WorldWideScience

Sample records for controlled teetered rotor

  1. Experimental and theoretical characterization of acoustic noise from a 7.6 m diameter yaw controlled teetered rotor wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroz, E. [Univ. of Texas at El Paso, Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, El Paso, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An experimental investigation into the acoustic noise from a small (7.6 m diameter) teetered rotor wind turbine, set at various yaw angles up to 90 degrees of yaw, was conducted. The results revealed a 1/3 octave spectra which was dominated by a broad peak in the higher frequency range, at all yaw angles investigated. This prompted a theoretical investigation to reveal the mechanisms producing the dominant feature in the experimentally obtained noise spectra and resulted in the development of a wind turbine aerodynamic noise prediction coce, WTNOISE. The location near busy roads and the relatively rough terrain of the wind test site caused difficulties in obtaining useful noise spectral information below 500Hz. However, sufficiently good data was obtained above 500Hz to clearly show a dominant `hump` in the spectrum, centered between 3000 and 4000Hz. Although the local Reynolds number for the blade elements was around 500,000 and one might expect Laminar flow over a significant portion of the blade, the data did not match the noise spectra predicted when Laminar flow was assumed. Given the relatively poor surface quality of the rotor blades and the high turbulence of the test site it was therefore assumed that the boundary layer on the blade may have tripped relatively early and that the turbulent flow setting should be used. This assumption led to a much better correlation between experiment and predictions. The WTNOISE code indicated that the broad peak in the spectrum was most likely caused by trailing edge bluntness noise. Unfortunately time did not allow for modifications to the trailing edge to be investigated. (au)

  2. Failure Analysis on Tail Rotor Teeter Pivot Bolt on a Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, WANG; Zi-long, DONG

    2018-03-01

    Tail rotor teeter pivot bolt of a helicopter fractured when in one flight. Failure analysis on the bolt was finished in laboratory. Macroscopic observation of the tailor rotor teeter pivot bolt, macro and microscopic inspection on the fracture surface of the bolt was carried out. Chemical components and metallurgical structure was also carried out. Experiment results showed that fracture mode of the tail rotor teeter pivot bolt is fatigue fracture. Fatigue area is over 80% of the total fracture surface, obvious fatigue band characteristics can be found at the fracture face. According to the results were analyzed from the macroscopic and microcosmic aspects, fracture reasons of the tail rotor teeter pivot bolt were analyzed in detail

  3. Development of passive-controlled HUB (teetered brake & damper mechanism) of horizontal axis wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yukimaru; Kamada, Yasunari; Maeda, Takao [Mie Univ. (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    For the purpose of the improvement of reliability of the Mega-Watt wind turbine, this paper indicates the development of an original mechanism for the passive-controlled hub, which has the effects of braking and damping on aerodynamic forces. This mechanism is useful for variable speed control of the large wind turbine. The passive-controlled hub is the combination of two mechanisms. One is the passive-teetered and damping mechanism, and the other is the passive-variable-pitch mechanism. These mechanism are carried out by the combination of the teetering and feathering motions. When the wind speed exceeds the rated wind speed, the blade is passively teetered in a downwind direction and, simultaneously, a feathering mechanism, which is linked to the teetering mechanism through a connecting rods, is activated. Testing of the model horizontal axis wind turbine in a wind tunnel showed that the passive-controlled hub mechanism can suppress the over-rotational speed of the rotor. By the application of the passive-controlled hub mechanism, the maximum rotor speed is reduced to about 60%.

  4. Studies on Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine with Passive Teetered Brake & Damper Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMIZU, Yukimaru; KAMADA, Yasunari; MAEDA, Takao

    1998-01-01

    In order to improve the reliability of megawatt wind turbines, the passive teetered brake & damper mechanism is applied. Its two unique effects, as its name implies, are braking and damping. The passive brake & damper mechanism is useful for variable speed control of the large wind turbine. It is comprised of teetering and feathering mechanisms. When the wind speed exceeds the rated wind speed, the blade is passively teetered in a downwind direction and, at the same time, a feathering mechani...

  5. Design of an Advanced Wood Composite Rotor and Development of Wood Composite Blade Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebel, Thomas; Dechow, Curtis; Zuteck, Michael

    1984-01-01

    In support of a program to advance wood composite wind turbine blade technology, a design was completed for a prototype, 90-foot diameter, two-bladed, one-piece rotor, with all wood/epoxy composite structure. The rotor was sized for compatibility with a generator having a maximum power rating of 4000 kilowatts. Innovative features of the rotor include: a teetering hub to minimize the effects of gust loads, untwisted blades to promote rotor power control through stall, joining of blades to the hub structure via an adhesive bonded structural joint, and a blade structural design which was simplified relative to earlier efforts. The prototype rotor was designed to allow flexibility for configuring the rotor upwind or downwind of the tower, for evaluating various types of teeter dampers and/or elastomeric stops, and with variable delta-three angle settings of the teeter shaft axis. The prototype rotor was also designed with provisions for installing pressure tap and angle of attack instrumentation in one blade. A production version rotor cost analysis was conducted. Included in the program were efforts directed at developing advanced load take-off stud designs for subsequent evaluation testing by NASA, development of aerodynamic tip brake concepts, exploratory testing of a wood/epoxy/graphite concept, and compression testing of wood/epoxy laminate, with scarf-jointed plies.

  6. Wind Turbine Rotors with Active Vibration Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Martin Nymann

    that the basic modes of a wind turbine blade can be effectively addressed by an in-blade ‘active strut’ actuator mechanism. The importance of accounting for background mode flexibility is demonstrated. Also, it is shown that it is generally possible to address multiple beam modes with multiple controllers, given...... in the targeted modes and the observed spill-over to other modes is very limited and generally stabilizing. It is shown that physical controller positioning for reduced background noise is important to the calibration. By simulation of the rotor response to both simple initial conditions and a stochastic wind......This thesis presents a framework for structural modeling, analysis and active vibration damping of rotating wind turbine blades and rotors. A structural rotor model is developed in terms of finite beam elements in a rotating frame of reference. The element comprises a representation of general...

  7. Controlling flexible rotor vibrations using parametric excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atepor, L, E-mail: katepor@yahoo.co [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents both theoretical and experimental studies of an active vibration controller for vibration in a flexible rotor system. The paper shows that the vibration amplitude can be modified by introducing an axial parametric excitation. The perturbation method of multiple scales is used to solve the equations of motion. The steady-state responses, with and without the parametric excitation terms, is investigated. An experimental test machine uses a piezoelectric exciter mounted on the end of the shaft. The results show a reduction in the rotor response amplitude under principal parametric resonance, and some good correlation between theory and experiment.

  8. Electric Drive Control with Rotor Resistance and Rotor Speed Observers Based on Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ben Regaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many scientific researchers have proposed the control of the induction motor without speed sensor. These methods have the disadvantage that the variation of the rotor resistance causes an error of estimating the motor speed. Thus, simultaneous estimation of the rotor resistance and the motor speed is required. In this paper, a scheme for estimating simultaneously the rotor resistance and the rotor speed of an induction motor using fuzzy logic has been developed. We present a method which is based on two adaptive observers using fuzzy logic without affecting each other and a simple algorithm in order to facilitate the determination of the optimal values of the controller gains. The control algorithm is proved by the simulation tests. The results analysis shows the characteristic robustness of the two observers of the proposed method even in the case of variation of the rotor resistance.

  9. Rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronert, H.; Vetter, J.; Eckert, M.

    1978-01-01

    In the field of hollow high speed rotors there is an increasing demand for progressively higher speeds of safe operation. High speed operation causes support bearings to be carefully designed if the rotor speed is to pass safely through its critical speed of operation where intense vibration is experienced. Also the rotational speed is limited by the peripheral velocity and strength of the outside surface portion of the rotor. The invention proposes that elemental boron, which has great tensile strength and lightness be used to provide a major part of a hollow rotor so that increased operating speeds can be attained. Such a rotor is usable to provide a high speed centrifuge drum. (author)

  10. Towards Efficient Fluid-Structure-Control Interaction for Smart Rotors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillebaart, T.

    2016-01-01

    One of the solutions to speed up the energy transition is the smart rotor concept: wind turbine blades with actively controlled Trailing Edge Flaps. In the past decade feasibility studies (both numerical and experimental) have been performed to assess the applicability of smart rotors in future

  11. Flocking of quad-rotor UAVs with fuzzy control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiang; Zhang, Hongbin; Wang, Yanhui

    2018-03-01

    This paper investigates the flocking problem of quad-rotor UAVs. Considering the actual situations, we derived a new simplified quad-rotor UAV model which is more reasonable. Based on the model, the T-S fuzzy model of attitude dynamic equation and the corresponding T-S fuzzy feedback controller are discussed. By introducing a double-loop control construction, we adjust its attitude to realize the position control. Then a flocking algorithm is proposed to achieve the flocking of the quad-rotor UAVs. Compared with the flocking algorithm of the mass point model, we dealt with the collision problem of the quad-rotor UAVs. In order to improve the airspace utilization, a more compact configuration called quasi e-lattice is constructed to guarantee the compact flight of the quad-rotor UAVs. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained theoretical results. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. L1 Adaptive Control for a Vertical Rotor Orientation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijia Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-fixed vertical rotating devices are widely used in industrial and civilian fields. The free upside of the rotor will cause vibration and lead to noise and damage during operation. Meanwhile, parameter uncertainties, nonlinearities and external disturbances will further deteriorate the performance of the rotor. Therefore, in this paper, we present a rotor orientation control system based on an active magnetic bearing with L 1 adaptive control to restrain the influence of the nonlinearity and uncertainty and reduce the vibration amplitude of the vertical rotor. The boundedness and stability of the adaptive system are analyzed via a theoretical derivation. The impact of the adaptive gain is discussed through simulation. An experimental rig based on dSPACE is designed to test the validity of the rotor orientation system. The experimental results show that the relative vibration amplitude of the rotor using the L 1 adaptive controller will be reduced to ∼50% of that in the initial state, which is a 10% greater reduction than can be achieved with the nonadaptive controller. The control approach in this paper is of some significance to solve the orientation control problem in a low-speed vertical rotor with uncertainties and nonlinearities.

  13. Structural analysis of wind turbine rotors for NSF-NASA Mod-0 wind power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary estimates are presented of vibratory loads and stresses in hingeless and teetering rotors for the proposed NSF-NASA Mod-0 wind power system. Preliminary blade design utilizes a tapered tubular aluminum spar which supports nonstructural aluminum ribs and skin and is joined to the rotor hub by a steel shank tube. Stresses in the shank of the blade are calculated for static, rated, and overload operating conditions. Blade vibrations were limited to the fundamental flapping modes, which were elastic cantilever bending for hingeless rotor blades and rigid-body rotation for teetering rotor blades. The MOSTAB-C computer code was used to calculate aerodynamic and mechanical loads. The teetering rotor has substantial advantages over the hingeless rotor with respect to shank stresses, fatigue life, and tower loading. The hingeless rotor analyzed does not appear to be structurally stable during overloads.

  14. Modelling of Rotor-gas bearings for Feedback Controller Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Controllable rotor-gas bearings are popular oering adaptability, high speed operation, low friction and clean operation. Rotor-gas bearings are however highly sensitive to disturbances due to the low friction of the injected gas. These undesirable damping properties call for controllers, which ca...... and are shown to accurately describe the dynamical behaviour of the rotor-gas bearing. Design of a controller using the identied models is treated and experiments verify the improvement of the damping properties of the rotor-gas bearing.......Controllable rotor-gas bearings are popular oering adaptability, high speed operation, low friction and clean operation. Rotor-gas bearings are however highly sensitive to disturbances due to the low friction of the injected gas. These undesirable damping properties call for controllers, which can...... be designed from suitable models describing the relation from actuator input to measured shaft position. Current state of the art models of controllable gas bearings however do not provide such relation, which calls for alternative strategies. The present contribution discusses the challenges for feedback...

  15. Thermoelastic steam turbine rotor control based on neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzadkowski, Romuald; Dominiczak, Krzysztof; Radulski, Wojciech; Szczepanik, R.

    2015-12-01

    Considered here are Nonlinear Auto-Regressive neural networks with eXogenous inputs (NARX) as a mathematical model of a steam turbine rotor for controlling steam turbine stress on-line. In order to obtain neural networks that locate critical stress and temperature points in the steam turbine during transient states, an FE rotor model was built. This model was used to train the neural networks on the basis of steam turbine transient operating data. The training included nonlinearity related to steam turbine expansion, heat exchange and rotor material properties during transients. Simultaneous neural networks are algorithms which can be implemented on PLC controllers. This allows for the application neural networks to control steam turbine stress in industrial power plants.

  16. Resonant vibration control of three-bladed wind turbine rotors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Svendsen, Martin Nymann; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2012-01-01

    Rotors with blades, as in wind turbines, are prone to vibrations due to the flexibility of the blades and the support. In the present paper a theory is developed for active control of a combined set of vibration modes in three-bladed rotors. The control system consists of identical collocated...... to influence of other nonresonant modes. The efficiency of the method isdemonstrated byapplication to a rotor with 42 m blades, where the sensor/actuator system is implemented in the form of an axial extensible strut near the root of each blade. The load is provided by a simple but fully threedimensional...... correlated wind velocity field. It is shown by numerical simulations that the active damping system can provide a significant reduction in the response amplitude of the targeted modes, while applying control moments to the blades that are about 1 order of magnitude smaller than the moments from the external...

  17. Smart helicopter rotors optimization and piezoelectric vibration control

    CERN Document Server

    Ganguli, Ranjan; Viswamurthy, Sathyamangalam Ramanarayanan

    2016-01-01

    Exploiting the properties of piezoelectric materials to minimize vibration in rotor-blade actuators, this book demonstrates the potential of smart helicopter rotors to achieve the smoothness of ride associated with jet-engined, fixed-wing aircraft. Vibration control is effected using the concepts of trailing-edge flaps and active-twist. The authors’ optimization-based approach shows the advantage of multiple trailing-edge flaps and algorithms for full-authority control of dual trailing-edge-flap actuators are presented. Hysteresis nonlinearity in piezoelectric stack actuators is highlighted and compensated by use of another algorithm. The idea of response surfaces provides for optimal placement of trailing-edge flaps. The concept of active twist involves the employment of piezoelectrically induced shear actuation in rotating beams. Shear is then demonstrated for a thin-walled aerofoil-section rotor blade under feedback-control vibration minimization. Active twist is shown to be significant in reducing vibra...

  18. General model and control of an n rotor helicopter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidea, Adriana-Gabriela; Brogaard, Rune Yding; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a dynamic, nonlinear mathematical model ofa multirotor that would be valid for different numbers of rotors. Furthermore, a set of SingleInput Single Output (SISO) controllers were implemented for attitude control. Both model andcontrollers were tested exper...

  19. General model and control of an n rotor helicopter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidea, A G; Brogaard, R Yding; Andersen, N A; Ravn, O

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a dynamic, nonlinear mathematical model of a multirotor that would be valid for different numbers of rotors. Furthermore, a set of Single Input Single Output (SISO) controllers were implemented for attitude control. Both model and controllers were tested experimentally on a quadcopter. Using the combined model and controllers, simple system simulation and control is possible, by replacing the physical values for the individual systems

  20. General model and control of an n rotor helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidea, A. G.; Yding Brogaard, R.; Andersen, N. A.; Ravn, O.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a dynamic, nonlinear mathematical model of a multirotor that would be valid for different numbers of rotors. Furthermore, a set of Single Input Single Output (SISO) controllers were implemented for attitude control. Both model and controllers were tested experimentally on a quadcopter. Using the combined model and controllers, simple system simulation and control is possible, by replacing the physical values for the individual systems.

  1. Field oriented control design of inset rotor PMSM drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukti, Ersalina Werda; Wijanarko, Sulistyo; Muqorobin, Anwar; Rozaqi, Latif

    2017-06-01

    The main challenge of PMSM implementation in the adjustable-speed drives especially in automotive industry is to attain the optimal PMSM drive performance. Vector control is proved to be the best method in controlling synchronous machine such as PMSM. This paper objective is to design a speed control system for the manufactured inset rotor PMSM, which integrates the interleaved DC-DC boost converter, inverter, and sinusoidal pulse width modulation and fed by the battery bank DC source. The proposed speed control in this paper employs FOC vector control technique with PI controller which control both converter and inverter independently. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the proposed speed control method for driving the manufactured inset rotor PMSM. To verify the effectiveness of the designed speed control system, computer simulation is conducted. The motor performances are observed in operating condition with disturbance in form of sudden change of load torque. The simulation results show that the control method is stable but the rotor speed still affected by the given disturbance.

  2. Rotor-Flying Manipulator: Modeling, Analysis, and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Equipping multijoint manipulators on a mobile robot is a typical redesign scheme to make the latter be able to actively influence the surroundings and has been extensively used for many ground robots, underwater robots, and space robotic systems. However, the rotor-flying robot (RFR is difficult to be made such redesign. This is mainly because the motion of the manipulator will bring heavy coupling between itself and the RFR system, which makes the system model highly complicated and the controller design difficult. Thus, in this paper, the modeling, analysis, and control of the combined system, called rotor-flying multijoint manipulator (RF-MJM, are conducted. Firstly, the detailed dynamics model is constructed and analyzed. Subsequently, a full-state feedback linear quadratic regulator (LQR controller is designed through obtaining linearized model near steady state. Finally, simulations are conducted and the results are analyzed to show the basic control performance.

  3. Direct observation, study and control of molecular super rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobenko, Aleksey; Milner, Alexander; Hepburn, John; Milner, Valery

    2014-05-01

    Extremely fast rotating molecules whose rotational energy is comparable with or exceeds the molecular bond strength are known as ``super rotors''. It has been speculated that super rotors may exhibit a number of unique properties, yet only indirect evidence of these molecular objects has been reported to date. We demonstrate the first direct observation of molecular super rotors by detecting coherent unidirectional molecular rotation with extreme frequencies exceeding 10 THz. The technique of an ``optical centrifuge'' is used to control the degree of rotational excitation in an ultra-broad range of rotational quantum numbers, reaching as high as N = 95 in oxygen and N = 60 in nitrogen. State-resolved detection enables us to determine the shape of the excited rotational wave packet and quantify the effect of centrifugal distortion on the rotational spectrum. Femtosecond time resolution reveals coherent rotational dynamics with increasing coherence times at higher angular momentum. We demonstrate that molecular super rotors can be created and observed in dense samples under normal conditions where the effects of ultrafast rotation on many-body interactions, inter-molecular collisions and chemical reactions can be readily explored.

  4. STUDY ABOUT THE STABILITY AND CONTROL OF A ROTOR AIRPLANE

    OpenAIRE

    Stafy, Victor; Neto, Aristeu Silveira

    2017-01-01

    On this paper is studied the stability and control of a Rotor Airplane, more specifically a MAV (Micro Air Vehicle) and how works the dynamics of flight of this unusual configuration of aircraft. It’s discussed the impact of the gyroscopic effect on stability (mainly lateral and directional stability) and was found the best feasible configuration of the stability surface, but the project of the stabilizers was limited to lifting surfaces that use airfoil sections, the possibility of a very un...

  5. Control Law Design for Twin Rotor MIMO System with Nonlinear Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ilyas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of complex air vehicles is a challenging task due to high nonlinear behavior and significant coupling effect between rotors. Twin rotor multi-input multioutput system (TRMS is a laboratory setup designed for control experiments, which resembles a helicopter with unstable, nonlinear, and coupled dynamics. This paper focuses on the design and analysis of sliding mode control (SMC and backstepping controller for pitch and yaw angle control of main and tail rotor of the TRMS under parametric uncertainty. The proposed control strategy with SMC and backstepping achieves all mentioned limitations of TRMS. Result analysis of SMC and backstepping control schemes elucidates that backstepping provides efficient behavior with the parametric uncertainty for twin rotor system. Chattering and oscillating behaviors of SMC are removed with the backstepping control scheme considering the pitch and yaw angle for TRMS.

  6. Improved Rotor Speed Brushless DC Motor Using Fuzzy Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Mostafapour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A brushless DC (BLDC Motors have advantages over brushed, Direct current (DC Motors and , Induction motor (IM. They have better speed verses torque characteristics, high dynamic response, high efficiency, long operating life, noiseless operation, higher speed ranges, and rugged construction. Also, torque delivered to motor size is higher, making it useful in application where space and weight are critical factors. With these advantages BLDC motors find wide spread application in automotive appliance, aerospace medical, and instrumentation and automation industries This paper can be seen as fuzzy controllers compared to PI control BLDC motor rotor speed has improved significantly and beter result can be achieve.

  7. Comparison of individual pitch and smart rotor control strategies for load reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumley, C.; Leithead, W.; Jamieson, P.; Bossanyi, E.; Graham, M.

    2014-06-01

    Load reduction is increasingly seen as an essential part of controller and wind turbine design. On large multi-MW wind turbines that experience high levels of wind shear and turbulence across the rotor, individual pitch control and smart rotor control are being considered. While individual pitch control involves adjusting the pitch of each blade individually to reduce the cyclic loadings on the rotor, smart rotor control involves activating control devices distributed along the blades to alter the local aerodynamics of the blades. Here we investigate the effectiveness of using a DQ-axis control and a distributed (independent) control for both individual pitch and trailing edge flap smart rotor control. While load reductions are similar amongst the four strategies across a wide range of variables, including blade root bending moments, yaw bearing and shaft, the pitch actuator requirements vary. The smart rotor pitch actuator has reduced travel, rates, accelerations and power requirements than that of the individual pitch controlled wind turbines. This benefit alone however would be hard to justify the added design complexities of using a smart rotor, which can be seen as an alternative to upgrading the pitch actuator and bearing. In addition, it is found that the independent control strategy is apt at roles that the collective pitch usually targets, such as tower motion and speed control, and it is perhaps here, in supplementing other systems, that the future of the smart rotor lies.

