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Sample records for controlled thermonuclear fusion

  1. Controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanaka, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    A simplified review on the status of the controlled thermonuclear fusion research aiming to present the motivation, objective, necessary conditions and adopted methods to reach the objective. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. Controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebut, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    The author gives a chronological account of the research about thermonuclear fusion and presents the principle of JET thermonuclear reactor based upon the magnetic confinement. The problems of heating and confining a thermonuclear plasma may be regarded as solved. They make possible the definition of the size and geometry needed to realize a next-step tokamak (ITER, NET projects)

  3. Controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trocheris, M.

    1975-01-01

    An outline is given of the present position of research into controlled fusion. After a brief reminder of the nuclear reactions of fusion and the principle of their use as a source of energy, the results obtained by the method of magnetic confinement are summarized. Among the many solutions that have been imagined and tried out to achieve a magnetic containing vessel capable of holding the thermonuclear plasma, the devices of the Tokamak type have a good lead and that is why they are described in greater detail. An idea is then given of the problems that arise when one intends conceiving the thermonuclear reactor based on the principle of the Tokamaks. The last section deals with fusion by lasers which is a new and most attractive alternative, at least from the viewpoint of basis physics. The report concludes with an indication of the stages to be passed through to reach production of energy on an industrial scale [fr

  4. Controlled thermonuclear fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Bobin, Jean Louis

    2014-01-01

    The book is a presentation of the basic principles and main achievements in the field of nuclear fusion. It encompasses both magnetic and inertial confinements plus a few exotic mechanisms for nuclear fusion. The state-of-the-art regarding thermonuclear reactions, hot plasmas, tokamaks, laser-driven compression and future reactors is given.

  5. Controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstrom, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Controlled production of energy by fusion of light nuclei has been the goal of a large portion of the physics community since the 1950's. In order for a fusion reaction to take place, the fuel must be heated to a temperature of 100 million degrees Celsius. At this temperature, matter can exist only in the form of an almost fully ionized plasma. In order for the reaction to produce net power, the product of the density and energy confinement time must exceed a minimum value of 10 20 sec m -3 , the so-called Lawson criterion. Basically, two approaches are being taken to meet this criterion: inertial confinement and magnetic confinement. Inertial confinement is the basis of the laser fusion approach; a fuel pellet is imploded by intense laser beams from all sides and ignites. Magnetic confinement devices, which exist in a variety of geometries, rely upon electromagnetic forces on the charged particles of the plasma to keep the hot plasma from expanding. Of these devices, the most encouraging results have been achieved with a class of devices known as tokamaks. Recent successes with these devices have given plasma physicists confidence that scientific feasibility will be demonstrated in the next generation of tokamaks; however, an even larger effort will be required to make fusion power commercially feasible. As a result, emphasis in the controlled thermonuclear research program is beginning to shift from plasma physics to a new branch of nuclear engineering which can be called fusion engineering, in which instrumentation and control engineers will play a major role. Among the new problem areas they will deal with are plasma diagnostics and superconducting coil instrumentation

  6. The controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    After some generalities on particle physics, and on fusion and fission reactions, the author outlines that the fission reaction is easier to obtain than the fusion reaction, evokes the fusion which takes place in stars, and outlines the difficulty to manage and control this reaction: one of its application is the H bomb. The challenge is therefore to find a way to control this reaction and make it a steady and continuous source of energy. The author then presents the most promising way: the magnetic confinement fusion. He evokes its main issues, the already performed experiments (tokamak), and gives a larger presentation of the ITER project. Then, he evokes another way, the inertial confinement fusion, and the two main experimental installations (National Ignition Facility in Livermore, and the Laser Megajoule in Bordeaux). Finally, he gives a list of benefits and drawbacks of an industrial nuclear fusion

  7. Thermonuclear controlled fusion: international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conscience, J.-F.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the current worldwide status of research in the field of thermonuclear controlled fusion as well as the international research programme planed for the next decades. The two main projects will be the ITER facility (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) that should produce 10 times more energy than the energy injected, and the IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) designed to study the reactions of materials under intense neutron fluxes. The future of the pioneering JET facility (Joint European Torus) is also discussed. The engagement of the various countries (USA, Japan, Germany, Russian Federation and Canada) and international organisations (EURATOM and IEA) in terms of investment and research is described. Switzerland is involved in this program through an agreement with EURATOM and is mainly dedicated to experimental studies with the TCV machine in Lausanne and numerical studies of plasma configurations. It will participate to the development of the microwave plasma heating system for the ITER machine

  8. Controlled thermonuclear fusion: research on magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, P.J.

    1988-12-01

    Recent progress in thermonuclear fusion research indicates that the scientists' schedule for the demonstration of the scientific feasibility will be kept and that break-even will be attained in the course of the next decade. To see the implementation of ignition, however, the generation of future experiments must be awaited. These projects are currently under study. With technological research going on in parallel, they should at the same time contribute to the design of a reactor. Fusion reactors will be quite different from the fission nuclear reactors we know, and the waste of the plants will also be of a different nature. It is still too early to define the precise design of a fusion reactor. On the basis of a toric machine concept like that of the tokamak, we can, however, envisage that the problems with which we are confronted will be solved one after the other. As we have just seen, these will be the objectives of the future experimental installations where ignition will be possible and where the flux of fast neutrons will be so strong that they will allow the study of low-activation materials which will be used in the structure of the reactor. But this is also a task in which from now onwards numerous laboratories in Europe and in the world participate. The works are in fact punctiform, and often the mutual incidences can only be determined by an approach simulated by numerical codes. (author) 19 figs., 6 tabs., 8 refs

  9. Introduction to controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, A.S. de; Rapozo, C.C.

    1988-07-01

    During many centuries the origin of the enormous power output of the sun remained as a mistery. However, in this century, the physicists have discovered that stars get their energy from the fusion of light nuclei (such as deuterons and tritons), and the Einstein's equation, AE = (Am)c 2 , was the way to explain this physical process. (author)

  10. Controlled thermonuclear fusion. Present state and prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consoli, T.

    1976-01-01

    The interest of thermonuclear fusion for energy production is underlined. The present state of the research in this field is presented, emphasis being given to Tokamak configurations. The problems concerning confinement and additional heating in these devices are presented [fr

  11. Surface effects in controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, M.

    1975-08-01

    During the operation of large size plasma facilities and future controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors the surfaces of such major components as container walls, beam limiters, diverter walls and beam-dump walls of the injector region will be exposed to particle and photon bombardment from primary plasma radiations and from secondary radiations. Such radiations can cause, for example, physical and chemical sputtering, blistering, particle- and photon-impact induced desorption, secondary electron and x-ray emission, backscattering, nuclear reactions, photo-decomposition of surface compounds, photocatalysis, and vaporization. Such effects in turn can (a) seriously damage and erode the bombarded surface and (b) release major quantities of impurities which will contaminate the plasma. The effects of some of the major surface phenomena on the operation of plasma facilities and future fusion reactors are discussed

  12. Status report on controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The International Fusion Research Council (IFRC), an advisory body to the International Atomic Energy Agency, reports on the current status of fusion; this report updates its 1978 status report. This report contains a General Overview and Executive Summary, and reports on all current approaches to fusion throughout the world; a series of technical reports is to be published elsewhere. This report is timely in that it not only shows progress which has occurred over the past, but interfaces with possible future devices, in particular the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), whose conceptual design phase is nearing completion. 5 refs, 6 figs

  13. Operating large controlled thermonuclear fusion research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Tarrh, J.M.; Post, R.S.; Thomas, P.

    1987-01-01

    The MIT Tara Tandem Mirror is a large, state of the art controlled thermonuclear fusion research facility. Over the six years of its design, implementation, and operation, every effort was made to minimize cost and maximize performance by using the best and latest hardware, software, and scientific and operational techniques. After reviewing all major DOE fusion facilities, an independent DOE review committee concluded that the Tara operation was the most automated and efficient of all DOE facilities. This paper includes a review of the key elements of the Tara design, construction, operation, management, physics milestones, and funding that led to this success. The authors emphasize a chronological description of how the system evolved from the proposal stage to a mature device with an emphasis on the basic philosophies behind the implementation process. This description can serve both as a qualitative and quantitative database for future large experiment planning. It includes actual final costs and manpower spent as well as actual run and maintenance schedules, number of data shots, major system failures, etc. The paper concludes with recommendations for the next generation of facilities

  14. Operating large controlled thermonuclear fusion research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Tarrh, J.M.; Post, R.S.; Thomas, P.

    1987-10-01

    The MIT Tara Tandem Mirror is a large, state of the art controlled thermonuclear fusion research facility. Over the six years of its design, implementation, and operation, every effort was made to minimize cost and maximize performance by using the best and latest hardware, software, and scientific and operational techniques. After reviewing all major DOE fusion facilities, an independent DOE review committee concluded that the Tara operation was the most automated and efficient of all DOE facilities. This paper includes a review of the key elements of the Tara design, construction, operation, management, physics milestones, and funding that led to this success. We emphasize a chronological description of how the system evolved from the proposal stage to a mature device with an emphasis on the basic philosophies behind the implementation process. This description can serve both as a qualitative and quantitative database for future large experiment planning. It includes actual final costs and manpower spent as well as actual run and maintenance schedules, number of data shots, major system failures, etc. The paper concludes with recommendations for the next generation of facilities. 13 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Status report on controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The International Fusion Research Council has prepared this report on the current status of fusion, an update of its 1978 report, at the request of the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The report consists of an introductory note by the Director General, an Executive Summary and General Overview published in this document, and a series of technical reports. The background of fusion as an energy source is documented and compared with fission. The two approaches to thermonuclear fusion, magnetic confinement and inertial confinement, are discussed. The viability with respect to economic, environmental, and safety aspects is discussed. Fusion programs in the European Community, Japan, the USSR, the USA, as well as smaller programs in other countries are described. The status of fusion physics and technology is elucidated, and future directions and plans are indicated. 5 refs, 6 figs

  16. Brazilian programme for plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chian, A.C.L.; Reusch, M.F.; Nascimento, I.C.; Pantuso-Sudano, J.

    1992-01-01

    A proposal for a National Programme of Plasma Physics and Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion in Brazil is presented, aimimg the dissemination of the researchers thought in plasma physics for the national authorities and the scientific community. (E.O.)

  17. Thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisse, J.

    2000-01-01

    This document takes stock of the two ways of thermonuclear fusion research explored today: magnetic confinement fusion and inertial confinement fusion. The basic physical principles are recalled first: fundamental nuclear reactions, high temperatures, elementary properties of plasmas, ignition criterion, magnetic confinement (charged particle in a uniform magnetic field, confinement and Tokamak principle, heating of magnetized plasmas (ohmic, neutral particles, high frequency waves, other heating means), results obtained so far (scale laws and extrapolation of performances, tritium experiments, ITER project), inertial fusion (hot spot ignition, instabilities, results (Centurion-Halite program, laser experiments). The second part presents the fusion reactor and its associated technologies: principle (tritium production, heat source, neutron protection, tritium generation, materials), magnetic fusion (superconducting magnets, divertor (role, principle, realization), inertial fusion (energy vector, laser adaptation, particle beams, reaction chamber, stresses, chamber concepts (dry and wet walls, liquid walls), targets (fabrication, injection and pointing)). The third chapter concerns the socio-economic aspects of thermonuclear fusion: safety (normal operation and accidents, wastes), costs (costs structure and elementary comparison, ecological impact and external costs). (J.S.)

  18. Energy balance of controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, M.; Staudenmaier, G.

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that a discrepancy and incompatibility persist between basic physics and fusion-literature regarding the radiation losses from a thermonuclear plasma. Whereas the fusion-literature neglects the excitation or line radiation completely, according to basic physics it depends upon the prevailing conditions and cannot be neglected in general. Moreover, for a magnetized plasma, while the fusion-literature assumes a self-absorption or reabsorption of cyclotron or synchrotron radiation emitted by the electrons spiraling along the magnetic field, the basic physics does not allow any effective reabsorption of cyclotron or synchrotron radiation. As is demonstrated, fallacious assumptions and notions, which somehow or other crept into the fusion-literature, are responsible for this discrepancy. In the present work, the theory is corrected. On the grounds of basic physics, a complete energy balance of magnetized and non-magnetized plasmas is presented for pulsed, stationary and self-sustaining operations by taking into account the energy release by reactions of light nuclei as well as different kinds of diffusive (conduction) and radiative (bremsstrahlung, cyclotron or synchrotron radiation and excitation radiation) energy losses. Already the energy losses by radiation make the energy balance negative. Hence, a fusion reactor-an energy producing device-seems to be beyond the realms of realization. (orig.)

  19. Application of controlled thermonuclear reactor fusion energy for food production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.

    1975-06-01

    Food and energy shortages in many parts of the world in the past two years raise an immediate need for the evaluation of energy input in food production. The present paper investigates systematically (1) the energy requirement for food production, and (2) the provision of controlled thermonuclear fusion energy for major energy intensive sectors of food manufacturing. Among all the items of energy input to the ''food industry,'' fertilizers, water for irrigation, food processing industries, such as beet sugar refinery and dough making and single cell protein manufacturing, have been chosen for study in detail. A controlled thermonuclear power reactor was used to provide electrical and thermal energy for all these processes. Conceptual design of the application of controlled thermonuclear power, water and air for methanol and ammonia synthesis and single cell protein production is presented. Economic analysis shows that these processes can be competitive. (auth)

  20. Controlled thermonuclear fusion power apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussard, R.W.; Coppi, B.

    1982-01-01

    This invention provides a modular fusion reactor system containing several fusion power cores, each of relatively small size and low cost. Energy from the cores is absorbed in the core structure and within a surrounding blanket, and the cores themselves may be individually removed from the blanket and replaced as they deteriorate from high radiation flux damage

  1. American research programs on controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    At a time when the site of the European JET project has been decided, this study proposes to highlight the American effort in this field over the last five years. The Federal Civil Research and Development budget assigned to Energy has been multiplied by 6.3 and inside this budget the portion allocated to fusion has been multiplied by a factor of 6, in value. Two avenues have been explored; magnetic confinement and inertial confinement but one reaction only has been considered, namely D + T fusion. In magnetic confinement, the first operational reactor is being contemplated for around the year 2012. Three technologies have been explored in inertial confinement: by laser beams, electron beams and ion beams [fr

  2. Tritium containment of controlled thermonuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Tsukumo, Kiyohiko; Suzuki, Tatsushi

    1979-01-01

    It is well known that tritium is used as the fuel for nuclear fusion reactors. The neutrons produced by the nuclear fusion reaction of deuterium and tritium react with lithium in blankets, and tritium is produced. The blankets reproduce the tritium consumed in the D-T reaction. Tritium circulates through the main cooling system and the fuel supply and evacuation system, and is accumulated. Tritium is a radioactive substance emitting β-ray with 12.6 year half-life, and harmful to human bodies. It is an isotope of hydrogen, and apt to diffuse and leak. Especially at high temperature, it permeates through materials, therefore it is important to evaluate the release of tritium into environment, to treat leaked tritium to reduce its release, and to select the method of containing tritium. The permeability of tritium and its solubility in structural materials are discussed. The typical blanket-cooling systems of nuclear fusion reactors are shown, and the tungsten coating of steam generator tubes and tritium recovery system are adopted for reducing tritium leak. In case of the Tokamak type reactor of JAERI, the tritium recovery system is installed, in which the tritium gas produced in blankets is converted to tritium steam with a Pd-Pt catalytic oxidation tower, and it is dehydrated and eliminated with a molecular sieve tower, then purified and recovered. (Kako, I.)

  3. Controlled thermonuclear fusion power apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussaro, R.W.; Coppi, B.

    1977-01-01

    A fusion power device is described comprising: a) a plurality of plasma containment means for containing fusible plasma within a region, b) blanket means surrounding a substantial portion of each of the plurality of containment means, c) means for feeding a fusible fuel into each of the plurality of containment means for forming the plasma, d) each of the plurality of containment means separable from the blanket means for replacement of the containment means by other containment means, and e) means connected to at least one of each of the plurality of plasma containment means and the blanket means for extracting thermal energy therefrom and for converting same into electrical energy and/or into mechanical energy

  4. Atomic and molecular physics of controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joachain, C.J.; Post, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    This book attempts to provide a comprehensive introduction to the atomic and molecular physics of controlled thermonuclear fusion, and also a self-contained source from which to start a systematic study of the field. Presents an overview of fusion energy research, general principles of magnetic confinement, and general principles of inertial confinement. Discusses the calculation and measurement of atomic and molecular processes relevant to fusion, and the atomic and molecular physics of controlled thermonuclear research devices. Topics include recent progress in theoretical methods for atomic collisions; current theoretical techniques for electron-atom and electronion scattering; experimental aspects of electron impact ionization and excitation of positive ions; the theory of charge exchange and ionization by heavy particles; experiments on electron capture and ionization by multiply charged ions; Rydberg states; atomic and molecular processes in high temperature, low-density magnetically confined plasmas; atomic processes in high-density plasmas; the plasma boundary region and the role of atomic and molecular processes; neutral particle beam production and injection; spectroscopic plasma diagnostics; and particle diagnostics for magnetic fusion experiments

  5. Synthetic report 2012. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaucher, C.; Tran, M. Q.; Villard, L.; Marot, L.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1961, Switzerland participates in the research on thermonuclear fusion thanks to the creation of the Research Centre in Plasma Physics. In 1979 it entered into partnership with the European programme on fusion through its adhesion to EURATOM. The thermonuclear fusion is an interesting energy source because the basic fuel is practically inexhaustible and its use does not release any significant CO 2 quantity and very little radioactive residues. But its working up faces enormous physical and technological difficulties. The International Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER), presently in construction, has to demonstrate the technological feasibility of the controlled fusion. Il will be followed by DEMO, foreseen for 2040-2050, which must guarantee the economical rentability. At CRPP the research projects are partitioned onto several sites: at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne, they concern the physics of the magnetic confinement with the Variable Geometry Tokamak (TCV), the development of theoretical models and the numerical simulation, the plasma heating and the generation of hyper frequency waves; the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) studies the superconductivity and the materials; the interactions between the plasma and the Tokamak walls are studied at the Basel University for the structures of ITER. Thanks to its large flexibility, TCV allows the creation and the control of plasmas of very different forms. The injection system of millimetric waves allows orienting the injected power according to specific profiles. By using the asymmetry of the flow in the toroidal sense, the plasma rotation could be measured with a much better accuracy than before. In TCV, by playing on the form of the plasma, it was possible to strongly reduce the energy quantity which is expelled by the Edge Localized Modes (ELM) onto the wall of the vacuum chamber. The ‘snowflake’ configuration created in TCV allows distributing the ELM energy onto several impact

  6. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion. Synthesis report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaucher, C.; Tran, M. Q.; Villard, L.; Marot, L.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1978, research on thermonuclear fusion in Switzerland is closely related to the research programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The Swiss projects tackle aspects of plasma physics and fusion technology. Switzerland participates to the construction and operation of the Joint European Torus (JET), which started operation again in 2011. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is the last step before DEMO, a prototype fusion reactor able to deliver electricity and demonstrate the economic viability of fusion energy. The 'Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas' (CRPP) of the EPFL went on with its participation to the scientific and technological programme of EURATOM. Researches are carried out essentially on 2 sites: (i) at EPFL, where topics dealt with include the physics of magnetic confinement studied using the Variable Configuration Tokamak (TCV), the basic experiment TORPEX, theory and numerical modelling, and the technology of plasma heating and current generation by hyper-frequency waves; (ii) at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), where activities are devoted to superconductivity and structure materials. Thanks to the large flexibility of the TCV design and operation modus, plasmas of different shapes can be created and controlled, what is a very useful option to verify numerical simulation results. Besides, the injection of millimetre waves allows directing the injected power according to specific profiles. In the TCV it could be demonstrated for the first time that the injection of Electronic Cyclotronic Heating (ECH) waves is able to double the frequency of so-called 'Edge Localized Modes' (ELM), reducing by a factor of 2 the energy expelled by each ELM. In particular, it was possible to considerably reduce the statistical dispersion of the repetition frequency of ELM, and to avoid the appearance of gigantic ELM that are particularly harmful for reactor operation. The effect of plasma internal relaxation

  7. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion - Synthesis report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaucher, C.; Tran, M. Q.; Villard, L.; Marot, L.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1978, research on thermonuclear fusion in Switzerland is closely related to the research programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The Swiss projects tackle aspects of plasma physics and fusion technology. Switzerland participates to the construction and operation of the Joint European Torus (JET). The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is being built; the first plasma is expected in 2019. The 'Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas' (CRPP) of the EPFL participates to EURATOM scientific and technological projects in magnetic confinement physics, through an experimental contribution (the Variable Configuration Tokamak, TCV) and theoretical studies. Thanks to the large flexibility of the TCV design and operation modus, plasmas of different shapes can be created and controlled, what is a very useful option to verify numerical simulation results. Besides, the injection of millimetre waves allows directing the injected power according to specific profiles. A configuration of type 'snowflakes' could be created, reducing the power deposition at the edge of the plasma. Theoretical studies on turbulence have improved the plasma stability in the TCV. For the first time in the world, TCV could reach a stable plasma, the plasma current being generated using the so-called 'bootstrap' phenomenon. Besides turbulence, studies were focused on heat and particle transport in tokamaks, on an analysis of the equilibrium and magneto-hydrodynamic stability of tokamaks and stellarators, on the application of radiofrequency waves and on the optimization of new confinement configurations. Experiments in the JET facility confirmed the numerical results of theoretical simulations. The TORPEX facility, which is simpler than TCV, allows high space-temporal resolution measurements for the study of turbulences and plasma threads ('blobs'). At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), research topics include superconductivity and materials. The Fusion

  8. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion - Synthesis report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werthmueller, A.

    2009-06-01

    Switzerland is associated to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project carried out in the framework of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The current stage includes on-site civil engineering works. The Variable Configuration Tokamak (TCV) of the 'Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas' (CRPP) of the EPFL will remain an important recognized research facility until the start of the ITER operation foreseen in 2018. At the European level, the whole fusion research is coordinated and partly financed by the Joint Undertaking Fusion for Energy (JU F4E). The large flexibility of the TCV design and operation modus allow the creation and control of plasmas of various shapes, what is a very useful option to verify the results of numerical simulations. Besides, the hyper-frequency power density injected into the plasma is the highest ever recorded in the world. Research topics studied with the TCV include the stationary regimes in the tokamaks; a plasma current of more than 70 kA could be maintained, what represents an improvement by a factor of 3 to 4 of the confinement quality. For the first time in the world a configuration of the 'snowflake' type could be created and the power density on the wall of the vacuum chamber could be reduced accordingly. Numerical models allowed the analysis of turbulence and heat transport, of the magneto-hydrodynamic stability of the tokamaks and stellarators as well as the optimization of the magnetic confinement. Results concerning the so-called 'saw teeth' instability were experimentally confirmed on the Joint European Torus (JET). Theoretical researches were carried out on the fluctuations, turbulence and transport phenomena in the magnetized toric plasmas. At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) the effect of the fast neutrons emitted by the fusion reactions on the walls of the fusion reactors was investigated. Irradiation simulations were carried out by means of the Swiss Spallation Neutron Source

  9. Research into thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, U.

    1989-01-01

    The experimental and theoretical studies carried out in close international cooperation in the field of thermonuclear fusion by magnetic plasma confinement have achieved such progress towards higher plasma temperatures and densities, longer confinement times and, thus, increased fusion product, that emphasis now begins to be shifted from problems of physics to those of technology as a next major step is being prepared towards a large international project (ITER) to achieve thermonuclear burning. The generation and maintenance of a burning fusion plasma in an experimental physics phase will be followed by a phase of technical materials studies at high fluxes of fusion neutrons. These goals have been pursued since 1983 by an international study group at Garching working on the design of a Next European Torus (NET). Since May 1988, an international study group comprising ten experts each from the USSR, USA, Japan, and the European Community has begun to work on a design draft of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) in Garching under the auspices of IAEA. (orig.) [de

  10. Italy, EURATOM and Early Research on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (1957-1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curli, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter traces the early origins of European collaboration in controlled thermonuclear fusion research, within the larger picture of Cold War nuclear policy in the late 1950s-early 1960s, and as a consequence of the signing of the EURATOM treaty in 1957. It then presents some preliminary findings on the Association contract which was signed in 1960 between EURATOM and Italy, in order to carry out research in controlled thermonuclear fusion at the then newly created 'Laboratori nazionali di Frascati', near Rome, within the framework of the Comitato Nazionale Energia Nucleare (CNEN), the Italian civilian nuclear energy agency.

  11. The laser thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, J.; Dautray, R.; Decroisette, M.; Watteau, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Principle of the thermonuclear fusion by inertial confinement: required characteristics of the deuterium-tritium plasma and of the high power lasers to be used Development of high power lasers: active media used; amplifiers; frequency conversion; beam quality; pulse conditioning; existing large systems. The laser-matter interaction: collision and collective interaction of the laser radiation with matter; transport of the absorbed energy; heating and compression of deuterium-tritium; diagnoses and their comparison with the numerical simulation of the experiment; performances. Conclusions: difficulties to overcome; megajoule lasers; other energy source: particles beams [fr

  12. Research program. Controlled thermonuclear fusion. Synthesis report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villard, L.; Marot, L.; Soom, P.

    2016-01-01

    In 1961, 3 years after the 2 nd International Conference on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy, the Research Centre on Plasma Physics (CRPP) was created as a department of the Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne (Switzerland). From 1979, CRPP collaborates to the European Program on fusion research in the framework of EURATOM. In 2015 its name was changed to Swiss Plasma Centre (SPC). The advantages of fusion are remarkable: the fuel is available in great quantity all over the world; the reactor is intrinsically safe; the reactor material, activated during operation, loses practically all its activity within about 100 years. But the working up of the controlled fusion necessitates extreme technological conditions. In 1979, the Joint European Torus (JET) began its operation; today it is still the most powerful tokamak in the world, in which an energy yield Q of 0.65 could be obtained. In 2015, the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7X), the largest in the world, was set into operation. The progress realized in the framework of EURATOM has led to the planning of the experimental reactor ITER which is being built at Cadarache (France). ITER is designed to reach a Q-value largely above 1. The future prototype reactor DEMO is foreseen in 2040-2050. It should demonstrate the ability of a fusion reactor to inject permanently electricity into the grid. In 2015, SPC participated in the works on ITER in the framework of the Fusion for Energy (F4E) agency. At EPFL the research concerns the physics of the magnetic confinement with experiments on the tokamak TCV (variable configuration tokamak), the numerical simulations, the plasma heating and the generation of current by hyper frequency radio waves. At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), research is devoted to the superconductivity; at the Basel University the studies get on interactions between the plasma and the tokamak walls. The large flexibility of TCV allows creating and controlling plasmas of different shapes which

  13. Research program. Controlled thermonuclear fusion. Synthesis report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villard, L.; Marot, L.

    2014-01-01

    In 1961, 3 years after the 2 nd International Conference on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy, the Research Centre on Plasma Physics (CRPP) was created as a department of the Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne (Switzerland). From 1979, CRPP collaborates to the European Program on fusion research in the framework of EURATOM. The advantages of fusion are remarkable: the fuel is available in great quantity all over the world; the reactor is intrinsically safe; the reactor material, activated during operation, loses practically all its activity within about 100 years. But the working up of the controlled fusion necessitates extreme technological conditions. The progress realized in the framework of EURATOM has led to the design of the experimental reactor ITER which is being built at Cadarache (France). The future prototype reactor DEMO is foreseen in 2040-2050. In 2013, CRPP participated in the works on ITER in the framework of the Fusion for Energy (F4E) agency. At EPFL the research concerns the physics of the magnetic confinement with experiments on the tokamak TCV (variable configuration tokamak), the numerical simulations, the plasma heating and the generation of current by hyper frequency radio waves. At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), research is devoted to the superconductivity. At the Basel University the studies get on interactions between the plasma and the tokamak walls. A new improved confinement regime, called IN-mode, was discovered on TCV. The theory and numerical simulation group interprets the experimental results and foresees those of futures machines. It requires very high performance computers. The Gyrotron group develops radiofrequency sources in the mm range for heating the TCV plasma as well as for ITER and the Wendelstein-7 stellarator. Concerning superconductivity, tests are conducted at PSI on toroidal cables of ITER. The development of conductors and coils for the DEMO reactor has been pursued. In the context of international

  14. Research program. Controlled thermonuclear fusion. Synthesis report 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villard, L.; Marot, L.; Fiocco, D.

    2015-01-01

    In 1961, 3 years after the 2 nd International Conference on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy, the Research Centre on Plasma Physics (CRPP) was created as a department of the Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne (Switzerland). From 1979, CRPP collaborates to the European Program on fusion research in the framework of EURATOM. The advantages of fusion are remarkable: the fuel is available in great quantity all over the world; the reactor is intrinsically safe; the reactor material, activated during operation, loses practically all its activity within about 100 years. But the working up of the controlled fusion necessitates extreme technological conditions. In 1979, the Joint European Torus (JET) began its operation; today it is still the most powerful tokamak in the world; its energy yield Q reached 0.65. The progress realized in the framework of EURATOM has led to the planning of the experimental reactor ITER which is being built at Cadarache (France). ITER is designed to reach a Q-value largely above 1. The future prototype reactor DEMO is foreseen in 2040-2050. It should demonstrate the ability of a fusion reactor to inject electricity into the grid for long term. In 2014, CRPP participated in the works on ITER in the framework of the Fusion for Energy (F4E) agency. At EPFL the research concerns the physics of the magnetic confinement with experiments on the tokamak TCV (variable configuration tokamak), the numerical simulations, the plasma heating and the generation of current by hyper frequency radio waves. At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), research is devoted to the superconductivity. At the Basel University the studies get on interactions between the plasma and the tokamak walls. The large flexibility of TCV allows creating and controlling plasmas of different shapes which are necessary to optimise the core geometry of future reactors. Moreover, the plasma heating by mm radio waves allows guiding the injected power according to specific

  15. Thermonuclear fusion by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, J.-F.; Fabre, Edouard.

    1978-01-01

    This paper is intended to describe the principle of inetia containment by laser and the research effort undertaken for this purpose. After having enumerated the principal thermonuclear reactions useful for fusion, the authors derive the rhoR criterion that characterizes inertia containment, as well as the Lawson criterion in the case of magnetic containment. The main physics problems involved in inertia containment by laser are enunciated and the article ends with a review of means resorted to in France and abroad for studying this problem. This review also reports C.N.R.S. bustling in this field, within the scope of competence of G.I.L.M. (Groupement de Recherches Coordonnees sur l'Interaction Laser-Matiere = Group for coordinated investigation of matter-laser interaction) established in Paris at the Ecole Polytechnique [fr

  16. Inertial thermonuclear fusion by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watteau, J.P.

    1993-12-01

    The principles of deuterium tritium (DT) magnetic or inertial thermonuclear fusion are given. Even if results would be better with heavy ions beams, most of the results on fusion are obtained with laser beams. Technical and theoretical aspects of the laser fusion are presented with an extrapolation to the future fusion reactor. (A.B.). 34 refs., 17 figs

  17. Controlled thermonuclear fusion and the latest progress on China's HT-7 superconducting tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiangang; Yang Yu

    2003-01-01

    After 50 years of research on controlled thermonuclear fusion, a new stage will be reached in 2003, when a site for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project will be chosen to start the construction. Scientists hope that this project could herald a new era in which the energy problem will be solved completely. The great progress made on the HT-7 superconducting tokamak in China has provided positive and powerful support for fusion research. The HT-7 is one of the only two superconducting tokamaks in the world that can carry out minute-scale high temperature plasma research, and has achieved a duration of 63.95s for the hot plasma discharge. This is a major step towards real steady-state operation of the tokamak configuration. We present an overview of the latest progress on the tokamak experiments in the Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences

  18. Reaching to a featured formula to deduce the energy of the heaviest particles producing from the controlled thermonuclear fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Raad H.; Oudah, Osamah N.

    2018-05-01

    Thermonuclear fusion reaction plays an important role in developing and construction any power plant system. Studying the physical behavior for the possible mechanism governed energies released by the fusion products to precise understanding the related kinematics. In this work a theoretical formula controlled the general applied thermonuclear fusion reactions is achieved to calculating the fusion products energy depending upon the reactants physical properties and therefore, one can calculate other parameters governed a given reaction. By using this formula, the energy spectrum of 4He produced from T-3He fusion reaction has been sketched with respect to reaction angle and incident energy ranged from (0.08-0.6) MeV.

  19. Thermonuclear fusion power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, B

    1977-01-01

    The present state and future possibilities of controlled-nuclear-fusion research are reviewed, including basic concepts and problems, as well as various approaches based on magnetic- and nonmagnetic-confinement schemes. Considerable progress has so far been made in both plasma physics and fusion-reactor technology, and a closer relationship has been established between theory and experiments. Still, none of the present approaches will, for certain, lead to the final solution of a full-scale reactor. Intensified work along broad lines, with emphasis also on basic research and new ideas, is necessary for future success.

  20. Powerful lasers for thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basov, N.; Krokhin, O.; Sklizkov, G.; Fedotov, S.

    1977-01-01

    The parameters are discussed of the radiation of powerful lasers (internal energy of the plasma determined by the volume, density and temperature of the plasma, duration of the heating pulse, focusing of the laser pulse energy in a small volume of matter, radiation contrast) for attaining an effective thermonuclear fusion at minimum microexplosion energy. A survey is given of the methods of shaping laser pulses with limit parameters, and the principle of the construction of powerful laser systems is described. The general diagram and parameters are given of the Delfin thermonuclear apparatus and a diagram is presented of the focusing system of high luminosity for spherical plasma heating using spherical mirrors. A diagram is presented of the vacuum chamber and of the complex diagnostic apparatus for determining the basic parameters of thermonuclear plasma in the Delfin apparatus. The prospects are indicated of the further development of thermonuclear laser apparatus with neodymium and CO 2 lasers. (B.S.)

  1. Annual report of the Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusin Working Group (FWG))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion [Fusion Working Group (FWG)] was established in 1983 in response to the Declaration of the Heads of State and Government at the Versailles Economic Summit meeting of 1982, and in response to the subsequent report of the Working Group in Technology, Growth and Employment (TGE) as endorsed at the Williamsburg Summit meeting, 1983. This document contains the complete written record of each of the three FWG meetings which include the minutes, lists of attendees, agendas, statements, and summary conclusions as well as the full reports of the Technical Working Party. In addition, there is a pertinent exchange of correspondence between FWG members on the role of the Technical Working Party and a requested background paper on the modalities associated with a possible future ETR project

  2. 2001 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2002-01-01

    The year 2001 activities of the controlled thermonuclear fusion research line of the Plasma Associated Laboratory at the National Institute for Space Research - Brazil are reported. The report approaches the staff, participation in congresses, goals for the year 2002 and papers on Tokamak plasmas, plasma diagnostic, bootstraps, plasma equilibrium and diagnostic

  3. 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2004-01-01

    This document represents the 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory - Brazil, approaching the areas of toroidal systems for magnetic confinement, plasma heating, current generation and high temperature plasma diagnostic

  4. Thermonuclear fusion: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhns, H.; Maisonnier, Ch.

    1992-01-01

    Thermonuclear Fusion holds great promises for becoming an important energy source for the future. Fusion research and development is undertaken in al major countries of the world. The European Community pursues fusion in a large programme which embraces all R and D in the field of magnetic confinement fusion in the Member States, and to which Sweden and Switzerland are fully associated. The long-term objective of the programme is the joint creation of safe, environmentally sound prototype reactors. The main R and D line of the Community Fusion Programme is fusion by toroidal magnetic confinement on the basis of the Tokamak concept. Some related concepts are also studied which possibly could offer advantages for a reactor, and keep-in-touch activities exist for other approaches. Several small and medium sized specialised devices in Associated Laboratories have been built by the Community Fusion Programme as well as the Joint European Torus (JET Joint Undertaking) which is the largest and the most successful fusion device in the world. Recently, fusion power in the megawatt range has been achieved in JET. The long timescale and the large effort needed for the development of fusion as an energy source have been important elements to foster international collaboration. Engineering Design Activities for an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are undertaken, under the auspices of the IAEA, by the European Community, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States of America. The objective of ITER is to achieve self-sustained thermonuclear burn and its control under long-pulse operation and to provide basic data for the engineering of a demonstration fusion reactor. (author)

  5. Towards a new generation of control and data acquisition systems for thermonuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Haren, P.C.

    1993-01-01

    Because of the complexity of thermonuclear fusion test reactors, control systems are indispensable. The physical properties of the reactor medium, i.e. the plasma, are still not well understood. Therefore, many diagnostic techniques are applied to investigate the plasma and to discover its properties. As a consequence, data acquisition systems play an important role in thermonuclear fusion research. This thesis reports on three projects that were carried out in the field of control and data acquisition. The target experiment is the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project (RTP), a medium-sized experiment dedicated to studies of transport in the reactor medium. One of the projects is aimed at the development of a new Plasma Position and Current Control feedback System (PPCCS). This system evaluates signals of a large (about 20) number of sensors, computes the actual state of the plasma from these signals and generates command signals for the power supplies that govern the plasma position. The most ambitious project described in this thesis is the development of a data acquisition system, called TRAMP (Transient Recorders and Amoeba Multi Processor), that aims to be a testbed for smart data acquisition strategies. TRAMP attempts to acquire and store temporarily all possible data at a high sampling frequency from a single RTP pulse, and accommodates for a resampling in software prior to transferring the data to a mass storage facility. The software resampling frequency can be tuned by analysis of the acquired data and, in that way, only interesting data will be stored. In the course of the development of both the above-mentioned systems it turned out that the existing database format applied for managing experimental data provided many hurdles in the realization of efficient solutions. Consequently, a new database format was developed together with software to deal with it. This new database, called DOM4 (Data Organization and Management), is now applied at all data acquisition

  6. International research co-operation in the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conscience, J.-F.

    2003-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Education and Science presents a review of activities carried out in 2002 within the framework of the International Experimental Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER) project that involves contributions from Canada, Japan, the Russian Federation and the European Union. Further agreements on the development of a fusion reactor with other countries, including Switzerland, the USA and China, are mentioned. The first chapter describes the current state of research on electricity production using nuclear fusion and discusses feasibility, safety, environmental, fuel supply and economic aspects. A second chapter reviews global efforts in the fusion area, including ITER and EURATOM projects and the activities running under the European Fusion Development Agreement EFDA and the JET Implementing Agreement. Finally, a third chapter deals with fusion research activities in Switzerland and the contributions made to international research by Swiss universities and institutes

  7. International research co-operation in the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 26th report by the Swiss Federal Office for Education and Science presents a review of work done in Swiss institutes in 2003 as part of international research into thermonuclear fusion. A broad outline of the project and of its significance within the wider field of thermonuclear fusion research is given. This is followed by a review of the significant events in the world of fusion research, with emphasis placed on ITER and on the EURATOM fusion programme. A further chapter summarises events in Switzerland in 2003 and the report closes with a list of contacts for more information. Three annexes provide information on the current situation in fusion research, as well as scientific and technical highlights of the work performed in 2003 at the Plasma Physics Research Centre CRPP at the Federal Institute of Technology EPFL in Lausanne, Switzerland. Annex 3 reports on results obtained at the Physics Institute of the University of Basle. The annexes are for the benefit of the technically and scientifically versed reader, and brief summaries of them are given in the main body of the report

  8. Modeling and control simulation of an electromechanical mm-wave launching system for thermonuclear fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsironis, Christos, E-mail: ctsiron@mail.ntua.gr [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 157 73 Athens (Greece); Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54 136 Thessaloniki (Greece); Giannopoulos, Iordanis K.; Vasileiadou, Soultana; Kakogiannos, Ioannis D.; Kalligeropoulos, Dimitrios [Department of Automation, Technological Education Institute of Piraeus, 122 44 Piraeus (Greece)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Open-loop modeling and control simulation of an electromechanical mm-wave launcher. • Simulations of the experiment without employing the real (hardware) system. • Launcher mirror dynamics correspond to a second-order weakly-nonlinear system. • Closed-loop control design in terms of cascade PIDs achieves required performance. - Abstract: Controlled thermonuclear fusion via magnetic confinement, still in experimental stage, has the potential to become a viable and environment-friendly solution to the energy problem, especially for the high-power needs of modern industry. In order to optimize the operation of devices based on the tokamak principle, automatic control systems are envisaged to fulfill the requirements for the magnetic equilibrium and plasma stability, with copper coils, neutral gas injectors and microwave sources used as actuators. In present-day experiments, the implemented control loops are simple and practical, however in future devices like ITER (presently under construction) more sophisticated control design will be required, based on realistic closed-loop simulations with efficient computational tools and real-time diagnosing. For magnetohydrodynamic instability control, the system should include physics/engineering models for the plasma dynamics, the wave actuation and the diagnostic sensors, as well as controllers based on classical or modern principles. In this work, we present a model for a specific design of a controlled electromechanical millimeter-wave launcher, which executes the major part of the wave actuation, and perform numerical simulations of its open-loop dynamics and closed-loop control for scenarios relevant to tearing mode stabilization in medium-sized tokamaks.

  9. Thermonuclear plasma physic: inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, Ch.; Juraszek, D.

    2001-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an approach to thermonuclear fusion in which the fuel contained in a spherical capsule is strongly compressed and heated to achieve ignition and burn. The released thermonuclear energy can be much higher than the driver energy, making energetic applications attractive. Many complex physical phenomena are involved by the compression process, but it is possible to use simple analytical models to analyze the main critical points. We first determine the conditions to obtain fuel ignition. High thermonuclear gains are achieved if only a small fraction of the fuel called hot spot is used to trigger burn in the main fuel compressed on a low isentrope. A simple hot spot model will be described. The high pressure needed to drive the capsule compression are obtained by the ablation process. A simple Rocket model describe the main features of the implosion phase. Several parameters have to be controlled during the compression: irradiation symmetry, hydrodynamical stability and when the driver is a laser, the problems arising from interaction of the EM wave with the plasma. Two different schemes are examined: Indirect Drive which uses X-ray generated in a cavity to drive the implosion and the Fast Ignitor concept using a ultra intense laser beam to create the hot spot. At the end we present the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) project. LMJ is scaled to a thermonuclear gain of the order of ten. (authors)

  10. Participation of the Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais in the national program for plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is a report concerning the participation of the Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais in the national program for plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear fusion. The report lists all the personnel enroled in research activities, both theoretical and experimental. The research subjects are the following: relativistic electron beams; plasma produced by laser; plasma theory; quiescent plasma; plasma centrifugal; ionic propulsion. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  11. Towards upper power levels: thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedel, Jean

    1983-01-01

    This paper is a brief introduction to the use of power lasers to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion. After shortly describing thermonuclear fusion and the conditions of temperature, density and duration required it is showed how the laser enables such conditions to be created. The neodymium-doped glass laser NOVA that is being installed at the Livermore laboratory in the USA is described; at the time of its completion in 1984, this laser will be the most powerful in the world. In comparison, the OCTAL laser in operation at the Limeil establishment ''Centre d'Etudes'' of ''Commissariat Francais a l'Energie Atomique'' (the French atomic energy authority) is more modest; it is presented here [fr

  12. Controlled thermonuclear fusion in TOKAMAK type reactors, the European example: Joint European Torus (JET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, P.J.; Yassen, F.; Assis, A.S. de; Raposo, C.

    1988-07-01

    The development of controlled thermonuclear reaction in TOKAMAK type reactors, and the main projects in the world are presented. The main characteristics of the JET (Joint European Torus) program, the perspectives for energy production, and the international cooperation for viable use of the TOKAMAK are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  13. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion. Synthesis report 2011; Programme de recherche Fusion thermonucleaire controlee. Rapport de synthese 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaucher, C. [Secretariat d' Etat a l' education et a la recherche, Berne (Switzerland); Tran, M. Q.; Villard, L. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Marot, L. [University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Since 1978, research on thermonuclear fusion in Switzerland is closely related to the research programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The Swiss projects tackle aspects of plasma physics and fusion technology. Switzerland participates to the construction and operation of the Joint European Torus (JET), which started operation again in 2011. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is the last step before DEMO, a prototype fusion reactor able to deliver electricity and demonstrate the economic viability of fusion energy. The 'Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas' (CRPP) of the EPFL went on with its participation to the scientific and technological programme of EURATOM. Researches are carried out essentially on 2 sites: (i) at EPFL, where topics dealt with include the physics of magnetic confinement studied using the Variable Configuration Tokamak (TCV), the basic experiment TORPEX, theory and numerical modelling, and the technology of plasma heating and current generation by hyper-frequency waves; (ii) at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), where activities are devoted to superconductivity and structure materials. Thanks to the large flexibility of the TCV design and operation modus, plasmas of different shapes can be created and controlled, what is a very useful option to verify numerical simulation results. Besides, the injection of millimetre waves allows directing the injected power according to specific profiles. In the TCV it could be demonstrated for the first time that the injection of Electronic Cyclotronic Heating (ECH) waves is able to double the frequency of so-called 'Edge Localized Modes' (ELM), reducing by a factor of 2 the energy expelled by each ELM. In particular, it was possible to considerably reduce the statistical dispersion of the repetition frequency of ELM, and to avoid the appearance of gigantic ELM that are particularly harmful for reactor operation. The effect of plasma

  14. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion - Synthesis report 2010; Programme de recherche Fusion thermonucleaire controlee. Rapport de synthese 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaucher, C. [Secretariat d' Etat a l' education et a la recherche, Berne (Switzerland); Tran, M. Q.; Villard, L. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Marot, L. [University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    Since 1978, research on thermonuclear fusion in Switzerland is closely related to the research programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The Swiss projects tackle aspects of plasma physics and fusion technology. Switzerland participates to the construction and operation of the Joint European Torus (JET). The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is being built; the first plasma is expected in 2019. The 'Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas' (CRPP) of the EPFL participates to EURATOM scientific and technological projects in magnetic confinement physics, through an experimental contribution (the Variable Configuration Tokamak, TCV) and theoretical studies. Thanks to the large flexibility of the TCV design and operation modus, plasmas of different shapes can be created and controlled, what is a very useful option to verify numerical simulation results. Besides, the injection of millimetre waves allows directing the injected power according to specific profiles. A configuration of type 'snowflakes' could be created, reducing the power deposition at the edge of the plasma. Theoretical studies on turbulence have improved the plasma stability in the TCV. For the first time in the world, TCV could reach a stable plasma, the plasma current being generated using the so-called 'bootstrap' phenomenon. Besides turbulence, studies were focused on heat and particle transport in tokamaks, on an analysis of the equilibrium and magneto-hydrodynamic stability of tokamaks and stellarators, on the application of radiofrequency waves and on the optimization of new confinement configurations. Experiments in the JET facility confirmed the numerical results of theoretical simulations. The TORPEX facility, which is simpler than TCV, allows high space-temporal resolution measurements for the study of turbulences and plasma threads ('blobs'). At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), research topics include

  15. Neutronics and mass transport in a chemical reactor associated with controlled thermonuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.; Lazareth, O.W.; Powell, J.R.

    1976-05-01

    The formation of ozone from oxygen and the dissociation carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and oxygen is studied in a gamma-neutron chemical process blanket associated with a controlled thermonuclear reactor. Materials used for reactor tube wall will affect the efficiency of the energy absorption by the reactants and consequently the yield of reaction products. Three kinds of materials, aluminum, stainless steel and fiber (Al 2 O 3 )-aluminium are investigated for the tube wall material in the study

  16. Annual report of the Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusin Working Group (FWG))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1987-04-01

    The Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusion Working Group (FWG)) was established in 1983 in response to the Declaration of the Heads of State and Government at the Versailles Economic Summit meeting of 1982, and in response to the subsequent report of the Working Group in Technology, Growth and Employment (TGE) as endorsed at the Williamsburg Summit meeting, 1983. This document contains the complete written record of each of the three FWG meetings which include the minutes, lists of attendees, agendas, statements, and summary conclusions as well as the full reports of the Technical Working Party. In addition, there is a pertinent exchange of correspondence between FWG members on the role of the Technical Working Party and a requested background paper on the modalities associated with a possible future ETR project.

  17. An electromagnetic spherical phased array thermonuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okress, E.C.

    1983-01-01

    Discussed are salient physics aspects of a microwave singly reentrant spherical periodic phased array of uniformally distributed identical coaxial radiation elements in an essentially simulated infinite array environment. The array is capable of maintaining coherence or phase control (to the limit of the order of 300 GHz) of its spherically converging electromagnetic transverse magnetic mode radiation field, for confinement (and heating) of thermonuclear plasma in steady-state or inertial thermonuclear fusion. The array also incorporates capability for coaxial directional coupler extraction of fusionpower. The radiation elements of the array are shielded against DT Thermonuclear plasma emissions (i.e., neutrons and bremsstrahlung) by either sufficiently (available) low less tangent and cooled, spherically concentric shield (e.g., Titanium oxide); or alternately by identical material dome windows mounted on each radiation element's aperture of the array. The pump microwave power required for thermonuclear fusion feasibility comprises an array of phase-locked available klystron amplifiers (comparable gyratron amplifiers remain to be developed)

  18. Diagnostics considerations for the inertial confinement approach to controlled thermonuclear fusion power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, L.

