EOs of Mentha piperita, Bunium persicum and Thymus vulgaris revealed the highest antifungal activity against fungi. The EO of M. piperita had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for R. solani among the three EOs tested. This pathogen did not grow in the presence of M. piperita, B. persicum and T. vulgaris EOs at 850, 1200 and 1100 ppm concentrations, respectively. The B. persicum EO had the lowest MIC for M. phaseolina as this fungus did not grow in the presence of M. piperita, B. persicum and T. vulgaris EOs at concentrations of 975, 950 and 1150 ppm, respectively. Hyphae exposed to EOs showed structural changes. Activities of cellulase and pectinase, as main CWDEs of pathogens, decreased by EOs at low concentration without effect on fungal growth. Seed treatment and foliar application of peppermint EO and/or menthol significantly reduced the development of bean diseases caused by both fungi. Higher capability of menthol than peppermint EO in decreasing diseases on bean was observed. Reducing CDWEs activity is a mechanism of EOs' effect on fungi. Higher antifungal activity of menthol compared to peppermint EO was observed not only in vitro but also in vivo. Effect of EOs on CWDEs involved in pathogenesis is described in this study for the first time. Menthol can be used as a botanical fungicide to control destructive fungal diseases on bean. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Caffeine Extraction from Raw and Roasted Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Donyau; Lin, Chih-Yang; Hu, Chen-Ti; Lee, Sanboh

    2018-04-01

    Coffee is a stimulant, psychoactive, popular daily beverage, and its caffeine affects human physiological health and behavior. These important issues prompted us to study caffeine extraction from both the raw and roasted coffee beans of 3 types at different temperatures. A hemispheric model is developed to simulate the extraction process of the caffeine from the coffee beans of hemisphere is proposed. The experimental data are in good agreement with the predicted model. The effective diffusivities of caffeine in both the raw and roasted beans increase with temperature in all 3 types. An incubation period, decreasing with increasing temperature, is observed in all samples studied. Caffeine extraction in roasted beans is more rapid than that for the raw beans and the time difference is significant at low temperatures. In both the raw and roasted samples, caffeine diffusion in the raw beans and the incubation behavior are thermally activated processes. Single activation energies are obtained for diffusion within the extraction temperature range for all beans tested with the exception of one type of the coffee beans, Mandheling, which exhibits 2 activation energies in raw samples. The surface energies of the epidermis of the raw beans and roasted beans obtained from the contact angle measurements are used to interpret the difference of incubation periods. This study has a potential application to the decaffeinated coffee industry.Caffeine affects human physiological health and behavior so that caffeine extraction from coffee beans of different types at different temperatures is important for product refining and customers. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. YIELD CAPACITY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GREEN BEANS IN CULTIVARS OF KIDNEY BEAN BRED AT OMSK AGRARIAN UNIVERSITY IN THE SOUTH FOREST-STEPPE OF WESTERN SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kazydub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In  2014-2016  the  assessment of  kidney bean  cultivars bred at Omsk State Agrarian University on yield capacity, quality, and biochemical  chemical compounds  in green beans, such as proteins, zinc, iodine, iron and sucrose was carried  out  in  the  south  forest-steppe  of  Western Siberia. The technological  parameters of  green  beans: the  shape  of  cross-section  area; pulpiness,  fibrous  or non-fibrous,  and bean thickness were estimated. Threeyear study showed that all tested cultivars bred at Omsk State  Agrarian  University  surpassed  control  cultivar  in yield capacity,  chemical composition  and technological parameters of green beans. The cultivar ‘Pamiyaty Rizhovoy’ gave a highest yield: 563.4 g/m2  in 2014; 622.8 g/m2 in 2015; and 620.4 g/m2  in 2016. It is worth noticing that this cultivar is also distinguished by contents of micro and macroelements: 21.20-28.68  mg/kg  of zinc; 0.012-0.018 mg/kg of iodine; and 1.8-3.2 mg/kg of iron. In the course of the study, it was noticed the dependence of  yield  capacity  on  hydrothermal  coefficient  (HC. In 2014-2015 the yield capacity was a lowest when the moisturization was insufficient at 0.7 HC. With increase of HC the yield was higher. With sufficient moisturization at 1.0 HC the highest yield of green beans was observed in 2016.  The estimation  of  kidney  bean  cultivars  bred  at Omsk State  Agrarian University showed  that  all beans were  distinguished  by  high  quality  parameters  in  the phase  of  technical  maturity,  such  as  pulpiness,  nonfibrous, thickness 0.5 to  1.0 cm, and green and yellow colors.  The  highest  protein  content  comparing  to  the control  cultivar  ‘Zolushka’  was  detected  in  ‘Marusya’ 23.60%  in  2014,  20.94%  in  2015;  and  ‘Zoloto  Sibiry’ 19.79%  in  2016.  The  observed  results  confirmed  that contents  change of

  19. Salt tolerance analysis of chickpea, faba bean and durum wheat varieties. I. Chickpea and faba bean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Oweis, T.

    2005-01-01

    Two varieties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba), differing in drought tolerance according to the classification of the International Center for Agronomic Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), were irrigated with waters of three different salinity levels in a lysimeter experiment

  20. Evaluation of the texture of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) of the variety carioca treated by gamma irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Nathalia S.R.; Silva, Yasmini P.A.; Tiraboschi, Paula C.A.; Takeuchi, Katiucha P.; Souza, Adriana R.M.; Arthur, Valter

    2011-01-01

    The bean is a staple food of the population, being one of the main products in the diet of the economically less privileged social strata. All these factors mean that beans occupy a prominent space in both the social and economic environment in Brazil [1]. In this social and economic importance of beans, adds to the growing demand, both consumers and producers, of food products that have a quality nutritional and technological properties desirable in order to obtain good quality products, which would have greater capacity competitive in the market. The quality of the beans processed depends on the growth conditions, maturity stage at harvest, processing and storage. During processing, there may be biochemical and chemical changes that affect the texture of the product [2]. Given this need, the irradiation of foods has been increasing in recent years as a preservation method that can guarantee the level of product safety, without causing major changes in nutritional and sensory characteristics of products [3].In this context, this work had the objective to evaluate the effects of irradiation on the texture of commercial beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety Carioca. The raw material (raw beans) was acquired in trade from the city of Goiania (GO) in plastic containers containing 1 kg of product. It has purchased three packs of different brands, widely accepted by local people, making a total of 3 kg of beans from each brand. It was noted the date of filling the grain, so that all the samples had approximately the same age. Thus eliminated is the age factor as a possible responsible for differences that could be observed between the samples after the time of analysis. The beans were then taken to the Laboratory of Physical Chemistry where they were removed from original containers, homogenized and packaged in polypropylene properly identified and sealed, containing 100g of product, then separated into lots. The different batches of raw beans were sent for irradiation

  1. Protein and starch concentrates of air-classified field pea and zero-tannin faba bean for weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, C K; Zijlstra, R T; Goonewardene, L A; Beltranena, E

    2010-08-01

    Air-classified pulse (non-oilseed legume) protein and starch may replace specialty protein and starch feedstuffs in diets for weaned pigs. In Exp. 1, three specialty protein sources (5% soy protein concentrate, 5% corn gluten meal, and 5% menhaden meal in the control diet) were replaced with 16% zero-tannin hulled or dehulled faba bean, or 17.5% field pea protein concentrate. In total, 192 group-housed pigs (2 gilts and 2 barrows per pen; BW = 7.5 +/- 1.4 kg) were fed wheat-based diets (3.60 Mcal/kg of DE and 3.3 g of standardized ileal digestible Lys/Mcal DE) over 28 d for 12 pen observations per each of 4 diets. Overall, protein source did not affect ADFI, ADG, or G:F. Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, GE, and P was greater (P bean and field pea protein concentrate diets than the diet with 3 specialty protein sources. In Exp. 2, faba bean and field pea starch concentrates were compared with corn, wheat, tapioca, and potato starch as dietary energy sources. In total, 36 individually housed barrows (BW = 8.0 +/- 1.5 kg) were fed 1 of 6 diets for 15 d. Feces and urine were collected from d 8 to 14, and jugular blood was sampled after overnight fast and refeeding on d 15. Starch source did not affect N retention as a percentage of N intake. For d 0 to 14, ADFI of pigs fed field pea starch was greater (P bean starch. Pigs fed tapioca, field pea, wheat, or corn starch grew faster (P bean or potato starch. For d 0 to 14, pigs fed corn or wheat starch had a 0.1 greater (P bean, field pea, or potato starch. The ATTD of DM, GE, CP, and starch and the DE value of potato starch were much less (P bean, wheat, and potato starch, respectively. However, postprandial plasma insulin tended to be 844 and 577 pmol/L greater (P bean and corn starch, respectively, than for pigs fed potato starch. The high insulin response of pigs fed faba starch could not be explained. In conclusion, air-classified pulse protein concentrates can replace specialty protein feedstuffs in

  2. Evaluation of the texture of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) of the variety carioca treated by gamma irradiation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Nathalia S.R.; Silva, Yasmini P.A.; Tiraboschi, Paula C.A.; Takeuchi, Katiucha P.; Souza, Adriana R.M., E-mail: adriana.souza@pesquisador.cnpq.br [Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos. Universidade Federal de Goias - UFG, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The bean is a staple food of the population, being one of the main products in the diet of the economically less privileged social strata. All these factors mean that beans occupy a prominent space in both the social and economic environment in Brazil [1]. In this social and economic importance of beans, adds to the growing demand, both consumers and producers, of food products that have a quality nutritional and technological properties desirable in order to obtain good quality products, which would have greater capacity competitive in the market. The quality of the beans processed depends on the growth conditions, maturity stage at harvest, processing and storage. During processing, there may be biochemical and chemical changes that affect the texture of the product [2]. Given this need, the irradiation of foods has been increasing in recent years as a preservation method that can guarantee the level of product safety, without causing major changes in nutritional and sensory characteristics of products [3].In this context, this work had the objective to evaluate the effects of irradiation on the texture of commercial beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety Carioca. The raw material (raw beans) was acquired in trade from the city of Goiania (GO) in plastic containers containing 1 kg of product. It has purchased three packs of different brands, widely accepted by local people, making a total of 3 kg of beans from each brand. It was noted the date of filling the grain, so that all the samples had approximately the same age. Thus eliminated is the age factor as a possible responsible for differences that could be observed between the samples after the time of analysis. The beans were then taken to the Laboratory of Physical Chemistry where they were removed from original containers, homogenized and packaged in polypropylene properly identified and sealed, containing 100g of product, then separated into lots. The different batches of raw beans were sent for irradiation

  3. Registration of ‘Long’s Peak’ Pinto Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods to harvest dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have changed dramatically in the past 20 years to accommodate direct harvest systems that eliminate the need to undercut and windrow the crop before it can be threshed. Direct harvest systems cut the bean plant with a sickle bar on the comb...

  4. Incentives for cocoa bean production in Ghana: Does quality matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarmine, W.; Haagsma, R.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Asante, F.; Huis, van A.; Obeng-Ofori, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the institutional factors that constrain farmers’ incentives to enhance the quality of cocoa beans in Ghana. Data were collected at three levels of aggregation in the cocoa bean value chain: village, district, and national level. Multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to

  5. Quality and market chain of Aceh Cocoa Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan; Sulaiman, I.; Ikhsan, CN; Faizun, N.

    2018-05-01

    After long-lasting conflict and tsunami on December 26, 2004, some international donors/NGOs supported Aceh on cocoa development. Aceh cocoa sector has experienced tremendous growth in Indonesia. This study aims to investigate quality and market chain of Aceh cocoa beans. The survey was conducted in Pidie District. A number of 21 farmers and 1 exporter were interviewed; the beans from farmer’s warehouses were analyzed and compared to Indonesia National Standard (INS). The result showed that the beans were generally produced from 6 Sub-Districts: Keumala, Titeue, Glumpang Tiga, Padang Tiji, and Tangse. They were not fermented; most were exported to the USA. Based on bean count, quality was mainly included in I/A and II/B. The main quality problem was high moisture content. Presumably, the beans were bought by wholesalers with lower price although not been sufficiently dried. Other quality parameters were good: no moldy bean and contaminant, very low insect damage/hollow-/germinated beans, and tiny broken beans (quality I)

  6. Some engineering properties of white kidney beans (Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... ... (physical and mechanical) properties, white kidney beans, moisture content, thousand grain mass, static coefficient of friction. INTRODUCTION. White kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a culti- vated plant grown for fresh and dry consumption and a common raw material in the canned food industry.

  7. relative performance of staking techniques on yield of climbing bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important staple grain legume in the Great Lakes Region of Africa. In addition, it is a major source of proteins, energy and micro-nutrients (e.g. Fe and Zn), especially for smallholder farmers. The climbing bean is particularly more productive, an efficient land user and tolerant to ...

  8. Root rots of common and tepary beans in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root rots are a disease complex affecting common bean and can be severe in bean growing areas in the tropics and subtropics. The presence of several pathogens makes it difficult to breed for resistance because of the synergistic effect of the pathogens in the host and the interaction of soil factors...

  9. Assessment of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris l.) Seed quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the major causes of low yield of common bean in Ethiopia is the shortage and/or inaccessibility of high quality seed. In the Hararghe highlands of eastern Ethiopia, farmers often use common bean seeds produced both under sole crop and intercrop systems. This study was carried out to investigate the physical, ...

  10. Examining growth, yield and bean quality of Ethiopian coffee trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, Adugna

    2016-01-01

    Coffee (Coffeaarabica L.)bean production and quality are determined by a diversity of interacting factors (e.g. shade, nitrogen, crop traits). Bean yield increases with increase in radiation, but adequate fertilizer suppliesare needed to sustain the productivity. This thesis analysed

  11. Incorporation of resistance to angular leaf spot and bean common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Luseko

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... Angular leaf spot (ALS) caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora griseola and Bean common mosaic and necrosis virus (BCMV/BCMNV) are important diseases of common bean in Tanzania that can cause severe yield reduction when uncontrolled. This study was conducted to incorporate resistant genes ...

  12. Effect of soya bean diet preparations on some haematological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Soya bean diet preparations on the hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, total plasma protein, plasma albumin, sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations were studied in male albino rats. The animals were fed diets containing 75%, 50% and 25% Soya bean in groups II, III and IV respectively. Group I rats ...

  13. Large-area dry bean yield prediction modeling in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the importance of dry bean in Mexico, crop yield predictions before harvest are valuable for authorities of the agricultural sector, in order to define support for producers. The aim of this study was to develop an empirical model to estimate the yield of dry bean at the regional level prior t...

  14. identification of common bean genotypes with dual leaf and pod

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2018-02-08

    Feb 8, 2018 ... bean. Although various sources of resistance have been developed around the world, none of the varieties grown in Uganda is ... with a common bean production of 876,576 ..... Coffee Glittering. 5.0. 5.2 ..... chains in Uganda.

  15. Feeding value of processed horse eye bean ( Mucuna urens ) meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to evaluate the performance of pullet chicks fed graded levels of processed horse eye bean meal (HEBM) as partial replacement for soybean meal. The cracked beans were subjected to three processing methods viz: soaking in plain water for 48 hours, cooking for 90 minutes, and toasting on open ...

  16. Coffee Bean Grade Determination Based on Image Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ferdiansjah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality standard for coffee as an agriculture commodity in Indonesia uses defect system which is regulated in Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI for coffee bean, No: 01-2907-1999. In the Defect System standard, coffee bean is classified into six grades, from grade I to grade VI depending on the number of defect found in the coffee bean. Accuracy of this method heavily depends on the experience and the expertise of the human operators. The objective of the research is to develop a system to determine the coffee bean grading based on SNI No: 01-2907-1999. A visual sensor, a webcam connected to a computer, was used for image acquisition of coffee bean image samples, which were placed under uniform illumination of 414.5+2.9 lux. The computer performs feature extraction from parameters of coffee bean image samples in the term of texture (energy, entropy, contrast, homogeneity and color (R mean, G mean, and B mean and determines the grade of coffee bean based on the image parameters by implementing neural network algorithm. The accuracy of system testing for the coffee beans of grade I, II, III, IVA, IVB, V, and VI have the value of 100, 80, 60, 40, 100, 40, and 100%, respectively.

  17. Efficacy of vegetable oils against dry bean beetles Acanthoscelides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) is a major pest of stored dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and other legumes world wide. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of castor (Ricinus communis L.) and cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum) oils against A. obtectus on stored dry beans under laboratory conditions.

  18. effect of fermented and unfermented mucuna bean seed, on growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    0.05) ... for carnivorous fish and are higher for fish reared in high .... average body weight of 2.0g and average length of ... (fortnightly) intervals. .... Mucuna bean based diets is as good as Soya bean ... Lecture presented at the FAO/UNDP Training.

  19. Screening of spontaneous castor bean accesses for genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... discriminant power between the castor bean accesses, being the multivariate analysis efficient in this process. The castor bean accesses ACS-001 CRSP and ACS-001-MASP are promising for introduction in genetic improvement programs of this culture. Keywords: Ricinus communis L., genotype, multivariate statistics, ...

  20. Methionine in Velvet Bean ( Mucuna pruriens ) Based Broiler Starter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of broiler chicks fed starter diets containing 30% raw or heat treated, and 20% heat treated velvet beans with varying levels of methionine was determined. The influence of varying levels of heat treated velvet beans on growth and carcass characteristics of finishing broilers was also investigated. There was ...

  1. Grouping of Environments for Testing Navy Bean in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kassaye

    bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines was tested in a multi-environment variety trial ... of methods available for the analysis of GEI and stability. .... parameters in the kth bilinear term are obtained as the kth component of the .... AMMI ANOVA of grain yield for 16 navy bean lines at fourteen environments during 2010 – 2011 main ...

  2. Factors influencing smallholder farmers' bean production and supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) is a major staple food in Burundi; thus increasing its production and marketing has the potential for raising incomes of the farming households. In the country, bean outputs have been declining for decades, yet demand for the crop in East Africa has surged considerably. This study was ...

  3. Development and use of microsatellite markers in Marama bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the development of SSR enrichment techniques has increased the efficiency of SSR characterisation in new species. The aim of the study was to develop SSR's for detection of polymorphisms in Marama bean. The microsatellite regions of the genome were the main focus for potential to be used in Marama bean ...

  4. Correlation between caffeine contents of green coffee beans and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A moderate negative correlation (R = 0.5463) was found between the caffeine contents of green coffee beans and the altitudes at which the coffee plants were grown. The caffeine contents of 9 of the green coffee bean samples analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) provided comparable results in the ...

  5. Incorporation of resistance to angular leaf spot and bean common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angular leaf spot (ALS) caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora griseola and Bean common mosaic and necrosis virus (BCMV/BCMNV) are important diseases of common bean in Tanzania that can cause severe yield reduction when uncontrolled. This study was conducted to incorporate resistant genes for ALS and ...

  6. Determination of radioactivity in maize and mung beans grown in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two staple foods (maize and mung beans) which were cultivated in Minjingu village, where there is phosphate deposit in Tanzania, were collected directly from the farms. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Th and 40K were determined in the maize and mung beans samples using γ ray spectrometry employing HPGe ...

  7. Mutation breeding for disease resistance in wheat and field beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hak, T.M.; Kamel, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    Wheat and broad-bean diseases cause considerable losses under Egyptian conditions; therefore, an attempt was made to induce useful mutations in both crops resistant to diseases which may be of direct or indirect use in breeding programmes. The methodology of artificial inoculation, evaluation, selection, radiation levels used are reported, in addition to the economic importance of the varieties used. This work passed through two phases, the first started in the 1972/73 crop season with a small population, while the second in 1974/75 with a larger one to have a better chance of detecting resistant mutants. In the first phase, a total of 3563M 1 wheat plants was grown in addition to approximately 3600-44,000M 2 and 77,646M 3 plants. Twenty-two M 2 plants were selected as showing lower level of leaf rust development, but further tests showed these plants are not true mutants since they rusted at the same level of their parent varieties. Out of the M 3 plants none showed good resistance. In the second phase, 36,000, 277,080 and 289,492 plants of M 1 , M 2 and M 3 , respectively, were grown and 73M 2 plants were selected as showing complete resistance to leaf and stem rusts. In field beans out of the first phase, a total of 5760, 37,200 and 33,240M 1 , M 2 and M 3 plants, respectively, was grown and none showed a good level of disease resistance although some were less diseased. These were further tested and proved not true mutants for reduced disease development. In the second phase, 8747, 203,520 and 90,285 plants of M 1 , M 2 and M 3 , respectively, were grown and 27M 2 plants were selected as showing a lower level of chocolate spot and rust development. The paper also discusses the use of single versus composite cultures in mutation breeding for disease resistance. (author)

  8. Evaluation of indigenous bacterial strains for biocontrol of the frogeye leaf spot of soya bean caused by Cercospora sojina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, E; Carmona, M A; Scandiani, M M; García, A F; Luque, A G; Correa, O S; Balestrasse, K B

    2012-08-01

    Assessment of biological control of Cercospora sojina, causal agent of frogeye leaf spot (FLS) of soya bean, using three indigenous bacterial strains, BNM297 (Pseudomonas fluorescens), BNM340 and BNM122 (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens). From cultures of each bacterial strain, cell suspensions and cell-free supernatants were obtained and assayed to determine their antifungal activity against C. sojina. Both mycelial growth and spore germination in vitro were more strongly inhibited by bacterial cell suspensions than by cell-free supernatants. The Bacillus strains BNM122 and BNM340 inhibited the fungal growth to a similar degree (I ≈ 52-53%), while cells from P. fluorescens BNM297 caused a lesser reduction (I ≈ 32-34%) in the fungus colony diameter. The foliar application of the two Bacillus strains on soya bean seedlings, under greenhouse conditions, significantly reduced the disease severity with respect to control soya bean seedlings and those sprayed with BNM297. This last bacterial strain was not effective in controlling FLS in vivo. Our data demonstrate that the application of antagonistic bacteria may be a promising and environmentally friendly alternative to control the FLS of soya bean.   To our knowledge, this is the first report of biological control of C. sojina by using native Bacillus strains. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Sensory analysis of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz-Calvo M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of sensory profiling constitutes the basis of a descriptive quantitative analysis, defining a product with the minimum number of words and with maximum efficiency, using a precise tasting sheet, which can be reproduced and is understood by all. In this work, the texture profiling for different bean varieties that are characteristic of the Spanish market was carried out. Optimum conditions for samples and a tasting card were established, and a panel was trained. The texture profile results show significant differences amongst varieties and even amongst different origins for the same variety.