  8. Comparison of individual pitch and smart rotor control strategies for load reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plumley, C; Leithead, W; Jamieson, P; Bossanyi, E; Graham, M

    2014-01-01

    Load reduction is increasingly seen as an essential part of controller and wind turbine design. On large multi-MW wind turbines that experience high levels of wind shear and turbulence across the rotor, individual pitch control and smart rotor control are being considered. While individual pitch control involves adjusting the pitch of each blade individually to reduce the cyclic loadings on the rotor, smart rotor control involves activating control devices distributed along the blades to alter the local aerodynamics of the blades. Here we investigate the effectiveness of using a DQ-axis control and a distributed (independent) control for both individual pitch and trailing edge flap smart rotor control. While load reductions are similar amongst the four strategies across a wide range of variables, including blade root bending moments, yaw bearing and shaft, the pitch actuator requirements vary. The smart rotor pitch actuator has reduced travel, rates, accelerations and power requirements than that of the individual pitch controlled wind turbines. This benefit alone however would be hard to justify the added design complexities of using a smart rotor, which can be seen as an alternative to upgrading the pitch actuator and bearing. In addition, it is found that the independent control strategy is apt at roles that the collective pitch usually targets, such as tower motion and speed control, and it is perhaps here, in supplementing other systems, that the future of the smart rotor lies

  9. Initial design of a stall-controlled wind turbine rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygaard, T.A. [Inst. for Energiteknikk, Kjeller (Norway)

    1997-08-01

    A model intended for initial design of stall-controlled wind turbine rotors is described. The user specifies relative radial position of an arbitrary number of airfoil sections, referring to a data file containing lift-and drag curves. The data file is on the same format as used in the commercial blade-element code BLADES-/2/, where lift- and drag coefficients are interpolated from tables as function of Reynolds number, relative thickness and angle of attack. The user can set constraints on a selection of the following: Maximum power; Maximum thrust in operation; Maximum root bending moment in operation; Extreme root bending moment, parked rotor; Tip speed; Upper and lower bounds on optimisation variables. The optimisation variables can be selected from: Blade radius; Rotational speed; Chord and twist at an arbitrary number of radial positions. The user can chose linear chord distribution and a hyperbola-like twist distribution to ensure smooth planform and twist, or cubic spline interpolation for one or both. The aerodynamic model is based on classical strip theory with Prandtl tip loss correction, supplemented by empirical data for high induction factors. (EG)

  10. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME ONE: PRELIMINARY DESIGN REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuteck, Michael D. [Zimitar, Inc.; Jackson, Kevin L. [Zimitar, Inc.; Santos, Richard A. [Zimitar, Inc.; Chow, Ray [Zimitar, Inc.; Nordenholz, Thomas R. [The California Maritime Academy; Wamble, John Lee [Zimitar, Inc.

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  11. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME ZERO: OVERVIEW AND COMMERCIAL PATH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuteck, Michael D. [Zimitar, Inc.; Jackson, Kevin L. [Zimitar, Inc.; Santos, Richard A. [Zimitar, Inc.

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  12. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME TWO: INNOVATION & COST OF ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuteck, Michael D. [Zimitar, Inc.; Jackson, Kevin L. [Zimitar, Inc.; Santos, Richard A. [Zimitar, Inc.

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  13. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME THREE: MARKET & TEAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuteck, Michael D. [Zimitar, Inc.; Jackson, Kevin L. [Zimitar, Inc.; Santos, Richard A. [Zimitar, Inc.

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  14. Parametric analyses on dynamic stall control of rotor airfoil via synthetic jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun ZHAO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of synthetic jet control on unsteady dynamic stall over rotor airfoil are investigated numerically. A moving-embedded grid method and an Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS solver coupled with k-ω Shear Stress Transport (SST turbulence model are established for predicting the complex flowfields of oscillatory airfoil under jet control. Additionally, a velocity boundary condition modeled by sinusoidal function has been developed to fulfill the perturbation effect of periodic jet. The validity of present CFD method is evaluated by comparisons of the calculated results of baseline dynamic stall case for rotor airfoil and jet control case for VR-7B airfoil with experimental data. Then, parametric analyses are conducted emphatically for an OA212 rotor airfoil to investigate the effects of jet control parameters (jet location, dimensionless frequency, momentum coefficient, jet angle, jet type and dual-jet on dynamic stall characteristics of rotor airfoil. It is demonstrated by the calculated results that efficiency of jet control could be improved with specific momentum coefficient and jet angle when the jet is located near separation point of rotor airfoil. Furthermore, the dual-jet could improve control efficiency more obviously on dynamic stall of rotor airfoil with respect to the unique jet, and the influence laws of dual-jet’s angles and momentum coefficients on control effects are similar to those of the unique jet. Finally, unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of rotor via synthetic jet which is located on the upper surface of rotor blade in forward flight are calculated, and as a result, the aerodynamic characteristics of rotor are improved compared with the baseline. The results indicate that synthetic jet has the capability in improving aerodynamic characteristics of rotor. Keywords: Airfoil, Dynamic stall characteristics, Flow control, Moving-embedded grid methodology, Navier-Stokes equations, Parametric

  15. 14 CFR 27.923 - Rotor drive system and control mechanism tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the position that will give maximum longitudinal cyclic pitch change to simulate forward flight. The... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor drive system and control mechanism....923 Rotor drive system and control mechanism tests. (a) Each part tested as prescribed in this section...

  16. Identification and Reconfigurable Control of Impaired Multi-Rotor Drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Bencomo, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents an algorithm for control and safe landing of impaired multi-rotor drones when one or more motors fail simultaneously or in any sequence. It includes three main components: an identification block, a reconfigurable control block, and a decisions making block. The identification block monitors each motor load characteristics and the current drawn, based on which the failures are detected. The control block generates the required total thrust and three axis torques for the altitude, horizontal position and/or orientation control of the drone based on the time scale separation and nonlinear dynamic inversion. The horizontal displacement is controlled by modulating the roll and pitch angles. The decision making algorithm maps the total thrust and three torques into the individual motor thrusts based on the information provided by the identification block. The drone continues the mission execution as long as the number of functioning motors provide controllability of it. Otherwise, the controller is switched to the safe mode, which gives up the yaw control, commands a safe landing spot and descent rate while maintaining the horizontal attitude.

  17. Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Colin R.; Tischler, Mark B.

    2010-01-01

    An automatic rotor trim control system was developed and successfully used during a wind tunnel test of a full-scale UH-60 rotor system with Individual Blade Control (IBC) actuators. The trim control system allowed rotor trim to be set more quickly, precisely and repeatably than in previous wind tunnel tests. This control system also allowed the rotor trim state to be maintained during transients and drift in wind tunnel flow, and through changes in IBC actuation. The ability to maintain a consistent rotor trim state was key to quickly and accurately evaluating the effect of IBC on rotor performance, vibration, noise and loads. This paper presents details of the design and implementation of the trim control system including the rotor system hardware, trim control requirements, and trim control hardware and software implementation. Results are presented showing the effect of IBC on rotor trim and dynamic response, a validation of the rotor dynamic simulation used to calculate the initial control gains and tuning of the control system, and the overall performance of the trim control system during the wind tunnel test.

  18. Rotor experiments in controlled conditions continued: New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorsma, K.; Schepers, J. G.

    2016-09-01

    To validate and reduce the large uncertainty associated with rotor aerodynamic and acoustic models, there is a need for detailed force, noise and surrounding flow velocity measurements on wind turbines under controlled conditions. However, high quality wind tunnel campaigns on horizontal axis wind turbine models are scarce due to the large wind tunnel size needed and consequently high associated costs. To serve this purpose an experiment using the Mexico turbine was set-up in the large low speed facility of the DNW wind tunnel. An overview of the experiments is given including a selection of results. A comparison of calculations to measurements for design conditions shows a satisfactory agreement. In summary, after years of preparation, ECN and partners have performed very successful aerodynamic experiments in the largest wind tunnel in Europe. The comprehensive high quality database that has been obtained will be used in the international Mexnext consortium to further develop wind energy aerodynamic and acoustic modeling.

  19. A soft rotor concept - design, verification and potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, F; Thirstrup Petersen, J [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    This paper contains results from development and testing of a two-bladed soft rotor for an existing 15 kW flexible wind turbine. The new concept is characterised as a free yawing down wind turbine with nacelle tilting flexibility and a two-bladed teetering rotor with three-point supported flexible blades with built-in structural couplings. The power and the loads are controlled by active stall and active coning. The concept has been developed by extensive application of aero-elastic predictions, numerical optimisation and stability analysis in order to obtain optimal aero-elastic response and minimal loads. The flexible blades and the principle of active coning allow the blades to deflect with the wind to such an extent that the loads are reduced to between 25 and 50% of the loads for a similar rigid rotor. All conceptual design principles have been focused on application to large MW turbines, and aero-elastic predictions for an upscale 1 MW version show that this would have approximately identical characteristisc, without being particularly optimised for the actual size. (au)

  20. Control techniques of tilt rotor unmanned aerial vehicle systems: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The tilt rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (TRUAV exhibits special application value due to its unique rotor structure. However, varying dynamics and aerodynamic interference caused by tiltable rotors are great technical challenges and key issues for TRUAV’s high-powered flight controls, which have attracted the attention of many researchers. This paper outlines the concept of TRUAV and some typical TRUAV platforms while focusing on control techniques. TRUAV structural features, dynamics modeling, and flight control methods are discussed, and major challenges and corresponding developmental tendencies associated with TRUAV flight control are summarized.

  1. A new hybrid observer based rotor imbalance vibration control via passive autobalancer and active bearing actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, DaeYi; DeSmidt, Hans

    2018-02-01

    Many researchers have explored the use of active bearings, such as non-contact Active Magnetic Bearings (AMB), to control imbalance vibration in rotor systems. Meanwhile, the advantages of a passive Auto-balancer device (ABD) eliminating the imbalance effect of rotor without using other active means have been recently studied. This paper develops a new hybrid imbalance vibration control approach for an ABD-rotor system supported by a normal passive bearing in augmented with an AMB to enhance the balancing and vibration isolation capabilities. Essentially, an ABD consists of several freely moving eccentric balancing masses mounted on the rotor, which, at supercritical operating speeds, act to cancel the rotor's imbalance at steady-state. However, due to the inherent nonlinearity of the ABD, the potential for other, non-synchronous limit-cycle behavior exists resulting in increased rotor vibration. To address this, the algorithm of proposed hybrid control is designed to guarantee globally asymptotic stability of the synchronous balanced condition. This algorithm also incorporates with a "Luenberger-like" observer that continuously estimates the states of a balancer ball circulating around within ABD. In particular, it is shown that the balanced equilibrium can be made globally attractive under the hybrid control strategy, and that the control power levels of AMB are significantly reduced via the addition of the ABD because the control is designed such that it is only switched on for the abnormal operation of ABD and will be disengaged otherwise. Moreover, unlike other imbalance vibration control applications based upon ABD such as rotor speed regulator [21,22], this approach enables the controller to achieve the desirable performance without altering rotor speed once the rotor initially reaches the target speed. These applications are relevant to limited power applications such as in satellite reaction wheels, flywheel energy storage batteries or CD-ROM application.

  2. RESEARCH OF THE HIGH HARMONICS INDIVIDUAL BLADE CONTROL EFFECT ON VIBRATIONS CAUSED BY THE HELICOPTER MAIN ROTOR THRUST

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents numerical results analysis of main rotor vibration due to helicopter main rotor thrust pulsation.The calculation method, the object of research and numerical research results with the aim to reduce the amplitude of the vibrations transmitted to the hub from the helicopters main rotor by the individual blade control in azimuth by the installation angle of blades cyclic changes are set out in the article. The individual blades control law for a five-blade main rotor based on ...

  3. Rotor Speed Estimation Method Used in Dynamic Control of the Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRĂCIUNAŞ Gabriela

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is proposed an algorithm for rotor speed estimation calculated directly from the rotor flux. The flux required for speed computation is estimated using Gopinath reduced order robust adaptive observer. In order to determine the structure of the observer we started from the state equations of the induction motor using spatial vectors written in fixed coordinates towards stator and considering the rotor speed constant. Quality of speed and rotor fluxestimation was evaluated from the results obtained during different operation regimes. The proposed algorithm was then tested for its usability in the case of indirect field oriented control based on the rotor flux of the induction motor by the simulation inMATLAB/Simulink.

  4. Optimal control of orientation and entanglement for two dipole-dipole coupled quantum planar rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongling; Ho, Tak-San; Rabitz, Herschel

    2018-05-09

    Optimal control simulations are performed for orientation and entanglement of two dipole-dipole coupled identical quantum rotors. The rotors at various fixed separations lie on a model non-interacting plane with an applied control field. It is shown that optimal control of orientation or entanglement represents two contrasting control scenarios. In particular, the maximally oriented state (MOS) of the two rotors has a zero entanglement entropy and is readily attainable at all rotor separations. Whereas, the contrasting maximally entangled state (MES) has a zero orientation expectation value and is most conveniently attainable at small separations where the dipole-dipole coupling is strong. It is demonstrated that the peak orientation expectation value attained by the MOS at large separations exhibits a long time revival pattern due to the small energy splittings arising form the extremely weak dipole-dipole coupling between the degenerate product states of the two free rotors. Moreover, it is found that the peak entanglement entropy value attained by the MES remains largely unchanged as the two rotors are transported to large separations after turning off the control field. Finally, optimal control simulations of transition dynamics between the MOS and the MES reveal the intricate interplay between orientation and entanglement.

  5. Manipulation and control of a single molecular rotor on Au (111) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai-Gang, Zhang; Jin-Hai, Mao; Qi, Liu; Nan, Jiang; Hai-Tao, Zhou; Hai-Ming, Guo; Dong-Xia, Shi; Hong-Jun, Gao

    2010-01-01

    Three different methods are used to manipulate and control phthalocyanine based single molecular rotors on Au (111) surface: (1) changing the molecular structure to alter the rotation potential; (2) using the tunnelling current of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) to change the thermal equilibrium of the molecular rotor; (3) artificial manipulation of the molecular rotor to switch the rotation on or off by an STM tip. Furthermore, a molecular 'gear wheel' is successfully achieved with two neighbouring molecules. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  6. Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controllers for Rotor Flux Oriented Control of Induction Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Rohollah; Farhangi, Reza; Yarahmadi, Ali

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents design and evaluation of a novel approach based on emotional learning to improve the speed control system of rotor flux oriented control of induction motor. The controller includes a neuro-fuzzy system with speed error and its derivative as inputs. A fuzzy critic evaluates the present situation, and provides the emotional signal (stress). The controller modifies its characteristics so that the critics stress is reduced. The comparative simulation results show that the proposed controller is more robust and hence found to be a suitable replacement of the conventional PI controller for the high performance industrial drive applications.

  7. Investigation of the effect of controllable dampers on limit states of rotor systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapoměl J.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The unbalance and time varying loading are the principal sources of lateral vibrations of rotors and of increase of forces transmitted through the coupling elements into the stationary part. These oscillations and force effects can be considerably reduced if damping devices are added to the coupling elements placed between the rotor and its casing. The theoretical studies and practical experience show that to achieve their optimum performance their damping effect must be controllable. This article focuses on investigation of influence of controlled damping in the rotor supports on its limit state of deformation, fatigue failure and on magnitude of the forces transmitted into the stationary part. The analysed system is a flexible rotor with one disc driven by an electric DC motor and loaded by the disc unbalance and by technological forces depending on the rotor angular position. In the computational model the system vibration is governed by a set of nonlinear differential equations of the first and second orders. To evaluate the fatigue failure both the flexural and torsional oscillations are taken into account. The analysis is aimed at searching for the intervals of angular speeds, at which the rotor can be operated without exceeding the limit states.

  8. Parametric analyses for synthetic jet control on separation and stall over rotor airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Guoqing

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of synthetic jet control on separation and stall over rotor airfoils. The preconditioned and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations coupled with a k − ω shear stream transport turbulence model are employed to accomplish the flowfield simulation of rotor airfoils under jet control. Additionally, a velocity boundary condition modeled by a sinusoidal function is developed to fulfill the perturbation effect of periodic jets. The validity of the present CFD procedure is evaluated by the simulated results of an isolated synthetic jet and the jet control case for airfoil NACA0015. Then, parametric analyses are conducted specifically for an OA213 rotor airfoil to investigate the effects of jet parameters (forcing frequency, jet location and momentum coefficient, jet direction, and distribution of jet arrays on the control effect of the aerodynamic characteristics of a rotor airfoil. Preliminary results indicate that the efficiency of jet control can be improved with specific frequencies (the best lift-drag ratio at F+ = 2.0 and jet angles (40° or 75° when the jets are located near the separation point of the rotor airfoil. Furthermore, as a result of a suitable combination of jet arrays, the lift coefficient of the airfoil can be improved by nearly 100%, and the corresponding drag coefficient decreased by 26.5% in comparison with the single point control case.

  9. Tilt rotor tricopter : control system for the holonomic multirotor platform

    OpenAIRE

    Gjertsen, Sindre; Salem, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Masteroppgave i mekatronikk MAS500 2013 – Universitetet i Agder, Grimstad Development of a new approach to the multicopter segment of the Unmanned Areal Vehicle (UAV) family is presented. The system is designed on a T-shaped tricopter platform with ability to tilt all three motors, hereby defined as Tilt Rotor Tricopter (TRT). The highly coupled nonlinear system is investigated through the mathematical model, and verified by simulations. Linearization of the system has been ach...

  10. Numerical and Experimental Modal Control of Flexible Rotor Using Electromagnetic Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Hideki Koroishi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is dedicated to active modal control applied to flexible rotors. The effectiveness of the corresponding techniques for controlling a flexible rotor is tested numerically and experimentally. Two different approaches are used to determine the appropriate controllers. The first uses the linear quadratic regulator and the second approach is the fuzzy modal control. This paper is focused on the electromagnetic actuator, which in this case is part of a hybrid bearing. Due to numerical reasons it was necessary to reduce the size of the model of the rotating system so that the design of the controllers and estimator could be performed. The role of the Kalman estimator in the present contribution is to estimate the modal states of the system and to determine the displacement of the rotor at the position of the hybrid bearing. Finally, numerical and experimental results demonstrate the success of the methodology conveyed.

  11. Design of Active Magnetic Bearing Controllers for Rotors Subjected to Gas Seal Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jonas Skjødt; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2018-01-01

    Proper design of feedback controllers is crucial for ensuring high performance of Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) supported rotor dynamic systems. Annular seals in those systems can contribute with significant forces, which, in many cases, are hard to model in advance due to complex geometries...... of the seal and multiphase fluids. Hence, it can be challenging to design AMB controllers that will guarantee robust performance for these kinds of systems. This paper demonstrates the design, simulation and experimental results of model based controllers for AMB systems, subjected to dynamic seal forces....... The controllers are found using H-infinity - and µ synthesis and are based on a global rotor dynamic model in-which the seal coefficients are identified in-situ. The controllers are implemented in a rotor-dynamic test facility with two radial AMBs and one annular seal with an adjustable inlet pressure. The seal...

  12. Modeling and Robust Trajectory Tracking Control for a Novel Six-Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengshun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and trajectory tracking control of a novel six-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV is concerned to solve problems such as smaller payload capacity and lack of both hardware redundancy and anticrosswind capability for quad-rotor. The mathematical modeling for the six-rotor UAV is developed on the basis of the Newton-Euler formalism, and a second-order sliding-mode disturbance observer (SOSMDO is proposed to reconstruct the disturbances of the rotational dynamics. In consideration of the under-actuated and strong coupling properties of the six-rotor UAV, a nested double loops trajectory tracking control strategy is adopted. In the outer loop, a position error PID controller is designed, of which the task is to compare the desired trajectory with real position of the six-rotor UAV and export the desired attitude angles to the inner loop. In the inner loop, a rapid-convergent nonlinear differentiator (RCND is proposed to calculate the derivatives of the virtual control signal, instead of using the analytical differentiation, to avoid “differential expansion” in the procedure of the attitude controller design. Finally, the validity and effectiveness of the proposed technique are demonstrated by the simulation results.

  13. A New Turbo-shaft Engine Control Law during Variable Rotor Speed Transient Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wei; Miao, Lizhen; Zhang, Haibo; Huang, Jinquan

    2015-12-01

    A closed-loop control law employing compressor guided vanes is firstly investigated to solve unacceptable fuel flow dynamic change in single fuel control for turbo-shaft engine here, especially for rotorcraft in variable rotor speed process. Based on an Augmented Linear Quadratic Regulator (ALQR) algorithm, a dual-input, single-output robust control scheme is proposed for a turbo-shaft engine, involving not only the closed loop adjustment of fuel flow but also that of compressor guided vanes. Furthermore, compared to single fuel control, some digital simulation cases using this new scheme about variable rotor speed have been implemented on the basis of an integrated system of helicopter and engine model. The results depict that the command tracking performance to the free turbine rotor speed can be asymptotically realized. Moreover, the fuel flow transient process has been significantly improved, and the fuel consumption has been dramatically cut down by more than 2% while keeping the helicopter level fight unchanged.