    1978-01-01

    It is concluded that although the challenges facing diagnosticians working on the inertial confinement approach to controlled fusion are large and varied, the means potentially available to meet them are more than adequate. No new instrumentation fields need be opened; rather, substantial extensions of those already being explored by workers in ICF will suffice. Also, large contributions may be expected from other technological applications thrusts, as well as from the general, currently rapid advance of the entire physical technology base

  19. Particle-induced thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salisbury, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear fusion process for igniting a nuclear fusion pellet in a manner similar to that proposed for laser beams uses, an array of pulsed high energy combined particle beams, focused to bombard the pellet for isentropically compressing it to a Fermi-degenerate state by thermal blow-off and balanced beam momentum transfer. (author)

  20. Controlled thermonuclear reactions and Tora Supra program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The research programs for the nuclear energy production by means of thermonuclear fusion are shown. TORA SUPRA, Joint European Torus, Next European Torus and those developed at the Atomic Energy Center are described. The controlled fusion necessary conditions, the energy and confinement balance, and the research of a better tokamak configuration are discussed. A description of TORA SUPRA, the ways of achieving the project and the expected delays are shown. The Controlled Fusion Research Department functions, concerning these programs, are described. The importance of international cooperation and the perspectives about the use of controlled fusion are underlined [fr

  1. Advance in physics of laser thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasev, J.; Basov, N.; Gamalij, J.; Krokhin, O.; Rozanov, V.

    1977-01-01

    A survey is given of current advance in the physics of laser thermonuclear fusion (LTF). The LTF physical model is discussed with regard to the optimal laser-target systems not only for attaining the physical limit but also for future thermonuclear reactors. The basic physical principles of LTF are formulated which make use of the fact that in focusing laser radiation on the surface of a substance a high density may be attained of the energy flux (10 5 to 10 6 J) and thereby also a high velocity of energy release in the substance. A detailed description is given of the processes which take place in laser irradiation of a spherical target. The problem is discussed of hydrodynamic stability in the compression of matter in laser thermonuclear targets, the concept is explained of the physical threshold of a thermonuclear reaction in laser excitation as are the conditions for attaining this threshold. The quantitative criterion is examined of the attainment of the physical threshold of LTF for pulsed systems. (B.S.)

  2. Controlled thermonuclear research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The Plasma Physics and Controlled-Fusion Research Program at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is divided into five projects: Plasma Production and Heating Experiments, Plasma Theory, Atomic Physics Studies, the Tormac Project, and Neutral-Beam Development and Technology listed in order of increasing magnitude, as regards manpower and budget. Some cross sections and yields are shown in atomic physics

  3. Applications of controlled thermonuclear reactor (CTR) fusion power in the steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, R.K.; Steinberg, M.

    1975-03-01

    A review of the process and economics of basic steel production is presented for the purpose of indicating where CTR fusion energy may be applicable. The present conventional air blown blast furnace produces a relatively low Btu value top gas with limited usefulness. The industry consumes relatively large amounts of natural gas for reheating ingots, plates, etc. A concept is presented wherein oxygen is used in the blast furnace which would double the capacity of the furnace and produce a rich carbon monoxide gas stream useful as synthesis gas for methanol and ammonia production. A CTR supplying high energy radiation in a blanket would disproportionate carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and oxygen which could be used at high temperatures in the blast furnace in place of an oxygen supply stream. Coke would be used in this scheme. In a second scheme the oxygen is separated from the disproportioned CO 2 stream and CO is used in a direct reduction furnace which is followed by an electric furnace to refine the reduced product. Other schemes include iron ore reduction with electrolytic hydrogen and the use of thermal energy for reforming coal with steam or CO 2 for production of reducing gas. The electrosmelting of scrap metal using CTR power could become an important operation in the future. A complex of steel, fertilizer, fuel and chemical production is presented. Steel capacity and power requirement data are presented and projected to the year 2020. (U.S.)

  4. Controlled thermonuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Brief discussions are given for the following four areas of research: (1) tritium handling system for an experimental fusion power reactor, (2) preparation for tests of cryosorption pumping for fusion reactors, (3) tritium sorption studies, and (4) tritium sorption in Li--Al and Li--Bi alloys. (MOW)

  5. Detective studies of soft X-ray tomography on controlled thermonuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Linzhong; Su Fei

    2004-01-01

    In is necessary to design tomographic detective system with very high accuracy and high quality. It is such a detective system that its five resolutions are all very high quality. The five resolutions are: the radial resolution, the angular resolution, the spatial resolution of detector, the resolution of detector array, and the time resolution. The radial resolution is decided by the number of detectors in detector array. The angular resolutions depend on the number of detector arrays. According to the concrete condition of controlled device, through making special rectangular detector the optimum spatial resolution of detector and the optimum spatial resolution of detector array can be obtained. The high time resolution can be got by making wide-band ampli-filter circuit system. The tomographic system with high quality can use the multi-angle multi-array mode or perfect single array mode. The soft X-ray tomographic system with high sensitivity can measure the stable signal and perform the tomography under the conditions of Te ∼150 eV, ne ∼1013 cm-3 on the small Tokamak devices. (authors)

  6. Transition to thermonuclear burn in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Hamnen, H.; Lisak, M.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical investigation is made of the time evolution of the 1-D temperature profile in a fusion reactor plasma where the nonlinear energy balance equation is dominated by alpha-particle heating and thermal conduction losses. Special emphasis is given to the problem of establishing sufficient conditions for the transition to thermonuclear burn for given initial temperature profiles. In particular, it is demonstrated that for strongly nonlinear alpha-particle heating, temperature profiles initially peaked on-axis are more easily ignited than profiles similar in form to the equilibrium profile of the energy balance equation. Simple analytical criteria for ignition are established and are shown to compare favourably with results of numerical calculations. (author)

  7. Controlled thermonuclear processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Brief discussions are given on research progress during this report period for the following two topics: (1) conceptual design of a tritium handling system for Ormak F/BX, and (2) design of, and preparation for, tests of cryosorption pumping for fusion reactors. The status of the program is outlined. (MOW)

  8. Proposal for a decision of the EC Council concerning the planning of a research- and education-program (1982-1986) on the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The thermonuclear fusion is in a early development state and has, however, in principle possible advantages which could be especially valuable for Europe: the primary fusion fuels (D, Li) are plentiful existent, wide spread and cheap (1 g natural Lithium could generate 15 MWh); both fuels and the end product of the reactions - Helium - are stable. From the nuclear-technological point of view a thermonuclear reactor could be built with high safety; the doubling time for breeding of new fuels in principle could be very short. These potential advantages, however, are balanced by certain disadvantages, e.g. high costs for the construction of a thermonuclear reactor etc. The research program, other possibilities and the costs are outlined. (orig./HT) [de

  9. 2001 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory; Relatorio de atividades de 2001 da linha de pesquisa e desenvolvimento em fusao termonuclear controlada (fusao), do Laboratorio Associado de Plasma (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2002-07-01

    The year 2001 activities of the controlled thermonuclear fusion research line of the Plasma Associated Laboratory at the National Institute for Space Research - Brazil are reported. The report approaches the staff, participation in congresses, goals for the year 2002 and papers on Tokamak plasmas, plasma diagnostic, bootstraps, plasma equilibrium and diagnostic.

  10. 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory; Relatorio de atividades de 2003 da linha de pesquisa e desenvolvimento em fusao termonuclear controlada - fusao. Laboratorio Associado de Plasma (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2004-07-01

    This document represents the 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory - Brazil, approaching the areas of toroidal systems for magnetic confinement, plasma heating, current generation and high temperature plasma diagnostic.

  11. Thermonuclear plasma physic: inertial confinement fusion; Physique des plasmas thermonucleaires: la fusion par confinement inertiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, Ch.; Juraszek, D

    2001-07-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an approach to thermonuclear fusion in which the fuel contained in a spherical capsule is strongly compressed and heated to achieve ignition and burn. The released thermonuclear energy can be much higher than the driver energy, making energetic applications attractive. Many complex physical phenomena are involved by the compression process, but it is possible to use simple analytical models to analyze the main critical points. We first determine the conditions to obtain fuel ignition. High thermonuclear gains are achieved if only a small fraction of the fuel called hot spot is used to trigger burn in the main fuel compressed on a low isentrope. A simple hot spot model will be described. The high pressure needed to drive the capsule compression are obtained by the ablation process. A simple Rocket model describe the main features of the implosion phase. Several parameters have to be controlled during the compression: irradiation symmetry, hydrodynamical stability and when the driver is a laser, the problems arising from interaction of the EM wave with the plasma. Two different schemes are examined: Indirect Drive which uses X-ray generated in a cavity to drive the implosion and the Fast Ignitor concept using a ultra intense laser beam to create the hot spot. At the end we present the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) project. LMJ is scaled to a thermonuclear gain of the order of ten. (authors)

  12. Plasma and controlled thermonuclear reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitsa, P.

    1980-01-01

    The principle and prospects are given of three methods of achieving controlled thermonuclear reaction. The original and so far most promising TOKAMAK method is presented invented in the USSR. Another method is the heating of a sphere about 1 mm in diameter from a mixture of deuterium and tritium by focused laser light from all sides. The third method consists in continuous plasma heating. A rope-like plasma discharge at a temperature of more than a million K results in the gas from microwave oscillations. The discharge is placed in a magnetic field and the ion temperature is increased by magneto-acoustic waves. A reactor is proposed operating on this principle and problems are pointed out which will have to be resolved. (M.S.)

  13. Plasma and controlled thermonuclear reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapitsa, P

    1980-06-01

    The principle and prospects are given of three methods of achieving controlled thermonuclear reaction. The original and so far most promising TOKAMAK method is presented invented in the USSR. Another method is the heating of a sphere about 1 mm in diameter from a mixture of deuterium and tritium by focused laser light from all sides. The third method consists in continuous plasma heating. A rope-like plasma discharge at a temperature of more than a million K results in the gas from microwave oscillations. The discharge is placed in a magnetic field and the ion temperature is increased by magneto-acoustic waves. A reactor is proposed operating on this principle and problems are pointed out which will have to be resolved.

  14. Fabrication of an alumina torus for thermonuclear fusion containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauth, W.E.; Blake, R.D.; Dickinson, J.M.; Rutz, H.L.; Stoddard, S.D.

    1978-05-01

    A 235-cm-diam torus has been fabricated for plasma containment during thermonuclear fusion experiments. This 30-cm-diam torus consists of sixty 99.5%-alumina segments, 80% of which are assembled by forming vacuum-tight ceramic-to-ceramic seals. Selection of sealing materials and techniques are discussed

  15. Laser thermonuclear fusion with force confinement of hot plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korobkin, V.V.; Romanovsky, M.Y.

    1994-01-01

    The possibility of the utilization of laser radiation for plasma heating up to thermonuclear temperatures with its simultaneous confinement by ponderomotive force is investigated. The plasma is located inside a powerful laser beam with a tubelike section or inside a cavity of duct section, formed by several intersecting beams focused by cylindrical lenses. The impact of various physical processes upon plasma confinement is studied and the criteria of plasma confinement and maintaining of plasma temperature are derived. Plasma and laser beam stability is considered. Estimates of laser radiation energy necessary for thermonuclear fusion are presented

  16. 1981 Annual Status Report: thermonuclear fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The work perfomed on 1981 concerns four projects, namely: - The project 1: ''Reactor Studies''. During 1981 this activity was made in support to the European participation to the INTOR (INternational TOkamak Reactor) studies. This represents a collaborative effort among Europe, Japan; USA and USSR, under the auspices of IAEA, to design a major fusion experiment beyond the upcoming generation of large tokamaks. - The Project 2: ''Blanket Technology'' has the aim to investigate the behaviour of blanket materials in fusion conditions. - The Project 3: ''Materials Sorting and Development'' has the aim to assess the mechanical properties and radiation damage of standard and advanced materials suited for structures, in particular for application as first wall of the fusion reactors. - The Project 4: ''Cyclotron Operation and Experiments'' has the task to exploit a cyclotron to simulate radiation damages to materials in a fusion ambient

  17. 1982 annual status report: thermonuclear fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this programme is to study the technological problems related to ''Post Jet'' experimental machines and, in a longer range, to assess the engineering aspects of Fusion Power Reactor Plants. According to the decision taken by the Council of Ministers on the JRC multiannual programme (1980-1983), the work performed on 1982 concerns four projects, namely: The Project 1: ''Fusion Reactor Studies''concerns mainly the NET (Next European Torus) studies which have been continued in the framework of the European participation to INTOR (INternational TOkamak Reactor). This represents a collaborative effort to design a major fusion experiment beyond the-upcoming generation of large tokamaks. The Project 2: ''Blanket Technology'' has the aim to investigate the behaviour of blanket materials in fusion conditions. The Project 3: ''Materials Sorting and Development'' has the aim to assess the mechanical properties and radiation damage of standard and advanced materials suited for structures, in particular for application as first wall of the fusion reactors. The Project 4: ''Cyclotron Operation and Experiments''has the task to exploit a cyclotron to simulate radiation damages to materials in a fusion ambient

  18. Control method for thermonuclear plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, Kingo; Oda, Yasushi.

    1997-01-01

    CT (Compact Troid) is a doughnut-like shaped plasmas having a toroidal current and a poloidal current at the inside and forming a poloidal magnetic fluxes and toroidal magnetic flux. The structure of the CT is collapsed at a time of stationary state, accordingly, when it is injected to thermonuclear plasmas, particles can be supplied locally, and the state of the plasmas to be supplied can be changed by changing the direction of the injection. If a CT which is reverse to the poloidal magnetic fields is injected, plasmas with excessive ions can be supplied locally thereby enabling to form magnetic field in the thermonuclear plasmas. If the magnetic fields are formed in the vicinity of the surface of the thermonuclear plasmas, fast ions which have come over the magnetic field structure can be returned to the central portion of the plasmas. Then, confining performance of thermonuclear plasmas can be greatly improved, the efficiency for fuel supply can be increased, and energy required for ignition can be suppressed. (N.H.)

  19. Sonoluminescence, shock waves, and micro-thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, W.C.; Clarke, D.B.; White, J.W.; Young, D.A.

    1995-08-01

    We have performed numerical hydrodynamic simulations of the growth and collapse of a sonoluminescing bubble in a liquid. Our calculations show that spherically converging shock waves are generated during the collapse of the bubble. The combination of the shock waves and a realistic equation of state for the gas in the bubble provides an explanation for the measured picosecond optical pulse widths and indicates that the temperatures near the center of the bubble may exceed 3O eV. This leads naturally to speculation about obtaining micro-thermonuclear fusion in a bubble filled with deuterium (D 2 ) gas. Consequently, we performed numerical simulations of the collapse of a D 2 bubble in D 2 0. A pressure spike added to the periodic driving amplitude creates temperatures that may be sufficient to generate a very small, but measurable number of thermonuclear D-D fusion reactions in the bubble

  20. Study on structural materials used in thermonuclear fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billa, R.; Amaral, D.

    1995-01-01

    The main problem related to the construction of a thermonuclear fusion reactor is the absence of suitable materials for the process, concerning to temperature limits, heat flux and life time. The first wall is the most critical part of the structure, being submitted to radiation effects, ionic corrosion and coolant, besides thermal fatigue and tension produced by cyclical burning. The AISI 316(17-12SPH) stainless steel is used as structural material, which has a wide known database. This work proposes an alternative material study to be used in the future thermonuclear fusion reactors. As a option a study on the utilization of Cr-Mn(Fe-17 Mn-10 Cr-0,1 C) steels and their alloy variations is presented

  1. Blue energy - The story of thermonuclear fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, G.

    2007-01-01

    The author has written a story of thermonuclear fusion as a future source of energy. This story began about 50 years ago and its last milestone has been the decision of building the ITER machine. This decision has been taken by an international collaboration including a large part of the humanity which shows how great are the expectations put on fusion and that fusion deserves confidence now. For long years fusion energy has been the subject of large controversy due to the questioning about the overcoming of huge theoretical and technological difficulties. Different machines have been built to assess new theoretical developments and to prepare the next step. The physics of hot plasmas has been understood little by little at the pace of the discovery of new instabilities taking place in fusion plasmas. The 2 unique today options: the tokamak-type machine and the laser-driven inertial confinement machine took the lead relatively quickly. (A.C.)

  2. Demonstration of thermonuclear conditions in magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, M. R.; Slutz, S. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Hahn, K. D.; Hansen, S. B.; Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sinars, D. B.; Harding, E. C.; Jennings, C. A.; Awe, T. J.; Geissel, M.; Rovang, D. C.; Smith, I. C.; Chandler, G. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Hess, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    The magnetized liner inertial fusion concept [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)] utilizes a magnetic field and laser heating to relax the pressure requirements of inertial confinement fusion. The first experiments to test the concept [M. R. Gomez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155003 (2014)] were conducted utilizing the 19 MA, 100 ns Z machine, the 2.5 kJ, 1 TW Z Beamlet laser, and the 10 T Applied B-field on Z system. Despite an estimated implosion velocity of only 70 km/s in these experiments, electron and ion temperatures at stagnation were as high as 3 keV, and thermonuclear deuterium-deuterium neutron yields up to 2 × 10 12 have been produced. X-ray emission from the fuel at stagnation had widths ranging from 50 to 110 μm over a roughly 80% of the axial extent of the target (6–8 mm) and lasted approximately 2 ns. X-ray yields from these experiments are consistent with a stagnation density of the hot fuel equal to 0.2–0.4 g/cm 3 . In these experiments, up to 5 × 10 10 secondary deuterium-tritium neutrons were produced. Given that the areal density of the plasma was approximately 1–2 mg/cm 2 , this indicates the stagnation plasma was significantly magnetized, which is consistent with the anisotropy observed in the deuterium-tritium neutron spectra. Control experiments where the laser and/or magnetic field were not utilized failed to produce stagnation temperatures greater than 1 keV and primary deuterium-deuterium yields greater than 10 10 . An additional control experiment where the fuel contained a sufficient dopant fraction to substantially increase radiative losses also failed to produce a relevant stagnation temperature. The results of these experiments are consistent with a thermonuclear neutron source

  3. Plasma and controlled thermonuclear reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapitsa, P L [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Fizicheskikh Problem

    1980-06-01

    Two contemporary trends of research are characterized aiming at the thermonuclear reactor, viz., tokamak type equipment and pulsed heating of a deuterium-tritium mixture using focused laser light. There is a third trend based on the use of high-power continuous wave (CW) microwave generators which allow producing a rope discharge. The design is described of an anticipated CW thermonuclear reactor. Using current experimental facilities, a continuous high-frequency discharge can be obtained at a pressure of 25 atm and electron temperature of 50 million K. The major problem involved in the design of a CW reactor is the heating of ions to the same temperature as the electron temperature and the reduction in ion gas thermal conductivity.

  4. Use of controlled thermonuclear reactor fusion power for the production of synthetic methanol fuel from air and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.; Vi Duong Dang.

    1975-04-01

    Methanol synthesis from carbon dioxide, water and nuclear fusion energy is extensively investigated. The entire system is analyzed from the point of view of process design and economic evaluation of various processes. The main potential advantage of a fusion reactor (CTR) for this purpose is that it provides a large source of low cost environmentally acceptable electric power based on an abundant fuel source. Carbon dioxide is obtained by extraction from the atomsphere or from sea water. Hydrogen is obtained by electrolysis of water. Methanol is synthesized by the catalytic reaction of carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The water electrolysis and methanol synthesis units are considered to be technically and commercially available. The benefit of using air or sea water as a source of carbon dioxide is to provide an essentially unlimited renewable and environmentally acceptabe source of hydrocarbon fuel. Extraction of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere also allows a high degree of freedom in plant siting. (U.S.)

  5. Controlled thermonuclear fusion: Tore Supra back bone of the EURATOM-CEA programme for the next ten years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The decision to grant priority operation status to the French Tokamak Tore Supra will make it possible to start on the construction of this large machine and to bring together at the Cadarache Nuclear Study Centre all the facilities of the CEA for their research on fusion by magnetic confinement. The work is scheduled to begin in 1982 and to last until 1985. The financing is indicated and Tore Supra is briefly described [fr

  6. Thermonuclear fusion plasma produced by lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, C.; Yokoyama, M.; Nakai, S.; Sasaki, T.; Yoshida, K.; Matoba, M.; Yamabe, C.; Tschudi, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Mizui, J.; Yamaguchi, N.; Nishikawa, K.

    1975-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been focused on laser fusion schemes using high-density plasmas produced by implosion. Scientific-feasibility laser-fusion experiments are now in time. But the physics of interaction between laser and plasma, the high-compression technique and the development of high-power lasers are still important problems to be solved if laser fusion is to make some progress. In the field of laser-plasma coupling, experiments were carried out in which hydrogen and deuterium sticks were bombarded by laser beams; in these experiments, a glass-laser system, LETKKO-I, with an energy of 50 J in a nanosecond pulse, and a double-discharge TEA CO 2 laser system with an energy of 100 J in a 100-ns pulse were used. A decrease in reflectivity occurred at a laser intensity one order of magnitude higher than the parametric-instability threshold. Self-phase modulation of scattered light due to modulational instability was found. A Brillouin-backscattering isotope effect due to the hydrogen and deuterium plasma has also been observed in the red-side part of the SHG-light. Preliminary compression experiments have been carried out using a glass-laser system LETKKO-II, with an energy of 250-1000 J in a ns-pulse. A hologram has been used to study shock waves in the plasma due to the SHG-light converted from the main laser beam. Development of high-power lasers has been promoted, such as disc-glass lasers, E-beam CO 2 lasers and excimer lasers. (author)

  7. Annual progress report 1993. Work in controlled thermonuclear fusion research performed in the fusion research unit under the contract of association between Euratom and Risoe National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom-Risoe National Laboratory covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics group has activities within (a) studies of nonlinear dynamical processes in magnetized plasmas, (b) development of pellet injectors for fusion experiments, and (c) development of diagnostics for fusion plasmas. The activities in technology cover radiation damage of fusion reactor materials. A summary of the activities in 1993 is presented. (au) (4 tabs., 21 ills., 64 refs.)

  8. A thermonuclear fusion power program for Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Bruce

    1985-01-01

    Although lacking in financial and physical resources, Israel has a large base of scientific and technological talent that can be organized for the purpose of producing commercial fusion power reactors, thus allowing Israel to attain energy independence and acquiring a monetary inflow through royalties and reactor export. The limited partnership would be suitable for financing a significant portion of the project. Economic feasibility can be estimated through the use of one or more of the approaches supplied by the calculus of variations, cardinal utility theory, catastrophe theory, and noncooperative game theory. (author)

  9. 1980 Annual status report: thermonuclear fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    According to the decisions taken by the Council of Ministers on the JRC multiannual programme (1980-83), the 1980 activity has been oriented toward four projects which cover a broad range of fields, namely: - the Project 1: 'Reactor Studies'. The main effort was oriented toward the NET/INTOR studies. JRC Ispra is acting as reference nucleus for NET preliminary design. For the moment being this work was made in support to the European participation to INTOR. In 1980 the conceptual design of a demonstration power reactor (FINTOR-D) was also achieved. - The Project 2: 'Blanket Technology' has the aim to investigate structural materials behaviour in fusion conditions. Items like tritium outgassing and permeation from structurals an materials compatibility were investigated. - The Projet 3: 'Material sorting and development'. Its aim is to assess mechanical properties and radiation damage of standard and advanced materials suited for reactor structures. - The Projet 4: 'Cyclotron construction and operation' has the task to install and exploit a cyclotron to simulate demages to materials in a fusion ambient

  10. Joint development effort Thermonuclear Fusion. Programme budgeting 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The joint KfK and IPP project for the development of thermonuclear fusion device is established as the centerpiece of Federal German efforts in this field. It is meant to enhance the German contribution to the European programme and thus foster the chances of a joint European large-scale experiment to be started in the Federal Republic of Germany. IPP's tasks in the project are to study the physical principles and aspects, whereas KfK is responsible for the technological aspects. Work at IPP is focused on divertor experiments with the ASDEX series in order to go deeper into the problems that could not be solved by the JET experiments, namely those of the plasma boundary and control of impurities. Stellarator experiments are made in order to study the potentials of this toroidal confinement concept for steady-state operation. The IPP which always has been working in the plasma physics field devotes all activities to the joint effort. KfK has established a special project group for this purpose, PKF. The budgeting programme presented therefore covers the IPP entire working schedule, and that of PKF of the KfK. (orig./GG) [de

  11. Synthetic report 2012. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion; Rapport de synthèse 2012. Programme de recherche Fusion thermonucléaire contrôlée

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaucher, C. [Secrétariat à l’éducation et à la recherche (SER), Berne (Switzerland); Tran, M. Q.; Villard, L. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Marot, L. [University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    Since 1961, Switzerland participates in the research on thermonuclear fusion thanks to the creation of the Research Centre in Plasma Physics. In 1979 it entered into partnership with the European programme on fusion through its adhesion to EURATOM. The thermonuclear fusion is an interesting energy source because the basic fuel is practically inexhaustible and its use does not release any significant CO{sub 2} quantity and very little radioactive residues. But its working up faces enormous physical and technological difficulties. The International Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER), presently in construction, has to demonstrate the technological feasibility of the controlled fusion. Il will be followed by DEMO, foreseen for 2040-2050, which must guarantee the economical rentability. At CRPP the research projects are partitioned onto several sites: at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne, they concern the physics of the magnetic confinement with the Variable Geometry Tokamak (TCV), the development of theoretical models and the numerical simulation, the plasma heating and the generation of hyper frequency waves; the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) studies the superconductivity and the materials; the interactions between the plasma and the Tokamak walls are studied at the Basel University for the structures of ITER. Thanks to its large flexibility, TCV allows the creation and the control of plasmas of very different forms. The injection system of millimetric waves allows orienting the injected power according to specific profiles. By using the asymmetry of the flow in the toroidal sense, the plasma rotation could be measured with a much better accuracy than before. In TCV, by playing on the form of the plasma, it was possible to strongly reduce the energy quantity which is expelled by the Edge Localized Modes (ELM) onto the wall of the vacuum chamber. The ‘snowflake’ configuration created in TCV allows distributing the ELM energy onto several impact

  12. Local wall power loading variations in thermonuclear fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, M.C.; Miley, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    A 2 1/2-dimensional geometric model is presented that allows calculation of power loadings at various points on the first wall of a thermonuclear fusion device. Given average wall power loadings for brems-strahlung, cyclotron radiation charged particles, and neutrons, which are determined from various plasma-physics computation models, local wall heat loads are calculated by partitioning the plasma volume and surface into cells and superimposing the heating effects of the individual cells on selected first-wall differential areas. Heat loads from the entire plasma are thus determined as a function of position on the first-wall surface. Significant differences in local power loadings were found for most fusion designs, and it was therefore concluded that the effect of local power loading variations must be taken into account when calculating temperatures and heat transfer rates in fusion device first walls

  13. Integration of element technology and system supporting thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    A special committee for integrated system technology survey on thermonuclear fusion (TNF) was begun on June, 1999, under an aim to generally summarize whole of shapes on technology to realize TNF reactor to summarize present state of every technologies and their positioning in whole of their TNF technology. On a base of survey of these recent informations, this report is comprehensively summarized for an integrated system technology on TNF. It has outlines on magnetic field enclosing method, outlines on inertia enclosing method, element technology supporting TNF, new power generation techniques, and ripple effects on TNF technology. (G.K.)

  14. Thermonuclear Tokamak plasmas in the presence of fusion alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Hamnen, H.; Lisak, M.

    1988-01-01

    In this overview, we have focused on several results of the thermonuclear plasma research pertaining to the alpha particle physics and diagnostics in a fusion tokamak plasma. As regards the discussion of alpha particle effects, two distinct classes of phenomena have been distinguished: the simpler class containing phenomena exhibited by individual alpha particles under the influence of bulk plasma properties and, the more complex class including collective effects which become important for increasing alpha particle density. We have also discussed several possibilities to investigate alpha particle effects by simulation experiments using an equivalent population of highly energetic ions in the plasma. Generally, we find that the present theoretical knowledge on the role of fusion alpha particles in a fusion tokamak plasma is incomplete. There are still uncertainties and partial lack of quantitative results in this area. Consequently, further theoretical work and, as far a possible, simulation experiments are needed to improve the situation. Concerning the alpha particle diagnostics, the various diagnostic techniques and the status of their development have been discussed in two different contexts: the escaping alpha particles and the confined alpha particles in the fusion plasma. A general conclusion is that many of the different diagnostic methods for alpha particle measurements require further major development. (authors)

  15. First fusion neutrons from a thermonuclear weapon device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    An account of the first observation of thermonuclear neutrons from a hydrogen weapon, the George shot, is presented. A personal narrative by the researchers J. Allred and L. Rosen includes such topics as the formation of the experimental team, description of the experimental technique, testing the experimental apparatus, testing the effects of a blast, a description of the test area, and the observation of neutrons from fusion. Excerpts are presented from several chapters of the Scientific Director's report on the atomic weapons tests of 1951. Also included is a brief description of the basic design of the hydrogen bomb, a recounting of subsequent developments, and short scientific biographies of the researchers. 21 figures, 2 tables

  16. XXXII Zvenigorod conference on the plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear synthesis. Theses of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Theses of the reports, presented at the XXXII International conference on the plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear synthesis (Zvenigorod, 14-18 February 2005) are published. The total number of reports is 322, including 16 summarizing ones. The other reports are distributed by the following sections: magnetic confinement of high-temperature plasma (88 reports), inertial thermonuclear fusion (65), physical processes in low-temperature plasma (99) and physical bases of the plasma and beam technologies (54) [ru

  17. Direct conversion of nuclear energy into radiation: New direction in thermonuclear laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaev, Yu.N.; Vedenov, A.A.; Filyukov, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    In investigations dealing with thermonuclear fusion, a radical new direction appeared some time ago, namely the direct conversion of nuclear and thermonuclear energy into radiation energy. This paper reviews early work on this topic in Russia and the United States and discusses some recent new directions

  18. Vacuum pumping for controlled thermonuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.S.; Fisher, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    Thermonuclear reactors impose unique vacuum pumping problems involving very high pumping speeds, handling of hazardous materials (tritium), extreme cleanliness requirements, and quantitative recovery of pumped materials. Two principal pumping systems are required for a fusion reactor, a main vacuum system for evacuating the torus and a vacuum system for removing unaccelerated deuterium from neutral beam injectors. The first system must pump hydrogen isotopes and helium while the neutral beam system can operate by pumping only hydrogen isotopes (perhaps only deuterium). The most promising pumping techniques for both systems appear to be cryopumps, but different cryopumping techniques can be considered for each system. The main vacuum system will have to include cryosorption pumps cooled to 4.2 0 K to pump helium, but the unburned deuterium-tritium and other impurities could be pumped with cryocondensation panels (4.2 0 K) or cryosorption panels at higher temperatures. Since pumping speeds will be limited by conductance through the ducts and thermal shields, the pumping performance for both systems will be similar, and other factors such as refrigeration costs are likely to determine the choice. The vacuum pumping system for neutral beam injectors probably will not need to pump helium, and either condensation or higher temperature sorption pumps can be used

  19. Physics of thermo-nuclear fusion and the ITER project; La physique de la fusion thermonucleaire et le projet ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garin, P [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee - DRFC, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2003-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the 6 contributions to the workshop 'the physics of thermo-nuclear fusion and the ITER project': 1) the feasibility of magnetic confinement and the issue of heat recovery, 2) heating and current generation in tokamaks, 3) the physics of wall-plasma interaction, 4) recent results at JET, 5) inertial confinement and fast ignition, and 6) the technology of fusion machines based on magnetic confinement. This document presents the principles of thermo-nuclear fusion machines and gives a lot of technical information about JET, Tore-Supra and ITER.

  20. Helical type thermonuclear device and control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigaki, Yukio.

    1990-01-01

    In a conventional helical type thermonuclear device, electric current flows in the toroidal direction under magnetic fields of helical coils and vertical magnetic coils, by which a circulating electric field is caused. Therefore, there is a problem that electrons as a seed are generated by cosmic rays, etc., the electrons are confined in a magnetic field boundary, are accelerated by the circulating electric field, to reach a high energy level, collide against structures in a vacuum vessel and emit a great amount of X-rays. Then, compensation coils for offsetting the magnetic fields generated upon energization and deenergization of the vertical magnetic coils and the power source therefor are disposed at the positions opposing to each other on both sides of the vertical magnetic coils for controlling the variation coefficient rate of electric current upon energization and deenergization of the vertical magnetic coils. Since the compensation coils also offset the magnetic field generated upon energization and deenergization of the vertical magnetic field coils by this control, the circulating magnetic field is not caused in the vacuum vessel to reduce the X-ray radiation by electrons at high energy level. (N.H.)

  1. Some safety considerations in laser-controlled thermonuclear reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botts, T.E.; Breton, D.; Chan, C.K.; Levy, S.I.; Sehnert, M.; Ullman, A.Z.

    1978-07-01

    A major objective of this study was to identify potential safety questions for laser controlled thermonuclear reactors. From the safety viewpoint, it does not appear that the actual laser controlled thermonuclear reactor conceptual designs present hazards very different than those of magnetically confined fusion reactors. Some aspects seem beneficial, such as small lithium inventories, and the absence of cryogenic devices, while other aspects are new, for example the explosion of pressure vessels and laser hazards themselves. Major aspects considered in this report include: (a) general safety considerations, (b) tritium inventories, (c) system behavior during loss of flow accidents, and (d) safety considerations of laser related penetrations

  2. D+D thermonuclear fusion reactions with polarized particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozma, P.

    1986-01-01

    Polarization measurements from the 2 H(d, n) 3 He and 2 H(d, p) 3 H thermonuclear reactions at deuteron energies below 1 MeV are anayzed. Results of analysis enable to discuss the existence of 4 He excited states in the vicinity of d+d threshold energy as well as to extrapolate total cross-sections σ tot (d+d) into the region of very low energies

  3. Complex workplace radiation fields at European high-energy accelerators and thermonuclear fusion facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Bilski, P; D'Errico, F; Esposito, A; Fehrenbacher, G; Fernàndez, F; Fuchs, A; Golnik, N; Lacoste, V; Leuschner, A; Sandri, S; Silari, M; Spurny, F; Wiegel, B; Wright, P

    2006-01-01

    This report outlines the research needs and research activities within Europe to develop new and improved methods and techniques for the characterization of complex radiation fields at workplaces around high-energy accelerators and the next generation of thermonuclear fusion facilities under the auspices of the COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry (CONRAD) project funded by the European Commission.

  4. Frontiers in propulsion research: Laser, matter-antimatter, excited helium, energy exchange thermonuclear fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papailiou, D. D. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Concepts are described that presently appear to have the potential for propulsion applications in the post-1990 era of space technology. The studies are still in progress, and only the current status of investigation is presented. The topics for possible propulsion application are lasers, nuclear fusion, matter-antimatter annihilation, electronically excited helium, energy exchange through the interaction of various fields, laser propagation, and thermonuclear fusion technology.

  5. Ignition and burn control characteristics of thermonuclear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaniotakis, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    Achieving the long sought goal of fusion energy requires the attainment of an ignited and controlled thermonuclear plasma. Obtaining an ignited plasma in a tokamak device requires consideration of both the physics of the plasma and the engineering of the machine. With the aide of completely analytical procedure optimized and ignited tokamaks are obtained under various physics assumptions. These designs show the possible advantage of tokamaks characterized by high (∼4.5) aspect ratio, and high (∼15 T) toroidal magnetic field. The control of an ignited plasma is investigated by using auxiliary power modulation. With auxiliary power stable operating points can be created with Q ∼50. Recognizing the need for a fast 1 1/2-D transport model for studying profile effects the plasma transport equations are solved using variational methods. A computer model based on the variational method has been developed. This model solves the 1 1/2-D transport equation very fast with little loss of accuracy. 74 refs., 70 figs., 8 tabs

  6. Capacitor requirements for controlled thermonuclear experiments and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boicourt, G.P.; Hoffman, P.S.

    1975-01-01

    Future controlled thermonuclear experiments as well as controlled thermonuclear reactors will require substantial numbers of capacitors. The demands on these units are likely to be quite severe and quite different from the normal demands placed on either present energy storage capacitors or present power factor correction capacitors. It is unlikely that these two types will suffice for all necessary Controlled Thermonuclear Research (CTR) applications. The types of capacitors required for the various CTR operating conditions are enumerated. Factors that influence the life, cost and operating abilities of these types of capacitors are discussed. The problems of capacitors in a radiation environment are considered. Areas are defined where future research is needed. Some directions that this research should take are suggested. (U.S.)

  7. Capacitor requirements for controlled thermonuclear experiments and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boicourt, G.P.; Hoffman, P.S.

    1975-01-01

    Future controlled thermonuclear experiments as well as controlled thermonuclear reactors will require substantial numbers of capacitors. The demands on these units are likely to be quite severe and quite different from the normal demands placed on either present energy storage capacitors or present power factor correction capacitors. It is unlikely that these two types will suffice for all necessary Controlled Thermonuclear Research (CTR) applications. The types of capacitors required for the various CTR operating conditions are enumerated. Factors that influence the life, cost and operating abilities of these types of capacitors are discussed. The problems of capacitors in a radiation environment are considered. Areas are defined where future research is needed. Some directions that this research should take are suggested

  8. Deuterides of light elements: low-temperature thermonuclear burn-up and applications to thermonuclear fusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, A.M.; Smith, V.H.; Smith, G.T.

    2002-01-01

    Thermonuclear burn-up and thermonuclear applications are discussed for a number of deuterides and DT hydrides of light elements. These deuterides and corresponding DT hydrides are often used as thermonuclear fuels or components of such fuels. In fact, only for these substances thermonuclear energy gain exceeds (at some densities and temperatures) the bremsstrahlung loss and other high-temperature losses, i.e., thermonuclear burn-up is possible. Herein, thermonuclear burn-up in these deuterides and DT hydrides is considered in detail. In particular, a simple method is proposed to determine the critical values of the burn-up parameter x c for these substances and their mixtures at different temperatures and densities. The results for equimolar DT mixtures coincide quite well with the results of previous calculations. Also, the natural or Z limit is determined for low-temperature thermonuclear burn-up in the deuterides of light elements. (author)

  9. Cryogenic instrumentation needs in the controlled thermonuclear research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstrom, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    The magnet development effort for the controlled thermonuclear research program will require extensive testing of superconducting coils at various sizes from small-scale models to full-size prototypes. Extensive use of diagnostic instrumentation will be required and to make detailed comparisons of predicted and actual performance in magnet tests and to monitor the test facility for incipient failure modes. At later stages of the program, cryogenic instrumentation will be required to monitor magnet system performance in fusion power reactors. Measured quantities may include temperature, strain, deflection, coil resistance, helium coolant pressure and flow, current, voltages, etc. The test environment, which includes high magnetic fields (up to 8-10 T) and low temperature, makes many commercial measuring devices inoperative or at least inaccurate. In order to ensure reliable measurements, careful screening of commercial devices for performance in the test environment will be required. A survey of potentially applicable instrumentation is presented along with available information on operation in the test environment based on experimental data or on analysis of the physical characteristics of the device. Areas where further development work is needed are delineated

  10. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  11. Process and device for energy production from thermonuclear fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussard, R.W.; Coppi, Bruno.

    1977-01-01

    An energy generating system is described using a fusion reaction. It includes several contrivances for confining a plasma in an area, a protective device around a significant part of each of these confinement contrivances, an appliance for introducing a fusion reaction fuel in each of the confinements so that the plasma may be formed. Each confinement can be separated from the protective device so that it may be replaced by another. The system is connected to the confinements, to the protective devices or to both. It enables the thermal energy to be extracted and transformed into another form, electric, mechanical or both [fr

  12. Potential environmental effects of controlled thermonuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.R.; Gore, B.F.

    1976-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: (1) the fusion reaction, (2) approach to the environmental analysis, (3) the reference CTR, (4) CTR environmental effects, (5) CTR accident potential, and (6) the advanced CTR

  13. The international thermonuclear experimental reactor and the future of nuclear fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Chuanhong

    2010-01-01

    Energy shortage and environmental problems are now the two largest challenges for human beings. Magnetic confinement nuclear fusion, which has achieved great progress since the 1990's, is anticipated to be a way to realize an ideal source of energy in the future because of its abundance, environmental compatibility, and zero carbon release. Exemplified by the construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the development of nuclear fusion energy is now in its engineering phase, and should be realized by the middle of this century if all objectives of the ITER project are met. (author)

  14. Ohmic heating coil power supply using thyristor circuit breaker in a thermonuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Keiji; Shimada, Ryuichi; Tamura, Sanae; Yabuno, Kohei; Koseki, Shoichiro.

    1982-01-01

    In a large scale Tokamak thermonuclear fusion device such as the critical plasma testing facility (JT60) presently under construction, mechanical breakers such as vacuum and air breakers are mostly used for interrupting DC heavy current which is supplied to the ohmic heating coils of inductive energy accumulation method. The practical use of the DC breakers employing thyristors has just been started because the history of thyristor development is short and thristors are still expensive, in spite of the advantages. In this paper, the circuit is investigated in which the excellent high speed controllability of thyristors is fully utilized, while the economy is taken into accout, and the experiment carried out with a unit model is described. It was found that a thyristor switch, which was constructed by connecting the high speed thyristors of peak off-state voltage rating 2,000 V and mean current rating 500 A in direct parallel, was able to interrupt 12.7 kA current in the power supply circuit of ohmic heating coils developed this time. In addition, the switch configuration was able to be greatly simplified. When the multistage raising of plasma current is required, the raise can be performed with a single thyristor breaker because it can make high speed control. Therefore, the capacity of the breaker can be doubly and drastically reduced. Also, if current unbalance might occur between thyristor switch units, it gives no problem since the time of reverse voltage after current interruption dispersed smaller as current increased. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  15. Annual report of the Division of Thermonuclear Fusion Research, JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-02-01

    The JFT-2 operating regime was extended to higher toroidal field of 18 kG. Plasma confinements were studied on impurities, instabilities, plasma-wall interaction. Properties of a plasma with a separatrix magnetic surface and plasma behaviour in the scrape-off layer were studied in JFT-2a. In the diagnostics, a grazing-incidence vacuum ultra-violet spectrometer for studies on impurities was completed and put into operation. Several minor improvement and remodelling on the JFT-2 and JFT-2a tokamaks were carried out for the convenience of operation. In the plasma heating, constructions of the JFT-2 neutral injection system and the injector test stand ITS-2 for development of the higher energy ion source were started. The design of 200 kW RF power source for the plasma heating in JFT-2 was also made. Research in surface effects in fusion devices started at April 1, 1975. Experimental apparatus was designed and constructed in this fiscal year. A group for superconducting magnet development for fusion device was set up in January, 1976. Theoretical works continued in the analyses on transport processes, plasma heating, and mhd stabilities with an increasing effort on computational studies. A preliminary design of the 100 MW sub(t) tokamak experimental fusion reactor has been started in April, 1975. At the same time a conceptual design of the 2000 MW sub(t) power reactor was further improved. In the development of large tokamak device of next generation, programs on JT-60 and JT-4 are being carried out. Research and development works and detailed design studies on JT-60 are started based on the preliminary design studies made in the previous year. Preliminary design studies on JT-4 are completed. (auth.)

  16. Research program. Controlled thermonuclear fusion. Synthesis report 2015; Programme de recherche. Fusion thermonucléaire contrôlée -- Rapport de synthèse 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villard, L. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Center for Research In Plasma Physics, CRPP, Lausanne (Switzerland); Marot, L. [University of Basel, Department of Physics, Basel (Switzerland); Soom, P. [Secrétariat d' Etat à la formation., à la recherche et à l' innovation, SEFRI, Berne (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    In 1961, 3 years after the 2{sup nd} International Conference on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy, the Research Centre on Plasma Physics (CRPP) was created as a department of the Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne (Switzerland). From 1979, CRPP collaborates to the European Program on fusion research in the framework of EURATOM. In 2015 its name was changed to Swiss Plasma Centre (SPC). The advantages of fusion are remarkable: the fuel is available in great quantity all over the world; the reactor is intrinsically safe; the reactor material, activated during operation, loses practically all its activity within about 100 years. But the working up of the controlled fusion necessitates extreme technological conditions. In 1979, the Joint European Torus (JET) began its operation; today it is still the most powerful tokamak in the world, in which an energy yield Q of 0.65 could be obtained. In 2015, the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7X), the largest in the world, was set into operation. The progress realized in the framework of EURATOM has led to the planning of the experimental reactor ITER which is being built at Cadarache (France). ITER is designed to reach a Q-value largely above 1. The future prototype reactor DEMO is foreseen in 2040-2050. It should demonstrate the ability of a fusion reactor to inject permanently electricity into the grid. In 2015, SPC participated in the works on ITER in the framework of the Fusion for Energy (F4E) agency. At EPFL the research concerns the physics of the magnetic confinement with experiments on the tokamak TCV (variable configuration tokamak), the numerical simulations, the plasma heating and the generation of current by hyper frequency radio waves. At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), research is devoted to the superconductivity; at the Basel University the studies get on interactions between the plasma and the tokamak walls. The large flexibility of TCV allows creating and controlling plasmas of different shapes

  17. On the efficiency of conical targets for laser thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovskij, A.V.; Korobkin, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    Advantages and drawbacks of conical targets (CT) for laser fusion (LF) are discussed. Possibility of the laser power reduction, laser pulse lengthening and neutron yield increase are analyzed for an ideal conical target with absolutely rigid and heat-proof walls as compared to a spherical target of the same mass. A simple theory is suggested which makes it possible to take into account an effect of walls on the fusion process in the conical target with gaseous fuel and heavy shell. Energy losses due to wall deformations and heat conduction are estimated. An influence of these effects on the neutron yield is estimated. CT used in the LF experiments are found to have serious drawbacks in comparison with spherical ones. These drawbacks are connected with the effect of walls on the processes taking place in CT. Analysis of CT, for which the effect of walls is not significant, points up some definite advantages of CT as compared with spherical one. These advantages are the possibility of laser pulse lengthening and laser power reduction in comparison with the irradiation of a sphere of an equal mass. These two positive qualities are connected with the fact that CT has large linear dimensions [ru

  18. Research program. Controlled thermonuclear fusion. Synthesis report 2013; Programme de recherche. Fusion thermonucléaire contrôlée -- Rapport de synthèse 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villard, L. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Center for Research In Plasma Physics, CRPP, Lausanne (Switzerland); Marot, L. [University of Basel, Department of Physics, Basel (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    In 1961, 3 years after the 2{sup nd} International Conference on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy, the Research Centre on Plasma Physics (CRPP) was created as a department of the Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne (Switzerland). From 1979, CRPP collaborates to the European Program on fusion research in the framework of EURATOM. The advantages of fusion are remarkable: the fuel is available in great quantity all over the world; the reactor is intrinsically safe; the reactor material, activated during operation, loses practically all its activity within about 100 years. But the working up of the controlled fusion necessitates extreme technological conditions. The progress realized in the framework of EURATOM has led to the design of the experimental reactor ITER which is being built at Cadarache (France). The future prototype reactor DEMO is foreseen in 2040-2050. In 2013, CRPP participated in the works on ITER in the framework of the Fusion for Energy (F4E) agency. At EPFL the research concerns the physics of the magnetic confinement with experiments on the tokamak TCV (variable configuration tokamak), the numerical simulations, the plasma heating and the generation of current by hyper frequency radio waves. At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), research is devoted to the superconductivity. At the Basel University the studies get on interactions between the plasma and the tokamak walls. A new improved confinement regime, called IN-mode, was discovered on TCV. The theory and numerical simulation group interprets the experimental results and foresees those of futures machines. It requires very high performance computers. The Gyrotron group develops radiofrequency sources in the mm range for heating the TCV plasma as well as for ITER and the Wendelstein-7 stellarator. Concerning superconductivity, tests are conducted at PSI on toroidal cables of ITER. The development of conductors and coils for the DEMO reactor has been pursued. In the context of

  19. Research program. Controlled thermonuclear fusion. Synthesis report 2014; Programme de recherche. Fusion thermonucléaire contrôlée -- Rapport de synthèse 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villard, L. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Center for Research In Plasma Physics, CRPP, Lausanne (Switzerland); Marot, L. [University of Basel, Department of Physics, Basel (Switzerland); Fiocco, D. [Secrétariat d' Etat à la formation., à la recherche et à l' innovation, SEFRI, Berne (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    In 1961, 3 years after the 2{sup nd} International Conference on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy, the Research Centre on Plasma Physics (CRPP) was created as a department of the Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne (Switzerland). From 1979, CRPP collaborates to the European Program on fusion research in the framework of EURATOM. The advantages of fusion are remarkable: the fuel is available in great quantity all over the world; the reactor is intrinsically safe; the reactor material, activated during operation, loses practically all its activity within about 100 years. But the working up of the controlled fusion necessitates extreme technological conditions. In 1979, the Joint European Torus (JET) began its operation; today it is still the most powerful tokamak in the world; its energy yield Q reached 0.65. The progress realized in the framework of EURATOM has led to the planning of the experimental reactor ITER which is being built at Cadarache (France). ITER is designed to reach a Q-value largely above 1. The future prototype reactor DEMO is foreseen in 2040-2050. It should demonstrate the ability of a fusion reactor to inject electricity into the grid for long term. In 2014, CRPP participated in the works on ITER in the framework of the Fusion for Energy (F4E) agency. At EPFL the research concerns the physics of the magnetic confinement with experiments on the tokamak TCV (variable configuration tokamak), the numerical simulations, the plasma heating and the generation of current by hyper frequency radio waves. At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), research is devoted to the superconductivity. At the Basel University the studies get on interactions between the plasma and the tokamak walls. The large flexibility of TCV allows creating and controlling plasmas of different shapes which are necessary to optimise the core geometry of future reactors. Moreover, the plasma heating by mm radio waves allows guiding the injected power according to specific

  20. Controlled nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussard, R.W.; Coppi, B.

    1982-01-01

    A fusion power generating device is disclosed having a relatively small and inexpensive core region which may be contained within an energy absorbing blanket region. The fusion power core region contains apparatus of the toroidal type for confining a high density plasma. The fusion power core is removable from the blanket region and may be disposed and/or recycled for subsequent use within the same blanket region. Thermonuclear ignition of the plasma is obtained by feeding neutral fusible gas into the plasma in a controlled manner such that charged particle heating produced by the fusion reaction is utilized to bootstrap the device to a region of high temperatures and high densities wherein charged particle heating is sufficient to overcome radiation and thermal conductivity losses. The high density plasma produces a large radiation and particle flux on the first wall of the plasma core region thereby necessitating replacement of the core from the blanket region from time to time. A series of potentially disposable and replaceable central core regions are disclosed for a large-scale economical electrical power generating plant

  1. Analysis and evaluation of the hydrogen risk in a thermonuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudron, V.; Arnould, F.; Latge, C.; Laurent, A.