  10. Induced leaf variations in faba bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasin, M.

    1996-01-01

    The frequency and spectrum of M2 chlorophyll and other leaf mutations after gamma ray, ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and nitrous oxide (N2O) seed treatment in two varieties of faba bean were studied. In general, cv JV1 was more sensitive and EMS treatment was most effective. The frequency of chlorina-type mutations was higher than that of xantha and chlorotica type chlorophyll mutations. The highest frequency of variations was observed in leaflet texture, followed by arrangement, shape and size in both varieties. The use of these leaf mutations in formulating an ideotype of Vicia faba L. are discussed

  11. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Cowpea, Common Bean And Mung Bean Radiation Use Efficiency, Light Extinction Coefficient And Radiation Interception In Double Cropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimadadi, A.; Rostamza, M.; Jahansooz, M.R.; Ahmadi, A.; Tavakol Afshari, R.

    2006-01-01

    Crop growth modeling for forecasting various plant's functions and their contribution to yield, is one of the ways to improve field management. This trial was set up to evaluate radiation use efficiency of mung bean, common bean and cowpea cultivars in a double cropping system. Field experiment was conducted at Research Farm of College of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Karaj. A 4-replicate group balanced block field experiment was set up. Results showed that the differences among three pulses were significant in terms of biomass (p0.05). Cowpea, producing 5876.8 Kg/ha, had the highest yield among the species used in this study. Comparison of grain yield observed in this experiment with mono crop yield potential, showed that cowpea, common bean and mung bean produced 40%, 37% and 58% of their mono crop grain yield potential, respectively. In the late vegetative growth period, cowpea, mung bean and common bean absorbed 90%, 33% and 36% of photosynthetic active radiation, respectively. There was a significant difference among pulses, in terms of their radiation use efficiency and light extinction coefficient (p0.05 and p0.01, respectively). Cowpea, common bean and mung bean had radiation use efficiencies of 0.84, 0.82 and 0.99, g/MJ and light extinction coefficients of 0.605, 0.344 and 0.458, respectively. Results indicated that in some cultivars, when K decreases and LAI increases, LUE might be increased twice

  13. Radiation disinfestation of tobacco leaves and coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soemartaputra, M.H.; Rosalina, S.H.; Rahayu, A.; Harsojo; Kardha, S.

    1985-01-01

    The most important insects found on coffee and tobacco in storage are A. fasciculatus and L. serricorne, respectively. Some genera of mold, such as Rhyzopus, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Mucor, were found on stored coffee. A preliminary study of radiation disinfestation of coffee beans was carried out using 24 bags (each l.5 kg) of Arabica coffee. Each bag was infested with l00 adults of l-day-old to 8-day old A. fasciculatus. One month after infestation, the bags were divided into 6 groups (4 bags each). Five groups were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.05, 0.l0, 0.20, and 0.40 kGy, while the sixth group was fumigated with about 3 g phosphine-m/sup 3/. The work is still in progress. The preliminary data (insect density, percentage weight loss of coffee beans, and mold infestation) from l0 observation periods during 20 weeks of storage after treatment was reported. Radiation disinfestation of tobacco was done on 36 export-size bales (each l00 x 75 x 40 cm in size and about k00 kg in weight) of tobacco. Each bale was infested with larvae, pupae, and adults of L. serricorne. One week after infestation, the bales were divided into 3 groups, the first group kept untreated as controls, the second group irradiated at a dose range of 0.30 to 0.60 kGy, and the third group fumigated with about 3 g phosphine/m/sup 3/. Insect density, leaf moisture content and mold infestation will be observed after 0, 2, 4, and 6 months of storage. The work was begun in October l983 and data presently are being collected

  14. SNP discovery in common bean by restriction-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing for genetic diversity and population structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdisser, Paula Arielle M R; Pappas, Georgios J; de Menezes, Ivandilson P P; Müller, Bárbara S F; Pereira, Wendell J; Narciso, Marcelo G; Brondani, Claudio; Souza, Thiago L P O; Borba, Tereza C O; Vianello, Rosana P

    2016-06-01

    Researchers have made great advances into the development and application of genomic approaches for common beans, creating opportunities to driving more real and applicable strategies for sustainable management of the genetic resource towards plant breeding. This work provides useful polymorphic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for high-throughput common bean genotyping developed by RAD (restriction site-associated DNA) sequencing. The RAD tags were generated from DNA pooled from 12 common bean genotypes, including breeding lines of different gene pools and market classes. The aligned sequences identified 23,748 putative RAD-SNPs, of which 3357 were adequate for genotyping; 1032 RAD-SNPs with the highest ADT (assay design tool) score are presented in this article. The RAD-SNPs were structurally annotated in different coding (47.00 %) and non-coding (53.00 %) sequence components of genes. A subset of 384 RAD-SNPs with broad genome distribution was used to genotype a diverse panel of 95 common bean germplasms and revealed a successful amplification rate of 96.6 %, showing 73 % of polymorphic SNPs within the Andean group and 83 % in the Mesoamerican group. A slightly increased He (0.161, n = 21) value was estimated for the Andean gene pool, compared to the Mesoamerican group (0.156, n = 74). For the linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis, from a group of 580 SNPs (289 RAD-SNPs and 291 BARC-SNPs) genotyped for the same set of genotypes, 70.2 % were in LD, decreasing to 0.10 %in the Andean group and 0.77 % in the Mesoamerican group. Haplotype patterns spanning 310 Mb of the genome (60 %) were characterized in samples from different origins. However, the haplotype frameworks were under-represented for the Andean (7.85 %) and Mesoamerican (5.55 %) gene pools separately. In conclusion, RAD sequencing allowed the discovery of hundreds of useful SNPs for broad genetic analysis of common bean germplasm. From now, this approach provides an excellent panel

  15. Some physiological changes in faba bean seedlings as affected by the treatment with the fungicide zineb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, H.A.; Aly, M.A.S.; Afifi, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    The toxic effect of 10 ppm of the fungicide zineb (zine ethylene -1,2-bis dithiocarbamate) on photosynthesis, respiration and endogenous hormones levels of faba bean seedlings were studied after seed treatment or foliar application utilizing radiotracer techniques. A suggested scheme for faba bean treatment with zineb and a flow diagram for extraction, purification and separation of endogenous hormones are presented. The data obtained (seed treatment) revealed a marked reduction (41.8%) in the amount of 14C O 2 fixed or incorporated in different cell components of seedlings. On the other hand, respiratory activity was significantly increased recording 176.5% and manifesting a respired/fixed radio about 4 times of the corresponding control. In case of foliar application, the amount of 14C O 2 fixed showed remarkable decrease (50%) after 24 h of application then declined to reach almost control values after 72 h. The respiratory 14C O 2 showed a continuos increase with time reaching 398% after 72 h. Respired/fixed ratio amounted 0.8 after 72 h. Both treatments led to an increase in the amounts of endogenous hormones; cytokinines, auxins and ABA when compared with control values recording the highest values after 24 h. A substational reduction in the amount of gibberellin-like substances was observed. Zineb induced high stress on faba bean seedlings and had the impact to reduce the intensity of certain natural processes such as photosynthesis and respiration and increased the endogenous hormones

  16. Effects of bioprocessed antinutritional factors on bean protein quality : with special emphasis on Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoul, F.

    1994-01-01

    Legumes, e.g. beans and peas, can contain antinutritional factors. Some varieties of faba beans (Vicia faba), soya beans (Glycine max ) and white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) can contain in their raw state antinutritional

  17. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  18. BRS FC402: high-yielding common bean cultivar with carioca grain, resistance to anthracnose and fusarium wilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Cunha Melo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BRS FC402 is a common bean cultivar of the carioca-grain group with commercial grain quality, suitable for cultivation in 21 Brazilian states. Cultivar has a normal cycle (85-94 days, high yield potential (4479 kg ha-1, 10.1% higher mean yield than the controls (2462 kg ha-1 and resistance to fusarium wilt and anthracnose.

  19. A Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled, Four-Arm Parallel Study Investigating the Effect of a Broad-Spectrum Wellness Beverage on Mood State in Healthy, Moderately Stressed Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Malkanthi; Antony, Joseph; Guthrie, Najla; Landes, Bernie; Aruoma, Okezie I

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a broad-spectrum wellness beverage (Zeal Wellness [ZW]) on standardized measures of mood states, including overall feelings of vitality, in healthy, moderately stressed adults. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted among 99 eligible participants prescreened for moderate stress. Participants were randomized to one of four groups and received ZW once daily (1-dose-ZW; 14 g), ZW twice daily (2-dose-ZW; 28 g), placebo once daily (1-dose-placebo), or placebo twice daily (2-dose-placebo) for 4 weeks. A stress/vitality questionnaire assessed stress and the Profile of Moods (POMS) Questionnaire assessed vigor via mental/physical energy and global mood state. Safety was assessed by clinical chemistry, liver, kidney function, and anthropometric measures and adverse event reporting. Participants receiving 2-dose-ZW reported a 6.6% decrease in scores on POMS-Total Mood Disturbance (TMD; p < 0.05) and a 6.8% decrease in the anger-hostility mood state (p < 0.022) compared to the combined placebo group at day 29. The 2-dose-ZW provided a 12.8% greater improvement in POMS-TMD scores when compared to participants receiving 1-dose-ZW after 28 days of supplementation (p = 0.014). Within groups, there was a 22.4% and a 9.6% decrease in POMS-TMD scores in participants with 2-dose-ZW and 1-dose-ZW, respectively. In addition, participants receiving 2-dose-ZW showed significant improvements (p = 0.001) in the POMS t-score iceberg profile, which represented a shift to a more healthy profile. These data show that daily supplementation with 2-dose-ZW significantly decreased POMS-TMD scores and anger-hostility mood state and shifted the POMS iceberg profile to a healthy profile compared to the combined placebo, reflecting the functional benefit of rice-bran-fruit-vegetable extracts based beverage on health.

  20. Targeted simplification versus antipseudomonal broad-spectrum beta-lactams in patients with bloodstream infections due to Enterobacteriaceae (SIMPLIFY): a study protocol for a multicentre, open-label, phase III randomised, controlled, non-inferiority clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cortés, Luis Eduardo; Rosso-Fernández, Clara; Núñez-Núñez, María; Lavín-Alconero, Lucía; Bravo-Ferrer, José; Barriga, Ángel; Delgado, Mercedes; Lupión, Carmen; Retamar, Pilar; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2017-06-09

    Within the context of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, de-escalation of antimicrobial therapy is one of the proposed strategies for reducing the unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics (BSA). The empirical treatment of nosocomial and some healthcare-associated bloodstream infections (BSI) frequently includes a beta-lactam with antipseudomonal activity as monotherapy or in combination with other drugs, so there is a great opportunity to optimise the empirical therapy based on microbiological data. De-escalation is assumed as standard of care for experts in infectious diseases. However, it is less frequent than it would desirable. The SIMPLIFY trial is a multicentre, open-label, non-inferiority phase III randomised controlled clinical trial, designed as a pragmatic 'real-practice' trial. The aim of this trial is to demonstrate the non-inferiority of de-escalation from an empirical beta-lactam with antipseudomonal activity to a targeted narrow-spectrum antimicrobial in patients with BSI due to Enterobacteriaceae . The primary outcome is clinical cure, which will be assessed at the test of cure visit. It will be conducted at 19 Spanish public and university hospitals. Each participating centre has obtained the approval of the ethics review committee, the agreement of the directors of the institutions and authorisation from the Spanish Regulatory Agency (Agencia Española del Medicamento y Productos Sanitarios). Data will be presented at international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. Strategies to reduce the use of BSA should be a priority. Most of the studies that support de-escalation are observational, retrospective and heterogeneous. A recent Cochrane review stated that well-designed clinical trials should be conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of de-escalation. The European Union Clinical Trials Register: EudraCT number 2015-004219-19. Clinical trials.gov: NCT02795949. Protocol version: V.2.0, dated 16 May 2016. All items from

  1. EVALUATION OF TRICHODERMA SPP. ON BEAN CULTURE, IN ANTHRACNOSE, WEB BLIGHT AND ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. V. Aguiar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mato Grosso is the third largest producer of bean from Brazil, being the third harvest (irrigated the most productive, but diseases such as anthracnose, web blight and nematodes of galls cause losses to producers. In addition, a measure widely used and little studied for the control of diseases and nematodes in Mato Grosso is the biological control, which consists of the action of other microorganisms on phytopathogens. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma harzianum and T. asperellum in the development (height of plants, chlorophyll and number of pods of culture of bean, in the control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, web blight (Rhizoctonia solani and in the population of Meloidogyne spp. in the soil. The experiment was accomplished in area experimental of University Federal of Mato Grosso/Campus Sinop. The experimental design was of entirely randomized with 12 parcels of 5m² each, with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The cultivar used was Whitey, carioca group, and the seed treatment performed with product Pyraclostrobin + Thiophanate Methyl + Fipronil and after drying of the inoculation of biocontrol agents and manual seeding. It was observed that the application of T. harzianum and T. asperellum, not promoted increase of chlorophyll, height of plants in bean culture, without reducing the population of Meloidogyne spp.. However, biocontrol agents have reduced the severity of anthracnose and web blight and promoted an increase in the average number of plant pods-1. It is therefore concluded that biocontrol agents show potential for application in bean culture in the North of Mato Grosso.

  2. 78 FR 20119 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2012-0042] Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY... concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DHS previously published this ICR in the Federal Register on August... across the Nation. The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on the...

  3. [Microstructural changes in hardened beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica, Maria Virginia; Granito, Marisela; Soto, Naudy

    2015-06-01

    (Phaseolus vulgaris). The hardening of Phaseolus vulgaris beans stored at high temperature and high relative humidity is one of the main constraints for consumption. The objective of this research was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy, structural changes in cotyledons and testa of the hardened beans. The freshly harvested grains were stored for twelve months under two conditions: 5 ° C-34% RH and 37 ° C-75% RH, in order to promote hardening. The stored raw and cooked grains were lyophilized and fractured. The sections of testa and cotyledons were observed in an electron microscope JSM-6390. After twelve months, grains stored at 37 ° C-75% RH increased their hardness by 503%, whereas there were no significant changes in grains stored at 5 ° C-34% RH. At the microstructural level, the cotyledons of the raw grains show clear differences in appearance of the cell wall, into the intercellular space size and texture matrix protein. There were also differences in compaction of palisade and sub-epidermal layer in the testa of raw grains. After cooking, cotyledon cells of the soft grains were well separated while these ofhard grains were seldom separated. In conclusion, the found differences in hard and soft grains showed a significant participation of both structures, cotyledons and testa, in the grains hardening.

  4. Economical Evaluation of Faba bean (Vicia faba and Maize (Zea mays L. Intercropping Based on Total Relative Value Index and Weeds Growth Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hamzei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical control of weeds raises serious concerns about food safety and environmental quality, which have necessitated the need for non chemical weed management techniques such as intercropping. Intercropping can suppress weeds and reduce the use of herbicides in production systems. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of intercropping of faba bean and maize, as well as hand-weeding on maize grain yield and total grain yield. The experiment was carried out during growing season of 2010 as a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran. Sole cropping of maize with weed control (MWF, sole cropping of maize without weed control (MWI, intercropping of 15% faba bean+maize (M+15%F, 30% faba bean+maize (M+30%F, 45% faba bean+maize (M+45%F  and sole cropping of faba bean were the experimental treatments. Weed biomass and density were affected by treatments. With increasing faba bean density in the intercropping treatments, weed biomass and density decreased significantly from 85 plants and 310 g m-2 for MWI treatment to 22 plants and 63 g m-2 for M+45%F treatment, respectively. The greatest number of seed row per ear, seed number per ear and grain and biological yields (8033 and 17933 kg ha-1, respectively were achieved at MWF treatment and the smallest values for these attributes were revealed at MWI treatment. There was no significant difference between MWF and M+45%F treatments for total grain yield (i.e. grain yield of maize + faba bean. Sole cropping of faba bean led to the greatest yield components and grain and biological yields. With increasing faba bean density in intercropping treatments, above mentioned traits (except number of pods per plant were increased significantly. The great values for weed control efficiency (73% and total relative value (1.14 were achieved at M+45%F treatment. Results of

  5. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor) in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg) and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized faba bean (130 g/kg) as the main protein source. Substituting SBM with faba bean had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative weight of the guinea fowls. Conversely, a decrease (pMeat from guinea fowls fed faba bean had less total lipids (pmeat and decreased the saturated fatty acid levels. Moreover, dietary faba bean improved the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in guinea fowl breast meat. Results indicated that substitution of SBM with faba bean meal in guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative traits, enhancing also meat lipid profile without negatively affecting growth performance. PMID:26323403

  6. Binding of navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) lectin to the intestinal cells of the rat and its effect on the absorption of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donatucci, D.A.; Liener, I.E.; Gross, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The main objectives of this investigation were to study the binding of a lectin from navy beans with the epithelial cells of the rat intestine and to assess the effect of such binding on the ability of the intestine to absorb glucose. A Scatchard plot, based on the binding of 125 I-labeled lectin to isolated intestinal epithelial cells, was used to calculate an association constant (Ka) of 15 x 10(6)M-1 and the number of binding sites per cell, 12 x 10(6). Metabolic studies were conducted over a period of 5 d on groups of rats fed raw or autoclaved navy bean flour and casein with or without the purified lectin. Growth, protein digestibility, biological value and net protein utilization were significantly lower in animals that had been fed raw navy bean flour or casein plus lectin than in control groups fed diets containing autoclaved navy bean flour or casein alone. Vascular perfusion was used to measure the rate of uptake of glucose by the intestines of rats that had received the various dietary treatments. The rate of absorption of [ 14 C]glucose by intestines from rats fed raw navy bean flour or casein plus lectin was approximately one-half that of their counterparts fed the autoclaved flour or casein alone. These results provide evidence that the lectin, by virtue of its interference with intestinal absorption, is responsible, at least in part, for the nutritional inferiority of raw navy beans

  7. Effect of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Pearl Millet (Panicum miliaceum L. and Red Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tavassoli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted at Agriculture Research Center of Zabol University during 2007 cropping season. The experiment was split plot, based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The main factors consisted of unfertilized (control (F1, recommended fertilizer (F2, recommended manure (F3, half of recommended manure + half of recommended fertilizer (F4 and sub factors were cropping of millet (I1, 75% millet + 25% bean (I2, 50% millet + 50% bean(I3, 25% millet + 75% bean (I4 and sole crop of bean (I5. Results showed that were for these tow species the highest grain and dry matter yield and harvest index (HI obtained from half of recommended manure + half of recommended fertilizer treatment. However, fertilizer treatments did not have significant effect on 1000-seeds weight. Highest land equivalence ratio (LER for grain and dry matter yield was achieved from half of recommended manure + half of recommended fertilizer treatment. The highest crude protein (CP, P and K content in each of the forage crops obtained from recommended fertilizer treatment. Interrace culture different ratios treatments, for millet the highest grain and dry matter yield and P and K content achieved from sole cropping. While highest harvest index (HI, 1000-seeds weight and CP content in millet forage obtained from their intercroppings. Highest bean values for all traits in achieved from its sole cropping. Furthermore, highest LER for dry matter and grain obtained from 25% millet + 75% bean treatment.