  14. State of the art and prospectives of smart rotor control for wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlas, T K; Kuik, G A M van

    2007-01-01

    The continued reduction in cost of energy of wind turbines, especially with the increasingly upscaling of the rotor, will require contribution from technology advances in many areas. Reducing loads on the rotor can offer great reduction to the total cost of wind turbines. With the increasing size of wind turbine blades, the need for more sophisticated load control techniques has induced the interest for locally distributed aerodynamic control systems with built-in intelligence on the blades. Such concepts are often named in popular terms 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This paper focuses on research regarding active rotor control and smart structures for load reduction. It presents an overview of available knowledge and future concepts on the application of active aerodynamic control and smart structures for wind turbine applications. The goal of the paper is to provide a perspective on the current status and future directions of the specific area of research. It comprises a novel attempt to summarize and analyze possible advanced control systems for future wind turbines. The overview builds on existing research on helicopter rotors and expands similar concepts for wind turbine applications, based on ongoing research in the field. Research work has been analyzed through UPWIND project's work package on Smart Rotor Blades and Rotor Control. First, the specifications of unsteady loads, the state of the art of modern control for load reduction and the need for more advanced and detailed active aerodynamic control are analyzed. Also, overview of available knowledge in application of active aerodynamic control on rotating blades, from helicopter research, is provided. Concepts, methods, and achieved results are presented. Furthermore, R and D so far and up-to-date ongoing progress of similar applications for wind turbines are presented. Feasibility studies for wind turbine applications, preliminary performance evaluation and novel computational and

  15. Position, Attitude, and Fault-Tolerant Control of Tilting-Rotor Quadcopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rumit

    The aim of this thesis is to present algorithms for autonomous control of tilt-rotor quadcopter UAV. In particular, this research work describes position, attitude and fault tolerant control in tilt-rotor quadcopter. Quadcopters are one of the most popular and reliable unmanned aerial systems because of the design simplicity, hovering capabilities and minimal operational cost. Numerous applications for quadcopters have been explored all over the world but very little work has been done to explore design enhancements and address the fault-tolerant capabilities of the quadcopters. The tilting rotor quadcopter is a structural advancement of traditional quadcopter and it provides additional actuated controls as the propeller motors are actuated for tilt which can be utilized to improve efficiency of the aerial vehicle during flight. The tilting rotor quadcopter design is accomplished by using an additional servo motor for each rotor that enables the rotor to tilt about the axis of the quadcopter arm. Tilting rotor quadcopter is a more agile version of conventional quadcopter and it is a fully actuated system. The tilt-rotor quadcopter is capable of following complex trajectories with ease. The control strategy in this work is to use the propeller tilts for position and orientation control during autonomous flight of the quadcopter. In conventional quadcopters, two propellers rotate in clockwise direction and other two propellers rotate in counter clockwise direction to cancel out the effective yawing moment of the system. The variation in rotational speeds of these four propellers is utilized for maneuvering. On the other hand, this work incorporates use of varying propeller rotational speeds along with tilting of the propellers for maneuvering during flight. The rotational motion of propellers work in sync with propeller tilts to control the position and orientation of the UAV during the flight. A PD flight controller is developed to achieve various modes of the

  16. Control strategy for permanent magnet synchronous motor with contra-rotating rotors under unbalanced loads condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Shuangyin; Luo, Derong; Huang, Shoudao

    2015-01-01

    This study presents an investigation into the control of an axial-flux permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) with contra-rotating rotors fed by a single inverter, which corresponds to two PMSM connected in series. In this study, the mathematic model of the PMSM with contra-rotating rotors...... water vehicle propulsions. The control strategy is implemented on a DSP 28335 processor featured hardware platform and is tested on a 1.2 kW prototype machine. Experimental results validate the correctness of the analysis and control strategy....

  17. Modal Vibration Control in Periodic Time-Varying Structures with Focus on Rotor Blade Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rene Hardam; Santos, Ilmar

    2004-01-01

    of active modal controllers. The main aim is to reduce vibrations in periodic time-varying structures. Special emphasis is given to vibration control of coupled bladed rotor systems. A state feedback modal control law is developed based on modal analysis in periodic time-varying structures. The first step...... in the procedure is a transformation of the model into a time-invariant modal form by applying the modal matrices, which are also periodic time-variant. Due to coupled rotor and blade motions complex vibration modes occur in the modal transformed state space model. This implies that the modal transformed model...

  18. Effect of control activity on blade fatigue damage rate for a small horizontal axis wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, A F; Freris, L L; Graham, J M.R. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-09-01

    An experiment into the effect of control activity on blade fatigue damage rate for a 5 kW, two bladed, teetered HAWT has been performed. It has been shown that control activity influences the distribution of strain in the blade but that in a high rotor speed, high cycle fatigue regime this has little influence on damage rate. The experiment was conducted on a small test turbine by implementing variable speed stall, pitch and yaw control strategies and measuring blade flapwise strain response at root and midspan locations. A full description of the investigation is provided. (au)

  19. Control Design of Active Magnetic Bearings for Rotors Subjected to Destabilising Seal Forces - Theory & Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jonas Skjødt

    . At present, there is no generally accepted method for determination of dynamic seal forces. Therefore, large uncertainties must be expected when modelling dynamic seal forces and consequently also in rotor-dynamic stability analysis. This thesis focuses on i) closed loop identification of uncertain AMB...... parameters, ii) closed loop identification of unknown stiffness and damping coefficients of a dynamicseal model and iii) the design of AMB controllers to handle dynamic seal forces. Controllers that can guarantee stability and performance in the presence of uncertainseal forces are of special interest...... the uncertaintiesin seal forces and for LPV control synthesis, to compensate for known changes in seal forces due to changes in operating conditions. A rotor dynamic test facility with a rigid rotor, two radial AMBs and one annular test seal is used for i) closed loop identification of parameters in the AMB...

  20. Rotor Field Oriented Control with adaptive Iron Loss Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

    1999-01-01

    of the motor referenced to the rotor magnetizing current, and with the extension of an iron loss resistor added in parallel to the magnetizing inductance. The resistor estimator is based on the observation that the actual applied stator voltages deviates from the voltage estimated, when a motor is current......It is well known from the literature that iron loses in an induction motor implies field angle estimation errors and hence detuning problems. In this paper a new method for estimating the iron loss resistor in an induction motor is presented. The method is based on a traditional dynamic model...

  1. Design of Nonlinear Robust Rotor Current Controller for DFIG Based on Terminal Sliding Mode Control and Extended State Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Cai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As to strong nonlinearity of doubly fed induction generators (DFIG and uncertainty of its model, a novel rotor current controller with nonlinearity and robustness is proposed to enhance fault ride-though (FRT capacities of grid-connected DFIG. Firstly, the model error, external disturbances, and the uncertain factors were estimated by constructing extended state observer (ESO so as to achieve linearization model, which is compensated dynamically from nonlinear model. And then rotor current controller of DFIG is designed by using terminal sliding mode variable structure control theory (TSMC. The controller has superior dynamic performance and strong robustness. The simulation results show that the proposed control approach is effective.

  2. Development of a piezoelectric actuator for trailing-edge flap control of rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Friedrich K.; Ngo, Hieu T.; Anand, V.; Domzalski, David B.

    1999-06-01

    Piezoelectric actuator technology has now reached a level where macro-positioning applications in the context of smart structures can be considered. One application with high payoffs is vibration reduction, noise reduction, and performance improvements in helicopters. Integration of piezoelectric actuators in the rotor blade is attractive, since it attacks the problem at the source. The present paper covers the development of a piezoelectric actuator for trailing edge flap control on a 34-foot diameter helicopter main rotor. The design of an actuator using bi-axial stack columns, and its bench, shake, and spin testing are described. A series of enhancements lead to an improved version that, together with use of latest stack technology, meets the requirements. Next steps in this DARPA sponsored program are development of the actuator and full scale rotor system for wind tunnel testing in the NASA Ames 40 X 80 foot wind tunnel and flight testing on the MD Explorer.

  3. Semiactive balancing control scheme in a rotor - bearing system supported on Mr. Dampers: design and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Navarro, Gerardo; Cabrera Amado, Alvaro [Cinvestav, IPN, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    This paper deals with the problem of semiactive balancing control of a rotor-bearing system, where one journal bearings is supported on two radial Magneto-Rheological (MR) dampers. The mathematical model of the rotor-bearing system results from an orthotropic Jeffcott-like model and the dynamics associated to the MR dampers, whose rheological properties depend on the current inputs. For control purposes we use the Choi-Lee-Park polynomial for the MR dampers, which is quite consistent with the tpical nonlinear and complex hysteresis behavior and also simplifies the physical implementation on an experimental setup. The semiactive control scheme for the unbalance reponse of the rotor-bearing system is synthesized using sliding-mode control techniques. Some numerical and experimental results are included to illustrate the dynamic performance and robustness of the overall system. [Spanish] En este trabajo se abora el problema de control semiactivo del desbalance en un sistema rotor-chumacera, donde una de las chumaceras convencionales se monta sobre una suspension con dos amortiguadores Magneto-Reologicos (MR) radiales. El modelo matematico del sistema rotorchumacera se obtiene de un modelo tipo Jefcott ortotropico y la dinamica de los amortiguadores MR, cuyas propiedades reologicas dependen de las corrientes electricas de alimentacion. Para propositos de control se emplea el modelo polinomial de Choi-Lee-Park para los dos amortiguadores MR, el cual es consistente con el tipico comportamiento no-lineal y de histeresis, permitiendo simplificar su implementacion fisica en una plataforma experimental. El esquema de control semiactivo de la respuesta al desbalance, en el sistema rotor-chumacera, se basa en las tecnicas de control por modos deslizantes. Se presentan algunos resultados de simulacion numerica y experimentos que utilizan el funcionamiento y robustez del sistema completo.

  4. Active Control of Parametric Vibrations in Coupled Rotor-Blade Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rene Hardam; Santos, Ilmar

    2003-01-01

    of modes. The designed control scheme is applied to a coupled rotor-blade system and dynamic responses are numerically evaluated. Such responses show that the vibrations are efficiently reduced. Frequency response diagrams demonstrate that both basis and parametric vibration modes are significantly...... the model becomes periodic-variant. In order to reduce basis as well as parametric vibrations by means of active control in such systems a time-variant control strategy has to be adopted. This paper presents a methodology for designing an active controller to reduce vibrations in a coupled rotor......-blade system. The main aim is to control blade as well as hub vibrations in such a system by means of active control with focus on reducing the parametric vibration. A periodic state feedback controller is designed by transforming the system into a linear time-invariant form. Using this a controller...

  5. Control of the thermostressed state of low-pressure cylinder rotors for power steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejzerovich, A.Sh.

    1980-01-01

    The principle arrangement of an analog device for operation control of the low pressure cylinder (LPC) heating at large steam turbine start-up has been developed. Different forms of representation of the thermal conductivity equation used for realization by means of analog models are analized. Presented are the results of calculating the heating indices for the welded rotor of LPC during the turbine start-up from a cold state and the curves of temperature distribution in the disc of the first sections of welded LPC rotor at start-up from a cold state and in a steady-state regime. The results obtained show that in the process of start-up the error of the temperature difference DELTAt determination according to the suggested scheme does not exceed 10 deg C. After achieving the maximum of DELTAt in the process of the rotor temperature field flattening, this error increases and constitutes 32 deg C in steady-state regime, mainly, due to the error of temperature determination on the rotation axis in controlled cross section. As far as the control for the LPC rotor heating is necessary only during start-up and the requirements for its accuracy are not equivalent, therefore, for all regimes, representativity and accuracy of control provided by the accepted calculation scheme is quite satisfactory

  6. Active vibration control of a rotor-bearing system based on dynamic stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Blanco Ortega

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un esquema de control activo de vibraciones para atenuar las amplitudes de vibración síncrona inducidas por el desbalance en un sistema rotorchumaceras; donde una de las chumaceras puede ser desplazada automáticamente para modificar la longitud efectiva del rotor, y como consecuencia, la rigidez del rotor. El control de la rigidez dinámica se basa en un análisis de la respuesta en frecuencia, control de velocidad y en el uso de esquemas de aceleración, para evadir las amplitudes de la vibración en la resonancia mientras el sistema rotatorio pasa (acelerado o desacelerado a través de una velocidad crítica. Se utiliza identificación algebraica para estimar el desbalance en línea, mientras el rotor es llevado a la velocidad de operación deseada. Algunas simulaciones numéricas y resultados experimentales son incluidos para mostrar las propiedades de la compensación del desbalance y la robustez del esquema de control activo de vibraciones propuesto, cuando el rotor se opera a una velocidad por encima de la primera velocidad crítica.

  7. Control system design for flexible rotors supported by actively lubricated bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2008-01-01

    and keeping the lengths of the two eigenvalues constant in the real-imaginary plane. The methodology is applied to an industrial gas compressor supported by active tilting-pad journal bearings. The unbalance response functions and mode shapes of the flexible rotor with and without active control are presented...

  8. Voltage directive drive with claw pole motor and control without rotor position indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroenisch, Volker Ewald

    Design and testing of a voltage directive drive for synchronous variable speed claw pole motor and control without rotor position indicator is described. Economic analysis of the designed regulation is performed. Computations of stationary and dynamic behavior are given and experimental operational behavior is determined. The motors can be used for electric transportation vehicles, diesel motors, and electric railway engines.

  9. Speed sensorless direct torque control of IMs with rotor resistance estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barut, Murat; Bogosyan, Seta; Gokasan, Metin

    2005-01-01

    Direct torque control (DTC) of induction motors (IMs) requires an accurate knowledge on the amplitude and angular position of the controlled flux in addition to the information related to angular velocity for velocity control applications. However, unknown load torque and uncertainties related to stator/rotor resistances due to operating conditions constitute major challenges for the performance of such systems. The determination of stator resistance can be performed by measurements, but methods must be developed for estimation and identification of rotor resistance and load torque. In this study, an EKF based solution is sought for determination of the rotor resistance and load torque as well as the above mentioned states required for DTC. The EKF algorithm used in conjunction with the speed sensorless DTC is tested under eleven scenarios comprised of various changes made in the velocity reference beside the load torque and rotor resistance values assigned in the model. With no a priori information in the estimated states and parameters, it has been demonstrated that the EKF estimation and sensorless DTC perform quite well in spite of the uncertainties and variations imposed on the system

  10. Counteracting Rotor Imbalance in a Bearingless Motor System with Feedforward Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascak, Peter Eugene; Jansen, Ralph H.; Dever, Timothy; Nagorny, Aleksandr; Loparo, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    In standard motor applications, traditional mechanical bearings represent the most economical approach to rotor suspension. However, in certain high performance applications, rotor suspension without bearing contact is either required or highly beneficial. Such applications include very high speed, extreme environment, or limited maintenance access applications. This paper extends upon a novel bearingless motor concept, in which full five-axis levitation and rotation of the rotor is achieved using two motors with opposing conical air-gaps. By leaving the motors' pole-pairs unconnected, different d-axis flux in each pole-pair is created, generating a flux imbalance which creates lateral force. Note this is approach is different than that used in previous bearingless motors, which use separate windings for levitation and rotation. This paper will examine the use of feedforward control to counteract synchronous whirl caused by rotor imbalance. Experimental results will be presented showing the performance of a prototype bearingless system, which was sized for a high speed flywheel energy storage application, with and without feedforward control.

  11. Weight and cost analysis of large wind turbine rotors constructed from conventional materials and from advanced composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Holten, Th

    1982-07-01

    Cost calculations and cost analyses of the blades and the (teetering) hubs of large wind turbines. The blades are of different shapes, construction and materials (aluminium, steel and glass reinforced plastics). Teetering hubs are heavy and complicated steel constructions, necessary to minimize material fatigue. In large wind turbines with a diameter of 60 to 100 m or even more the rotor mass (hubs and blades together) may vary from 46,000 to 216,000 kg. Costs are estimated to be DFL. 16/kg, both for teetering hubs and/or blades made of glass reinforced plastics. Due to lack of experience and of exact knowledge of the loads appearing during operation under field conditions the uncertainty factor may be 10% to 15%.

  12. A Study of Active Rotor-Blade Vibration Control using Electro-Magnetic Actuation - Part II: Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rene Hardam; Santos, Ilmar

    2004-01-01

    . The remaining two sets of actuators are applied to act directly onto the hub, working as an active radial bearing controlling the rotor lateral movement. The rig is equipped with sensors measuring blade and rotor vibrations. Actuators and sensors are connected to a digital signal processor running the control......This is the second paper in a two-part study on active rotor-blade vibration control. This part presents an experimental contribution into the work of active controller design for rotor-blade systems. The primary aim is to give an experimental validation and show the applicability...... algorithm. Measurement signals and actuator control signals from the sensors and actuators fixed in the rotating disc are transmitted to the control unit through a slip-ring device. Various measured responses of both the controlled and the non-controlled system with identical blades and with deliberately...

  13. Stabilization and control of quad-rotor helicopter using a smartphone device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Alok; Lee, Dah-Jye; Moore, Jason; Chang, Yung-Ping

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, autonomous, micro-unmanned aerial vehicles (micro-UAVs), or more specifically hovering micro- UAVs, have proven suitable for many promising applications such as unknown environment exploration and search and rescue operations. The early versions of UAVs had no on-board control capabilities, and were difficult for manual control from a ground station. Many UAVs now are equipped with on-board control systems that reduce the amount of control required from the ground-station operator. However, the limitations on payload, power consumption and control without human interference remain the biggest challenges. This paper proposes to use a smartphone as the sole computational device to stabilize and control a quad-rotor. The goal is to use the readily available sensors in a smartphone such as the GPS, the accelerometer, the rate-gyros, and the camera to support vision-related tasks such as flight stabilization, estimation of the height above ground, target tracking, obstacle detection, and surveillance. We use a quad-rotor platform that has been built in the Robotic Vision Lab at Brigham Young University for our development and experiments. An Android smartphone is connected through the USB port to an external hardware that has a microprocessor and circuitries to generate pulse-width modulation signals to control the brushless servomotors on the quad-rotor. The high-resolution camera on the smartphone is used to detect and track features to maintain a desired altitude level. The vision algorithms implemented include template matching, Harris feature detector, RANSAC similarity-constrained homography, and color segmentation. Other sensors are used to control yaw, pitch, and roll of the quad-rotor. This smartphone-based system is able to stabilize and control micro-UAVs and is ideal for micro-UAVs that have size, weight, and power limitations.

  14. Novel controller design demonstration for vibration alleviation of helicopter rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulker, Fatma Demet; Nitzsche, Fred

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents an advanced controller design methodology for vibration alleviation of helicopter rotor sys- tems. Particularly, vibration alleviation in a forward ight regime where the rotor blades experience periodically varying aerodynamic loading was investigated. Controller synthesis was carried out under the time-periodic H2 and H∞ framework and the synthesis problem was solved based on both periodic Riccati and Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) formulations. The closed-loop stability was analyzed using Floquet-Lyapunov theory, and the controller's performance was validated by closed-loop high-delity aeroelastic simulations. To validate the con- troller's performance an actively controlled trailing edge ap strategy was implemented. Computational cost was compared for both formulations.

  15. Control System for Producing Electricity with Dual Stator Winding Cage-Rotor Induction Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Nicolae Tutelea

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper will present the key design equations and control design model of the Dual Stator Winding Cage-Rotor Induction Generator (DSWIG to achieve wide-speed-range operation with reduced capacity of the static power controller for low power wind or hydro applications. The proposed induction generator consists of a standard squirrel-cage rotor and a stator with two separate windings wound for a similar number of poles. Moreover, the system control strategy using the stator flux orientation is consequently proposed. The aim of the paper is to emphasize that the low speed induction generators with power electronic converters represent a realistic and useful solution for direct drive power applications.

  16. A comparison of smart rotor control approaches using trailing edge flaps and individual pitch control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lackner, M.A.; van Kuik, G.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Modern wind turbines have been steadily increasing in size, and have now become very large, with recent models boasting rotor diameters greater than 120 m. Reducing the loads experienced by the wind turbine rotor blades is one means of lowering the cost of energy of wind turbines. Wind turbines are

  17. Lateral vibration control of a flexible overcritical rotor via an active gas bearing – Theoretical and experimental comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierart Vásquez, Fabián Gonzalo; Santos, Ilmar

    2016-01-01

    The lack of damping of radial gas bearings leads to high vibration levels of a rotor supported by this type of bearing when crossing resonant areas. This is even more relevant for flexible rotors, as studied in this work. In order to reduce these high vibration levels, an active gas bearing...... is proposed. The control action of this active bearing is selected based on two different strategies: a simple proportional integral derivative controller and an optimal controller. Both controllers are designed based on a theoretical model previously presented. The dynamics of the flexible rotor are modelled......-based controllers are compared against experimental results, showing good agreement. Theoretical and experimental results show a significant increase in the damping ratio of the system, enabling the flexible rotor to run safely across the critical speeds and up to 12,000rev/min, i.e. 50 percent over the second...

  18. Aerodynamic analysis of potential use of flow control devices on helicopter rotor blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejero, F; Doerffer, P; Szulc, O

    2014-01-01

    The interest in the application of flow control devices has been rising in the last years. Recently, several passive streamwise vortex generators have been analysed in a configuration of a curved wall nozzle within the framework of the UFAST project (Unsteady Effects of Shock Wave Induced Separation, 2005 – 2009). Experimental and numerical results proved that the technology is effective in delaying flow separation. The numerical investigation has been extended to helicopter rotor blades in hover and forward flight applying the FLOWer solver (RANS approach) implementing the chimera overlapping grids technique and high performance computing. CFD results for hover conditions confirm that the proposed passive control method reduces the flow separation increasing the thrust over power consumption. The paper presents the numerical validation for both states of flight and the possible implementation of RVGs on helicopter rotor blades.