    2001-01-01

    After a recall of the principle of controlled thermonuclear fusion, the ITER reactor project is briefly described. The integrity of the reactor must be preserved in the case of a potential explosion of the hydrogen generated inside the reactor, in order to avoid any dispersion radioactive, chemical or toxic materials in the environment. The fundamental principles of safety developed to fulfill these objectives, in particular the defense-in-depth concept, are presented. The main potential source of hydrogen production is the oxidation of beryllium, which is used as protection material in the first wall of the torus, and the accidental presence of water, as reported in several scenarios. The confinement strategy is then described with the qualification of the role of the different barriers. Finally, the hydrogen explosion risk is analyzed and evaluated with respect to the sources, to the reference envelope scenarios and to the location of hydrogen inside the ITER reactor. It appears, at the engineering stage, that the vacuum toric vessel, the discharge reservoir and the exchanger compartments are the most worrying parts. (J.S.)

  2. Plasma position control device for thermonuclear device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Masanori [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Fujita, Jun-ya; Ioki, Kimihiro

    1995-10-03

    The present invention concerns plasma position control coils having a feeder line structure not requiring high strength for the support portion. Namely, the coils are formed by twisting feeder lines extended from plasma position control coils in a vacuum vessel. The twisted feeder lines are supported using an appropriate structural member. Electromagnetic load is generated to the feeder lines being extended from the position control coils and traversing toroidal fields at a current introduction lines and at current delivery lines respectively. However, since the feeder lines have substantially spiral shape consisting of two twisted lines, the electromagnetic load and the moment caused by the generated load which are inversed to each other are off set. Accordingly, only extremely small force is exerted on the fittings which support the feeder lines. Therefore, small strength may suffice for the fittings and the gaps of mounting the fittings may be made longer. (I.S.).

  3. Plasma position control device for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, Masanori; Fujita, Jun-ya; Ioki, Kimihiro.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns plasma position control coils having a feeder line structure not requiring high strength for the support portion. Namely, the coils are formed by twisting feeder lines extended from plasma position control coils in a vacuum vessel. The twisted feeder lines are supported using an appropriate structural member. Electromagnetic load is generated to the feeder lines being extended from the position control coils and traversing toroidal fields at a current introduction lines and at current delivery lines respectively. However, since the feeder lines have substantially spiral shape consisting of two twisted lines, the electromagnetic load and the moment caused by the generated load which are inversed to each other are off set. Accordingly, only extremely small force is exerted on the fittings which support the feeder lines. Therefore, small strength may suffice for the fittings and the gaps of mounting the fittings may be made longer. (I.S.)

  4. Beam energy control device for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimoto, Kimiko.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention comprises a setting section for the previously allowed penetration ratio, a correlation graph setting section for the penetration ratio, a beam energy and a plasma density, a control clock output section for transmitting clocks for every control period, a plasma density collecting section for collecting a plasma density from a plasma main body and a calculating section for a beam energy based on the plasma density. Since the value of the beam energy is controlled on real time based on the density of the plasma main body and the correlation graph of the penetration rate, the beam energy and the plasma density is used as a calculation parameter to conduct calculation such that the penetrating ratio is constant, there is no worry that beams at a high energy are entered to plasmas of low density, to damage a vacuum vessel. Further, when a state of plasmas is satisfactory, beams at an effective energy value can be entered as much as possible, thereby enabling to improve heating efficiency. (N.H.)

  5. Generation of thermonuclear fusion neutrons by means of a pure explosion. Part 2. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derentowicz, H.; Kaliski, S.; Wolski, J.; Ziolkowski, Z.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of the generation of a thermonuclear fusion neutrons by means of explosion. The experimental set is based on a quasi-spherical experiment in which a polyethylene layer is shot into a conic region hollowed out in a golden target and filled with deuterium gas. The speeding-up system is based on shooting the conic liner onto the surface of the Cu cone in which the Mach wave is generated and propagates along the cone axis leading to an implosion velocity of the polyethylene layer of the order of (4 - 5).10 6 cm/s. This affords a 10 3 -multiple compression of the D 2 gas (p 0 approximately 1.2 atm) and a neutron emission of the order of 3.10 7 from a mass of about 10 -7 g. This result is in full agreement with theoretical estimates. This is the first published and documented experiment in which a neutron stream of thermonuclear fusion was obtained by means of a pure explosion. (author)

  6. Gamma-ray emission spectrum from thermonuclear fusion reactions without intrinsic broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nocente, M.; Källne, J.; Salewski, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    First principle calculations of the gamma-ray energy spectrum arising from thermonuclear reactions without intrinsic broadening in fusion plasmas are presented, extending the theoretical framework needed to interpret measurements up to the accuracy level enabled by modern high resolution instrume......First principle calculations of the gamma-ray energy spectrum arising from thermonuclear reactions without intrinsic broadening in fusion plasmas are presented, extending the theoretical framework needed to interpret measurements up to the accuracy level enabled by modern high resolution...... instruments. An analytical formula for the spectrum from Maxwellian plasmas, which extends to higher temperatures than the results previously available in the literature, has been derived and used to discuss the assumptions and limitations of earlier models. In case of radio-frequency injection, numerical...... results based on a Monte Carlo method are provided, focusing in particular on improved relations between the peak shift and width from the reaction and the temperature of protons accelerated by radio-frequency heating.The results presented in this paper significantly improve the accuracy of diagnostic...

  7. Thermonuclear fusion: from fundamental research to energy production? Science and technology report No. 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, Guy; Blanzat, Bernard; Aspect, Alain; Aymar, Robert; Bielak, Bogdan; Decroisette, Michel; Martin, Georges; Andre, Michel; Schirmann, Daniel; Garbet, Xavier; Jacquinot, Jean; Laviron, Clement; Migus, Arnold; Moreau, Rene; Pironneau, Olivier; Quere, Yves; Vallee, Alain; Dercourt, Jean; Bayer, Charles; Juraszek, Denis; Deutsch, Claude; Le Garrec, Bruno; Hennequin, Pascale; Peysson, Yves; Rax, Jean-Marcel; Pesme, Denis; Bauche, Jacques; Monier-Garbet, Pascale; Stamm, Roland; Zerah, Gilles; Ghendrih, Philippe; Layet, Roland; Grosman, Andre; Alamo, Ana; Giancarli, Luciano; Poitevin, Yves; Rigal, Emmanuel; Chieze, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This work has been commissioned by the French ministry of Education, Sciences and Research, its aim is to provide a reliable account of the state of development of thermonuclear fusion. This report makes a point on the scientific knowledge accumulated on the topic and highlights the research programs that are necessary to overcome the technological difficulties and draws the necessary steps before an industrial application to electricity production. This report is divided into 10 chapters: 1) tokamak technology and ITER, 2) inertial fusion, 3) magnetized hot plasmas, 4) laser-plasma interaction and peta-watt lasers, 5) atomic physics and fusion, 6) computer simulation, 7) plasma-wall interaction, 8) materials for fusion reactors, 9) safety analysis, and 10) inertial fusion and astrophysics. This report has been written by a large panel of experts gathered by the French Academy of Sciences. The comments on the issue by the 3 French organizations: Cea, Cnrs and SFP (French Society of Physics) follow the last chapter

  8. 28. Zvenigorod conference on the plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear synthesis. Theses of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Theses of reports, presented at the 28th Conference on the plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear synthesis (Zvenigorod, 19-23 February 2001) are published. 246 reports were heard at the following sections: magnetic confinement, theory and experiments; inertial thermonuclear synthesis; plasma processes and physics of gas-discharge plasma; physical bases of plasma technologies. 17 reports had the summarizing character [ru

  9. Application of the partitive analytical forecasting (PAF) technique to the United States controlled thermonuclear research effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, S.P.

    1975-01-01

    The Partitive Analytical Forecasting (PAF) technique is applied to the overall long-term program plans for the Division of Controlled Thermonuclear Research (DCTR) of the United States Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). As part of the PAF technique, the Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERTS) IIIZ computer code is used to perform simulations on a logic network describing the DCTR long-term program plan. Logic networks describing the tokamak, mirror, and theta-pinch developments are simulated individually and then together to form an overall DCTR program network. The results of the simulation of the overall network using various funding schemes and strategies are presented. An economic sensitivity analysis is provided for the tokamak logic networks. An analysis is also performed of the fusion-fission hybrid concept in the context of the present DCTR goals. The results mentioned above as well as the PAF technique itself are evaluated, and recommendations for further research are discussed

  10. Evaluation of innovative means of hydrogen risk mitigation in thermonuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruejouls, C.

    2003-01-01

    One of the main accidents in ITER-type thermonuclear fusion reactors is the loss of coolant leading to hydrogen production. Within the framework of the studies on the ITER fusion reactor, a mitigation strategy for this risk must be devised by focusing on a system, which can be placed near the hydrogen source. The uncertainty as to the air content during such a scenario forbids the use of classic methods based on the hydrogen/oxygen reaction such as passive catalytic recombiners. Former studies have proposed a process based on the reduction of metallic oxides and more particularly that of the manganese dioxide enhanced by silver oxide mixture. The reaction studied is H 2 + MnO 2 → MnO + H 2 O (reaction enhanced by Ag 2 O). The purpose is to study the kinetic. The method used consists in comparing the experimental results obtained on the pilot facility CIGNE with those provided by a model. The experimental results were obtained from tests made on a pilot facility with a solid/gas reaction in a fixed bed. These underlined the importance of favoring the solid/gas contact surface. The modeling used in the MITRHY simulation program, coupled to an optimizer helped determine the kinetic parameters and the data on the material and temperature transfers. The kinetic is of first order rate for hydrogen with an activation energy of 29428 J/mol and a kinetic coefficient of 142 m.s -1 . Integrated in the MITRHY program, the kinetic parameters were used to simulate the hydrogen elimination in the accident conditions on the ITER experimental reactor. This study achieved a pre-design basis of the device (bed of about 30 cm with grains of a diameter of less than 5 mm) to be implemented. It also underlined the need to favor the specific surface to improved process efficiency. (author)

  11. Breeder control fusion reactor. Topical interview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, A [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching/Muenchen (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-09-01

    The energy sources of the future are extremely controversial. The consumption of fossil fuel shall decrease during the next decades, because exhaustion of the resources, pollution, increase of CO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere and other reasons. But at present the question it not yet settled which alternative energy system should replace the fossil fuel. First of all nuclear energy in the form of fission reactions seems to come into operation to a larger extent. The next step may be the controlled thermonuclear fusion reaction. Furthermore, a comparison between fusion and fission is given which shows that fusion would bring about less risks than the breeders. An advantage of the fusion reactor would be the fact that the fuel cycle is closed. Unfortunately, the physical questions are not as yet satisfactorily clarified so that one cannot be sure whether a fusion reactor can really be built.

  12. Thermonuclear land of plenty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasior, P.

    2014-11-01

    Since the process of energy production in the stars has been identified as the thermonuclear fusion, this mechanism has been proclaimed as a future, extremely modern, reliable and safe for sustaining energetic needs of the humankind. However, the idea itself was rather straightforward and the first attempts to harness thermonuclear reactions have been taken yet in 40s of the twentieth century, it quickly appeared that physical and technical problems of domesticating exotic high temperature medium known as plasma are far from being trivial. Though technical developments as lasers, superconductors or advanced semiconductor electronics and computers gave significant contribution for the development of the thermonuclear fusion reactors, for a very long time their efficient performance was out of reach of technology. Years of the scientific progress brought the conclusions that for the development of the thermonuclear power plants an enormous interdisciplinary effort is needed in many fields of science covering not only plasma physics but also material research, superconductors, lasers, advanced diagnostic systems (e.g. spectroscopy, interferometry, scattering techniques, etc.) with huge amounts of data to be processed, cryogenics, measurement-control systems, automatics, robotics, nanotechnology, etc. Due to the sophistication of the problems with plasma control and plasma material interactions only such a combination of the research effort can give a positive output which can assure the energy needs of our civilization. In this paper the problems of thermonuclear technology are briefly outlined and it is shown why this domain can be a broad field for the experts dealing with electronics, optoelectronics, programming and numerical simulations, who at first glance can have nothing common with the plasma or nuclear physics.

  13. Compilation and evaluation of atomic and molecular data relevant to controlled thermonuclear research needs: USA programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, C.F.

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. role in the compilation and evaluation of atomic data for controlled thermonuclear research is discussed in the following three areas: (1) atomic structure data, (2) atomic collision data, and (3) surface data

  14. Development and evaluation of plasma facing materials for future thermonuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Roedig, M.; Schmidt, A.; Thomser, C.

    2010-01-01

    More and more attention is directed towards thermonuclear fusion as a possible future energy source. Major advantages of this energy conversion technology are the almost inexhaustible resources and the option to produce energy without CO 2 -emissions. However, in the most advanced field of magnetic plasma confinement a number of technological challenges have to be met. In particular high-temperature resistant and plasma compatible meterials have to be developed and qualified which are able to withstand the extreme environments in a commercial thermonuclear power reactor. The plasma facing materials (PEMs) and components (PFCs) in such fusion devices, i.e. the first wall (FW), the limiters and the divertor, are strongly affected by the plasma wall interaction processes and the applied intense thermal loads during plasma operation. On the one hand, these mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; on the other hand, they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour. Materials for plasma facing components have to fulfill a number of requirements. First of all the materials have to be plasma compatible, i.e. they should exhibit a low atomic number to avoid radiative losses whenever atoms from the wall material will be ionized in the plasma. In addition, the materials must have a high melting point, a high thermal conductivity, and adequate mechanical properties. To select the most suitable material candidates, a comprehensive data base is required which includes all thermo-physical and mechanical properties. In present-day and next step devices the resulting thermal steady state heat loads to the first wall remain below 1 MWm -2 , meanwhile the limiters and the divertor are expected to be exposed to power densities being at least one order of magnitude above the FW-level, i.e. up to 20 MWm -2 for next step tokamaks such as ITER or DEMO. These requirements are responsible for high demands on the selection of qualified PFMs and heat

  15. Development and evaluation of plasma facing materials for future thermonuclear fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Roedig, M.; Schmidt, A.; Thomser, C. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, Juelich (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    More and more attention is directed towards thermonuclear fusion as a possible future energy source. Major advantages of this energy conversion technology are the almost inexhaustible resources and the option to produce energy without CO{sub 2}-emissions. However, in the most advanced field of magnetic plasma confinement a number of technological challenges have to be met. In particular high-temperature resistant and plasma compatible meterials have to be developed and qualified which are able to withstand the extreme environments in a commercial thermonuclear power reactor. The plasma facing materials (PEMs) and components (PFCs) in such fusion devices, i.e. the first wall (FW), the limiters and the divertor, are strongly affected by the plasma wall interaction processes and the applied intense thermal loads during plasma operation. On the one hand, these mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; on the other hand, they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour. Materials for plasma facing components have to fulfill a number of requirements. First of all the materials have to be plasma compatible, i.e. they should exhibit a low atomic number to avoid radiative losses whenever atoms from the wall material will be ionized in the plasma. In addition, the materials must have a high melting point, a high thermal conductivity, and adequate mechanical properties. To select the most suitable material candidates, a comprehensive data base is required which includes all thermo-physical and mechanical properties. In present-day and next step devices the resulting thermal steady state heat loads to the first wall remain below 1 MWm{sup -2}, meanwhile the limiters and the divertor are expected to be exposed to power densities being at least one order of magnitude above the FW-level, i.e. up to 20 MWm{sup -2} for next step tokamaks such as ITER or DEMO. These requirements are responsible for high demands on the selection of qualified PFMs

  16. Nano-scale bubble thermonuclear fusion in acoustically cavitated deuterated liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert I Nigmatulin; Richard T Lahey Jr; Rusi Taleyarkhan

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: It has been experimentally shown (Taleyarkhan, West, Cho, Lahey, Nigmatulin, Block, 2002, 2004) that neutron emission and tritium formation may occur in deuterated acetone (D-acetone C 3 DO 6 ) under acoustic cavitation conditions. Intensity of the fast neutron (2.45 MeV) emission and tritium nucleus production is ∼ 4 x 10 5 s -1 . This suggests ultrahigh compression of matter produced inside bubbles during their collapse. In the paper a systematic theoretical analysis of the vapor bubble growth and subsequent implosion in intense acoustic fields in D-acetone is presented. The goal is to describe and explain the experimental observations of thermonuclear fusion for collapsing cavitation bubble in D-acetone. The dynamics of bubbles formed during maximum rarefaction in the liquid is numerically studied on the basis of the developed models of a single bubble and bubble clusters. It is supposed that during their growth the bubbles coagulate and form a few bigger bubbles, which then collapse under the action of additional pressure pulses produced in the liquid through the intensification of acoustic waves within the cluster. A shock wave is shown to be formed inside the bubble during the latter's rapid contraction. Focusing of this shock wave in the bubble center initiates dissociation and ionization, violent increases in density (10 4 kg m 3 ), pressure (10 10 -10 11 bar) and temperature (2 x 10 8 K), high enough to produce nuclear fusion reactions. The bubble looks like micro-hydrogen bomb. The diameter of the neutron emission zone is about 100 nm. The highest neutron emission is recorded at about 10-20 nm from the bubble center. It is found out that the intensity of bubble implosion and the number of neutron emitted increase with variations in nucleation phase, positive half-wave amplitude, liquid temperature and also with the involvement of coagulation mechanisms within the cluster during the bubble simultaneous growth. The number

  17. On the implementation of a chain nuclear reaction of thermonuclear fusion on the basis of the p+11B process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, V. S.; Krainov, V. P.; Zagreev, B. V.; Matafonov, A. P.

    2015-07-01

    Various theoretical and experimental schemes for implementing a thermonuclear reactor on the basis of the p+11B reaction are considered. They include beam collisions, fusion in degenerate plasmas, ignition upon plasma acceleration by ponderomotive forces, and the irradiation of a solid-state target from 11B with a proton beam under conditions of a Coulomb explosion of hydrogen microdrops. The possibility of employing ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses to initiate the p+11B reaction under conditions far from thermodynamic equilibrium is discussed. This and some other weakly radioactive thermonuclear reactions are promising owing to their ecological cleanness—there are virtually no neutrons among fusion products. Nuclear reactions that follow the p+11B reaction may generate high-energy protons, sustaining a chain reaction, and this is an advantage of the p+11B option. The approach used also makes it possible to study nuclear reactions under conditions close to those in the early Universe or in the interior of stars.

  18. Comprehensive safety analysis code system for nuclear fusion reactors II: Thermal analysis during plasma disruptions for international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, T.; Maki, K.; Okazaki, T.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal characteristics of a fusion reactor [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Conceptual Design Activity] during plasma disruptions have been analyzed by using a comprehensive safety analysis code for nuclear fusion reactors. The erosion depth due to disruptions for the armor of the first wall depends on the current quench time of disruptions occurring in normal operation. If it is possible to extend the time up to ∼50 ms, the erosion depth is considerably reduced. On the other hand, the erosion depth of the divertor is ∼570 μm for only one disruption, which is determined only by the thermal flux during the thermal quench. This means that the divertor plate should be exchanged after about nine disruptions. Counter-measures are necessary for the divertor to relieve disruption influences. As other scenarios of disruptions, beta-limit disruptions and vertical displacement events were also investigated quantitatively. 13 refs., 5 figs

  19. The role of materials in controlled thermonuclear research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craston, J L; Hancox, R; Robson, A E [U.K. Atomic Energy Authority, AERE, Harwell (United Kingdom); Kaufman, S; Miles, H T; Ware, A A; Wesson, J A [AEI Research Laboratory, Aldermaston (United Kingdom)

    1958-07-01

    It is the purpose of this paper to examine the processes occurring at the wall and to discuss their importance in the choice of materials both for present equipment and for future designs. The emphasis is laid primarily on plasma contamination but other effects are considered, such as thermal stress fatigue and radiation damage of the wall. The principal problems associated with the choice of wall material for a high current discharge tube have been discussed, both under the conditions which exist in present systems and under the conditions which are anticipated in a thermonuclear reactor.

  20. Proposal for a decision of the Council concerning the planning of a research- and education-program (1982-1986) on the field of thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermonuclear fusion is in an early development state and has however in principle possible advantages which could be especially valuable for Europe. The primary fusion fuels (D, Li) are plentiful existent, wide spread and cheap (1 g natural Lithium could generate 15 MHW); both fuels and the end product of the reactions - Helium - are stable. From the nuclear-technological point of view a thermonuclear reactor could be built with high safety; the doubling time for breeding of new fuels in principle could be very short. These potential advantages however are balanced by certain disadvantages, e.g. high costs for the construction of a thermonuclear reactor etc. The research program, other possibilities and the costs are outlined. (orig./HT) [de

  1. Controlled nuclear fusion, a challenging task with a big payoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noterdaeme, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    Controlled thermonuclear fusion carries the promise of providing the world with a new source of energy, the same energy that powers the stars. Research in this area has progressed steadily for several decades now, and is ready to move into a new phase. The probability is high that a new international experimental machine (ITER) which will prove the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy, will be built. This paper introduces nuclear fusion for people familiar with the fission process. It starts from the basic principles common to fusion and fission. It moves on to point out the differences, explains the reasons for those differences and the consequences. Controlled thermonuclear fusion can be obtained in several ways, which have led to different research lines. One line, on which this talk focuses, is by confining the reacting particles with magnetic fields. Another, which is the subject of a different talk, relies on the inertia of the particles to create the conditions necessary for fusion. The progress of the magnetic confinement research is shown, with examples of major hurdles, which have occurred and have been overcome. Recent results, which make us optimistic that the next machine can prove the feasibility of fusion energy, are highlighted. The talk also addresses the challenges that remain before us, and suggests that the promise of fusion energy opens up new perspectives and opportunities for the development and the use of fission energy. (author)

  2. Theses of the reports of the XXXI Zvenigorod conference on the plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovrizhnykh, L.M.; Ivanov, V.A.; Nagaeva, M.L.; Aleksandrov, A.F.; Vorob'ev, V.S.; Ivanenkov, G.V.; Meshcheryakov, A.I.

    2004-01-01

    Theses of the reports of the 31th Zvenigorod Conference on the physics and controlled thermonuclear synthesis, presented by Russian and foreign scientists, are published. The total number of reports is 258, namely, summarizing ones 16, magnetic confinement of high temperature plasma - 98, inertial thermonuclear synthesis - 44, physical processes in low temperature plasma - 58, physical bases of plasma and beam technologies - 42 [ru

  3. U.S.A.E.C. controlled thermonuclear research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, R.L.; Trivelpiece, A.W.; Dean, S.O.; Bussard, A.W.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental achievements from a variety of devices have advanced the state of knowledge faster than projected during the past year and the outlook for further significant gains over the next few years now seems excellent. Plans for the future have been reassessed as a result of this progress and it is thought that the program is now in a position to move more rapidly towards commercial fusion power. (U.K.)

  4. Magnetic-gun igniter for controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garwin, R.L.; Muller, R.A.; Richter, B.

    1979-01-01

    A conceptual design for the magnetic gun is given in order to show that the various parameters required turn out to be reasonable (in an engineering sense). An engineering design will necessarily turn out to be far more complex; the purpose of the following calculations is merely to show that the basic idea looks sufficiently good to warrant further work

  5. Leak hunting problems associated with controlled thermonuclear fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, T.H.; Murphy, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    The LLL 2xIIB experiment is briefly described. The vacuum system uses mercury diffusion pumps and titanium sublimation. The base pressure of the guard vacuum is about 10 -5 torr and about 2 x 10 -7 torr in the high vacuum space using the diffusion pumps only. After titanium sublimation, the high vacuum pressure drops into the 10 -9 torr range. A procedure for leak testing using a special sniffer probe is described

  6. Controlled nuclear fusion. Theoretical and technical-physical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donne, T.; Oomens, N.

    1995-01-01

    It is stated that the realization of controlled fusion is not only a matter of solving technical problems. Also theoretical research in the field of plasma physics is required. A brief state-of-the-art is given of theoretical and technical-physical aspects of nuclear fusion. Attention is paid to magnetic confinement, the importance of theoretical research, plasma heating, plasma diagnostics, and the control of plasma transport. Throughout the article special attention is paid to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project. 5 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs

  7. Production of synthetic methanol from air and water using controlled thermonuclear reactor power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.

    1977-01-01

    Energy requirement and process development of methanol production from air and water using controlled thermonuclear fusion power was discussed in Part 1 (Steinberg et al., Energy conversion;17:97(1977)). This second part presents an economic analysis of the nine processes presented for obtaining carbon dioxide recovery from the atmosphere or the sea for methanol production. It is found that the most economical process of obtaining carbon dioxide is by stripping from sea water. The process of absorption/stripping by dilute potassium carbonate solution is found to be the most economical for the extraction of carbon dioxide from air at atmospheric pressure. The total energy required for methanol synthesis from these sources of carbon dioxide is 3.90 kWh(e)/lb methanol of which 90% is used for generation of hydrogen. The process which consumes the greatest amount of energy is the absorption/stripping of air by water at high pressure and amounts to 13.2 kWh(e)/lb methanol. With nuclear fusion power plants of 1000to 9000 MW(e), it is found that the cost of methanol using the extraction of carbon dioxide from air with dilute potassium carbonate solution is estimated to be in the range between Pound1.73 and Pound2.90/MMB.t.u. (energy equivalent - 1974 cost) for plant capacities of 21 400 to 193 000 bbl/day methanol. This methanol cost is competitive with gasoline in the range of 19 approximately equal to 33c/gallon. For the process of stripping of carbon dioxide from sea water, the cost is found to lie in the range of Pound1.65 to Pound2.71/MMB.t.u. (energy equivalent) for plant capacities of 21 700 to 195 000 bbl/day methanol which is competitive with gasoline in the range of 18 approximately equal to 30 c/gallon. Projection of methanol demand in the year 2020 is presented based on both its conventional use as chemicals and as a liquid fuel substituting for oil and gas. (author)

  8. An effect of nuclear electric quadrupole moments in thermonuclear fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, B. R.; Srnka, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    Consideration of the nuclear electric quadrupole terms in the expression for the fusion Coulomb barrier suggests that this electrostatic barrier may be substantially modified from that calculated under the usual plasma assumption that the nuclei are electric monopoles. This effect is a result of the nonspherical potential shape and the spatial quantization of the nuclear spins of the fully stripped ions in the presence of a magnetic field. For monopole-quadrupole fuel cycles like p-B-11, the fusion cross-section may be substantially increased at low energies if the protons are injected at a small angle relative to the confining magnetic field.

  9. The problems associated with the monitoring of complex workplace radiation fields at European high-energy accelerators and thermonuclear fusion facilities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bilski, P.; Blomgren, J.; d´Errico, F.; Esposito, A.; Fehrenbacher, G.; Fernández, F.; Fuchs, A.; Golnik, N.; Lacoste, V.; Leuschner, A.; Sandri, S.; Silari, M.; Spurný, František; Wiegel, B.; Wright, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 126, 1-4 (2007), s. 491-496 ISSN 0144-8420 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC032 Grant - others:ES(XE) Contract no FI6R-012684 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : radiation fields * european high-energy accelerators * thermonuclear fusion facilities Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.528, year: 2007

  10. Computer applications in controlled fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    1975-01-01

    The application of computers to controlled thermonuclear research (CTR) is essential. In the near future the use of computers in the numerical modeling of fusion systems should increase substantially. A recent panel has identified five categories of computational models to study the physics of magnetically confined plasmas. A comparable number of types of models for engineering studies is called for. The development and application of computer codes to implement these models is a vital step in reaching the goal of fusion power. To meet the needs of the fusion program the National CTR Computer Center has been established at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. A large central computing facility is linked to smaller computing centers at each of the major CTR Laboratories by a communication network. The crucial element needed for success is trained personnel. The number of people with knowledge of plasma science and engineering trained in numerical methods and computer science must be increased substantially in the next few years. Nuclear engineering departments should encourage students to enter this field and provide the necessary courses and research programs in fusion computing

  11. The light controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, BingXin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This is a new technique for controlled fusion. • There will be an attraction force between the two oscillating nuclei. • The attraction force is greater than the Coulomb repulsion between the two nuclei. • The kinetic energy and the density of the two nuclei can be controlled. • The electric vector and the frequency of the light can be controlled. - Abstract: This is a new technique for controlled fusion. When two nuclei are colliding with each other, light, whose the frequency is higher than the minimal threshold frequency of lithium, will be aimed directly at the two nuclei, the two nuclei will perform the simple harmonic oscillation, the charged particle’s simple harmonic oscillation can be considered as an oscillating electric dipole, and the two oscillating nuclei will radiate the electromagnetic wave. Either of the two oscillating electric dipoles will attract each other, or they will repulse each other. There will be an attraction force between the two oscillating nuclei. When the attraction force is greater than the Coulomb repulsion between the two nuclei, the two nuclei will fuse together. Where the kinetic energy and the density of the two nuclei can be controlled, the electric vector and the frequency of the light can be controlled also and, therefore, the fusion can be controlled

  12. Joining of SiCf/SiC composites for thermonuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraris, M.; Badini, C.; Montorsi, M.; Appendino, P.; Scholz, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    Due to their favourable radiological behaviour, SiC f /SiC composites are promising structural materials for future use in fusion reactors. A problem to cope with is the joining of the ceramic composite material (CMC) to itself for more complex structures. Maintenance concepts for a reactor made of SiC f /SiC will demand a method of joining. The joining agents should comply with the low-activation approach of the base material. With the acceptable elements Si and Mg, sandwich structures of composite/metal/composite were prepared in Ar atmosphere at temperatures just above the melting points of the metals. Another promising route is the use of joining agents of boro-silicate glasses: their composition can be tailored to obtain softening temperatures of interest for fusion applications. The glassy joint can be easily ceramised to improve thermomechanical properties. The joining interfaces were investigated by SEM-EDS, XRD and mechanical tests. ((orig.))

  13. Plasma position and shape control device for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Kazuhiro; Abe, Mitsushi; Kinoshita, Shigemi.

    1993-01-01

    A plasma position and shape control system is constituted with a measuring device, a quenching probability calculation section and a control calculation section. A quenching probability is calculated in the quenching probability calculation section by using a measuring data on temperature, electric current and magnetic field of superconductive coils, based on a margin upto a limit value. The control calculation section selects a control method which decreases applied voltage or current instruction value as the quenching probability of the coils is higher. Since the quenching probability of the superconductive coils can be forecast and a state of low quenching danger can be selected, the safety of the device is improved. When the quenching danger is allowed to a predetermined value, a wide operation region can be provided. (N.H.)

  14. Recycling, inventory and permeation of hydrogen isotopes and helium in the first wall of a thermonuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervasini, G.; Reiter, F.

    1989-01-01

    The work was divided into three parts. The first part, which is theoretical, examines the behaviour of hydrogen in metals. After an introduction on the presence of hydrogen isotopes in fusion reactors, the main phenomena connected with hydrogen-metal interaction are summarised: solubility, diffusivity and trapping in material defects. The metal temperature is highlighted as the main parameter in the description of the phenomena. The second part of the work, also theoretical, concerns the interaction between helium and metals. We have tried as much as possible to show analogies and differences in the comparisons of the behaviour of hydrogen. The main types of damage caused by helium in metallic structures, which are the most important consequence of helium-metal interaction, were summarised. The characteristics of helium were treated in greater depth than those of hydrogen, because the latter are very well known. Also, there is a vast literature on the hydrogen-metal interaction. In the third and last part of the work a model was identified which allows the simulation of the evolution of a system formed from a metal in which hydrogen and helium isotopes have been introduced. A system of algebraic-differential equations was used to study the temporal evolution of the concentrations, the recycling, the inventory and the permeation of tritium and helium considering that these atoms diffuse in the metallic lattice and remain trapped in the vacancies created inside the metal by the bombardment of the neutrons from the fusion reactions. For the numerical simulation a series of data intended to represent the situation inside a thermonuclear reactor as precisely as possible were used for the numerical simulation. Analysis of the system was preceded by the analytical resolution of the steady state equations so that they could be compared with the simulation results

  15. Method of controlling plasma discharge in a thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Kozo; Ishida, Takayuki; Takemaru, Koichi; Kawasaki, Takahide.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To prolong the plasma discharging period by previously increasing the temperature at the thick portion of a vacuum container prior to the plasma discharge to thereby decrease the temperature difference caused by the plasma discharge between the thick portion and the bellows. Method: Temperature values at the outer surface of the thick portion and the bellows of a vacuum container detected by temperature sensors are applied to the input processing section of a temperature control device, and baking control is carried out by way of the output processing section so that each of the portions of the vacuum container may be maintained at the temperature set by the temperature setting section based on the calculation performed in the control processing section. By previously increasing the temperature β at the thick portion higher by about 100 0 C than the temperature α for the bellows in the baking treatment prior to the plasma discharge, the plasma discharge period during which the temperature levels at both of the portions are reversed after the plasma discharge and the temperature difference arrives at a predetermined level i.g., of 100 0 C can significantly be prolonged as compared with the case where the plasma discharge is started at the same temperature for both of the portions. (Yoshino, Y.)

  16. Fast Ignition Thermonuclear Fusion: Enhancement of the Pellet Gain by the Colossal-Magnetic-Field Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2013-10-01

    The fast ignition fusion pellet gain can be enhanced by a laser generated B-field shell. The B-field shell, (similar to Earth's B-field, but with the alternating B-poles), follows the pellet compression in a frozen-in B-field regime. A properly designed laser-pellet coupling can lead to the generation of a B-field shell, (up to 100 MG), which inhibits electron thermal transport and confines the alpha-particles. In principle, a pellet gain of few-100s can be achieved in this manner. Supported in part by Nikola Tesla Labs, Stefan University, 1010 Pearl, La Jolla, CA 92038-1007.

  17. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blevins, J.D.; Stasko, R.R.

    1989-09-01

    An international design team comprised of members from Canada, Europe, Japan, the Soviet Union, and the United States of America, are designing an experimental fusion test reactor. The engineering and testing objectives of this International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are to validate the design and to demonstrate controlled ignition, extended burn of a deuterium and tritium plasma, and achieve steady state using technology expected to be available by 1990. The concept maximizes flexibility while allowing for a variety of plasma configurations and operating scenarios. During physics phase operation, the machine produces a 22 MA plasma current. In the technology phase, the machine can be reconfigured with a thicker shield and a breeding blanket to operate with an 18 MA plasma current at a major radius of 5.5 meters. Canada's involvement in the areas of safety, facility design, reactor configuration and maintenance builds on our internationally recognized design and operational expertise in developing tritium processes and CANDU related technologies

  18. Thermonuclear detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feoktistov, L.P.

    1998-01-01

    The characteristics of, and energy transfer mechanisms involved in, thermonuclear detonation are discussed. What makes the fundamental difference between thermonuclear and chemical detonation is that the former has a high specific energy release and can therefore be employed for preliminary compressing the thermonuclear mixture ahead of the burning wave. Consequently, with moderate (mega joule) initiation energies, a steady-state detonation laboratory experiment with unlimited energy multiplication becomes a possibility

  19. Thermonuclear detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feoktistov, L P

    1998-01-01

    The characteristics of, and energy transfer mechanisms involved in, thermonuclear detonation are discussed. What makes the fundamental difference between thermonuclear and chemical detonation is that the former has a high specific energy release and can therefore be employed for preliminarily compressing the thermonuclear mixture ahead of the burning wave. Consequently, with moderate (megajoule) initiation energies, a steady-state detonation laboratory experiment with unlimited energy multiplication becomes a possibility. (from the history of physics)

  20. The international thermonuclear reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Project is a 6-year collaborative effort involving the U.S., Europe, Japan, and the Russian Federation to produce a detailed engineering design for the next-step fusion device

  1. Safety analysis of water cooled components inside the JET thermonuclear fusion tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageladarakis, P.; O'Dowd, N.; Papastergiou, S.

    1998-04-01

    The transient thermal behaviour of a number of components, installed in the vessel of the world's largest Fusion Tokamak (JET) has been examined with a theoretical model, which simulated normal operational conditions and abnormal scenarios namely: Loss of Coolant Flow; Loss of Torus Vacuum; and combinations. A number of theoretical results related to water and cryogenically cooled devices have been validated by a comprehensive experimental campaign conducted both inside the JET plasma chamber and in a test rig. The performance of water cooled components which may be subjected to boiling or freeze-up risks in case of a Loss of Water Flow event has also been analysed. Time constants of transient temperature changes were determined by the model while protective actions were prescribed in order to safeguard the equipment against associated risks. A completely automatic safety protection system has been designed on the basis of these analyses and implemented in the routine JET operation. During operation of JET the safety code reacted several times within the specified time limits and protected the relevant components during real off-normal events. (author)

  2. Use of code DTF-4 for determining the coefficient of back-reflection of the neutron within the thermonuclear plasma of a thermonuclear reactor controlled by the rate of the fission reactions. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristea, G.

    1975-01-01

    The neutron problems are discussed of the thermonuclear reactor controlled by the rate of the fission reactions. The results obtained by rolling the DTF-4 program in a spherical geometry in the case of an ''external source'' problem permit to draw conclusions concerning the problems of the neutronics system of this thermonuclear reactor type. A relation is deduced for estimating the coefficient of back-reflection of the neutrons within the thermonuclear plasma and the focussion system is discussed of the neutronics of this reactor type

  3. Finite element modeling and experimental study of brittle fracture in tempered martensitic steels for thermonuclear fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P. F.

    2009-10-01

    The present report studies the brittle fracture in high-chromium reduced activation tempered martensitic steels foreseen as structural materials for thermonuclear fusion reactors. Developing the adequate materials that can withstand the severe irradiation conditions of the burning plasma in a fusion reactor is one of the major challenges to be solved in order to make profit from the great advantages of thermonuclear fusion as an energy source. High-chromium tempered martensitic steels such as F82H and the most advanced version Eurofer97 are among the main candidate materials for structural applications in future fusion power plants due to low irradiation-induced swelling, good mechanical and thermal properties, and reasonably fast radioactive decay. Drawback of this kind of steels is irradiation embrittlement, which is manifested by a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature shift to higher temperatures after irradiation. The laboratory specimen fracture data has to be transferred to real components in order to assess the performance of these steels in the different operating and transient conditions they could find during the operation life of a fusion reactor. The specimen geometry effects and specimen size effects on measured fracture toughness need to be properly understood, taken into account and predicted with an appropriate model. The microstructure of Eurofer97 and F82H has been characterized and compared by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in order to identify microstructural features that could play a role in the measured fracture toughness. Both steels have similar but slightly different chemical composition and final heat treatments but the prior austenitic grain size measured in F82H is approximately 8 times larger than in Eurofer97. The alloying element tantalum is added to stabilize the austenite grain size. In Eurofer97 it forms carbides of an

  4. Thermonuclear research development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhov, E.

    1977-01-01

    Tokamak 10, the world's largest thermonuclear facility was commissioned in 1975. Soviet scientists thus achieved enormous success in producing high-temperature plasma and constructing a thermonuclear fusion source. The problems which remain to be solved include finding a method of regenerating the deuterium-tritium fuel mixture and a method of purifying the reacting high-temperature plasma of heavy elements. The project is designed for a more powerful facility, namely the Tokamak 20 whose toroidal chamber will accommodate a current of 5 to 6 MA and whose plasma volume will be 400 m 3 . (Oy)

  5. Thermonuclear research development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikhov, E

    1977-04-01

    Tokamak 10, the world's largest thermonuclear facility was commissioned in 1975. Soviet scientists thus achieved enormous success in producing high-temperature plasma and constructing a thermonuclear fusion source. The problems which remain to be solved include finding a method of regenerating the deuterium-tritium fuel mixture and a method of purifying the reacting high-temperature plasma of heavy elements. The project is designed for a more powerful facility, namely the Tokamak 20 whose toroidal chamber will accommodate a current of 5 to 6 MA and whose plasma volume will be 400 m/sup 3/.

  6. Design of a Fast Neutral He Beam System for Feasibility Study of Charge-Exchange Alpha-Particle Diagnostics in a Thermonuclear Fusion Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Shinto, Katsuhiro; Kitajima, Sumio; Kiyama, Satoru; Nishiura, Masaki; Sasao, Mamiko; Sugawara, Hiroshi; Takenaga, Mahoko; Takeuchi, Shu; Wada, Motoi

    2005-01-01

    For alpha-particle diagnostics in a thermonuclear fusion reactor, neutralization using a fast (~2 MeV) neutral He beam produced by the spontaneous electron detachment of a He- is considered most promising. However, the beam transport of produced fast neutral He has not been studied, because of difficulty for producing high-brightness He- beam. Double-charge-exchange He- sources and simple beam transport systems were developed and their results were reported in the PAC99* and other papers.** To accelerate an intense He- beam and verify the production of the fast neutral He beam, a new test stand has been designed. It consists of a multi-cusp He+

  7. Introduction to the controlled nuclear fusion (magnetic containment systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, J.A.; Guasp, J.; Martin, R.

    1975-01-01

    The magnetic containment systems, their more important features, and their potentiality to became thermonuclear reactors is described. The work is based upon the first part of a set of lectures dedicated to Plasma and Fusion Physics. (author)

  8. Fusion Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Lackner, Karl; Tran, Minh Quang [eds.

    2012-09-15

    Recreating the energy production process of the Sun - nuclear fusion - on Earth in a controlled fashion is one of the greatest challenges of this century. If achieved at affordable costs, energy supply security would be greatly enhanced and environmental degradation from fossil fuels greatly diminished. Fusion Physics describes the last fifty years or so of physics and research in innovative technologies to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion for energy production. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been involved since its establishment in 1957 in fusion research. It has been the driving force behind the biennial conferences on Plasma Physics and Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion, today known as the Fusion Energy Conference. Hosted by several Member States, this biennial conference provides a global forum for exchange of the latest achievements in fusion research against the backdrop of the requirements for a net energy producing fusion device and, eventually, a fusion power plant. The scientific and technological knowledge compiled during this series of conferences, as well as by the IAEA Nuclear Fusion journal, is immense and will surely continue to grow in the future. It has led to the establishment of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which represents the biggest experiment in energy production ever envisaged by humankind.

  9. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Takuro; Maki, Koichi.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a thermonuclear device, in which integrity of a measuring device is kept, the reactor wall temperature and wear of armour materials are monitored accurately even under intense radiation rays, so that the flow rate of coolants and plasma power can be controlled by using the signals. Infrared rays generated from the surface of the armour materials disposed on a first wall are detected to measure the reactor wall temperature. Coolant flow rate and plasma power are controlled based on the obtained reactor wall temperature. In addition, infrared rays generated from the back of the armour materials are detected to obtain the surface temperature in order to avoid intense radiation rays from plasmas. The coolant flow rate and the plasma power are controlled based on the obtained temperature on the surface of the reactor thereby controlling the temperature of the first wall and the armour material to 300degC or lower in a case of the first wall made of stainless steel and 1000degC or lower in a case of the armour material made of graphite. (I.S.)

  10. Echography by Thermonuclear Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Ruben; Moreno, Carlos; Gonzalez, Jose; Florido, Pablo; Clausse, Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    A technique to substances detection in the neighbourhood of a compact Plasma Focus (PF) is presented. The method is based on the same principle of the sonar or the echographs.The measuring system is composed by two neutron detectors operated simultaneously on every shot.The first detector is used to register the PF neutron yield in each shot; whereas the other one was designed for detecting neutrons scattered by the blanket.The complete detecting system is very simple and inexpensive. The study consisted in measuring the reflection of neutrons emitted by a Deuterium pinch. The correlation of the counts recorded by the detectors located at different positions was mapped with the water distribution around the neutron source. Moreover, we obtained the maps of the substance positions coordinates in function of measurement variables. Also we used the MCNP code in order to simulate the experiments

  11. Study of the application of advanced control systems to fusion experiments and reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-05-01

    The work accomplished to date toward the formulation of an advanced control system concept for large-scale magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion devices is summarized. The work was concentrated in three major areas: (1) general control studies and identification of control issues, (2) exploration of possible direct interactions with AEC National Laboratories, and (3) identification of simulation requirements to support control studies. (U.S.)

  12. Thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasutomi, Yoshiyuki; Nakagawa, Moroo; Sawai, Yuichi; Chiba, Akio; Suzuki, Yasutaka.

    1997-01-01

    Silicon composited with reinforcing metals is used for a divertor cooling substrate having an effect as a cooling tube to provide a silicon base composite material having increased electric resistance and toughness. The blending ratio of reinforcing materials in the form of granules, whiskers or long fibers is controlled in order to control heat conductivity, electric resistivity and mechanical performances. The divertor cooling substrate comprising the silicon base composite material is integrated with a plasma facing material. The production method therefor includes ordinary metal matrix composite forming methods such as powder metallurgy, melting penetration method, high pressure solidification casting method, centrifugal casting method and vacuum casting method. Since the cooling plate is constituted with the light metal and highly electric resistant metal base composite material, sharing force due to eddy current can be reduced, and radiation exposure can be minimized. Accordingly, a cooling structure for a thermonuclear reactor effective for the improvement of environmental problems caused by waste disposal can be attained. (N.H.)

  13. Peaceful Uses of Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, E.

    1958-07-03

    Applications of thermonuclear energy for peaceful and constructive purposes are surveyed. Developments and problems in the release and control of fusion energy are reviewed. It is pointed out that the future of thermonuclear power reactors will depend upon the construction of a machine that produces more electric energy than it consumes. The fuel for thermonuclear reactors is cheap and practically inexhaustible. Thermonuclear reactors produce less dangerous radioactive materials than fission reactors and, when once brought under control, are not as likely to be subject to dangerous excursions. The interaction of the hot plasma with magnetic fields opens the way for the direct production of electricity. It is possible that explosive fusion energy released underground may be harnessed for the production of electricity before the same feat is accomplished in controlled fusion processes. Applications of underground detonations of fission devices in mining and for the enhancement of oil flow in large low-specific-yield formations are also suggested.

  14. Applications of intelligent-measurement systems in controlled-fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.; Lindquist, W.B.; Peterson, R.L.; Wyman, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The paper describes the control and instrumentation for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, USA. This large-scale scientific experiment in controlled thermonuclear fusion, which is currently being expanded, originally had 3000 devices to control and 7000 sensors to monitor. A hierarchical computer control system, is used with nine minicomputers forming the supervisory system. There are approximately 55 local control and instrumentation microcomputers. In addition, each device has its own monitoring equipment, which in some cases consists of a small computer. After describing the overall system a more detailed account is given of the control and instrumentation for two large superconducting magnets

  15. Modelling of thermal and thermalhydraulic in a heat exchanger of a fusion thermonuclear reactor using 'GENEPI' computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlais, Gilles

    1999-01-01

    The work presented in this report has been performed in the frame of fusion safety studies for thermonuclear reactors of ITER type (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). It is particularly related to the thermal and two-phases thermalhydraulic studies of heat exchangers facing plasma. These components are submitted to unidirectional high heat flux between 1 to 10 MW/m 2 . The cooling fluid is then heat by an anisotropic heat flux. This non-uniform distribution induces the presence of different heat transfer on the cooling channel (single phase forced convection, subcooled nucleate boiling). The thermal and the thermalhydraulic three-dimensional study has been performed using experimental data and coupled computer calculations developed in the frame of this thesis work. The heat transfer between solid and fluid are modelled using correlations selected after the bibliography study. These heat exchange correlations as well as the CHF ones have been assessed by comparison to the available experimental data. This allowed to modify the single phase heat transfer correlation and to select two CHF correlations. (author) [fr

  16. Estimating spillover benefits of large R and D projects: Application of real options modelling approach to the case of thermonuclear fusion R and D programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednyagin, Denis; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2012-01-01

    This paper is focused on the analysis of spillover benefits of the ongoing R and D programme on thermonuclear fusion technology. The spillover effects are understood here as positive externalities of publicly funded R and D, demonstration and deployment (RDDD) activities that may be revealed at the companies' level in the form of newly created knowledge stock; development of innovative products/processes with broader market applications; strengthening of R and D, manufacturing and marketing capabilities; etc. An integrated compound real options model is proposed that allows to estimate the strategic net social present value of fusion RDDD programme taking into account the different types of spillover benefits along with the hidden real options value arising due to uncertainty and managerial flexibility. It was found that the value of spillover effects, modelled as “expansion option”, could represent a significant proportion of the overall socio-economic value of fusion RDDD programme (nearly 20%). This paper clearly demonstrates that, besides a high-level mission to assure sustainable energy supply, fusion RDDD programme may yield substantial net socio-economic benefits that may be at least two times higher compared to the expected RD and D costs, and hence the pursuit of even more ambitious programme is economically justified. - Highlights: ► Evaluate the strategic net social present value of fusion RDDD programme. ► Consider different types of spillover effects. ► Economic value of spillovers is estimated with a compound real options model. ► Spillover benefits could represent up to 20% of the value of fusion RDDD programme.