  8. Effect of farmyard manure, mineral fertilizers and mung bean residues on some microbiological properties of eroded soil in district Swat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naeem

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of organic and inorganic fertilizers and mung bean residues on improving microbiological properties of eroded lands of District Swat, North West Frontier Province (NWFP Pakistan under wheat-mung bean-wheat cropping system during 2006 to 2008. The experiment was laid out in RCBD split-plot arrangement. Mung bean was grown and a basal dose of 25-60 kg N-P2O5 ha-1 was applied. After mung bean harvest, three residues management practices, i.e., R+ (mung bean residues incorporated into soil, R- (mung bean residues removed and F (fallow were performed in the main-plots. Sub-plot factor consisted of six fertilizer treatments for wheat crop i.e., T1 (control, T2 (120 kg N ha-1, T3 (120-90-0 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, T4 (120-90-60 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, T5 (90-90-60 kg N-P2O5-K2O + 10 t FYM ha-1 and T6 (60-90-60 kg N-P2O5- K2O + 20 t FYM ha-1. The results showed that microbial activity, microbial biomass-C and-N, mineralizable C and N were highest with T6 as well as with the incorporation of mung bean residues (R+. Compared with control, T6 increased microbial biomass C, N, mineralizable C and N by 33.8, 164.1, 35.5 and 110.6% at surface and 38.4, 237.5, 38.7 and 124.1% at sub-surface soil, respectively, while R+ compared with fallow increased these properties by 33.7, 47.4, 21.4 and 32.2% at surface and 36.8, 51, 21.9 and 35.4% at sub-surface soil, respectively. Inclusion of mung bean with its residues incorporated and application of 20 t FYM ha-1 and reducing inorganic N fertilizer to 60 kg N ha-1 for wheat is recommended for improving microbiological properties of slightly eroded lands

  9. Broadly tunable picosecond ir source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campillo, A.J.; Hyer, R.C.; Shapiro, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    A completely grating tuned (1.9 to 2.4 μm) picosecond traveling wave IR generator capable of controlled spectral bandwidth operation down to the Fourier Transform limit is reported. Subsequent down conversion in CdSe extends tuning to 10 to 20 μm

  10. CHRONIC Cd TOXICITY OF BEAN PLANTS CAN BE PARTIALLY REDUCED BY SUPPLY OF AMMONIUM SULPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon VASSILEV

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ammonium sulphate supply on plant Cd uptake, growth and photosynthesis of bean plants (cv. Limburgse vroege grown in Cd-contaminated artifi cial soil was studied. The experiments were performed at controlled conditions in absence or presence of Cd (0 or 50 mg Cd kg-1 soil and with or without supply of ammonium sulphate [0 or 0.687 g (NH42SO4 kg-1]. Cadmium inhibited both growth and photosynthetic activity of bean plants. The supply of ammonium sulphate had no signifi cant effect on plant Cd uptake and growth inhibition, but to some extend, reduced Cd-induced stress and its negative impact on the photosynthetic performance.

  11. SALINITY AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Kaymakanova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of salt stress оn the physiological reaction in young bean plants was studied. The plants were grown in pots as hydroponic cultures in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution under controlled conditions in a climatic room. The plants were treated for 7 days with NaCl and Na2SO4 (concentration 100 mM, starting at the appearance of the fi rst trifoliate leaf unfolded. The salts were added to the nutrient solution. It was established that the equimolar concentrations of both salt types caused stress in the young bean plants, which found expression in the suppression of growth, photosynthesis activity and caused changes in stomata status (conductivity, number and size. The transpiration and the cell water potential in salt-treated plants were reduced. The MDA level in root and shoot, and the proline content was increased.

  12. Influence of faba bean and peas combination on per­for­man­ce parameters of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Kratochvílová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of two varieties of peas and faba bean on performance was observed in grow experiment. Varieties of legumes were different in antinutritive factors levels. ZEKON (peas and MISTRAL (faba bean are low tannin varieties, GOTIK (peas and MERKUR (faba bean are traditional varieties with high level of antinutritive substances. Experiment was finished in 40 days of age. There were used 900 broilers allotted to 9 groups (100 animals in group. Peas and faba bean was dose to feed mixture on level adequate to 30 g of crude protein per kilogram of feed mixture, the rest of crude protein needed in feed mixture was covered by soya bean meal. The best results in final weight achieved group with GOTIK (2476.7 ± 270.8 g, the second was group ZEKON (2456.7 ± 247.2 g, than MISTRAL in combination with peas (2454.7 ± 268.5 g, MERKUR (2416.9 ± 266.1 g, ZEKON in combination with faba bean (2410,7 ± 297.8 g and MISTRAL group achieved 2405.6 ± 336.4 g of final weight. The rest of groups was belong 2400 g of body weight: control group 2370.1 ± 249.2 g, GOTIK in combination with peas 2302.9 ± 253.1 g and the worst result had group MERKUR in combination with peas (2258.8 ± 259.4 g. The differences were significant.

  13. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Anthracnose and Angular Leaf Spot Resistance in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Morini Küpper Cardoso Perseguini

    Full Text Available The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the world's most important legume for human consumption. Anthracnose (ANT; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and angular leaf spot (ALS; Pseudocercospora griseola are complex diseases that cause major yield losses in common bean. Depending on the cultivar and environmental conditions, anthracnose and angular leaf spot infections can reduce crop yield drastically. This study aimed to estimate linkage disequilibrium levels and identify quantitative resistance loci (QRL controlling resistance to both ANT and ALS diseases of 180 accessions of common bean using genome-wide association analysis. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was performed for the ANT and ALS experiments, with four plants per genotype in each replicate. Association mapping analyses were performed for ANT and ALS using a mixed linear model approach implemented in TASSEL. A total of 17 and 11 significant statistically associations involving SSRs were detected for ANT and ALS resistance loci, respectively. Using SNPs, 21 and 17 significant statistically associations were obtained for ANT and angular ALS, respectively, providing more associations with this marker. The SSR-IAC167 and PvM95 markers, both located on chromosome Pv03, and the SNP scaffold00021_89379, were associated with both diseases. The other markers were distributed across the entire common bean genome, with chromosomes Pv03 and Pv08 showing the greatest number of loci associated with ANT resistance. The chromosome Pv04 was the most saturated one, with six markers associated with ALS resistance. The telomeric region of this chromosome showed four markers located between approximately 2.5 Mb and 4.4 Mb. Our results demonstrate the great potential of genome-wide association studies to identify QRLs related to ANT and ALS in common bean. The results indicate a quantitative and complex inheritance pattern for both diseases in common bean. Our findings will

  14. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Anthracnose and Angular Leaf Spot Resistance in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perseguini, Juliana Morini Küpper Cardoso; Oblessuc, Paula Rodrigues; Rosa, João Ricardo Bachega Feijó; Gomes, Kleber Alves; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sérgio Augusto Morais; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Vianello, Rosana Pereira; Benchimol-Reis, Luciana Lasry

    2016-01-01

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the world's most important legume for human consumption. Anthracnose (ANT; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) and angular leaf spot (ALS; Pseudocercospora griseola) are complex diseases that cause major yield losses in common bean. Depending on the cultivar and environmental conditions, anthracnose and angular leaf spot infections can reduce crop yield drastically. This study aimed to estimate linkage disequilibrium levels and identify quantitative resistance loci (QRL) controlling resistance to both ANT and ALS diseases of 180 accessions of common bean using genome-wide association analysis. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was performed for the ANT and ALS experiments, with four plants per genotype in each replicate. Association mapping analyses were performed for ANT and ALS using a mixed linear model approach implemented in TASSEL. A total of 17 and 11 significant statistically associations involving SSRs were detected for ANT and ALS resistance loci, respectively. Using SNPs, 21 and 17 significant statistically associations were obtained for ANT and angular ALS, respectively, providing more associations with this marker. The SSR-IAC167 and PvM95 markers, both located on chromosome Pv03, and the SNP scaffold00021_89379, were associated with both diseases. The other markers were distributed across the entire common bean genome, with chromosomes Pv03 and Pv08 showing the greatest number of loci associated with ANT resistance. The chromosome Pv04 was the most saturated one, with six markers associated with ALS resistance. The telomeric region of this chromosome showed four markers located between approximately 2.5 Mb and 4.4 Mb. Our results demonstrate the great potential of genome-wide association studies to identify QRLs related to ANT and ALS in common bean. The results indicate a quantitative and complex inheritance pattern for both diseases in common bean. Our findings will contribute to more

  15. Identification of biochemical features of defective Coffea arabica L. beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, María I; Vaughan, Michael J; Bonello, Pierluigi; McSpadden Gardener, Brian; Grotewold, Erich; Alonso, Ana P

    2017-05-01

    Coffee organoleptic properties are based in part on the quality and chemical composition of coffee beans. The presence of defective beans during processing and roasting contribute to off flavors and reduce overall cup quality. A multipronged approach was undertaken to identify specific biochemical markers for defective beans. To this end, beans were split into defective and non-defective fractions and biochemically profiled in both green and roasted states. A set of 17 compounds in green beans, including organic acids, amino acids and reducing sugars; and 35 compounds in roasted beans, dominated by volatile compounds, organic acids, sugars and sugar alcohols, were sufficient to separate the defective and non-defective fractions. Unsorted coffee was examined for the presence of the biochemical markers to test their utility in detecting defective beans. Although the green coffee marker compounds were found in all fractions, three of the roasted coffee marker compounds (1-methylpyrrole, 5-methyl- 2-furfurylfuran, and 2-methylfuran) were uniquely present in defective fractions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of hybrid variety cocoa beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonfia-Essien, W A; West, G; Alderson, P G; Tucker, G

    2008-06-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is a major, economically important, international crop and has been associated with several nutritional benefits including high antioxidant capacity. New cocoa hybrids have been developed in Ghana that exhibit resistance to pest damage during storage. The aim of this work was to assess the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these new hybrids in comparison to more traditional cocoa varieties. Total extractable phenolics were similar in all the four hybrids tested ranging from 69.9 to 81.6FAEg(-1). These levels were very similar to that extracted from traditional beans (73.8±2.5FAEg(-1)). The "phenolic profile" was determined by HPLC. A total of 25 peaks was observed but there were only minor differences in this profile between traditional and hybrid bean extracts. Antioxidant capacity was determined using the FRAP assay and traditional beans were found to possess 12.4μmolTEg(-1). In comparison the hybrid beans had antioxidant capacities ranging from 21.6 to 45.5μmolTEg(-1), and these were significantly higher than in the traditional beans for three out of the four hybrids. Since the phenolic and antioxidant levels and in these hybrid varieties were either similar to, or higher than, that obtained from traditional beans, the introduction of these new varieties would be unlikely to impact detrimentally on these nutritional components of the beans. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Common bean genotypes for agronomic and market-related traits in VCU trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Fernando Chiorato

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU trials are undertaken when evaluating improved common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. lines, and knowledge of agronomic and market-related traits and disease reaction is instrumental in making cultivar recommendations. This study evaluates the yield, cooking time, grain color and reaction to anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli and Curtobacterium wilt (Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens of 25 common bean genotypes derived from the main common bean breeding programs in Brazil. Seventeen VCU trials were carried out in the rainy season, dry season and winter season from 2009 to 2011 in the state of São Paulo. Analyses of grain color and cooking time were initiated 60 days after harvest, and disease reaction analyses were performed in the laboratory under controlled conditions. In terms of yield, no genotype superior to the controls was observed for any of the seasons under consideration. Grains from the dry season exhibited better color, while the rainy season led to the shortest cooking times. The following genotypes BRS Esteio, BRS Esplendor and IAC Imperador were resistant to anthracnose, Fusarium wilt and Curtobacterium wilt and, in general, genotypes with lighter-colored grains were more susceptible to anthracnose and Fusarium wilt.

  18. Gamma radiosensitivity in common bean plant and cowpea; Gama radiossensitividade em feijoeiro comum e caupi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Sandra da Silva; Colaco, Waldeciro [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    An indispensable step in mutation induction experiments is the determination of the sensitivity to mutagens to be used. Taking this into consideration the radiosensitivity of bean cultivars Carioca, Princesa (P. vulgaris L.), and IPA-206 [V. unguiculata (L.) Walp] to gamma rays from a {sup 60} Co source was evaluated. Sets of seeds (40 seeds/sample) were irradiated with 100, 150, 200, 250 Gy, and compared to a control without irradiation (0 Gy), under greenhouse conditions. Bean and cowpea seeds were respectively inoculated with a suspension of Rhizobium (SEMIA-4077) and Bradyrhizobium (SEMIA-6145) strains. The radiosensitivity was evaluated through seedling height reduction determined at 15 days after emergence (15-DAE), and also through dry matter yield of above-ground part and root nodules at 40-DAE. Seedling height was significantly reduced with increased dose of radiation in relation to the control. The dose causing reduction of 50% seedling height for P. vulgaris cultivar Princesa was set up between 150-250 Gy. Cowpea (IPA-206) was less sensitive to radiation than common bean cultivars, considering the dose range of radiation studied, and a 75% seedling height reduction was reached in the range of 150-250 Gy. Dry mater yield of the above-ground part, root and nodule, were inversely related to the doses. It is recommended a dose range of 300-350 Gy for mutation breeding purposes using the cowpea cultivar (IPA-206). (author)

  19. Reduction in flatulence factors in mung beans (Vigna radiata) using low-dose gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaiah, J.P.; Pednekar, M.D.; Thomas, P.

    1999-01-01

    Mungbeans (Vigna radiata), control and gamma-irradiated at insect disinfestation dose levels (0.25 and 0.75 kGy) were germinated (0-6 Bays) and the qualitative and quantitative changes in soluble carbohydrates were studied in detail. The key flatulence-producing raffinose family oligosaccharides inmungbeans were degraded in the irradiated samples at the onset of the germination (0-2 days) compared to the control where it occurred much later (>4days). However, the reducing sugars, mainly glucose, fructose and galactose, which are metabolised easily, were enhanced in the irradiated samples. At low dose (0.25 kGy), irradiation had no effect on germination and sprout length, indicating that irradiated beans are suitable for use as sprouted beans. These observations clearly indicate that gamma-irradiation at insect disinfestation dose levels improved the digestibility and nutritional quality of mung beans by reducing the content of oligosaccharides responsible for intestinal gas production. (C) 1999 Society of Chemical Industry

  20. Headspace Analysis of Philippine Civet Coffee Beans Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Electronic Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongo, E.; Sevilla, F.; Antonelli, A.; Sberveglieri, G.; Montevecchi, G.; Sberveglieri, V.; de Paola, E. L.; Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.

    2011-11-01

    Civet coffee, the most expensive and best coffee in the world, is an economically important export product of the Philippines. With a growing threat of food adulteration and counterfeiting, a need for quality authentication is essential to protect the integrity and strong market value of Philippine civet coffee. At present, there is no internationally accepted method of verifying whether a bean is an authentic civet coffee. This study presented a practical and promising approach to identify and establish the headspace qualitative profile of Philippine civet coffee using electronic nose (E-nose) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). E-nose analysis revealed that aroma characteristic is one of the most important quality indicators of civet coffee. The findings were supported by GC-MS analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) exhibited a clearly separated civet coffees from their control beans. The chromatographic fingerprints indicated that civet coffees differed with their control beans in terms of composition and concentration of individual volatile constituents.

  1. A Study on the Relationship between Cooking Properties of Adzuki Bean and Storage Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Isao; Breene, William M.; 早川, 功

    1982-01-01

    Adzuki bean (Phaseolus angularis) has been used for many cooking purposes in Japan. The basic method for adzuki bean cooking is heating in the presence of moisture, it seems that the differences of moisture content between the beans before cooking and between cooking methods have influence on the qualities of cooking products. But there is a general complaint about the poor cooking properties of these beans. Since the cooking properties depend, both on the moisture contents of bean before coo...

  2. [Effects of nitrogen application rate on faba bean fusarium wilt and rhizospheric microbial metabolic functional diversity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Yang, Zhi-xian; Dong, Kun; Tang, Li; Zheng, Yi; Hu, Guo-bin

    2013-04-01

    quantities of rhizospheric bacteria and actinomyces, alter the microbial metabolic function, and decrease F. oxysporum density, being an effective measure to control the occurrence of faba bean fusarium wilt.

  3. Diversification and Population Structure in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W.; Soler, Alvaro; Cortés, Andrés J.

    2012-01-01

    Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13) for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican), Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru). The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of cultivated beans

  4. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Blair

    Full Text Available Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13 for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican, Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru. The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of

  5. Influence of phosphorous fertilization on copper phytoextraction and antioxidant defenses in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoyong; Rizwan, Muhammad Shahid; Ren, Chao; Guo, Guangguang; Fu, Qingling; Zhu, Jun; Hu, Hongqing

    2018-01-01

    Application of fertilizers to supply appropriate nutrients has become an essential agricultural strategy for enhancing the efficiency of phytoremediation in heavy metal contaminated soils. The present study was conducted to investigate the beneficial effects of three types of phosphate fertilizers (i.e., oxalic acid-activated phosphate rock (APR), Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 , and NaH 2 PO 4 ) in the range of 0-600 mg P kg -1 soil, on castor bean growth, antioxidants [antioxidative enzymes and glutathione (GSH)], and Cu uptake. Results showed that with the addition of phosphorus fertilizers, the dry weight of castor bean and the Cu concentration in roots increased significantly, resulting in increased Cu extraction. The phosphorus concentration in both shoots and roots was increased as compared with the control, and the Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 treatment had the greatest effect. Application of APR, NaH 2 PO 4 , and Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and the activity of the two antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismustase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) in the leaves of castor bean. GSH concentration in leaves increased with the increasing levels of phosphorus applied to soil as well as the accumulation of phosphorus in shoots, compared to the control. These results demonstrated that the addition of phosphorus fertilizers can enhance the resistance of castor bean to Cu and increase the Cu extraction efficiency of the plant from contaminated soils.

  6. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomic Profiling Reveals Alterations in Mouse Plasma and Liver in Response to Fava Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Man; Du, Guankui; Zhong, Guobing; Yan, Dongjing; Zeng, Huazong; Cai, Wangwei

    2016-01-01

    Favism is a life-threatening hemolytic anemia resulting from the intake of fava beans by susceptible individuals with low erythrocytic glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity. However, little is known about the metabolomic changes in plasma and liver after the intake of fava beans in G6PD normal and deficient states. In this study, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to analyze the plasma and liver metabolic alterations underlying the effects of fava beans in C3H- and G6PD-deficient (G6PDx) mice, and to find potential biomarkers and metabolic changes associated with favism. Our results showed that fava beans induced oxidative stress in both C3H and G6PDx mice. Significantly, metabolomic differences were observed in plasma and liver between the control and fava bean treated groups of both C3H and G6PDx mice. The levels of 7 and 21 metabolites in plasma showed significant differences between C3H-control (C3H-C)- and C3H fava beans-treated (C3H-FB) mice, and G6PDx-control (G6PDx-C)- and G6PDx fava beans-treated (G6PDx-FB) mice, respectively. Similarly, the levels of 7 and 25 metabolites in the liver showed significant differences between C3H and C3H-FB, and G6PDx and G6PDx-FB, respectively. The levels of oleic acid, linoleic acid, and creatinine were significantly increased in the plasma of both C3H-FB and G6PDx-FB mice. In the liver, more metabolic alterations were observed in G6PDx-FB mice than in C3H-FB mice, and were involved in a sugar, fatty acids, amino acids, cholesterol biosynthesis, the urea cycle, and the nucleotide metabolic pathway. These findings suggest that oleic acid, linoleic acid, and creatinine may be potential biomarkers of the response to fava beans in C3H and G6PDx mice and therefore that oleic acid and linoleic acid may be involved in oxidative stress induced by fava beans. This study demonstrates that G6PD activity in mice can affect their metabolic pathways in response to fava beans.

  7. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomic Profiling Reveals Alterations in Mouse Plasma and Liver in Response to Fava Beans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Xiao

    Full Text Available Favism is a life-threatening hemolytic anemia resulting from the intake of fava beans by susceptible individuals with low erythrocytic glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activity. However, little is known about the metabolomic changes in plasma and liver after the intake of fava beans in G6PD normal and deficient states. In this study, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to analyze the plasma and liver metabolic alterations underlying the effects of fava beans in C3H- and G6PD-deficient (G6PDx mice, and to find potential biomarkers and metabolic changes associated with favism. Our results showed that fava beans induced oxidative stress in both C3H and G6PDx mice. Significantly, metabolomic differences were observed in plasma and liver between the control and fava bean treated groups of both C3H and G6PDx mice. The levels of 7 and 21 metabolites in plasma showed significant differences between C3H-control (C3H-C- and C3H fava beans-treated (C3H-FB mice, and G6PDx-control (G6PDx-C- and G6PDx fava beans-treated (G6PDx-FB mice, respectively. Similarly, the levels of 7 and 25 metabolites in the liver showed significant differences between C3H and C3H-FB, and G6PDx and G6PDx-FB, respectively. The levels of oleic acid, linoleic acid, and creatinine were significantly increased in the plasma of both C3H-FB and G6PDx-FB mice. In the liver, more metabolic alterations were observed in G6PDx-FB mice than in C3H-FB mice, and were involved in a sugar, fatty acids, amino acids, cholesterol biosynthesis, the urea cycle, and the nucleotide metabolic pathway. These findings suggest that oleic acid, linoleic acid, and creatinine may be potential biomarkers of the response to fava beans in C3H and G6PDx mice and therefore that oleic acid and linoleic acid may be involved in oxidative stress induced by fava beans. This study demonstrates that G6PD activity in mice can affect their metabolic pathways in response to fava beans.