  19. Reduction mechanism of dynamic loads on down wind rotor; Furyoku hatsuden system down wind rotor no doteki kaju no keigen kiko ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, K; Shimizu, Y; Yasui, T [Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Dynamic force on blades in a large wind mill changes with rotational speed for various reasons, such as wind shear that causes vertical distribution of wind velocity or titling angle. Therefore, a 2-blade system on a teetered hub is a practical selection for the coned, down-wind type. Use of teetered axis greatly reduces bending moment in the flap direction and that at the axis of rotation. An attempt was made to understand dynamic loads by inertial force resulting from oscillation of the blade rotating on the teetered axis, and thereby to avoid them. The in-plane load can be diminished to zero when the teetered axis is coincided with the center of gravity, but generally cannot be avoided when the blade is strained significantly, except it is operated at the rated condition. The in-plane load and bending moment can be avoided, when rotational freedom is given around the y axis. Dynamic load on a down-wind rotor can be avoided by use of universal joint. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  20. CONTROL DESIGN FOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES WITH FOUR ROTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Kotarski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Altitude and attitude controlled quadcopter model is used for the behavior and control algorithm testing, before the implementation on the experimental setup. The main objective is the control system design which will achieve good task performance in the combination with the quadcopter dynamic model. Also, for the control model, it is important to be relatively easy to modify for the use of other control algorithms and to be easy to implement on the experimental setup. At the beginning of this article, the control system design process is described. Quadcopter dynamics equations are simplified by applying several assumptions and in that form are used for the controller synthesis. Quadcopter control system is split into inner and outer control loop because the quadcopter is underactuated system which means that the direct control of all of the degrees of freedom is not possible. In the second part, the PI-D control algorithm is described which is applied on the simplified quadcopter dynamic model. The inner loop controls roll, pitch and yaw angles together with the quadcopter altitude. Its outputs are four control variables. Outer loop controls quadcopter X and Y position. Its outputs are roll and pitch desired angles. Regulated quadcopter model behavior is shown for the three types of task. First, the achieving of position in space is simulated. Second, the reference trajectory tracking is shown. Last task shown is the reference trajectory tracking with added periodical disturbances. Simulations show bounded positions error of the regulated quadcopter system using PI-D controller for the different types of tasks performed under different conditions.

  1. Performance improvement of small-scale rotors by passive blade twist control

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Peng; Prothin, Sebastien; Mohd Zawawi, Fazila; Bénard, Emmanuel; Morlier, Joseph; Moschetta, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    A passive twist control is proposed as an adaptive way to maximize the overall efficiency of the small-scale rotor blade for multifunctional aircrafts. Incorporated into a database of airfoil characteristics, Blade Element Momentum Theory is implemented to obtain the blade optimum twist rates for hover and forward flight. In order to realize the required torsion of blade between hover and forward flight, glass/epoxy laminate blade is proposed based on Centrifugal Force Induced Twist concept. ...

  2. Control strategies for DC motors driving rotor dynamic systems through resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisoi, Alfa; Samantaray, A. K.; Bhattacharyya, Ranjan

    2017-12-01

    Rotor dynamic systems require considerably higher power/torque to accelerate through the structural resonance. However, most sources of mechanical power are non-ideal, i.e., they can only provide a limited amount of power. If there is insufficient power to overcome the resonance then the rotor speed may get caught at resonance and the persistent high vibrations can damage the machine. Various proposed solutions to this problem deal with modifications to the mechanical structure and active/semi-active control of structural parameters. This article proposes modification to the prime mover so that peak available power is delivered exactly at the structural resonance frequency. The limited power/non-ideal prime mover considered in this article is a direct current (DC) motor and the structural resonance happens due to forcing from an eccentric rotor disk and vibrations of a flexible weakly damped foundation. Various control strategies to modify the torque-speed characteristics of permanent magnet, shunt and series wound DC motors to promote escape through resonance are considered. Also, the characteristic curves for rotor/motor speed versus the DC supply voltage are obtained for the considered DC motor types from which the unattainable steady angular speeds and the speed jumps due to Sommerfeld effect are computed. Transient simulations are performed using bond graph models for this multi-energy domain (here, electro-mechanical) system. It is shown that a switched control permitting to switch between shunt and series DC motor configurations gives better regulation over the power delivery at the resonant frequency as well as super-critical operating speeds in the neighborhood of structural resonance.

  3. Tests of Full-Scale Helicopter Rotors at High Advancing Tip Mach Numbers and Advance Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, James C.; McCloud, John L., III; Stroub, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    As a continuation of the studies of reference 1, three full-scale helicopter rotors have been tested in the Ames Research Center 40- by SO-foot wind tunnel. All three of them were two-bladed, teetering rotors. One of the rotors incorporated the NACA 0012 airfoil section over the entire length of the blade. This rotor was tested at advance ratios up to 1.05. Both of the other rotors were tapered in thickness and incorporated leading-edge camber over the outer 20 percent of the blade radius. The larger of these rotors was tested at advancing tip Mach numbers up to 1.02. Data were obtained for a wide range of lift and propulsive force, and are presented without discussion.

  4. Lateral Dynamics of Flexible Rotors Supported by Controllable Gas Bearings Theory & Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierart Vásquez, Fabián Gonzalo; Santos, Ilmar

    2015-01-01

    Active gas bearings might represent a mechatronic answer to the growing industrial need for high performance turbomachinery. In this framework, the paper gives a theoretical and experimental contribution to the improvement of lateral dynamics of rotating machines. The work aims at demonstrating...... theoretically as well as experimentally the feasibility of applying active lubrication to gas journal bearings. The operation principle is to generate active forces by regulating the radial injection of a compressible lubricant (gas) by means of piezoelectric actuators mounted on the back of the bearing sleeve....... The active control principle is built using eddy-current sensor signals to detect the lateral motion of the rotor. A feedback law is used to couple the lateral dynamics of a flexible rotor-bearing system with the pneumatic and dynamic characteristics of a piezoelectric actuated valve system. A proportional...

  5. Rotor Resistance Online Identification of Vector Controlled Induction Motor Based on Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotor resistance identification has been well recognized as one of the most critical factors affecting the theoretical study and applications of AC motor’s control for high performance variable frequency speed adjustment. This paper proposes a novel model for rotor resistance parameters identification based on Elman neural networks. Elman recurrent neural network is capable of performing nonlinear function approximation and possesses the ability of time-variable characteristic adaptation. Those influencing factors of specified parameter are analyzed, respectively, and various work states are covered to ensure the completeness of the training samples. Through signal preprocessing on samples and training dataset, different input parameters identifications with one network are compared and analyzed. The trained Elman neural network, applied in the identification model, is able to efficiently predict the rotor resistance in high accuracy. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method owns extensive adaptability and performs very well in its application to vector controlled induction motor. This identification method is able to enhance the performance of induction motor’s variable-frequency speed regulation.

  6. Rotor Field Oriented Control with adaptive Iron Loss Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

    1999-01-01

    It is well known from the literature that iron loses in an induction motor implies field angle estimation errors and hence detuning problems. In this paper a new method for estimating the iron loss resistor in an induction motor is presented. The method is based on a traditional dynamic model...... controlled in a Field Oriented Control scheme. This deviation is used to force a MIT-rule based adaptive estimator. An adaptive compensator containing the developed estimator is introduced and verified by simulations and tested by real time experiments....

  7. Attitude Control of a Single Tilt Tri-Rotor UAV System: Dynamic Modeling and Each Channel's Nonlinear Controllers Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juing-Shian Chiou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has implemented nonlinear control strategy for the single tilt tri-rotor aerial robot. Based on Newton-Euler’s laws, the linear and nonlinear mathematical models of tri-rotor UAVs are obtained. A numerical analysis using Newton-Raphson method is chosen for finding hovering equilibrium point. Back-stepping nonlinear controller design is based on constructing Lyapunov candidate function for closed-loop system. By imitating the linguistic logic of human thought, fuzzy logic controllers (FLCs are designed based on control rules and membership functions, which are much less rigid than the calculations computers generally perform. Effectiveness of the controllers design scheme is shown through nonlinear simulation model on each channel.

  8. Primary control of a Mach scale swashplateless rotor using brushless DC motor actuated trailing edge flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anand

    The focus of this research was to demonstrate a four blade rotor trim in forward flight using integrated trailing edge flaps instead of using a swashplate controls. A compact brushless DC motor was evaluated as an on-blade actuator, with the possibility of achieving large trailing edge flap amplitudes. A control strategy to actuate the trailing edge flap at desired frequency and amplitude was developed and large trailing edge flap amplitudes from the motor (instead of rotational motion) were obtained. Once the actuator was tested on the bench-top, a lightweight mechanism was designed to incorporate the motor in the blade and actuate the trailing edge flaps. A six feet diameter, four bladed composite rotor with motor-flap system integrated into the NACA 0012 airfoil section was fabricated. Systematic testing was carried out for a range of load conditions, first in the vacuum chamber followed by hover tests. Large trailing edge flap deflections were observed during the hover testing, and a peak to peak trailing edge flap amplitude of 18 degree was achieved at 2000 rotor RPM with hover tip Mach number of 0.628. A closed loop controller was designed to demonstrate trailing edge flap mean position and the peak to peak amplitude control. Further, a soft pitch link was designed and fabricated, to replace the stiff pitch link and thereby reduce the torsional stiffness of the blade to 2/rev. This soft pitch link allowed for blade root pitch motion in response to the trailing edge flap inputs. Blade pitch response due to both steady as well as sinusoidal flap deflections were demonstrated. Finally, tests were performed in Glenn L. Martin wind tunnel using a model rotor rig to assess the performance of motor-flap system in forward flight. A swashplateless trim using brushless DC motor actuated trailing edge flaps was achieved for a rotor operating at 1200 RPM and an advance ratio of 0.28. Also, preliminary exploration was carried out to test the scalability of the motor

  9. Experimental Active Control of Automotive Disc Brake Rotor Squeal Using Dither

    Science.gov (United States)

    CUNEFARE, K. A.; GRAF, A. J.

    2002-02-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation into the application of “dither” control for the active control and suppression of automobile disc brake squeal. Dither control is characterized by the application of a control effort at a frequency higher than the disturbance to be controlled. In the particular system considered here, a vibro-acoustic analysis of a disc brake system during squeal determined the acoustic squeal signature to be emanating from the brake rotor. This squeal was eliminated, and could even be prevented from occurring, through the application of a harmonic force with a frequency higher than the squeal frequency. The harmonic force was generated by a stack of piezoelectric elements placed within the brake's caliper piston. The harmonic force represented a small variation about the mean clamping force exerted by the brake upon the rotor. The high-frequency vibration in the brake system due to the action of the control system was not heard if an ultrasonic control frequency was used. More importantly, the active control system is shown to be able to prevent squeal from even occurring. This gives rise to a possible active control system integrated into the brake system of automobiles to prevent squeal.

  10. Fuzzy-Based Hybrid Control Algorithm for the Stabilization of a Tri-Rotor UAV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Zain Anwar; Wang, Daobo; Aamir, Muhammad

    2016-05-09

    In this paper, a new and novel mathematical fuzzy hybrid scheme is proposed for the stabilization of a tri-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The fuzzy hybrid scheme consists of a fuzzy logic controller, regulation pole-placement tracking (RST) controller with model reference adaptive control (MRAC), in which adaptive gains of the RST controller are being fine-tuned by a fuzzy logic controller. Brushless direct current (BLDC) motors are installed in the triangular frame of the tri-rotor UAV, which helps maintain control on its motion and different altitude and attitude changes, similar to rotorcrafts. MRAC-based MIT rule is proposed for system stability. Moreover, the proposed hybrid controller with nonlinear flight dynamics is shown in the presence of translational and rotational velocity components. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated via MATLAB simulations, in which the proposed fuzzy hybrid controller is compared with the existing adaptive RST controller. It shows that our proposed algorithm has better transient performance with zero steady-state error, and fast convergence towards stability.

  11. Rotor Current Control of DFIG for Improving Fault Ride - Through Using a Novel Sliding Mode Control Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guowei; Liu, Cheng; Yang, Deyou

    2013-11-01

    The doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) have been recognized as the dominant technology used in wind power generation systems with the rapid development of wind power. However, continuous operation of DFIG may cause a serious wind turbine generators tripping accident, due to destructive over-current in the rotor winding which is caused by the power system fault or inefficient fault ride-through (FRT) strategy. A new rotor current control scheme in the rotor-side converter (RSC) ispresented to enhance FRT capacities of grid-connected DFIG. Due to the strongly nonlinear nature of DFIG and insensitive to DFIG parameter's variations, a novel sliding mode controller was designed. The controller combines extended state observer (ESO) with sliding model variable structure control theory. The simulation is carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control approach under various types of grid disturbances. It is shown that the proposed controller provides enhanced transient features than the classic proportional-integral control. The proposed control method can effectively reduce over-current in the RSC, and the transient pulse value of electromagnetic torque is too large under power grid fault.

  12. Continuous Trailing-Edge Flaps for Primary Flight Control of a Helicopter Main Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornburgh, Robert P.; Kreshock, Andrew R.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Sekula, Martin K.; Shen, Jinwei

    2014-01-01

    The use of continuous trailing-edge flaps (CTEFs) for primary flight control of a helicopter main rotor is studied. A practical, optimized bimorph design with Macro-Fiber Composite actuators is developed for CTEF control, and a coupled structures and computational fluid dynamics methodology is used to study the fundamental behavior of an airfoil with CTEFs. These results are used within a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis model to study the control authority requirements of the CTEFs when utilized for primary flight control of a utility class helicopter. A study of the effect of blade root pitch index (RPI) on CTEF control authority is conducted, and the impact of structural and aerodynamic model complexity on the comprehensive analysis results is presented. The results show that primary flight control using CTEFs is promising; however, a more viable option may include the control of blade RPI, as well.

  13. Active twist control methodology for vibration reduction of a helicopter with dissimilar rotor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, Prashant M; Jung, Sung Nam

    2009-01-01

    In this work, an active vibration reduction of hingeless composite rotor blades with dissimilarity is investigated using the active twist concept and the optimal control theory. The induced shear strain on the actuation mechanism by the piezoelectric constant d 15 from the PZN–8% PT-based single-crystal material is used to achieve more active twisting to suppress the extra vibrations. The optimal control algorithm is based on the minimization of an objective function comprised of quadratic functions of vibratory hub loads and voltage control harmonics. The blade-to-blade dissimilarity is modeled using the stiffness degradation of composite blades. The optimal controller is applied to various possible dissimilarities arising from different damage patterns of composite blades. The governing equations of motion are derived using Hamilton's principle. The effects of composite materials and smart actuators are incorporated into the comprehensive aeroelastic analysis system. Numerical results showing the impact of addressing the blade dissimilarities on hub vibrations and voltage inputs required to suppress the vibrations are demonstrated. It is observed that all vibratory shear forces are reduced considerably and the major harmonics of moments are reduced significantly. However, the controller needs further improvement to suppress 1/rev moment loads. A mechanism to achieve vibration reduction for the dissimilar rotor system has also been identified

  14. Active twist control methodology for vibration reduction of a helicopter with dissimilar rotor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Prashant M.; Jung, Sung Nam

    2009-03-01

    In this work, an active vibration reduction of hingeless composite rotor blades with dissimilarity is investigated using the active twist concept and the optimal control theory. The induced shear strain on the actuation mechanism by the piezoelectric constant d15 from the PZN-8% PT-based single-crystal material is used to achieve more active twisting to suppress the extra vibrations. The optimal control algorithm is based on the minimization of an objective function comprised of quadratic functions of vibratory hub loads and voltage control harmonics. The blade-to-blade dissimilarity is modeled using the stiffness degradation of composite blades. The optimal controller is applied to various possible dissimilarities arising from different damage patterns of composite blades. The governing equations of motion are derived using Hamilton's principle. The effects of composite materials and smart actuators are incorporated into the comprehensive aeroelastic analysis system. Numerical results showing the impact of addressing the blade dissimilarities on hub vibrations and voltage inputs required to suppress the vibrations are demonstrated. It is observed that all vibratory shear forces are reduced considerably and the major harmonics of moments are reduced significantly. However, the controller needs further improvement to suppress 1/rev moment loads. A mechanism to achieve vibration reduction for the dissimilar rotor system has also been identified.

  15. Hovering and Low-Speed Performance and Control Characteristics of the Kaman Helicopter Rotor System as Determined on the Langley Helicopter Tower. TED No. NACA DE 205

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Paul J.; Paulnock, Russell S.

    1949-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted with the Langley helicopter tower to obtain basic performance and control characteristics of the Raman rotor system. Blade-pitch control is obtained in this configuration by utilizing an auxiliary flap to twist the blades. Rotor thrust and power required were measured for the hovering condition and over a range of wind velocities from 0 to 30 miles per hour. The control characteristics and the transient response of the rotor to various control movements were also measured. The hovering-performance data are presented as a survey of the wake velocities and the variation of torque coefficient with thrust coefficient. The power required for the test rotor to hover at a thrust of 1350 pounds and a rotor speed of 240 rpm is approximately 6.5 percent greater than that estimated for a conventional rotor of the same diameter and solidity. It is believed that most of this difference is caused by th e flap servomechanism. The reduction in total power required for sustentation of the single-rotor configuration tested at various wind velocities and at the normal operating rotor thrust was found to be similar to the theoretical and experimental results for ro tors with conventionally actuated pitch. The control effectiveness was determined as a function of rotor speed. Sufficient control was available to give a thrust range of 0 to 1500 pounds and a rotor tilt of plus or minus 7 degrees. The time lag between flap motion and blade-pitch response is approximately 0.02 to 0.03 second. The response of the rotor following the blade-pitch response is similar to that of a rotor with conventionally actuated pitch changes. The over-all characteristics of the rotor investigated indicate that satisfactory performance and control characteristics were obtained.

  16. Experimental Investigations of Decentralised Control Design for The Stabilisation of Rotor-Gas Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Galeazzi, Roberto; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    frequencies. Active lubrication of the journal during operations could enhance the damping and stabilisation characteristics of the sytems, and this could be achieved by means of stabilising controllers. This paper investigates the feasibility of using reduced order models obtained through Grey......-Box identification for the design of stabilising controllers, capable of enabling the active lubrication of the journal. The root locus analysis shows that two different control solutions are feasible for the dampening of the first two eigenfrequencies of the rotor-gas bearing in the horizontal and vertical...... directions. Hardening and softening P-lead controllers are designed based on the models experimentally identified, and salient features of both controllers are discussed. Both controllers are implemented and validated on the physical test rig. Experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed...

  17. Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for use During the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Colin R.

    2010-01-01

    A full-scale wind tunnel test to evaluate the effects of Individual Blade Control (IBC) on the performance, vibration, noise and loads of a UH-60A rotor was recently completed in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel [1]. A key component of this wind tunnel test was an automatic rotor trim control system that allowed the rotor trim state to be set more precisely, quickly and repeatably than was possible with the rotor operator setting the trim condition manually. The trim control system was also able to maintain the desired trim condition through changes in IBC actuation both in open- and closed-loop IBC modes, and through long-period transients in wind tunnel flow. This ability of the trim control system to automatically set and maintain a steady rotor trim enabled the effects of different IBC inputs to be compared at common trim conditions and to perform these tests quickly without requiring the rotor operator to re-trim the rotor. The trim control system described in this paper was developed specifically for use during the IBC wind tunnel test

  18. Creación de un sistema de control de rotores mediante Python

    OpenAIRE

    Góngora García, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    En este proyecto final de carrera abordaremos la creación de un sistema de control de rotores destinados al seguimiento de satélites, en un principio, de órbita baja. La placa de desarrollo utilizada en este proyecto será una Raspberry Pi. Como podremos ir comprobando con la lectura de esta memoria la utilización de elementos de hardware y software libres será un pilar de este proyecto. La continua aparición de hardware para prototipado, y la gran comunidad de desarrolladore...

  19. Feedback-Controlled Lubrication for Reducing the Lateral Vibration of Flexible Rotors supported by Tilting-Pad Journal Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salazar, Jorge Andrés González; Santos, Ilmar

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the feedback-controlled lubrication regime, based on a model-free designed proportional-derivative (PD) controller, is studied and experimentally tested in a flexible rotor mounted on an actively-lubricated tilting-pad journal bearing (active TPJB). With such a lubrication regime...... to experimentally characterized multi-input multi-output systems is used to determine the stabilizing PD gain domain. The main contribution of this work is to demonstrate the enhancement of the dynamic response of a flexible rotor-bearing system supported by an active TPJB by means of the feedback...... are used as actuators and the flexible rotor lateral movements as feedback control signals. To synthesise the PD controller gains an objective function is optimized in the stabilizing gain domain and then chosen from a subdomain imposed by the servovalves restrictions. The D-decomposition approach expanded...

  20. Design of a Symmetrical Quad-rotor Biplane Tail-Sitter Aircraft without Control Surfaces and Experimental Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hongyu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a symmetrical quad-rotor biplane tail-sitter VTOL UAV (Vertical Take-off and Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle which is composed of four rotors and two symmetrically mounted fixed wings. This aircraft achieves high accuracy in the attitude control and smooth flight mode transition with four rotors rather than the conventional VTOL UAVs using control surfaces. The proposal of angled rotor mounting is adopted to address the issue of insufficient yaw control authority. The layout of symmetrically mounted fixed wings makes the aircraft have capability of rapid bidirectional flight mode transition to improve maneuverability. To validate the performance of the aircraft, simulation and flight experiments are both implemented. These results show that the aircraft has a rapid yaw response under condition of the stable attitude control. In comparative experiment, it is shown that the aircraft is more flexible than other similar configuration of aircrafts. This symmetrical quad-rotor biplane tail-sitter VTOL UAV will have a wide range of potential applications in the military and civilian areas due to its superior performance..

  1. Coordinated Control of Multiterminal DC Grid Power Injections for Improved Rotor-Angle Stability Based on Lyapunov Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The stability of an interconnected ac/dc system is affected by disturbances occurring in the system. Disturbances, such as three-phase faults, may jeopardize the rotor-angle stability and, thus, the generators fall out of synchronism. The possibility of fast change of the injected powers...... by the multiterminal dc grid can, by proper control action, enhance this stability. This paper proposes a new time optimal control strategy for the injected power of multiterminal dc grids to enhance the rotor-angle stability. The controller is time optimal, since it reduces the impact of a disturbance as fast...