  17. Thermonuclear fusion in the UK: towards a new abundant and durable energy source; La fusion nucleaire au Royaume-Uni: vers une nouvelle source d'energie abondante et durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    The ITER treaty (International thermonuclear experimental reactor) was signed in Paris on November 21, 2006, by the European Union, China, the USA, Japan and Russia. This treaty is devoted to the construction and exploitation of the biggest thermonuclear facility ever, capable to generate 500 MW during a reaction of 10 minutes. ITER is a priori the last experimental step before the construction of a fusion power plant for power generation at the industrial scale. The goal of ITER is to obtain a quasi-unexhaustible and less polluting energy source by the mid-21. century. The British research work has largely contributed to the development of this technology through a large number of projects that have preceded ITER but also through its present day involvement in the creation of the future reactor of Cadarache. This document presents: the UK fusion program, the projects carried out at the Culham science centre (Compass-D, Joint European Torus (JET), Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak (START), Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST), EASY-2005 (European activation system)), the British involvement in ITER project and the transfer of technologies, and the nuclear fusion research in British universities (PPRG Imperial College London, CFSA Warwick university, Dalton nuclear institute (DNI), department of physics York university). (J.S.)

  18. FENIX [Fusion ENgineering International eXperimental]: A test facility for ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] and other new superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, D.S.; Patrick, R.E.; Miller, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Fusion ENgineering International eXperimental (FENIX) Test Facility which is nearing completion at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is a 76-t set of superconducting magnets housed in a 4-m-diameter cryostat. It represents a significant step toward meeting the testing needs for the development of superconductors appropriate for large-scale magnet applications such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The magnet set is configured to allow radial access to the 0.4-m-diameter high-field region where maximum fields up to 14 T will be provided. The facility is fitted with a thermally isolated test well with a port to the high-field region that allows insertion and removal of test conductors without disturbing the cryogenic environment of the magnets. It is expected that the facility will be made available to magnet developers internationally, and this paper discusses its general design features, its construction, and its capabilities

  19. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the several speeches that took place during the 22nd European Physical Society conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics in Bournemouth, UK, between the 2nd and 7th July 1995. The talks deal with new experiments carried out on several tokamaks, particularly Tore Supra, concerning plasma confinement and fusion. Some information on specific fusion devices or tokamak devices is provided, as well as results of experiments concerning plasma instability. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the 31 papers in this volume. (TEC)

  20. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This document presents the several speeches that took place during the 22nd European Physical Society conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics in Bournemouth, UK, between the 2nd and 7th July 1995. The talks deal with new experiments carried out on several tokamaks, particularly Tore Supra, concerning plasma confinement and fusion. Some information on specific fusion devices or tokamak devices is provided, as well as results of experiments concerning plasma instability. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the 31 papers in this volume. (TEC).

  1. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document presents the several speeches that took place during the 22nd European Physical Society conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics in Bournemouth, UK, between the 2nd and 7th July 1995. The talks deal with new experiments carried out on several tokamaks, particularly Tore Supra, concerning plasma confinement and fusion. Some information on specific fusion devices or tokamak devices is provided, as well as results of experiments concerning plasma instability. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the 31 papers in this volume. (TEC).

  2. [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, S.O.

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities under LLNL Purchase Order B089367, the purpose of which is to ''support the University/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Magnetic Fusion Program by evaluating the status of research relative to other national and international programs and assist in long-range plans and development strategies for magnetic fusion in general and for ITER in particular.'' Two specific subtasks are included: ''to review the LLNL Magnet Technology Development Program in the context of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Design Study'' and to ''assist LLNL to organize and prepare materials for an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Design Study information meeting.''

  3. Assessment of the critical neutron number for internal break-even in explosion-induced thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliski, S.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis is performed of the systems of an explosion-induced thermonuclear microfusion from the angle of attaining an internal break-even. A critical-state meter is defined, i.e. the critical neutron yield Nsub(cr) as the most convenient for characterizing the experimental setups. It is demonstrated that in a number of designed systems of an explosion-induced microfusion, Nsub(cr) is attained. In the experiments actually carried out the N-yield efficiency is of about three orders of magnitude. (author)

  4. Production of synthetic methanol from air and water using controlled thermonuclear reactor power. 2. Capital investment and production costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, V D; Steinberg, M [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, N.Y. (USA)

    1977-01-01

    Energy requirement and process development of methanol production from air and water using controlled thermonuclear fusion power was discussed in Part 1 (Steinberg et al., Energy conversion;17:97(1977)). This second part presents an economic analysis of the nine processes presented for obtaining carbon dioxide recovery from the atmosphere or the sea for methanol production. It is found that the most economical process of obtaining carbon dioxide is by stripping from sea water. The process of absorption/stripping by dilute potassium carbonate solution is found to be the most economical for the extraction of carbon dioxide from air at atmospheric pressure. The total energy required for methanol synthesis from these sources of carbon dioxide is 3.90 kWh(e)/lb methanol of which 90% is used for generation of hydrogen. The process which consumes the greatest amount of energy is the absorption/stripping of air by water at high pressure and amounts to 13.2 kWh(e)/lb methanol. With nuclear fusion power plants of 1000to 9000 MW(e), it is found that the cost of methanol using the extraction of carbon dioxide from air with dilute potassium carbonate solution is estimated to be in the range between Pound1.73 and Pound2.90/MMB.t.u. (energy equivalent - 1974 cost) for plant capacities of 21 400 to 193 000 bbl/day methanol. This methanol cost is competitive with gasoline in the range of 19 approximately equal to 33c/gallon. For the process of stripping of carbon dioxide from sea water, the cost is found to lie in the range of Pound1.65 to Pound2.71/MMB.t.u. (energy equivalent) for plant capacities of 21 700 to 195 000 bbl/day methanol which is competitive with gasoline in the range of 18 approximately equal to 30 c/gallon. Projection of methanol demand in the year 2020 is presented based on both its conventional use as chemicals and as a liquid fuel substituting for oil and gas.

  5. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Yasuomi; Takahashi, Ken; Hashimoto, Hiroshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the plasma confining performances by bringing the irregular magnetic fields nearly to zero and decreasing the absolute value of the irregular magnetic fields at every positions. Constitution: The winding direction of a plurality of coil elements, for instance, double pan cake coils of toroidal coils in a torus type or mirror type thermonuclear device are reversed to each other in their laminating direction, whereby the irregular magnetic fields due to the coil-stepped portions in each toroidal coils are brought nearly to zero. This enables to bring the average irregular magnetic fields as a whole in the thermonuclear device nearly to zero, as well as, decrease the absolute value of the irregular magnetic fields in each positions. Thus, the plasma confining performances can be improved. (Moriyama, K.)

  6. International fusion research council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belozerov, A.N.

    1977-01-01

    A brief history of the International Fusion Research Council (IFRC) is given and the minutes of the 1976 meeting in Garching are summarized. At the Garching meeting, the IFRC evaluated the quality of papers presented at recent IAEA conferences on plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear research, and made recommendations on the organization and timing of future meetings on nuclear fusion

  7. Fusion energy division computer systems network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, C.E.

    1980-12-01

    The Fusion Energy Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operated by Union Carbide Corporation Nuclear Division (UCC-ND) is primarily involved in the investigation of problems related to the use of controlled thermonuclear fusion as an energy source. The Fusion Energy Division supports investigations of experimental fusion devices and related fusion theory. This memo provides a brief overview of the computing environment in the Fusion Energy Division and the computing support provided to the experimental effort and theory research

  8. Merging White Dwarfs and Thermonuclear Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    van Kerkwijk, Marten H.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear supernovae result when interaction with a companion reignites nuclear fusion in a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, causing a thermonuclear runaway, a catastrophic gain in pressure, and the disintegration of the whole white dwarf. It is usually thought that fusion is reignited in near-pycnonuclear conditions when the white dwarf approaches the Chandrasekhar mass. I briefly describe two long-standing problems faced by this scenario, and our suggestion that these supernovae instead resul...

  9. Thermonuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, D.D.; Woosley, S.E.

    1974-01-01

    We discuss the types of thermonuclear reactions that are of importance to stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis, with particular attention to the explosive ejection of shells of He, C, O, and Si. We present tables of the reactions important in the various burning phases, including the reason for their importance and an estimate of the value of a carefully measured rate. This format is chosen for dual purpose: (1) to clarify the nuclear needs by evaluating the importance of specific reactions within the astronomical settings and (2) by assigning a value scale for cross-section measurements

  10. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Toyokazu; Murata, Toru.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To shield superconducting coils for use in the generation of magnetic field against neutron irradiation thereby preventing tritium contamination. Constitution: The thermonuclear device comprises, in its inside, a vacuum container for containing plasmas, superconducting coils disposed to the outside of the vacuum container and neutron absorbers disposed between the super-conducting coils and the vacuum container. since neutrons issued from the plasma are absorbed by neutron absorbers and not irradiated to the superconducting coils, generation of tritium due to the reaction between 3 He in the liquid helium as the coolants for the super-conducting coils and the neutrons is prevented. (Aizawa, K.)

  11. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, Masaru.

    1993-01-01

    Protrusions and recesses are formed to a vacuum vessel and toroidal magnetic coils, and they are engaged. Since the vacuum vessel is generally supported firmly by a rack or the like by support legs, the toroidal magnetic field coils can be certainly supported against tumbling force. Then, there can be attained strong supports for the toroidal magnetic field coils, in addition to support by wedges on the side of inboard and support by share panels on the side of outboard, capable of withstanding great electromagnetic forces which may occur in large-scaled next-generation devices. That is, toroidal magnetic field coils excellent from a view point of deformation and stress can be obtained, to provide a thermonuclear device of higher reliability. (N.H.)

  12. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiura, Soji.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the generation of electromagnetic forces and improve the strength of a vacuum container for sealing plasmas and of a support frame for covering the coils disposed around the periphery of the vacuum container. Constitution: Either one of the vacuum container or the support frame is made of a composite material, whose first material has low radioactivatability and the second has low radioactivatability and stronger electrical resistance than that of the first; therein, with the first material being disposed on the surface. The damage caused by neutrons resulted from thermonuclear reaction can be extremely small since the constituent is made of the material having the low radioactivatability. Further, eddy current does not occurs in the second material, but in the first material only in case magnetic fields change rapidly, whereby the electromagnetic force resulted in this portion is decreased as a whole. (Moriyama, K.)

  13. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosaki, Osamu; Masuda, Kenju.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide excellent electric properties and high reliability in a thermonuclear device by improving a current collecting board connected to a coil device. Constitution: A current collecting board element perforated with an opening for enserting a connecting terminal is sized to be inserted into a plating tank, and is surface treated in the plating tank. Only the current collecting board element preferably surface treated is picked up. A plurality of such current collecting board elements are connected and welded to form a large current collecting board. In this manner, the current collecting board having several m 2 to several ten order m 2 in area can be obtained as preferably surface treated at the connecting terminal hole. The current collecting board element can be determined in shape with the existing facility without increasing the size of a surface treating tank. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shohei

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain high voltage withstanding current introduction terminals not suffering from the effects of the reduction in the creeping voltage withstanding property by the application of magnetic fields. Constitution: This invention concerns a current introduction terminal for supplying electric current to coils for use in a thermonuclear device, etc. The conductor of the current introduction terminal on the side of vacuum is completely covered with solid insulator. This can eliminate the portion of securing the creeping withstanding voltage. The voltage withstanding characteristics of the solid insulator covering the portion of the conductor on the side of vacuum has a constant value irrespective of the atmosphere or the absence or presence of magnetic fields. Accordingly, the voltage withstanding characteristics of the current introduction terminal on the side of vacuum are determined by the property of the solid insulator, which is not reduced by the application of magnetic fields. (Ikeda, J.)

  15. Controlled fusion and plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The contributions presented in the 17th European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Heating were focused on Tore Supra investigations. The following subjects were presented: ohmic discharges, lower hybrid experiments, runaway electrons, Thomson scattering, plasma density measurements, magnetic fluctuations, polarization scattering, plasma currents, plasma fluctuation measurements, evaporation of hydrogen pellets in presence of fast electrons, ripple induced stochastic diffusion of trapped particles, tearing mode stabilization, edge effects on turbulence behavior, electron cyclotron heating, micro-tearing modes, divertors, limiters

  16. Two-dimensional nonlinear heat conduction wave in a layer-inhomogeneous medium and the characteristics of heat transfer in laser thermonuclear fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kov, Sergei Yu; Doskach, I Ya

    1999-01-01

    An analytical solution is obtained to the problem of propagation of a 2-D nonlinear heat conduction wave from a cylindrical energy source, which acts in a planar layer of a material surrounded by a medium with different mass density and degree of ionisation. A theoretical justification is given of several interesting phenomena of 2-D thermal wave propagation through an inhomogeneous medium. These phenomena are related to the difference between the thermal wave velocities in the media with different thermal diffusivities. When the mass density in a layer experiencing the action of an energy source exceeds the density of the surrounding medium, the thermal wave front is shown to glide along the layer boundaries with a spatial velocity exceeding the velocity of the wave inside the layer. Moreover, there is a possibility of 'themal flow' of a layer across the boundaries between the layer and the surrounding medium in front of a thermal wave propagating inside the layer. The problems of heat transfer in multilayer targets for laser thermonuclear fusion are considered as an application. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  17. Annual report of the Division of Thermonuclear Fusion Research and the Division of Large Tokamak Development for the period of April 1, 1977 to March 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    Research and development works in fiscal year 1977 of the Division of Thermonuclear Fusion Research and the Division of Large Tokamak Development are described. 1) Theoretical studies on tokamak confinement have continued with more emphasis on computations. A task was started of developing a computer code system for mhd behavior of tokamak plasmas. 2) Experimental studies of lower hybrid heating up to 140 kW were made in JFT-2. The ion temperature was increased by 50% -- 60% near the plasma center. Plasma-wall interactions (particle and thermal fluxes to the wall, and titanium gettering) were studied. In JFT-2a (DIVA) ion sputtering, arcing and evaporation were identified, and the impurity ion sputtering was found to be a dominant origin of metal impurities in the present tokamaks. High temperature and high-density plasma divertor actions were demonstrated; i.e. the divertor decreases the radiation power loss by a factor of 3 and increases the energy confinement time by a factor of 2.5. Various diagnostic instruments operated sufficiently to provide useful information for the research with JFT-2 and JFT-2a(DIVA). 3) JFT-2 and JFT-2a(DIVA) operated as scheduled. Technological improvements were made such as titanium coating of the chamber wall, discharge cleaning and pre-ionization. 4) Detailed design of the prototype JT-60 neutral beam injector was made. A 200 kW, 650 MHz radiofrequency heating system for JFT-2 was completed; a lower hybrid heating experiment in JFT-2 was successful 5) In particle-surface interactions, the sputtering and surface erosion were studied. 6) Improvement designs of a superconducting cluster test facility and a test module coil were made in the toroidal coil development. 7) Second preliminary design of the tokamak experimental fusion reactor JXFR started in April 1977. Safety analyses were made of the main components and system of JXFR on the basis of the first preliminary design. (J.P.N.)

  18. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  19. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shohei.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the plasma confining efficiency in a thermonuclear device having magnet coils using super-conducting wires by decreasing the uneven magnetic field resulted from current supply terminals and wirings. Constitution: Current introduction terminals of magnet coils using superconducting wires are short circuitted with a superconducting short circuit wire. Upon supplying current to the coils, the resistance of the coils is rendered superconductive and the resistance of the short circuit wire is rendered normally conductive heated by a heater and the switch is closed. In this case, most parts of the current are flown through the resistance of the coils and the switch is opened when the current arrives at a predetermined value to render the resistance of the short circuit wire superconductive. Then, the current transfers from the thyristor power source to the resistance of the short circuit wire, whereby the resistance of the coils and that of the short circuit wire from a permanent current loop. In this conditions, since current flows through the short circuit wire and the coils and not to the current introduction terminals, no uniform magnetic field is generated. (Kawakami, Y.)

  20. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Hirohisa; Nakamoto, Kazunari; Hanai, Satoshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To provide coils of high mechanical strength for use at the center of a torus type thermonuclear device. Constitution: A plurality of copper plates having cooling holes and bolt holes and insulation paper sheets of the same shape are prepared. The copper plate is different from the insulation paper sheet only in that the position-phase angle of the opening portion is larger by 15 - 30 0 . The copper plates and the insulation paper sheets are alternately stacked by a required number of turns while displacing the angle, and then clamped by bolts to form a mechanically strong coil with no metallurgical joining. Further, since the insulation paper sheets are not present in the radial direction and only one insulation paper sheet is inserted for each turn in the direction of the coil height, the space occupied by the coil can be decreased. According to this invention, the magnetic flux density at the center of the device can be increased as compared with the conventional case to thereby apply a higher voltage on the side of plasmas. (Moriyama, K.)

  1. Thermonuclear Runaway model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, W.M.; Kutter, G.S.; Starrfield, S.; Truran, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The nova outburst requires an energy source that is energetic enough to eject material and is able to recur. The Thermonuclear Runaway (TNR) model, coupled with the binary nature of nova systems satisfies these conditions. The white dwarf/red dwarf binary nature of novae was first recognized as a necessary conditions by Kraft. The small separation characteristic of novae systems allows the cool, red secondary to overflow is Roche lobe. In the absence of strong, funneling magnetic fields, the angular momentum of this material prevents it from falling directly onto the primary, and it first forms a disk around the white dwarf. This material is eventually accreted from the disk onto the white dwarf. As the thickness of this hydrogen-rich layer increases, the degenerate matter at the base reaches a temperature that is high enough to initiate thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen. Thermonuclear energy release increases the temperature which in turn increases the energy generation rate. Because the material is degenerate, the pressure does not increase with temperature, which normally allows a star to adjust itself to a steady nuclear burning rate. Thus the temperature and nuclear energy generation increase and a TNR results. When the temperature reaches the Fermi temperature, degeneracy is lifted and the rapid pressure increase causes material expansion. The hydrogen-rich material either is ejected or consumed by nuclear burning, and the white dwarf returns to its pre-outburst state. The external source of hydrogen fuel from the secondary allows the while process to repeat. 43 refs., 8 figs

  2. Thermonuclear reaction generation method and device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imazaki, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of and a device for causing thermonuclear reaction capable of obtaining extremely high profits (about 1000 times), capable of forming a target which is strong against instability upon implosion as a problem of an inertia process and capable of realizing utilization of nuclear fusion. Namely, elementary particles such as pion, muon and K particles are deposited a portion or some portion of thermonuclear fuel materials by using high energy ions and highly brilliant γ rays generated from a high energy accelerator. The thermonuclear fuel materials are compressed to high density. The nuclear fusion reaction is promoted to ignite and burn thermonuclear fuels. A portion of nuclear fuels is ignited selectively by the means. High profits can be obtained. Since there is no need to attain implosion rate required for self ignition of nuclear fuels, a target of low aspect ratio can be used. (I.S.)

  3. Thermonuclear reaction listing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, Yuzo

    1993-01-01

    The following 10 elements, including T, are well known as nuclear fusion fuels: p, D, T, 3 He, 4 He, 6 Li, 7 Li, 9 Be, 10 B, 11 B, ( 12 C, 13 C), where 12 C and 13 C are considered only in the calculation of Q value. Accordingly the number of the thermonuclear reactions is 55, and 78, if including carbon elements. The reactions have some branches. For the branches having two and three reaction products, the reaction products, Q value and threshold energy are calculated by using a computer. We have investigated those of the branches having more than three products from the papers of Ajzenberg-Selove and so on. And also, by the same papers, we check whether the above mentioned branch has been observed or not. The results are as follows: (I) the number of reactions which have Q 0 branches only with γ ray production, and Q 0 and neutron production is 36(17), and (IV) that of reactions whose branch with Q > 0 does not produce neutrons is 9(3). The value in the parentheses shows the number of the case of the carbon elements. For 55 thermonuclear reactions induced by lighter nuclides than 11 B, the reaction products, the values of Q and threshold energy, and the papers with reaction cross section data are presented in the tables. (author)

  4. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    40 papers are presented at this 21. conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics (JET). Titles are: effects of sawtooth crashes on beams ions and fusion product tritons; beta limits in H-modes and VH-modes; impurity induced neutralization of MeV energy protons in JET plasmas; lost α particle diagnostic for high-yield D-T fusion plasmas; 15-MeV proton emission from ICRF-heated plasmas; pulse compression radar reflectometry for density measurements; gamma-ray emission profile measurements during ICRH discharges; the new JET phase ICRH array; simulation of triton burn-up; parametric dependencies of JET electron temperature profiles; detached divertor plasmas; excitation of global Alfven Eigenmodes by RF heating; mechanisms of toroidal rotation; effect of shear in the radial electric field on confinement; plasma transport properties at the L-H transition; numerical study of plasma detachment conditions in JET divertor plasmas; the SOL width and the MHD interchange instability; non linear magnetic reconnection in low collisionality plasmas; topology and slowing down of high energy ion orbits; sawtooth crashes at high beta; fusion performances and alpha heating in future JET D-T plasmas; a stable route to high-beta plasmas with non-monotonic q-profiles; theory of propagation of changes to confinement; spatial distribution of gamma emissivity and fast ions during ICRF heating; multi-camera soft X-ray diagnostic; radiation phenomena and particle fluxes in the X-event; local measurement of transport parameters for laser injected trace impurities; impurity transport of high performance discharges; negative snakes and negative shear; neural-network charge exchange analysis; ion temperature anisotropy in helium neutral beam fuelling; impurity line emission due to thermal charge exchange in edge plasmas; control of convection by fuelling and pumping; VH mode accessibility and global H-mode properties; ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission; LHCD/ICRH synergy

  5. Thermonuclear pulsors engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Ruben F.

    2001-01-01

    The neutronic radiation has several applications, such as activation analysis of different substances, neutron radiography, molecular structures study, cancer therapy, humidity detection and materials surface treatment, among others. The main obstacle for these applications is the generation of neutronic beams. Nuclear reactors, isotopic sources and particle accelerators are neutron generators commonly used. They share the disadvantages of being non-portable, and quite expensive. This work is mainly focused on the development of neutron generators suitable to the applications mentioned before, in which traditional generators are non-applicable. The main characteristics should be transportability and to be non-contaminating, which would allow in-situ tests. Plasma focus generators, which produce neutron pulses by thermonuclear fusion reactions, satisfy these requirements and are economically convenient. This last feature would assure competitively in the neutron sources market. (author)

  6. Controlled energy generation from nuclear fusion. 60th year atw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Georg [Pintsch Bamag AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Prospects increase, that with a controlled process of nuclear fusion one day an additional nuclear energy source will be commercially exploitable. In what follows, scientific principles according to the most recent research will be presented. Since approximately 30 years we are aware of the fact, that energy in form of light and heat provided by the sun and other fixed stars since over four billions years resulted from reactions of atomic nuclei. A series of such reactions became known which are considered for 'thermonuclear' processes, for example the carbon cycle by Bethe, where hydrogen is converted into helium. Most of the reflections and experiments dealt until 1938 with the reaction between nuclei of light elements. The possibility of splitting heavy nuclei was not anticipated. Its discovery by Hahn and Strassmann was a complete surprise - so to speak a rash reaction to release energy at the end of the element row. This 'way out' captured the interest of nuclear physicist for more than a decade. Only today, by starting to construct big nuclear power plants - only today, being able to assess the possibilities and limitations of this technology, the idea of energy generation through nuclear fusion steps into the foreground of nuclear research.

  7. Atomic data for controlled fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, C.F.; Ray, J.A.; Ricci, E.; Wilker, M.I.; McDaniel, E.W.; Thomas, E.W.; Gilbody, H.B.

    1977-02-01

    Presented is an evaluated graphical and tabular compilation of atomic and molecular cross sections of interest to controlled thermonuclear research. The cross sections are tabulated and graphed as a function of energy for collision processes involving heavy particles, electrons, and photons with atoms and ions. Also included are sections on data for particle penetration through macroscopic matter, particle transport properties, particle interactions with surfaces, and pertinent charged particle nuclear cross sections and reaction rates. In most cases estimates have been made of the data accuracy

  8. Inertial-confinement fusion with lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betti, R.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2016-01-01

    The quest for controlled fusion energy has been ongoing for over a half century. The demonstration of ignition and energy gain from thermonuclear fuels in the laboratory has been a major goal of fusion research for decades. Thermonuclear ignition is widely considered a milestone in the development of fusion energy, as well as a major scientific achievement with important applications to national security and basic sciences. The U.S. is arguably the world leader in the inertial con fment approach to fusion and has invested in large facilities to pursue it with the objective of establishing the science related to the safety and reliability of the stockpile of nuclear weapons. Even though significant progress has been made in recent years, major challenges still remain in the quest for thermonuclear ignition via laser fusion

  9. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Full text: During the last decade, growing efforts have been devoted to studying the possible forms an electricity-producing thermonuclear reactor might take and the various technical problems that will have to be overcome. Previous IAEA Conferences took place in Salzburg (1961), Culham (1965), Novosibirsk (1968), Madison (1971), Tokyo (1974), Berchtesgaden (1976) and Innsbruck (1978) The exchange of information that has characterized this series of meetings is an important example of international co-operation and has contributed substantially to progress in controlled fusion research. The results of experiments in major research establishments, as well as the growing scientific insights in the field of plasma physics, give hope that the realization of nuclear fusion will be made possible on a larger scale and beyond the laboratory stage by the end of this century. The increase of the duration of existing tokamak discharges requires solution of the impurity control problem. First results from the new big machines equipped with the poloidal divertor recently came into operation. PDX (USA) and ASDEX (F.R. of Germany) show that various divertor configurations can be established and maintained and that the divertors function in the predicted manner. The reduction of high-Z impurities on these machines by a factor 10 was achieved. As a result of extensive research on radio-frequency (RF) plasma heating on tokamaks: PLT (USA), TFR (France), JFT-2 (Japan), the efficiency of this attractive method of plasma heating comparable to neutral beam heating was demonstrated. It was shown that the density of the input power of about 5-10 kW/cm 2 is achievable and this limit is high enough for application to reactor-like machines. One of the inspiring results reported at the conference was the achievement of value (the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic field pressure) of ∼ 3% on tokamaks T-11 (USSR) and ISX-B (USA). It is important to note that this value exceeds the

  10. Superconductor required for thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parain, J.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetic systems for large Tokamaks are described. The use of superconducting coils will become essential for the next generation of Tokamaks. The problems raised by these projects in the present state of superconducting magnet technology are estimated. A superconducting version of a Tokamak is described in detail and in particular, the problems encountered with the conductor design are discussed [fr

  11. Controlled Nuclear Fusion: Status and Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David J.

    1971-01-01

    Presents the history, current concerns and potential developments of nuclear fusion as a major energy source. Controlled fusion research is summarized, technological feasibility is discussed and environmental factors are examined. Relationships of alternative energy sources as well as energy utilization are considered. (JM)

  12. Plasma physics for controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, K.

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this lecture note is to present the theories and experiments of plasma physics for recent activities of controlled fusion research for graduate and senior undergraduate students. Chapters 1-6 describe the basic knowledge of plasma and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). MHD instabilities limit the beta ratio (ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure) of confined plasma. Chapters 7-9 provide the kinetic theory of hot plasma and discuss the wave heating and non-inductive current drive. The dispersion relation derived by the kinetic theory are used to discuss plasma waves and perturbed modes. Landau damping is the essential mechanism of plasma heating and the stabilization of perturbation. Landau inverse damping brings the amplification of waves and the destabilization of perturbed modes. Chapter 10 explains the plasma transport due to turbulence, which is the most important and challenging subject for plasma confinement. Theories and simulations including subject of zonal flow are introduced. Chapters 11, 12 and 13 describe the recent activities of tokamak including ITER as well as spherical tokamak, reversed field pinch (RFP) and stellarator including quasi-symmetric configurations. Emphasis has been given to tokamak research since it made the most remarkable progress and the construction phase of 'International Tokamak Experimental Reactor' called ITER has already started. (author)

  13. Thermonuclear investigation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistunovich, V.I.; Solov'ev, N.S.

    1975-01-01

    The patent situation, based mainly on a study of the situations of Great Britain, USA, France, Federal Republic of Germany and Japan from 1958 to 1974 is reviewed. Applicants have obtained around 300 patents on equipment for control of thermonuclear reactions. In the second half some decrease in the introduction of patents on high-temperature-plasma studies is noted. Multipole magnet systems for holding plasma and toroidal equipment of the takamak type have been developed recently. In the 70s, patents were published on the use of high-energy electrons for stabilization and heating of plasma in toroidal stationary systems. Starting with the mid 60s, considerable attention has been given to heating of plasma with laser radiation and to conversion of thermonuclear energy to electrical. There are 20 domestic patents on laser heating of plasma, and 75 and 45 domestic patents, respectively, on open and composite traps and 120 and 40 such patents abroad. While in the 60s equipment of different types was patented in many directions, part of which has not found further use, today work abroad is being patented basically on laser heating of plasma, toroidal magnetic systems, ion beam interference, and plasma bunching

  14. Controlled thermonuclear materials technology program. Annual progress report for period ending June 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.L.

    1975-10-01

    Detailed descriptions are given of research progress in the following areas: (1) microstructure of irradiated 316 stainless steel containing high helium concentrations, (2) temperature and fluence limitations for a type 316 stainless steel CTR first wall, (3) swelling and microstructural changes in irradiated vanadium alloys, (4) mechanical properties of irradiated V-20 wt percent Ti, (5) radiation damage calculations, (6) evaluation of irradiation facilities for CTR materials development, (7) surface studies, compatibility studies, (8) magnet development, (9) EPR design support, and (10) the influence of structural materials on fusion-reactor blanket response. (MOW)

  15. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickerton, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    On JET results were presented on additional heating power, on a recently discovered regime of enhanced pellet performance (PEP), on low-density H-mode plasma confinement with hot ions, bounds on very high electric currents by material limiters, the first experiments on lower hybrid current drive, on the L-H transition threshold dependence on the direction of the gradient-B drift, and on alpha-particle physics issues. The TFTR presentations focused on transport. Particle loss ramifications of the toroidal Alfven eigenmodes were found to be small, while their threshold of excitation is lower than theoretically predicted. On DIII-D a scaling study of transport with gyroradius as the only variable was reported, with approximately Bohm scaling emerging; but the effective heat diffusivity scaling could not be established due to profile consistency effects. While beta-limit investigations with DIII-D generally confirm the ideal, MHD limit found by Troyon, evidence of a reduction of the accessible range for the internal inductance with the safety factor seems to favour current-density control in a steady-state D-T burner. Onset of strongly sheared poloidal rotation in a thin layer during the L-H mode transition was experimentally shown, while a new, so-called VH (''very high'') confinement mode was discovered by boronization of the wall. The JT-90 tokamak has recently been upgraded to JT-60-U. Presentations by the ASDEX team summarized the lack of agreement with theory of L-mode confinement. With TEXTOR, an improved mode (I-mode) of confinement was found by boronization. Finally, reviews are included on the status of impurity transport and helium removal in tokamaks, on stellarators, alternative magnetic confinement systems, inertial confinement, and non-fusion plasma physics. 2 tabs

  16. Plasma physics for controlled fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2016-01-01

    This new edition presents the essential theoretical and analytical methods needed to understand the recent fusion research of tokamak and alternate approaches. The author describes magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic theories of cold and hot plasmas in detail. The book covers new important topics for fusion studies such as plasma transport by drift turbulence, which depend on the magnetic configuration and zonal flows. These are universal phenomena of microturbulence. They can modify the onset criterion for turbulent transport, instabilities driven by energetic particles as well as alpha particle generation and typical plasma models for computer simulation. The fusion research of tokamaks with various new versions of H modes are explained. The design concept of ITER, the international tokamak experimental reactor, is described for inductively driven operations as well as steady-state operations using non-inductive drives. Alternative approaches of reversed-field pinch and its relaxation process, stellator includi...

  17. Fusion instrumentation and control: a development strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.Y.; Greninger, R.C.; Longhurst, G.R.; Madden, P.

    1981-01-01

    We have examined requirements for a fusion instrumentation and control development program to determine where emphasis is needed. The complex, fast, and closely coupled system dynamics of fusion reactors reveal a need for a rigorous approach to the development of instrumentation and control systems. A framework for such a development program should concentrate on three principal need areas: the operator-machine interface, the data and control system architecture, and fusion compatible instruments and sensors. System dynamics characterization of the whole fusion reactor system is also needed to facilitate the implementation process in each of these areas. Finally, the future need to make the instrumentation and control system compatible with the requirements of a commercial plant is met by applying transition technology. These needs form the basis for the program tasks suggested

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory report on controlled thermonuclear reactor technology, January 1975--September 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    The PNL staff has been studying fusion technology in areas such as economics, fusion-fission hybrid concepts, materials, neutronics, environment and safety. These studies have been scoped to make efficient use of ERDA resources, and to complement and support efforts at other laboratories. The effect the plasma and associated radiation and emission will have upon the surfaces of the first wall are being studied. Neutron sputtering experiments were made on niobium and gold and the results were evaluated for absolute neutron yields. Molybdenum and vanadium were studied for effects of ion bombardment under various conditions of helium injection. Graphite cloth is being irradiated for examination of radiation effects because it is suggested for use in several CTR concepts as a shield between the plasma and the first wall. Helium effects are being studied to characterize degradation of structural metal properties. Work is progressing on absolute measurement of the electrical resistivity of insulators and the demonstration of the feasibility of producing insulating coatings by sputter deposition

  19. BOOK REVIEW: Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, F.

    2007-07-01

    This new book by Kenro Miyamoto provides an up-to-date overview of the status of fusion research and the important parts of the underlying plasma physics at a moment where, due to the start of ITER construction, an important step in fusion research has been made and many new research workers will enter the field. For them, and also for interested graduate students and physicists in other fields, the book provides a good introduction into fusion physics as, on the whole, the presentation of the material is quite appropriate for getting acquainted with the field on the basis of just general knowledge in physics. There is overlap with Miyamoto's earlier book Plasma Physics for Nuclear Fusion (MIT Press, Cambridge, USA, 1989) but only in a few sections on subjects which have not evolved since. The presentation is subdivided into two parts of about equal length. The first part, following a concise survey of the physics basis of thermonuclear fusion and of plasmas in general, covers the various magnetic configurations studied for plasma confinement (tokamak; reversed field pinch; stellarator; mirror-type geometries) and introduces the specific properties of plasmas in these devices. Plasma confinement in tokamaks is treated in particular detail, in compliance with the importance of this field in fusion research. This includes a review of the ITER concept and of the rationale for the choice of ITER's parameters. In the second part, selected topics in fusion plasma physics (macroscopic instabilities; propagation of waves; kinetic effects such as energy transfer between waves and particles including microscopic instabilities as well as plasma heating and current drive; transport phenomena induced by turbulence) are presented systematically. While the emphasis is on displaying the essential physics, deeper theoretical analysis is also provided here. Every chapter is complemented by a few related problems, but only partial hints for their solution are given. A selection of

  20. Magneized target fusion: An overview of the concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) seeks to take advantage of the reduction of thermal conductivity through the application of a strong magneticfield and thereby ease the requirements for reaching fusion conditions in a thermonuclear (TN) fusion fuel. A potentially important benefit of the strong field in the partial trapping of energetic charged particles to enhance energy deposition by the TN fusion reaction products. The essential physics is described. MTF appears to lead to fusion targets that require orders of magnitude less power and intensity for fusion ignition than currently proposed (unmagnetized) inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets do, making some very energetic pulsed power drivers attractive for realizing controlled fusion

  1. Magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project

  2. Laser Fusion: status, future, and tritium control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, P.E.

    1978-11-01

    At Livermore the 10 kJ, 20 to 30 TW Shiva facility is now operational and producing regular new fusion results. Design work has begun on a 200 to 300 TW laser designed to carry the program through the first breakeven demonstration experiments in the mid-1980's. Confidence in reaching this goal is based on the significant progress we have made in state-of-the-art, high-power Nd:glass laser technology, in experimental laser fusion and laser plasma interaction physics, and in theoretical and analytical computer codes which reliably model and predict experimental results. For all of these experiments, a variety of fusion targets are being fabricated in the laboratory, and the control and handling of tritium is now a regular and routine part of ongoing inertial fusion experiments. Target design with gains of about 1000 have been studied and the means to mass produce such pellets at low cost are also being developed

  3. Large-scale cryopumping for controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittenger, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Vacuum pumping by freezing out or otherwise immobilizing the pumped gas is an old concept. In several plasma physics experiments for controlled fusion research, cryopumping has been used to provide clean, ultrahigh vacua. Present day fusion research devices, which rely almost universally upon neutral beams for heating, are high gas throughput systems, the pumping of which is best accomplished by cryopumping in the high mass-flow, moderate-to-high vacuum regime. Cryopumping systems have been developed for neutral beam injection systems on several fusion experiments (HVTS, TFTR) and are being developed for the overall pumping of a large, high-throughput mirror containment experiment (MFTF). In operation, these large cryopumps will require periodic defrosting, some schemes for which are discussed, along with other operational considerations. The development of cryopumps for fusion reactors is begun with the TFTR and MFTF systems. Likely paths for necessary further development for power-producing reactors are also discussed

  4. Large-scale cryopumping for controlled fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittenger, L.C.

    1977-07-25

    Vacuum pumping by freezing out or otherwise immobilizing the pumped gas is an old concept. In several plasma physics experiments for controlled fusion research, cryopumping has been used to provide clean, ultrahigh vacua. Present day fusion research devices, which rely almost universally upon neutral beams for heating, are high gas throughput systems, the pumping of which is best accomplished by cryopumping in the high mass-flow, moderate-to-high vacuum regime. Cryopumping systems have been developed for neutral beam injection systems on several fusion experiments (HVTS, TFTR) and are being developed for the overall pumping of a large, high-throughput mirror containment experiment (MFTF). In operation, these large cryopumps will require periodic defrosting, some schemes for which are discussed, along with other operational considerations. The development of cryopumps for fusion reactors is begun with the TFTR and MFTF systems. Likely paths for necessary further development for power-producing reactors are also discussed.

  5. The international thermonuclear reactor (ITER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.; Henning, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    Four governmental groups, representing Europe, Japan, USSR and U.S. met in March 1987 to consider a new international design of a magnetic fusion device for the 1990's. An interim group was appointed. The author gives a brief synopsis of what might be thought of as a draft charter. The starting point is the objective of the ITER device, which is summarized as demonstrating both scientific and technical feasibility of fusion. The paper presents an update on the current thinking and technical aspects for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). This covers not only what is happening in the U.S. but also some reports of preliminary thinking of the last technical work that occurred in Vienna

  6. Magnetic fusion; La fusion magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project.

  7. NATO Advanced Study Institute entitled Physics of Plasma-Wall Interactions in Controlled Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Behrisch, R; Physics of plasma-wall interactions in controlled fusion

    1986-01-01

    Controlled thermonuclear fusion is one of the possible candidates for long term energy sources which will be indispensable for our highly technological society. However, the physics and technology of controlled fusion are extremely complex and still require a great deal of research and development before fusion can be a practical energy source. For producing energy via controlled fusion a deuterium-tritium gas has to be heated to temperatures of a few 100 Million °c corres­ ponding to about 10 keV. For net energy gain, this hot plasma has to be confined at a certain density for a certain time One pro­ mising scheme to confine such a plasma is the use of i~tense mag­ netic fields. However, the plasma diffuses out of the confining magnetic surfaces and impinges on the surrounding vessel walls which isolate the plasma from the surrounding air. Because of this plasma wall interaction, particles from the plasma are lost to the walls by implantation and are partially reemitted into the plasma. In addition, wall...

  8. Real-time control of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, B.; Sousa, J.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2010-01-01

    The next generation fusion experiments, e.g. ITER, will be highly complex and raise new challenges in the field of control and data acquisition systems. The more advanced operation scenarios have to be capable of sustaining long pulse steady-state plasma and to suppress plasma instabilities almost completely. Such scenarios will heavily rely on Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) fast control systems. To ensure safety for the operation these systems have to be robust and resilient to faults while ensuring high availability. Mindful of the importance of such features for future fusion experiments ATCA based systems have been successfully used in fusion experiment as MIMO fast controller. This is the most promising architecture to substantially enhance the performance and capability of existing standard systems delivering well high throughput as well as high availability. The real-time control needs of a fusion experiment, the rational for the presently pursued solutions, the existing problems and the broad scientific and technical questions that need to be addressed on the path to a fusion power plant will be discussed.

  9. Comparison of the recently proposed super-Marx generator approach to thermonuclear ignition with the deuterium-tritium laser fusion-fission hybrid concept by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    2009-01-01

    The recently proposed super-Marx generator pure deuterium microdetonation ignition concept is compared to the Lawrence Livermore National Ignition Facility (NIF) Laser deuterium-tritium fusion-fission hybrid concept (LIFE). In a super-Marx generator, a large number of ordinary Marx generators charge up a much larger second stage ultrahigh voltage Marx generator from which for the ignition of a pure deuterium microexplosion an intense GeV ion beam can be extracted. Typical examples of the LIFE concept are a fusion gain of 30 and a fission gain of 10, making up a total gain of 300, with about ten times more energy released into fission as compared to fusion. This means the substantial release of fission products, as in fissionless pure fission reactors. In the super-Marx approach for the ignition of pure deuterium microdetonation, a gain of the same magnitude can, in theory, be reached. If feasible, the super-Marx generator deuterium ignition approach would make lasers obsolete as a means for the ignition of thermonuclear microexplosions

  10. History of controlled nuclear fusion in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Eisui; Nishio, Shigeko; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    2001-01-01

    A research development of nuclear fusion was divided four periods: the first period as prehistory (until about 1955), the second period as begin of research (1955 to 1969), the third as the growth period (1970 to 1985) and the forth as the large tokamak age. In this paper I explained the second period, because general physicists and young plasma and controlled nuclear fusion researcher did not know about this period. The controlled nuclear fusion research was begun by the experiment of hydrogen bomb by USA and USSR in 1952 and 1953. In Japan, on the basis of many societies, 'The Controlled Nuclear Fusion Meeting' was established as an independent system and KAKEA (Journal of Fusion Research) was published in 1958. Japan government began to make the system by the Nuclear Commission in 1957. The main research devices in 1962 were linear pinch, mirror device, toroidal pinch, helical system, plasma gun and plasma measurement. USSR showed the excellent results of tokamak device in 1968. Ookawa spoke the effect of the average minimum-B, the best report in this period, at the second IAEA meeting, 1965. JAERI constructed JFT-1 and JFT-2, the latter was the first class device in the world and made the first step of Japanese research into the world, for examples, to attain the equilibrium of divertor plasma and to control impurity. Many research centers of controlled fusion were established in many universities in Japan from 1966 to 1980. Cooperation researchs between Japan and USA, USSR and many countries has been carried out after 1978: JIFT (Joint Institute for Fusion Theory) and FPPC (Fusion Power Coordinating Committee). The important results increased in this period. After 1985, the research activities are processing and data increased very fast depend on the larger devices and system, good measurement system and development of information system. JT-60 in JAERI opened to the large tokamak period. It led controlled fusion researchs in the world the same as TFTR (US

  11. Plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendrih, Ph.; Becoulet, M.; Costanzo, L.

    2000-07-01

    This report brings together all the contributions of EURATOM/CEA association to the 14. international conference on plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices. 24 papers are presented and they deal mainly with the ergodic divertor and the first wall of Tore-supra tokamak

  12. Plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghendrih, Ph.; Becoulet, M.; Costanzo, L. [and others

    2000-07-01

    This report brings together all the contributions of EURATOM/CEA association to the 14. international conference on plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices. 24 papers are presented and they deal mainly with the ergodic divertor and the first wall of Tore-supra tokamak.

  13. The ORNL Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, D.R.; Krstic, P.S.; Ownby, F.M.; Meyer, F.W.; Havener, C.C.; Bannister, M.E.; Liu, W.; Jeffery, D.J.; Stancil, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    The principal mission of the Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center is the collection evaluation, and dissemination of atomic collision data relevant to fusion energy development. With the advent of the widespread use of the World Wide Web, the data center's resources are being placed on-line to facilitate their use by end-users (cf. http://www-cfadc.phy.ornl.gov/). As this development continues, initially disparate, individually compiled resources will be transformed into integrated tools for retrieving recommended data, or displaying and manipulating the information available. The data center's present capabilities, recent data production/evaluation efforts, and goals for future development are highlighted here

  14. Computer applications in controlled fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    1975-02-01

    The role of Nuclear Engineering Education in the application of computers to controlled fusion research can be a very important one. In the near future the use of computers in the numerical modelling of fusion systems should increase substantially. A recent study group has identified five categories of computational models to study the physics of magnetically confined plasmas. A comparable number of types of models for engineering studies are called for. The development and application of computer codes to implement these models is a vital step in reaching the goal of fusion power. In order to meet the needs of the fusion program the National CTR Computer Center has been established at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. A large central computing facility is linked to smaller computing centers at each of the major CTR laboratories by a communications network. The crucial element that is needed for success is trained personnel. The number of people with knowledge of plasma science and engineering that are trained in numerical methods and computer science is quite small, and must be increased substantially in the next few years. Nuclear Engineering departments should encourage students to enter this field and provide the necessary courses and research programs in fusion computing. (U.S.)

  15. The development of controlled nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    The high temperature conditions needed in a controlled nuclear fusion reactor are now being approached in experiments using magnetic fields to confine and isolate the plasma, especially in systems of the tokamak type. The underlying reasons for the successes are discussed and it is concluded that the remaining advances needed in temperature and thermal insulation may well be achieved in new large tokamak experiments now under construction. Comparable progress is being made also in inertial confinement systems; key experiments on achieving the required super-high densities with high-powered pulsed laser systems are about to commence. To achieve fusion reactors will require the combination of three major disciplines: plasma physics, electromechanical engineering and nuclear engineering. Proposals have been made for an international study group to be set up under the IAEA auspices to consider technical objectives and the nature of the next large fusion device which could be constructed internationally, and in which this synthesis could be attempted. (author)

  16. Blanket for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Yoshihiro; Uda, Tatsuhiko; Maki, Koichi.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides a blanket of a thermonuclear device which produces tritium fuels consumed in plasmas while converting neutrons generated in the plasmas into heat energy. That is, zirconium is coated to at least one of neutron breeder pebbles and breeder pebbles, to suppress reaction between them by being in direct contact with each other at a high temperature. Further, fins are attached to a cooling pipe at a pitch smaller than the diameter of both of the pebbles, to prevent direct contact at whole surface of the pebbles and the cooling pipe, which would lower a temperature excessively. The length of the fin is controlled to control the thickness of a helium gas gap. With such constitution, direct contact of neutron breeder pebbles and the breeder pebble which are to be filled and mixed, and tend to react at a high temperature, can be prevented. The temperature of the breeding blanket is reliably prevented from lowering below a tritium emitting temperature. The structure is simplified and the production is facilitated. (I.S.)

  17. Maryland controlled fusion research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, H.R.; Liu, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize the technical progress in four major areas of tokamak research: (a) L/H transition and edge turbulence and transport; (b) active control of microturbulence and transport; (c) major disruptions; and (d) the sawtooth crash

  18. Fast fission assisted ignition of thermonuclear microexplosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the requirements for fast ignition of thermonuclear microexplosions can be substantially relaxed if the deuterium-tritium (DT) hot spot is placed inside a shell of U-238 (Th-232). An intense laser - or particle beam-projected into the shell leads to a large temperature gradient between the hot DT and the cold U-238 (Th-232), driving thermomagnetic currents by the Nernst effect, with magnetic fields large enough to entrap within the hot spot the α-particles of the DT fusion reaction. The fast fission reactions in the U-238 (Th-232) shell implode about 1/2 of the shell onto the DT, increasing its density and reaction rate. With the magnetic field generated by the Nernst effect, there is no need to connect the target to a large current carrying transmission line, as it is required for magnetized target fusion, solving the so-called ''stand off'' problem for thermonuclear microexplosions. (orig.)