  8. Effect of Different Treatments of Mixed and Row Intercropping on Yield and Yield Components of Sesame and Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Ghale Noyee

    2017-12-01

    , respectively. Hand-weeding method was used for controlling weeds. The first was done when most plants were, in the 6 leaf stage and in the height about 15cm, continued every 13 days until the growth of the canopy limited the growth of weeds. There was not used any fertilizer during the growing season. At the end of the growing season traits such as 1000 seed weight, number of capsules or pods per plant, number of seeds per capsule or pod, biological yield, seed yield and harvest index were recorded. In addition, the land equivalent ratio (LER was calculated to determine the advantages of intercropping. Analysis of variance and Duncan's mean comparison were used for statistical analysis. Results and Discussion The results showed that intercropping had a significant effect on all traits, in sesame and bean. 1000 seed weigh, number of capsules or pods per plant, number of seeds per capsule or pod and harvest index in the treatments of 25s75b, 50s50b and 75s25b, were the highest amounts. Number of seed per plant, seed yield and harvest index in sesame and 1000 seed weight, biological yield and seed yield in bean were affected by planting type which row planting had higher value than mixed planting. This can be due to better use of resources and avoid inter and intra species competition, in the circumstances stated above. The results showed that the total LER, LER of sesame, and LER of bean were higher in replacement intercropping planting than mixed planting. In addition, replacement intercropping had better performance in total LER, LER of sesame, and LER of bean, to additive intercropping. Also, total LER was more than 1 which highest values were observed in the treatments of 25s75b, 50s50b, 30s100b, 75s25b, 100s 30b and 10s100b (1.22, 1.19, 1.15, 1.15 and 1.14, respectively. It seems that better utilize of the growth resource in the inter cropping led to reach this result. The results showed that presence of bean in intercropping had positive effects on sesame, so that the

  9. Control de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (lib. de Bary en Crisantemo y Habichuela con diferentes aislamientos de Trichoderma y con fungicidas Control of Sclerotínía sclerotíorum (lib de Bary in Chrysanthemum and snap bean with different isolates of Tríchoderma and with fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado de Kallman Liliana

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El trabajo consistió en seleccionar, incrementar, aplicar y evaluar la actividad antagónica de algunos aislamientos· del género Tríehoderma sobre el patógeno Scterotinía scterotiorum in vitro y en el campo en cultivos de crisantemo y habichuela, así como evaluar la eficiencia de algunos fungicidas en el control de las mismas enfermedades. Los aislamientos T10 de Tríchoderma víríde y T12 de Tríehoderma hamatúm se seleccionaron como los mejores antagonistas
    del patógeno por su mayor inhibición del crecimiento del micelio, sobre la formaéión de esclerociós y la mayor esporulación sobre el patógeno. Los aislamientos con mayor
    capacidad antagonista se evaluaron en el campo. Se evidenció la existencia de diferencias marcadas en el antagonismo entre los aislamientos de Tríehoderma utilizados. En los ensayos de campo se estableció que la
    enfermedad se presentó en el primero y segundo
    tercio de la planta, lo que indica que el control con fungicidas debe ir dirigido preferencialmente a esas partes de la planta. Se evalu6 además la eficiencia de las aplicaciones de los fungicidas Ferbam, Carbendazim y Vinclozolin y·se observo que en el ensayo de crisantemo bajo invernadero, el mejor control se logr6 cuando· se aplicó Carbendazim al suelo durante la primera semana de siembra combinado con cinco aspersiones sucesivas de Vinclozolin al follaje cada siete días a partir de la sexta semana. Al comparar el mejor tratamiento químico con el mejor antagonista biológico no se obtuvieron diferencias significativas entre ambos tipos de tratamíento.

    The objetive of this study was to select. increase and apply sorne isolates of Tríchoderma, and to evaluate their antagonistic activity against Sclerotínía sclerotíorum in vitro and in the field in chrysanthemum and snap beans. It was also intended to evaluate the efficiency of some fungicides in the control of those diseases. The isolates T10 of Tríchoderma v

  10. Advances in faba bean genetics and genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal Martin O'Sullivan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vicia faba L, is a globally important grain legume whose main centres of diversity are the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean basin. Because of its small number (six of exceptionally large and easily observed chromosomes it became a model species for plant cytogenetics the 70s and 80s. It is somewhat ironic therefore, that the emergence of more genomically tractable model plant species such as Arabidopsis and Medicago coincided with a marked decline in genome research on the formerly favoured plant cytogenetic model. Thus, as ever higher density molecular marker coverage and dense genetic and even complete genome sequence maps of key crop and model species emerged through the 1990s and early 2000s, genetic and genome knowledge of Vicia faba lagged far behind other grain legumes such as soybean, common bean and pea.However, cheap sequencing technologies have stimulated the production of deep transcriptome coverage from several tissue types and numerous distinct cultivars in recent years. This has permitted the reconstruction of the faba bean meta-transcriptome and has fuelled development of extensive sets of Simple Sequence Repeat and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP markers. Genetics of faba bean stretches back to the 1930s, but it was not until 1993 that DNA markers were used to construct genetic maps. A series of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-based genetic studies mainly targeted at quantitative loci underlying resistance to a series of biotic and abiotic stresses were conducted during the 1990’s and early 2000s. More recently, SNP-based genetic maps have permitted chromosome intervals of interest to be aligned to collinear segments of sequenced legume genomes such as the model legume Medicago truncatula, which in turn opens up the possibility for hypotheses on gene content, order and function to be translated from model to crop. Some examples of where knowledge of gene content and function have already been productively exploited are

  11. Characterisation of a haemagglutinin from Hokkaido red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Hokkaido red bean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jack H; Wan, Chung T; Ng, Tzi B

    2010-01-15

    A haemagglutinin was purified from Japanese Hokkaido red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Hokkaido red bean) with a procedure that included three chromatographic media. Haemagglutinating activity was adsorbed on DEAE cellulose, Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S. The pure haemagglutinin was a homodimer and each subunit was around 30 kDa in molecular mass. The haemagglutinating activity of this agglutinin could not be inhibited by a variety of simple sugars at 200 mmol L(-1) concentration including alpha-L-fucose, D(+)-galactose, D(+)-glucose, D(+)-glucosamine, D(-)galactosamine, galacturonic acid, (+)-lactose, D(+)-melibose, L(-)-mannose, D(+)-mannose, D-mannosamine, D(+)-raffinose, L-rhamnose, (+)-xylose and galacturonic acid. The haemagglutinating activity was fully retained at pH 4-11 and at 0-80 degrees C, but was completely lost at extreme pH values (0-2 and 13-14) and at very high temperatures (90 degrees C and 100 degrees C). The haemagglutinin exhibited a weak mitogenic activity toward mouse splenocytes, a stronger anti-proliferative activity than Con A toward HepG2 (human hepatoma) cells and inhibited >80% of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity at 3.3 micromol L(-1). It was devoid of anti-fungal activity. Hokkaido red bean haemagglutinin possesses a potent anti-proliferative effect on HepG2 cells. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Genetic variation for seed yield and some of agro-morphological traits in faba bean (Vicia faba L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman SHARIFI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  An investigation was carried out to select the most successful faba bean genotype(s and to estimate the heritability for seed yield and some of agro-morphological traits. The results of analysis of variance indicated that the studied genotypes differed significantly for all of the traits. For 100-seed weight, two north's of Iran landraces (G1 and G2 and two improved breeding cultivars containing France (G4 and Barrakat (G10 possessed the heaviest seed weight, 161.33, 139, 119.67 and 166 g, respectively. G1 and G10 presented the highest values for dry seed weight (473.98 and 495.44 g m-2, respectively. G1 and G10 showed significantly higher magnitude values of the other traits. Broad sense heritability (h2 estimates were generally high to moderate for all of the studied traits. The highest estimates of broad sense heritability was inscribed as 98 % for pod length, dry seed length and dry seed width and 0.95 for hundred seed weight. The estimated broad-sense heritability was 0.80 for dry seed yield per m2. These results suggested that the environmental factors had a small effect on the inheritance of traits with high heritability. High estimates of heritability indicated that selection based on mean would be successful in improving of these traits. High heritability indicate an additive gene action for the traits, and hence, possible trait improvement through selection. Path coefficient analysis indicated that the traits containing day to harvesting, pod length, hundred seed weight and number of stems per plant play major role in seed yield determination of faba bean. Attention should be paid to these characters for augmentation of seed yield and these traits could be used as selection criteria in faba bean breeding programs. These findings indicate that selection for each or full of the above traits would be accompanied by high yielding ability under such conditions. 

  13. Emulsification properties of soy bean protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WENPU CHEN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chen W, Li X, Rahman MRT, Al-Hajj NQM, Dey KC, Raqib SM. 2014. Emulsification properties of soy bean protein. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 196-202. Emulsion stability and emulsifying ability are two important factors in food industry. Soy protein has the great of interest because of its amphilic structure. β-Conglycinnin and glycinin are main components in soy protein which can be used as emulsifiers in food processing. However, due to its size and molecular weight, the emulsifying ability of soy protein is limited. By chemical, physical and enzymatic modification, the emulsifying ability of soy protein can be improved. The addition of polysaccharides in emulsion is common. The interaction of polysaccharides and proteins are being discussed in this review. In some complex food emulsion, the function of soy protein molecules and emulsifier at the interface need to be investigated in the future study.

  14. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SANITARY QUALITY OF DESICCATED AND STORED AZUKI BEAN SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÁSSIO JARDIM TAVARES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of using different herbicides as desiccants in pre - harvest and the effects of storage on the physiological and sanitary quality of azuki bean seeds ( Vigna angularis Willd. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design in a split plot scheme, with four replications. Four herbicides were tested: paraquat (400 g a.i. ha - 1 , glufosinate ammonium (400 g a.i. ha - 1 , glyphosate (720 g a.i. ha - 1 , flumioxazin (30 g a.i. ha - 1 and a control without herbicide application. In the subplots seed quality was tested in two evaluation periods: at harvest and six months after harvest. Desiccant was applied when the azuki beans were physiologically mature. We assessed the physiological and sanitary quality of the seeds using a vigour and seed health test. The use of glyphosate resulted in a higher incidence of abnormal seedlings and reduced size and weight of the seedlings. With paraquat and flumioxazin the physiological quality was maintained and there was reduced pathogen infestation in the seeds six months after harvest. Storage affected the physiological quality of the azuki bean seeds.

  15. Effect of extrusion, espansion and toasting on the nutritional value of peas, faba beans and lupins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Rossi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An assessment was made of the effect that different treatments (toasting, expansion, extrusion have on the nutritionalvalue of protein plants (pea, faba bean, lupin. In a randomized block design, feeds were screened for enzymaticdigestibility of starch and protein, N solubility and in vitro protein degradability. Expansion and extrusion cause increasedstarch enzymatic degradability while toasting produced virtually no effects. In peas this value increased from 11.80% inmeal to 39.70% in the extruded product; 85.37% is the percentage for the expanded product, while 10.90% is the starchdigestibility value for toasted peas. In faba beans the extrusion process increased starch digestibility from 11.39% to85.05%, while in extruded lupins a complete starch hydrolysis was obtained, while in the meal the polysaccharide digestionwas 54.48%.The expansion and extrusion processes significantly decreased rumen degradability during the first 8 hours of incubation.Toasted peas had lower degradability if compared with controls but not with the other treatments. The onlypotentially alternative source to soybean is the extruded faba bean. In spite of its lower protein content, this feed ischaracterized by a considerably lower in vitro protein degradability than soybean. This implies that the digestible foodprotein content is comparable (124.90 g/kg DM to that of soybean (109.78 g/kg DM and definitely higher than thatof all other protein plants.

  16. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Silicon Synergistically Enhance Salinity Tolerance of Mung Bean

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Sajid; Daur, Ihsanullah; Al-Solaimani, Samir G.; Ahmad, Shakeel; Madkour, Mohamed H.; Yasir, Muhammad; Hirt, Heribert; Ali, Shawkat; Ali, Zahir

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation and foliar application of silicon (Si) to improve the physiology, growth, and yield of mung bean under saline conditions. We isolated 18 promising PGPR from natural saline soil in Saudi Arabia, and screened them for plant-growth-promoting activities. Two effective strains were selected from the screening trial, and were identified as Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus drentensis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, respectively. Subsequently, in a 2-year mung bean field trial, using a randomized complete block design with a split-split plot arrangement, we evaluated the two PGPR strains and two Si levels (1 and 2 kg ha−1), in comparison with control treatments, under three different saline irrigation conditions (3.12, 5.46, and 7.81 dS m−1). The results indicated that salt stress substantially reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid content, plant height, leaf area, dry biomass, seed yield, and salt tolerance index. The PGPR strains and Si levels independently improved all the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the combined application of the B. drentensis strain with 2 kg Si ha−1 resulted in the greatest enhancement of mung bean physiology, growth, and yield. Overall, the results of this study provide important information for the benefit of the agricultural industry.

  17. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Silicon Synergistically Enhance Salinity Tolerance of Mung Bean

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Sajid

    2016-06-17

    The present study explored the eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation and foliar application of silicon (Si) to improve the physiology, growth, and yield of mung bean under saline conditions. We isolated 18 promising PGPR from natural saline soil in Saudi Arabia, and screened them for plant-growth-promoting activities. Two effective strains were selected from the screening trial, and were identified as Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus drentensis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, respectively. Subsequently, in a 2-year mung bean field trial, using a randomized complete block design with a split-split plot arrangement, we evaluated the two PGPR strains and two Si levels (1 and 2 kg ha−1), in comparison with control treatments, under three different saline irrigation conditions (3.12, 5.46, and 7.81 dS m−1). The results indicated that salt stress substantially reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid content, plant height, leaf area, dry biomass, seed yield, and salt tolerance index. The PGPR strains and Si levels independently improved all the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the combined application of the B. drentensis strain with 2 kg Si ha−1 resulted in the greatest enhancement of mung bean physiology, growth, and yield. Overall, the results of this study provide important information for the benefit of the agricultural industry.

  18. Fate of nitrogen (15N) from velvet bean in the soil-plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivittaro, Walkyria Bueno; Muraoka, Takashi; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze

    2004-01-01

    Because of their potential for N 2 biological fixation, legumes are an alternative source of nitrogen to crops, and can even replace or supplement mineral fertilization. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate temporal patterns of velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima) green manure release of nitrogen to rice plants, and to study the fate of nitrogen from velvet bean in rice cultivation. The isotopic dilution methodology was used. Treatments consisted of a control and 10 incubation periods of soil fertilized with 15 N-labeled velvet bean (0, 20, 40, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240 days). The plant material was previously chopped, sifted (10 mm mesh sieve) and oven-dried (65 deg C). Incubation of the plant material (2.2 g kg -1 soil) was initiated by the longest period, in order to synchronize the planting of the test crop, rice (Oryza sativa), at time zero for all treatments. Green manure incorporation promoted increases in rice dry matter yield and nitrogen uptake. These variables showed maximum values at incubation periods of 38 and 169 days, respectively. Green manure nitrogen utilization by rice plants was highest at an incubation period corresponding to 151 days. More than 60% of the green manure nitrogen remained in the soil after rice cultivation. The highest green manure nitrogen recovery from the soil-plant system occurred at an incubation period equivalent to 77 days. (author)

  19. Evaluation of common bean genotypes for phosphorus use efficiency in Eutrophic Oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Alves da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Common bean is one of the most important legumes in Latin America, mostly grown in soils with low phosphorus (P availability. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the responses of 20 bean genotypes to P deficiency. The experiment was a completely randomized design in a 2 × 20 factorial arrangement; the first factor consisted of P levels and the second factor, of 20 bean genotypes, with six replications. The substrate was a Red Eutrophic Oxisol with low P content. For application of the P treatments, it was applied simple superphosphate, consisting of two levels: restrictive and control, with the application of 45 and 90 kg∙ha–1 of P2O5, respectively. At 28 days, we observed the first symptoms of nutrient deficiency, with the decrease in the relative chlorophyll index in the restrictive level treatment. In addition, the treatments were effective in differentiating effects of both factors levels of P and genotypes for most traits evaluated relative to shoot, root and grain yield. It was possible to classify the genotypes in relation to use efficiency and responsiveness to P application, according to their average yield performances. Seven genotypes presented better performances for both P levels, being classified as Efficient and Responsive: G 2333, IAC Carioca Tybatã, IAPAR 81, IAC Imperador, IAC Formoso, BRS Esplendor and IPR Tangará; the first four genotypes were also classified as Efficient and Responsive under hydroponic conditions.

  20. Insects diversity in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIN SETIAWATI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus is a vegetable which usually made as a home yard plant for Indonesian people to fulfill their daily needs. This plant has not been produced in the large number by the farmer. So it is hard to find in the market. Lima bean is light by many kind of insect. Inventory, identification and the study of insect taxon to this plant is being done to collect some information about the insect who life in the plant. The research was done in Balitsa experiment garden in the district of Lembang in Bandung regency on November 2003-February 2004, the experiment start at 4 weeks age, at the height of 1260 m over the sea level. The observation was made systematically by absolute method (D-vac macine and relative method (sweeping net. The research so that there were 26 species of phytofagous insect, 9 species of predator insect, 6 species of parasitoid insect, 4 species of pollinator and 14 species of scavenger insect. According to the research the highest species number was got in the 8th week (3rd sampling, which had 27 variety of species, so the highest diversity was also got in this with 2,113 point. Aphididae and Cicadellidae was the most insect found in roay plant. The research also had high number of species insect so the diversity of insect and evenness become high. A community will have the high stability if it is a long with the high diversity. High evenness in community that has low species dominance and high species number of insect so the high of species richness.

  1. Navy and black bean supplementation primes the colonic mucosal microenvironment to improve gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Lepp, Dion; Wu, Wenqing; Pauls, K Peter; Robinson, Lindsay E; Power, Krista A

    2017-11-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are enriched in non-digestible fermentable carbohydrates and phenolic compounds that can modulate the colonic microenvironment (microbiota and host epithelial barrier) to improve gut health. In a comprehensive assessment of the impact of two commonly consumed bean varieties (differing in levels and types of phenolic compounds) within the colonic microenvironment, C57Bl/6 mice were fed diets supplemented with 20% cooked navy bean (NB) or black bean (BB) flours or an isocaloric basal diet control (BD) for 3 weeks. NB and BB similarly altered the fecal microbiota community structure (16S rRNA sequencing) notably by increasing the abundance of carbohydrate fermenting bacteria such as Prevotella, S24-7 and Ruminococcus flavefaciens, which coincided with enhanced short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production (microbial-derived carbohydrate fermentation products) and colonic expression of the SCFA receptors GPR-41/-43/-109a. Both NB and BB enhanced multiple aspects of mucus and epithelial barrier integrity vs. BD including: (i) goblet cell number, crypt mucus content and mucin mRNA expression, (ii) anti-microbial defenses (Reg3γ), (iii) crypt length and epithelial cell proliferation, (iv) apical junctional complex components (occludin, JAM-A, ZO-1 and E-cadherin) mRNA expression and (v) reduced serum endotoxin concentrations. Interestingly, biomarkers of colon barrier integrity (crypt height, mucus content, cell proliferation and goblet cell number) were enhanced in BB vs. NB-fed mice, suggesting added benefits attributable to unique BB components (e.g., phenolics). Overall, NB and BB improved baseline colonic microenvironment function by altering the microbial community structure and activity and promoting colon barrier integrity and function; effects which may prove beneficial in attenuating gut-associated diseases. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effectiveness of Locust Bean Pod Solution (LBPS) in the Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    KEYWORDS: Cement, compressive strength, locust bean, sandcrete blocks, building. [Received ... necessitates the need for alternative low cost walling material. (Aguwa, 2010) ... of 1920 to 2080 kg/m2 and may be solid or hollow. Dense solid.

  3. Plants growth, water relations and photosynthesis of two bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... almost all physiological activities were suppressed. The superiority of the genotype Tema against Djadida genotype was attributed to quantitative rather than qualitative physiological response differences. Keywords: Salinity, fluridone, bean, growth, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance. African Journal of Biotechnology ...

  4. Variation in quantitative characters of faba bean after seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in quantitative characters of faba bean after seed irradiation and associated molecular changes. Sonia Mejri, Yassine Mabrouk, Marie Voisin, Philippe Delavault, Philippe Simier, Mouldi Saidi, Omrane Belhadj ...

  5. THE EFFECT OF REPLACING SOYA BEAN MEAL WITH COOKED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... performance, carcass characteristics and blood indices of finisher broilers. Mucuna sloanei seeds were ... that is rich in protein and used for both human and ... The over dependence on soya bean as major protein source for ...

  6. In vitro root induction of faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Roba M; Elazab, Heba E M; Hussein, Gihan M H; Metry, Emad A

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge for regeneration of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) plants is the difficulty of in vitro root induction. In the present study, in vitro rooting and its architecture have been studied. Adventitious root formation was successfully induced from regenerated faba bean shoots of four Egyptian cultivars, i.e., Giza 461, Giza 40, Giza 834 and Giza 716 on hormone free MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/l silver nitrate. Among the four cultivars, Giza 461 and Giza 40 were recorded as the highest root formation response (75 % and 65) followed by cultivars Giza716 and Giza843 (20%, and 10%). Anatomical study proved that the produced roots are initiated as the adventitious lateral root (LR) with tri-arch xylem strands as compared with the penta-arch of the primary roots of the intact faba bean seedling. The obtained results overcome the root induction problem in faba bean.