  2. Modified Cross Feedback Control for a Magnetically Suspended Flywheel Rotor with Significant Gyroscopic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For magnetically suspended rigid rotors (MSRs with significant gyroscopic effects, phase lag of the control channel is the main factor influencing the system nutation stability and decoupling performance. At first, this paper proves that the phase lag of the cross channel instead of the decentralized channel is often the main factor influencing the system nutation stability at high speeds. Then a modified cross feedback control strategy based on the phase compensation of cross channel is proposed to improve the stability and decoupling performances. The common issues associated with the traditional control methods have been successfully resolved by this method. Analysis, simulation, and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of the proposed control method.

  3. Adaptive compensation control for attitude adjustment of quad-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhankui; Sun, Kaibiao

    2017-07-01

    A compensation control strategy based on adaptive back-stepping technique is presented to address the problem of attitude adjustment for a quad-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (QR- UAV) with inertia parameter uncertainties, the limited airflow disturbance and the partial loss of rotation speed effectiveness. In the design process of control system, adaptive estimation technique is introduced into the closed loop system in order to compensate the lumped disturbance term. More specifically, the designed controller utilizes "prescribed performance bounds" method, and therefore guarantees the transient performance of tracking errors, even in the presence of the lumped disturbance. Adaptive compensation algorithms under the proposed closed loop system structure are derived in the sense of Lyapunov stability analysis such that the attitude tracking error converge to a small neighborhood of equilibrium point. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A control method of the rotor re-levitation for different orbit responses during touchdowns in active magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Mindong; Liu, Tao; Wang, Zixi; Yan, Shaoze; Jia, Xiaohong; Wang, Yuming

    2018-05-01

    Touchdown can make active magnetic bearings (AMB) unable to work, and bring severe damages to touchdown bearings (TDB). To resolve it, we presents a novel re-levitation method consisting of two operations, i.e., orbit response recognition and rotor re-levitation. In the operation of orbit response recognition, the three orbit responses (pendulum vibration, combined rub and bouncing, and full rub) can be identified by the expectation of radial displacement of rotor and expectation of instantaneous frequency (IF) of rotor motion in the sampling period. In the rotor re-levitation operation, a decentralized PID control algorithm is employed for pendulum vibration and combined rub and bouncing, and the decentralized PID control algorithm and another whirl damping algorithm, in which the weighting factor is determined by the whirl frequency, are jointly executed for the full rub. The method has been demonstrated by the simulation results of an AMB model. The results reveal that the method is effective in actively suppressing the whirl motion and promptly re-levitating the rotor. As the PID control algorithm and the simple operations of signal processing are employed, the algorithm has a low computation intensity, which makes it more easily realized in practical applications.

  5. Helicopter Fuselage Active Flow Control in the Presence of a Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Preston B; Overmeyer, Austin D.; Tanner, Philip E.; Wilson, Jacob S.; Jenkins, Luther N.

    2014-01-01

    This work extends previous investigations of active flow control for helicopter fuselage drag and download reduction to include the effects of the rotor. The development of the new wind tunnel model equipped with fluidic oscillators is explained in terms of the previous test results. Large drag reductions greater than 20% in some cases were measured during powered testing without increasing, and in some cases decreasing download in forward flight. As confirmed by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), the optimum actuator configuration that provided a decrease in both drag and download appeared to create a virtual (fluidic) boat-tail fairing instead of attaching flow to the ramp surface. This idea of a fluidic fairing shifts the focus of 3D separation control behind bluff bodies from controlling/reattaching surface boundary layers to interacting with the wake flow.

  6. Fuzzy Controller Design Using Evolutionary Techniques for Twin Rotor MIMO System: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of fuzzy controller design for the twin rotor multi-input multioutput (MIMO system (TRMS considering most promising evolutionary techniques. These are gravitational search algorithm (GSA, particle swarm optimization (PSO, artificial bee colony (ABC, and differential evolution (DE. In this study, the gains of four fuzzy proportional derivative (PD controllers for TRMS have been optimized using the considered techniques. The optimization techniques are developed to identify the optimal control parameters for system stability enhancement, to cancel high nonlinearities in the model, to reduce the coupling effect, and to drive TRMS pitch and yaw angles into the desired tracking trajectory efficiently and accurately. The most effective technique in terms of system response due to different disturbances has been investigated. In this work, it is observed that GSA is the most effective technique in terms of solution quality and convergence speed.

  7. RESEARCH OF THE HIGH HARMONICS INDIVIDUAL BLADE CONTROL EFFECT ON VIBRATIONS CAUSED BY THE HELICOPTER MAIN ROTOR THRUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents numerical results analysis of main rotor vibration due to helicopter main rotor thrust pulsation.The calculation method, the object of research and numerical research results with the aim to reduce the amplitude of the vibrations transmitted to the hub from the helicopters main rotor by the individual blade control in azimuth by the installation angle of blades cyclic changes are set out in the article. The individual blades control law for a five-blade main rotor based on the blade frequencies is made. It allows reducing the vibration from thrust. Research takes into account the main rotor including and excluding the blade flapping motion. The minimal vibrations regime is identified.Numerical study of variable loads caused by unsteady flow around the main rotor blades at high relative speeds of flight, which transmitted to the rotor hub, is made. The scheme of a thin lifting surface and the rotor vortex theory are used for simulation of the aerodynamic loads on blades. Non - uniform loads caused by the thrust, decomposed on the blade harmonic and its overtones. The largest values of deviation from the mean amplitude thrust are received. The analysis of variable loads with a traditional control system is made. Algorithms of higher harmonics individual blade control capable of reducing the thrust pulsation under the average value of thrust are developed.Numerical research shows that individual blade control of high harmonics reduces variable loads. The necessary change in the blade installation is about ± 0,2 degree that corresponds to the maximum displacement of the additional con- trol stick is about 1 mm.To receive the overall picture is necessary to consider all six components of forces and moments. Control law with own constants will obtained for each of them. It is supposed, that each of six individual blade control laws have an impact on other components. Thus, the problem reduces to the optimization issue. The

  8. Feedback-controlled lubrication for reducing the lateral vibration of flexible rotors supported by tilting-pad journal bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salazar, Jorge Andrés González; Santos, Ilmar

    2015-01-01

    function is optimized in the stabilizing gain domain and then chosen from a subdomain imposed by servovalve restrictions. This work demonstrates enhancements of the dynamic response of flexible rotor-bearing systems supported by an active tilting-pad journal bearing by means of the feedback......The feedback-controlled lubrication regime, based on a model-free designed proportional–derivative controller, is experimentally investigated in a flexible rotor mounted on an actively-lubricated tilting-pad journal bearing. With such a lubrication regime, both the resulting pressure distribution...

  9. Design of multi-input multi-output controller for magnetic bearing which suspends helium gas-turbine generator rotor for high temperature gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Shoji; Funatake, Yoshio; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    A design of a MIMO controller, which links magnetic forces of multiple magnetic bearings by feedback of multiple measurement values of vibration of a rotor, was proposed for the radial magnetic bearings for the generator rotor of helium gas turbine with a power output of 300 MWe. The generator rotor is a flexible rotor, which passes over the forth critical speed. A controller transfer function was derived at the forth critical speed, in which the bending vibration mode is similar to the one which is excited by unbalance mass to reduce a modeling error. A 1404-dimensional un-symmetric coefficient matrix of equation of state for the rotating rotor affected by Jayro effect was reduced by a modal decomposition using Schur decomposition to reduce a reduction error. The numerical results showed that unbalance response of rotor was 53 and 80 μm p-p , respectively, well below the allowable limits both at the rated and critical speeds. (author)

  10. Fractional Order PID Control of Rotor Suspension by Active Magnetic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinya Anantachaisilp

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key issues in control design for Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB systems is the tradeoff between the simplicity of the controller structure and the performance of the closed-loop system. To achieve this tradeoff, this paper proposes the design of a fractional order Proportional-Integral-Derivative (FOPID controller. The FOPID controller consists of only two additional parameters in comparison with a conventional PID controller. The feasibility of FOPID for AMB systems is investigated for rotor suspension in both the radial and axial directions. Tuning methods are developed based on the evolutionary algorithms for searching the optimal values of the controller parameters. The resulting FOPID controllers are then tested and compared with a conventional PID controller, as well as with some advanced controllers such as Linear Quadratic Gausian (LQG and H ∞ controllers. The comparison is made in terms of various stability and robustness specifications, as well as the dimensions of the controllers as implemented. Lastly, to validate the proposed method, experimental testing is carried out on a single-stage centrifugal compressor test rig equipped with magnetic bearings. The results show that, with a proper selection of gains and fractional orders, the performance of the resulting FOPID is similar to those of the advanced controllers.

  11. Fast Fourier and discrete wavelet transforms applied to sensorless vector control induction motor for rotor bar faults diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhaoui, Hicham; Menacer, Arezki; Kessal, Abdelhalim; Kechida, Ridha

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents new techniques to evaluate faults in case of broken rotor bars of induction motors. Procedures are applied with closed-loop control. Electrical and mechanical variables are treated using fast Fourier transform (FFT), and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) at start-up and steady state. The wavelet transform has proven to be an excellent mathematical tool for the detection of the faults particularly broken rotor bars type. As a performance, DWT can provide a local representation of the non-stationary current signals for the healthy machine and with fault. For sensorless control, a Luenberger observer is applied; the estimation rotor speed is analyzed; the effect of the faults in the speed pulsation is compensated; a quadratic current appears and used for fault detection. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Adaptive Neural Network Sliding Mode Control for Quad Tilt Rotor Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanchao Yin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel neural network sliding mode control based on multicommunity bidirectional drive collaborative search algorithm (M-CBDCS is proposed to design a flight controller for performing the attitude tracking control of a quad tilt rotors aircraft (QTRA. Firstly, the attitude dynamic model of the QTRA concerning propeller tension, channel arm, and moment of inertia is formulated, and the equivalent sliding mode control law is stated. Secondly, an adaptive control algorithm is presented to eliminate the approximation error, where a radial basis function (RBF neural network is used to online regulate the equivalent sliding mode control law, and the novel M-CBDCS algorithm is developed to uniformly update the unknown neural network weights and essential model parameters adaptively. The nonlinear approximation error is obtained and serves as a novel leakage term in the adaptations to guarantee the sliding surface convergence and eliminate the chattering phenomenon, which benefit the overall attitude control performance for QTRA. Finally, the appropriate comparisons among the novel adaptive neural network sliding mode control, the classical neural network sliding mode control, and the dynamic inverse PID control are examined, and comparative simulations are included to verify the efficacy of the proposed control method.

  13. Preliminary design study of advanced composite blade and hub and nonmechanical control system for the tilt-rotor aircraft. Volume 2: Project planning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Project planning data for a rotor and control system procurement and testing program for modifications to the XV-15 tilt-rotor research demonstrator aircraft is presented. The design, fabrication, and installation of advanced composite blades compatible with the existing hub, an advanced composite hub, and a nonmechanical control system are required.

  14. A hybrid intelligent controller for a twin rotor MIMO system and its hardware implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Jih-Gau; Liu, Wen-Kai; Lin, Ren-Wei

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a fuzzy PID control scheme with a real-valued genetic algorithm (RGA) to a setpoint control problem. The objective of this paper is to control a twin rotor MIMO system (TRMS) to move quickly and accurately to the desired attitudes, both the pitch angle and the azimuth angle in a cross-coupled condition. A fuzzy compensator is applied to the PID controller. The proposed control structure includes four PID controllers with independent inputs in 2-DOF. In order to reduce total error and control energy, all parameters of the controller are obtained by a RGA with the system performance index as a fitness function. The system performance index utilized the integral of time multiplied by the square error criterion (ITSE) to build a suitable fitness function in the RGA. A new method for RGA to solve more than 10 parameters in the control scheme is investigated. For real-time control, Xilinx Spartan II SP200 FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) is employed to construct a hardware-in-the-loop system through writing VHDL on this FPGA. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Control for stabilizing the alignment position of the rotor of the synchronous motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, L.I.

    1985-03-12

    A method and apparatus is described for damping oscillations in the rotor load angle of a synchronous motor to provide stable rotational alignment in high precision applications. The damping method includes sensing the angular position of the rotor and utilizing the position signal to generate an error signal in response to changes in the period of rotation of the rotor. The error signal is coupled to phase shift amplifiers which shift the phase of the motor drive signal in a direction to damp out the oscillations in the rotor load angle.

  16. Evaluating the Acoustic Benefits of Over-the-Rotor Acoustic Treatments Installed on the Advanced Noise Control Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazella, Matthew R.; Takakura, Tamuto; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Bozak, Richard F.; Tester, Brian J.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, over-the-rotor acoustic treatments have been evaluated by NASA with varying success. Recently, NASA has been developing the next generation of over-the-rotor acoustic treatments for fan noise reduction. The NASA Glenn Research Centers Advanced Noise Control Fan was used as a Low Technology Readiness Level test bed. A rapid prototyped in-duct array consisting of 50 microphones was employed, and used to correlate the in-duct analysis to the far-field acoustic levels and to validate an existing beam-former method. The goal of this testing was to improve the Technology Readiness Level of various over-the-rotor acoustic treatments by advancing the understanding of the physical mechanisms and projecting the far-field acoustic benefit.

  17. Performance Analysis of Savonius Rotor Based Hydropower Generation Scheme with Electronic Load Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajen Pudur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the performance of electronic load controller (ELC of asynchronous generator (AG coupled to an uncontrolled Savonius turbine and variable water velocity. An AC-DC-AC converter with a dc link capacitor is employed to maintain the required frequency. The ELC which is feeding a resistive dump load is connected in parallel with the generating system and the power consumption is varied through the duty cycle of the chopper. Gate triggering of ELC is accomplished through sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM by sensing the load current. A MATLAB/Simulink model of Savonius rotor, asynchronous generator, ELC, and three-phase load is presented. The proposed scheme is tested under various load conditions under varying water velocities and the performances are observed to be satisfactory.

  18. THE FUZZY LOGIC BASED POWER INJECTION INTO ROTOR CIRCUIT FOR INSTANTANEOUS HIGH TORQUE AND SPEED CONTROL IN INDUCTION MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami KESLER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The power flow of the rotor circuit is controlled by different methods in induction machines used for producing high torque in applications involved great power and constant output power with constant frequency in wind turbines. The voltage with slip frequency can be applied on rotor windings to produce controlled high torque and obtain optimal power factor and speed control. In this study, firstly, the dynamic effects of the voltage applying on rotor windings through the rings in slip-ring induction machines are researched and undesirable aspects of the method are exposed with simulations supported by experiments. Afterwards, a fuzzy logic based inverter model on rotor side is proposed with a view to improving the dynamic effects, controlling high torque producing and adjusting machine speed in instantaneous forced conditions. For the simulation model of the system in which the stator side is directly connected to the grid in steady state operation, a C/C++ algorithm is developed and the results obtained for different load conditions are discussed.

  19. Vibration control of a flexible rotor suspended by shape memory alloy wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Marco Túlio Santana; Steffen Jr., Valder; Castro dos Santos, Marina

    2018-01-01

    The present contribution is devoted to the study of the influence of shape memory alloys on the dynamic behavior of flexible rotors. In this sense, a suspension composed by pseudoelastic shape memory alloy wires that are connected to a rotor-bearing test rig was designed. To evaluate the performa...

  20. Feedforward compensation control of rotor imbalance for high-speed magnetically suspended centrifugal compressors using a novel adaptive notch filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shiqiang; Feng, Rui

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces a feedforward control strategy combined with a novel adaptive notch filter to solve the problem of rotor imbalance in high-speed Magnetically Suspended Centrifugal Compressors (MSCCs). Unbalance vibration force of rotor in MSCC is mainly composed of current stiffness force and displacement stiffness force. In this paper, the mathematical model of the unbalance vibration with the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control laws is presented. In order to reduce the unbalance vibration, a novel adaptive notch filter is proposed to identify the synchronous frequency displacement of the rotor as a compensation signal to eliminate the current stiffness force. In addition, a feedforward channel from position component to control output is introduced to compensate displacement stiffness force to achieve a better performance. A simplified inverse model of power amplifier is included in the feedforward channel to reject the degrade performance caused by its low-pass characteristic. Simulation and experimental results on a MSCC demonstrate a significant effect on the synchronous vibration suppression of the magnetically suspended rotor at a high speed.

  1. Modeling the effects of control systems of wind turbine fatigue life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, K.G.; Laino, D.J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In this study we look at the effect on fatigue life of two types of control systems. First, we investigate the Micon 65, an upwind, three bladed turbine with a simple yaw control system. Results indicate that increased fatigue damage to the blade root can be attributed to continuous operation at significant yaw error allowed by the control system. Next, we model a two-bladed teetered rotor turbine using three different control systems to adjust flap deflections. The first two limit peak power output, the third limits peak power and cyclic power output over the entire range of operation. Results for simulations conducted both with and without active control are compared to determine how active control affects fatigue life. Improvement in fatigue lifetimes were seen for all control schemes, with increasing fatigue lifetime corresponding to increased flap deflection activity. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. A novel folding blade of wind turbine rotor for effective power control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Wei; Zeng, Pan; Lei, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel folding blade for wind turbine power control is proposed. • Wind tunnel experiments were conducted to analyze folding blade validity. • Folding blade is valid to control wind turbine power output. • Compared to pitch control, thrust was reduced by fold control in power regulation. • Optimum fold angles were found for wind turbine start up and aerodynamic brake. - Abstract: A concept of novel folding blade of horizontal axis wind turbine is proposed in current study. The folding blade comprises a stall regulated root blade section and a folding tip blade section with the fold axis inclined relative to blade span. By folding blade, lift force generated on the tip blade section changes and the moment arm also shortens, which leads to variations of power output. The blade folding actuation mechanism with servo motor and worm-gear reducer was designed. Wind turbine rotor control scheme and servo system with double feedback loops for blade fold angle control were proposed. In this study, a small folding blade model was tested in a wind tunnel to analyze its performance. The blade model performance was estimated in terms of rotation torque coefficient and thrust coefficient. Wind tunnel experiments were also conducted for pitch control using the same blade model in order to make a direct comparison. The power control, start up and aerodynamic brake performance of the folding blade were analyzed. According to the wind tunnel experiment results, fold angle magnitude significantly affected blade aerodynamic performance and the thrust characteristic together with the rotation torque characteristic of folding blade were revealed. The experiment results demonstrated that the folding blade was valid to control power output and had advantages in reducing thrust with maximum reduction of 51.1% compared to pitch control. Optimum fold angles of 55° and 90° were also found for start up and aerodynamic brake, respectively

  3. Modeling and rotor field-oriented control of a faulty three-phase induction motor based on GSA for tuning of PI controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jannati, Mohammad; Monadi, Ali; Nik Idris, Nik Rumzi

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the d-q model and winding function method (WFM) for modeling and a rotor eld-oriented control (RFOC) system for controlling a faulty three-phase induction motor (three-phase IM when one of the phases is disconnected). In the adapted scheme for controlling the faulty IM...

  4. Control Activo de Vibraciones en un Rotor Tipo Jeffcott con Velocidad Variable Usando una Suspensión Electromecánica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Beltrán-Carbajal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este trabajo se presenta un esquema de balanceo activo para un rotor tipo Jeffcott con velocidad variable, usando una suspensión con actuadores electromecánicos lineales. Se propone un esquema de estimación de las señales de perturbación que se inducen por la excentricidad presente en el sistema rotor-chumacera y una ley de control del desbalance que combina tareas de seguimiento de trayectorias para el perfil de velocidades en el rotor. Las señales de perturbación se estiman adecuadamente y el control de la velocidad se realiza en forma robusta, dando como resultado un desempeño eficiente del esquema de control activo para la supresión de vibraciones, con amplitud y frecuencia variables, generadas por el inherente desbalance desconocido en elrotor. Abstract: An active balancing scheme for a variable rotor speed Jeffcott-like rotor, using a suspension with linear electromechanical actuators, is presented. In addition, an estimation scheme for the perturbation signals induced by the inherent eccentricity on the rotating mechanical system, and a control law synthesized for simultaneous tracking tasks on the rotor speed are proposed. Some simulation results show the fast and efficient performance of the active vibration control scheme for good suppression of variable amplitude and frequency harmonic vibrations associated to the unbalance, as well as an effective estimation of the perturbation signals and robustness of the rotor speed controller. The proposed methodology can be applied for on-line monitoring and fault detection quite common in rotating machinery. Palabras clave: Control activo de vibraciones, Rotor tipo Jeffcott, Rechazo de perturbaciones., Keywords: Active vibration control, Jeffcott-like rotor, Disturbance rejection.

  5. Demonstration of an elastically coupled twist control concept for tilt rotor blade application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, R. C.; Nixon, M. W.; Wilbur, M. L.; Singleton, J. D.; Mirick, P. H.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Note is to present results from an analytic/experimental study that investigated the potential for passively changing blade twist through the use of extension-twist coupling. A set of composite model rotor blades was manufactured from existing blade molds for a low-twist metal helicopter rotor blade, with a view toward establishing a preliminary proof concept for extension-twist-coupled rotor blades. Data were obtained in hover for both a ballasted and unballasted blade configuration in sea-level atmospheric conditions. Test data were compared with results obtained from a geometrically nonlinear analysis of a detailed finite element model of the rotor blade developed in MSC/NASTRAN.