  19. Merging white dwarfs and thermonuclear supernovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kerkwijk, M H

    2013-06-13

    Thermonuclear supernovae result when interaction with a companion reignites nuclear fusion in a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, causing a thermonuclear runaway, a catastrophic gain in pressure and the disintegration of the whole white dwarf. It is usually thought that fusion is reignited in near-pycnonuclear conditions when the white dwarf approaches the Chandrasekhar mass. I briefly describe two long-standing problems faced by this scenario, and the suggestion that these supernovae instead result from mergers of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, including those that produce sub-Chandrasekhar-mass remnants. I then turn to possible observational tests, in particular, those that test the absence or presence of electron captures during the burning.

  20. Divertor, thermonuclear device and method of neutralizing high temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Hideo.

    1995-01-01

    The thermonuclear device comprises a thermonuclear reactor for taking place fusion reactions to emit fusion plasmas, and a divertor made of a hydrogen occluding material, and the divertor is disposed at a position being in contact with the fusion plasmas after nuclear fusion reaction. The divertor is heated by fusion plasmas after nuclear fusion reaction, and hydrogen is released from the hydrogen occluding material as a constituent material. A gas blanket is formed by the released hydrogen to cool and neutralize the supplied high temperature nuclear fusion plasmas. This prevents the high temperature plasmas from hitting against the divertor, elimination of the divertor by melting and evaporation, and solve a problem of processing a divertor activated by neutrons. In addition, it is possible to utilize hydrogen isotopes of fuels effectively and remove unnecessary helium. Inflow of impurities from out of the system can also be prevented. (N.H.)

  1. Fusion energy research for ITER and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, Francesco; Laxaaback, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The achievement in the last two decades of controlled fusion in the laboratory environment is opening the way to the realization of fusion as a source of sustainable, safe and environmentally responsible energy. The next step towards this goal is the construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which aims to demonstrate net fusion energy production on the reactor scale. This paper reviews the current status of magnetic confinement fusion research in view of the ITER project and provides an overview of the main remaining challenges on the way towards the realization of commercial fusion energy production in the second half of this century. (orig.)

  2. Plasma physics for controlled fusion. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2016-08-01

    This new edition presents the essential theoretical and analytical methods needed to understand the recent fusion research of tokamak and alternate approaches. The author describes magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic theories of cold and hot plasmas in detail. The book covers new important topics for fusion studies such as plasma transport by drift turbulence, which depend on the magnetic configuration and zonal flows. These are universal phenomena of microturbulence. They can modify the onset criterion for turbulent transport, instabilities driven by energetic particles as well as alpha particle generation and typical plasma models for computer simulation. The fusion research of tokamaks with various new versions of H modes are explained. The design concept of ITER, the international tokamak experimental reactor, is described for inductively driven operations as well as steady-state operations using non-inductive drives. Alternative approaches of reversed-field pinch and its relaxation process, stellator including quasi-symmetric system, open-end system of tandem mirror and inertial confinement are also explained. Newly added and updated topics in this second edition include zonal flows, various versions of H modes, and steady-state operations of tokamak, the design concept of ITER, the relaxation process of RFP, quasi-symmetric stellator, and tandem mirror. The book addresses graduate students and researchers in the field of controlled fusion.

  3. Plasma physics for controlled fusion. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2016-01-01

    This new edition presents the essential theoretical and analytical methods needed to understand the recent fusion research of tokamak and alternate approaches. The author describes magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic theories of cold and hot plasmas in detail. The book covers new important topics for fusion studies such as plasma transport by drift turbulence, which depend on the magnetic configuration and zonal flows. These are universal phenomena of microturbulence. They can modify the onset criterion for turbulent transport, instabilities driven by energetic particles as well as alpha particle generation and typical plasma models for computer simulation. The fusion research of tokamaks with various new versions of H modes are explained. The design concept of ITER, the international tokamak experimental reactor, is described for inductively driven operations as well as steady-state operations using non-inductive drives. Alternative approaches of reversed-field pinch and its relaxation process, stellator including quasi-symmetric system, open-end system of tandem mirror and inertial confinement are also explained. Newly added and updated topics in this second edition include zonal flows, various versions of H modes, and steady-state operations of tokamak, the design concept of ITER, the relaxation process of RFP, quasi-symmetric stellator, and tandem mirror. The book addresses graduate students and researchers in the field of controlled fusion.

  4. Sawtooth control in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, J P; Angioni, C; Budny, R V; Buttery, R J; Coda, S; Eriksson, L-G; Gimblett, C G; Goodman, T P; Hastie, R J; Henderson, M A; Koslowski, H R; Mantsinen, M J; Martynov, An; Mayoral, M-L; Mueck, A; Nave, M F F; Sauter, O; Westerhof, E

    2005-01-01

    Clear observations of early triggering of neo-classical tearing modes by sawteeth with long quiescent periods have motivated recent efforts to control, and in particular destabilize, sawteeth. One successful approach explored in TCV utilizes electron cyclotron heating in order to locally increase the current penetration time in the core. The latter is also achieved in various machines by depositing electron cyclotron current drive or ion cyclotron current drive close to the q = 1 rational surface. Crucially, localized current drive also succeeds in destabilizing sawteeth which are otherwise stabilized by a co-existing population of energetic trapped ions in the core. In addition, a recent reversed toroidal field campaign at JET demonstrates that counter-neutral beam injection (NBI) results in shorter sawtooth periods than in the Ohmic regime. The clear dependence of the sawtooth period on the NBI heating power and the direction of injection also manifests itself in terms of the toroidal plasma rotation, which consequently requires consideration in the theoretical interpretation of the experiments. Another feature of NBI, expected to be especially evident in the negative ion based neutral beam injection (NNBI) heating planned for ITER, is the parallel velocity asymmetry of the fast ion population. It is predicted that a finite orbit effect of asymmetrically distributed circulating ions could strongly modify sawtooth stability. Furthermore, NNBI driven current with non-monotonic profile could significantly slow down the evolution of the safety factor in the core, thereby delaying sawteeth

  5. Sawtooth control in fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, J. P.; Angioni, C.; Budny, R. V.; Buttery, R. J.; Coda, S.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Gimblett, C. G.; Goodman, T. P.; Hastie, R. J.; Henderson, M. A.; Koslowski, H. R.; Mantsinen, M. J.; Martynov, An; Mayoral, M.-L.; Mück, A.; Nave, M. F. F.; Sauter, O.; Westerhof, E.; Contributors, JET–EFDA

    2005-12-01

    Clear observations of early triggering of neo-classical tearing modes by sawteeth with long quiescent periods have motivated recent efforts to control, and in particular destabilize, sawteeth. One successful approach explored in TCV utilizes electron cyclotron heating in order to locally increase the current penetration time in the core. The latter is also achieved in various machines by depositing electron cyclotron current drive or ion cyclotron current drive close to the q = 1 rational surface. Crucially, localized current drive also succeeds in destabilizing sawteeth which are otherwise stabilized by a co-existing population of energetic trapped ions in the core. In addition, a recent reversed toroidal field campaign at JET demonstrates that counter-neutral beam injection (NBI) results in shorter sawtooth periods than in the Ohmic regime. The clear dependence of the sawtooth period on the NBI heating power and the direction of injection also manifests itself in terms of the toroidal plasma rotation, which consequently requires consideration in the theoretical interpretation of the experiments. Another feature of NBI, expected to be especially evident in the negative ion based neutral beam injection (NNBI) heating planned for ITER, is the parallel velocity asymmetry of the fast ion population. It is predicted that a finite orbit effect of asymmetrically distributed circulating ions could strongly modify sawtooth stability. Furthermore, NNBI driven current with non-monotonic profile could significantly slow down the evolution of the safety factor in the core, thereby delaying sawteeth.

  6. Annual report of Division of Thermonuclear Fusion Research and Division of Large Tokamak Development for the period of April 1, 1976 to March 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    Research and development activities in the two divisions are closely related. 1) Theoretical and computational studies continued on tokamak confinement and heating related to experimental problems. Studies on NBI heating in JT-60 were completed. 2) Experimental studies on impurities, density control and effects of density fluctuations were made in JFT-2. Neutral beams up to 30 keV and 8 A were injected into JFT-2 plasma perpendicularly. The ion temperature was increased by 10% - 15%, which is in agreement with the prediction by classical Fokker-Planck theory. In JFT-2a(DIVA), plasma-wall interaction (behavior of heavy and light impurities) was studies. The divertor of DIVA reduced the plasma-wall interaction and hence the radiation loss due to heavy impurities by a factor of 3. A grazing-incidence vacuum monochromator was first used in impurity studies in JFT-2 and JFT-2a. 3) Technological improvements were made raising efficiencies of operation, maintenance and plasma research. 4) Neutral beam injector test stand ITS-2 of 100 keV was completed. Construction of a 200 kW, 650 MHz radiofrequency heating system for JFT-2 was started. 5) Sputterings of molybdenum and pyrolytic graphite by low-energy protons and chemical reaction rates of pyrolytic graphite with protons were measured. Honeycomb structure greatly reduced the sputtered particles. 6) The superconducting magnet development group made the design of cluster test apparatus and the development of large current superconductor. 7) Phase-I preliminary design of experimental fusion reactor JXFR was completed and preliminary safety evaluation of JXFR was made. 8) Detailed design of JT-60 was completed in November 1976. Engineering development contracts were all completed by March 1977. 9) Engineering studies and tests on critical components of JT-4 with non-circular plasma cross section and divertors were made, after the preliminary design in fiscal year 1975. (auth.)

  7. Processing of W-Cu functionally graded materials (FGM) through the powder metallurgy route: application as plasma facing components for ITER-like thermonuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raharijaona, J.J.

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to study and optimize the sintering of W-Cu graded composition materials, for first wall of ITER-like thermonuclear reactor application. The graded composition in the material generates graded functional properties (Functionally Graded Materials - FGM). Rough thermomechanical calculations have shown the interest of W-Cu FGM to improve the lifetime of Plasma Facing Components (PFC). To process W-Cu FGM, powder metallurgy route was analyzed and optimized from W-CuO powder mixtures. The influence of oxide reduction on the sintering of powder mixtures was highlighted. An optimal heating treatment under He/H 2 atmosphere was determined. The sintering mechanisms were deduced from the analysis of the effect of the Cu-content. Sintering of W-Cu materials with a graded composition and grain size has revealed two liquid migration steps: i) capillary migration, after the Cu-melting and, ii) expulsion of liquid, at the end of sintering, from the dense part to the porous part, due to the continuation of W-skeleton sintering. These two steps were confirmed by a model based on capillary pressure calculation. In addition, thermal conductivity measurements were conducted on sintered parts and showed values which gradually increase with the Cu-content. Hardness tests on a polished cross-section in the bulk are consistent with the composition profiles obtained and the differential grain size. (author)

  8. Important problems of future thermonuclear reactors*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadowski Marek J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns important and difficult problems connected with a design and construction of thermonuclear reactors, which have to use nuclear fusion reactions of heavy isotopes of hydrogen, i.e., deuterium (D and tritium (T. There are described conditions in which such reactions can occur, and different methods of a high-temperature plasma generation, i.e., high-current electrical discharges, intense microwave pulses, and injection of energetic neutral atoms (NBI. There are also presented experimental facilities which can contain hot plasma for an appropriate period, and particularly so-called tokamaks. The second part presents the technical problems which must be solved in order to build a thermonuclear reactor, that might be used for energetic purposes. There are considered problems connected with a choice of constructional materials for a vacuum chamber, its internal parts, external windings generating a magnetic field, and necessary shields. The next part considers the handling of radioactive tritium; the using of alpha particles (4He for additional heating of plasma; recuperation of hydrogen isotopes absorbed in the tokamak internal parts, and a removal of a helium excess. There is presented a scheme of a future thermonuclear power plant and critical comments on a road map which should enable the construction of an industrial thermonuclear reactor (DEMO.

  9. Remote control of a fusion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schissel, D.P. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)], E-mail: schissel@fusion.gat.com; Abla, G.; Humphreys, D.A.; Penaflor, B.G.; Sammuli, B.S.; Walker, M.L. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Magnetic fusion experiments keep growing in size and complexity resulting in a concurrent growth in collaboration between experimental sites and laboratories worldwide. This scientific collaboration activity is strong at existing experimental sites, is a major element of machines just coming on line, and is also a thrust of experiments that will come on line in the next decade. Computer science research into enhancing the ability to scientifically participate in a fusion experiment remotely has been growing in size in an attempt to better address the needs of fusion scientists worldwide. The natural progression of this research is to examine how to move from remote scientific participation to remote hardware control. This paper examines the challenges associated with remote experimental device control and proposes a solution based on a semantic approach that defines a Gatekeeper software system that will be the only channel of interaction for incoming requests to the experimental site. The role of the Gatekeeper is to validate the identification and access privilege of the requestor and to ensure the validity of the proposed request. The Gatekeeper will be a modular system, transparent to end-users, and allow a high volume of activity.

  10. Remote control of a fusion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schissel, D.P.; Abla, G.; Humphreys, D.A.; Penaflor, B.G.; Sammuli, B.S.; Walker, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic fusion experiments keep growing in size and complexity resulting in a concurrent growth in collaboration between experimental sites and laboratories worldwide. This scientific collaboration activity is strong at existing experimental sites, is a major element of machines just coming on line, and is also a thrust of experiments that will come on line in the next decade. Computer science research into enhancing the ability to scientifically participate in a fusion experiment remotely has been growing in size in an attempt to better address the needs of fusion scientists worldwide. The natural progression of this research is to examine how to move from remote scientific participation to remote hardware control. This paper examines the challenges associated with remote experimental device control and proposes a solution based on a semantic approach that defines a Gatekeeper software system that will be the only channel of interaction for incoming requests to the experimental site. The role of the Gatekeeper is to validate the identification and access privilege of the requestor and to ensure the validity of the proposed request. The Gatekeeper will be a modular system, transparent to end-users, and allow a high volume of activity.

  11. Thermonuclear reaction rates. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.J.; Fowler, W.A.; Caughlan, G.R.; Zimmerman, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    Stellar thermonuclear reaction rates are revised and updated, adding a number of new important reaction rates. Several reactions with large negative Q-values are included, and examples of them are discussed. The importance of the decay rates for Mg-26(p,n) exp 26 Al and Al-26(n,p) exp 26 Mg for stellar studies is emphasized. 19 references

  12. Resonant thermonuclear reaction rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubold, H.J.; Mathai, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Basic physical principles for the resonant and nonresonant thermonuclear reaction rates are applied to find their standard representations for nuclear astrophysics. Closed-form representations for the resonant reaction rate are derived in terms of Meijer's G-function. Analytic representations of the resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction rates are compared and the appearance of Meijer's G-function is discussed in physical terms

  13. BOOK REVIEW: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Marco

    1998-04-01

    Professor Kenro Miyamoto, already well known for his textbook Plasma Physics for Nuclear Fusion (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1976; revised edition 1989), has now published a new book entitled Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (Iwanami Book Service Center, Tokyo, 1997). To a large extent, the new book is a somewhat shortened and well reorganized version of its predecessor. The style, concise and matter of fact, clearly shows the origin of the text in lectures given by the author to graduate students. As announced by the title, the book is divided into two parts: the first part (about 250 pages) is a general introduction to the physics of plasmas, while the second, somewhat shorter, part (about 150 pages), is devoted to a description of the most important experimental approaches to achieving controlled thermonuclear fusion. Even in the first part, moreover, the choice of subjects is consistently oriented towards the needs of fusion research. Thus, the introduction to the behaviour of charged particles (particle motion, collisions, etc.) and to the collective description of plasmas is quite short, although the reader will get a flavour of all the most important topics and will find a number of examples chosen for their relevance to fusion applications (only the presentation of the Vlasov equation, in the second section of Chapter 4, might be criticized as so concise as to be almost misleading, since the difference between microscopic and macroscopic fields is not even mentioned). Considerably more space is devoted to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description of equilibrium and stability. This part includes the solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation for circular tokamaks, a brief discussion of Pfirsch-Schlüter, neoclassical and anomalous diffusion, and two relatively long chapters on the most important ideal and resistive MHD instabilities of toroidal plasmas; drift and ion temperature gradient driven instabilities are also briefly presented. The

  14. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsonis, K.

    1983-05-01

    This bulletin deals with atomic and molecular data for fusion. Work in progress is briefly reported (charge exchange of slow ionized ions with neutral gases, cross section for electron impact ionization of Alt). The bulletin contains a list of references covering the years 1981, 1982 and 1983 for publications on controlled thermonuclear fusion and plasma physics

  15. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsonis, K.

    1982-09-01

    This bulletin deals with atomic and molecular data for fusion. A bibliography for the most recent data presented in the document is provided. The bulletin contains a list of references covering the year 1982 for all the publications on controlled thermonuclear fusion and plasma physics

  16. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1988. V.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Volume 3 of the proceedings of the twelfth international conference on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion, held in Nice, France, 12-19 October, 1988, contains papers presented on inertial fusion. Direct and indirect laser implosion experiments, programs of laser construction, computer modelling of implosions and resulting plasmas, and light ion beam fusion experiments are discussed. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Plasma Surface interaction in Controlled fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    The subjects presented in the 9th conference on plasma surface interaction in controlled fusion devices were: the modifications of power scrape-off-length and power deposition during various configurations in Tore Supra plasmas; the effects observed in ergodic divertor experiments in Tore-Supra; the diffuse connexion induced by the ergodic divertor and the topology of the heat load patterns on the plasma facing components in Tore-Supra; the study of the influence of air exposure on graphite implanted by low energy high density deuterium plasma

  18. Fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of thermonuclear fusion devices currently under development are reviewed for an electric utilities management audience. Overall design features of laser fusion, tokamak, and magnetic mirror type reactors are described and illustrated. Thrusts and trends in current research on these devices that promise to improve performance are briefly reviewed. Twenty photographs and drawings are included

  19. Prospects of the practical use of controlled fusion with plasma magnetic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovin, I.N.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of energy power development reveals, that fossil fuel - gas, oil, coal - will be depleted in the coming century. To-day there are still no ways of economically efficient full-scale usage of solar energy. Energy power based on division of heavy nuclei causes concern linked with unavoidable accumulation of long-lived radioactive wastes. Thermonuclear power is essentially safe, but application of deuterium fusion with tritium faces invincible difficulties linked with radiation damages of materials. Deuterium fusion with helium-3 solves this problem and opens favourable horizon for development of energy power, which is by 10 5 -10 6 time safer, than modern nuclear reactors. Author does not see any other way to provide mankind with fuel for coming centuries than, to mine helium-3 in the Moon which is technically workable and attracts attenuation to urgency of comprehensive - theoretical, experimental, design -development of efforts linked with D 3 He thermonuclear fusion

  20. Blankets for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Koichi; Fukumoto, Hideshi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To produce tritium more than consumed, through thermonuclear reaction. Constitution: The energy spectrum of neutron generated by neutron multiplying reaction in a neutron multiplying blanket and moderated neutrons has a large ratio in a low energy section. In the low-energy absorption region of stainless steel which is a material of cooling pipes constituting a neutron multiplying blanket cooling channel, the neutrons are absorbed, lessening the neutron multiplying effect. To prevent this, the neutron multiplying blanket cooling channel is covered with tritium breeding blankets, thereby enabling the production of a substantially great amount of tritium more than the amount of tritium to be consumed by the thermonuclear reaction by preventing neutron absorption by the component materials of the cooling channel, improving the tritium breeding ratio by 20 to 25 %, and increasing the efficiency of use of neutrons for tritium generation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  1. Dispersion interferometer for controlled fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drachev, V.P.; Krasnikov, Yu.I.; Bagryansky, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    A common feature in interferometry is the presence of two independent optical channels. Since wave phase in a medium depends on the geometrical path, polarization and radiation frequency, respectively, one can distinguish three types of interferometric schemes when the channels are geometrically separated, or separation occurs in polarizations or radiation frequencies. We have developed a measurement scheme based on a dispersion interferometer (DI) for plasma diagnostics in the experiments on controlled fusion. DI optical channels have the same geometrical path and are separated in radiation frequency. Use of a common optical path causes the main advantage of the DI technique - low sensitivity to vibrations of optical elements. The use of the DI technique for diagnostics of a laser spark in air and of arc discharges has shown its essential advantages as compared to classical interferometers. Interest in the DI technique from the viewpoint of its application in controlled fusion devices is determined also generated by the possibility of developing a compact multichannel interferometer not requiring a vibration isolation structure. (author) 14 refs., 3 figs

  2. Modular control of fusion power heating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demers, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    This work is motivated by the growing demand for auxiliary heating on small and large machines worldwide. Numerous present and planned RF experiments (EBW, Lower Hybrid, ICRF, and ECH) are increasingly complex systems. The operational challenges are indicative of a need for components of real-time control that can be implemented with a moderate amount of effort in a time- and cost-effective fashion. Such a system will improve experimental efficiency, enhance experimental quality, and expedite technological advancements. The modular architecture of this control-suite serves multiple purposes. It facilitates construction on various scales from single to multiple controller systems. It enables expandability of control from basic to complex via the addition of modules with varying functionalities. It simplifies the control implementation process by reducing layers of software and electronic development. While conceived with fusion applications in mind, this suite has the potential to serve a broad range of scientific and industrial applications. During the Phase-I research effort we established the overall feasibility of this modular control-suite concept. We developed the fundamental modules needed to implement open-loop active-control and demonstrated their use on a microwave power deposition experiment

  3. Laser induced sonofusion: A new road toward thermonuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadighi-Bonabi, Rasoul, E-mail: Sadighi@sharif.ir [Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-91, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gheshlaghi, Maryam [Payame noor University, P.O. Box 19395-3697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Laser and optics research school, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRL), P.O. Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The Possibility of the laser assisted sonofusion is studied via single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) in Deuterated acetone (C{sub 3}D{sub 6}O) using quasi-adiabatic and hydro-chemical simulations at the ambient temperatures of 0 and −28.5 °C. The interior temperature of the produced bubbles in Deuterated acetone is 1.6 × 10{sup 6} K in hydro-chemical model and it is reached up to 1.9 × 10{sup 6} K in the laser induced SBSL bubbles. Under these circumstances, temperature up to 10{sup 7} K can be produced in the center of the bubble in which the thermonuclear D-D fusion reactions are promising under the controlled conditions.

  4. Effect of plasma physics on choices of first wall materials and structures for a thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Impurity ions adversely affect the behavior of present-day tokamaks, and control of impurities is expected to be a key element in determining the feasibility of thermonuclear fusion reactors. The plasma-surface interactions for tokamaks and several techniques for controlling impurities are described. The plasma-surface problem of next generation devices PLT, PDX, DIII and TFTR is expected to be similar to those encountered in a reactor. For these devices calculations indicate that most of the particle energy efflux will be in the 1 keV region. Ironically this energy region has not yet been investigated thoroughly by the surface physicists

  5. Magnetic Reconnection Driven by Thermonuclear Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, R.; Coppi, B.

    2017-10-01

    Considering that fusion reaction products (e.g. α-particles) deposit their energy on the electrons, the relevant thermal energy balance equation is characterized by a fusion source term, a relatively large longitudinal thermal conductivity and an appropriate transverse thermal conductivity. Then, looking for modes that are radially localized around rational surfaces, reconnected field configurations are found that can be sustained by the electron thermal energy source due to fusion reactions. Then this process can be included in the category of endogenous reconnection processes and may be viewed as a form of the thermonuclear instability that can develop in an ignited inhomogeneous plasma. A complete analysis of the equations supporting the relevant theory is reported. Sponsored in part by the U.S. DoE.

  6. Thermonuclear burn criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oost, van G.; Jaspers, R.J.E.

    2012-01-01

    After more than 50 years of fusion research the time has arrived when fusion processes in experimental plasmas are increasingly getting important. In JET the genuine fuel (deuterium-tritium) of a fusion reactor was used for the first time in late 1991, in TFTR the same happened in 1993, and in JET

  7. Introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Francis F

    1984-01-01

    This complete introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion by one of the pioneering scientists in this expanding field offers both a simple and intuitive discussion of the basic concepts of this subject and an insight into the challenging problems of current research. In a wholly lucid manner the work covers single-particle motions, fluid equations for plasmas, wave motions, diffusion and resistivity, Landau damping, plasma instabilities and nonlinear problems. For students, this outstanding text offers a painless introduction to this important field; for teachers, a large collection of problems; and for researchers, a concise review of the fundamentals as well as original treatments of a number of topics never before explained so clearly. This revised edition contains new material on kinetic effects, including Bernstein waves and the plasma dispersion function, and on nonlinear wave equations and solitons.

  8. 8th International School of Fusion Reactor Technology "Ettore Majorana"

    CERN Document Server

    Leotta, G G; Muon-catalyzed fusion and fusion with polarized nuclei

    1988-01-01

    The International School of Fusion Reactor Technology started its courses 15 years ago and since then has mantained a biennial pace. Generally, each course has developed the subject which was announced in advance at the closing of the previous course. The subject to which the present proceedings refer was chosen in violation of that rule so as to satisfy the recent and diffuse interest in cold fusion among the main European laboratories involved in controlled thermonuclear research (CTR). In the second half of 1986 we started to prepare a workshop aimed at assessing the state of the art and possibly of the perspectives of muon- catalyzed fusion. Research in this field has recently produced exciting experimental results open to important practical applications. We thought it worthwhile to consider also the beneficial effects and problems of the polarization ofthe nuclei in both cold and thermonuclear fusion. In preparing the 8th Course on Fusion Reactor Technology, it was necessary to abandon the tradi...

  9. Department of Thermonuclear Research annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.; Pawlowicz, W.

    1994-01-01

    Department of Thermonuclear Research Annual Report 1993 presents a short review of theoretical, experimental and technological studies performed within the framework of the research program - Plasma Physics. Theoretical studies of a tokamak edge plasma, inner shell ionization by positrons, heat transfer in thin foils, and numerical simulation of HV pulse generators, are summarized. Experimental studies of X-rays and charged particles (including fusion protons) emitted from Plasma-Focus facilities, as well as measurements of plasma-ion streams generated by IONOTRON devices, are described shortly. Also presented are technological studies on data acquisition systems and material engineering, in particular the modification of solid surfaces with the plasma-ion streams. (author)

  10. Department of Thermonuclear Research annual report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, M; Pawlowicz, W [eds.; Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Department of Thermonuclear Research Annual Report 1993 presents a short review of theoretical, experimental and technological studies performed within the framework of the research program - Plasma Physics. Theoretical studies of a tokamak edge plasma, inner shell ionization by positrons, heat transfer in thin foils, and numerical simulation of HV pulse generators, are summarized. Experimental studies of X-rays and charged particles (including fusion protons) emitted from Plasma-Focus facilities, as well as measurements of plasma-ion streams generated by IONOTRON devices, are described shortly. Also presented are technological studies on data acquisition systems and material engineering, in particular the modification of solid surfaces with the plasma-ion streams. (author).

  11. Closed loop control of the sawtooth instability in nuclear fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvoet, G.; Steinbuch, M.; Westerhof, E.; Doelman, N.J.; Baar, de M.R.

    2010-01-01

    In nuclear fusion the sawtooth instability is an important plasma phenomenon, having both positive and negative effects on the tokamak plasma. Control of its period is essential in future nuclear fusion reactors. This paper presents a control oriented model of the sawtooth instability, with current

  12. Genetically Controlled Fusion, Exocytosis and Fission of Artificial Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bönzli, Eva; Hadorn, Maik; De Lucrezia, Davide

    if a special class of viral proteins, termed fusogenic peptides, were added to the external medium. In the present work, we intend to develop genetically controlled fusion, fission and exocytosis of vesicles by the synthesis of peptides within vesicles. First, we enclosed synthesized peptides in vesicles...... to induce in a next step fusion of adjacent vesicles, fission and exocytosis of nested vesicles. Second, we will replace the peptides by an enclosed cell-free expression system to internally synthesize fusion peptides. To control the gene expression, different mechanisms are available, e.g. addition...... fusion, fission and exocytosis....

  13. Inertia thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madarame, Haruki; Nakamura, Norio; Oomura, Hiroshi.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To enable effective recovery of the thermonuclear reaction energy and effective protection of a cylinder metal against thermal destruction by forming a uniform and stable liquid metal wall to the inside of a cylindrical member. Constitution: Cylindrical body having a lateral axis is rotatably supported so that a liquid metal wall for use in the wet wall type thermonuclear device is formed centrifugally. A liquid metal injection port for injecting the liquid metal to the cylindrical member is disposed to the lateral axis and a liquid metal exit for flowing out the injected liquid metal is disposed to the body of the cylindrical member, so as to form a moving liquid metal layer flowing from the injection port through the inner circumferential surface of the cylindrical member to the liquid metal exit port. Then, the liquid metal is centrifugally forced to the inner surface of the cylindrical body to form a uniform and stable liquid metal wall at the inner surface of the cylindrical body, whereby the reaction energy can effectively be recovered and the cylinder metal can effectively be protected against thermal destruction. (Yoshihara, H.)

  14. Research into controlled fusion in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacek, F.

    1992-01-01

    During the thirty years of tokamak research, physicists have been approaching step by step the reactor breakeven condition defined by the Lawson criterion. JET, the European Community tokamak is probably the first candidate among the world largest tokamaks to reach the ignition threshold and thus to demonstrate the physical feasibility of thermonuclear reaction. The record plasma parameters achieved in JET at H plasma modes due to powerful additional plasma heating and due to substantial reduction of plasma impurities, opened the door to the first experiment with a deuterium-tritium plasma. In the paper, the conditions and results of these tritium experiments are described in detail. The prospects of the world tokamak research and of the participation of Czechoslovak physicists are also discussed. (J.U.) 3 figs., 6 refs

  15. Evaluation of the long-term program plans of the US Division of Controlled Thermonuclear Research. Progress report No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, S.P.; Vanston, J.H. Jr.

    As part of the Partitive Analytical Forecasting (PAF) technique, the Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERTS) IIIZ computer code is used to perform simulations on a logic network describing the DCTR long-term program plan. Logic networks describing the tokamak, mirror, and theta-pinch developments are simulated individually and then together to form an overall DCTR program network. The results of the simulation of the overall network using various funding schemes and strategies are presented. An economic sensitivity analysis is provided for the tokamak logic networks. An analysis is also performed of the fusion-fission hybrid concept in the context of the present DCTR goals

  16. Fusion Control of Flexible Logic Control and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the basic physical meaning of error E and error variety EC, this paper analyzes the logical relationship between them and uses Universal Combinatorial Operation Model in Universal Logic to describe it. Accordingly, a flexible logic control method is put forward to realize effective control on multivariable nonlinear system. In order to implement fusion control with artificial neural network, this paper proposes a new neuron model of Zero-level Universal Combinatorial Operation in Universal Logic. And the artificial neural network of flexible logic control model is implemented based on the proposed neuron model. Finally, stability control, anti-interference control of double inverted-pendulum system, and free walking of cart pendulum system on a level track are realized, showing experimentally the feasibility and validity of this method.

  17. Control of tritium permeation through fusion reactor strucural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroni, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to provide a brief synopsis of the status of understanding and technology pertaining to the dissolution and permeation of tritium in fusion reactor materials. The following sections of this paper attempt to develop a simple perspective for understanding the consequences of these phenomena and the nature of the technical methodology being contemplated to control their impact on fusion reactor operation. Considered in order are: (1) the occurrence of tritium in the fusion fuel cycle, (2) a set of tentative criteria to guide the analysis of tritium containment and control strategies, (3) the basic mechanisms by which tritium may be released from a fusion plant, and (4) the methods currently under development to control the permeation-related release mechanisms. To provide background and support for these considerations, existing solubility and permeation data for the hydrogen isotopes are compared and correlated under conditions to be expected in fusion reactor systems

  18. Introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Francis F

    2016-01-01

    The third edition of this classic text presents a complete introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion, written by one of the pioneering scientists in this expanding field.  It offers both a simple and intuitive discussion of the basic concepts of the subject matter and an insight into the challenging problems of current research. This outstanding text offers students a painless introduction to this important field; for teachers, a large collection of problems; and for researchers, a concise review of the fundamentals as well as original treatments of a number of topics never before explained so clearly.  In a wholly lucid manner the second edition covered charged-particle motions, plasmas as fluids, kinetic theory, and nonlinear effects.  For the third edition, two new chapters have been added to incorporate discussion of more recent advances in the field.  The new chapter 9 on Special Plasmas covers non-neutral plasmas, pure electron plasmas, solid and ultra-cold plasmas, pair-ion plasmas, d...

  19. Developments in plasma physics and controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    Some developments in plasma physics over the past twenty years are considered from the theoretical physics standpoint under the headings; oscillations, waves and instabilities, plasma turbulence, basic kinetic theory, and developments in fusion. (UK)

  20. The European programme for controlled nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This illustrated document is intended for information only and should not be used as a technical reference. The nuclear fusion reactors are presented with the two approaches: magnetic confinement and inertial confinement; are described: the place of fusion in the world energy scene and its importance for Europe, how research is at present organized, and the European programme with this next stage: the JET (Joint European Torus), the largest tokamak machine in Europe

  1. Vesicle fusion with bilayer lipid membrane controlled by electrostatic interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azusa Oshima

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The fusion of proteoliposomes is a promising approach for incorporating membrane proteins in artificial lipid membranes. In this study, we employed an electrostatic interaction between vesicles and supported bilayer lipid membranes (s-BLMs to control the fusion process. We combined large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs containing anionic lipids, which we used instead of proteoliposomes, and s-BLMs containing cationic lipids to control electrostatic interaction. Anionic LUVs were never adsorbed or ruptured on the SiO2 substrate with a slight negative charge, and selectively fused with cationic s-BLMs. The LUVs can be fused effectively to the target position. Furthermore, as the vesicle fusion proceeds and some of the positive charges are neutralized, the attractive interaction weakens and finally the vesicle fusion saturates. In other words, we can control the number of LUVs fused with s-BLMs by controlling the concentration of the cationic lipids in the s-BLMs. The fluidity of the s-BLMs after vesicle fusion was confirmed to be sufficiently high. This indicates that the LUVs attached to the s-BLMs were almost completely fused, and there were few intermediate state vesicles in the fusion process. We could control the position and amount of vesicle fusion with the s-BLMs by employing an electrostatic interaction.

  2. Plasma physics and controlled fusion research during half a century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Bo

    2001-06-01

    A review is given on the historical development of research on plasma physics and controlled fusion. The potentialities are outlined for fusion of light atomic nuclei, with respect to the available energy resources and the environmental properties. Various approaches in the research on controlled fusion are further described, as well as the present state of investigation and future perspectives, being based on the use of a hot plasma in a fusion reactor. Special reference is given to the part of this work which has been conducted in Sweden, merely to identify its place within the general historical development. Considerable progress has been made in fusion research during the last decades. Temperatures above the limit for ignition of self-sustained fusion reactions, i.e. at more than hundred million degrees, have been reached in large experiments and under conditions where the fusion power generation is comparable to the power losses. An energy producing fusion reactor could in principle be realized already today, but it would not become technically and economically efficient when being based on the present state of art. Future international research has therefore to be conducted along broad lines, with necessary ingredients of basic investigations and new ideas.

  3. Plasma physics and controlled fusion research during half a century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, Bo

    2001-06-01

    A review is given on the historical development of research on plasma physics and controlled fusion. The potentialities are outlined for fusion of light atomic nuclei, with respect to the available energy resources and the environmental properties. Various approaches in the research on controlled fusion are further described, as well as the present state of investigation and future perspectives, being based on the use of a hot plasma in a fusion reactor. Special reference is given to the part of this work which has been conducted in Sweden, merely to identify its place within the general historical development. Considerable progress has been made in fusion research during the last decades. Temperatures above the limit for ignition of self-sustained fusion reactions, i.e. at more than hundred million degrees, have been reached in large experiments and under conditions where the fusion power generation is comparable to the power losses. An energy producing fusion reactor could in principle be realized already today, but it would not become technically and economically efficient when being based on the present state of art. Future international research has therefore to be conducted along broad lines, with necessary ingredients of basic investigations and new ideas

  4. Electromagnetic waves for thermonuclear fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzucato, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    The science of magnetically confined plasmas covers the entire spectrum of physics from classical and relativistic electrodynamics to quantum mechanics. During the last sixty years of research, our initial primitive understanding of plasma physics has made impressive progress thanks to a variety of experiments - from tabletop devices with plasma temperatures of a few thousands of degrees and confinement times of less than 100 microseconds, to large tokamaks with plasma temperatures of up to five hundred million degrees and confinement times approaching one second. We discovered that plasma con

  5. Beam limiter for thermonuclear fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    A beam limiter circumscribes the interior surface of a vacuum vessel to inhibit collisions of contained plasma and the vessel walls. The cross section of the material making up the limiter has a flatsided or slightly concave portion of increased width towards the plasma and portions of decreased width towards the interior surface of the vessel. This configuration is designed to prevent a major fraction of the material sputtered, vaporized and blistered from the limiter from reaching the plasma. It also allows adequate heat transfer from the wider to the narrower portions. The preferred materials for the beam limiter are solids of sintered, particulate materials of low atomic number with low vapor pressure and low sputtering and blistering yields. 7 claims, 3 figures

  6. Beam limiter for thermonuclear fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    The invention pertains to a beam limiter to prevent collisions between a plasma and the inner surface of a hollow body in which the plasma is confined. The patent claims pertain to suitable geometrical shapes of the beam limiter. (GG) [de

  7. Nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of the present state of knowledge in nuclear fusion research. In the first part, potential thermonuclear reactions, basic energy balances of the plasma (Lawson criterion), and the main criteria to be observed in the selection of appropriate thermonuclear reactions are dealt with. This is followed by a discussion of the problems encountered in plasma physics (plasma confinement and heating, transport processes, plasma impurities, plasma instabilities and plasma diagnostics) and by a consideration of the materials problems involved, such as material of the first wall, fuel inlet and outlet, magnetic field generation, as well as repair work and in-service inspections. Two main methods have been developed to tackle these problems: reactor concepts using the magnetic pinch (stellarator, Tokamak, High-Beta reactors, mirror machines) on the one hand, and the other concept using the inertial confinement (laser fusion reactor). These two approaches and their specific problems as well as past, present and future fusion experiments are treated in detail. The last part of the work is devoted to safety and environmental aspects of the potential thermonuclear aspects of the potential thermonuclear reactor, discussing such problems as fusion-specific hazards, normal operation and potential hazards, reactor incidents, environmental pollution by thermal effluents, radiological pollution, radioactive wastes and their disposal, and siting problems. (orig./GG) [de

  8. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tetsuya

    1993-05-01

    The report contains the proceedings of a conference on plasma physics. A fraction of topics included MHD instabilities, magnetic confinement and plasma heating in the field of fusion plasmas, in 8 papers falling in the INIS scope have been abstracted and indexed for the INIS database. (K.A.)

  9. Control strategy for plasma equilibrium in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskell, R.V.

    1975-08-01

    Dynamic control of the plasma position within the torus of a TOKAMAK fusion device is a significant factor in the development of nuclear fusion as an energy source. This investigation develops a state variable model of a TOKAMAK thermonuclear device, suitable for application of modern control theory techniques. (auth)

  10. Optimal control theory applied to fusion plasma thermal stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, G.; Miley, G.; Maya, I.

    1985-01-01

    Many authors have investigated stability characteristics and performance of various burn control schemes. The work presented here represents the first application of optimal control theory to the problem of fusion plasma thermal stabilization. The objectives of this initial investigation were to develop analysis methods, demonstrate tractability, and present some preliminary results of optimal control theory in burn control research

  11. Organization of the ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] Project - Sharing of information and procurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project is expected to fully confirm the scientific feasibility and to address the technological feasibility of fusion power. Consequently, the machine must be designed for controlled ignition and extended burn of deuterium-tritium plasma. It must also demonstrate and perform integrated testing of components required to utilize fusion power for practical purposes. Cooperation among four countries/organizations (United States, Soviet Union, Japan, and EURATOM) to build a single experimental reactor will reduce the cost for each country and provide an international pool of scientific and engineering resources. This paper describes ITER organization for conceptual design activity, schedule for conceptual design activities, ITER operating parameters, conceptual project schedule and cost, future plans, basic principles and problems related to task sharing, and basic principles in handling of intellectual property

  12. The history of controlled fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trocheris, M.

    1980-01-01

    The idea of using nuclear reaction between light elements to produce energy for peaceful objectives originated towards the mid-forties. In this work, the author traces the various stages of reserach undertaken in this field from the first fusion experiments to the projects now in course of production. Research scientists have travelled a long, hard road to reach a new development phase during which technological problems will play a prominent part [fr

  13. Heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Ingo

    1993-01-01

    With controlled thermonuclear fusion holding out the possibility of a prolific and clean new source of energy, the goal remains elusive after many years of continual effort. While the conventional Tokamak route with magnetic confinement continues to hit the headlines, other alternatives are now becoming competitive. One possible solution is to confine the thermonuclear fuel pellet by high power beams. Current research and perspectives for future work in such inertial confinement was the subject of the 'Prospects for Heavy Ion Fusion' European Research Conference held in Aghia Pelaghia, Crete, last year. Its main focus was on the potential of heavy ion accelerators as well as recent advances in target physics with high power lasers and light ion beams. Carlo Rubbia declared that high energy accelerators, with their high efficiency, are the most promising approach to economical fusion energy production. However the need for cost saving in the driver accelerator requires new ideas in target design tailored to the particularities of heavy ion beams, which need to be pushed to the limits of high current and phase space density at the same time

  14. New trends in fusion research

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The efforts of the international fusion community aim at demonstrating the scientific feasibility of thermonuclear fusion energy power plants. Understanding the behavior of burning plasmas, i.e. plasmas with strong self-heating, represents a primary scientific challenge for fusion research and a new science frontier. Although integrated studies will only be possible, in new, dedicated experimental facilities, such as the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER), present devices can address specific issues in regimes relevant to burning plasmas. Among these are an improvement of plasma performance via a reduction of the energy and particle transport, an optimization of the path to ignition or to sustained burn using additional heating and a control of plasma-wall interaction and energy and particle exhaust. These lectures address recent advances in plasma science and technology that are relevant to the development of fusion energy. Mention will be made of the inertial confinement line of research, but...

  15. Repairing method and device for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Akiko; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Tachikawa, Nobuo.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of and a device for repairing a first wall and a divertor disposed in a vacuum vessel of a thermonuclear device. Namely, an armour tile of the divertor secured, by a brazing material, in a vacuum vessel of the thermonuclear device in which high temperature plasmas of deuterium and tritium are confined to cause fusion reaction is induction-heated or heated by microwaves to melt the brazing material. Only the armour tile is thus exchanged by its attachment/detachment. This device comprises, in the vacuum vessel, an armour tile attaching/detaching manipulator and a repairing manipulator comprising a heating manipulator having induction heating coils at the top end thereof. Induction heating coils are connected to an AC power source. According to the present invention, the armour tile is exchanged without taking the divertor out of the vacuum vessel. Therefore, cutting of a divertor cooling tube for taking the divertor out of the vacuum vessel and re-welding of the divertor for attaching it to the vacuum vessel again are no more necessary. (I.S.)

  16. Occupational health physics at a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shank, K.E.; Easterly, C.E.; Shoup, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    Future generation of electrical power using controlled thermonuclear reactors will involve both traditional and new concerns for health protection. A review of the problems associated with exposures to tritium and magnetic fields is presented with emphasis on the occupational worker. The radiological aspects of tritium, inventories and loss rates of tritium for fusion reactors, and protection of the occupational worker are discussed. Magnetic fields in which workers may be exposed routinely and possible biological effects are also discussed

  17. Recent progress in fusion gyrotron development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shively, J.F.; Stone, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    The gyrotron, a microwave tube capable of producing high power output at millimeter wavelengths, has recently found applications for electron cyclotron resonance heating of plasmas in controlled thermonuclear fusion reactor experiments. This paper describes work in progress to develop a gyrotron oscillator to deliver 200 kW CW at 60 GHz (/lambda/sub //. 5 mm). A pulsed oscillator is described which produced over 200 kw peak power. A CW oscillator is under construction. The latest experimental results are presented

  18. The physics of magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, K.V.

    1980-01-01

    A personal account is given covering the period April 1956 until the present day of the challenging theoretical problems posed by the controlled release of energy by magnetic confinement fusion. The need to analyse in detail the working of a plasma apparatus or reactor as a function of time is stressed and the application of such analysis to the various thermonuclear devices which have been considered during this period, is examined. (UK)

  19. Overview of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) engineering design activities*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Y.

    1994-05-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1988), ITER Documentation Series, No. 1] project is a multiphased project, presently proceeding under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency according to the terms of a four-party agreement among the European Atomic Energy Community (EC), the Government of Japan (JA), the Government of the Russian Federation (RF), and the Government of the United States (US), ``the Parties.'' The ITER project is based on the tokamak, a Russian invention, and has since been brought to a high level of development in all major fusion programs in the world. The objective of ITER is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy for peaceful purposes. The ITER design is being developed, with support from the Parties' four Home Teams and is in progress by the Joint Central Team. An overview of ITER Design activities is presented.

  20. What is the Plasma Focus Thermonuclear Pulsors Technology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, R.; Gonzalez, J.; Moreno, C.; Clausse, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we describe a type of neutron generators, called Plasma Focus, which is suitable to several applications, where traditional generators are non-applicable.The main characteristics are its transportability and to be non-contaminating, which would allow in-situ tests.The Plasma Focus, produces neutron pulses by thermonuclear fusion reactions, satisfy these requirements and it is comparatively non expensive.This last feature would assure competitivity in the neutron sources market

  1. State of controlled nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo, A.B.

    1978-04-01

    The development of a commercial fusion reactor requires an adequate solution to the problems of heating and confinement of the nuclear fuel, as well as a considerable effort in materials technology and reactor engineering. A general discussion is presented of the status of the research connected with the most advanced concepts, indicating in each case the present situation and the main problems that must be solved to meet the requeriments estimated for power reactors. In particular, the laser-inertial concept is reviewed in detail. (author) [es

  2. Maryland controlled fusion research program. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This renewal proposal describes the University of Maryland research program on Magnetic Fusion Energy for a three-year period beginning January 1, 1986. This program consists of five tasks: (I) Plasma Theory; (II) Electron Cyclotron Emission Diagnostics for Mirror Machines; (III) Electron Cyclotron Emission Diagnostics on TFTR; (IV) Atomic Physics; and (V) Magnetic Field Measurement by Ion Beams. The four separate tasks of continuing research (Tasks I to IV) and the new experimental task (Task V) are described in detail. The task descriptions contain estimated budgets for CY 86, 87, and 88

  3. The tritium and the controlled fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, D.; Rouyer, J.L.

    1986-04-01

    It is shown how tritium is used how it is circulating in a fusion reactor. The great functions of tritium circuits are detailed: reprocessing of burnt gases, reprocessing of gases coming from neutral injectors, reprocessing from gaseous wastes, detritiation of cooling fluids. Current technologic developments are quoted. Then tritium confinement and containment, in normal or accidental situations, are displayed. Limitation devices of effluents and release for normal operating (noticeably the reprocessing systems of atmosphere) and safety and protection systems in case of accident are described [fr

  4. ORNL's Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, C.F.; Gregory, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Data Center maintains a detailed bibliography of atomic data measurements and calculations for processes of interest to the fusion community. One hundred nineteen journals are regularly searched for papers of interest, including back issues to 1950. Entries are categorized by author, process, reactants, energy range, and theory/experiment. Complete bibliographies have been published since 1978 and a computerized data retrieval system is available. In addition, an updated and extended multi-volume critical compilation of cross sections (the ORNL Redbooks) is under way

  5. An analysis of the impact of the thermonuclear pilot project ITER on industry and research in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hangel, G.

    2007-03-01

    An analysis of the influence of the thermonuclear pilot project ITER on Austrian research and industrial activities is presented in terms of the following subjects: fusion research history, ITER technique, security, nuclear fusion, ITER (reactor, project specifications for quotations), possibilities for Austrian companies and fusion research in Austria. (nevyjel)

  6. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  7. Nuclear fusion (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1971-Sep 77

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grooms, D.W.

    1977-10-01

    The bibliography cites research on the initiation of thermonuclear reactions by the control of high temperature plasmas. Studies are included on MHD and various fusion devices; e.g., Stellarators, Tokamaks, Elmax, and magnetic mirrors. Studies sponsored solely by ERDA are excluded

  8. Nuclear fusion (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1971--Sep 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grooms, D.W.