  7. Effectiveness of rapid neutrons on small hoarse bean seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szlek, S.; Janiszewski, T.

    1986-01-01

    The small hoarse bean seeds were irradiated. The radiation doses 100-300 rads were used. The obtained mutants were applied in the breeding. The use of fast neutrons was successful and shortened the breeding cycle. (A.S.)

  8. reaction of selected common bean genotypes to physiological races

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Department of Biological Sciences, Egerton University, P. O. Box 536, Egerton, Kenya. 1Department of Plant ... order to identify potential sources of resistance to angular leaf spot. Selected bean ...... phaseolicola (Burk, 1926) Young, Dye and.

  9. Detection of metabolites in Flor de Mayo common beans (Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    katia

    2012-07-10

    Jul 10, 2012 ... beans involves beneficial effects of inoculation on plant growth and development parameters and can be taken ..... deficit as a driver of the mutualistic relationship between the fungus ... Utilization of the plant hormone indole-.

  10. Genetic diversity study of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... small black wild type to the large white, brown, red and spotted types (Cobley and ..... Accession. North Omo. (A). Hadiya. (B). Metekel. (Dan gure. )(C. ) Shinile (D) .... Origin, domestication and evolution of the common bean ...

  11. Induced mutants in beans and peas resistant to rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl, F.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and peas (Pisum sativum) are important leguminous vegetable crops in Egypt. The area planted with beans is about 40,000 acres and peas 22,000 acres. These crops suffer from several diseases, particularly rusts, (Uromyces phaseoli/Uromyces pisi), which are mainly spread in northern Egypt. In our mutation induction programme we used 60 Co gamma rays and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). Bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for two hours before exposure to 8, 10 and 12 krad. For chemical treatments, bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for eight hours and then treated with 0.5 and 1.5% EMS for four hours. The M 1 was cultivated in 1978

  12. Economic analysis of locust bean processing and marketing in Iwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic analysis of locust bean processing and marketing in Iwo local government, Osun state. ... Majority (78.3%) of the processors and marketers were making profit; 95.0% operate ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  13. THE ROLE OF BACTERIAL SYMBIONTS IN AMINO ACID COMPOSITION OF BLACK BEAN APHIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MingGan; De-ChengDing; Xue-xiaMiao

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the role of bacterial symbionts ( Buchnera spp. ) in the black bean aphids ( Aphis craccivora Koch), the aphids were treated with the antibiotic, rifampicin, to eliminate their intracellular symbiotic bacteria. Analysis of protein and amino acid concentration in 7-day-old of aposymbiotic aphids showed that the total protein content per mg fresh weight was significantly reduced by 29 %, but free amino acid titers were increased by 17% . The ratio of the essential amino acids was in general only around 20% essential amino acids in phloem sap of broad bean, whereas it was 44% and 37% in symbiotic and aposymbiotic aphids, respectively,suggesting that the composition of the free amino acids was unbalanced. For example, the essential amino acid,threonine represented 21. 6% of essential amino acids in symbiotic aphids, but it was only 16.7% in aposymbiotic aphids. Likewise, two nonessential amino acids, tyrosine and serine, represented 8.9% and 5.6% of total amino acids in symbiontic aphids, respectively, but they enhanced to 21.1% and 13.6% in aposymbiotic aphids. It seems likely that the elevated free amino acid concentration in aposymbiotic aphids was caused by the limited protein anabolism as the result of the unbalanced amino acid composition.

  14. Solar radiation use efficiency and morphophysiological indices in common bean cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Carneiro da Silva Teixeira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Common bean crops present a broad edaphoclimatic adaptation, allowing their cultivation throughout the year. However, in order to reach good economic income levels, it is fundamental to understand the processes that affect the growth and development of the crop in various environments. This study aimed to compare two common bean cultivars (BRS Radiante and Pérola contrasting in cycle and growth behavior by using morphophysiological indices and solar radiation use efficiency. The following traits were evaluated: light extinction coefficient, radiation use efficiency, phenologic development, leaf area index, total dry matter weight, crop growth rate, relative growth rate and dry matter partitioning. The BRS Radiante cultivar shows a higher vigor, when compared to the Pérola cultivar, due to its faster initial phenologic development and higher initial and relative growth rates. Both cultivars differ for leaf area index and shoot architecture, although that does not happen for light extinction coefficient. The BRS Radiante cultivar shows a higher solar radiation use efficiency, resulting in a greater dry matter yield throughout its development.

  15. Preparation and characterization of soaps made from soya bean oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work deals with the preparation of soaps from neem oil and soya bean oil blends and analyses the soap produced. The soaps were produced using cold process technique by varying the percentage of oils; (soya bean oil and neem oil) in the ratio of 100%, 90/10%, 80/20%, 70/30%, 60/40%, 50/50%, 40/60%, ...

  16. Tvorba pluginů pro NetBeans

    OpenAIRE

    Vondráček, Ladislav

    2017-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is an analysis of plugin technology. The goal of the thesis is to characterization of basics of this technology in common and with focus on application on NetBeans platform and its integrated development environment and further demonstration of the technology in form developing exemplary NetBeans plugin. Opening part is dedicated to theoretical analysis of plugin principals, its purposes in soft-ware development and use cases for current software applications. The t...

  17. Beta limit of crescent and bean shaped tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitou, H.; Yamazaki, K.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum attainable beta values which can be expected in tokamaks with crescent (BEAN 1) and rounded (BEAN 2) bean shaped cross-sections are obtained numerically by using the linear ideal MHD stability analysis code ERATO. The current profiles are optimized with a fixed pressure profile for high values of beta, keeping Mercier, high-n ballooning and n=1 kink modes stable. The poloidal plasma cross-sections are inscribed in a rectangle with an aspect ratio of three and an ellipticity of two. A confocal wall, the distance of which from the plasma surface is equal to the horizontal minor plasma radius, is present to stabilize against the kink mode. Depending on the shape and triangularity (indentation), a beta value of 10 to 17% is obtained. It is also shown that the coefficient of the Troyon-type beta scaling increases for an indented plasma. In the case of small indentation, the BEAN 1 type tokamaks show higher beta values than the BEAN 2 type. For strong indentation, the BEAN 2 type gives the highest beta value. (author). 29 refs, 15 figs

  18. Kinetics of water sorption of damaged bean grains: Thermodynamic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Corrêa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to determine the thermodynamic properties of damaged beans. Grains with initial moisture content of 53.85% (d.b. were used. A part of the grains was used to obtain the desorption isotherms, while another part was subjected to drying until a moisture content of 5.26% (d.b. was achieved; therefore, it was subjected to the adsorption process. To induce damage, a Stein breakage tester was used. To obtain the equilibrium moisture content, grains were placed in a climatic chamber whose temperatures were 20, 30, 40, and 50 ± 1 °C combined with a relative humidity of 30, 40, 50, 70, and 90 ± 3%. Although in the desorption process, damaged grains had a lower differential enthalpy compared with the control, the reverse behavior was observed in the adsorption process. Mechanical damage caused the formation of a greater number of available adsorption sites, resulting in higher differential entropy values in adsorption and lower values in desorption compared with the control. The mechanical damage had no effect on the Gibbs free energy.

  19. Texturized pinto bean protein fortification in straight dough bread formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Courtney W; Hunt-Schmidt, Emily; Simsek, Senay; Hall, Clifford; Biswas, Atanu

    2014-09-01

    Pinto beans were milled and then air-classified to obtain a raw high protein fraction (RHPF) followed by extrusion to texturize the protein fraction. The texturized high protein fraction (THPF) was then milled to obtain flour, and combined with wheat flour at 5, 10, and 15% levels to make bread. The air-classification process produced flour with high concentration of lipids and phytic acid in the protein-rich fraction. However, extrusion significantly reduced hexane extractable lipid and phytic acid. However, the reduction observed may simply indicate a reduction in recovery due to bind with other components. Total protein and lysine contents in composite flours increased significantly as THPF levels increased in composite flour. Bread made with 5% THPF had 48% more lysine than the 100 % wheat flour (control). The THPF helped to maintain dough strength by reducing mixing tolerance index (MTI), maintaining dough stability and increasing departure time on Farinograph. Bread loaf volume was significantly reduced above 5% THPF addition. THPF increased water absorption causing an increase in bread weights by up to 6%. Overall, loaf quality deteriorated at 10 and 15% THPF levels while bread with 5% THPF was not significantly different from the control. These results support the addition of 5% THPF as a means to enhance lysine content of white pan bread.

  20. Biological nitrogen fixation in common bean and faba bean using N-15 methodology and two reference crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvache, Marcelo.

    1989-01-01

    A field was conducted on a Typic ustropepts soil located at 'La Tola', the experimental campus of the Agricultural Sciences Faculty at Tumbaco, Ecuador. The objectives were to quantify faba bean (Vicia faba) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) biological nitrogen fixation, using quinoa (chenopodium quinoa) and maize (Zea mays) as reference crops. The average values were 80 and 70 per cent for faba bean and 42 and 14 per cent for common bean, respectively. It was assumed that nitrogen use eficiency was the same for fixing crops but observed that a crop with high nitrogen use efficiency overestimates legume biological nitrogen fixation. Results suggests that greater caution is needed when selecting reference crops for legumes with nitrogen fixation

  1. Evaluation of bean and soy tempeh influence on intestinal bacteria and estimation of antibacterial properties of bean tempeh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuligowski, Maciej; Jasińska-Kuligowska, Iwona; Nowak, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    In this study the effect of bean tempeh on the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus paracasei bacteria was investigated. Antibacterial activity was observed only in relation to the bacteria Bacillus subtilis. The effect of tempeh products on human intestinal microflora was also assessed. Bean and soy tempeh were culinarily processed and next digested in conditions simulating the human digestive tract (one of the digestive tracts was equipped with a mechanism simulating absorption). Soy tempeh stimulated most the growth of bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium, while bean tempeh that of Escherichia coli. Using simulation of absorption for the digestion of fried soy tempeh resulted in a higher rise in the bacteria count of the genus Lactobacillus, while after digestion of fried bean tempeh the highest increase was recorded for Bifidobacterium and E. coli.

  2. Broad Prize: Do the Successes Spread?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    When the Broad Prize for Urban Education was created in 2002, billionaire philanthropist Eli Broad said he hoped the awards, in addition to rewarding high-performing school districts, would foster healthy competition; boost the prestige of urban education, long viewed as dysfunctional; and showcase best practices. Over the 10 years the prize has…

  3. 77 FR 50144 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2012-0042] Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY... Information Collection Request: 1670-NEW. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National... (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. Chapter 35). NPPD is soliciting comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder...

  4. 76 FR 34087 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2011-0027] Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY... Information Collection Request: 1670-NEW. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National... (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. Chapter 35). NPPD is soliciting comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder...

  5. Induced variation in pod and seed traits of wild and cultivated beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignacimuthu, S.; Babu, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    With a view to evaluate the induced genetic variation in yield traits of wild and cultivated urd and mung bean, seeds of Vigna radiata. V. mungo (cultivars) and V. sublobata (wild relative) were given mutagenic treatments. Different concentrations of EMS and gamma rays were used as mutagens separately and in combination. Genetic variation in yield traits was analysed in M 2 plants. There was a broad spectrum of induced variability in most yield traits. Genetic variance, heritability and genetic advance were high in most of the traits. The results demonstrate that induced mutations are random, polydirectional and quantitative in nature. The wild relative is more resistant than the cultivars. (author). 14 refs., 4 tabs

  6. Improvement of Faba Bean Yield Using Rhizobium/Agrobacterium Inoculant in Low-Fertility Sandy Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh H. Youseif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility is one of the major limiting factors for crop’s productivity in Egypt and the world in general. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF has a great importance as a non-polluting and a cost-effective way to improve soil fertility through supplying N to different agricultural systems. Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is one of the most efficient nitrogen-fixing legumes that can meet all of their N needs through BNF. Therefore, understanding the impact of rhizobial inoculation and contrasting soil rhizobia on nodulation and N2 fixation in faba bean is crucial to optimize the crop yield, particularly under low fertility soil conditions. This study investigated the symbiotic effectiveness of 17 Rhizobium/Agrobacterium strains previously isolated from different Egyptian governorates in improving the nodulation and N2 fixation in faba bean cv. Giza 843 under controlled greenhouse conditions. Five strains that had a high nitrogen-fixing capacity under greenhouse conditions were subsequently tested in field trials as faba bean inoculants at Ismaillia Governorate in northeast Egypt in comparison with the chemical N-fertilization treatment (96 kg N·ha−1. A starter N-dose (48 kg N·ha−1 was applied in combination with different Rhizobium inoculants. The field experiments were established at sites without a background of inoculation under low fertility sandy soil conditions over two successive winter growing seasons, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. Under greenhouse conditions, inoculated plants produced significantly higher nodules dry weight, plant biomass, and shoot N-uptake than non-inoculated ones. In the first season (2012/2013, inoculation of field-grown faba bean showed significant improvements in seed yield (3.73–4.36 ton·ha−1 and seed N-yield (138–153 Kg N·ha−1, which were higher than the uninoculated control (48 kg N·ha−1 that produced 2.97 Kg·ha−1 and 95 kg N·ha−1, respectively. Similarly, in the second season (2013

  7. Evaluation Of Yield And Chemical Properties Of Some Faba Bean (Vicia FABA L.) Mutants Induced By GAMMA Radiation And Ethyl Methane Sulphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, E.M.; Nasr, E.H.; Attia, Z.M.; Shawki, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the effect of physical and chemical mutagens on the yield and chemical properties as well as amino acids composition of defatted faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds meal as a control (Giza 2) compared with mutants produced by gamma radiation and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). Also, the functional properties of these samples were determined. The results indicated high differences between mutation for seed yield and its components than the untreated samples. In addition, radiation mutation of faba bean seeds showed slight increase in protein content as the main constituent of faba bean seeds as well as total oil percentages in some mutant of these seeds in return of decreasing in total carbohydrate. Furthermore, radiation mutation had detectable effects on the total amino acids contents of faba bean seeds meal which had a higher percentages on essential amino acids (EAA) and non-essential amino acids (NEAA) and mutant 3 was the highest values of EAA and NEAA as compared to the control. On the other hand, radiation mutation improved the protein functional properties of some mutant of faba bean meal flour than the other mutant samples as compared to local commercial variety

  8. Growth of Clostridium perfringens during cooling of refried beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; Akins, E Deann; Friedrich, Loretta M; Danyluk, Michelle D; Simonne, Amarat H

    2012-10-01

    Outbreaks of Clostridium perfringens have been associated with dishes containing refried beans from food service establishments. However, growth of C. perfringens in refried beans has not been investigated, and predictive models have not been validated in this food matrix. We investigated the growth of C. perfringens during the cooling of refried beans. Refried beans (pinto and black, with and without salt added) were inoculated with 3 log CFU/g C. perfringens spores and incubated isothermally at 12, 23, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50°C. The levels of C. perfringens were monitored 3, 5, 8, and 10 h after inoculation, and then fitted to the Baranyi primary model and the Rosso secondary model prior to solving the Baranyi differential equation. The final model was validated by dynamic cooling experiments carried out in stockpots, thus mimicking the worst possible food service conditions. All refried beans samples supported the growth of C. perfringens, and all models fit the data with pseudo-R(2) values of 0.95 or greater and mean square errors of 0.3 or lower. The estimated maximum specific growth rates were generally higher in pinto beans, with or without salt added (2.64 and 1.95 h(-1), respectively), when compared with black beans, with or without salt added (1.78 and 1.61 h(-1), respectively). After 10 h of incubation, maximum populations of C. perfringens were significantly higher in samples with no salt added (7.9 log CFU/g for both pinto and black beans) than in samples with salt added (7.3 and 7.2 log CFU/g for pinto and black beans, respectively). The dynamic model predicted the growth of C. perfringens during cooling, with an average root mean squared error of 0.44. The use of large stockpots to cool refried beans led to an observed 1.2-log increase (1.5-log increase predicted by model) in levels of C. perfringens during cooling. The use of shallower pans for cooling is recommended, because they cool faster, therefore limiting the growth of C. perfringens.

  9. Effects of combined traditional processing methods on the nutritional quality of beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakitto, Aisha M; Muyonga, John H; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy

    2015-05-01

    Consumption of dry beans is limited by long cooking times thus high fuel requirement. The bioavailability of nutrients in beans is also limited due to presence of antinutrients such as phytates and tannins. Little research has been done on combined processing methods for production of nutritious fast cooking bean flour and the effect of combined treatments on nutritional quality of beans has not previously determined. The aim of this study was to reduce cooking time and enhance the nutritional value of dry beans. Specifically to: develop protocols for production of fast cooking bean flours and assess the effect of processing on the nutritional characteristics of the flours. Dry beans (K131 variety) were soaked for 12 h; sprouted for 48 h; dehulled and steamed for 25 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively or roasted at 170°C for 45 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively. Dehulling eliminated phytates and tannins and increased protein digestibility. In vitro protein digestibility and mineral (iron and zinc) extractability were negatively correlated with tannin and phytate content. Total available carbohydrates were highest in moist heat-treated bean flours. Overall, combined processing of beans improved the nutritional quality of dry beans and the resulting precooked flours need less cooking time compared to whole dry beans.

  10. Water sorption kinetics of damaged beans: GAB model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M. Baptestini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to model the water sorption kinetics of damaged beans. Grains with initial moisture content of 53.85%, dry basis (d.b., were used. One portion of the grains was used to obtain desorption isotherms, while the other was subjected to drying until the moisture content of 5.26% (d.b., so that it was subjected to the adsorption. For the induction of damage, a Stein Breakage Tester was used. To obtain the equilibrium moisture content, grains were placed in a climatic chamber at 20, 30, 40 and 50 ± 1 °C combined with relative humidity of 30, 40, 50, 70 and 90 ± 3%. The GAB model fitted well to the equilibrium moisture experimental data of damaged grains and control. With increasing temperature, the monolayer moisture contents decreased in adsorption and desorption processes, ranging from 9.84 to 5.10% d.b. The lower moisture content in the monolayer in damaged grains indicates that lower moisture content is necessary to ensure their conservation.

  11. Gene flow from transgenic common beans expressing the bar gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Josias C; Carneiro, Geraldo E S; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2010-01-01

    Gene flow is a common phenomenon even in self-pollinated plant species. With the advent of genetically modified plants this subject has become of the utmost importance due to the need for controlling the spread of transgenes. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence and intensity of outcrossing in transgenic common beans. In order to evaluate the outcross rates, four experiments were conducted in Santo Antonio de Goiás (GO, Brazil) and one in Londrina (PR, Brazil), using transgenic cultivars resistant to the herbicide glufosinate ammonium and their conventional counterparts as recipients of the transgene. Experiments with cv. Olathe Pinto and the transgenic line Olathe M1/4 were conducted in a completely randomized design with ten replications for three years in one location, whereas the experiments with cv. Pérola and the transgenic line Pérola M1/4 were conducted at two locations for one year, with the transgenic cultivar surrounded on all sides by the conventional counterpart. The outcross occurred at a negligible rate of 0.00741% in cv. Pérola, while none was observed (0.0%) in cv. Olathe Pinto. The frequency of gene flow was cultivar dependent and most of the observed outcross was within 2.5 m from the edge of the pollen source. Index terms: Phaseolus vulgaris, outcross, glufosinate ammonium.

  12. Mung Bean nuclease mapping of RNAs 3' end

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri Rainer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A method is described that allows an accurate mapping of 3' ends of RNAs. In this method a labeled DNA probe, containing the presumed 3' end of the RNA under analysis is allowed to anneals to the RNA itself. Mung-bean nuclease is then used to digest single strands of both RNA and DNA. Electrophoretic fractionation of "protected" undigested, labeled DNA is than performed using a sequence reaction of a known DNA as length marker. This procedure was applied to the analysis of both a polyA RNA (Interleukin 10 mRNA and non polyA RNAs (sea urchin 18S and 26S rRNAs. This method might be potentially relevant for the evaluation of the role of posttrascriptional control of IL-10 in the pathogenesis of the immune and inflammatory mediated diseases associated to ageing. This might allow to develop new strategies to approach to the diagnosis and therapy of age related diseases.

  13. Physicochemical Properties of Flaxseed Fortified Extruded Bean Snack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Vadukapuram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Milled flaxseed was incorporated (0–20% into a combination of bean-corn flours and extruded in a twin screw extruder using corn curl method. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity, color, expansion ratio, bulk density, lipid content, and peroxide values of extruded snack were analyzed. Scanning electron micrographs were taken. Peroxide values and propanal contents were measured over four months of storage. Rancidity scores of extruded snack were measured using a trained panel. As expected, omega-3 fatty acids and bulk density increased with increasing flaxseed fortification levels. Extrudates with more flaxseed had decreased lightness values and expansion ratios. However, only the 15 and 20% flaxseed containing extrudates had expansion ratios that were significantly (P≤0.05 different from the control. In general, no significant difference (P>0.05 in water activity values was observed in the flaxseed fortified extrudates, except in the navy-corn based extrudates. Peroxide values increased with increased flaxseed levels and over a storage period. However, propanal values did not change significantly in the 5–10% flaxseed fortified extrudates but increased in extrudates with higher levels of flaxseed. Rancidity scores were correlated with peroxide values and did not increase significantly during storage under nitrogen flushed conditions.