  6. A Two-Bladed Teetering Hub configuration for the DTU 10 MW RWT: loads considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergami, Leonardo; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Rasmussen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    study on an alternative downwind two-bladed rotor configuration. The study is based on a model representative of next generation multi-MW wind turbines: the DTU 10-MW Reference Wind Turbine (RWT). As a first design iteration, the aerodynamic characteristics of the original rotor are maintained......As the size of wind turbine rotors continuously grows, the need for innovative solutions that would yield to lighter rotor configurations becomes more urgent. Traditional wind turbine designs have favored the classic three-bladed upwind rotor configuration. This work presents instead a concept...... in load variations, and hence in fatigue damage, affects the turbine blades, shaft and tower, and originates from the aerodynamic unbalance on the rotor, as well as from aeroelastic interaction with the tower frequency. To mitigate the load amplification caused by the interaction between the tower...

  7. Switching EKF technique for rotor and stator resistance estimation in speed sensorless control of IMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barut, Murat; Bogosyan, Seta; Gokasan, Metin

    2007-01-01

    High performance speed sensorless control of induction motors (IMs) calls for estimation and control schemes that offer solutions to parameter uncertainties as well as to difficulties involved with accurate flux/velocity estimation at very low and zero speed. In this study, a new EKF based estimation algorithm is proposed for the solution of both problems and is applied in combination with speed sensorless direct vector control (DVC). The technique is based on the consecutive execution of two EKF algorithms, by switching from one algorithm to another at every n sampling periods. The number of sampling periods, n, is determined based on the desired system performance. The switching EKF approach, thus applied, provides an accurate estimation of an increased number of parameters than would be possible with a single EKF algorithm. The simultaneous and accurate estimation of rotor, R r ' and stator, R s resistances, both in the transient and steady state, is an important challenge in speed sensorless IM control and reported studies achieving satisfactory results are few, if any. With the proposed technique in this study, the sensorless estimation of R r ' and R s is achieved in transient and steady state and in both high and low speed operation while also estimating the unknown load torque, velocity, flux and current components. The performance demonstrated by the simulation results at zero speed, as well as at low and high speed operation is very promising when compared with individual EKF algorithms performing either R r ' or R s estimation or with the few other approaches taken in past studies, which require either signal injection and/or a change of algorithms based on the speed range. The results also motivate utilization of the technique for multiple parameter estimation in a variety of control methods

  8. Evaluation of Manufacturability of Embedded Sensors and Controls with Canned Rotor Pump System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL; Melin, Alexander M [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL; Silva, Pamela C [ORNL; Cruz Molina, Carola [ORNL

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the current status of fabrication and assembly planning for the magnetic bearing, canned rotor pump being used as a demonstration platform for deeply integrating I&C into nuclear power plant components. The report identifies material choices and fabrication sequences for all of the required parts and the issues that need to be either resolved or accommodated during the manufacturing process. Down selection between material options has not yet been performed. Potential suppliers for all of the necessary materials have also been identified. The assembly evaluation begins by logically subdividing the pump into modules, which are themselves decomposed into individual parts. Potential materials and fabrication processes for each part in turn are then evaluated. The evaluation process includes assessment of the environmental compatibility requirements and the tolerances available for the selected fabrication processes. A description of the pump power/control electronics is also provided. The report also includes exploded views of the modules that show the integration of the various parts into modules that are then assembled to form the pump. Emphasis has been placed on thermal environment compatibility and the part dimensional changes during heat-up. No insurmountable fabrication or assembly challenges have been identified.

  9. The HART-II Test: Rotor Wakes and Aeroacoustics with Higher-Harmonic Pitch Control (HHC) Inputs - The Joint German/French/Dutch/US Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Yung H; Tung, Chee; van der Wall, Berend; Pausder, Heinz-Juergen; Burley, Casey; Brooks, Thomas; Beaumier, Philippe; Delrieux, Yves; Mercker, Edzard; Pengel, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    ...). The main objective of the program is to improve the basic understanding and the analytical modeling capabilities of rotor blade-vortex interaction noise with and without higher harmonic pitch control (HHC...

  10. Trajectory Tracking of a Tri-Rotor Aerial Vehicle Using an MRAC-Based Robust Hybrid Control Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain Anwar Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC-based hybrid control algorithm is presented for the trajectory tracking of a tri-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV. The mathematical model of the tri-rotor is based on the Newton–Euler formula, whereas the MRAC-based hybrid controller consists of Fuzzy Proportional Integral Derivative (F-PID and Fuzzy Proportional Derivative (F-PD controllers. MRAC is used as the main controller for the dynamics, while the parameters of the adaptive controller are fine-tuned by the F-PD controller for the altitude control subsystem and the F-PID controller for the attitude control subsystem of the UAV. The stability of the system is ensured and proven by Lyapunov stability analysis. The proposed control algorithm is tested and verified using computer simulations for the trajectory tracking of the desired path as an input. The effectiveness of our proposed algorithm is compared with F-PID and the Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC. Our proposed controller exhibits much less steady state error, quick error convergence in the presence of disturbance or noise, and model uncertainties.

  11. HTS flywheel energy storage system with rotor shaft stabilized by feed-back control of armature currents of motor-generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, O.; Utsunomiya, A.

    2007-01-01

    We propose an HTS bulk bearing flywheel energy system (FWES) with rotor shaft stabilization system using feed-back control of the armature currents of the motor-generator. In the proposed system the rotor shift has a pivot bearing at one end of the shaft and an HTS bulk bearing (SMB) at the other end. The fluctuation of the rotor shaft with SMB is damped by feed-back control of the armature currents of the motor-generator sensing the position of the rotor shaft. The method has merits that the fluctuations are damped without active control magnet bearings and extra devices which may deteriorate the energy storage efficiency and need additional costs. The principle of the method was demonstrated by an experiment using a model permanent magnet motor

  12. HTS flywheel energy storage system with rotor shaft stabilized by feed-back control of armature currents of motor-generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, O.; Utsunomiya, A.

    2007-10-01

    We propose an HTS bulk bearing flywheel energy system (FWES) with rotor shaft stabilization system using feed-back control of the armature currents of the motor-generator. In the proposed system the rotor shift has a pivot bearing at one end of the shaft and an HTS bulk bearing (SMB) at the other end. The fluctuation of the rotor shaft with SMB is damped by feed-back control of the armature currents of the motor-generator sensing the position of the rotor shaft. The method has merits that the fluctuations are damped without active control magnet bearings and extra devices which may deteriorate the energy storage efficiency and need additional costs. The principle of the method was demonstrated by an experiment using a model permanent magnet motor.

  13. Control of a Quadrotor Equipped with a Fixed-wing by Tilting Some of Four Rotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Nakamura

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs are beingexpected to be used for the vegetational observation and theinformation collection of disaster sites. Especially, rotorcraftstypified by helicopters are attractive, because they are able tohover and achieve vertical take-off and landing (VTOL.However, rotorcrafts have a disadvantage that it cannot have along-distance flight, because they fly by the thrust of upwarddirection. Aircrafts with tilt rotors are developed in order toovercome such disadvantages. Such aircrafts can be hovering andtake a VTOL and also a long-distance flight by changing theangle of the rotor. In this research, it is aimed at proposing aVTOL-type UAV with a fixed-wing and four tiltable rotors andcontrolling it.

  14. Vibration Control of a Flexible Rotor Using Shape Memory Alloy Wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Marco Túlio Santana; Enemark, Søren; Steffen Jr, Valdar

    2015-01-01

    In the present contribution, a theoretical model of a test rig containing a flexible rotor is simulated considering pseudoelastic SMA (Shape Memory Alloy) wires connected to a bearing in order to dissipate energy and consequently reduce vibration. SMAs have characteristics of shape memory...... of rotor and SMA wires are coupled. The chosen constitutive model that governs the SMA behaviour is a modified version of the model by Brinson for the one-dimensional case. Both transient and steady-state tests arenumerically simulated. The first one, a run-up test, is performed only at room temperature...

  15. A Novel Rotor and Stator Magnetic Fields Direct-Orthogonalized Vector Control Scheme for the PMSM Servo System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Xiong Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Permanent Magnet Synchronous motor (PMSM has received widespread acceptance in recent years. In this paper, a new rotor and stator Magnetic Fields Direct-Orthogonalized Vector Control (MFDOVC scheme is proposed for PMSM servo system. This method simplified the complex calculation of traditional vector control, a part of the system resource is economized. At the same time, through the simulation illustration validation, the performance of PMSM servo system with the proposed MFDOVC scheme can achieve the same with the complex traditional vector control method, but much simpler calculation is implemented using the proposed method.

  16. Analysis and test results for a two-bladed, passive cycle pitch, horizontal-axis wind turbine in free and controlled yaw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holenemser, K.H. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This report surveys the analysis and tests performed at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, on a horizontal-axis, two-laded wind turbine with teeter hub. The introduction is a brief account of results obtained during the 5-year period ending December 1985. The wind tunnel model and the test turbine (7.6 m [25 ft.] in diameter) at Washington University`s Tyson Research Center had a 67{degree} delta-three angle of the teeter axis. The introduction explains why this configuration was selected and named the passive cycle pitch (PCP) wind turbine. Through the analysis was not limited to the PCP rotor, all tests, including those done from 1986 to 1994, wee conducted with the same teetered wind rotor. The blades are rather stiff and have only a small elastic coning angle and no precone.

  17. Active tilting-pad journal bearings supporting flexible rotors: Part II–The model-based feedback-controlled lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salazar, Jorge Andrés González; Santos, Ilmar

    2017-01-01

    This is part II of a twofold paper series dealing with the design and implementation of model-based controllers meant for assisting the hybrid and developing the feedback-controlled lubrication regimes in active tilting pad journal bearings (active TPJBs). In both papers theoretical and experimen...... derived in part I. Results show further suppression of resonant vibrations when using the feedback-controlled or active lubrication, overweighting the reduction already achieved with hybrid lubrication, thus improving the whole machine dynamic performance.......This is part II of a twofold paper series dealing with the design and implementation of model-based controllers meant for assisting the hybrid and developing the feedback-controlled lubrication regimes in active tilting pad journal bearings (active TPJBs). In both papers theoretical...... and experimental analyses are presented with focus on the reduction of rotor lateral vibration. This part is devoted to synthesising model-based LQG optimal controllers (LQR regulator + Kalman Filter) for the feedback-controlled lubrication and is based upon the mathematical model of the rotor-bearing system...

  18. A smart rotor configuration with linear quadratic control of adaptive trailing edge flaps for active load alleviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergami, Leonardo; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a smart rotor configuration where adaptive trailing edge flaps (ATEFs) are employed for active alleviation of the aerodynamic loads on the blades of the NREL 5 MW reference turbine. The flaps extend for 20% of the blade length and are controlled by a linear quadratic (LQ....... The effects of active flap control are assessed with aeroelastic simulations of the turbine in normal operation conditions, as prescribed by the International Electrotechnical Commission standard. The turbine lifetime fatigue damage equivalent loads provide a convenient summary of the results achieved...

  19. On-line iron loss resistance identification by a state observer for rotor-flux-oriented control of induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera, Pablo M. de la; Bossio, Guillermo R.; Solsona, Jorge A.; Garcia, Guillermo O.

    2008-01-01

    A rotor flux state observer considering iron loss, for an Induction Motor (IM), is proposed. The aim of this proposal is to avoid detuning caused by the IM iron loss on a field-oriented control (FOC). An adaptive scheme for the K Fe , a parameter that represents the IM iron loss, is also proposed. The main objective of this scheme is to improve the dynamic response of control by compensating the variations of iron losses due to possible variations in the stator core characteristics. Simulation results demonstrated that the observer and the adaptive scheme showed a good performance fulfilling then the objectives

  20. Macroscopic balance model for wave rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Gerard E.

    1996-01-01

    A mathematical model for multi-port wave rotors is described. The wave processes that effect energy exchange within the rotor passage are modeled using one-dimensional gas dynamics. Macroscopic mass and energy balances relate volume-averaged thermodynamic properties in the rotor passage control volume to the mass, momentum, and energy fluxes at the ports. Loss models account for entropy production in boundary layers and in separating flows caused by blade-blockage, incidence, and gradual opening and closing of rotor passages. The mathematical model provides a basis for predicting design-point wave rotor performance, port timing, and machine size. Model predictions are evaluated through comparisons with CFD calculations and three-port wave rotor experimental data. A four-port wave rotor design example is provided to demonstrate model applicability. The modeling approach is amenable to wave rotor optimization studies and rapid assessment of the trade-offs associated with integrating wave rotors into gas turbine engine systems.

  1. Robust Constrained Optimization Approach to Control Design for International Space Station Centrifuge Rotor Auto Balancing Control System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Postma, Barry D

    2005-01-01

    ...) for a centrifuge rotor to be implemented on the International Space Station. The design goal is to minimize a performance objective of the system, while guaranteeing stability and proper performance for a range of uncertain plants...

  2. Motor and Sensory Deficits in the teetering Mice Result from Mutation of the ESCRT Component HGS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Watson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurons are particularly vulnerable to perturbations in endo-lysosomal transport, as several neurological disorders are caused by a primary deficit in this pathway. In this report, we used positional cloning to show that the spontaneously occurring neurological mutation teetering (tn is a single nucleotide substitution in hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hgs/Hrs, a component of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT. The tn mice exhibit hypokenesis, muscle weakness, reduced muscle size and early perinatal lethality by 5-weeks of age. Although HGS has been suggested to be essential for the sorting of ubiquitinated membrane proteins to the lysosome, there were no alterations in receptor tyrosine kinase levels in the central nervous system, and only a modest decrease in tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB in the sciatic nerves of the tn mice. Instead, loss of HGS resulted in structural alterations at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ, including swellings and ultra-terminal sprouting at motor axon terminals and an increase in the number of endosomes and multivesicular bodies. These structural changes were accompanied by a reduction in spontaneous and evoked release of acetylcholine, indicating a deficit in neurotransmitter release at the NMJ. These deficits in synaptic transmission were associated with elevated levels of ubiquitinated proteins in the synaptosome fraction. In addition to the deficits in neuronal function, mutation of Hgs resulted in both hypermyelinated and dysmyelinated axons in the tn mice, which supports a growing body of evidence that ESCRTs are required for proper myelination of peripheral nerves. Our results indicate that HGS has multiple roles in the nervous system and demonstrate a previously unanticipated requirement for ESCRTs in the maintenance of synaptic transmission.

  3. Flywheels Would Compensate for Rotor Imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrastar, J. A. S.

    1982-01-01

    Spinning flywheels within rotor can null imbalance forces in rotor. Flywheels axes are perpendicular to each other and to rotor axis. Feedback signals from accelerometers or strain gages in platform control flywheel speeds and rotation directions. Concept should be useful for compensating rotating bodies on Earth. For example, may be applied to large industrial centrifuge, particularly if balance changes during operation.

  4. Experimental study on cascaded attitude angle control of a multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle with the simple internal model control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jun Beom; Byun, Young Seop; Jeong, Jin Seok; Kim, Jeong; Kang, Beom Soo

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a cascaded control structure and a method of practical application for attitude control of a multi-rotor Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The cascade control, which has tighter control capability than a single-loop control, is rarely used in attitude control of a multi-rotor UAV due to the input-output relation, which is no longer simply a set-point to Euler angle response transfer function of a single-loop PID control, but there are multiply measured signals and interactive control loops that increase the complexity of evaluation in conventional way of design. However, it is proposed in this research a method that can optimize a cascade control with a primary and secondary loops and a PID controller for each loop. An investigation of currently available PID-tuning methods lead to selection of the Simple internal model control (SIMC) method, which is based on the Internal model control (IMC) and direct-synthesis method. Through the analysis and experiments, this research proposes a systematic procedure to implement a cascaded attitude controller, which includes the flight test, system identification and SIMC-based PID-tuning. The proposed method was validated successfully from multiple applications where the application to roll axis lead to a PID-PID cascade control, but the application to yaw axis lead to that of PID-PI

  5. Experimental study on cascaded attitude angle control of a multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle with the simple internal model control method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jun Beom [Dept. of Aviation Maintenance, Dongwon Institute of Science and Technology, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Young Seop; Jeong, Jin Seok; Kim, Jeong; Kang, Beom Soo [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    This paper proposes a cascaded control structure and a method of practical application for attitude control of a multi-rotor Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The cascade control, which has tighter control capability than a single-loop control, is rarely used in attitude control of a multi-rotor UAV due to the input-output relation, which is no longer simply a set-point to Euler angle response transfer function of a single-loop PID control, but there are multiply measured signals and interactive control loops that increase the complexity of evaluation in conventional way of design. However, it is proposed in this research a method that can optimize a cascade control with a primary and secondary loops and a PID controller for each loop. An investigation of currently available PID-tuning methods lead to selection of the Simple internal model control (SIMC) method, which is based on the Internal model control (IMC) and direct-synthesis method. Through the analysis and experiments, this research proposes a systematic procedure to implement a cascaded attitude controller, which includes the flight test, system identification and SIMC-based PID-tuning. The proposed method was validated successfully from multiple applications where the application to roll axis lead to a PID-PID cascade control, but the application to yaw axis lead to that of PID-PI.

  6. Single Stator Dual PM Rotor Synchronous Machine with two-frequency single-inverter control, for the propulsion of hybrid electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topor Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel brushless, single winding and single stator, dual PM rotor axial-air-gap machine capable to deliver independently torque at the two rotors by adequate dual vector control. The proposed topologies, the circuit model, controlled dynamics simulation and preliminary 3D FEM torque production on a case study constitute the core of the paper. The proposed dual mechanical port system should be instrumental in parallel (with planetary gears or series hybrid electric vehicles (HEV aiming at a more compact and efficient electric propulsion system solution.

  7. Control Structure Impact on the Flying Performance of the Multi-Rotor VTOL Platform - Design, Analysis and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Czyba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to examine the different control strategies for the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV. The control task is formulated as an angular stabilization of the four rotor platform, and also as a tracking problem of chosen state variables. The PID algorithm has been considered in three structures in respect of the optimal control signal applied to the actuators. For better performance of the quadrotor in hover mode the cascade control system has been proposed. The simulation results of attitude control with different PID controller architectures are presented, and confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control structure and theoretical expectations. Moreover, the design and the practical realization of the control architecture on the experimental aerial vehicle are described. The fast prototyping method together with Matlab/Simulink software and DAQ hardware are used for both evolution and validation of control algorithms. The capacity of the attitude stabilization system is important in the development process of more advanced functionality of autonomous flying vehicles; therefore it needs to be highlighted and taken into careful consideration.

  8. Hydrodynamic Effects on Modeling and Control of a High Temperature Active Magnetic Bearing Pump with a Canned Rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melin, Alexander M [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Embedding instrumentation and control Embedding instrumentation and control (I\\&C) at the component level in nuclear power plants can improve component performance, lifetime, and resilience by optimizing operation, reducing the constraints on physical design, and providing on-board prognostics and diagnostics. However, the extreme environments that many nuclear power plant components operate in makes embedding instrumentation and control at the component level difficult. Successfully utilizing embedded I\\&C requires developing a deep understanding of the system's dynamics and using that knowledge to overcome material and physical limitations imposed by the environment. In this paper, we will develop a coupled dynamic model of a high temperature (700 $^\\circ$C) canned rotor pump that incorporates rotordynamics, hydrodynamics, and active magnetic bearing dynamics. Then we will compare two control design methods, one that uses a simplified decoupled model of the system and another that utilizes the full coupled system model. It will be seen that utilizing all the available knowledge of the system dynamics in the controller design yield an order of magnitude improvement in the magnitude of the magnetic bearing response to disturbances at the same level of control effort, a large reduction in the settling time of the system, and a smoother control action.

  9. Apparatus and method for magnetically unloading a rotor bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, Seth Robert

    2018-02-13

    An apparatus and method for unloading a rotor bearing is described. The apparatus includes an electromagnet for levitating the rotor. In one embodiment, a sensor of the magnetic field near the electromagnet is used to control the current to levitate the rotor. In another embodiment, a method is provided that includes rotating the rotor, increasing the current to levitate the rotor and decrease the gap between electromagnet and rotor, and then reducing the current to levitate the rotor with a minimal amount of electric power to the electromagnet.

  10. Turbine rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norbut, T G.J.

    1975-10-09

    The feet of rotor blades, with their trapezoidal or dove-tailed cross-sections are, as usual, fastened in corresponding grooves in the drive shaft. The juntion of the groove flank, which, on its outer end, runs radially to the axis of the drive shaft, to the cylinder surface of the drive shaft between the grooves, therefore vertically to the first level takes place not relatively sharp-edged or with only little edge radius, but rather takes place in increasing radii which vary throughout the circumference. The touching of surfaces with the radial blade foot which exits the groove can thus be tight or at a normal assembly tolerance. Avoidance or reduction of load-tension concentrations and of unbalanced load distribution on the foot anchors of the rotor blades is possible. Ceramic and other brittle material can be used besides monolithic materials, and also fiber-reinforced metallic or inorganic and organic composite materials such as boron/aluminum, graphite/epoxy, 'Borsic'-titanium, as well as other organic polymer materials like silicon resin.

  11. Preliminary design study of advanced composite blade and hub and nonmechanical control system for the tilt-rotor aircraft. Volume 1: Engineering studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, H. R.; Smith, K. E.; Mcveigh, M. A.; Dixon, P. G.; Mcmanus, B. L.

    1979-01-01

    Composite structures technology is applied in a preliminary design study of advanced technology blades and hubs for the XV-15 tilt rotor research demonstrator aircraft. Significant improvements in XV-15 hover and cruise performance are available using blades designed for compatibility with the existing aircraft, i.e., blade installation would not require modification of the airframe, hub or upper controls. Provision of a low risk nonmechanical control system was also studied, and a development specification is given.