    1975-12-01

    The bibliography cites research on the initiation of thermonuclear reactions by the control of high temperature plasmas. Included are studies on MHD and various fusion devices; e.g., Stellarators, Tokamaks, Elmax, and magnetic mirrors. Excludes studies sponsored solely by ERDA. (Contains 139 abstracts)

  9. Nuclear fusion - Inexhaustible source of energy for tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiser, M.; Demchenko, V.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a general description of nuclear fusion as an energy option for the future and to clarify to some extent the various issues - scientific, technological, economic and environmental - which are likely to be relevant to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Section 1 describes the world energy problem and some advantages of nuclear fusion compared to other energy options. Sections 2 and 3 describe the fundamentals of fusion energy, plasma confinement, heating and technological aspects of fusion researches. Some plasma confinement schemes (tokamak, stellarator, inertial confinement fusion) are described. The main experimental results and parameter devices are cited to illustrate the state of the art as of 1989. Various engineering problems associated with reactor design, magnetic systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, environment, economics and safety are discussed. A description of both bilateral and multilateral efforts in fusion research under the auspices of the IAEA is presented in Section 4. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  10. Fundamentals of plasma physics and controlled fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2000-10-01

    The present lecture note was written to fill a gap between text books for undergraduates and specific review articles written by specialists for their young colleagues. The note may be divided in three parts. The first part is on basic characteristics of a plasma in a magnetic field. The second part describes plasma confinement and heating with an emphasis on magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. In addition, propagation of plasma waves, plasma heating by electromagnetic waves are given. The third part is devoted to various specific concepts of nuclear fusion. Emphases are placed on toroidal devices, especially on tokamak devices and stellarators. One might feel heavy mathematics glimpsing the present note, especially in the part treating magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. (author)

  11. Zone-plate coded imaging of thermonuclear burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceglio, N.M.

    1978-01-01

    The first high-resolution, direct images of the region of thermonuclear burn in laser fusion experiments have been produced using a novel, two-step imaging technique called zone-plate coded imaging. This technique is extremely versatile and well suited for the microscopy of laser fusion targets. It has a tomographic capability, which provides three-dimensional images of the source distribution. It is equally useful for imaging x-ray and particle emissions. Since this technique is much more sensitive than competing imaging techniques, it permits us to investigate low-intensity sources

  12. The perspectives of fusion energy: The roadmap towards energy production and fusion energy in a distributed energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, Volker; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    2014-01-01

    at very high temperature where all matter is in the plasma state as the involved energies are orders of magnitude higher than typical chemical binding energies. It is one of the great science and engineering challenges to construct a viable power plant based on fusion energy. Fusion research is a world...... The presentation will discuss the present status of the fusion energy research and review the EU Roadmap towards a fusion power plant. Further the cost of fusion energy is assessed as well as how it can be integrated in the distributed energy system......Controlled thermonuclear fusion has the potential of providing an environmentally friendly and inexhaustible energy source for mankind. Fusion energy, which powers our sun and the stars, is released when light elements, such as the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium, fuse together. This occurs...

  13. The role of improved fusion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.B.; Linford, R.K.; Liu, C.S.; Logan, B.G.; Rose, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Dept. of Energy discusses concept improvement in the tokamak and concept improvement in the mirror. Controlled Thermonuclear Research comments on what constitutes an attractive fusion reactor, and provides a table of achieved parameters of RFP, FRC and the spheromak experiments. GA Technologies Inc. remarks on the direction which industry must take in the fusion program. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory concentrates on commercial reactor studies. Spectra Technology focuses on problems dealing with fusion proponents making a convincing and clear economic argument for fusion based on a mils per kilowat basis, and the large costs of flagship experiments. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory remarks on the need for an economic energy source for fusion. A table of cost of electricity contours is shown

  14. The role of improved fusion concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, D.B.; Linford, R.K.; Liu, C.S.; Logan, B.G.; Rose, P.H.

    1985-06-01

    The U.S. Dept. of Energy discusses concept improvement in the tokamak and concept improvement in the mirror. Controlled Thermonuclear Research comments on what constitutes an attractive fusion reactor, and provides a table of achieved parameters of RFP, FRC and the spheromak experiments. GA Technologies Inc. remarks on the direction which industry must take in the fusion program. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory concentrates on commercial reactor studies. Spectra Technology focuses on problems dealing with fusion proponents making a convincing and clear economic argument for fusion based on a mils per kilowat basis, and the large costs of flagship experiments. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory remarks on the need for an economic energy source for fusion. A table of cost of electricity contours is shown.

  15. Audit of United States portion of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Worldwide efforts in fusion energy research are designed to develop fusion power as a safe, environmentally sound, and economically competitive source of energy. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project is a worldwide effort to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion power. The European Community, Japan, the Russian Federation, and the United States are collaborating on ITER, with each of the four parties expected to equally share costs and benefits. Shared costs for the current engineering design phase of the project are estimated at $1 billion in 1989 dollars, excluding certain management and support costs to be absorbed by each partner, with an early estimate of $6 billion, also in 1989 dollars, for construction of the reactor. Engineering design formally began in July 1992, and this phase is in its formative stages. The US had already spent about $100 million since 1987 on ITER conceptual design activities and other preparatory activities in advance of the engineering design phase. Because of its cost significance, the importance of ITER to the US fusion energy program, and the project's unique aspects which may provide a framework for future international endeavors, we initiated an audit of the ITER project. The purpose of the audit was to evaluate management controls over the US portion of the ITER project. Our objectives was to determine whether key front-end controls were in place to ensure that the project could be managed in an efficient and effective manner

  16. General distributed control system for fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingner, P.L.; Levings, S.J.; Wilkins, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    A general control system using distributed LSI-11 microprocessors is being developed. Common software residues in each LSI-11 and is tailored to an application by control specifications downloaded from a host computer. The microprocessors, their control interfaces, and the micro-to-host communications are CAMAC based. The host computer also supports an operator interface, coordination of multiple microprocessors, and utilities to create and maintain the control specifications. Typical applications include monitoring safety interlocks as well as controlling vacuum systems, high voltage charging systems, and diagnostics

  17. The effect of controlled shot peening on fusion welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lah, Nur Azida Che; Ali, Aidy; Ismail, Napsiah; Chai, Lim Poon; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz

    2010-01-01

    This work examines the effect of controlled shot peening (CSP) treatment on the fatigue strength of an ASTM A516 grade 70 carbon steel welded joint. Metallurgical modifications, hardness, elemental compositions, and internal discontinuities, such as porosity, inclusions, lack of penetration, and undercut found in treated and untreated fusion welded joints, were characterized. The fatigue results of as-welded and peened skimmed joints were compared. It was observed that the effect of the CSP and skimming processes improved the fatigue life of the fusion weld by 50% on MMA-welded, 63% on MIG-welded, and 60% on TIG-welded samples.

  18. Particle and impurity control in toroidal fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    A review of working particle and impurity control techniques used in and proposed for magnetic fusion devices is presented. The requirements of both present-day machines and envisaged fusion reactors are considered. The various techniques which have been proposed are characterized by whether they affect sources, sinks, or fluxes; in many cases a particular method or device can appear in more than one category. Examples are drawn from published results. The solutions proposed for the large devices which will be operating during the next 5 years are discussed

  19. First implosion experiments with cryogenic thermonuclear fuel on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenzer, Siegfried H; Spears, Brian K; Edwards, M John; Berger, Richard L; Bleuel, Darren L; Bradley, David K; Caggiano, Joseph A; Callahan, Debra A; Castro, Carlos; Choate, Christine; Clark, Daniel S; Cerjan, Charles J; Collins, Gilbert W; Dewald, Eduard L; Di Nicola, Jean-Michel G; Di Nicola, Pascale; Divol, Laurent; Dixit, Shamasundar N; Alger, Ethan T; Casey, Daniel T

    2012-01-01

    Non-burning thermonuclear fuel implosion experiments have been fielded on the National Ignition Facility to assess progress toward ignition by indirect drive inertial confinement fusion. These experiments use cryogenic fuel ice layers, consisting of mixtures of tritium and deuterium with large amounts of hydrogen to control the neutron yield and to allow fielding of an extensive suite of optical, x-ray and nuclear diagnostics. The thermonuclear fuel layer is contained in a spherical plastic capsule that is fielded in the center of a cylindrical gold hohlraum. Heating the hohlraum with 1.3 MJ of energy delivered by 192 laser beams produces a soft x-ray drive spectrum with a radiation temperature of 300 eV. The radiation field produces an ablation pressure of 100 Mbar which compresses the capsule to a spherical dense fuel shell that contains a hot plasma core 80 µm in diameter. The implosion core is observed with x-ray imaging diagnostics that provide size, shape, the absolute x-ray emission along with bangtime and hot plasma lifetime. Nuclear measurements provide the 14.1 MeV neutron yield from fusion of deuterium and tritium nuclei along with down-scattered neutrons at energies of 10–12 MeV due to energy loss by scattering in the dense fuel that surrounds the central hot-spot plasma. Neutron time-of-flight spectra allow the inference of the ion temperature while gamma-ray measurements provide the duration of nuclear activity. The fusion yield from deuterium–tritium reactions scales with ion temperature, which is in agreement with modeling over more than one order of magnitude to a neutron yield in excess of 10 14 neutrons, indicating large confinement parameters on these first experiments. (paper)

  20. Inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Wood, L.L.

    1988-01-01

    Edward Teller has been a strong proponent of harnessing nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes. There are two approaches: Plowshare, which utilizes macro- explosions, and inertial confinement fusion, which utilizes microexplosions. The development of practical fusion power plants is a principal goal of the inertial program. It is remarkable that Teller's original thermonuclear problem, how to make super high yield nuclear explosions, and the opposite problem, how to make ultra low yield nuclear explosions, may both be solved by Teller's radiation implosion scheme. This paper reports on the essential physics of these two thermonuclear domains, which are separated by nine orders of magnitude in yield, provided by Teller's similarity theorem and its exceptions. Higher density makes possible thermonuclear burn of smaller masses of fuel. The leverage is high: the scale of the explosion diminishes with the square of the increase in density. The extraordinary compressibility of matter, first noticed by Teller during the Los Alamos atomic bomb program, provides an almost incredible opportunity to harness fusion. The energy density of thermonuclear fuels isentropically compressed to super high-- -densities---even to ten thousand times solid density---is small compared to the energy density at thermonuclear ignition temperatures. In small masses of fuel imploded to these super high matter densities, the energy required to achieve ignition may be greatly reduced by exploiting thermonuclear propagation from a relatively small hot spot

  1. Control of Internal Transport Barriers in Magnetically Confined Fusion Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panta, Soma; Newman, David; Sanchez, Raul; Terry, Paul

    2016-10-01

    In magnetic confinement fusion devices the best performance often involves some sort of transport barriers to reduce the energy and particle flow from core to edge. Those barriers create gradients in the temperature and density profiles. If gradients in the profiles are too steep that can lead to instabilities and the system collapses. Control of these barriers is therefore an important challenge for fusion devices (burning plasmas). In this work we focus on the dynamics of internal transport barriers. Using a simple 7 field transport model, extensively used for barrier dynamics and control studies, we explore the use of RF heating to control the local gradients and therefore the growth rates and shearing rates for barrier initiation and control in self-heated fusion plasmas. Ion channel barriers can be formed in self-heated plasmas with some NBI heating but electron channel barriers are very sensitive. They can be formed in self-heated plasmas with additional auxiliary heating i.e. NBI and radio-frequency(RF). Using RF heating on both electrons and ions at proper locations, electron channel barriers along with ion channel barriers can be formed and removed demonstrating a control technique. Investigating the role of pellet injection in controlling the barriers is our next goal. Work supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-04ER54741.

  2. Challenges of nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1987-01-01

    After 30 years of research and development in many countries, the magnetic confinement fusion experiments finally seem to be getting close to the original first goal: the point of ''scientific break-even''. Plans are being made for a generation of experiments and tests with actual controlled thermonuclear fusion conditions. Therefore engineers and material scientists are hard at work to develop the required technology. In this paper the principal elements of a generic fusion reactor are described briefly to introduce the reader to the nature of the problems at hand. The main portion of the presentation summarises the recent advances made in this field and discusses the major issues that still need to be addressed in regard to materials and technology for fusion power. Specific examples are the problems of the first wall and other components that come into direct contact with the plasma, where both lifetime and plasma contamination are matters of concern. Equally challenging are the demands on structural materials and on the magnetic-field coils, particularly in connection with the neutron-radiation environment of fusion reactors. Finally, the role of ceramics must be considered, both for insulators and for fuel breeding purposes. It is evident that we still have a formidable task before us, but at this point none of the problems seem to be insoluble. (author)

  3. Physics of plasma-wall interactions in controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, D.E.; Behrisch, R.

    1984-01-01

    In the areas of plasma physics, atomic physics, surface physics, bulk material properties and fusion experiments and theory, the following topics are presented: the plasma sheath; plasma flow in the sheath and presheath of a scrape-off layer; probes for plasma edge diagnostics in magnetic confinement fusion devices; atomic and molecular collisions in the plasma boundary; physical sputtering of solids at ion bombardment; chemical sputtering and radiation enhanced sublimation of carbon; ion backscattering from solid surfaces; implantation, retention and release of hydrogen isotopes; surface erosion by electrical arcs; electron emission from solid surfaces;l properties of materials; plasma transport near material boundaries; plasma models for impurity control experiments; neutral particle transport; particle confinement and control in existing tokamaks; limiters and divertor plates; advanced limiters; divertor tokamak experiments; plasma wall interactions in heated plasmas; plasma-wall interactions in tandem mirror machines; and impurity control systems for reactor experiments

  4. Temperature measurements in thermonuclear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, D.

    1958-01-01

    The temperatures needed to produce thermonuclear reactions are of the order of several million degrees Kelvin. Devising methods for measuring such temperatures has been the subject of research in many countries. In order to present the problem clearly and to demonstrate its importance, the author reviews the various conditions which must be fulfilled in order that reactions may be qualified as thermonuclear. The relationship between the temperature and the cross-section of the reactions is studied, and it is shown that the notion of temperature in the plasmas is complex, which leads to a consideration of the temperature of the ions and that of the electrons. None of the methods for the temperature measurements is completely satisfactory because of the hypotheses which must be made, and which are seldom fulfilled during high-intensity discharges in the plasmas. In practice it is necessary to use several methods simultaneously. (author) [fr

  5. Magnetohydrodynamics and the thermonuclear problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfven, H [Department of Electronics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1958-07-01

    The importance of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics for the solution of thermonuclear problem is presented in the paper. Methods for capture of a plasma by a magnetic field are discussed. From the study it is concluded that in principle it is possible to shoot heated plasma into a magnetic field and capture it there. A possible method of capturing plasma which is shot into a magnetic field is illustrated. Magnetohydrodynamic research performed during the last decade in Stockholm is presented. Following a long series of investigations of relatively cool plasmas, it has been started a series of experimental investigations on hot plasmas, concentrating on the fundamental properties of the plasma. New ways of the approach to the thermonuclear problem are analysed. Experiments have been with discharges of a few hundred kiloamps to produce fast-moving magnetized plasmas, in order to investigate whether they could be captured by magnetic fields in the discussed way.

  6. Conference on Norwegian fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of instituting a systematic research programme in Norway on aspects of thermonuclear and plasma physics has been raised. The conference here reported was intended to provide basic information on the status of fusion research internationally and to discuss a possible Norwegian programme. The main contributions covered the present status of fusion research, international cooperation, fusion research in small countries and minor laboratories, fusion research in Denmark and Sweden, and a proposed fusion experiment in Bergen. (JIW)

  7. Structure of thermonuclear reactor wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro.

    1991-01-01

    In a thermonuclear reactor wall, there has been a worry that the brazing material is melted by high temperature heat and particle load, to peel off the joined portion and the protecting material is destroyed by temperature elevation, to expose the heat sink material. Then, in the reactor core structures of a thermonuclear reactor, such as a divertor plate comprising a protecting material made of carbon material and the heat sink material joined by brazing, a plate material made of a so-called refractory metal having a high atomic number such as tungsten, molybdenum or the alloy thereof is embedded or attached to an accurate position of the protecting material. This can prevent the brazing portion from destruction by escaping electrons generated upon occurrence of abnormality in the thermonuclear reactor, and peeling or destroy of the protecting material and the heat sink material. Sufficient characteristics of plasmas can always be maintained by disposing a material having a small atomic number, for example, carbon material, to the position facing to the plasmas. (N.H.)

  8. Review of fusion synfuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high-temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 65% are projected for fusion reactors using high-temperatures blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion

  9. Fusion: from sacred cow to white elephant?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooldridge, J.

    1994-01-01

    Controlled thermonuclear fusion has the potential to supply lots of relatively cheap power relatively cheaply. It is also renewable and has public support. Because of this potential, fusion has been able to attract huge research funds. The four main research programmes, in Europe, USA, Japan and Russia, include cooperation on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, ITER. The siting of this reactor will be decided in 1998 and it is due to start operation in 2010. It should lead to a demonstration reactor, DEMO, after which a prototype commercial reactor is envisaged for 2030-2050. But this is too far away to solve some of the immediate energy problems such as carbon dioxide emissions and global warming. So even if the technical problems are solved, fusion may not be the wonder energy source when it finally arrives; the trend is away from centralised, high cost, high output generation. Fusion research has taken interest and money away from other alternatives such as tidal energy, fuel cells and photovoltaic cells. Photovoltaics in particular look more feasible than fusion and could be in place far sooner, but lack the funding for research. (UK)

  10. Fusion Simulation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwald, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Many others in the fusion energy and advanced scientific computing communities participated in the development of this plan. The core planning team is grateful for their important contributions. This summary is meant as a quick overview the Fusion Simulation Program's (FSP's) purpose and intentions. There are several additional documents referenced within this one and all are supplemental or flow down from this Program Plan. The overall science goal of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) research and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. (1). Initial FSP research will focus on two critical Integrated Science Application (ISA) areas: ISA1, the plasma edge; and ISA2, whole device modeling (WDM) including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical

  11. Device for thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Yutaro; Kawarazaki, Yuki; Sugiyama, Yu.

    1996-01-01

    A member comprising hydrogen occluding materials is introduced to a reactor incorporated with U-235 as fuels in order to moderate and breed fast neutrons and to control the reactor. Since the amount of light hydrogen or heavy hydrogen is substantially the same as that of metal, etc. of hydrogen occluding material, a moderating efficiency substantially equal with that of a moderator comprising H 2 O can be obtained. In addition, since the member acting as a moderator has an effect of multiplying neutrons, use of only natural uranium 0.72% as nuclear fuels causes chain reaction to provide a function as a nuclear reactor. Further, the hydrogen occluding material can be used also as a control rod for controlling the reactor. The hydrogen occluding material may be Ti, Zr, Pd, proton conductor, Ag, Pt, Rh or oxides thereof or alloys thereof. The member comprising hydrogen occluding materials is preferably coated with a material not permeating hydrogen. (N.H.)

  12. Improved Controls for Fusion RF Systems. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    We have addressed the specific requirements for the integrated systems controlling an array of klystrons used for Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD). The immediate goal for our design was to modernize the transmitter protection system (TPS) for LHCD on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center (MIT-PSFC). Working with the Alcator C-Mod team, we have upgraded the design of these controls to retrofit for improvements in performance and safety, as well as to facilitate the upcoming expansion from 12 to 16 klystrons. The longer range goals to generalize the designs in such a way that they will be of benefit to other programs within the international fusion effort was met by designing a system which was flexible enough to address all the MIT system requirements, and modular enough to adapt to a large variety of other requirements with minimal reconfiguration

  13. Improved Controls for Fusion RF Systems. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Jeffrey A. [Rockfield Research Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2011-11-08

    We have addressed the specific requirements for the integrated systems controlling an array of klystrons used for Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD). The immediate goal for our design was to modernize the transmitter protection system (TPS) for LHCD on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center (MIT-PSFC). Working with the Alcator C-Mod team, we have upgraded the design of these controls to retrofit for improvements in performance and safety, as well as to facilitate the upcoming expansion from 12 to 16 klystrons. The longer range goals to generalize the designs in such a way that they will be of benefit to other programs within the international fusion effort was met by designing a system which was flexible enough to address all the MIT system requirements, and modular enough to adapt to a large variety of other requirements with minimal reconfiguration.

  14. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1990. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Volume 1 of the Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research contains papers given in two of the sessions: A and E. Session A contains the Artsimovich Memorial Lecture and papers on tokamaks; session E papers on plasma heating and current drive. The titles and authors of each paper are listed in the Contents. Abstracts accompany each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Nuclear fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinghee, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    In this chapter, fusion is compared with other inexhaustible energy sources. Research is currently being conducted both within and outside the USA. The current confinement principles of thermonuclear reactions are reveiwed with the discussion of economics mainly focusing on the magnetic confinement concepts. Environmental, health and safety factors are of great concern to the public and measures are being taken to address them. The magnetic fusion program logic and the inertial fusion program logic are compared

  16. New fusion method offers hope of new energy source

    CERN Multimedia

    Chang, K

    2002-01-01

    Scientists from Sandia National Laboratories have reported that they have acheived thermonuclear fusion using the Z accelerator. It is the first observation of fusion using a pulsed power source (1 page).

  17. Inertia thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imon, Toshiharu; Nakamura, Norio; Oomura, Hiroshi.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate the requirement of power for controlling the flow velocity of coolants flowing through a porous structure blanket, as well as establish a uniform and stable coolant layer. Constitution: Breeding blanket is made with mesh-like or fiberous porous body, and liquid lithium is introduced into the porous body. The porous body functions as a resistive member to inhibit the free fall of the liquid lithium, so the coolant flowing velocity can be determined to a desired value by appropriately selecting the porosity therein. Further, since liquid lithium flows downwardly at a uniform speed under the effect of the gravitational force, the layer thickness is made uniform to effectively recover neutron energy. Also, while waves are formed at the boundary surface of the liquid lithium layer other than for the porous body due to the collision of fine balls or the likes, they are instantly eliminated by the porous body and the flow can be stabilized. (Yoshino, Y.)

  18. Toroidal electron beam energy storage for controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.; Korn, P.; Mondelli, A.; Rostoker, N.

    1976-01-01

    In the presence of an external magnetic field stable equilibria exist for an unneutralized electron beam with ν/γ >1. As a result, it is in principle, possible to store very large quantities of energy in relatively small volumes by confining an unneutralized electron beam in a Tokamak-like device. The energy is stored principally in the electrostatic and self-magnetic fields associated with the beam and is available for rapid heating of pellets for controlled fusion. The large electrostatic potential well in such a device would be sufficient to contain energetic alpha particles, thereby reducing reactor wall bombardment. This approach also avoids plasma loss and wall bombardment by charge exchange neutrals. The conceptual design of an electrostatic Tokamak fusion reactor (ETFR) is discussed. A small toroidal device (the STP machine) has been constructed to test the principles involved. Preliminary experiments on this device have produced electron densities approximately 10% of those required in a reactor

  19. Ratcheting problems for ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.

    1991-01-01

    Because of the presence of high cyclic thermal stress, pressure-induced primary stress, and disruption-induced high cyclic primary stress, ratcheting of the first wall poses a serious challenge to the designers of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). Existing design tools such as the Bree diagram in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessels Code, are not directly applicable to ITER, because of important differences in geometry and loading modes. Available alternative models for ratcheting are discussed and new Bree diagrams, that are more relevant for fusion reactor applications, are proposed. 9 refs., 17 figs

  20. Burn Control in Fusion Reactors via Nonlinear Stabilization Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, Eugenio; Krstic, Miroslav; Tynan, George

    2003-01-01

    Control of plasma density and temperature magnitudes, as well as their profiles, are among the most fundamental problems in fusion reactors. Existing efforts on model-based control use control techniques for linear models. In this work, a zero-dimensional nonlinear model involving approximate conservation equations for the energy and the densities of the species was used to synthesize a nonlinear feedback controller for stabilizing the burn condition of a fusion reactor. The subignition case, where the modulation of auxiliary power and fueling rate are considered as control forces, and the ignition case, where the controlled injection of impurities is considered as an additional actuator, are treated separately.The model addresses the issue of the lag due to the finite time for the fresh fuel to diffuse into the plasma center. In this way we make our control system independent of the fueling system and the reactor can be fed either by pellet injection or by puffing. This imposed lag is treated using nonlinear backstepping.The nonlinear controller proposed guarantees a much larger region of attraction than the previous linear controllers. In addition, it is capable of rejecting perturbations in initial conditions leading to both thermal excursion and quenching, and its effectiveness does not depend on whether the operating point is an ignition or a subignition point.The controller designed ensures setpoint regulation for the energy and plasma parameter β with robustness against uncertainties in the confinement times for different species. Hence, the controller can increase or decrease β, modify the power, the temperature or the density, and go from a subignition to an ignition point and vice versa

  1. First wall of thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizawa, Makoto; Koizumi, Makoto; Nishihara, Yoshihiro.

    1990-01-01

    The first wall of a thermonuclear device is constituted with inner wall tiles, e.g. made of graphite and metal substrates for fixing them. However, since the heat expansion coefficient is different between the metal substrates and intermediate metal members, thermal stresses are caused to deteriorate the endurance of the inner wall tiles. In view of the above, low melting metals are disposed at the portion of contact between the inner wall tiles and the metal substrates and, further, a heat pipe structure is incorporated into the metal substrates. Under the thermal load, for example, during operation of the thermonuclear device, the low melting metals at the portion of contact are melted into liquid metals to enhance the state of contact between the inner wall tiles and the metal substrate to reduce the heat resistance and improve the heat conductivity. Even if there is a difference in the heat expansion coefficient between the inner wall tiles and the metal substrates, neither sharing stresses not thermal stresses are caused. Further, since the heat pipe structure is incorporated into the metal substrates, the lateral unevenness of the temperature in the metal substrates can be eliminated. Thus, the durability of the inner wall tiles can be improved. (N.H.)

  2. Insulation structure of thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takayuki; Usami, Saburo; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Kikuchi, Mitsuru

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides an insulating structure of a thermonuclear device, in which insulation materials between toroidal coils are not broken even if superconductive toroidal coils are used. Namely, a tokamak type thermonuclear device of an insulating structure type comprises superconductive toroidal coils for confining plasmas arranged in a circular shape directing the center each at a predetermined angle, and the toroidal coils are insulated from each other. The insulation materials are formed by using a biaxially oriented fiber reinforced plastics. The contact surface of the toroidal coils and the insulating materials are arranged so that they are contact at a woven surface of the fiber reinforced plastics. Either or both of the contact surfaces of the fiber reinforced plastics and the toroidal coils are coated with a high molecular compound having a low friction coefficient. With such a constitution, since the interlayer shearing strength of the biaxially oriented fiber reinforced plastics is about 1/10 of the compression strength, the shearing stress exerted on the insulation material is reduced. Since a static friction coefficient on the contact surface is reduced to provide a structure causing slipping, shearing stress does not exceeds a predetermined limit. As a result, breakage of the insulation materials between the toroidal coils can be prevented. (I.S.)

  3. Reactor wall in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibui, Masanao.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To always monitor the life of armours in reactor walls and automatically shutdown the reactor if it should be operated in excess of the limit of use. Constitution: Monitoring material of lower melting point than armours (for example beryllium pellets) as one of the reactor wall constituents of a thermonuclear device are embedded in a region leaving the thickness corresponding to the allowable abrasion of the armour. In this structure, if the armours are abrased due to particle loads of a plasma and the abrasion exceeds a predetermined allowable level, the monitoring material is exposed to the plasma and melted and evaporated. Since this can be detected by impurity monitors disposed in the reactor, it is possible to recognize the limit for the working life of the armours. If the thermonuclear reactor should be operated accidentally exceeding the life of the armours, since a great amount of the monitoring materials have been evaporated, they flow into the plasma to increase the plasma radiation loss thereby automatically eliminate the plasma. (K.M.)

  4. Prospects for Tokamak Fusion Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper first reviews briefly the status and plans for research in magnetic fusion energy and discusses the prospects for the tokamak magnetic configuration to be the basis for a fusion power plant. Good progress has been made in achieving fusion reactor-level, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with the production of significant fusion power in the Joint European Torus (up to 2 MW) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (up to 10 MW) tokamaks. Advances on the technologies of heating, fueling, diagnostics, and materials supported these achievements. The successes have led to the initiation of the design phases of two tokamaks, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the US Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX). ITER will demonstrate the controlled ignition and extended bum of D-T plasmas with steady state as an ultimate goal. ITER will further demonstrate technologies essential to a power plant in an integrated system and perform integrated testing of the high heat flux and nuclear components required to use fusion energy for practical purposes. TPX will complement ITER by testing advanced modes of steady-state plasma operation that, coupled with the developments in ITER, will lead to an optimized demonstration power plant

  5. Optimization of the fission--fusion hybrid concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltmarsh, M.J.; Grimes, W.R.; Santoro, R.T.

    1979-04-01

    One of the potentially attractive applications of controlled thermonuclear fusion is the fission--fusion hybrid concept. In this report we examine the possible role of the hybrid as a fissile fuel producer. We parameterize the advantages of the concept in terms of the performance of the fusion device and the breeding blanket and discuss some of the more troublesome features of existing design studies. The analysis suggests that hybrids based on deuterium--tritium (D--T) fusion devices are unlikely to be economically attractive and that they present formidable blanket technology problems. We suggest an alternative approach based on a semicatalyzed deuterium--deuterium (D--D) fusion reactor and a molten salt blanket. This concept is shown to emphasize the desirable features of the hybrid, to have considerably greater economic potential, and to mitigate many of the disadvantages of D--T-based systems

  6. Ecological problems of thermonuclear energetics. Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivintsev, Yu V

    1980-01-01

    A review of preliminary quantitative estimates of radiation hazard of thermonuclear reactors is presented. Main attention is given to three aspects: nonradiation effect on environment, radionuclide blow-ups at normal operation and emergency situations with their consequences. The given data testify to great radiological advantages of thermonuclear energetics as compared with the modern nuclear energetics with thermal and prospective fast reactors.

  7. Recommendations on the Nature and Level of U.S. Participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Extension of the Experimental Reactor Extension of the Engineering Design Activities. Panel Report To Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The DOE Office of Energy Research chartered through the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) a panel to 'address the topic of U. S. participation in an ITER construction phase, assuming the ITER Parties decide to proceed with construction.' (Attachment 1: DOE Charge, September 1996). Given that there is expected to be a transition period of three to five years between the conclusion of the Engineering Design Activities (EDA) and the possible construction start, the DOE Office of Energy Research expanded the charge to 'include the U.S. role in an interim period between the EDA and construction.' (Attachment 2: DOE Expanded Charge, May 1997). This panel has heard presentations and received input from a wide cross-section of parties with an interest in the fusion program. The panel concluded it could best fulfill its responsibility under this charge by considering the fusion energy science and technology portion of the U.S. program in its entirety. Accordingly, the panel is making some recommendations for optimum use of the transition period considering the goals of the fusion program and budget pressures.

  8. Hemi-fused structure mediates and controls fusion and fission in live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-Dong; Hamid, Edaeni; Shin, Wonchul; Wen, Peter J; Krystofiak, Evan S; Villarreal, Seth A; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng; Kachar, Bechara; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2016-06-23

    Membrane fusion and fission are vital for eukaryotic life. For three decades, it has been proposed that fusion is mediated by fusion between the proximal leaflets of two bilayers (hemi-fusion) to produce a hemi-fused structure, followed by fusion between the distal leaflets, whereas fission is via hemi-fission, which also produces a hemi-fused structure, followed by full fission. This hypothesis remained unsupported owing to the lack of observation of hemi-fusion or hemi-fission in live cells. A competing fusion hypothesis involving protein-lined pore formation has also been proposed. Here we report the observation of a hemi-fused Ω-shaped structure in live neuroendocrine chromaffin cells and pancreatic β-cells, visualized using confocal and super-resolution stimulated emission depletion microscopy. This structure is generated from fusion pore opening or closure (fission) at the plasma membrane. Unexpectedly, the transition to full fusion or fission is determined by competition between fusion and calcium/dynamin-dependent fission mechanisms, and is notably slow (seconds to tens of seconds) in a substantial fraction of the events. These results provide key missing evidence in support of the hemi-fusion and hemi-fission hypothesis in live cells, and reveal the hemi-fused intermediate as a key structure controlling fusion and fission, as fusion and fission mechanisms compete to determine the transition to fusion or fission.

  9. Status report on controlled nuclear fusion as a source of hydrogen energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.

    1975-01-01

    The present status of controlled fusion research is reviewed. Possible future reseach is also described. Tokamak systems using both fusion and fissionable fuels are discussed. Various aspects of hydrogen production by fusion reactors are described according to cost and economics. auth)

  10. Engineering computations at the national magnetic fusion energy computer center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, S.

    1983-01-01

    The National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center (NMFECC) was established by the U.S. Department of Energy's Division of Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE). The NMFECC headquarters is located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Its purpose is to apply large-scale computational technology and computing techniques to the problems of controlled thermonuclear research. In addition to providing cost effective computing services, the NMFECC also maintains a large collection of computer codes in mathematics, physics, and engineering that is shared by the entire MFE research community. This review provides a broad perspective of the NMFECC, and a list of available codes at the NMFECC for engineering computations is given

  11. Probing thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keek, L.

    2008-12-01

    Neutron stars are the most compact stars that can be directly observed, which makes them ideal laboratories to study physics at extreme densities. Neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries accrete hydrogen and helium from a lower-mass companion star through Roche lobe overflow. This matter undergoes thermonuclear burning in the neutron star envelope, creating carbon and heavier elements. The fusion process may proceed in an unstable manner, resulting in a thermonuclear runaway. Within one second the entire surface is burned, which is observable as a sharp rise in the emitted X-ray flux: a type I X-ray burst. Afterwards the neutron star surface cools down on a timescale of ten to one hundred seconds. During these bursts the surface of an accreting neutron star can be observed directly, which makes them instrumental for studying this type of stars. We have studied rare kinds of X-ray bursts. One such rare burst is the superburst, which lasts a thousand times longer than an ordinary burst. Superbursts are thought to result from the explosive burning of a thick carbon layer, which lies deeper inside the neutron star, close to a layer known as the crust. A prerequisite for the occurrence of a superburst is a high enough temperature, which is set by the temperature of the crust and the heat conductivity of the envelope. The latter is lowered by the presence of heavy elements that are produced during normal X-ray bursts. Using a large set of observations from the Wide Field Camera's onboard the BeppoSAX satellite, we find that, at high accretion rate, sources which do not exhibit normal bursts likely have a longer superburst recurrence time, than the observed superburst recurrence time of one burster. We analyze in detail the first superburst from a transient source, which went into outburst only 55 days before the superburst. Recent models of the neutron star crust predict that this is too small a time to heat the crust sufficiently for superburst ignition, indicating

  12. Laser-induced nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablon, Claude

    1977-01-01

    Research programs on laser-induced thermonuclear fusion in the United States, in Europe and in USSR are reviewed. The principle of the fusion reactions induced is explained, together with the theoretical effects of the following phenomena: power and type of laser beams, shape and size of the solid target, shock waves, and laser-hydrodynamics coupling problems [fr

  13. Cooling device in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Tsutomu.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent loss of cooling effect over the entire torus structure directly after accidental toubles in a cooling device of a thermonuclear device. Constitution: Coolant recycling means of a cooling device comprises two systems, which are alternately connected with in-flow pipeways and exit pipeways of adjacent modules. The modules are cooled by way of the in-flow pipeways and the exist pipeways connected to the respective modules by means of the coolant recycling means corresponding to the respective modules. So long as one of the coolant recycling means is kept operative, since every one other modules of the torus structure is still kept cooled, the heat generated from the module put therebetween, for which the coolant recycling is interrupted, is removed by means of heat conduction or radiation from the module for which the cooling is kept continued. No back-up emergency cooling system is required and it can provide high economic reliability. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. First wall of thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Nobuharu.

    1992-01-01

    In a first wall of a thermonuclear device, armour tiles are metallurgically bonded to a support substrate only for the narrow area of the central portion thereof, while bonded by metallurgical bonding with cooling tubes of low mechanical toughness, separated from each other in other regions. Since the bonding area with the support substrate of great mechanical rigidity is limited to the narrow region at the central portion of the armour tiles, cracking are scarcely caused at the end portion of the bonding surface. In other regions, since cooling tubes of low mechanical rigidity are bonded metallurgically, they can be sufficiently withstand to high thermal load. That is, even if the armour tiles are deformed while undergoing thermal load from plasmas, since the cooling tubes absorb it, there is no worry of damaging the metallurgically bonded face. Since the cooling tubes are bonded directly to the armour tiles, they absorb the heat of the armour tiles efficiently. (N.H.)

  15. International fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear energy of the light elements deuterium and lithium can be released if the 100 MK degree temperature required for deuterium-tritium thermonuclear fusion reactions can be achieved together with sufficient thermal insulation for a net energy yield. Progress of world-wide research shows good prospect for these physical conditions being achieved by the use of magnetic field confinement and of rapidly developing heating methods. Tokamak systems, alternative magnetic systems and inertial confinement progress are described. International co-operation features a number of bilateral agreements between countries: the Euratom collaboration which includes the Joint European Torus, a joint undertaking of eleven Western European nations of Euratom, established to build and operate a major confinement experiment; the development of co-operative projects within the OECD/IEA framework; the INTOR workshop, a world-wide study under IAEA auspices of the next major step in fusion research which might be built co-operatively; and assessments of the potential of nuclear fusion by the IAEA and the International Fusion Research Council. The INTOR (International Tokamak Reactor) studies have outlined a major plant of the tokamak type to study the engineering and technology of fusion reactor systems, which might be constructed on a world-wide basis to tackle and share the investment risks of the developments which lie ahead. This paper summarizes the recent progress of research on controlled nuclear fusion, featuring those areas where international co-operation has played an important part, and describes the various arrangements by which this international co-operation is facilitated. (author)

  16. Line-Tension Controlled Mechanism for Influenza Fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risselada, Herre Jelger; Marelli, Giovanni; Fuhrmans, Marc; Smirnova, Yuliya G.; Grubmueller, Helmut; Marrink, Siewert Jan; Mueller, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Our molecular simulations reveal that wild-type influenza fusion peptides are able to stabilize a highly fusogenic pre-fusion structure, i.e. a peptide bundle formed by four or more trans-membrane arranged fusion peptides. We rationalize that the lipid rim around such bundle has a non-vanishing rim

  17. Linear magnetic fusion: summary of Seattle workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    The linear-geometry magnetic confinement concept is among the oldest used in the study of high-temperature plasmas. However, it has generally been discounted as a suitable approach for demonstrating controlled thermonuclear fusion because rapid losses from the plasma column ends necessitate very long devices. Further, the losses and how to overcome them have not yet received parametric experimental study, nor do facilities exist with which such definitive experiments could be performed. Nonetheless, the important positive attribute, simplicity, together with the appearance of several ideas for reducing end losses have provided motivation for continued research on linear magnetic fusion (LMF). These motivations led to the LMF workshop, held in Seattle, March 9--11, 1977, which explored the potential of LMF as an alternate approach to fusion. A broad range of LMF aspects were addressed, including radial and axial losses, stability and equilibrium, heating, technology, and reactor considerations. The conclusions drawn at the workshop are summarized

  18. Bouillabaisse sushi fusion power

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "If avant-garde cuisine is any guide, Japanese-French fusion does not work all that well. And the interminable discussions over the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) suggest that what is true of cooking is true of physics" (1 page)

  19. Inertial confinement fusion (ICF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.

    1977-01-01

    The principal goal of the inertial confinement fusion program is the development of a practical fusion power plant in this century. Rapid progress has been made in the four major areas of ICF--targets, drivers, fusion experiments, and reactors. High gain targets have been designed. Laser, electron beam, and heavy ion accelerator drivers appear to be feasible. Record-breaking thermonuclear conditions have been experimentally achieved. Detailed diagnostics of laser implosions have confirmed predictions of the LASNEX computer program. Experimental facilities are being planned and constructed capable of igniting high gain fusion microexplosions in the mid 1980's. A low cost long lifetime reactor design has been developed

  20. Canada's Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    Canada's fusion strategy is based on developing specialized technologies in well-defined areas and supplying these technologies to international fusion projects. Two areas are specially emphasized in Canada: engineered fusion system technologies, and specific magnetic confinement and materials studies. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project focuses on the first of these areas. It tritium and fusion reactor fuel systems, remote maintenance and related safety studies. In the second area, the Centre Canadian de fusion magnetique operates the Tokamak de Varennes, the main magnetic fusion device in Canada. Both projects are partnerships linking the Government of Canada, represented by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, and provincial governments, electrical utilities, universities and industry. Canada's program has extensive international links, through which it collaborates with the major world fusion programs, including participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project

  1. FRIENDLY regulates mitochondrial distribution, fusion, and quality control in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zawily, Amr M; Schwarzländer, Markus; Finkemeier, Iris; Johnston, Iain G; Benamar, Abdelilah; Cao, Yongguo; Gissot, Clémence; Meyer, Andreas J; Wilson, Ken; Datla, Raju; Macherel, David; Jones, Nick S; Logan, David C

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondria are defining components of most eukaryotes. However, higher plant mitochondria differ biochemically, morphologically, and dynamically from those in other eukaryotes. FRIENDLY, a member of the CLUSTERED MITOCHONDRIA superfamily, is conserved among eukaryotes and is required for correct distribution of mitochondria within the cell. We sought to understand how disruption of FRIENDLY function in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leads to mitochondrial clustering and the effects of this aberrant chondriome on cell and whole-plant physiology. We present evidence for a role of FRIENDLY in mediating intermitochondrial association, which is a necessary prelude to mitochondrial fusion. We demonstrate that disruption of mitochondrial association, motility, and chondriome structure in friendly affects mitochondrial quality control and leads to mitochondrial stress, cell death, and strong growth phenotypes. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Control and data management for a large fusion laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.W.; Holloway, F.W.

    1975-01-01

    SHIVA is a powerful (10-kJ 25 TW) neodymium glass laser system to be used (in 1977) for target irradiation in fusion research. SHIVA is also a development project in that it is pushing the state of the art in laser and optical technology. The present design calls for 20 parallel laser amplification chains whose light output is pointed and focused at a small (100 μ) target within a chamber from semi-equally spaced three-dimensional directions. It is probable that SHIVA will be upgraded to as many as 42 chains in the next few years. Each chain of SHIVA contains 7 high energy laser amplifiers and perhaps 20 other major optical components, many of which send and receive control and measurement information. Again future expansion may add additional elements. Each chain has also associated 10 gimbal or translation motions for beam assignment from the oscillator onto the target

  3. Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program.

  4. Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program

  5. Fusion plasma theory project summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at U.S. government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the U.S. Fusion Energy Program.

  6. Baking method for thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shigetada.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the heat transmission property to the reactor core structures thereby shortening the baking time for the reactor core in thermonuclear reactors. Constitution: High temperature airs are supplied from a baking system to cooling pipeways disposed within reactor core structures and helium gas is supplied from a helium gas supply system through the reactor core structures to the inside of the reactor core for scavenging. The scavenging operation may be combined with vacuum suction. Further, the inside of the reactor is scavenged while maintaining at such a negative pressure as within a range not degrading the heat conduction property. Since the helium gas is chemically inert and poor in the depositing property, it shows no adsorbability even for the material heated to high temperature. Further, since the diffusion and heat conduction properties are high, the heat conduction property to the materials upon baking can be improved to shorten the baking time. No disadvantages are caused by the introduction of the helium gas upon baking. (Kawakami, Y.)

  7. Shielding wall for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Takaho.

    1989-01-01

    This invention concerns shielding walls opposing to plasmas of a thermonuclear device and it is an object thereof to conduct reactor operation with no troubles even if a portion of shielding wall tiles should be damaged. That is, the shielding wall tiles are constituted as a dual layer structure in which the lower base tiles are connected by means of bolts to first walls. Further, the upper surface tiles are bolt-connected to the layer base tiles. In this structure, the plasma thermal loads are directly received by the surface layer tiles and heat is conducted by means of conduction and radiation to the underlying base tiles and the first walls. Even upon occurrence of destruction accidents to the surface layer tiles caused by incident heat or electromagnetic force upon elimination of plasmas, since the underlying base tiles remain as they are, the first walls constituted with stainless steels, etc. are not directly exposed to the plasmas. Accordingly, the integrity of the first walls having cooling channels can be maintained and sputtering intrusion of atoms of high atom number into the plasmas can be prevented. (I.S.)

  8. Shielding member for thermonuclear device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Masanori

    1997-06-30

    In a thermonuclear device for shielding fast neutrons by shielding members disposed in a shielding vessel (vacuum vessel and structures such as a blanket disposed in the vacuum vessel), the shielding member comprises a large number of shielding wires formed fine and short so as to have elasticity. The shielding wires are sealed in a shielding vessel together with water, and when the width of the shielding vessel is changed, the shielding wires follow after the change of the width while elastically deforming in the shielding vessel, so that great stress and deformation are not formed thereby enabling to improve reliability. In addition, the length, the diameter and the shape of each of the shielding wires can be selected in accordance with the shielding space of the shielding vessel. Even if the shape of the shielding vessel is complicated, the shielding wires can be inserted easily. Accordingly, the filling rate of the shielding members can be changed easily. It can be produced more easily compared with a conventional spherical pebbles. It can be produced more easily than existent spherical shielding pebbles thereby enabling to reduce the production cost. (N.H.)

  9. Divertor plate for thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Sato, Keisuke; Nishio, Satoshi.

    1993-01-01

    In a divertor plate for a thermonuclear reactor, adjacent cooling pipes are electrically insulated from each other and pipes made of a gradient functional material prepared by compositing ceramics having an insulation property and metals are metallurgically joined to at least one portion of each of the cooling pipes. Electric current caused upon occurrence of plasma disruption is interrupted by the insulation portion, so that a large circuit is not formed and electromagnetic force is decreased to such a extent that the divertor plate is not ruptured. Since a header of the cooling pipes can be installed at any optional position, the installation space can be reduced. Further, since inlet and exit collection headers can be disposed on both ends of the cooling pipes, it is possible to shorten the length of the cooling pipe of the divertor plate corresponded to high heat fluxes and reduce the pressure loss on the side of coolants to about 1/2. Further, turn back portions of small radius of curvature of the cooling pipes are eliminated to reduce the cost and extend the lifetime and, in addition, protection tiles can be attached easily. (N.H.)

  10. First wall for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Yoji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the thermal stresses resulted to tiles and suppress the temperature rise for mounting jigs in first walls for a thermonuclear device. Constitution: A support mounting rod as a tile mounting and fixing jig and a fixing support connected therewith are disposed to the inside of an armour tile composed of high melting material and, further, a spring is disposed between the lower portion of the tile and the base plate. The armour tile can easily be fixed to the base plate by means of the resilient member by rotating the support member and abutting the support member against the support member abutting portion of the base plate. Further, since the contact and fixing surface of the armour tile and the fixing jig is situated below the tile inside the cooled base plate, the temperature rise can be suppressed as compared with the usual case. Since screw or like other clamping portion is not used for fixing the tile, heat resistant ceramics can be used with no restriction only to metal members, to thereby moderate the restriction in view of the temperature. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. The restructured fusion program and the role of alternative fusion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    This testimony to the subcommittee on Energy and the Environment of the U.S. House of Representatives's Committee on Science pushes for about 25% of the fusion budget to go to alternative fusion concepts. These concepts are: low density magnetic confinement, inertial confinement fusion, high density magnetic confinement, and non- thermonuclear and miscellaneous programs. Various aspects of each of these concepts are outlined

  12. Information Fusion-Based Optimal Attitude Control for an Alterable Thrust Direction Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyang Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Attitude control is the inner-loop and the most important part of the automatic flight control system of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. The information fusion-based optimal control method is applied in a UAV flight control system in this work. Firstly, a nonlinear model of alterable thrust direction UAV (ATD-UAV is established and linearized for controller design. The longitudinal controller and lateral controller are respectively designed based on information fusion-based optimal control, and then the information fusion flight control system is built up. Finally, the simulation of a nonlinear model described as ATD-UAV is carried out, the results of which show the superiority of the information fusion-based control strategy when compared to the single-loop design method. We also show that the ATD technique improves the anti-disturbance capacity of the UAV.

  13. Possible applications of a hybrid thermonuclear energy source based on a DPF device in modern energy complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribkov, V.A.; Tyagunov, M.G.