  14. Physicochemical Properties of Flaxseed Fortified Extruded Bean Snack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadukapuram, Naveen; Hall, Clifford; Tulbek, Mehmet; Niehaus, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Milled flaxseed was incorporated (0-20%) into a combination of bean-corn flours and extruded in a twin screw extruder using corn curl method. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity, color, expansion ratio, bulk density, lipid content, and peroxide values of extruded snack were analyzed. Scanning electron micrographs were taken. Peroxide values and propanal contents were measured over four months of storage. Rancidity scores of extruded snack were measured using a trained panel. As expected, omega-3 fatty acids and bulk density increased with increasing flaxseed fortification levels. Extrudates with more flaxseed had decreased lightness values and expansion ratios. However, only the 15 and 20% flaxseed containing extrudates had expansion ratios that were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different from the control. In general, no significant difference (P > 0.05) in water activity values was observed in the flaxseed fortified extrudates, except in the navy-corn based extrudates. Peroxide values increased with increased flaxseed levels and over a storage period. However, propanal values did not change significantly in the 5-10% flaxseed fortified extrudates but increased in extrudates with higher levels of flaxseed. Rancidity scores were correlated with peroxide values and did not increase significantly during storage under nitrogen flushed conditions.

  15. Experimentally induced mastitis and metritis modulate soy bean derived isoflavone biotransformation in diary cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk-Zieba, I; Woclawek-Potocka, I; Piskula, M K; Piotrowska-Tomala, K K; Boruszewska, D; Bah, M M; Siemieniuch, M J; Skarzynski, D J

    2011-12-01

    The present study compared the changes in isoflavone (daidzein and genistein) and their metabolite (equol and para-ethyl-phenol) concentrations in the blood plasma of cows with induced mastitis and metritis after feeding with soy bean. Sixteen cows were divided into four groups: control for mastitis group, cows with induced mastitis group, control for metritis group, and cows with induced metritis group. All cows were fed a single dose of 2.5 kg of soy bean and then blood samples were taken from the jugular vein for 8 h at predetermined intervals. The concentrations of soy bean-derived isoflavones and their active metabolites were measured in the blood plasma on HPLC system. β-Glucuronidase activity in the blood plasma of cows was measured by fluorometric method. In the blood plasma of cows with induced mastitis and metritis, we found considerably higher concentrations and time-dependent increase in isoflavone metabolites (equol and para-ethyl-phenol) with reference to cyclic cows (P < 0.05). Moreover, we noticed significant decrease of genistein in the blood plasma of the cows with induced metritis compared with control cows (P < 0.05). In addition, in the blood plasma of the cows with induced metritis, we found an increase in β-glucuronidase activity compared with control cows (P < 0.05). In conclusion, health status of the females influenced the concentrations of isoflavone metabolites in the blood plasma of the cows. Experimentally induced mastitis and metritis increased isoflavone absorption, biotransformation and metabolism. Therefore, we suggest that cows with induced mastitis and metritis are more exposed to active isoflavone metabolite actions than healthy cows. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. From beef to beans: Eating motives and the replacement of animal proteins with plant proteins among Finnish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Annukka; Niva, Mari; Jallinoja, Piia; Latvala, Terhi

    2016-11-01

    A better understanding of the motives underlying the adoption of sustainable and healthy diets is needed for designing more effective policies. The aim of the study was to examine how eating motives were associated with self-reported changes in the consumption of beef, beans, and soy products, i.e., changes related to reducing animal and increasing plant proteins. The study analysed a survey of an adult population living in Finland (N = 1048). The eating motives were measured with the Eating Motivation Survey (TEMS), which distinguishes between 15 eating motives. Six clusters of consumers based on self-reported changes in food choices were identified with latent class analysis (LCA). Four clusters had established food consumption patterns ("Beef only", "Beef and beans", "Beef, beans, and soy products", and "No beef"), one was undergoing a change, and one had attempted a change earlier. ANOVA with planned contrasts revealed that the motives relating to natural concerns, health, and weight control were higher, and convenience and price lower, among those who had an established diet including beans and soy products, as compared to those who consumed only beef. Those undergoing a dietary change expressed a higher endorsement of natural concerns as well as health, sociability, social image, and price motives than those with an established diet including beans and soy products. The results suggest that eating motives play an important role in changing towards more sustainable food consumption patterns in which meat/beef is replaced with plant proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. QTL mapping and epistatic interaction analysis in asparagus bean for several characterized and novel horticulturally important traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata. ssp sesquipedalis) is a subspecies and special vegetable type of cowpea (Vigna. unguiculata L. Walp.) important in Asia. Genetic basis of horticulturally important traits of asparagus bean is still poorly understood, hindering the utilization of targeted, DNA marker-assisted breeding in this crop. Here we report the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and epistatic interactions for four horticultural traits, namely, days to first flowering (FLD), nodes to first flower (NFF), leaf senescence (LS) and pod number per plant (PN) using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of asparagus bean. Results A similar genetic mode of one major QTL plus a few minor QTLs was found to dominate each of the four traits, with the number of QTLs for individual traits ranging from three to four. These QTLs were distributed on 7 of the 11 chromosomes. Major QTLs for FLD, NFF and LS were co-localized on LG 11, indicative of tight linkage. Genome wide epistasis analysis detected two and one interactive locus pairs that significantly affect FLD and LS, respectively, and the epistatic QTLs for FLD appeared to work in different ways. Synteny based comparison of QTL locations revealed conservation of chromosome regions controlling these traits in related legume crops. Conclusion Major, minor, and epistatic QTLs were found to contribute to the inheritance of the FLD, NFF, LS, and PN. Positions of many of these QTLs are conserved among closely related legume species, indicating common mechanisms they share. To our best knowledge, this is the first QTL mapping report using an asparagus bean × asparagus bean intervarietal population and provides marker-trait associations for marker-assisted approaches to selection. PMID:23375055

  18. Induced mutations of winged bean in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klu, G Y.P.; Quaynor-Addy, M; Dinku, E; Dikumwin, E [National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Legon (Ghana)

    1989-07-01

    Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) D.C.) was introduced into Ghana about two decades ago and not long after a high quality baby food was compounded from it. Germplasm collections are established at the Kade Agricultural Research Station of the University of Ghana and the University of Cape Coast. In 1980 a mutation breeding project was initiated at the University of Cape Coast under FAO/IAEA research contract and among various mutants a single erect stem mutant, a multiple branched bush type and a mutant with extra long pods were obtained. A similar programme was started at the National Nuclear Research Centre Kwabenya in 1982. Seeds of accessions UPS 122 and Kade 6/16 were gamma irradiated (100-400 Gy). In M{sub 2} a mutant was obtained that did not flower throughout a growing period of five months. This mutant had very few leaves but developed an underground tuber weighing ca. 100 g. The parent, UPS 122, although normally tuber producing did not form tubers at Kwabenya within the period studied. In M{sub 3}, mutants with variations in seed size and seed coat colour have been detected.

  19. Immunoregulatory activities of polysaccharides from mung bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yang; Zhu, Yingying; Ren, Guixing

    2016-03-30

    Ultrasonic treatment was performed on water-extractable polysaccharides from the seed of mung beans. Purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography, MWP-1' and MWP-2' were obtained. Average molecular weights (Mws) of MWP-1' and MWP-2' were 68.4 kDa, and 52.4 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharides components analysis indicated that MWP-1' was composed of Rha, Ara, Man and Gal in a molar percent of 0.4:2.6:5.3:0.7. MWP-2' was composed of Ara, Man, Gal and Glc in a molar percent of 0.5:1.4:2.1:0.4. In vitro study showed that both polysaccharides samples were able to stimulate the production of secretory molecules (NO, TNF-α and IL-6) of RAW264.7 murine macrophages in a dosage dependent manner. MWP-2' seemed to be the most potent and induced significantly higher the NO production. These findings suggest that the ultrasonic treatment polysaccharides isolated in our study have immune potentiation effects on macrophages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 78 FR 8698 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel COOL BEANS; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2013 0005] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel COOL BEANS; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY... BEANS is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: Sightseeing and sunset cruises. Geographic Region: Florida...

  1. Yield and Quality of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata (l. R. Wilczek Seeds Produced in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil MISIAK

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to do field and laboratory assessments of yield and quality of mung bean (Vigna radiata (L. R. Wilczek seeds cultivated in Western Poland. Mean yield of seeds per plant was higher for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. than for mung one: 13.1 g and 2.58 g, respectively. The mean 1000 mung seeds weight was 50.9 g and their germination – 78 %. Germination capacities of seeds of both beans in the field were similar. Mung beans, compared to common bean, had much smaller seeds, started to bloom later and produced mature seeds later than the latter. Mung bean seeds had more total proteins and Magnesium and Copper than common bean seeds. In Western Poland, production of high quality mung bean seeds was possible.

  2. Identification of loci governing eight agronomic traits using a GBS-GWAS approach and validation by QTL mapping in soya bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonah, Humira; O'Donoughue, Louise; Cober, Elroy; Rajcan, Istvan; Belzile, François

    2015-02-01

    Soya bean is a major source of edible oil and protein for human consumption as well as animal feed. Understanding the genetic basis of different traits in soya bean will provide important insights for improving breeding strategies for this crop. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to accelerate molecular breeding for the improvement of agronomic traits in soya bean. A genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach was used to provide dense genome-wide marker coverage (>47,000 SNPs) for a panel of 304 short-season soya bean lines. A subset of 139 lines, representative of the diversity among these, was characterized phenotypically for eight traits under six environments (3 sites × 2 years). Marker coverage proved sufficient to ensure highly significant associations between the genes known to control simple traits (flower, hilum and pubescence colour) and flanking SNPs. Between one and eight genomic loci associated with more complex traits (maturity, plant height, seed weight, seed oil and protein) were also identified. Importantly, most of these GWAS loci were located within genomic regions identified by previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) for these traits. In some cases, the reported QTLs were also successfully validated by additional QTL mapping in a biparental population. This study demonstrates that integrating GBS and GWAS can be used as a powerful complementary approach to classical biparental mapping for dissecting complex traits in soya bean. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Antiviral Therapy by HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing and Inhibitory Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, a global epidemic for more than three decades. HIV-1 replication is primarily controlled through antiretroviral therapy (ART but this treatment does not cure HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, there is increasing viral resistance to ART, and side effects associated with long-term therapy. Consequently, there is a need of alternative candidates for HIV-1 prevention and therapy. Recent advances have discovered multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. In this review, we describe the key epitopes on the HIV-1 Env protein and the reciprocal broadly neutralizing antibodies, and discuss the ongoing clinical trials of broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibody therapy as well as antibody combinations, bispecific antibodies, and methods that improve therapeutic efficacy by combining broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs with latency reversing agents. Compared with ART, HIV-1 therapeutics that incorporate these broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibodies offer the advantage of decreasing virus load and clearing infected cells, which is a promising prospect in HIV-1 prevention and treatment.

  4. Effect of Heated Red Bean Pillow Application for College Women with Dysmenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeung-Im Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeDysmenorrhea is a menstrual condition characterized by severe and frequent cramps and pain. Effective treatment methods for dysmenorrhea are not yet fully understood. This research compares the effects of pain killers and heated red bean pillows.MethodsData were got on demographic data, menstrual cycle status, and activities of daily living (ADLs limitations, dysmenorrhea severity and menstrual pain scores. Following a 10% drop-out rate, 44 young women satisfied the inclusion criteria. To prevent any bias, the experimental and control groups were selected from different campuses. We used two sizes of red bean pillows: 15×18 cm, weighing 400g; and 13×11.5 cm, weighing 220g. For analysis, we used IBM SPSS statistics 19.0.ResultsNinety-nine point seven percentage of total subjects reported moderate to severe dysmenorrhea and 63.6% reported as moderate to severe daily activities limitations. The mean pain score with visual analogue scale was 80.2±9.42 of 100 and 86.4% used pain killers to alleviate menstrual discomfort in all the subjects. In both groups, all three variables showed significant improvement and the Moos's Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ scores changed significantly between menstrual and post-menstrual time point at within groups and not significantly different at premenstrual and menstrual time point at between groups. However, the MDQ score was significantly higher in experimental group than control group at post-menstruation time point and the degree of satisfaction was higher in the control group.ConclusionThis research shows that red-bean pillows on the abdomen are effective in assisting the ADL and diminishing pain severity. With regard to its safety the study indicates it can be a convenient and safe option for female students with menstrual discomfort in schoolas a non-pharmacological self-help.

  5. Effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Vestergaard, Jannie Steensig; Fretté, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    The effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover: maize silage ratio on milk production, milk composition and the sensory quality of the milk was investigated in a 2   2 factorial experiment. Toasting of field beans resulted in lower milk contents of both fat (44.2 versus 46.1 g/kg, P = 0.......02) and protein (33.5 versus 34.2 g/kg, P = 0.008), whereas milk production, urea and somatic cell contents were unaffected compared with the untreated field beans. Increasing the proportion of maize silage (from 9 to 21% of DM) in the ration decreased the content of urea in milk (P = 0.002), whereas milk......-β-carotene (P = 0.04) and β-carotene (P = 0.05). Toasting of field beans compared with untreated field beans did not affect the milk content of carotenoids and had only small effects on fatty acid composition. Regarding the sensory quality, the four treatments resulted in milk being characterized...

  6. The fate of phosphorus fertilizer in Amazon soya bean fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Shelby H; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Tubbesing, Carmen; Mahowald, Natalie

    2013-06-05

    Fertilizer-intensive soya bean agriculture has recently expanded in southeastern Amazonia, and whereas intensive fertilizer use in the temperate zone has led to widespread eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, the effects in tropical systems are less well understood. We examined the fate of fertilizer phosphorus (P) by comparing P forms and budgets across a chronosequence of soya bean fields (converted to soya beans between 2003 and 2008) and forests on an 800 km(2) soya bean farm in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Soya bean fields were fertilized with 50 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) (30 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) above what is removed in crops). We used modified Hedley fractionation to quantify soil P pools and found increases in less-plant-available inorganic pools and decreases in organic pools in agricultural soils compared with forest. Fertilizer P did not move below 20 cm. Measurements of P sorption capacity suggest that while fertilizer inputs quench close to half of the sorption capacity of fast-reacting pools, most added P is bound in more slowly reacting pools. Our data suggest that this agricultural system currently has a low risk of P losses to waterways and that long time-scales are required to reach critical soil thresholds that would allow continued high yields with reduced fertilizer inputs.

  7. Induced mutations in beans and peas for resistance to rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl, F.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma rays and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) were applied in a mutation-induction programme for rust resistance in bean and pea. Bean and pea seeds were pre-soaked 2 hours before irradiation with 9, 10 and 12 krad. For chemical mutagen treatments bean and pea seeds were pre-soaked for 8 hours and treated with 0.5 and 1.5% EMS for four hours. M 2 seeds of beans and peas were planted in 1979. Resistant M 2 plants were selected for their rust resistance and other morphological characters. M 3 seeds of selected plants were planted in 1980. In 1980 more seeds of the same varieties of beans and peas were treated with 0.1 and 0.3% EMS with the aim to produce rust-resistant mutants. Seed germination was reduced by gamma rays or EMS. Dwarf, malformed and abnormal plants were noticed. Some resistant M 2 plants selected gave high grain yields. Some were different in morphological characters. In the M 3 of selected plants various other mutant characters appeared, such as different height of plants, early and late flowering, resistance to powdery mildew in peas, altered grain yield, thickness of stem, pod shape and flower colour. (author)

  8. Amylolytic treatment on faba bean for producing emulsions and emulsion gels

    OpenAIRE

    Suryanarayanan, Tilak

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the thesis was to investigate the effect of carbohydrates on solubility, emulsifying, gelling and water holding properties of proteins. Faba bean is a readily available pulse crop with high protein content similar to soy bean and there is a lot of potential for a novel, high protein fermented gel product to be made from a pulse crop like faba bean. This is mainly due to its remarkable nutritional properties, functional properties and low cost, the demand for faba bean protein...

  9. Azuki Bean Juice Lowers Serum Triglyceride Concentrations in Healthy Young Women

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Chizuko; Araki, Risa; Kawamura, Mito; Kondo, Naoko; Kigawa, Mieko; Kawai, Yukari; Takanami, Yoshikazu; Miyashita, Koichi; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2008-01-01

    Effects of azuki bean juice supplementation, prescribed according to a Kanpo medicine regimen, on serum lipid concentrations were studied. Healthy young Japanese women were recruited and were randomly assigned to one of the three groups using a parallel-group design. Control (n = 10), azuki (n = 11) and Concentrated azuki (CA) (n = 12) juice groups consumed 150 g daily of the isocaloric assigned juice for one menstrual cycle with their usual diet. Triglyceride concentrations were decreased in...

  10. Effect of fermented soya beans on diarrhoea and feed efficiency in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Meijer, J.C.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate anti-diarrhoeal and growth enhancing properties of fermented soya beans in weaned piglets. Methods and Results: In a first phase piglet diet, toasted full-fat soya beans (20%) were replaced with either cooked soya beans or Rhizopus microsporus or Bacillus subtilis fermented soya

  11. Chemometric dissimilarity in nutritive value of popularly consumed Nigerian brown and white common beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyib, Oluwasayo Kehinde; Alashiri, Ganiyy Olasunkanmi; Adejoye, Oluseyi Damilola

    2015-01-01

    Brown beans are the preferred varieties over the white beans in Nigeria due to their assumed richer nutrients. This study was aimed at assessing and characterising some popular Nigerian common beans for their nutritive value based on seed coat colour. Three varieties, each, of Nigerian brown and white beans, and one, each, of French bean and soybean were analysed for 19 nutrients. Z-statistics test showed that Nigerian beans are nutritionally analogous to French bean and soybean. Analysis of variance showed that seed coat colour varied with proximate nutrients, Ca, Fe, and Vit C. Chemometric analysis methods revealed superior beans for macro and micro nutrients and presented clearer groupings among the beans for seed coat colour. The study estimated a moderate genetic distance (GD) that will facilitate transfer of useful genes and intercrossing among the beans. It also offers an opportunity to integrate French bean and soybean into genetic improvement programs in Nigerian common beans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 75 FR 43142 - United States Standards for Grades of Refried Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ...] United States Standards for Grades of Refried Beans AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... comments on the possible establishment of voluntary United States Standards for Grades of Refried Beans... industry requested that USDA develop grade standards for canned refried beans to be used by the industry...

  13. Effects of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of dry bean powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to investigate the impacts of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of bean powders from four bean varieties. The raw bean powders were extruded under eight different conditions, and the extrudates were then dried and ground (particle size = 0.5 mm)...

  14. Effects of xanthan, guar, carrageenan and locust bean gum addition on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Zeynep Ozben; Yılmaz, Ismail; Demirci, Ahmet Şukru

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of xanthan gum, guar gum, carrageenan and locust bean gum on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs. Meatball samples were produced with three different formulations including of 0.5, 1, and 1.5% each gum addition and gum added samples were compared with the control meatballs. Physical and chemical analyses were carried out on raw and cooked samples separately. Moisture contents of raw samples decreased by addition of gums. There were significant decreases (p meatball samples formulated with gum when compared with control. Ash contents and texture values increased with gum addition to meatballs. Meatball redness decreased with more gum addition in raw and cooked meatball samples, which means that addition of gums resulted in a lighter-coloured product. According to sensory analysis results, locust bean gum added (1%) samples were much preferred by the panelists.

  15. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies NBS-LRR-Encoding Genes Related with Anthracnose and Common Bacterial Blight in the Common Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Zhu, Jifeng; Wang, Lanfen; Wang, Shumin

    2017-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes represent the largest and most important disease resistance genes in plants. The genome sequence of the common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) provides valuable data for determining the genomic organization of NBS-LRR genes. However, data on the NBS-LRR genes in the common bean are limited. In total, 178 NBS-LRR-type genes and 145 partial genes (with or without a NBS) located on 11 common bean chromosomes were identified from genome sequences database. Furthermore, 30 NBS-LRR genes were classified into Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-NBS-LRR (TNL) types, and 148 NBS-LRR genes were classified into coiled-coil (CC)-NBS-LRR (CNL) types. Moreover, the phylogenetic tree supported the division of these PvNBS genes into two obvious groups, TNL types and CNL types. We also built expression profiles of NBS genes in response to anthracnose and common bacterial blight using qRT-PCR. Finally, we detected nine disease resistance loci for anthracnose (ANT) and seven for common bacterial blight (CBB) using the developed NBS-SSR markers. Among these loci, NSSR24, NSSR73, and NSSR265 may be located at new regions for ANT resistance, while NSSR65 and NSSR260 may be located at new regions for CBB resistance. Furthermore, we validated NSSR24, NSSR65, NSSR73, NSSR260, and NSSR265 using a new natural population. Our results provide useful information regarding the function of the NBS-LRR proteins and will accelerate the functional genomics and evolutionary studies of NBS-LRR genes in food legumes. NBS-SSR markers represent a wide-reaching resource for molecular breeding in the common bean and other food legumes. Collectively, our results should be of broad interest to bean scientists and breeders.