  12. Soft hub for bearingless rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Peter G. C.

    1991-01-01

    Soft hub concepts which allow the direct replacement of articulated rotor systems by bearingless types without any change in controllability or need for reinforcement to the drive shaft and/or transmission/fuselage attachments of the helicopter were studied. Two concepts were analyzed and confirmed for functional and structural feasibility against a design criteria and specifications established for this effort. Both systems are gimballed about a thrust carrying universal elastomeric bearing. One concept includes a set of composite flexures for drive torque transmittal from the shaft to the rotor, and another set (which is changeable) to impart hub tilting stiffness to the rotor system as required to meet the helicopter application. The second concept uses a composite bellows flexure to drive the rotor and to augment the hub stiffness provided by the elastomeric bearing. Each concept was assessed for weight, drag, ROM cost, and number of parts and compared with the production BO-105 hub.

  13. The analysis of the quality of the frequency control of induction motor carried out on the basis of the processes in the rotor circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodkin, V. L.; Anikin, A. S.; Baldenkov, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The results of researches of asynchronous electric drives with the frequency control which are carried out for the purpose of establishment of causes and effect relationships between a control method, the implementable standard frequency converter of the Schneider Electric company (ATV-71, ATV-32) and its efficiency are given in article. Tests with asynchronous motors with wound rotor were for the first time carried out. It allowed registering during the experiments the instantaneous values not only the stator currents, but also rotor currents. Authors for the first time applied spectrum analysis of stator and rotor currents, it showed that «sensorless vector» control leads to origin of high-frequency harmonicas with the considerable amplitude and, as a result of they are non-sinusoidal of the created torque and inefficiency of the electric drive. The accelerations that are carried out during the researches to 94, 157 and 251 Rad/s confirmed this feature of vector control that appears incapable to linearize the asynchronous electric drive as it was supposed authors of a method. These results do not contradict theoretical provisions if not to neglect assumptions which usually become in case of an output of the equations of vector control. Unfortunately, the modern researchers do not subject these assumptions to doubts. Continued studies make it possible to create an effective frequency management of asynchronous electric drives required for current technology.

  14. Smart rotor modeling aero-servo-elastic modeling of a smart rotor with adaptive trailing edge flaps

    CERN Document Server

    Bergami, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    A smart rotor is a wind turbine rotor that, through a combination of sensors, control units and actuators actively reduces the variation of the aerodynamic loads it has to withstand. Smart rotors feature?promising load alleviation potential and might provide the technological breakthrough required by the next generation of large wind turbine rotors.The book presents the aero-servo-elastic model of a smart rotor with Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps for active load alleviation and provides an insight on the rotor aerodynamic, structural and control modeling. A novel model for the unsteady aerodynam

  15. Target tracking control and semi-physical simulation of Qball-X4 quad-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a set of integrated ground target tracking flight system has been proposed based on the Qball-X4 quad-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle hardware platform and the QuaRC software platform. Both of the hardware and software platforms are developed by Quanser Company, Canada. The proposed tracking and positioning algorithm could be divided into several stages. First, a tracker is developed based on an optical flow method to track the target; and then, in order to improve the reliability of tracking algorithm and also help in retrieving the lost target, a cascade target detector is developed; meanwhile, a model updated scheme aiming at some possible errors in tracking and detecting process is presented based on Positive-Negative (P-N learning system; at last, a monocular visual positioning system is designed based on the corresponding navigation message. In addition, the effectiveness of the proposed flight control system is verified by both simulation and hardware-in-loop system results in several tracking flight tests.

  16. Intelligent Controller Design for Quad-Rotor Stabilization in Presence of Parameter Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oualid Doukhi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the mathematical model of a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV and the design of robust Self-Tuning PID controller based on fuzzy logic, which offers several advantages over certain types of conventional control methods, specifically in dealing with highly nonlinear systems and parameter uncertainty. The proposed controller is applied to the inner and outer loop for heading and position trajectory tracking control to handle the external disturbances caused by the variation in the payload weight during the flight period. The results of the numerical simulation using gazebo physics engine simulator and real-time experiment using AR drone 2.0 test bed demonstrate the effectiveness of this intelligent control strategy which can improve the robustness of the whole system and achieve accurate trajectory tracking control, comparing it with the conventional proportional integral derivative (PID.

  17. Control of wind turbines with 'Smart' rotors : Proof of concept & LPV subspace identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wingerden, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Active control is becoming more and more important for the wind energy community. If we compare the 'old' stall regulated turbines with today's individual pitch controlled turbines we see that the loads can be considerably reduced, leading to lighter or larger turbines. However, limited actuator

  18. Design of Robust AMB Controllers for Rotors Subjected to Varying and Uncertain Seal Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jonas Skjødt; Santos, Ilmar

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the design and simulation results of model based controllers for AMB systems, subjectedto uncertain and changing dynamic seal forces. Specifically, a turbocharger with a hole-pattern seal mounted acrossthe balance piston is considered. The dynamic forces of the seal, which...... are dependent on the operational conditions,have a significant effect on the overall system dynamics. Furthermore, these forces are considered uncertain.The nominal and the uncertainty representation of the seal model are established using results from conventionalmodelling approaches, i.e. CFD and Bulkflow......, and experimental results. Three controllers are synthesized: I) AnH∞ controller based on nominal plant representation, II) A µ controller, designed to be robust against uncertaintiesin the dynamic seal model and III) a Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) controller, designed to provide a unifiedperformance over a large...

  19. 3D Warping Actuation Driven Dynamic Camber Control Concept for Helicopter Rotor Blades, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In a rotorcraft, optimized camber change not only reduces vibratory hub loads and noise but also increases available thrust and improved flight control augmentation....

  20. Output Feedback Tracking Control of an Underactuated Quad-Rotor UAV

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, DongBin; Burg, Timothy; Xian, Bin; Dawson, Darren

    2006-01-01

    ...) using output feedback (OFB). Specifically, an observer is designed to estimate the velocities and an output feedback controller is designed for a nonlinear UAV system in which only position and angles are measurable...

  1. Attitude Control of Quad-rotor by Improving the Reliability of Multi-Sensor System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Dong Hyeon; Chong, Kil To [Chon-bok National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Ho [Seonam University, Namwon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ji Hyoung [ETRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents the results of study for improving the reliability of quadrotor attitude control by applying a multi-sensor along with a data fusion algorithm. First, a mathematical model of the quadrotor dynamics was developed. Then, using the quadrotor mathematical model, simulations were performed using the improved reliability multi-sensor data as the inputs. From the simulation results, we designed a Gimbal-equipped quadrotor system. With the quadrotor in a hover state, we performed experiments according to the angle change of the user's specifications . We then calculated the attitude control data from the actual experimental data. Furthermore, with additional simulations, we verified the performance of the designed quadrotor attitude control system with multiple sensors.

  2. Inspiring and Challenging Laboratory Exercise in Multivariable Control Theory – The Four-rotor Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag A. H. Samuelsen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering students in a module on multivariable control theory are given a laboratory exercise for developing their skills in practical implementation of control systems. This is done in an effort to create a more complete module that gives the students experiences in the practical sides of implementing control systems, while still being theoretically challenging and inspiring. Presenting students with this kind of real-life challenges like sub-optimal models, limited processing time and large degree of uncertainty, is a challenging task, partly due to the need of adapting the level of complexity to the student or group of students doing the exercise in order to keep them engaged throughout the exercise, and in part due to the university's need to reduce expenses related to the administration, supervision, and execution of laboratory exercises. The possibility of adapting the complexity of the exercise to each student's skill level is important, both through the design of the exercise and through the students choosing between different models. The eager student might be tempted by the better performing, but more complex models, while the struggling student can find satisfaction in stabilising the aircraft using the less complex models. The laboratory setup presented uses low-cost components, giving low investment and maintenance costs.

  3. Increased Power Capture by Rotor Speed–Dependent Yaw Control of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard; Fleming, Paul A.; Scholbrock, Andrew K.

    2013-01-01

    the yaw alignment can be improved using measurements from the existing standard measurements system. By analyzing data from a case turbine and a corresponding meteorological mast, a correction scheme for the original yaw control system is suggested. The correction scheme is applied to the case turbine...... advanced measurement technologies, such as light detection and ranging systems. However, application of advanced measurement equipment is associated with additional costs and increased system complexity. This study is focused on assessing the current performance of an operating turbine and exploring how...

  4. Wind tunnel experiments to prove a hydraulic passive rotor speed control concept for variable speed wind turbines (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, N.F.B.; Jarquin Laguna, A.

    2012-01-01

    As alternative to geared and direct drive solutions, fluid power drive trains are being developed by several institutions around the world. The common configuration is where the wind turbine rotor is coupled to a hydraulic pump. The pump is connected through a high pressure line to a hydraulic motor

  5. Sizing and Control of Trailing Edge Flaps on a Smart Rotor for Maximum Power Generation in Low Fatigue Wind Regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Jeroen; Berghammer, Lars O.; Navalkar, Sachin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an extension of the spectrum of applicability of rotors with active aerody-namic devices is presented. Besides the classical purpose of load alleviation, a secondary objective is established: power capture optimization. As a _rst step, wind speed regions that contribute little to fa...

  6. Automated intelligent rotor tine cultivation and punch planting to improve the selectivity of mechanical intra-row weed control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Griepentrog, Hans W.; Nielsen, Jon

    2012-01-01

    in sugar beet and carrot crops showed no synergistic effects between plant establishment procedures and selectivity of post-emergence weed harrowing. Even if punch planting and automated intelligent rotor tine cultivation were not combined, the results indicated that there was no reason to believe...... that mainly work through soil burial....

  7. A novel transient rotor current control scheme of a doubly-fed induction generator equipped with superconducting magnetic energy storage for voltage and frequency support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang-Wu; Ke, De-Ping; Sun, Yuan-Zhang; Daniel, Kirschen; Wang, Yi-Shen; Hu, Yuan-Chao

    2015-07-01

    A novel transient rotor current control scheme is proposed in this paper for a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) equipped with a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) device to enhance its transient voltage and frequency support capacity during grid faults. The SMES connected to the DC-link capacitor of the DFIG is controlled to regulate the transient dc-link voltage so that the whole capacity of the grid side converter (GSC) is dedicated to injecting reactive power to the grid for the transient voltage support. However, the rotor-side converter (RSC) has different control tasks for different periods of the grid fault. Firstly, for Period I, the RSC injects the demagnetizing current to ensure the controllability of the rotor voltage. Then, since the dc stator flux degenerates rapidly in Period II, the required demagnetizing current is low in Period II and the RSC uses the spare capacity to additionally generate the reactive (priority) and active current so that the transient voltage capability is corroborated and the DFIG also positively responds to the system frequency dynamic at the earliest time. Finally, a small amount of demagnetizing current is provided after the fault clearance. Most of the RSC capacity is used to inject the active current to further support the frequency recovery of the system. Simulations are carried out on a simple power system with a wind farm. Comparisons with other commonly used control methods are performed to validate the proposed control method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51307124) and the Major Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51190105).

  8. Open Rotor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zante, Dale E.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    The ERA project executed a comprehensive test program for Open Rotor aerodynamic and acoustic performance. System studies used the data to estimate the fuel burn savings and acoustic margin for an aircraft system with open rotor propulsion. The acoustic measurements were used to produce an auralization that compares the legacy blades to the current generation of open rotor designs.

  9. Application of robust control to a rotary-wing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoglu, Ercument

    The thesis is concerned with the application of robust controller synthesis and analysis tools to a rotary-wing aircraft: the Bell 205 teetering-rotor helicopter. The Tioo loop-shaping approach is central to the work and two main issues concerned with its application will be considered. Firstly, the construction of diagonal (structured) and non- diagonal (unstructured) weighting functions will be considered. Secondly, the analysis of the implications of different weighting function structures in the controller implementation. A two stage cross-comparative analysis of a series of 1 Dof (Degree of Freedom) and 2 Dof controllers synthesized with both diagonal and non-diagonal weights using the Hqo loop- shaping technique will be presented for square and non-square multi input multi output, unstable, non-minimum phase and ill-conditioned models of the helicopter. Handling qualities of each control law augmented system will be assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. A quantitative analysis, in view of the specifications in ADS-33E, will be given based on a combination of flight data from in-flight tested controllers and, desk-top simula tions run on a fully augmented 12 Dof nonlinear helicopter model provided by QinetiQ, UK. A qualitative analysis will be given based on the pilot comments compiled (in view of the Cooper-Harper handling qualities rating scale) from the evaluated in-flight control laws.

  10. Transient Simulation Study of Slip-Frequency Vector Control for Variable Speed Doubly-Fed Brushless Motor with Magnetic Barrier Rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiong ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a transient simulation model of a variable speed doubly fed brushless motor (DFBM using back-to-back converter is described. Based on analysis of rotor flux oriented vector control theory of doubly fed induction motor, the control of the currents in DFBM that produce the magnetic flux and the torque is achieved by a digital controller, the speed is regulated by a PI controller which is tuned by a genetic algorithm. According to the state equation of DFBM and the control schemes, the system simulation module is established in MATLAB/ SIMULINK. An extensive simulation study is performed to examine the control characteristics of the machine-side converter under different operation conditions in variable-speed DFBM driver system.

  11. Drum rotor blowers in EC technology. Energy conservation, comfortable control, low noise; Trommellaeufer-Ventilatoren in EC-Technik. Energieersparnis, komfortable Regelung und geringe Geraeuschentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigloch, U. [ebm-papst Mulfingen GmbH und Co. KG (Germany). Projektmanagement Vertrieb Europa; Reiff, E.C. [Redaktionsbuero Stutensee (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Compact drum rotor blowers with forward-curved blades are quite common in air conditioning and ventilation because of their high efficiency and compact dimensions. They are found in air conditioner boxes, in air current systems in department stores, or in fan coils in hotel rooms, wherever other types of blowers would be too big. Until recently, EC technology was not available for the blower motors so the users had do accept low efficiency and the poor control options of conventional AC drives. This has changed by now. (orig.)

  12. T700 power turbine rotor multiplane/multispeed balancing demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, G.; Rio, R.

    1979-01-01

    Research was conducted to demonstrate the ability of influence coefficient based multispeed balancing to control rotor vibration through bending criticals. Rotor dynamic analyses were conducted of the General Electric T700 power turbine rotor. The information was used to generate expected rotor behavior for optimal considerations in designing a balance rig and a balance technique. The rotor was successfully balanced 9500 rpm. Uncontrollable coupling behavior prevented observations through the 16,000 rpm service speed. The balance technique is practical and with additional refinement it can meet production standards.

  13. Sizing and control of trailing edge flaps on a smart rotor for maximum power generation in low fatigue wind regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Jeroen; Bernhammer, Lars O.; Navalkar, Sachin T.

    2016-01-01

    to fatigue damage have been identified. In these regions, the turbine energy output can be increased by deflecting the trailing edge (TE) flap in order to track the maximum power coefficient as a function of local, instantaneous speed ratios. For this purpose, the TE flap configuration for maximum power...... generation has been using blade element momentum theory. As a first step, the operation in non-uniform wind field conditions was analysed. Firstly, the deterministic fluctuation in local tip speed ratio due to wind shear was evaluated. The second effect is associated with time delays in adapting the rotor...

  14. Diagnosis of wind turbine rotor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Mirzaei, Mahmood; Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2016-01-01

    is based on available standard sensors on wind turbines. The method can be used both on-line as well as off-line. Faults or changes in the rotor system will result in asymmetries, which can be monitored and diagnosed. This can be done by using the multi-blade coordinate transformation. Changes in the rotor......This paper describes a model free method for monitoring and fault diagnosis of the elements in a rotor system for a wind turbine. The diagnosis as well as the monitoring is done without using any model of the wind turbine and the applied controller or a description of the wind profile. The method...

  15. Topological dynamics in supramolecular rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Carlos-Andres; Björk, Jonas; Rao, Francesco; Kühne, Dirk; Klappenberger, Florian; Barth, Johannes V

    2014-08-13

    Artificial molecular switches, rotors, and machines are set to establish design rules and applications beyond their biological counterparts. Herein we exemplify the role of noncovalent interactions and transient rearrangements in the complex behavior of supramolecular rotors caged in a 2D metal-organic coordination network. Combined scanning tunneling microscopy experiments and molecular dynamics modeling of a supramolecular rotor with respective rotation rates matching with 0.2 kcal mol(-1) (9 meV) precision, identify key steps in collective rotation events and reconfigurations. We notably reveal that stereoisomerization of the chiral trimeric units entails topological isomerization whereas rotation occurs in a topology conserving, two-step asynchronous process. In supramolecular constructs, distinct displacements of subunits occur inducing a markedly lower rotation barrier as compared to synchronous mechanisms of rigid rotors. Moreover, the chemical environment can be instructed to control the system dynamics. Our observations allow for a definition of mechanical cooperativity based on a significant reduction of free energy barriers in supramolecules compared to rigid molecules.

  16. Investigation of load reduction for a variable speed, variable pitch, and variable coning wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A two bladed, variable speed and variable pitch wind turbine was modeled using ADAMS{reg_sign} to evaluate load reduction abilities of a variable coning configuration as compared to a teetered rotor, and also to evaluate control methods. The basic dynamic behavior of the variable coning turbine was investigated and compared to the teetered rotor under constant wind conditions as well as turbulent wind conditions. Results indicate the variable coning rotor has larger flap oscillation amplitudes and much lower root flap bending moments than the teetered rotor. Three methods of control were evaluated for turbulent wind simulations. These were a standard IPD control method, a generalized predictive control method, and a bias estimate control method. Each control method was evaluated for both the variable coning configuration and the teetered configuration. The ability of the different control methods to maintain the rotor speed near the desired set point is evaluated from the RMS error of rotor speed. The activity of the control system is evaluated from cycles per second of the blade pitch angle. All three of the methods were found to produce similar results for the variable coning rotor and the teetered rotor, as well as similar results to each other.

  17. Integrated Technology Rotor/Flight Research Rotor (ITR/FRR) concept definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C. W.

    1983-01-01

    Studies were conducted by Hughes Helicopters, Inc. (HHI) for the Applied Technology Laboratory and Aeromechanics Laboratory, U.S. Army Research and Technology Laboratories (AVRADCOM) and the Ames Research Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Results of predesign studies of advanced main rotor hubs, including bearingless designs, are presented in this report. In addition, the Government's rotor design goals and specifications were reviewed and evaluated. Hub concepts were designed and qualitatively evaluated in order to select the two most promising concepts for further development. Various flexure designs, control systems, and pitchcase designs were investigated during the initial phases of this study. The two designs selected for additional development were designated the V-strap and flat-strap cruciform hubs. These hubs were designed for a four bladed rotor and were sized for 18,400 pounds gross weight with the same diameter (62 feet) and solidity (23 inch chord) as the existing rotor on the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA).

  18. Helicopter rotor dynamics and aeroelasticity - Some key ideas and insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Peretz P.

    1990-01-01

    Four important current topics in helicopter rotor dynamics and aeroelasticity are discussed: (1) the role of geometric nonlinearities in rotary-wing aeroelasticity; (2) structural modeling, free vibration, and aeroelastic analysis of composite rotor blades; (3) modeling of coupled rotor/fuselage areomechanical problems and their active control; and (4) use of higher-harmonic control for vibration reduction in helicopter rotors in forward flight. The discussion attempts to provide an improved fundamental understanding of the current state of the art. In this way, future research can be focused on problems which remain to be solved instead of producing marginal improvements on problems which are already understood.

  19. Rotor Speed Control of a Direct-Driven Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator-Based Wind Turbine Using Phase-Lag Compensators to Optimize Wind Power Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Hamatwi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the intermittent nature of wind, the wind power output tends to be inconsistent, and hence maximum power point tracking (MPPT is usually employed to optimize the power extracted from the wind resource at a wide range of wind speeds. This paper deals with the rotor speed control of a 2 MW direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG to achieve MPPT. The proportional-integral (PI, proportional-derivative (PD, and proportional-integral-derivative (PID controllers have widely been employed in MPPT studies owing to their simple structure and simple design procedure. However, there are a number of shortcomings associated with these controllers; the trial-and-error design procedure used to determine the P, I, and D gains presents a possibility for poorly tuned controller gains, which reduces the accuracy and the dynamic performance of the entire control system. Moreover, these controllers’ linear nature, constricted operating range, and their sensitivity to changes in machine parameters make them ineffective when applied to nonlinear and uncertain systems. On the other hand, phase-lag compensators are associated with a design procedure that is well defined from fundamental principles as opposed to the aforementioned trial-and-error design procedure. This makes the latter controller type more accurate, although it is not well developed yet, and hence it is the focus of this paper. The simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed MPPT controller.

  20. Helicopter Rotor Load Prediction Using a Geometrically Exact Beam with Multicomponent Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Hyun-Ku; Viswamurthy, S.R.; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an accurate structural dynamic analysis was developed for a helicopter rotor system including rotor control components, which was coupled to various aerodynamic and wake models in order to predict an aeroelastic response and the loads acting on the rotor. Its blade analysis was based...... rotor-blade/control-system model was loosely coupled with various inflow and wake models in order to simulate both hover and forward-flight conditions. The resulting rotor blade response and pitch link loads are in good agreement with those predicted byCAMRADII. The present analysis features both model...... on an intrinsic formulation of moving beams implemented in the time domain. The rotor control system was modeled as a combination of rigid and elastic components. A multicomponent analysis was then developed by coupling the beam finite element model with the rotor control system model to obtain a complete rotor-blade/control...

  1. Reducing rotor weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheney, M.C. [PS Enterprises, Inc., Glastonbury, CT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  2. Large Rotor Test Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test apparatus, when combined with the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, produces a thorough, full-scale test capability. The Large Rotor Test Apparatus...