    1983-01-01

    A source of thermonuclear energy based on the dense plasma focus (DPF) device in a hybrid fusion-fission version is proposed. In its initial operating phase such a facility would be a net energy consumer and would breed fissile material; as the fissile content in the blanket increases, the installation would become a net energy producer. Under the proposed scheme of blanket operation, up to 50% of the uranium could be burned while maintaining electrical output and without refabrication of fuel elements. If desired, operation could continue after the fuel is almost completely exhausted to burn the nuclear waste. It is thought that the new source could become both technologically and economically feasible in the near future. Smooth control should present no problem and the speed at which the device could be brought up to full load should greatly improve the flexibility of the overall electrical supply system

  14. TIBER (Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor) II as a precursor to an international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Gilleland, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor (TIBER) was pursued in the US as one option for an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). This concept evolved from earlier work on the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) to develop a small, ignited tokamak. While the copper-coil versions of TFCX became the short-pulsed, 1.23-m radius, Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT), the superconducting TIBER with long pulse or steady state and a 2.6-m radius was considered for international collaboration. Recently the design was updated to TIBER II, to accommodate more conservative confinement scaling, double-poloidal divertors for impurity control, steady-state current drive, and nuclear testing. 18 refs., 1 fig

  15. EURATOM strategy towards fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varandas, C.

    2007-01-01

    Research and development (Research and Development) activities in controlled thermonuclear fusion have been carried out since the 60's of the last century aiming at providing a new clean, powerful, practically inexhaustive, safe, environmentally friend and economically attractive energy source for the sustainable development of our society.The EURATOM Fusion Programme (EFP) has the leadership of the magnetic confinement Research and Development activities due to the excellent results obtained on JET and other specialized devices, such as ASDEX-Upgrade, TORE SUPRA, FTU, TCV, TEXTOR, CASTOR, ISTTOK, MAST, TJ-II, W7-X, RFX and EXTRAP. JET is the largest tokamak in operation and the single device that can use deuterium and tritium mixes. It has produced 16 MW of fusion power, during 3 seconds, with an energy amplification of 0.6. The next steps of the EFP strategy towards fusion energy are ITER complemented by a vigorous Accompanying Programme, DEMO and a prototype of a fusion power plant. ITER, the first experimental fusion reactor, is a large-scale project (35-year duration, 10000 MEuros budget), developed in the frame of a very broad international collaboration, involving EURATOM, Japan, Russia Federation, United States of America, Korea, China and India. ITER has two main objectives: (i) to prove the scientific and technical viability of fusion energy by producing 500 MW, during 300 seconds and a energy amplification between 10 and 20; and (ii) to test the simultaneous and integrated operation of the technologies needed for a fusion reactor. The Accompanying Programme aims to prepare the ITER scientific exploitation and the DEMO design, including the development of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). A substantial part of this programme will be carried out in the frame of the Broader Approach, an agreement signed by EURATOM and Japan. The main goal of DEMO is to produce electricity, during a long time, from nuclear fusion reactions. The

  16. Controllers for high-performance nuclear fusion plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, de M.R.

    2012-01-01

    A succesful nuclear fusion reactor will confine plasma at hig temperatures and densities, with low thermal losses. The workhorse of the nuclear fusion community is the tokamak, a toroidal device in which plasmas are confined by poloidal and toroidal magnetic fields. Ideally, the confirming magnetic

  17. Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF): A Low-Cost Fusion Development Path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.; Siemon, R.E.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Reinovsky, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Simple transport-based scaling laws are derived to show that a density and time regime intermediate between conventional magnetic confinement and conventional inertial confinement offers attractive reductions in system size and energy when compared to magnetic confinement and attractive reductions in heating power and intensity when compared to inertial confinement. This intermediate parameter space appears to be readily accessible by existing and near term pulsed power technologies. Hence, the technology of the Megagauss conference opens up an attractive path to controlled thermonuclear fusion

  18. Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1971. Vol. III. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The ultimate goal of controlled nuclear fusion research is to make a new energy source available to mankind, a source that will be virtually unlimited and that gives promise of being environmentally cleaner than the sources currently exploited. This goal has stimulated research in plasma physics over the past two decades, leading to significant advances in the understanding of matter in its most common state as well as to progress in the confinement and heating of plasma. An indication of this progress is that in several countries considerable effort is being devoted to design studies of fusion reactors and to the technological problems that will be encountered in realizing these reactors. This range of research, from plasma physics to fusion reactor engineering, is shown in the present three-volume publication of the Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research. The Conference was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency and was held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA from 17 to 23 June 1971. The enthusiastic co-operation of the University of Wisconsin and of the United States Atomic Energy Commission in the organization of the Conference is gratefully acknowledged. The Conference was attended by over 500 scientists from 24 countries and 3 international organizations, and 143 papers were presented. These papers are published here in the original language; English translations of the Russian papers will be published in a Special Supplement to the journal Nuclear Fusion. The series of conferences on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research has become a major international forum for the presentation and discussion of results in this important and challenging field. In addition to sponsoring these conferences, the International Atomic Energy Agency supports controlled nuclear fusion research by publishing the journal Nuclear Fusion, and has recently established an International Fusion Research Council

  19. Control of ITBs in Fusion Self-Heated Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panta, Soma; Newman, David; Terry, Paul; Sanchez, Raul

    2015-11-01

    Simple dynamical models have been able to capture a remarkable amount of the dynamics of the transport barriers found in many devices, including the often disconnected nature of the electron thermal transport channel sometimes observed in the presence of a standard (``ion channel'') barrier. By including in this rich though simple dynamic transport model an evolution equation for electron fluctuations we have previously investigated the interaction between the formation of the standard ion channel barrier and the somewhat less common electron channel barrier. The electron channel formation and evolution is even more sensitive to the alignment of the various gradients making up the sheared radial electric field then the ion barrier is. Because of this sensitivity and coupling of the barrier dynamics, the dynamic evolution of the fusion self-heating profile can have a significant impact on the barrier location and dynamics. To investigate this, self-heating has been added this model and the impact of the self-heating on the formation and controllability of the various barriers is explored. It has been found that the evolution of the heating profiles can suppress or collapse the electron channel barrier. NBI and RF schemes will be investigated for profile/barrier control.

  20. Remotely controlled fusion of selected vesicles and living cells: a key issue review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Azra; Moreno-Pescador, Guillermo; Oddershede, Lene B.; Bendix, Poul M.

    2018-03-01

    Remote control over fusion of single cells and vesicles has a great potential in biological and chemical research allowing both transfer of genetic material between cells and transfer of molecular content between vesicles. Membrane fusion is a critical process in biology that facilitates molecular transport and mixing of cellular cytoplasms with potential formation of hybrid cells. Cells precisely regulate internal membrane fusions with the aid of specialized fusion complexes that physically provide the energy necessary for mediating fusion. Physical factors like membrane curvature, tension and temperature, affect biological membrane fusion by lowering the associated energy barrier. This has inspired the development of physical approaches to harness the fusion process at a single cell level by using remotely controlled electromagnetic fields to trigger membrane fusion. Here, we critically review various approaches, based on lasers or electric pulses, to control fusion between individual cells or between individual lipid vesicles and discuss their potential and limitations for present and future applications within biochemistry, biology and soft matter.

  1. Local control station for development, testing and maintenance of mirror fusion facility subsystem controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ables, E.; Kelly, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    A Local Control Station (LCS) was designed and built to provide a simplified ad easily configurable means of controlling any Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) subsystem for the purpose of development, testing and maintenance of the subsystem. All MFTF-B Subsystems incorporate at least one Local Control Computer (LCC) that is connected to and accepts high level commands from one of the Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System (SCDS) computers. The LCS connects directly to the LCC in place of SCDS. The LCS communicates with the subsystem hardware using the same SCDS commands that the local control computer recognizes and as such requires no special configuration of the LCC

  2. Department of Thermonuclear Research annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.; Pawlowicz, W.

    1993-02-01

    Department of Thermonuclear Research annual report 1992 presents the most important results of theoretical, experimental and technological studies carried out within a framework of the research program - Plasma Physics and an additional grant - Study of Surface Melting of Selected Materials with a Plasma stream (contract with the Committee for Scientific Research - KBN). Theoretical studies of tokamak edge plasmas, atomic collisions, heat transfer, and numerical codes, are shortly summarized. Experimental studies of X-rays and particles emitted from Plasma-Focus facilities, calibration of nuclear track detectors, optimization of PF discharges with additional gas targets, magnetic probe measurements, new diagnostic and experimental arrangements, as well as mass- and energy-analysis of ions from IONOTRON-type devices, are described. Also presented are technological studies, modernization of experimental facilities, design of new control systems, tests on uniformity and reproducibility of plasma streams as the formation of photovoltaic cells and modifications of solid surfaces by means of plasma streams from the IONOTRON and PF devices. (author)

  3. Department of Thermonuclear Research annual report 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, M; Pawlowicz, W [eds.; Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1993-02-01

    Department of Thermonuclear Research annual report 1992 presents the most important results of theoretical, experimental and technological studies carried out within a framework of the research program - Plasma Physics and an additional grant - Study of Surface Melting of Selected Materials with a Plasma stream (contract with the Committee for Scientific Research - KBN). Theoretical studies of tokamak edge plasmas, atomic collisions, heat transfer, and numerical codes, are shortly summarized. Experimental studies of X-rays and particles emitted from Plasma-Focus facilities, calibration of nuclear track detectors, optimization of PF discharges with additional gas targets, magnetic probe measurements, new diagnostic and experimental arrangements, as well as mass- and energy-analysis of ions from IONOTRON-type devices, are described. Also presented are technological studies, modernization of experimental facilities, design of new control systems, tests on uniformity and reproducibility of plasma streams as the formation of photovoltaic cells and modifications of solid surfaces by means of plasma streams from the IONOTRON and PF devices. (author).

  4. Magnetic fusion and project ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    It has already been demonstrated that our economics and international relationship are impacted by an energy crisis. For the continuing prosperity of the human race, a new and viable energy source must be developed within the next century. It is evident that the cost will be high and will require a long term commitment to achieve this goal due to a high degree of technological and scientific knowledge. Energy from the controlled nuclear fusion is a safe, competitive, and environmentally attractive but has not yet been completely conquered. Magnetic fusion is one of the most difficult technological challenges. In modem magnetic fusion devices, temperatures that are significantly higher than the temperatures of the sun have been achieved routinely and the successful generation of tens of million watts as a result of scientific break-even is expected from the deuterium and tritium experiment within the next few years. For the practical future fusion reactor, we need to develop reactor relevant materials and technologies. The international project called ''International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)'' will fulfill this need and the success of this project will provide the most attractive long-term energy source for mankind

  5. Collection of Summaries of reports on result of research at basic experiment device for nuclear fusion reactor blanket design, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The development of nuclear fusion reactors reached such stage that the generation of fusion power output comparable with the input power into core plasma is possible. At present, the engineering design of the international thermonuclear fusion experimental reactor, ITER, is advanced by the cooperation of Japan, USA, Europe and Russia, aiming at the start of operation at the beginning of 21st century. This meeting for reporting the results has been held every year, and this time, it was held on May 19, 1995 at University of Tokyo with the theme ''The interface properties of fusion reactor materials and the control of particle transport''. About 50 participants from academic, governmental and industrial circles discussed actively on the theme. Three lectures on the topics of fusion reactor engineering and materials and seven lectures on the basic experiment of fusion reactor blanket design related to the next period project were given at the meeting. (K.I.)

  6. Fusion - 2050 perspective (in Polish)

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    The results of strongly exothermic reaction of thermonuclear fusion between nuclei of deuterium and tritium are: helium nuclei and neutrons, plus considerable kinetic energy of neutrons of over 14 MeV. DT nuclides synthesis reaction is probably not the most favorable one for energy production, but is the most advanced technologically. More efficient would be possibly aneutronic fusion. The EU by its EURATOM agenda prepared a Road Map for research and implementation of Fusion as a commercial method of thermonuclear energy generation in the time horizon of 2050.The milestones on this road are tokomak experiments JET, ITER and DEMO, and neutron experiment IFMIF. There is a hope, that by engagement of the national government, and all research and technical fusion communities, part of this Road Map may be realized in Poland. The infrastructure build for fusion experiments may be also used for material engineering research, chemistry, biomedical, associated with environment protection, power engineering, security, ...

  7. Radiation control in fusion plasmas by magnetic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dachicourt, R.

    2012-10-01

    The present work addresses two important issues for the industrial use of fusion: plasma radiation control, as a part of the more general power handling issue, and high density tokamak operation. These two issues will be most critical in the demonstration reactor, called DEMO, intermediate step between ITER and a future commercial reactor. For DEMO, the need to radiate a large fraction of the power so as to limit the peak power load on the divertor will be a key constraint. High confinement will have to be combined with high radiated power fraction, and the required level of plasma purity. The main achievement of this thesis is to have shown experimental evidence of the existence of a stable plasma regime meeting the most critical requirements of a DEMO scenario: an electron density up to 40% above the Greenwald value, together with a fraction of radiated power close to 80%, with a good energy confinement and limited dilution. The plasma is additionally heated with ion cyclotron waves in a central electron heating scenario, featuring alpha particle heating. The original observations reported in this work bring highly valuable new pieces of information both to the physics of the tokamak edge layer and to the construction of an 'integrated operational scenario' required to successfully operate fusion devices. In the way for getting high density plasmas, the new observations involve the following topics. First, the formation of a poloidal asymmetry in the edge electron density profile, with a maximum density located close to toroidal pumped limiter. This asymmetry occurs inside the separatrix, with a constant plasma pressure on magnetic surfaces. Secondly, a correlative decrease of the electron temperature in the same edge region. Thirdly, the excellent coupling capabilities of the ICRH waves, up to a central line averaged electron density of 1.4 times the Greenwald density. Fourthly, a poloidally asymmetric edge radiation region, providing the dissipation of 80% of

  8. Circumferential fusion is dominant over posterolateral fusion in a long-term perspective: cost-utility evaluation of a randomized controlled trial in severe, chronic low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soegaard, Rikke; Bünger, Cody E; Christiansen, Terkel

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Cost-utility evaluation of a randomized, controlled trial with a 4- to 8-year follow-up. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incremental cost per quality-adjusted-life-year (QALY) when comparing circumferential fusion to posterolateral fusion in a long-term, societal perspective. SUMMARY...... OF BACKGROUND DATA: The cost-effectiveness of circumferential fusion in a long-term perspective is uncertain but nonetheless highly relevant as the ISSLS prize winner 2006 in clinical studies reported the effect of circumferential fusion superior to the effect of posterolateral fusion. A recent trial found...... no significant difference between posterolateral and circumferential fusion reporting cost-effectiveness from a 2-year viewpoint. METHODS: A total of 146 patients were randomized to posterolateral or circumferential fusion and followed 4 to 8 years after surgery. The mean age of the cohort was 46 years (range...

  9. Controlled Nuclear Fusion by Magnetic Confinement and ITER

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Alvarez-Gaumé, Luís

    2005-01-01

    For may years harnessing fusion energy was considered the final solution to the world's energy crisis. ITER is the last step in the elusive quest. This presentation will provide in its various acientific, technological and political aspects.

  10. 50 years of controlled nuclear fusion in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenplas, P.; Wolf, G.H.

    2008-01-01

    The author presents the history of fusion energy since its official birth in 1955 during the first conference on the peaceful uses of atomic energy to the expectations put on the ITER project. Nuclear fusion became a major component of the newly created European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The milestones that were: magnetic mirror machines, pinch versions, stellarators and tokamaks are examined. The construction of the first fusion machines were decisive and gave fusion energy enough momentum to overcome greater and greater technological difficulties. At the scale of the world, major machines that were built like TFTR, Princeton (1974), JET, Culham (1977) or JT60, Tokai (1977), appear like a scientific and necessary strategy towards the demonstration reactor. The ITER project is detailed

  11. Commercial application of laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamentals of laser-induced fusion, some laser-fusion reactor concepts, and attendant means of utilizing the thermonuclear energy for commercial electric power generation are discussed. Theoretical fusion-pellet microexplosion energy release characteristics are described and the effects of pellet design options on pellet-microexplosion characteristics are discussed. The results of analyses to assess the engineering feasibility of reactor cavities for which protection of cavity components is provided either by suitable ablative materials or by diversion of plasmas by magnetic fields are presented. Two conceptual laser-fusion electric generating stations, based on different laser-fusion reactor concepts, are described

  12. Industrial opportunities on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, W.R.

    1996-01-01

    Industry has been a long-term contributor to the magnetic fusion program, playing a variety of important roles over the years. Manufacturing firms, engineering-construction companies, and the electric utility industry should all be regarded as legitimate stakeholders in the fusion energy program. In a program focused primarily on energy production, industry's future roles should follow in a natural way, leading to the commercialization of the technology. In a program focused primarily on science and technology, industry's roles, in the near term, should be, in addition to operating existing research facilities, largely devoted to providing industrial support to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project. Industrial opportunities on the ITER Project will be guided by the amount of funding available to magnetic fusion generally, since ITER is funded as a component of that program. The ITER Project can conveniently be discussed in terms of its phases, namely, the present Engineering Design Activities (EDA) phase, and the future (as yet not approved) construction phase. 2 refs., 3 tabs

  13. Thermonuclear power plants and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becka, J.

    1978-01-01

    Environmental safety and protection from the effects of the thermonuclear power plants are discussed. Factors are assessed which should be considered in the choice of fuel and breeding material of a thermonuclear reactor, the problems of structural material activation and the overall reactor concepts. Main specifications are given of the US thermonuclear power plant projects with D-T reaction based reactors. The overall amounts of tritium in the reactor cycles are shown. The potential biological risk is evaluated for the different materials considered for the UWMAK-1 project. Discussed are possible pathways of activity release in normal plant operation, non-radioactive aspects, such as waste heat, the magnetic field effect on personnel and population, etc., as well as possible environmental impacts in case of accidents. (B.S.)

  14. Inertia-confining thermonuclear molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Yamanaka, Chiyoe; Nakai, Sadao; Imon, Shunji; Nakajima, Hidenori; Nakamura, Norio; Kato, Yoshio.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the heat generating efficiency while improving the reactor safety and thereby maintaining the energy balance throughout the reactor. Constitution: In an inertia-confining type D-T thermonuclear reactor, the blanket is made of lithium-containing fluoride molten salts (LiF.BeF 2 , LiF.NaF.KF, LiF.KF, etc) which are cascaded downwardly in a large thickness (50 - 100 cm) along the inner wall of the thermonuclear reaction vessel, and neutrons generated by explosive compression are absorbed to lithium in the molten salts to produce tritium, Heat transportation is carried out by the molten salts. (Ikeda, J.)

  15. Thermonuclear energy and the power industry in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhov, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The leader of the USSR thermonuclear program, the vicepresident of the Academy of Science, comrade Velikhov tells about the modern state and perspective of thermonuclear investigations, as well as about the problems on the international cooperation in this field

  16. Collaborations in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.; Davis, S.; Roney, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews current experimental collaborative efforts in the fusion community and extrapolates to operational scenarios for the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Current requirements, available technologies and tools, and problems, issues and concerns are discussed. This paper specifically focuses on the issues that apply to experimental operational collaborations. Special requirements for other types of collaborations, such as theoretical or design and construction efforts, will not be addressed. Our current collaborative efforts have been highly successful, even though the tools in use will be viewed as primitive by tomorrow's standards. An overview of the tools and technologies in today's collaborations can be found in the first section of this paper. The next generation of fusion devices will not be primarily institutionally based, but will be national (TPX) and international (ITER) in funding, management, operation and in ownership of scientific results. The TPX will present the initial challenge of real-time remotely distributed experimental data analysis for a steady state device. The ITER will present new challenges with the possibility of several remote control rooms all participating in the real-time operation of the experimental device. A view to the future of remote collaborations is provided in the second section of this paper

  17. Synthetic fuels and fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillo, J A; Powell, J; Steinberg, M [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)

    1981-03-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. equal to 40-60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. equal to 50-70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long-term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  18. Diagnostics developments and applications for laser fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.

    1977-01-01

    Some diagnostics techniques applied to current laser fusion target experiments are reviewed. Specifically, holographic interferometry of target plasmas, coded aperture imaging of thermonuclear alpha-particles and neutron energy spectrum measurements are discussed

  19. Contributions to the 7th International Conference on plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The report contains three papers presented in the 7th International Conference on plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices held in Princeton (USA) 5-9 May 1986, all referred to the FT Tokamak

  20. Invited and contributed papers presented at the 22. EPS conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    In this report one invited and fifteen contributed papers by researchers of the `Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasmas`, Lausanne, to the 22. EPS Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics are assembled. figs., tabs., refs.

  1. Genetically controlled fusion, exocytosis and fission of artificial vesicles-a roadmap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bönzli, Eva; Hadorn, Maik; de Lucrezia, Davide

    2011-01-01

    were shown to fuse if a special class of viral proteins, termed fusogenic peptides, were added to the external medium (Nomura et al. 2004). In the present work, we intend to develop genetically controlled fusion, fission and exocytosis of vesicles by the synthesis of peptides within vesicles. First, we...... enclosed synthesized peptides in vesicles to induce in a next step fusion of adjacent vesicles, fission and exocytosis of nested vesicles. Second, we will replace the peptides by an enclosed cell-free expression system to internally synthesize fusion peptides. To control the gene expression, different...

  2. Analysis of induction phenomena in thermonuclear experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeds, W.E.; Dodd, C.V.

    1976-01-01

    Many of the problems involving transients induced by changing currents in the large coils of thermonuclear machines are identical to those arising in nondestructive testing by eddy currents. There are three chief methods used for calculating such induction phenomena: analytical boundary-value solutions, relaxation or iteration techniques, and model experiments. Some of the results obtained by each of these methods are described below

  3. Thermonuclear model for high energy transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    The thermonuclear model for x- and γ-ray bursts is discussed. Different regimes of nuclear burning are reviewed, each appropriate to a given range of (steady state) accretion rate. Accretion rates in the range 10 -14 to 10 -8 Msub solar y -1 all appear capable of producing x-ray transients of various durations and intervals. Modifications introduced by radiatively driven mass loss, the thermal inertia of the envelope, different burning mechanisms, and two-dimensional considerations are discussed as are difficulties encountered when the thermonuclear model is confronted with observations of rapidly recurrent bursts (less than or equal to 10 min), and super-Eddington luminosities and temperatures. Results from a numerical simulation of a combined hydrogen-helium runaway initiated at pycnonuclear density are presented for the first time. The thermonuclear model for γ-ray bursts is also reviewed and updated, particularly with regard to the breakdown of the steady state hypothesis employed in previous work. Solely on the basis of nuclear instability, γ-ray bursts of various types appear possible for a very broad variety of accretion rates (approx. 10 -17 to approx. 10 -11 Msub solar y -1 ) although other considerations may restrict this range. The thermonuclear model appears capable of yielding a great diversity of high energy transient phenomena for various accretion rates, magnetic field configurations, and neutron star envelope histories

  4. Chemically ignited thermonuclear reactions: A near-term means for a high specific impulse - High thrust propulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1982-01-01

    A proposal for the fissionless ignition of small thermonuclear reactions is made which involves the combination of the magnetic booster target inertial fusion concept with the chemical implosion of metallic shells. The magnetic booster employs a very dense and magnetically confined low yield thermonuclear plasma to trigger an inertially confined high yield plasma. Fissionless ignition permits smaller yields than with fission- or fusion-induced fusion bombs, yields that are appropriate for use in a spacecraft propulsion system. Each bomb would release about 10 to the 18th erg or 100 tons of TNT, and with one explosion per second, an average thrust of 10 to the third tons and a specific impulse of about 3000 seconds can be expected

  5. Robust adaptive control of the sawtooth instability in nuclear fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolder, J.J.; Witvoet, G.; Baar, de M.R.; Wouw, van de N.; Haring, M.A.M.; Westerhof, E.; Doelman, N.J.; Steinbuch, M.

    2012-01-01

    The sawtooth instability is a repetitive phenomenon occurring in plasmas of tokamak nuclear fusion reactors. Experimental studies of these instabilities and the effect they have on the plasma (notably the drive of secondary instabilities and consequent performance reduction) for a wide variety of

  6. Fundamentals of plasma physics and controlled fusion. The third edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2011-06-01

    Primary objective of this lecture note is to provide a basic text for the students to study plasma physics and controlled fusion researches. Secondary objective is to offer a reference book describing analytical methods of plasma physics for the researchers. This was written based on lecture notes for a graduate course and an advanced undergraduate course those have been offered at Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo. In ch.1 and 2, basic concept of plasma and its characteristics are explained. In ch.3, orbits of ion and electron are described in several magnetic field configurations. Chapter 4 formulates Boltzmann equation of velocity space distribution function, which is the basic relation of plasma physics. From ch.5 to ch.9, plasmas are described as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid. MHD equation of motion (ch.5), equilibrium (ch.6) and diffusion and confinement time of plasma (ch.7) are described by the fluid model. Chapters 8 and 9 discuss problems of MHD instabilities whether a small perturbation will grow to disrupt the plasma or will damp to a stable state. The basic MHD equation of motion can be derived by taking an appropriate average of Boltzmann equation. This mathematical process is described in appendix A. The derivation of useful energy integral formula of axisymmetric toroidal system and the analysis of high n ballooning mode are described in app. B. From ch.10 to ch.14, plasmas are treated by kinetic theory. This medium, in which waves and perturbations propagate, is generally inhomogeneous and anisotropic. It may absorb or even amplify the wave. Cold plasma model described in ch.10 is applicable when the thermal velocity of plasma particles is much smaller than the phase velocity of wave. Because of its simplicity, the dielectric tensor of cold plasma can be easily derived and the properties of various wave can be discussed in the case of cold plasma. If the refractive index becomes large and the phase velocity of the

  7. Utilization of a Network of Small Magnetic Confinement Fusion Devices for Mainstream Fusion Research. Report of a Coordinated Research Project 2011–2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-12-01

    The IAEA actively promotes the development of controlled fusion as a source of energy. Through its coordinated research activities, the IAEA helps Member States to exchange and establish scientific and technical knowledge required for the design, construction and operation of a fusion reactor. Due to their compactness, flexibility and low operation costs, small fusion devices are a great resource for supporting and accelerating the development of mainstream fusion research on large fusion devices such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. They play an important role in investigating the physics of controlled fusion, developing innovative technologies and diagnostics, testing new materials, training highly qualified personnel for larger fusion facilities, and supporting educational programmes for young scientists. This publication reports on the research work accomplished within the framework of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Utilization of the Network of Small Magnetic Confinement Fusion Devices for Mainstream Fusion Research, organized and conducted by the IAEA in 2011–2016. The CRP has contributed to the coordination of a network of research institutions, thereby enhancing international collaboration through scientific visits, joint experiments and the exchange of information and equipment. A total of 16 institutions and 14 devices from 13 Member States participated in this CRP (Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Costa Rica, the Czech Republic, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, Portugal, the Russian Federation, Ukraine and the United Kingdom).

  8. Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, C. L.; Johnson, J. O.

    Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation's activities and providing an early warning and/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a surprise nuclear attack. However, the deployment of satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; and neutrons, gamma rays, and x-rays from intentionally detonated fission and fusion weapons. In this paper, the MASH vl.0 code system is used to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized space based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from a thermonuclear weapon detonation in space. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the platform fully loaded, and in several stages representing limited engagement scenarios. The results indicate vulnerabilities to the Command, Control, and Communication bay instruments from radiation damage for a nuclear weapon detonation for certain source/platform orientations. The distance at which damage occurs will depend on the weapon yield (n,(gamma)/kiloton) and size (kilotons).

  9. A high-power laser system for thermonuclear fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizov, Eh.A.; Ignat'ev, L.P.; Koval'skij, N.G.; Kolesnikov, Yu.A.; Mamzer, A.F.; Pergament, M.I.; Rudnitskij, Yu.P.; Smirnov, G.V.; Yagnov, V.A.; Nikolaevskij, V.G.

    1976-01-01

    A high-power laser system has been designed for an energy output of approximately 3X10 4 J. Neodymium glass was selected based on the level of technical progress, operating experience and the availability of components. The operating performance that has been achieved to date is described. (author)

  10. Fusion plasma physics during half a century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Bo

    1999-08-01

    A review is given on the potentialities of fusion energy with respect to energy production and related environmental problems, the various approaches to controlled thermonuclear fusion, the main problem areas of research, the historical development, the present state of investigations, and future perspectives. This article also presents a personal memorandum of the author. Thereby special reference will be given to part of the research conducted at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, merely to identify its place within the general historical development. Considerable progress has been made in fusion research during the last decades. In large tokamak experiments temperatures above the ignition limit of about 10{sup 8} K have been reached under break-even conditions where the fusion power generation is comparable to the energy loss. A power producing fusion reactor could in principle be realized already today, but it would not become technically and economically efficient. The future international research programme has therefore to be conducted along broad lines, with necessary ingredients of basis research and new ideas, and also within lines of magnetic confinement being alternative to that of tokamaks.

  11. Fusion plasma physics during half a century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, Bo

    1999-08-01

    A review is given on the potentialities of fusion energy with respect to energy production and related environmental problems, the various approaches to controlled thermonuclear fusion, the main problem areas of research, the historical development, the present state of investigations, and future perspectives. This article also presents a personal memorandum of the author. Thereby special reference will be given to part of the research conducted at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, merely to identify its place within the general historical development. Considerable progress has been made in fusion research during the last decades. In large tokamak experiments temperatures above the ignition limit of about 10 8 K have been reached under break-even conditions where the fusion power generation is comparable to the energy loss. A power producing fusion reactor could in principle be realized already today, but it would not become technically and economically efficient. The future international research programme has therefore to be conducted along broad lines, with necessary ingredients of basis research and new ideas, and also within lines of magnetic confinement being alternative to that of tokamaks

  12. Macrophage fusion is controlled by the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-PEST/PTPN12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Inmoo; Davidson, Dominique; Souza, Cleiton Martins; Vacher, Jean; Veillette, André

    2013-06-01

    Macrophages can undergo cell-cell fusion, leading to the formation of multinucleated giant cells and osteoclasts. This process is believed to promote the proteolytic activity of macrophages toward pathogens, foreign bodies, and extracellular matrices. Here, we examined the role of PTP-PEST (PTPN12), a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase, in macrophage fusion. Using a macrophage-targeted PTP-PEST-deficient mouse, we determined that PTP-PEST was not needed for macrophage differentiation or cytokine production. However, it was necessary for interleukin-4-induced macrophage fusion into multinucleated giant cells in vitro. It was also needed for macrophage fusion following implantation of a foreign body in vivo. Moreover, in the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line, PTP-PEST was required for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-triggered macrophage fusion into osteoclasts. PTP-PEST had no impact on expression of fusion mediators such as β-integrins, E-cadherin, and CD47, which enable macrophages to become fusion competent. However, it was needed for polarization of macrophages, migration induced by the chemokine CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), and integrin-induced spreading, three key events in the fusion process. PTP-PEST deficiency resulted in specific hyperphosphorylation of the protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2 and the adaptor paxillin. Moreover, a fusion defect was induced upon treatment of normal macrophages with a Pyk2 inhibitor. Together, these data argue that macrophage fusion is critically dependent on PTP-PEST. This function is seemingly due to the ability of PTP-PEST to control phosphorylation of Pyk2 and paxillin, thereby regulating cell polarization, migration, and spreading.

  13. Some introductory notes on the problem of nuclear energy by controlled fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedretti, E.

    1988-01-01

    Written for scientists and technologist interested in, but unfamiliar with nuclear energy by controlled fusion reactions, this ''sui generis'' review paper attempts to provide the reader, as shortly as possible, with a general idea of the main issues at stake in nuclear fusion research. With the purpose of keeping this paper within a reasonable length, the various subjects are only outlined in their essence, basic features, underlying principles, etc., without entering into details, which are left to the quoted literature. Due to the particular readership of this journal, vacuum problems and/or aspects of fusion research anyhow related with vacuum science and technology are evidentiated. After reviewing fusion reactions' cross sections, fusion by accelerators and muon catalyzed fusion are described, followed by mention of Lawson's criteria and of plasma confinement features. Then, inertial confinement fusion is dealt with, also including one example of laser system (Nova), one of accelerator facility (PBFA-II) and some guesses on the classified Centurion-Halite program. Magnetic confinement fusion research is also reviewed, in particulary reporting one example of linear machine (MFTF-B), two examples of toroidal machines other than Tokamak (ATF and Eta-Beta-II) and various examples of Tokamaks, including PBX and PBX-M; TFTR, JET, JT-60, T-15 and Tore-Supra (large machines); Alcator A, FT, Alcator C/MTX, Alcator C-Mod and T-14 (compact high field machines). Tokamaks under design for ignition experiments (Ignitor, CIT, Ignitex and NET) are also illustrated. Thermal conversion of fusion power and direct generation of electricity are mentioned; conceptual design of fusion power plants are considered and illustrated by four examples (STARFIRE, WILDCAT, MARS and CASCADE). The D 3 He fuel cycle is discussed as an alternative more acceptable than Deuterium-Tritium, and thw Candor proposal is reported. After recalling past experience of the fission power development, some

  14. BNL heavy ion fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschke, A.W.

    1978-01-01

    A principal attraction of heavy ion fusion is that existing accelerator technology and theory are sufficiently advanced to allow one to commence the design of a machine capable of igniting thermonuclear explosions. There are, however, a number of features which are not found in existing accelerators built for other purposes. The main thrust of the BNL Heavy Ion Fusion program has been to explore these features. Longitudinal beam bunching, very low velocity acceleration, and space charge neutralization are briefly discussed

  15. Advanced synfuel production with fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.

    1979-01-01

    An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers a nearly inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets

  16. (Fusion energy research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.A. (ed.)

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

  17. [Fusion energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer

  18. Nuclear fusion and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Taijiro

    1987-01-01

    Work for design, research and development is expected to start in 1988 for a new nuclear fusion reactor called ITER (international thermonuclear experimental reactor), which is to be constructed and operated through cooperation among Japan, U.S., Soviet Union and EC. Many talks and discussions concerning the work have been made on various occasions, including the Reagan-Gorbachev talks at Geneva in November 1985, 5th Fusion Working Group meeting in Germany in January 1986, extraordinary FWG meeting at Tokyo in February-March 1986, 11th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Control held under IAEA at Kyoto in November 1986, and first formal four-party (Japan, U.S., Soviet Union, EC) meeting at the IAEA headquarters in March this year. The ITER Technical Working Group was established and its first meeting was held on May 21 - 23, 1987. It was concluded in the meeting that the operation of ITER will be performed in two phases intended for nuclear combustion plasma physics studies and stationary operation, respectively. Major research and development activities carried out in the U.S., Europe, the Soviet Union, Japan and IAEA in connection with the development of ITER are outlined. (Nogami, K.)

  19. Rates of Thermonuclear Reactions in Dense Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytovich, V.N.; Bornatici, M.

    2000-01-01

    The problem of plasma screening of thermonuclear reactions has attracted considerable scientific interest ever since Salpeter's seminal paper, but it is still faced with controversial statements and without any definite conclusion. It is of relevant importance to thermonuclear reactions in dense astrophysical plasmas, for which charge screening can substantially affect the reaction rates. Whereas Salpeter and a number of subsequent investigations have dealt with static screening, Carraro, Schafer, and Koonin have drawn attention to the fact that plasma screening of thermonuclear reactions is an essentially dynamic effect. In addressing the issue of collective plasma effects on the thermonuclear reaction rates, the first critical overview of most of the work carried out so far is presented and the validity of the test particle approach is assessed. In contrast to previous investigations, we base our description on the kinetic equation for nonequilibrium plasmas, which accounts for the effects on the rates of thermonuclear reactions of both plasma fluctuations and screening and allows one to analyze explicitly the effects of the fluctuations on the reaction rates. Such a kinetic formulation is more general than both Salpeter's approach and the recently developed statistical approaches and makes it possible to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the problem. A noticeable result of the fluctuation approach is that the static screening, which affects both the interaction and the self-energy of the reacting nuclei, does not affect the reaction rates, in contrast with the results obtained so far. Instead, a reduction of the thermonuclear reaction rates is obtained as a result of the effect of plasma fluctuations related to the free self-energy of the reacting nuclei. A simple physical explanation of the slowing down of the reaction rates is given, and the relation to the dynamically screened test particle approach is discussed. Corrections to the reaction rates

  20. Controlled Fusion with Hot-ion Mode in a Degenerate Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Son and N.J. Fisch

    2005-01-01

    In a Fermi-degenerate plasma, the rate of electron physical processes is much reduced from the classical prediction, possibly enabling new regimes for controlled nuclear fusion, including the hot-ion mode, a regime in which the ion temperature exceeds the electron temperature. Previous calculations of these processes in dense plasmas are now corrected for partial degeneracy and relativistic effects, leading to an expanded regime of self-sustained fusion

  1. 10th International Conference and School on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2004-01-01

    About 240 abstracts by Ukrainian and foreign authors submitted to 10-th International Conference and School on Plasma Physics and Controlled fusion have been considered by Conference Program Committee members. All the abstracts have been divided into 8 groups: magnetic confinement systems: stellarators, tokamaks, alternative conceptions; ITER and Fusion reactor aspects; basic plasma physics; space plasma; plasma dynamics and plasma-wall interaction; plasma electronics; low temperature plasma and plasma technologies; plasma diagnostics

  2. Twentyseventh European physical society conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igitkhanov, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The twentyseventh European physical society conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics was held in Budapest, 12-16 June 2000. About 10 invited papers were presented, covering a wide range of problems in plasma physics, including confinement and transport issues in fusion devices, astrophysics and industrial application of plasmas. More than 100 papers were presented on plasma theory and experiments from tokamaks and stellarators. Some of the ITER-relevant issues covered are described in this newsletter

  3. HEDP and new directions for fusion energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.

    2010-06-01

    Magnetic-confinement fusion energy and inertia-confinement fusion energy (IFE) represent two extreme approaches to the quest for the application of thermonuclear fusion to electrical energy generation. Blind pursuit of these extreme approaches has long delayed the achievement of their common goal. We point out the possibility of an intermediate approach that promises cheaper, and consequently more rapid development of fusion energy. For example, magneto-inertial fusion appears to be possible over a broad range of parameter space. It is further argued that imposition of artificial constraints impedes the discovery of physics solutions for the fusion energy problem.

  4. Implications of the second law for future directions in controlled fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.R.; Miley, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Many existing energy related technologies have developed under the influence of social, economic, or state of the art constraints, and they cannot be viewed as optimum systems according to the second law of thermodynamics. Controlled fusion research presents an opportunity to optimize a nascent technology with respect to second law considerations in order to develop a practical energy source. In its present state of development, fusion research offers several independent approaches that may result in a net power producing fusion reactor. This paper discusses how second law considerations might be used to narrow the range of choices that must be made among various fusion fuel cycles. From a second law point of view, the most desirable fusion reactors are those for which the energy of charged particles can be converted directly into d.c. electrical power, while still allowing the energy that could be recovered by an efficient high-temperature 'blanket' to be transported largely by radiation. Fusion research in all major industrialized countries is developing the deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel cycle for first-generation fusion power plants. It will be shown that other fuel cycles have significant advantages over the D-T fuel cycle according to second law principles. (author)

  5. A Game Theoretic Model of Thermonuclear Cyberwar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soper, Braden C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-23

    In this paper we propose a formal game theoretic model of thermonuclear cyberwar based on ideas found in [1] and [2]. Our intention is that such a game will act as a first step toward building more complete formal models of Cross-Domain Deterrence (CDD). We believe the proposed thermonuclear cyberwar game is an ideal place to start on such an endeavor because the game can be fashioned in a way that is closely related to the classical models of nuclear deterrence [4–6], but with obvious modifications that will help to elucidate the complexities introduced by a second domain. We start with the classical bimatrix nuclear deterrence game based on the game of chicken, but introduce uncertainty via a left-of-launch cyber capability that one or both players may possess.

  6. ITER: the Sun rises over nuclear fusion with West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacco, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    The ITER project is considered as a critical step on the way to commercial production of electricity by a thermonuclear reactor based on controlled fusion. This project notably requires the development of a divertor which is the objective of the West project which will use the famous Cadarache superconductive magnet reactor, Tore Supra. After having outlined the future lack of fossil energies at the world scale, presented the operation principles of tokamaks and recalled some results obtained in their development, this article justifies the use of superconductive magnets. It presents the ITER project as a step in the production of thermonuclear electricity. ITER will be in fact a proof that such plants can be realised, and it should be followed by Demo, a demonstration power plant, by 2050. The article presents the West project, a test bench for ITER, which introduced modifications in the Tore Supra reactor to create conditions almost similar to that existing at the surface of the Sun. It notably comprises a divertor made of tungsten for the fusion with tritium. It finally outlines that the fusion will be a hot one, not a cold one

  7. Epidemiology of a thermonuclear bomb-burst over Nashville, Tennessee: a theoretic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    A thermonuclear bomb explosion over any city in the world would have a devastating effect on the population and environment. For those who survive, with or without injuries, life would become primitive with little or no uncontaminated food or water, and with inadequate housing, fuel, and medical care, resulting in a breakdown of family and interpersonal relationships. This theoretic study of the potential outcome of a thermonuclear bomb-burst over Nashville, Tennessee, discusses epidemiologically the wide range of medical and psychologic effects from the direct trauma of blast and fire, widespread epidemics of otherwise controlled disease, long-term chronic illness, genetic damage, and catastrophic environmental havoc

  8. Investigation of the stationary-thermonuclear-reaction realization possibility in a tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesnichenko, Ya.I.; Reznik, S.N.; Fursa, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    The stationary (quasistationary) selfsustaining thermonuclear D-T reaction is shown to be possible in a toroidal device such as 'Tokamak' with large enough plasma radius. The stationary temperature of the plasma can be quite high. Thus when the transport processes are assumed to be neoclassical the temperature of the central part of a plasma colomn of radius approximately 10-200 cm in the stationary state is 70 keV.The stationary temperature distribution is reached spontaneously as a result of the thermal instability development if plasma is preheated to 10 keV. The stationary thermonuclear burning is also possible at lower temperatures if plasma energy balance is controlled

  9. Nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation, industrial applications, plasma physics and nuclear fusion 1986-1996. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Measurements, Techniques, and Instrumentation, Industrial Applications, Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, issued during the period 1986-1996. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all of these papers have abstracts in English. Contents cover the three main areas of (i) Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation (Physics, Dosimetry Techniques, Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Research Reactor and Particle Accelerator Applications, and Nuclear Data), (ii) Industrial Applications (Radiation Processing, Radiometry, and Tracers), and (iii) Plasma Physics and Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion

  10. New concepts for controlled fusion reactor blanket design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Avci, H.; El-Maghrabi, M.

    1975-01-01

    Several new concepts for fusion reactor blanket design based on the idea of shifting, or tailoring, the neutron spectrum incident on the first structural wall are presented. The spectral shifter is a nonstructural element which can be made of graphite, silicon carbide, or three dimensionally woven carbon fibers (and containing other materials as appropriate) placed between the neutron source and the first structural wall. The softened neutron spectrum incident on the structural components leads to lower gas production and atom displacement rates than in more standard fusion blanket designs. In turn, this results in longer anticipated lifetimes for the structural materials and can significantly reduce radioactivity and afterheat levels. In addition, the neutron spectrum in the first structural wall can be made to approach the flux shape in fast breeder reactors. Such spectral softening means that existing radiation facilities may be more profitably used to provide relevant materials radiation damage data for the structural materials in these fusion blanket designs. This general class of blanket concepts are referred to as internal spectral shifter and energy converter, or ISSEC concepts. These specific design concepts fall into three main categories: ISSEC/EB concepts based on utilizing existing designs which breed tritium behind the first structural wall; ISSEC/IB concepts based on breeding tritium inside the first vacuum wall; and ISSEC/Bu concepts based on using boron, carbon, and perhaps, beryllium to obtain an energy multiplier and converter design that does not attempt to breed tritium or utilize lithium. The detailed analyses relate specifically to the nuclear performance of ISSEC systems and to a discussion of materials radiation damage problems in the structural material.(U.S.)

  11. Controlled nuclear fusion, a challenge on the engineer. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, H.

    1978-01-01

    A very important and complex subject, on which the engineer together with the physicist must meditate very intensely, concerns the practicableness, the operation safety and the economy of the electrotechnical components and systems as are required in the actual reactor scale. There upon it depends essentially according to which plasma-physical concept - magnetic inclusion or inertia inclusion - a fusion reactor could work in the future. The blanket structure, the breeding of the tritium connected therewith and the electrotechnical problems, which are recognized at the transmission of plasma-physical concepts into actual reactor scales and at the adaptation to reactor requirements are discussed in this contribution. (orig.) 891 HP 892 AG [de

  12. Catalogue of nuclear fusion codes - 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-10-01

    A catalogue is presented of the computer codes in nuclear fusion research developed by JAERI, Division of Thermonuclear Fusion Research and Division of Large Tokamak Development in particular. It contains a total of about 100 codes under the categories: Atomic Process, Data Handling, Experimental Data Processing, Engineering, Input and Output, Special Languages and Their Application, Mathematical Programming, Miscellaneous, Numerical Analysis, Nuclear Physics, Plasma Physics and Fusion Research, Plasma Simulation and Numerical Technique, Reactor Design, Solid State Physics, Statistics, and System Program. (auth.)

  13. Computational and biological characterization of fusion proteins of two insecticidal proteins for control of insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Shaista; Naz, Sehrish; Amin, Imran; Jander, Georg; Ul-Haq, Zaheer; Mansoor, Shahid

    2018-03-19

    Sucking pests pose a serious agricultural challenge, as available transgenic technologies such as Bacillus thuringiensis crystal toxins (Bt) are not effective against them. One approach is to produce fusion protein toxins for the control of these pests. Two protein toxins, Hvt (ω-atracotoxin from Hadronyche versuta) and onion leaf lectin, were translationally fused to evaluate the negative effects of fusion proteins on Phenacoccus solenopsis (mealybug), a phloem-feeding insect pest. Hvt was cloned both N-terminally (HL) and then C-terminally (LH) in the fusion protein constructs, which were expressed transiently in Nicotiana tabacum using a Potato Virus X (PVX) vector. The HL fusion protein was found to be more effective against P. solenopsis, with an 83% mortality rate, as compared to the LH protein, which caused 65% mortality. Hvt and lectin alone caused 42% and 45%, respectively, under the same conditions. Computational studies of both fusion proteins showed that the HL protein is more stable than the LH protein. Together, these results demonstrate that translational fusion of two insecticidal proteins improved the insecticidal activity relative to each protein individually and could be expressed in transgenic plants for effective control of sucking pests.

  14. Stat-of-the art of nuclear fusion and its future outlook in

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaziz, M.E.; Elnadi, A.M.; Masoud, M.; Elshaer, M.A.; Khalil, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    The study in this project is carried out with the objective of being able to present a clear view for the state-of-the art of nuclear fusion as one of the most promising coming energy source and its future outlook in Egypt. The study introduce a summary of the world energy problem and the advantages of thermonuclear fusion energy compared to other energy sources. A description of the two main techniques of confining plasma in the fusion experiments, namely the magnetic and the inertial confinement. These techniques are discussed and investigated through linear pinches and tokamaks. Tokamaks showed to be a promising machines for achieving the controlled thermonuclear fusion power reactor. Recent development of the research on laser fusion together with fast progress in pellet and laser technology suggest that it may be possible to achieve laser fusion power reactor. The story of the strange phenomena of cold fusion, muon-catalyzed fusion, and cold fusion in condensed matter are also studied and showed to be non promising. The project study in details the future fusion reactor, its nuclear engineering and its safety and environmental aspects. The study is based on the magnetic fusion using the tokamak configuration. The positive safety and environmental aspects of fusion reactors, if exist, is also investigated. Status of plasma physics and nuclear fusion activities and strategies in the developing countries (including egypt and the arab countries) are reviewed, besides, some national programmes are proposed. In addition, the status of international activities in plasma technology and its application are represented. Future outlook for egyptian programmes on different plasma technologies are studied. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are presented which summarized the principle achiements and future research opportunities in nuclear fusion activities. In fact, it must be emphasized that fusion is an exciting and challenging field of research -the most

  15. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliezer, S.

    1982-02-01

    In this paper, the physics of laser fusion is described on an elementary level. The irradiated matter consists of a dense inner core surrounded by a less dense plasma corona. The laser radiation is mainly absorbed in the outer periphery of the plasma. The absorbed energy is transported inward to the ablation surface where plasma flow is created. Due to this plasma flow, a sequence of inward going shock waves and heat waves are created, resulting in the compression and heating of the core to high density and temperature. The interaction physics between laser and matter leading to thermonuclear burn is summarized by the following sequence of events: Laser absorption → Energy transport → Compression → Nuclear Fusion. This scenario is shown in particular for a Nd:laser with a wavelength of 1 μm. The wavelength scaling of the physical processes is also discussed. In addition to the laser-plasma physics, the Nd high power pulsed laser is described. We give a very brief description of the oscillator, the amplifiers, the spatial filters, the isolators and the diagnostics involved. Last, but not least, the concept of reactors for laser fusion and the necessary laser system are discussed. (author)

  16. Control oriented modeling and simulation of the sawtooth instability in nuclear fusion tokamak plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvoet, G.; Westerhof, E.; Steinbuch, M.; Doelman, N.J.; Baar, de M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Tokamak plasmas in nuclear fusion are subject to various instabilities. A clear example is the sawtooth instability, which has both positive and negative effects on the plasma. To optimize between these effects control of the sawtooth period is necessary. This paper presents a simple control

  17. Power supply for magnetic coils in thermonuclear devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Ryuichi; Tamura, Sanae; Kishimoto, Hiroshi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the load fluctuations in an external power supply, as well as to increase the operation efficiency capacity of thermonuclear devices. Constitution: Electrical power with the same frequency as that of a dynamo generator is supplied by a power supply-driving power source including a frequency converter and the like to DC converters for driving plasma-exciting and -controlling coils. At the same time, the electrical power from the frequency converter is supplied to the dynamo generator with flywheel to add accumulate energies to the EC converters. Accordingly, the energy for the great power pulses in a short time comprises the sum of the energy supplied from the dynamo generator with flywheel and the energy supplied continuously from the outside to eliminate the need of providing a stand-by period for the re-acceleration of the dynamo generator with flywheel even if the scale of the thermonuclear device is enlarged and energy consumed in one cycle is increased, whereby the decrease in the operation efficiency can be prevented and the capacity of the flywheel can be reduced. (Yoshino, Y.)

  18. Transient temperature variations during the self-heating of a plasma by thermonuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greyber, Howard D [University of California Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1958-07-01

    The motivation for this work arose from an observation by Rosenbluth that in a different but related physical situation, the electron temperature) could exceed ion temperature, during transient heating. We have undertaken to trace the transient temperatures to be expected in an idealized physical situation that still bears some resemblance to what one envisions for the Controlled Thermonuclear Reactor.