  16. The effect of mung bean powder, and/or low fat soy flour as meat extender on the chemical, physical, and sensory quality of buffalo meat product

    OpenAIRE

    Kenawi M.A.; Abdelsalam R.R.; El-Sherif S.A.

    2009-01-01

    The chemical, physical, and sensory evaluation of buffalo meat patties was evaluated in order to study the effect of adding low fat soy flour and/or mung bean powder as meat extenders. The results indicated that using low fat soy flour or mung bean powder as meat extenders at a level of 10% reduced the moisture and fat content, whereas increased the fiber and protein contents in the cooked samples. The reduction was greatest in the control (100% buffalo meat), and lowest in the sample contain...

  17. Physical and sensory quality of Java Arabica green coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarharum, W. B.; Yuwono, S. S.; Pangestu, N. B. S. W.; Nadhiroh, H.

    2018-03-01

    Demand on high quality coffee for consumption is continually increasing not only in the consuming countries (importers) but also in the producing countries (exporters). Coffee quality could be affected by several factors from farm to cup including the post-harvest processing methods. This research aimed to investigate the influence of different post-harvest processing methods on physical and sensory quality of Java Arabica green coffee beans. The two factors being evaluated were three different post-harvest processing methods to produce green coffee beans (natural/dry, semi-washed and fully-washed processing) under sun drying. Physical quality evaluation was based on The Indonesian National Standard (SNI 01-2907-2008) while sensory quality was evaluated by five expert judges. The result shows that less defects observed in wet processed coffee as compared to the dry processing. The mechanical drying was also proven to yield a higher quality green coffee beans and minimise losses.

  18. Knowing beans: Human mirror mechanisms revealed through motor adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M Glenberg

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Human mirror mechanisms (MMs respond during both performed and observed action and appear to underlie action goal recognition. We introduce a behavioral procedure for discovering and clarifying functional MM properties: Blindfolded participants repeatedly move beans either toward or away from themselves to induce motor adaptation. Then, the bias for perceiving direction of ambiguous visual movement in depth is measured. Bias is affected by a number of beans moved, b movement direction, and c similarity of the visual stimulus to the hand used to move beans. This cross-modal adaptation pattern supports both the validity of human MMs and functionality of our testing instrument. We also discuss related work that extends the motor adaptation paradigm to investigate contributions of MMs to speech perception and language comprehension.

  19. Stable isotope composition of cocoa beans of different geographical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Matteo; Bontempo, Luana; Ziller, Luca; Barbero, Alice; Caligiani, Augusta; Camin, Federica

    2016-09-01

    The isotopic profile (δ(13) C, δ(15) N, δ(18) O, δ(2) H, δ(34) S) was used to characterise a wide selection of cocoa beans from different renowned production areas (Africa, Asia, Central and South America). The factors most influencing the isotopic signatures of cocoa beans were climate and altitude for δ(13) C and the isotopic composition of precipitation water for δ(18) O and δ(2) H, whereas δ(15) N and δ(34) S were primarily affected by geology and fertilisation practises. Multi-isotopic analysis was shown to be sufficiently effective in determining the geographical origin of cocoa beans, and combining it with Canonical Discriminant Analysis led to more than 80% of samples being correctly reclassified. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Rhizosphere acidification of faba bean, soybean and maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L.L. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100094 (China); Cao, J. [School of Life Science, Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Ecology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, F.S. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Li, L., E-mail: lilong@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China)

    2009-07-01

    Interspecific facilitation on phosphorus uptake was observed in faba bean/maize intercropping systems in previous studies. The mechanism behind this, however, remained unknown. Under nitrate supply, the difference in rhizosphere acidification potential was studied by directly measuring pH of the solution and by visualizing and quantifying proton efflux of roots between faba bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Lincan No.5), soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Zhonghuang No. 17) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Zhongdan No.2) in monoculture and intercrop, supplied without or with 0.2 mmol L{sup -1} P as KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. The pH of the nutrient solution grown faba bean was lower than initial pH of 6.0 from day 1 to day 22 under P deficiency, whereas the pH of the solution with maize was declined from day 13 after treatment. Growing soybean increased solution pH irrespective of P supply. Under P deficiency, the proton efflux of faba bean both total (315.25 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1}) and specific proton efflux (0.47 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}) was greater than that those of soybean (21.80 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1} and 0.05 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, respectively). Faba bean had much more ability of rhizosphere acidification than soybean and maize. The result can explain partly why faba bean utilizes sparingly soluble P more effectively than soybean and maize do, and has an important implication in understanding the mechanism behind interspecific facilitation on P uptake by intercropped species.

  1. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MIXED JUICE MUNG BEAN AND GUAVA FOR INCREASING HEMOGLOBIN LEVEL IN CANCER PATIENT WITH CHEMOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Huda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a chronic disease with high morbidity and mortality rate in a year. One of therapy in curing cancer is chemotherapy. But unfortunately chemotherapy has some negative effects such as decreasing the level of hemoglobin (Hb. Mung bean that contain a lot of iron and Guava which is rich of vitamin C for iron absorption are useful in cancer patient with chemotherapy. Therefore, a mixture of both is believed in increasing hemoglobin level significantly. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of mixed juice mung bean and guava for increasing hemoglobin level in experiment and control group of cancer patient with chemotherapy.This research used Quasi Experiment design with pretest-posttest design control group approach. The total number of respondent was 30 chosen by purposive sampling method. Results of this study showed hemoglobin level in experiment group 14.07 and 10.42 in control group with p value (0,000 < α (0,05. It can be concluded that a mixture juice mung beans and guava effective for increasing hemoglobin level in cancer patient with chemotherapy. This research suggests that this mixture can be an option for nursing intervention in increasing hemoglobin level for cancer patient after receiving chemotherapy.

  2. Dietary effects of faba-bean (Vicia faba L.) tannins on the morphology and function of the small-intestinal mucosa of weaned pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, P. van; Jansman, A.J.M.; Wiebenga, J.; Koninkx, J.F.J.G.; Mouwen, J.M.V.M.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of condensed tannins in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) on morphological and functional variables of the small-intestinal mucosa of piglets. In an experiment with young piglets (8-17 kg body weight), fed on either a control diet or a diet

  3. Evaluation of diamide insecticides co-applied with other agrochemicals at various times to manage Ostrinia nubilalis in processing snap bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseth, Anders S; Groves, Russell L; Chapman, Scott A; Nault, Brian A

    2015-12-01

    Multiple applications of pyrethroid insecticides are used to manage European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner, in snap bean, but new diamide insecticides may reduce application frequency. In a 2 year small-plot study, O. nubilalis control was evaluated by applying cyantraniliprole (diamide) and bifenthrin (pyrethroid) insecticides at one of three phenological stages (bud, bloom and pod formation) of snap bean development. Co-application of these insecticides with either herbicides or fungicides was also examined as a way to reduce the total number of sprays during a season. Cyantraniliprole applications timed either during bloom or during pod formation controlled O. nubilalis better than similar timings of bifenthrin. Co-applications of insecticides with fungicides controlled O. nubilalis as well as insecticide applications alone. Insecticides applied either alone or with herbicides during bud stage did not control this pest. Diamides are an alternative to pyrethroids for the management of O. nubilalis in snap bean. Adoption of diamides by snap bean growers could improve the efficiency of production by reducing the number of sprays required each season. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. The preparation of soy-bean foods for use in rural communities of the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, T

    1998-08-01

    Since the beginning of 1970, there has been a great breakthrough in the popularization of soy-bean-based food in Nigeria and in many parts of the developing world, especially for use in the prevention of kwashiorkor. Since 1975, soy bean has become a main source of daily dietary protein in many parts of Nigeria as a result of the successful incorporation of soy-bean products into almost all traditional Nigerian foods. This is a review of previous work in Nigeria on eliminating the beany flavour, bitter taste, and flatus factors in soy-bean milk and cooked soy-bean paste preparations.

  5. A Quantitative Method to Screen Common Bean Plants for Resistance to Bean common mosaic necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausbaugh, C A; Myers, J R; Forster, R L; McClean, P E

    2003-11-01

    ABSTRACT A quantitative method to screen common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) plants for resistance to Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) is described. Four parameters were assessed in developing the quantitative method: symptoms associated with systemic virus movement, plant vigor, virus titer, and plant dry weight. Based on these parameters, two rating systems (V and VV rating) were established. Plants from 21 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a Sierra (susceptible) x Olathe (partially resistant) cross inoculated with the BCMNV-NL-3 K strain were used to evaluate this quantitative approach. In all, 11 RILs exhibited very susceptible reactions and 10 RILs expressed partially resistant reactions, thus fitting a 1:1 susceptible/partially resistant ratio (chi(2) = 0.048, P = 0.827) and suggesting that the response is mediated by a single gene. Using the classical qualitative approach based only on symptom expression, the RILs were difficult to separate into phenotypic groups because of a continuum of responses. By plotting mean percent reduction in either V (based on visual symptoms) or VV (based on visual symptoms and vigor) rating versus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) absorbance values, RILs could be separated clearly into different phenotypic groups. The utility of this quantitative approach also was evaluated on plants from 12 cultivars or pure lines inoculated with one of three strains of BCMNV. Using the mean VV rating and ELISA absorbance values, significant differences were established not only in cultivar and pure line comparisons but also in virus strain comparisons. This quantitative system should be particularly useful for the evaluation of the independent action of bc genes, the discovery of new genes associated with partial resistance, and assessing virulence of virus strains.

  6. Determination of trace elements in various kinds of bean by X-ray spectrometric techniques (1995-96)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U Tin Maung Kyi; U Wai Zin Oo

    2001-01-01

    Various kinds of bean such as Peanut, Gram Whole, Black Eye Bean, Small Red Bean, Lab Lab Bean, Green Mung Bean, Filed Pea, Seasame Seed, Sultani, Maize, Butter Bean, Dolichos Lab Lab, Toor Whole, Small Yellow Bean, Cow Pea have been collected and analysed by EDXRF analysis for trace elements. The measurement system consists of a Cd-109 annual excitation source, a Si (Li) detector, H V power supply, a spectrometry amplifier, a multichannel analyser and a personal computer. The samples were prepared as pressed pellets and measured by Emission Transmission Technique. The accuracy was determined by analysing standard reference material, SOIL-7 form IAEA. (author)

  7. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glahn Raymond P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one standard ("Low Fe" and the other biofortified ("High Fe" in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. One day old chicks (Gallus gallus were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12. For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME (means ± SEM were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe" bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume these beans as a dietary staple. This justifies further work on the large-seeded Andean beans which are the staple of a large-region of Africa where iron-deficiency anemia is a primary cause of infant death and poor health status.

  8. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and bioavailability of isoflavones in pigs fed soy bean based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Gerda; Hennig, U; Kalbe, Claudia; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Ren, M Q; Moors, S; Degen, Gisela H

    2004-08-01

    A growth trial with 38 weaners (castrated male pigs) was designed to compare the growth performance and carcass quality of pigs fed diets containing either soy bean meal or soy protein concentrate in a pair-feeding design. Soy bean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) differed in isoflavone (daidzein plus genistein) content (782 microg/g in SBM and 125 microg/g in SPC, respectively). During the experiment, all pigs were fed four-phases-diets characterized by decreasing protein concentrations with increasing age (weaner I, weaner II, grower, finisher diets). Rations of control and experimental groups were isoenergetic, isonitrogenous, and isoaminogen. The weanling pigs with an initial live weight of 8.4 +/- 1.1 kg were allotted to flat deck boxes. During the growing/finishing period (days 70-170 of age), the pigs were housed in single boxes. Both, the weaning and the grower/finishing performances (daily body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio) were similar in both groups. No differences were found between the groups in carcass composition (percentages of cuts, tissues, and protein/fat), and meat quality of pigs. Moreover, the IGF-1R mRNA expression in longissimus muscle was not influenced by the kind of soy product. However, circulating levels of isoflavones were clearly different between pigs fed SBM (genistein 239 +/- 44; daidzein 162 +/- 42; equol 12 +/- 4 ng/ml plasma) and animals fed SPC (genistein 22 +/- 9 and daidzein 8 +/- 3, and equol 10 +/- 3 ng/ml plasma). The results confirm the expected differences in the bioavailability of soy isoflavones, yet, there were no significant differences in performance of pigs fed either soy bean meal or soy protein concentrate.

  9. Transcriptome analysis of salt tolerant common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under saline conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Can Hiz

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the important abiotic stress factors that limit crop production. Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major protein source in developing countries, is highly affected by soil salinity and the information on genes that play a role in salt tolerance is scarce. We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs and related pathways by comprehensive analysis of transcriptomes of both root and leaf tissues of the tolerant genotype grown under saline and control conditions in hydroponic system. We have generated a total of 158 million high-quality reads which were assembled into 83,774 all-unigenes with a mean length of 813 bp and N50 of 1,449 bp. Among the all-unigenes, 58,171 were assigned with Nr annotations after homology analyses. It was revealed that 6,422 and 4,555 all-unigenes were differentially expressed upon salt stress in leaf and root tissues respectively. Validation of the RNA-seq quantifications (RPKM values was performed by qRT-PCR (Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR analyses. Enrichment analyses of DEGs based on GO and KEGG databases have shown that both leaf and root tissues regulate energy metabolism, transmembrane transport activity, and secondary metabolites to cope with salinity. A total of 2,678 putative common bean transcription factors were identified and classified under 59 transcription factor families; among them 441 were salt responsive. The data generated in this study will help in understanding the fundamentals of salt tolerance in common bean and will provide resources for functional genomic studies.

  10. Blocking carbohydrate absorption and weight loss: a clinical trial using a proprietary fractionated white bean extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay; Singh, Betsy B

    2007-01-01

    A proprietary fractionated white bean extract of Phaseolus vulgaris has been shown in vitro to inhibit the digestive enzyme alpha-amylase. This may prevent or delay the digestion of complex carbohydrates, potentially resulting in weight loss. A 4-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 25 healthy subjects consuming 1000 mg of a proprietary fractioned white bean extract or an identical placebo twice a day before meals in conjunction with a multi-component weight-loss program, including diet, exercise, and behavioral intervention, was conducted. Both groups reduced their weight and waist size significantly from baseline. The active group lost 6.0 lbs (P=.0002) and 2.2 in (P=.0050), and the placebo group lost 4.7 lbs (P=.0016) and 2.1 in (P=.0001). The differences between groups were not significant (weight P=.4235, waist size P=.8654). Through subsequent exploratory analysis to investigate group findings further, subjects were stratified by total dietary carbohydrate intake. This probative analysis revealed that the tertile of subjects who had consumed the most carbohydrates demonstrated significant reductions in both weight (8.7 lbs vs 1.7 lbs, P=.0412) and waist size (3.3 in vs 1.3 in P=.0100) compared with placebo subjects in the same tertile of carbohydrate intake. Subjects who adhere to a program including dietary modification, exercise, and behavioral intervention can significantly reduce their weight and waist size in a short period of time. In an exploratory analysis of data, the tertile of subjects who ate the most carbohydrates experienced a significant reduction in both weight and waist size with the addition of the white bean extract compared to the placebo group of the same tertile of carbohydrate consumption. Longer studies with a larger pool of subjects are required to validate these findings.

  11. Manta A New BroadBand OBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hello, Y.; Yegikyan, M.; Charvis, P.; Philippe, O.

    2017-12-01

    Manta is a new BroadBand OBS developed at Geoazur and commercialized by Osean. The design is inspired by 3-years autonomy MUG-OBS a Multiparameter Ocean Bottom System which carry a lot of sort of sensor types. As Mug-OBS, Manta-OBS rated 6000m is designed to resist a trawling. All the components are non corrosive such polyethylene, titanium and buoyancy is ensured by syntactic foam. Equipped in standard version with a Trillium compact OBS Manta has an autonomy of 18 months, but can accept on its 4 input channels any kind of signal as low as from an hydrophone or larger from other type of a seismometer or accelerometer. Tri-axial geophones unit (2 Hz or 4.5 Hz ) can replace the seismometer and will expend the lifespan for the instrument. The seismometer is encapsulated in a central well established by four panels of the main structure to protect it from sea current convection and is decoupled from main chassis. An health bulletin is recoverable by acoustic any time to facilitate the installation and during a visit when instrument is deployed. Main parameters for acquisition can be changed by acoustics command from surface at any time. Once at the bottom, release for the main sensor installation is programmed on a timer but controlled by the tilt of the OBS. If the tilt is too important based on programmed limits, sensor will not released automatically, but this can be forced by acoustic command after returning the tilt informations to the boat operator. Manta is equipped with flash light and AIS system for easy location at recovery, and can also send it's position by Iridium satellite in case of an unexpected ascent such caused by a possible trawling if deployed in shallow water. Clock drift calculation is automatically made against GPS time signal once the OBS return at the surface. The recovery of the OBS is initiated by an acoustic command. These new features made Manta a very versatile instrument for monitoring earthquakes.

  12. Persistence of pirimiphos-methyl in stored sultana raisins, common beans and their processed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidemetriou, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    When radiolabelled pirimiphos-methyl was applied to sultana raisins and common beans, the total residues decreased from 86 to 68% for raisins in 8 months and from 89 to 44% for beans in 4 months. The major part of the residue was found inside the raisins whereas in beans it was concentrated on the surface. Pirimiphos-methyl was considerably more persistent on raisins than on beans. After the initial penetration of the pesticide, the surface residues remained constant in raisins, while in beans they decreased from 77 to 23%. The bound residues in beans reached a maximum of 1.3%. The reduction of radioactivity during processing was 11% and 9% on prewashed raisins and beans, respectively. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  13. Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a Functional Food: Implications on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Schlegel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contain high levels of chemically diverse components (phenols, resistance starch, vitamins, fructooligosaccharides that have shown to protect against such conditions as oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer, thereby positioning this legume as an excellent functional food. Moreover, the United States has a rich dry bean history and is currently a top producer of dry beans in the world with pinto beans accounting for the vast majority. Despite these attributes, dry bean consumption in the US remains relatively low. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to review dry beans as an important US agricultural crop and as functional food for the present age with an emphasis on pinto beans.

  14. Evidence for a Broad Autism Phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. de Groot (Kristel); J.W. van Strien (Jan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe broad autism phenotype implies the existence of a continuum ranging from individuals displaying almost no autistic traits to severely impaired diagnosed individuals. Recent studies have linked this variation in autistic traits to several domains of functioning. However, studies

  15. 33 CFR 117.921 - Broad River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.921 Broad River. (a) The draw of the S170 bridge, mile 14.0 near Beaufort, shall open on signal if at least 24 hours notice is given. (b) The draw...

  16. Education and Broad Concepts of Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on recent debates about the relationship between propositional and practical knowledge, this article is concerned with broad concepts of agency. Specifically, it is concerned with agency that involves the forming and putting into effect of intentions over relatively extended periods, particularly in work contexts (called, for want of a…

  17. Detection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Phaseoli and Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. Phaseolicola on bean seed using a Milk-tween medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bean production is threaten by phytopathogenic bacteria causing agents of blights, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap and Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola (Psp. Since there is no satisfactory chemical control for the disease, the recommended measures are preventive and include use of healthy seed, crop rotation, deep plowing and use of resistant cultivars. In this work we involved a detection method for isolation of Xap and Psp from bean seed to semi-selective medium Milk Agar Tween (MT. On this medium, Xap formed yellow, mucoid and convex colonies with two hydrolysis zones (less milk and more enlightened, and Psp formed whitish-cream, flat and round colonies. The identification of Xap and Psp was confirmed using the ELISA and PCR. Due to its selectivity, easy preparation and possibility of simultaneous detection of bacteria Xap and Psp, MT medium can be recommended for routine test of seed health for local seed or seed from import.

  18. Effect of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) aqueous extracts on the performance of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, J.; Kwoseh, C. K.

    2013-01-01

    The increased concern for environmental and health hazards have called for a reduction in the use of synthetic nematicides for nematode control. Experiments were, therefore, conducted to ascertain the nematicidal potential of castor bean's crude extract and its five lower concentrations with water as control. In the in vitro studies, crude castor bean aqueous extract and 10, 20, 30 and 40% different concentrations with 100 root-knot nematode eggs or juveniles in separate Petri dishes showed that all the different concentrations had toxic effects on eggs and juveniles of root-knot nematode. Egg hatch inhibition and juvenile mortality increased with increased concentration of the extracts. With an increase in exposure time, juvenile mortality increased. In potted plant studies, crude castor bean aqueous extracts and its lower concentrations of 20, 40 and 60% caused significant improvement in plant growth measures such as height and fresh shoot weight over the water blank control. The crude castor bean extract was nematotoxic to root -knot nematodes in vitro and in potted-tomato plants, but this was not demonstrated in field studies. Further work needs to be done before a firm recommendation can be made. (au)

  19. A Dietary Supplement Containing and Velvet Bean Improves Sleep Quality in Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron G. McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Impaired sleep quality is commonplace within industrialized societies, as evidenced by the increasing number of prescription sleep aids available. Certain herbal preparations have been suggested to provide a natural benefit to sleep; however, limited controlled data are available documenting this benefit. In the present study we tested the effect of an experimental dietary supplement, containing the active ingredients Chlorophytum borivilianum and Velvet bean, on sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Methods Eighteen healthy and active men and women, with evidence of impaired sleep quality, consumed the supplement daily for 28 days. The PSQI was administered before and after the intervention period. As indicators of safety, resting heart rate and blood pressure were measured, and a complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, and lipid panel were determined. Results Sleep quality was influenced by the supplement, as evidenced by an improvement in every category of the PSQI questionnaire ( P < 0.05, with most category scores improving approximately 50% from pre to post intervention. No adverse outcomes were noted with use of the supplement, as indicated by no change in resting heart rate, blood pressure, or any bloodborne parameter. Conclusions An investigational dietary supplement containing the active ingredients Chlorophytum borivilianum and Velvet bean improves sleep quality in men and women. Additional placebo controlled trials are needed to corroborate these findings in individuals with self-reported sleeping difficulty.