  19. Safety device of thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Isao; Ueda, Shuzo; Seki, Yasushi; Sakurai, Akiko; Kasahara, Fumio; Obara, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Michinori.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a safety device against an event of intrusion of coolants in a vacuum vessel. Namely, a coolant supply system comprises cooling tubes for supplying coolants to main reactor structure components including a vacuum vessel. A detection means detects leakage of coolants in the vacuum vessel. A coolant supply control means controls the supply of coolants to the main reactor structural components based on the leakage detection signals of the detection means. A stagnated material discharging means discharges stagnated materials in the main reactor structural components caused by the leakage of coolants. The leakage of coolants (for example, water) in the vacuum vessel can thus be detected by the water detection device in the vacuum vessel. A control value of a coolant supply means is closed by the leakage detection signals. The supply of coolants to the main reactor structural components is restricted to suppress the leakage. The stagnated materials are discharged to a tank by way of a water draining valve. (I.S.)

  20. rhBMP-2 for posterolateral instrumented lumbar fusion: a multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, R John; Alexander, David; Bailey, Stewart; Mahood, James; Abraham, Ed; McBroom, Robert; Jodoin, Alain; Fisher, Charles

    2013-12-01

    Multicenter randomized controlled trial. To evaluate the effect of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) on radiographical fusion rate and clinical outcome for surgical lumbar arthrodesis compared with iliac crest autograft. In many types of spinal surgery, radiographical fusion is a primary outcome equally important to clinical improvement, ensuring long-term stability and axial support. Biologic induction of bone growth has become a commonly used adjunct in obtaining this objective. We undertook this study to objectify the efficacy of rhBMP-2 compared with traditional iliac crest autograft in instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion. Patients undergoing 1- or 2-level instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion were randomized to receive either autograft or rhBMP-2 for their fusion construct. Clinical and radiographical outcome measures were followed for 2 to 4 years postoperatively. One hundred ninety seven patients were successfully randomized among the 8 participating institutions. Adverse events attributable to the study drug were not significantly different compared with controls. However, the control group experienced significantly more graft-site complications as might be expected. 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, Oswestry Disability Index, and leg/back pain scores were comparable between the 2 groups. After 4 years of follow-up, radiographical fusion rates remained significantly higher in patients treated with rhBMP-2 (94%) than those who received autograft (69%) (P = 0.007). The use of rhBMP-2 for instrumented posterolateral lumbar surgery significantly improves the chances of radiographical fusion compared with the use of autograft. However, there is no associated improvement in clinical outcome within a 4-year follow-up period. These results suggest that use of rhBMP-2 should be considered in cases where lumbar arthrodesis is of primary concern.

  1. Protection for a thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Ryuichi; Sasatani, Shin-ichi.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress an abnormal voltage due to potential changes by a characteristic impedance composed of a discharge gap, a resistance and a capacitor, as well as absorb the energy of the abnormal voltage by properly selecting the current capacity of the resistor. Constitution: An abnormal voltage generated in a current transformer coils is detected by an abnormal voltage detector and an output signal therefrom causes a high voltage generating device to generate a high voltage, whereby electric discharge is taken place across a discharge gap to absorb the energy of the abnormal voltage in a resistor and a capacitor. For the abnormal voltage from the plasmas, the voltage across the transformer coils can be suppressed to some extent by selecting the impedance for the current transformer coils and the impedance for the parallel circuit of the resistor and the capacitor to an appropriate ratio. While on the other hand, after throwing a switcher by the actuation of a switcher control device, the energy for the abnormal voltage can sufficiently be absorbed through the internal resistance of the transformer coils and the resistance for the entire current. (Yoshino, Y.)

  2. Magnetic sensor for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Takuro; Abe, Mitsushi; Okazaki, Takashi.

    1996-01-01

    A magnetic sensor is constituted by using an element having a nernst effect. As the nernst element, a compound of metals such as silver and antimony, and compounds such as mercury telluride, mercury selenide and indium antimonide are used. Thermocouples for measuring the temperature of the surface of the nernst element are connected to both ends of the nernst element in one direction (x direction). A heating or cooling device is disposed for applying a predetermined temperature gradient in one direction of the element. The sensitivity of the element is controlled by changing the temperature gradient corresponding to the intensity of the magnetic fields. A signal line is connected in the direction (y direction) perpendicular to the x direction of the element for measuring potential difference. The signal line is connected to a signal processing device together with the signal line for measuring temperature. With such a constitution, magnetic fields under strong radiation rays and high thermal load can be measured for a long period of time. (I.N.)

  3. Breeding blankets for thermonuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocaboy, Alain.

    1982-06-01

    Materials with structures suitable for this purpose are studied. A bibliographic review of the main solid and liquid lithiated compounds is then presented. Erosion, dimensioning and maintenance problems associated with the limiter and the first wall of the reactor are studied from the point of view of the constraints they impose on the design of the blankets. Detailed studies of the main solid and liquid blanket concepts enable the best technological compromises to be determined for the indispensable functions of the blanket to be assured under acceptable conditions. Our analysis leads to four classes of solution, which cannot at this stage be considered as final recommendations, but which indicate what sort of solutions it is worthwhile exploring and comparing in order to be in a position to suggest a realistic blanket at the time when plasma control is sufficiently good for power reactors to be envisaged. Some considerations on the general architecture of the reactor are indicated. Energy storage with pulsed reactors is discussed in the appendix, and a first approach made to minimizing the total tritium recovery [fr

  4. Fusion reactor fuel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.F.

    1972-06-01

    For thermonuclear power reactors based on the continuous fusion of deuterium and tritium the principal fuel processing problems occur in maintaining desired compositions in the primary fuel cycled through the reactor, in the recovery of tritium bred in the blanket surrounding the reactor, and in the prevention of tritium loss to the environment. Since all fuel recycled through the reactor must be cooled to cryogenic conditions for reinjection into the reactor, cryogenic fractional distillation is a likely process for controlling the primary fuel stream composition. Another practical possibility is the permeation of the hydrogen isotopes through thin metal membranes. The removal of tritium from the ash discharged from the power system would be accomplished by chemical procedures to assure physiologically safe concentration levels. The recovery process for tritium from the breeder blanket depends on the nature of the blanket fluids. For molten lithium the only practicable possibility appears to be permeation from the liquid phase. For molten salts the process would involve stripping with inert gas followed by chemical recovery. In either case extremely low concentrations of tritium in the melts would be desirable to maintain low tritium inventories, and to minimize escape of tritium through unwanted permeation, and to avoid embrittlement of metal walls. 21 refs

  5. Rates of the main thermonuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramovich, S.N.; Guzhovskii, B.Ya.; Dunaeva, S.A.; Fomushkin, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    The data on the cross sections of main thermonuclear reactions have been estimated with an account of the latest experimental results in a form of S-factor spline presentation. Based on this estimation, the reates of these reactions in 0.0001-1 MeV temperature range in the supposition of Maxwell distribution of relative velocities have been computed. The Maxwell-Boltzmann averaged -factors were calculated according to the table values of the reaction rates. Then the -factors were approximated with the 3 order spline-function. The necessity of the account of electron shielding and intramolecular movement at low temperatures is discussed (orig.)

  6. Thermonuclear 36Cl pulse in natural water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H.W.; Davis, S.N.; Gifford, S.; Phillips, E.M.; Elmore, D.; Tubbs, L.E.; Gove, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    The enhanced concentration of 3 6Cl, produced by neutron activation of seawater and released into the environment during atmospheric thermonuclear tests in the 1950s, has been used as a tracer in natural water systems. The results of numerical modelling and analyses of water samples are presented which indicate that in the mid-latitudes the fallout peak was 3 orders of magnitude above the natural background, and that the period of enhanced 36 Cl fallout was 1953 to about 1964. The advantages of 36Cl as an environmental tracer are discussed. (U.K.)

  7. Thermonuclear ignition in the next generation tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johner, J.

    1989-04-01

    The extrapolation of experimental rules describing energy confinement and magnetohydrodynamic - stability limits, in known tokamaks, allow to show that stable thermonuclear ignition equilibria should exist in this configuration, if the product aB t x of the dimensions by a magnetic-field power is large enough. Quantitative application of this result to several next-generation tokamak projects show that those kinds of equilibria could exist in such devices, which would also have enough additional heating power to promote an effective accessible ignition

  8. Department of Thermonuclear Research. Annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.

    1989-01-01

    Department of Thermonuclear Research annual report 1988 presents a short review of theoretical, experimental and technological studies performed within a framework of two research programs: diagnostics of high-temperature plasma and nuclear technology. We describe theoretical investigations on the modelling of Tokamak edge plasmas, ion motions, atomic collisions, high-voltage electrode systems and plasma-focus (PF) facilities. The experimental studies on plasma-ion streams, high-current discharges of the PF-type, and on the interaction of ion beams with gaseous targets, are shortly summarized. Also presented are technological studies on electronic and high-voltage systems, as well as applications of the IONOTRON type plasma devices. (author)

  9. Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, September 1965: Review Of Experimental Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzer, Lyman Jr. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1966-04-15

    To my way of thinking the most significant milestone of the present meeting is the substantial body of evidence that has been presented on the hydromagnetic stabilization of open-ended systems. The success of minimum magnetic-field ('minimum-B') configurations in stabilizing a plasma marks one more area where theory and experiment in the field of plasma physics have been brought together with gratifying results. Let me go back a little into history and discuss the gradual growth of our information on hydromagnetic instabilities generally. Many of you will remember that hydromagnetic theory was applied to the self-pinched discharge in the early years of the controUed fusion programme. The predictions of this theory were very shortly fulfilled by the observations; the effects were so unmistakable that it was not difficult to compare the theory with the observations. On the streak pictures of the linear or toroidal discharges that were obtained in those early years one saw clearly the diffuse plasma column, which first contracted to a narrow filament and then started to distort and kink until finally it hit the wall. Under some conditions the plasma was observed to break up into a series of blobs like a string of sausages. Since the behaviour was exactly what the theory had predicted, it took no very great experimental wisdom to conclude that observations had confirmed theory.

  10. Thermonuclear dynamo inside ultracentrifuge with supersonic plasma flow stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterberg, F. [University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Einstein's general theory of relativity implies the existence of virtual negative masses in the rotational reference frame of an ultracentrifuge with the negative mass density of the same order of magnitude as the positive mass density of a neutron star. In an ultracentrifuge, the repulsive gravitational field of this negative mass can simulate the attractive positive mass of a mini-neutron star, and for this reason can radially confine a dense thermonuclear plasma placed inside the centrifuge, very much as the positive mass of a star confines its plasma by its own attractive gravitational field. If the centrifuge is placed in an externally magnetic field to act as the seed field of a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the configuration resembles a magnetar driven by the release of energy through nuclear fusion, accelerating the plasma to supersonic velocities, with the magnetic field produced by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect insulating the hot plasma from the cold wall of the centrifuge. Because of the supersonic flow and the high plasma density the configuration is stable.

  11. Thermonuclear dynamo inside ultracentrifuge with supersonic plasma flow stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterberg, F.

    2016-01-01

    Einstein's general theory of relativity implies the existence of virtual negative masses in the rotational reference frame of an ultracentrifuge with the negative mass density of the same order of magnitude as the positive mass density of a neutron star. In an ultracentrifuge, the repulsive gravitational field of this negative mass can simulate the attractive positive mass of a mini-neutron star, and for this reason can radially confine a dense thermonuclear plasma placed inside the centrifuge, very much as the positive mass of a star confines its plasma by its own attractive gravitational field. If the centrifuge is placed in an externally magnetic field to act as the seed field of a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the configuration resembles a magnetar driven by the release of energy through nuclear fusion, accelerating the plasma to supersonic velocities, with the magnetic field produced by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect insulating the hot plasma from the cold wall of the centrifuge. Because of the supersonic flow and the high plasma density the configuration is stable.

  12. Thermonuclear dynamo inside ultracentrifuge with supersonic plasma flow stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    2016-01-01

    Einstein's general theory of relativity implies the existence of virtual negative masses in the rotational reference frame of an ultracentrifuge with the negative mass density of the same order of magnitude as the positive mass density of a neutron star. In an ultracentrifuge, the repulsive gravitational field of this negative mass can simulate the attractive positive mass of a mini-neutron star, and for this reason can radially confine a dense thermonuclear plasma placed inside the centrifuge, very much as the positive mass of a star confines its plasma by its own attractive gravitational field. If the centrifuge is placed in an externally magnetic field to act as the seed field of a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the configuration resembles a magnetar driven by the release of energy through nuclear fusion, accelerating the plasma to supersonic velocities, with the magnetic field produced by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect insulating the hot plasma from the cold wall of the centrifuge. Because of the supersonic flow and the high plasma density the configuration is stable

  13. Nuclear fusion - a strategic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, U.

    1989-01-01

    Aspects of nuclear fusion research with particular reference to Europe are reviewed. The energy scenario with regard to nuclear fusion is considered including economic, political and scientific problems of energy policy in view of the long-term research effort required. Mention is also made of the need to phase out the use of fossil fuels for environmental reasons. Research into magnetic and inertial confinement fusion is considered. It is concluded that the development of thermonuclear reactors will eventually be brought to practical fruition. (UK)

  14. Current control of superconducting coils for fusion experimental facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ise, T.; Etou, D.; Chikaraishi, H.; Takami, S.; Inoue, T.

    2003-01-01

    The LHD (Large Helical Device) has twelve superconducting coils and six dc power supplies, and following specifications are required for its control system; each coil current must be controlled independently, the steady state control error is less than 0.01% of the reference value, the current settling time for 0.1% of control error is less than 1 second, and the control system must be robust against turbulence caused by appearance and disappearance of the plasma, parameter errors and external electro-magnetic noises. In this paper, the design and test results of the coil current control system for the LHD are described. The good response and robustness are in the relation of trade off each other. H-infinity controller is one of schemes to guarantee robustness for stability. However, the independent responses of six coils were impossible by the H-infinity controller only. To resolve this problem, we applied a feed-forward control with the H-infinity control. Moreover, the advanced design method of H-infinity controller using μ-synthesis was applied to guarantee the control performance in the whole operating condition. As a result, good control results were obtained by experiments. (author)

  15. Radiation damages of material surfaces by plasma emission in thermonuclear devices. Methods of study of surface phenomena and simulation effect of thermonuclear plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybalko, V.F.

    1978-01-01

    Phenomena that can introduce a controlling contribution into the erosion of the first wall surface in thermonuclear reactor are reviewed. Considered are the main characteristics of the physical disintegration: dependence of the disintegration coefficient upon the energy and the incidence angle of the bombarding particles, upon the atomic number of the material of the target and the type of bombarding particles. Stressed is the lack of reliable data on the disintegration of materials by light ions, which are of a maximum interest in relation to the controlled thermonuclear synthesis. The chemical disintegration and some regularities of it for the carbon-hydrogen and carbon-oxygen systems are discussed briefly. Listed are the main properties of blistering and its contribution to the erosion of crystalline surfaces

  16. Progress in fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    Controlled thermonuclear fusion is now the biggest challenge before atomic science, not only because of the exceedingly difficult nature of the problem but also because of the virtually limitless benefit that, it is expected, will eventually flow from its solution. It might be pointed out that if some of the early optimism is now inevitably moderated, that is only because there is now a better understanding of the difficulties and, consequently, of the basic scientific and technical problems. The basic problem, as is now widely known, is to heat heavy hydrogen gas to a temperature at which the nuclei will fuse by moving so fast as to overcome their mutual electrical repulsion, and simultaneously to keep the gas in a state of extreme density so that the nuclei may collide against each other, fuse, release-energy in the form of heat, and thus set in a kind of thermal chain reaction. The temperature required is of a fantastically high order, but the scientists are confident that it can be obtained by fantastically powerful electrical discharges. More difficult seems to be the task of making the superheated gas, or the plasma as it is called when completely ionized, to behave obligingly. It must remain in a state of extreme density even when it is heated to a temperature of many millions of degrees. As a matter of fact, it must be contained, so to speak, by itself; it must not touch the walls of its material container and thereby lose some of its heat and, on top of that, evaporate the container. The pinch effect produces a kind of magnetic bottle for containing the plasma, but the trouble seems to be that it is difficult to make the bottle stable and leak-proof. The next task will be to ensure that the output of energy from this fusion is greater than the input of energy to heat the plasma. Intensive research and experiment on these problems have been going on in several countries, notably in the UK, the USA, and the USSR. In all the countries most advanced in

  17. Abstracts of the 23rd European physical society conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutych, I F; Gresillon, D; Sitenko, A G

    1997-12-31

    This document contains the abstracts of the invited and contributed papers presented at 23 EPS conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics. The main contents are: tokamaks, stellarators; alternative magnetic confinement; plasma edge physics; plasma heating and current drive; plasma diagnostics; basic collisionless plasma physics; high intensity laser produced plasmas and inertial confinement; low-temperature plasmas.

  18. Abstracts of the 23rd European physical society conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutych, I.F.; Gresillon, D.; Sitenko, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    This document contains the abstracts of the invited and contributed papers presented at 23 EPS conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics. The main contents are: tokamaks, stellarators; alternative magnetic confinement; plasma edge physics; plasma heating and current drive; plasma diagnostics; basic collisionless plasma physics; high intensity laser produced plasmas and inertial confinement; low-temperature plasmas

  19. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1994. V. 3. Proceedings of the fifteenth international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This is the third volume of the proceedings of the 15th International Atomic Energy Agency Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research held in Seville, Spain, from 26 September - 1 October 1994. Contained in it are 29 papers on inertial confinement and 46 papers on magnetic confinement. Refs, figs, tabs

  20. Anomaly Detection for Resilient Control Systems Using Fuzzy-Neural Data Fusion Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic; Timothy R. McJunkin

    2011-08-01

    Resilient control systems in critical infrastructures require increased cyber-security and state-awareness. One of the necessary conditions for achieving the desired high level of resiliency is timely reporting and understanding of the status and behavioral trends of the control system. This paper describes the design and development of a neural-network based data-fusion system for increased state-awareness of resilient control systems. The proposed system consists of a dedicated data-fusion engine for each component of the control system. Each data-fusion engine implements three-layered alarm system consisting of: (1) conventional threshold-based alarms, (2) anomalous behavior detector using self-organizing maps, and (3) prediction error based alarms using neural network based signal forecasting. The proposed system was integrated with a model of the Idaho National Laboratory Hytest facility, which is a testing facility for hybrid energy systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the implemented data fusion system provides timely plant performance monitoring and cyber-state reporting.

  1. Perceptual relearning of binocular fusion after hypoxic brain damage: four controlled single-case treatment studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaadt, Anna-Katharina; Schmidt, Lena; Kuhn, Caroline; Summ, Miriam; Adams, Michaela; Garbacenkaite, Ruta; Leonhardt, Eva; Reinhart, Stefan; Kerkhoff, Georg

    2014-05-01

    Hypoxic brain damage is characterized by widespread, diffuse-disseminated brain lesions, which may cause severe disturbances in binocular vision, leading to diplopia and loss of stereopsis, for which no evaluated treatment is currently available. The study evaluated the effects of a novel binocular vision treatment designed to improve binocular fusion and stereopsis as well as to reduce diplopia in patients with cerebral hypoxia. Four patients with severely reduced convergent fusion, stereopsis, and reading duration due to hypoxic brain damage were treated in a single-subject baseline design, with three baseline assessments before treatment to control for spontaneous recovery (pretherapy), an assessment immediately after a treatment period of 6 weeks (posttherapy), and two follow-up tests 3 and 6 months after treatment to assess stability of improvements. Patients received a novel fusion and dichoptic training using 3 different devices designed to slowly increase fusional and disparity angle. After the treatment, all 4 patients improved significantly in binocular fusion, subjective reading duration until diplopia emerged, and 2 of 4 patients improved significantly in local stereopsis. No significant changes were observed during the pretherapy baseline period and the follow-up period, thus ruling out spontaneous recovery and demonstrating long-term stability of treatment effects. This proof-of-principle study indicates a substantial treatment-induced plasticity after hypoxia in the relearning of binocular vision and offers a viable treatment option. Moreover, it provides new hope and direction for the development of effective rehabilitation strategies to treat neurovisual deficits resulting from hypoxic brain damage.

  2. Risk assessment of computer-controlled safety systems for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryer, M.O.; Bruske, S.Z.

    1983-01-01

    The complexity of fusion reactor systems and the need to display, analyze, and react promptly to large amounts of information during reactor operation will require a number of safety systems in the fusion facilities to be computer controlled. Computer software, therefore, must be included in the reactor safety analyses. Unfortunately, the science of integrating computer software into safety analyses is in its infancy. Combined plant hardware and computer software systems are often treated by making simple assumptions about software performance. This method is not acceptable for assessing risks in the complex fusion systems, and a new technique for risk assessment of combined plant hardware and computer software systems has been developed. This technique is an extension of the traditional fault tree analysis and uses structured flow charts of the software in a manner analogous to wiring or piping diagrams of hardware. The software logic determines the form of much of the fault trees

  3. Outline of research project on nuclear fusion, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Taijiro

    1984-08-01

    When the advance of nuclear fusion research during 10 years hereafter is predicted, the next project should start the research toward nuclear burning, adopt the diversified ways, a nd develop the research in wide related fields. The central subject such as the containment of plasma is studies with large experimental facilities, but in the related fields, the research subsidies must be utilized positively. The organization to perform the research compries 6 groups, 1) reactor materials and plasma-wall interaction, 2) science and engineering of tritium and influence on living things, 3) fundamentals of core control, 4) development of superconducting magnets, 5) fusion blanket engineering, and 6) design and assessment of thermonuclear reactors. The distribution and management of the scientific research subsidy are explained. All of the subjects of planned and publicly invited research a listed, and the researchers concerned, the amount of subsidy, the objective and the plan of execution in fiscal 1983 of each research are outlined. (J.P.N.)

  4. Materials technology for fusion - Current status and future requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.E.; Bloom, E.E.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Smith, D.L.; Stevenson, R.D.; Wolfer, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The general status of the materials research and development activities currently under way in support of controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors in the United States is reviewed. In the area of magnetic confinement configurations, attention is given to development programs for first wall materials, which are at various stages for possible austenitic stainless steels, high-strength Fe-Ni-Cr alloys, reactive and refractory metal alloys, specially designed long-range ordered and rapidly solidified alloys, and ferritic/martensitic steels, and for tritium breeding materials, electrical insulators, ceramics, and coolants. The development of materials for inertial confinement reactors is also surveyed in relation to the protection scheme employed for the first wall and the effects of pulsed neutron irradiation. Finally, the materials requirements and selection procedures for the ETF/INTOR and Starfire tokamak reactor designs are examined. Needs for the expansion of research on nonfirst-wall materials and inertial confinement fusion reactor material requirements are pointed out

  5. Large distributed control system using Ada in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Arsdall, P J; Woodruff, J P.

    1998-01-01

    Construction of the National Ignition Facility laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory features a distributed control system that uses object-oriented software engineering techniques. Control of 60,000 devices is effected using a network of some 500 computers. The software is being written in Ada and communicates through CORBA. Software controls are implemented in two layers: individual device controllers and a supervisory layer. The software architecture provides services in the form of frameworks that address issues common to event-driven control systems. Those services are allocated to levels that strictly prescribe their interdependency so the levels are separately reusable. The project has completed its final design review. The delivery of the first increment takes place in October 1998. Keywords Distributed control system, object-oriented development, CORBA, application frameworks, levels of abstraction

  6. Expert system to control a fusion energy experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.R.; Canales, T.; Lager, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a system that automates neutral beam source conditioning. The system achieves this with artificial intelligence techniques by encoding the behavior of several experts as a set of if-then rules in an expert system. One of the functions of the expert system is to control an adaptive controller that, in turn, controls the neutral beam source. The architecture of the system is presented followed by a description of its performance.

  7. Expert system to control a fusion energy experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.R.; Canales, T.; Lager, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a system that automates neutral beam source conditioning. The system achieves this with artificial intelligence techniques by encoding the behavior of several experts as a set of if-then rules in an expert system. One of the functions of the expert system is to control an adaptive controller that, in turn, controls the neutral beam source. The architecture of the system is presented followed by a description of its performance

  8. ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] reactor building design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, S.L.; Blevins, J.D.; Delisle, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is at the midpoint of a two-year conceptual design. The ITER reactor building is a reinforced concrete structure that houses the tokamak and associated equipment and systems and forms a barrier between the tokamak and the external environment. It provides radiation shielding and controls the release of radioactive materials to the environment during both routine operations and accidents. The building protects the tokamak from external events, such as earthquakes or aircraft strikes. The reactor building requirements have been developed from the component designs and the preliminary safety analysis. The equipment requirements, tritium confinement, and biological shielding have been studied. The building design in progress requires continuous iteraction with the component and system designs and with the safety analysis. 8 figs

  9. The TDF System for Thermonuclear Plasma Reaction Rates, Mean Energies and Two-Body Final State Particle Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warshaw, S I

    2001-01-01

    The rate of thermonuclear reactions in hot plasmas as a function of local plasma temperature determines the way in which thermonuclear ignition and burning proceeds in the plasma. The conventional model approach to calculating these rates is to assume that the reacting nuclei in the plasma are in Maxwellian equilibrium at some well-defined plasma temperature, over which the statistical average of the reaction rate quantity σv is calculated, where σ is the cross-section for the reaction to proceed at the relative velocity v between the reacting particles. This approach is well-understood and is the basis for much nuclear fusion and astrophysical nuclear reaction rate data. The Thermonuclear Data File (TDF) system developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Warshaw 1991), which is the topic of this report, contains data on the Maxwellian-averaged thermonuclear reaction rates for various light nuclear reactions and the correspondingly Maxwellian-averaged energy spectra of the particles in the final state of those reactions as well. This spectral information closely models the output particle and energy distributions in a burning plasma, and therefore leads to more accurate computational treatments of thermonuclear burn, output particle energy deposition and diagnostics, in various contexts. In this report we review and derive the theoretical basis for calculating Maxwellian-averaged thermonuclear reaction rates, mean particle energies, and output particle spectral energy distributions for these reactions in the TDF system. The treatment of the kinematics is non-relativistic. The current version of the TDF system provides exit particle energy spectrum distributions for two-body final state reactions only. In a future report we will discuss and describe how output particle energy spectra for three- and four-body final states can be developed for the TDF system. We also include in this report a description of the algorithmic implementation of the TDF

  10. Design of power control system using SMES and SVC for fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niiyama, K; Yagai, T; Tsuda, M; Hamajima, T

    2008-01-01

    A SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage System) system with converter composed of self-commutated valve devices such as GTO and IGBT is available to control active and reactive power simultaneously. A SVC (Static Var Compensators) or STATCOM (Static Synchronous Compensator) is widely employed to reduce reactive power in power plants and substations. Owing to progress of power electronics technology using GTO and IGBT devices, power converters in the SMES system and the SVC can easily control power flow in few milliseconds. Moreover, since the valve devices for the SMES are equivalent to those for the SVC, the device cost must be reduced. In this paper the basic control system combined with the SMES and SVC is designed for large pulsed loads of a nuclear fusion power plant. This combined system largely expands the reactive power control region as well as the active one. The simulation results show that the combined system is effective and prospective for the nuclear fusion power plant

  11. Sensor fusion control system for computer integrated manufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumile, CM

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available -floor control using sensors previously missing in manufacturing research. The contribution is in the ease and the elegance that the concept provides finite state/ automata activities as well as the production engineering elements such as planning...

  12. Conceptual requirements for large fusion experiment control, data, robotics, and management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Sullivan, J.D.

    1987-05-01

    The conceptual system requirements for the control, data, robotics, and project management (CDRM) system for the next generation of fusion experiments are developed by drawing on the success of the Tara control and data system. The requirements are described in terms of an integrated but separable matrix of well-defined interfaces among the various systems and subsystems. The study stresses modularity, performance, cost effectiveness, and exportability

  13. Distributed intelligence in a LAN architecture increases the flexibility in control systems for fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenten, W.; Fuss, L.; Hoge, W.

    1987-01-01

    The control system for the TEXTOR Neutral Beam Injectors is designed implementing approved concepts and techniques. A powerful super mini computer serves as a central node between the operators console and the experimental process. Devices form a console for suitable man machine interaction. The link to the process is mainly based on communication with a network of industry standard programmable controllers. A distinction is made between the functionally dedicated and in most cases locally distributed logic controllers, a central controller and the computerized console level. Introduction of such networks in control system for fusion experiments results in a number of advantages

  14. Hybrid intelligent control concepts for optimal data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinas, James

    1994-02-01

    In the post-Cold War era, Naval surface ship operations will be largely conducted in littoral waters to support regional military missions of all types, including humanitarian and evacuation activities, and amphibious mission execution. Under these conditions, surface ships will be much more isolated and vulnerable to a variety of threats, including maneuvering antiship missiles. To deal with these threats, the optimal employment of multiple shipborne sensors for maximum vigilance is paramount. This paper characterizes the sensor management problem as one of intelligent control, identifies some of the key issues in controller design, and presents one approach to controller design which is soon to be implemented and evaluated. It is argued that the complexity and hierarchical nature of problem formulation demands a hybrid combination of knowledge-based methods and scheduling techniques from 'hard' real-time systems theory for its solution.

  15. High-power explosive magnetic energy sources for thermonuclear and physical applications (overview)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyshev, V K [All-Russian Scientific Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    High-power energy sources unavailable up to now are needed to carry out any one project on inertially confined controlled thermonuclear fusion (CTF). Considerable advances have been made in the area of explosive magnetic generators (EGG) as for their output characteristics (high power combined with high energy content). To develop the concept of magnetic cumulation proposed by A.D. Sakharov in 1951, two new approaches to increasing EMC fast operation by two orders (from tens of microseconds to tenths of microseconds) and increasing at the same time the current pulse amplitude by more than one order, were proposed at VNIIEF in the early sixties. The concept aimed at solving the CTF problem by target magnetic compression (MACO) under the effect of an fast-increasing field was proposed (1972) based on VNIIEF achievements, discussed (1976) at the USSR Academy of Sciences and published (1979). The key physical questions are analyzed, the problems to be solved are posed and the results achieved in the experiments with fast-operating high-power EMGs, fast-opening switches, transmitting lines and insulation systems are discussed here. The results obtained in experiments on liner acceleration as well as those on preliminary plasma magnetization and heating, carried out at the constructed EMGs, are discussed briefly. The conclusion is reached that the MACO system is the most suitable one to provide the ignition because the designing of high-power energy sources to be used in this system is practically complete and the concept itself does not need any intermediate transformations of one type of energy into another always accompanied by a decrease in total efficiency. (author). 4 tabs., 14 figs., 21 refs.

  16. Power-balance analysis of muon-catalyzed fusion-fission hybrid reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A power-balance model of a muon-catalyzed fusion system in the context of a fission-fuel factory is developed and exercised to predict the required physics performance of systems competitive with either pure muon-catalyzed fusion systems or thermonuclear fusion-fission fuel factory hybrid systems

  17. Exposition sur la Fusion au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1993-01-01

    The fifth in a series of exhibitions at CERN presenting European research activities will be open to the public from 23 July to 11 September. CERN has invited the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) to present an overview of present research and technical developments in the field of thermonuclear fusion in Europe and elsewhere in the world.

  18. Department of Thermonuclear Research annual report 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, M [ed.

    1991-03-01

    Department of Thermonuclear Research Annual Report 1990 presents the most important results of theoretical, experimental, and technological studies, carried out within a framework of two programs: Diagnostics of High-Temperature Plasma (CPBP 01.10) and Nuclear Technology (CPBR 5.8). Theoretical studies of tokamak edge plasmas, charged particle motions, strong refraction effects, current pulse generators, classical models of atomic collisions, and electron mechanisms of the Coulomb barrier tunneling, are shortly summarized. Experimental studies of X-ray, ion, and proton emission from the RPI-type devices, as well as optimization tests and electron beam measurements at the PF-type facilities, are described. Technological studies of opto-electronic transmission systems, modifications of diagnostic equipment, design and construction of new PF facilities, as well as applications of the IONOTRON-type devices, are also presented. (author). 56 refs, 20 figs.

  19. Department of Thermonuclear Research annual report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, M; Pawlowicz, W [eds.

    1992-02-01

    Department of Thermonuclear Research Annual Report 1991 presents a short review of theoretical, experimental, and technological studies carried out within the framework of two research programs: Plasma Physics and Development of Diagnostics Data Acquisition. Theoretical studies of a tokamak edge plasma, validity of inverse Abel transformation for strongly refracting objects, simulation of the pulse generators operation, and a numerical analysis of electron capture in p + H{sup +} collisions, are described. Experimental studies of corpuscular beams and X-rays from different plasma facilities, development of diagnostic techniques and of data acquisition systems, as well as experiments with the generation of cryogenic pellets for plasma research, are shortly summarized. Also presented are technological studies concerning the modernization of the PF- and RPI-type facilities and the application of the IONOTRON-type devices for the modification of semiconductor and metal surfaces. (author). 27 refs, 24 figs.

  20. Vacuum problems of thermonuclear reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paty, L.

    1981-01-01

    A thermonuclear reactor can be considered to be a vacuum system in which constant concentration should be maintained of reacting particles while permanently discharging the undesirable particles using a system of pumps. The discharging proceeds in two stages: in the former, the reactor is degassed using external pumps connected to the reactor chamber through a pumping pipe. The latter in which hydrogen is admitted, uses high pump-rate machines based on the principle of the binding of the gas to the pump surface and must not introduce molecules of higher atomic mass in the system. Turbomolecular pumps of diffusion oil pumps are most suitable for the former stage while condensation, cryosorption, titanium pumping machines and special pumping methods are most suitable for the latter stage. Examples are shown of the pump system design for Tokamak 10 and for facilities at the Euratom laboratory in Fontenay-aux-Roses. (M.D.)

  1. Baking exhaustion device in thermonuclear device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Mitsunori.

    1987-02-02

    Purpose: To rapidly remove tritium and impurity from the vacuum region in the access port of the baking exhaustion device in a thermonuclear device. Constitution: Each of the gaps at the boundary between a fixed shielding member and a blanket module and at the boundary between the blanket and a divertor is made extremely small so as to minimize the neutron streaming from plasmas. Accordingly, in the case of evacuating the vacuum region in the access port, the gap conductance is extremely poor and the exhaustion speed is low. Then, baking pipeways for flowing high temperature fluids are embedded to the surface layer at the position facing to the vacuum region and the plasma evacuation duct and the vacuum region are connected with an evacuation duct of the access port. By flowing high temperature fluids in the pipeways and conducting evacuation, baking exhaustion can be carried out rapidly. (Kamimura, M.).

  2. Protection device for a thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Shuichi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To exactly detect the void coefficients of coolants even under high magnetic fields thereby detect the overheat of a thermonuclear device at an early stage. Constitution: The protecting device of this invention comprises a laser beam generation device, a laser beam detection device and an accident detection device. The laser generation device always generates laser beams, which are permeated through coolants and detected by the laser beam detection device, the optical amount of which is transmitted to the accident detection device. The accident detection device judges the excess or insufficiency of the detected optical amount with respect to the optical amount of the laser beams under the stationary state as a reference and issues an accident signal. Since only the optical cables that do not undergo the effect of the magnetic fields are exposed to high magnetic fields in the protection device of this invention, a high reliability can be maintained. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor configuration evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lousteau, D.C.; Nelson, B.E.; Lee, V.D.; Thomson, S.L.; Miller, J.M.; Lindquist, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) conceptual design activities consist of two phases: a definition phase, completed in September 1988, and a design phase, now in progress. The definition phase was successful in identifying a consistent set of technical characteristics and the broad definition of the required reactor configuration and hardware. Scheduled for completion in November 1990, the design phase is producing a more detailed definition of the required components, a first cost estimate, and a description of site requirements. A major activity in the ITER design phase is the period of joint work conducted at the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching, Federal Republic of Germany, from June through October 1989. An official report of the findings and conclusions of this activity will be submitted to and published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This paper highlights the evolution of the reactor mechanical configuration since the conclusion of the definition phase. 8 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Department of Thermonuclear Research annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.

    1991-03-01

    Department of Thermonuclear Research Annual Report 1990 presents the most important results of theoretical, experimental, and technological studies, carried out within a framework of two programs: Diagnostics of High-Temperature Plasma (CPBP 01.10) and Nuclear Technology (CPBR 5.8). Theoretical studies of tokamak edge plasmas, charged particle motions, strong refraction effects, current pulse generators, classical models of atomic collisions, and electron mechanisms of the Coulomb barrier tunneling, are shortly summarized. Experimental studies of X-ray, ion, and proton emission from the RPI-type devices, as well as optimization tests and electron beam measurements at the PF-type facilities, are described. Technological studies of opto-electronic transmission systems, modifications of diagnostic equipment, design and construction of new PF facilities, as well as applications of the IONOTRON-type devices, are also presented. (author). 56 refs, 20 figs

  5. Thermonuclear reactor materials composed of glassy carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazumata, Yukio.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the durability to plasma radiation by the use of glassy carbon as the structural materials for the first wall and the blanket in thermonuclear devices. Constitution: The glassy carbon (glass-like carbon) is obtained by forming specific organic substances into a predetermined configuration and carbonizing them by heat decomposition under special conditions. They are impermeable carbon material of 1.40 - 1.70 specific gravity, less graphitizable and being almost in isotropic crystal forms in which isotropic structure such as in graphite is scarcely observed. They have an extremely high hardness, are less likely to be damaged when exposed to radiation and have great strength and corrosion resistance. Accordingly, the service life of the reactor walls and the likes can remarkably be increased by using the materials. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. Department of Thermonuclear Research annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.; Pawlowicz, W.

    1992-02-01

    Department of Thermonuclear Research Annual Report 1991 presents a short review of theoretical, experimental, and technological studies carried out within the framework of two research programs: Plasma Physics and Development of Diagnostics Data Acquisition. Theoretical studies of a tokamak edge plasma, validity of inverse Abel transformation for strongly refracting objects, simulation of the pulse generators operation, and a numerical analysis of electron capture in p + H + collisions, are described. Experimental studies of corpuscular beams and X-rays from different plasma facilities, development of diagnostic techniques and of data acquisition systems, as well as experiments with the generation of cryogenic pellets for plasma research, are shortly summarized. Also presented are technological studies concerning the modernization of the PF- and RPI-type facilities and the application of the IONOTRON-type devices for the modification of semiconductor and metal surfaces. (author). 27 refs, 24 figs

  7. On impact fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1997-01-01

    Impact fusion is a promising, but much less developed road towards inertial confinement fusion. It offers an excellent solution to the so-called stand-off problem for thermonuclear microexplosions but is confronted with the challenge to accelerate macroscopic particles to the needed high velocities of 10 2 -10 3 km/s. To reach these velocities, two ways have been studied in the past. The electric acceleration of a beam of microparticles, with the particles as small as large clusters, and the magnetic acceleration of gram-size ferromagnetic or superconducting projectiles. For the generation of an intense burst of soft X-rays used for the indirect drive, impact fusion may offer new promising possibilities

  8. Thermonuclear model for γ-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    The evolution of magnetized neutron stars with field strengths of approx. 10 12 gauss that are accreting mass onto kilometer-sized polar regions at a rate of approx. 13 M 0 yr -1 is examined. Based on the results of one-dimensional calculations, one finds that stable hydrogen burning, mediated by the hot CNO-cycle, will lead to a critical helium mass in the range 10 20 to 10 22 g km -2 . Owing to the extreme degeneracy of the electron gas providing pressure support, helium burning occurs as a violent thermonuclear runaway which may propagate either as a convective deflagration (Type I burst) or as a detonation wave (Type II burst). Complete combustion of helium into 56 Ni releases from 10 38 to 10 40 erg km -2 and pushes hot plasma with β > 1 above the surface of the neutron star. Rapid expansion of the plasma channels a substantial fraction of the explosion energy into magnetic field stress. Spectral properties are expected to be complex with emission from both thermal and non-thermal processes. The hard γ-outburst of several seconds softens as the event proceeds and is followed by a period, typically of several minutes duration, of softer x-ray emission as the subsurface ashes of the thermonuclear explosion cool. In this model, most γ-ray bursts currently being observed are located at a distance of several hundred parsecs and should recur on a timescale of months to centuries with convective deflagrations (Type I bursts) being the more common variety. An explanation for Jacobson-like transients is also offered

  9. Continuously renewed wall for a thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livshits, A.I.; Pustovojt, YU.M.; Samartsev, A.A.; Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol'zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii)

    1982-01-01

    The possibility of creating a continuously renewed first wall of a thermonuclear reactor is experimentally investigated. The following variants of the wall are considered: the wall is double, its part turned to plasma is made of comparatively thin material. The external part separated from it by a small gap appears to be protected from interaction with plasma and performs structural functions. The gap contains the mixture of light helium and hydrogen and carbon-containing gas. The light gas transfers heat from internal part of the wall to the external part. Carbon-containing gas provides continuous renewal of carbon coating of the operating surface. The experiment is performed with palladium membrane 20 μm thick. Carbon is introduced into the membrane by benzol pyrolysis on one of the surfaces at the membrane temperature of 900 K. Carbon removal from the operating side of the wall due to its spraying by fast particles is modelled by chemical itching with oxygen given to the operating membrane wall. Observation of the carbon release on the operating surface is performed mass-spectrometrically according to the observation over O 2 transformation into CO and CO 2 . It is shown that in cases of benzol pressure of 5x10 -7 torr, carbon current on the opposite surface is not less than 3x10 12 atoms/sm 2 s and corresponds to the expected wall spraying rate in CF thermonuclear reactors. It is also shown that under definite conditions the formation and maintaining of a through protective carbon coating in the form of a monolayer or volumetric phase is possible

  10. Robust stabilization of burn conditions in subignited fusion reactors using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitela, E. Javier; Martinell, J. Julio

    2000-01-01

    In this work it is shown that robust burn control in long pulse operations of thermonuclear reactors can be successfully achieved with artificial neural networks. The results reported here correspond to a volume averaged zero-dimensional nonlinear model of a subignited fusion device using the design parameters of the tokamak EDA-ITER group. A Radial Basis Neural Network (RBNN) was trained to provide feedback stabilization at a fixed operating point independently of any particular scaling law that the reactor confinement time may follow. A numerically simulated transient is used to illustrate the stabilization capabilities of the resulting RBNN when the reactor follows an ELMy scaling law corrupted with Gaussian noise. (author)

  11. Trends of researches for fusion engineering research facility (FERF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Yasutomo; Enoto, Takeaki

    1975-01-01

    The role of a fusion neutron radiation test facility in the development of a scientific feasibility experimental reactor or demonstration fusion power reactor plant would be analogous to the role of the materials testing and experimental reactors in the development of fission power reactor. While the material testing fission reactor has been developed after successful operation of fission reactors, in the case of fusion reactor development it is desirable to realize the fusion engineering research facility (FERF) in-phase to the development of SFX and/or demonstration fusion power reactor plants. Here so called FERF in near future is the Controlled Thermonuclear Reactor which provides the high-intensity and high-energy neutron and plasma source whether the net power output is produced or not. From the point of direct attainment to SFX, we would like to emphasize that FEFE is the royal road leading to the goal of successful achievement of CTR program and could be useful for the experiment on impurity effects caused by neutron and plasma irradiations onto the wall material for SFX. Further, we rather suppose that hybrid FERF-fission assembly could be fairly and easily realizable in near future. (auth.)

  12. Twenty years of ''Nuclear Fusion''. Inertial confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1980-01-01

    Inertial confinement (ICF) fusion research is directed towards demonstrating the feasibility of very rapidly heating and compressing small pellets of suitable fuel until conditions exist where thermonuclear fusion can occur and useful amounts of power can be produced. Major problems which have to be solved are the following: 1) pellet design based on driver-plasma coupling; 2) the technology of energy drivers; 3) feasibility of ICF reactor systems

  13. A Multiple Data Fusion Approach to Wheel Slip Control for Decentralized Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejun Yin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, active safety control methods for cars, i.e., the antilock braking system (ABS, the traction control system (TCS, and electronic stability control (ESC, govern the wheel slip control based on the wheel slip ratio, which relies on the information from non-driven wheels. However, these methods are not applicable in the cases without non-driven wheels, e.g., a four-wheel decentralized electric vehicle. Therefore, this paper proposes a new wheel slip control approach based on a novel data fusion method to ensure good traction performance in any driving condition. Firstly, with the proposed data fusion algorithm, the acceleration estimator makes use of the data measured by the sensor installed near the vehicle center of mass (CM to calculate the reference acceleration of each wheel center. Then, the wheel slip is constrained by controlling the acceleration deviation between the actual wheel and the reference wheel center. By comparison with non-control and model following control (MFC cases in double lane change tests, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed control method has significant anti-slip effectiveness and stabilizing control performance.

  14. Commercial applications of inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.A.; Frank, T.G.

    1977-05-01

    This report describes the fundamentals of inertial-confinement fusion, some laser-fusion reactor (LFR) concepts, and attendant means of utilizing the thermonuclear energy for commercial electric power generation. In addition, other commercial energy-related applications, such as the production of fissionable fuels, of synthetic hydrocarbon-based fuels, and of process heat for a variety of uses, as well as the environmental and safety aspects of fusion energy, are discussed. Finally, the requirements for commercialization of laser fusion technologies are described

  15. Intelligible seminar on fusion reactors. (12) Next step toward the realization of fusion reactors. Future vision of fusion energy research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Kunihiko; Kurihara, Kenichi; Tobita, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    In the last session of this seminar the progress of research and development for the realization of fusion reactors and future vision of fusion energy research and development are summarized. The some problems to be solved when the commercial fusion reactors would be realized, (1) production of deuterium as the fuel, (2) why need the thermonuclear reactors, (3) environmental problems, and (4) ITER project, are described. (H. Mase)

  16. Reduced optical transmission of SiO2 fibers used in controlled fusion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, A.T.; Adler, H.G.; Hill, K.W.

    1993-02-01

    We have subjected a silica core fiber optic cable to 4 years of low-level neutron and gamma radiation from Princeton's TFTR controlled fusion experiment The accumulated dose was 200 Gy. As a result of the radiation, we have measured increased attenuations of 100--300 db/km in the visible part of the spectrum, and a decrease of the numerical aperture. An attempt to decrease this damage by photobleaching failed. We argue that this failure is not unexpected, since the rate of damage is so slow and the time scale so long that the self-annealing process keeps the residual damage at the irreducible level seen in other experiments. The implications of these findings for controlled fusion diagnostics during upcoming experiments with highly reactive deuterium-tritium plasmas are discussed

  17. Localized thermonuclear runaways and volcanoes on degenerate dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shara, M.M.

    1982-10-15

    Practically all studies to date of thermonuclear runaways on degenerate dwarf stars in binary systems have considered only spherically symmetric eruptions. We emphasize that even slightly non-spherically symmetric accretion leads to transverse temperature gradients in the dwarfs' accreted envelopes. Over a rather broad range of parameter space, thermalization time scales in accreted envelopes are much longer than thermonuclear runaway time scales. Thus localized thermonuclear runaways (i.e., runaways much smaller than the host degenerate star) rather than spherically symmetric global eruptions are likely to occur on many degenerate dwarfs. Localized runaways are more likely to occur on more massive and/or hotter dwarfs.

  18. Is there hope for fusion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1990-01-01

    From the outset in the 1950's, fusion research has been motivated by environmental concerns as well as long-term fuel supply issues. Compared to fossil fuels both fusion and fission would produce essentially zero emissions to the atmosphere. Compared to fission, fusion reactors should offer high demonstrability of public protection from accidents and a substantial amelioration of the radioactive waste problem. Fusion still requires lengthy development, the earliest commercial deployment being likely to occur around 2025--2050. However, steady scientific progress is being made and there is a wide consensus that it is time to plan large-scale engineering development. A major international effort, called the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), is being carried out under IAEA auspices to design the world's first fusion engineering test reactor, which could be constructed in the 1990's. 4 figs., 3 tabs

  19. World progress toward fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses international progress in fusion research during the last three years. Much of the technical progress has been achieved through international collaboration in magnetic fusion research. This progress has stimulated political interest in a multinational effort, aimed at designing and possibly constructing the world's first experimental fusion reactor. This interest was reflected in recent summit-level discussions involving President Mitterand, General Secretary Gorbachev, and President Reagan. Most recently, the European Community (EC), Japan, the United States, and the U.S.S.R. have decided to begin serious preparation for taking the next step toward practical fusion energy. These parties have agreed to begin the design and supporting R and D for an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The initiation of this international program to prepare for a fusion test reactor is discussed

  20. Reactor potential for magnetized target fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlin, J.E.

    2001-06-01

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) is a possible pathway to thermonuclear fusion different from both magnetic fusion and inertial confinement fusion. An imploding cylindrical metal liner compresses a preheated and magnetized plasma configuration until thermonuclear conditions are achieved. In this report the Magnetized Target Fusion concept is evaluated and a zero-dimensional computer model of the plasma, liner and circuit as a connected system is designed. The results of running this code are that thermonuclear conditions are achieved indeed, but only during a very short time. At peak compression the pressure from the compressed plasma and magnetic field is so large reversing the liner implosion into an explosion. The time period of liner motion reversal is termed the dwell time and is crucial to the performance of the fusion system. Parameters as liner thickness and plasma density are certainly of significant importance to the dwell time, but it seems like a reactor based on the MTF principle hardly can become economic if not innovative solutions are introduced. In the report two such solutions are presented as well