  20. Nodulation and N2 fixation effectiveness of Bradyrhizobium strains in symbiosis with Adzuki Bean, Vigna angularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušica Delić

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In pot experiment, one isolate Knj from a Serbian soil, four strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and three strains of Bradyrhizobium spp. were examined for the effect on adzuki bean nodulation and effectiveness in symbiotic N2 fixation. All the tested strains produced root nodules in adzuki bean. Strains of B. japonicum showed high potential of N2 fixation, particularly 525 and 542. B. japonicum strains resulted 65-71% shoot dry weight and 99-138% total N content of uninoculated control with full N content (100%. No significant difference was found between the plants inoculated with Bradyrhizobium spp. strains and uninoculated control plants without N (40-42 and 42% shoot dry weight, respectively, which indicated symbiotic N2 fixation inactivity of the Bradyrhizobium spp. strains. Knj strain had the middle position (56% shoot dry weight. These data showed that B. japonicum 525 and 542 strains could be used in further investigations in order to apply them as inoculants in microbiological N fertilizers.

  1. Some Morphological Characters and Yield of Common Field Bean (Vicia faba.L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Golchin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To evalauate the influences of irrigation time with wastewater of Iran mayhes factory (producing leaven on some morphological characters and yield of faba bean, a factorial experiment carried out on the base of randomized complete block design (CRBD in Iran Mayehs factory farm in spring2012. Experimental factors consisted of irrigation times at 3 levels I1 = one irrigation with determined amount of wastewater, I2 = two irrigations with determined amount of wastewater, I3 = irrigation during the growth period of plants with determined amount of wastewater and wastewater concentration at 6 levels (P0 = irrigation with normal water (control, P15=15% wastewaters + normal water, P30= 30% wastewaters + normal, P45= 45% wastewaters + normal water, P60= 60% wastewaters + normal water, P100= all wastewater with three replications. Results showed that the effect irrigation numbers on traits such as plant height, number of pods per plant and seed yield was significant. Results also revealed that the effect of weastwater concentration on1000seed weight was significant. The interaction of number of irrigations by weastwater concentrations on stem dry weight was also signification. Evaluation of different treatments showed that 45 percent concentration of wastewater was increased traits under study. It seems, that controlled irrigation of bean with wastewater of factory (producing yeast can be effective in improving its yield in the region.

  2. Paraheliotropism can protect water-stressed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants against photoinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastenes, Claudio; Porter, Victor; Baginsky, Cecilia; Horton, Peter; González, Javiera

    2004-12-01

    In order to estimate the importance of leaf movements on photosynthesis in well-watered and water-stressed field grown bean cultivars (Arroz Tuscola (AT), Orfeo INIA (OI), Bayos Titan (BT), and Hallados Dorado (HD)), CO2 assimilation, leaf temperature, and capacity for the maximum quantum yield recovery, measured as Fv/Fm, were assessed. Leaf water potential was lower in water-stressed compared to control plants throughout the day. Water status determined a decrease in the CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance as light intensity and temperature increased up to maximal intensities at midday. Both parameters were lower in stressed compared to control plants. Even though high light intensity and water-stress induced stomatal closure is regarded as a photoinhibitory condition, the recovery of variable to maximal fluorescence (Fv/Fm) after 30min of darkness was nearly constant in both water regimes. In fact, higher values were observed in OI and AT when under stress. Photochemical and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching resulted in minor changes during the day and were similar between watered and stressed plants. It is concluded that paraheliotropism, present in the four bean cultivars, efficiently protects stressed plants from photoinhibition in the field and helps maintain leaf temperatures far below the ambient temperatures, however, it may also be responsible for low CO2 assimilation rates in watered plants.

  3. Genetic diversity and population structure of common bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ethiopian genetic center is considered to be one of the secondary centers of diversity for the common bean. This study was conducted to characterize the distribution of genetic diversity between and within ecological/geographical regions of Ethiopia. A germplasm sample of 116 landrace accessions was developed, ...

  4. The genetic diversity and population structure of common bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The STRUCTURE result was confirmed by Principal Coordinate analysis (PCoA) which also clustered beans in three groups. Most Andean genotypes were included in K3.1 and Mesoamerican genotypes belonged to the K3.2 and K3.3 subgroups. This study sets the stage for further analyses for agronomic traits such as ...

  5. Lima Bean Starch-Based Hydrogels | Oladebeye | Nigerian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrogels were prepared by crosslinking native lima bean starch and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with glutaraldehyde (GA) at varying proportions in an acidic medium. The native starch (N-LBS) and hydrogels (L-GA (low glutaraldehyde) and H-GA (high glutaraldehyde)) were examined for their water absorption capacity (WAC) ...

  6. Genetic diversity studies in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of thirteen common bean genotypes was done with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Initially, 15 primers were screened out of which only seven were selected which generated a total of 65 amplification products out of which 63 bands (96.62%) were polymorphic indicating fair ...

  7. Action spectrum of peroxyacetyl nitrate damage to bean plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugger, W M; Taylor, O C; Klein, W H; Shropshire, W

    1963-04-06

    For plant damage from peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) there is absolute requirement for light prior to, during, and after fumigation of plants with the oxidant. Pinto beans were fumigated with PAN and exposed to a variety of light intensities and wavelengths. Maximum damage to plants was found when PAN fumigation was contemporaneous with incident light of 370, 419, 480, and 641 m..mu...

  8. Utilization of half-embryo test to identify irradiated beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1996-01-01

    Germination tests were carried out in irradiated and non-irradiated bean seeds which allow to observe characteristically variations on the shoots and roots. The methodology used in this work, is based upon biological changes which occur in two Brazilian beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar, irradiated in a 60 Co source, with doses of 0,0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy. The shoots and roots were observed during 3 days of culturing period under specified conditions. The differences observed in these two varieties were analysed immediately after irradiation and after 6 months of storage period at room temperature. Irradiated half-embryos showed markedly reduced root grow and almost totally retarded shoot elongation. Differences between irradiated and nonirradiated half-embryo could be observed after irradiation when different beans and storage time were varied. The shoots of half-embryos irradiated with more than 2.5 kGy did not undergo any elongation, whereas, the shoots of non-irradiated or those beans irradiated under 1.0 kGy elongated significantly within the 3 day test period. (author)

  9. Evaluation of essential minerals in carioquinha beans by EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, Ellen Cristina Alves de; Aquino, Reginaldo R.; Scapin, Marcos A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the levels of essential minerals in the carioquinha beans were analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence technique (EDXRF), searching determine the possible minerals, quantities and the correlation among different sources of same variety and the possible contribution of each to the human diet

  10. Yield performance of dwarf bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Entries SDDT-54-C5, PC490-D8 and DOR 715 were stable across all sites and between the two seasons. DOR 715 was also high yielding entry in Thondwe and Ntchenachena sites followed by BCMV B2 though the latter was unstable. Among sites, Thondwe was the best because yields of most of the bean entries were ...

  11. Incorporation of resistance to angular leaf spot and bean common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Luseko

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... indicating high reliability for markers. In selection, it was ... Generation of breeding lines. Planting was .... the variances from the distribution of the score data for ALS disease. ... were distributed along the scale but it skewed to the left side showing ..... Standard system for the evaluation of bean germplasm.

  12. Metabolic changes associated with ozone injury of bean leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craker, L.E.; Starbuck, J.S.

    1972-07-01

    Metabolic processes in primary leaves of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) were altered by ozone stress. Decreases in levels of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein, and increases in ribonuclease (RNase) and free amine groups were associated with visible oxidant injury to the leaves. It appears that some air pollution injury to plants may result from changes in metabolic processes. 23 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Enhancing faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genome resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, James W.; Wilson, Michael H.; Derks, M.F.L.; Smit, Sandra; Kunert, Karl J.; Cullis, Christopher; Foyer, C.H.

    2017-01-01

    Grain legume improvement is currently impeded by a lack of genomic resources. The paucity of genome information for faba bean can be attributed to the intrinsic difficulties of assembling/annotating its giant (~13 Gb) genome. In order to address this challenge, RNA-sequencing analysis was performed

  14. Enhancing faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genome resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James W; Wilson, Michael H; Derks, Martijn F L; Smit, Sandra; Kunert, Karl J; Cullis, Christopher; Foyer, Christine H

    2017-04-01

    Grain legume improvement is currently impeded by a lack of genomic resources. The paucity of genome information for faba bean can be attributed to the intrinsic difficulties of assembling/annotating its giant (~13 Gb) genome. In order to address this challenge, RNA-sequencing analysis was performed on faba bean (cv. Wizard) leaves. Read alignment to the faba bean reference transcriptome identified 16 300 high quality unigenes. In addition, Illumina paired-end sequencing was used to establish a baseline for genomic information assembly. Genomic reads were assembled de novo into contigs with a size range of 50-5000 bp. Over 85% of sequences did not align to known genes, of which ~10% could be aligned to known repetitive genetic elements. Over 26 000 of the reference transcriptome unigenes could be aligned to DNA-sequencing (DNA-seq) reads with high confidence. Moreover, this comparison identified 56 668 potential splice points in all identified unigenes. Sequence length data were extended at 461 putative loci through alignment of DNA-seq contigs to full-length, publicly available linkage marker sequences. Reads also yielded coverages of 3466× and 650× for the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes, respectively. Inter- and intraspecies organelle genome comparisons established core legume organelle gene sets, and revealed polymorphic regions of faba bean organelle genomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  15. Recovery of herbicide-resistant Azuki bean [ Vigna angularis (Wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the bar gene as determined by assaying for resistance to bialaphos applied directly to leaves. This result demonstrates the feasibility of introducing potentially useful agronomic traits into azuki bean through genetic engineering. Key Words: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, bar gene, bialaphos, transgenic, Vigna angulazris.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Rotating Cylinder Type Coffee Bean Roaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarsi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One strategy attempts to reduce dependence on primary commodity markets are overseas market expansion and development of secondary products. In the secondary product processing coffee beans is required of supporting equipment to facilitate these efforts. Research Center for Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa has developed coffee bean roaster. However, there are still many people who do not know about the technical aspects of roaster machine type of rotating cylinder so that more people use traditional ways to roast coffee beans. In order for the benefits of this machine is better known society it is necessary to study on the technical aspects. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the technical performance of the coffee beans roaster machine type of rotating cylinder. These include the technical aspects of work capacity of the machine, roasting technical efficiency, fuel requirements, and power requirements of using roaster machine. Research methods are including data collection, calculation and analysis. The results showed that the roaster machine type of a rotating cylinder has capacity of 12.3 kg/hour. Roasting efficiency is 80%. Fuel consumption is 0.6 kg. The calculated amount of the used power of current measurement is the average of 0.616 kW.

  17. multiple disease resistance in snap bean genotypes in kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 29053- ... Agriculture (CIAT), National Agricultural Research Laboratories Institute, ... Climbing snap bean lines had thick pods that could reduce pod quality. ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... were harvested in sterile distilled water and spore.

  18. Bean nodulation patterns in soils of different texture at Morogoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, nodulation success by the inoculum was total in the clay but only dismal in the sandy soil. The unexpected discrepancy between inoculum success on the one hand and nodulation plus plant growth response on the other, is discussed. Keywords: Bean nodulation, ELISA typing of nodules, phaseolus vulgaris

  19. Enterotoxicity of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from beans pudding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    36 samples of beans pudding from selected sources were analysed for Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus using standard protocols aimed at assessing its bacteriological quality. Samples obtained from restaurant showed slightly lower value for total plate count (1.3 x 104 - 1.6 x 106 cfu/gm) compared to samples ...

  20. Characterization of pre-gelatinized rice and bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a pre-gelatinized flour using a mixture of broken rice and split beans by thermoplastic extrusion, and to evaluate the physicochemical, nutritional, and technological quality of the final product. The extrusion parameters were maintained using three heating zones with temperatures of 30 ºC, 40 ºC, and 70 ºC; screw speed of 177 rpm; feed rate of 257 g/m, and circular matrix of 3.85 mm. The following characterization analyses were performed: physicochemical, nutritional, water absorption index (WAI, water solubility index (WSI, and paste viscosity. The pre-gelatinized rice and bean flour had an intermediate value of WAI, 7.51 g/g, and high WSI value, 24.61%. Regarding proteins, it was verified an average content of 12.9% in the final product. The amino acid contents found in the pre-gelatinized flour indicate that the mixture has the essential amino acids. It was also found that the pre-gelatinized flour supplies more than 60% of the essential amino acids recommended for children aged one to three years old. The gelatinized flour composed of broken rice and split beans is an alternative to the use of these by-products of the manufacture process of rice and beans to obtain a product with viable technological characteristics and high nutritional value.

  1. Determination Of Lipid Contents Of Two New Soy Bean Cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of fatty acids and sterols in oil is very important as they serve as the vital indicators of the activity and purity, respectively of the oils. A qualitative Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry study of oils from soy beans of two varieties (TGX 1802-1F, and TGX 1019-2EB) was done to determine their fatty acid, ...

  2. Some engineering properties of white kidney beans (Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... projected area from 128.13 to 198.83 mm2, the true density from 1128.05 to 1290.85 kgm-3, the .... The white kidney bean grains used in the study were obtained from .... For each experiment, a sample was dropped into the.

  3. Flow cytometry determination of ploidy level in winged bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ploidy determination and mutation breeding of crop plants are inseparable twins given that mutation breeding is hinged majorly on polyploidization of crop's chromosome number. The present research was aimed at determining the ploidy level of 20 accessions of winged bean (Psophoscarpus tetragonolobus) using known ...

  4. Texturized pinto bean protein fortification in straight dough bread formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto beans were milled and then air-classified to obtain a raw high protein fraction (RHPF) followed by extrusion to texturize the protein fraction. The texturized high protein fraction (THPF) was then milled to obtain flour, and combined with wheat flour at 5%, 10%, and 15% levels to make bread. A...

  5. Evaluation of Some Pesticide Residues in Stored Beans in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis were performed by gas chromatography with electron capture and flame ionization. All the 3 samples (100%) contained pesticide residues beyond the allowed beans maximum residue levels (MRLs) of 0.01 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg, respectively, for chlorpyrifos and endosulfan. The present ...

  6. Iron beans in Rwanda: crop development and delivery experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HarvestPlus and its partners have successfully developed and delivered iron bean varieties to more than one million farming households in Rwanda, DRC, and Uganda to help combat the adverse health effects of iron deficiency widespread in these countries. Focusing primarily on Rwanda, this chapter summarizes the ...

  7. clustering common bean mutants based on heterotic groupings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2015-02-19

    Feb 19, 2015 ... Blair, W.M., Porch, T., Cichy, K., Galeano, H. C,. Lariguet, P., Pankhurst, C. and Broughton, W. 2007a. Induced mutants in common bean. (Phaseolus vulgaris) and their potential use in nutrition quality, breeding and gene discovery. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences. 55:191 - 200. Blair, W.M., Fregene, A.M., ...

  8. Relative Importance of Common Bean Attributes and Variety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work assessed the relative importance of production and consumption attributes of different wealth groups of households and tested the effect of attribute preference and that of other factors on common bean variety demand in the drought areas of Eastern Kenya. Variety demand was conceptualized within the ...

  9. 7 CFR 457.150 - Dry bean crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Food and Drug Administration or other public health organizations of the United States as being... area to the extent feasible. We may obtain prices from any buyer of our choice. If we obtain prices... additional costs required to deliver the dry beans to those buyers. Discounts used to establish the net price...

  10. From beans to breams: how participatory workshops can contribute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From beans to breams: how participatory workshops can contribute to marine conservation planning. ... conservation plan. We report on how this data void was filled using information provided by marine resource users, managers and scientists during participatory workshops. Participants described the distribution of reefs, ...

  11. The growth promotion of mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... HPP16, mung bean, abscisic acid, phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB). ... solubilization, PSB may also produce other secondary metabolites to improve the plant productivity. ...... Funding from the Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine. Biology ... biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai1295-22.

  12. Performance and risk assessment of Bambara beans grown on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safe levels of exposure to contaminants were further investigated using albino Wistar rats for 28 feeding trial days to trace inherent biomagnifications. Bambara beans extracted up to 88.88 and 43.38 mg/kg into its shoot and root respectively at 10% contaminant dose while achieving 63.17% Cu removal unamended. Poultry

  13. identification of common bean genotypes with dual leaf and pod ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2018-02-08

    Feb 8, 2018 ... IDENTIFICATION OF COMMON BEAN GENOTYPES WITH DUAL LEAF AND. POD RESISTANCE TO COMMON BACTERIAL BLIGHT DISEASE IN UGANDA. B.M.E. ALLADASSI, S.T. NKALUBO1, C. MUKANKUSI2, H.N. KAYAGA, P. GIBSON, R. EDEMA,. C.A. URREA3, J.D. KELLY4 and P.R. RUBAIHAYO.

  14. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mamadou Gueye

    Nodulation and nitrogen fixation of field grown common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) as influenced by fungicide seed treatment. Ndeye Fatou Diaw GUENE, Adama DIOUF and Mamadou GUEYE*. MIRCEN/ Laboratoire commun de microbiologie IRD-ISRA-UCAD, BP 1386, DAKAR, Senegal. Accepted 23 June 2003.

  15. Bean Pod Mottle Virus (BPMV) (Genus Comovirus ): A Limiting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reactions of twenty soybean varieties to infection with Bean Pod Mottle Virus (BPMV) (Genus Comovirus) disease were studied for 2 consecutive years in the Department of Crop Science University of Nigeria, Nsukka Farm (Latitude 060 25N; Longitude 070 24N; attitude 447.26 m above sea level). Factorial arrangement ...

  16. Lipase Activity in Fermented Oil Seeds of Africa Locust Bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    was determined. The peak lipase activity for fermented Africa locust bean, Castor seed, and African ..... Lipase by Penicillium restrictum in solid state ... sp. Rev. Microbiol. 28(2): 90-95. Martinek, G.H. (1969). Microbiology and amino acid ...

  17. Uptake studies of environmentally hazardous 51Cr in Mung beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Anupam; Nayak, Dalia; Chakrabortty, Dipanwita; Lahiri, Susanta

    2008-01-01

    Attempt has been made to study the accumulation behaviour of a common plant, Mung bean (Vigna radiata) towards Cr(III) and Cr(VI) to have an insight on the migration and bio-magnification of Cr. For this purpose healthy germinated Mung bean seeds were sown in the sand in the presence of Hoagland's nutrient solution containing measured amount of K 2 51 Cr 2 O 7 and 51 Cr(NO 3 ) 3 .9H 2 O. Growth rate was also studied in the presence and absence of phosphate salts in the medium. It has been found that the transfer of chromium from soil to plant is significantly low (maximum 5% for both Cr(III) and Cr(VI)). Maximum accumulation of Cr occurs in the root with respect to the total chromium accumulation by the plant. Other parts of the Mung bean plant, e.g. cotyledons, shoot and leaves, show negligible accumulation. Therefore, the chance of direct intake of Cr through food as well as through the grazing animals to human body is less. - The chance of bio-magnification of Cr(III) or Cr(VI) to human body via direct or indirect intake of Mung bean is negligible

  18. Phosphorus use efficiency in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tripartite symbiosis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) recombinant inbred line (RIL) 147 with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was assessed in sand culture by comparing the effects of three AMF species on the mycorrhizal root colonization, rhizobial nodulation, plant growth and phosphorus use ...

  19. Making chocolate from beans: what’s involved?

    OpenAIRE

    Sundara, Ramana; Manez, Angel; Coutel, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Industry differentiates between cocoa processing and chocolate manufacturing. Cocoa processing covers the activity of converting the beans into nib, liquor, butter, cake and powder. Chocolate manufacturing covers the blending and refining of cocoa liquor, cocoa butter and various optional ingredients, such as milk and sugar.

  20. Agronomic performance of some haricot bean varieties (haseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Significant variations were observed among haricot bean varieties for number ... 2011). The crop grows well between 1400 and 2000m above sea level (Fikru, 2007). ... northern Ethiopia particularly the study areas are depleted of nutrients because of the long years ... also better water resources for irrigable crop production.