  3. Una introducción al ajuste de parámetros de controladores PI utilizados en el control del generador de inducción con rotor bobinado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L.L.F. Murari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo reúne las informaciones básicas del control de generadores de inducción con rotor bobinado (GIRB para generación eólica, teniendo como objetivo direccionar al nuevo investigador en sus primeros pasos, tornándolo apto al desarrollo de la tecnología sea por medio de modificaciones o por adición de técnicas de accionamiento y control. El estator del GIRB está conectado directamente a la red eléctrica y su rotor a través de un duplo convertidor llamado back-to-back. En este sentido, este artículo presenta una propuesta para el diseño de las ganancias de los controladores proporcional-integral (PI utilizados en el control vectorial de potencias para el convertidor del lado del rotor del GIRB con el uso de la técnica de compensación por polos. También son presentadas las mallas de control de corriente del convertidor conectado a la red eléctrica, el diseño de la capacitancia de enlace de corriente continua y de la inductancia del filtro de armónicos. Los resultados de la simulación son presentados para validar la propuesta. Abstract: This article presents the basic information about the control of induction generators with wound rotor for wind generation. Its aim is to assist new researchers in their first steps, making them suitable for the development of technology either through modifications or by adding techniques of driving and control. The GIRB's stator is connected directly to the power grid and its rotor via a bi-directional converter called back-to-back. This way, this article presents a proposal for the design of the gains of the proportional-integral controllers (PI used in vector control of powers for the GIRB's rotor-side converter using the poles compensation technique. It also shows the current control loops of the converter connected to the power grid, the specification of the capacitance of the direct current link and the inductance of the harmonic filter. Simulation results are presented

  4. SMART wind turbine rotor. Data analysis and conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Jonathan Charles; Barone, Matthew Franklin; Yoder, Nathanael C.

    2014-01-01

    The Wind Energy Technologies department at Sandia National Laboratories has developed and field tested a wind turbine rotor with integrated trailing-edge flaps designed for active control of the rotor aerodynamics. The SMART Rotor project was funded by the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and was conducted to demonstrate active rotor control and evaluate simulation tools available for active control research. This report documents the data post-processing and analysis performed to date on the field test data. Results include the control capability of the trailing edge flaps, the combined structural and aerodynamic damping observed through application of step actuation with ensemble averaging, direct observation of time delays associated with aerodynamic response, and techniques for characterizing an operating turbine with active rotor control.

  5. Material sampling for rotor evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercaldi, D.; Parker, J.

    1990-01-01

    Decisions regarding continued operation of aging rotating machinery must often be made without adequate knowledge of rotor material conditions. Physical specimens of the material are not generally available due to lack of an appropriate sampling technique or the high cost and inconvenience of obtaining such samples. This is despite the fact that examination of such samples may be critical to effectively assess the degradation of mechanical properties of the components in service or to permit detailed examination of microstructure and surface flaws. Such information permits a reduction in the uncertainty of remaining life estimates for turbine rotors to avoid unnecessarily premature and costly rotor retirement decisions. This paper describes the operation and use of a recently developed material sampling device which machines and recovers an undeformed specimen from the surface of rotor bores or other components for metallurgical analysis. The removal of the thin, wafer-like sample has a negligible effect on the structural integrity of these components, due to the geometry and smooth surface finish of the resulting shallow depression. Samples measuring approximately 0.03 to 0.1 inches (0.76 to 2.5 mm) thick by 0.5 to 1.0 inch (1.3 to 2.5 cm) in diameter can be removed without mechanical deformation or thermal degradation of the sample or the remaining component material. The device is operated remotely from a control console and can be used externally or internally on any surface for which there is at least a three inch (7.6 cm) working clearance. Application of the device in two case studies of turbine-generator evaluations are presented

  6. SMART wind turbine rotor. Design and field test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Jonathan Charles; Resor, Brian Ray; Paquette, Joshua A.; White, Jonathan Randall

    2014-01-01

    The Wind Energy Technologies department at Sandia National Laboratories has developed and field tested a wind turbine rotor with integrated trailing-edge flaps designed for active control of rotor aerodynamics. The SMART Rotor project was funded by the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and was conducted to demonstrate active rotor control and evaluate simulation tools available for active control research. This report documents the design, fabrication, and testing of the SMART Rotor. This report begins with an overview of active control research at Sandia and the objectives of this project. The SMART blade, based on the DOE / SNL 9-meter CX-100 blade design, is then documented including all modifications necessary to integrate the trailing edge flaps, sensors incorporated into the system, and the fabrication processes that were utilized. Finally the test site and test campaign are described.

  7. Flow Control by Slot Position and Noise Baffle in a Self-Recirculation Casing Treatment on an Axial Fan-Rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjun Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To address the situations where the casing treatment needs to be used to stabilize axial compressors through strong recirculation, this paper initiated a CFD study to investigate how the flow could be suitably controlled in the casing treatment to minimize the efficiency penalty and increase the flow range. A counter-swirl self-recirculation casing treatment was first designed on a low speed axial fan rotor as a baseline case. Then three different slot positions and the influence of including the noise baffle were numerically studied. Based on the understanding of their coeffects, the shorter noise baffle was considered and it was found that the highest efficiency was achieved in the case of the upstream slot when the length of baffle was suitably adjusted to balance the incoming flow and recirculation. The largest flow range was achieved by locating the slot at the most downstream position and using a 50% length baffle since it suitably controlled the recirculating flow and relieved the separation at the low-span region. An optimization study showed that the optimum length of the baffle for efficiency was always larger than for the flow range. Both of the two optimum values reduce as the slot moves downstream.

  8. A viscosity and density meter with a magnetically suspended rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, Mikulas; Strharsky, Igor; Hrmo, Igor

    2003-01-01

    A device for measuring the viscosity and density of liquids is presented. It is a Couette-type viscometer that uses a submerged rotor to measure the viscosity without errors originating in the contact of the rotor with the sample/air boundary. The inner cylinder is a glass rotor suspended in the liquid, and the outer cylinder is also made of glass. The rotor is stabilized on the axis of the outer cylinder by an electromagnetic force controlled by feedback from the rotor's vertical position. In the lower part of the rotor is an aluminum cylinder located in a magnetic field generated by rotating permanent magnets. The interaction of this rotating magnetic field with eddy currents generated in the aluminum cylinder causes rotation of the rotor. This rotation is optically detected, and viscosity is calculated from the measured angular velocity of rotor. The density of the liquid is calculated from the applied vertical equilibrating force. A computer controls the whole measurement. The device works at constant temperature or while scanning temperature. The sample volume is 1.6 ml, and the accuracy of measurement of both viscosity and density is ∼0.1%. The range of measured densities is (0.7-1.4) g/ml, and viscosity can be measured in the range (3x10 -4 -0.3) Pa s. The shear rate of the viscosity measurement varies in the range (20-300) s-1. The accuracy of the temperature measurement is 0.02 K

  9. Rotor Vibration Reduction via Active Hybrid Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2002-01-01

    The use of fluid power to reduce and control rotor vibration in rotating machines is investigated. An active hybrid bearing is studied, whose main objective is to reduce wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. By injecting pressurised oil into the oil film, through...... orifices machined in the bearing pads, one can alter the machine dynamic characteristics, thus enhancing its operational range. A mathematical model of the rotor-bearing system, as well as of the hydraulic system, is presented. Numerical results of the system frequency response show good agreement...

  10. CFD simulations of the MEXICO rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Andreas; Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    The wake behind a wind turbine model is investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), and results are compared with measurements. The turbine investigated is the three‐bladed test rotor (D = 4.5 m) used in the Model Experiments in Controlled Conditions (MEXICO) wind tunnel experiment....... During the MEXICO experiment, particle image velocimetry measurements of the induction upstream and downstream of the rotor were performed for different operating conditions, giving a unique dataset to verify theoretical models and CFD models. The present paper first describes the efforts in reproducing...

  11. Effect of rotor configuration on guyed tower and foundation designs and estimated costs for intermediate site horizontal axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, G. R.; Winemiller, J. R.; Savino, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    Three designs of a guyed cylindrical tower and its foundation for an intermediate size horizontal axis wind turbine generator are discussed. The primary difference in the three designs is the configuration of the rotor. Two configurations are two-blade rotors with teetering hubs - one with full span pitchable blades, the other with fixed pitch blades. The third configuration is a three-bladed rotor with a rigid hub and fixed pitch blades. In all configurations the diameter of the rotor is 38 meters and the axis of rotation is 30.4 meters above grade, and the power output is 200 kW and 400 kW. For each configuration the design is based upon for the most severe loading condition either operating wind or hurricane conditions. The diameter of the tower is selected to be 1.5 meters (since it was determined that this would provide sufficient space for access ladders within the tower) with guy rods attached at 10.7 meters above grade. Completing a design requires selecting the required thicknesses of the various cylindrical segments, the number and diameter of the guy rods, the number and size of soil anchors, and the size of the central foundation. The lower natural frequencies of vibration are determined for each design to ensure that operation near resonance does not occur. Finally, a cost estimate is prepared for each design. A preliminary design and cost estimate of a cantilever tower (cylindrical and not guyed) and its foundation is also presented for each of the three configurations.

  12. Boresonic inspection of power plant rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennie, I.S.

    1990-01-01

    Continental Field Machining and NEI Parsons together are able to provide an on site machining and boresonic inspection service. NEI Parsons existing boresonic equipment is described together with a summary of results obtained during the inspection of eighty rotors. A computer controlled automatic inspection system, planned to be in operation early in 1990, is also described

  13. Applications of Fluorogens with Rotor Structures in Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kok-Haw; Liu, Bin

    2017-05-29

    Solar cells are devices that convert light energy into electricity. To drive greater adoption of solar cell technologies, higher cell efficiencies and reductions in manufacturing cost are necessary. Fluorogens containing rotor structures may be helpful in addressing some of these challenges due to their unique twisted structures and photophysics. In this review, we discuss the applications of rotor-containing molecules as dyes for luminescent down-shifting layers and luminescent solar concentrators, where their aggregation-induced emission properties and large Stokes shifts are highly desirable. We also discuss the applications of molecules containing rotors in third-generation solar cell technologies, namely dye-sensitized solar cells and organic photovoltaics, where the twisted 3-dimensional rotor structures are used primarily for aggregation control. Finally, we discuss perspectives on the future role of molecules containing rotor structures in solar cell technologies.

  14. Identification of Flap Motion Parameters for Vibration Reduction in Helicopter Rotors with Multiple Active Trailing Edge Flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğbreve;ur Dalli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An active control method utilizing the multiple trailing edge flap configuration for rotorcraft vibration suppression and blade loads control is presented. A comprehensive model for rotor blade with active trailing edge flaps is used to calculate the vibration characteristics, natural frequencies and mode shapes of any complex composite helicopter rotor blade. A computer program is developed to calculate the system response, rotor blade root forces and moments under aerodynamic forcing conditions. Rotor blade system response is calculated using the proposed solution method and the developed program depending on any structural and aerodynamic properties of rotor blades, structural properties of trailing edge flaps and properties of trailing edge flap actuator inputs. Rotor blade loads are determined first on a nominal rotor blade without multiple active trailing edge flaps and then the effects of the active flap motions on the existing rotor blade loads are investigated. Multiple active trailing edge flaps are controlled by using open loop controllers to identify the effects of the actuator signal output properties such as frequency, amplitude and phase on the system response. Effects of using multiple trailing edge flaps on controlling rotor blade vibrations are investigated and some design criteria are determined for the design of trailing edge flap controller that will provide actuator signal outputs to minimize the rotor blade root loads. It is calculated that using the developed active trailing edge rotor blade model, helicopter rotor blade vibrations can be reduced up to 36% of the nominal rotor blade vibrations.

  15. Input Shaping enhanced Active Disturbance Rejection Control for a twin rotor multi-input multi-output system (TRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Cui, Jianwei; Lao, Dazhong; Li, Donghai; Chen, Junhui

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a composite control based on Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) and Input Shaping is presented for TRMS with two degrees of freedom (DOF). The control tasks consist of accurately tracking desired trajectories and obtaining disturbance rejection in both horizontal and vertical planes. Due to un-measurable states as well as uncertainties stemming from modeling uncertainty and unknown disturbance torques, ADRC is employed, and feed-forward Input Shaping is used to improve the dynamical response. In the proposed approach, because the coupling effects are maintained in controller derivation, there is no requirement to decouple the TRMS into horizontal and vertical subsystems, which is usually performed in the literature. Finally, the proposed method is implemented on the TRMS platform, and the results are compared with those of PID and ADRC in a similar structure. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The operation of the controller allows for an excellent set-point tracking behavior and disturbance rejection with system nonlinearity and complex coupling conditions. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Study of Active Rotor-Blade Vibration Control using Electro-Magnetic Actuation - Part I: Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rene Hardam; Santos, Ilmar

    2004-01-01

    actuators fixed directly in the blades. However, due to the impracticability and problems by fixing actuators in the rotating blades, it is for practical application of great interest to study whether the vibrations can be controlled using shaft-based actuators, i.e. electro-magnetic bearings...

  17. Dynamic response of a rub-impact rotor system under axial thrust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Xueli; Zhou, Jianzhong; Xiang, Xiuqiao; Li, Chaoshun; Luo, Zhimeng [Huazhong University of Science andTechnology, College of Hydroelectric and Digitalization Engineering, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2009-11-15

    A model of a rigid rotor system under axial thrust with rotor-to-stator is developed based on the classic impact theory and is analyzed by the Lagrangian dynamics. The rubbing condition is modeled using the elastic impact-contact idealization, which consists of normal and tangential forces at the rotor-to-stator contact point. Mass eccentricity and rotating speed are used as control parameters to simulate the response of rotor system. The motions of periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic are found in the rotor system response. Mass eccentricity plays an important role in creating chaotic phenomena. (orig.)

  18. Optimization of vibration amplitudes of the dynamic rotors by introducing hysteresis parameters of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamel, Lebchek; Outtas, T. [Laboratory of Structural Mechanics and Materials faculty of technology - University of Batna, Batha (Algeria)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work is the study of behavior of rotor dynamics of industrial turbines, using numerical simulation. Finite element model was developed by introducing a new hysteresis parameter to control more precisely the behavior of rolling bearings. The finite element model is used to extract the natural frequencies and modal deformed rotor vibration, as it identifies the constraints acting on the system and predict the dynamic behavior of the rotor transient. Results in Campbell diagram and those relating to the unbalance responses show significant amplitude differences in the parameters of hysteresis imposed . Key words: rotor dynamics, hysteresis, finite element, rotor vibration, unbalance responses, Campbell diagram.

  19. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Design and Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Jonathan C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Resor, Brian R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Paquette, Joshua A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); White, Jonathan R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-01-29

    This report documents the design, fabrication, and testing of the SMART Rotor. This work established hypothetical approaches for integrating active aerodynamic devices (AADs) into the wind turbine structure and controllers.

  20. Rotor for a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a rotor for a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor, said rotor comprising a rotor body having a longitudinal centre axis, and at least one pivotally mounted blade being adapted to pivot around a pivot axis under rotation of the rotor body around the longitudinal centre axis....... Moreover, the present invention relates to a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor applying such a rotor....

  1. Reliable actuators for twin rotor MIMO system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Vidya S.; V. I, George; Kamath, Surekha; Shreesha, C.

    2017-11-01

    Twin Rotor MIMO System (TRMS) is a bench mark system to test flight control algorithms. One of the perturbations on TRMS which is likely to affect the control system is actuator failure. Therefore, there is a need for a reliable control system, which includes H infinity controller along with redundant actuators. Reliable control refers to the design of a control system to tolerate failures of a certain set of actuators or sensors while retaining desired control system properties. Output of reliable controller has to be transferred to the redundant actuator effectively to make the TRMS reliable even under actual actuator failure.

  2. Homopolar motor with dual rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, J.S.

    1998-12-01

    A homopolar motor has a field rotor mounted on a frame for rotation in a first rotational direction and for producing an electromagnetic field, and an armature rotor mounted for rotation on said frame within said electromagnetic field and in a second rotational direction counter to said first rotational direction of said field rotor. The two rotors are coupled through a 1:1 gearing mechanism, so as to travel at the same speed but in opposite directions. This doubles the output voltage and output power, as compared to a motor in which only the armature is rotated. Several embodiments are disclosed. 7 figs.

  3. Homopolar motor with dual rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A homopolar motor (10) has a field rotor (15) mounted on a frame (11) for rotation in a first rotational direction and for producing an electromagnetic field, and an armature rotor (17) mounted for rotation on said frame (11) within said electromagnetic field and in a second rotational direction counter to said first rotational direction of said field rotor (15). The two rotors (15, 17) are coupled through a 1:1 gearing mechanism (19), so as to travel at the same speed but in opposite directions. This doubles the output voltage and output power, as compared to a motor in which only the armature is rotated. Several embodiments are disclosed.

  4. Users guide to the inelastic rotor spectrometer (IRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunce, L.J.

    1987-11-01

    The paper is a users guide to the inelastic rotor spectrometer installed on the Harwell 136 Mev electron linear accelerator HELIOS. The spectrometer is designed to measure neutron inelastic scattering for energy transfers from 50 meV to 400 meV and covering a range of Q values from 1 to 15 A 0-1 . The guide contains a description of:- time-of-flight scales, run and sample changer control units, sample environment, detectors, rotor system, 600 Hz operation of rotor, a run, and data processing. (U.K.)

  5. Integrated technology rotor/flight research rotor concept definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, R. G.; Beno, E. A.; Ulisnik, H. D.

    1983-01-01

    As part of the Integrated Technology Rotor/Flight Research Rotor (ITR/FRR) Program a number of advanced rotor system designs were conceived and investigated. From these, several were chosen that best meet the started ITR goals with emphasis on stability, reduced weight and hub drag, simplicity, low head moment stiffness, and adequate strength and fatigue life. It was concluded that obtaining low hub moment stiffness was difficult when only the blade flexibility of bearingless rotor blades is considered, unacceptably low fatigue life being the primary problem. Achieving a moderate hub moment stiffness somewhat higher than state of the art articulated rotors in production today is possible within the fatigue life constraint. Alternatively, low stiffness is possible when additional rotor elements, besides the blades themselves, provide part of the rotor flexibility. Two primary designs evolved as best meeting the general ITR requirements that presently exist. An I shaped flexbeam with an external torque tube can satisfy the general goals but would have either higher stiffness or reduced fatigue life. The elastic gimbal rotor can achieve a better combination of low stiffness and high fatigue life but would be a somewhat heavier design and possibly exhibit a higher risk of aeromechanical instability.

  6. Internal rotor friction instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1990-01-01

    The analytical developments and experimental investigations performed in assessing the effect of internal friction on rotor systems dynamic performance are documented. Analytical component models for axial splines, Curvic splines, and interference fit joints commonly found in modern high speed turbomachinery were developed. Rotor systems operating above a bending critical speed were shown to exhibit unstable subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. The effect of speed, bearing stiffness, joint stiffness, external damping, torque, and coefficient of friction, was evaluated. Testing included material coefficient of friction evaluations, component joint quantity and form of damping determinations, and rotordynamic stability assessments. Under conditions similar to those in the SSME turbopumps, material interfaces experienced a coefficient of friction of approx. 0.2 for lubricated and 0.8 for unlubricated conditions. The damping observed in the component joints displayed nearly linear behavior with increasing amplitude. Thus, the measured damping, as a function of amplitude, is not represented by either linear or Coulomb friction damper models. Rotordynamic testing of an axial spline joint under 5000 in.-lb of static torque, demonstrated the presence of an extremely severe instability when the rotor was operated above its first flexible natural frequency. The presence of this instability was predicted by nonlinear rotordynamic time-transient analysis using the nonlinear component model developed under this program. Corresponding rotordynamic testing of a shaft with an interference fit joint demonstrated the presence of subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. While subsynchronous vibrations were observed, they were bounded and significantly lower in amplitude than the synchronous vibrations.

  7. Yaw control for active damping of structural dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekelund, T. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Control Engineering Lab.

    1996-12-01

    Yaw torque control for reduction of structural dynamic loads in a two-bladed wind turbine is investigated. The models are obtained using rigid-body mechanics. Linear quadratic control theory is utilized for design and analysis. The analysis of two simple examples, where the teeter angle and the tower lateral bending motion are regarded, shows that a time-varying controller has some advantages compared with a time-invariant controller. 6 refs, 9 figs

  8. Flexible-Rotor Balancing Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes method for balancing high-speed rotors at relatively low speeds and discusses demonstration of method on laboratory test rig. Method ensures rotor brought up to speeds well over 20,000 r/min smoothly, without excessive vibration amplitude at critical speeds or at operating speed.

  9. Rotor and wind turbine formalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The main conventions used in this book for the study of rotors are introduced in this chapter. The main assumptions and notations are provided. The formalism specific to wind turbines is presented. The forces, moments, velocities and dimensionless coefficients used in the study of rotors...

  10. Smart Rotor Modeling: Aero-Servo-Elastic Modeling of a Smart Rotor with Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergami, Leonardo

    the trailing edge flap deflection to actively reduce the fatigue loads on the structure. The performance of the smart rotor configuration and its control algorithms are finally quantified by aero-servo-elastic simulations of the smart rotor turbine operating in a standard turbulent wind field.......This book presents the formulation of an aero-servo-elastic model for a wind turbine rotor equipped with Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps (ATEF), a smart rotor configuration. As the name suggests, an aero-servo-elastic model consists of three main components: an aerodynamic model, a structural model......, and a control model. The book first presents an engineering type of aerodynamic model that accounts for the dynamic effects of flap deflection. The aerodynamic model is implemented in a Blade Element Momentum framework, and coupled with a multi-body structural model in the aero-servoelastic simulation code HAWC...

  11. SMART Rotor Development and Wind Tunnel Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    amplifier and control system , and data acquisition, processing, and display systems . Boeing�s LRTS (Fig. 2), consists of a sled structure that...Support Test Stand Sled Tail Sting Outrigger Arm Figure 2: System integration test at whirl tower Port Rotor Balance Main Strut Flap Tail...demonstrated. Finally, the reliability of the flap actuation system was successfully proven in more than 60 hours of wind tunnel testing

  12. Light Rotor: The 10-MW reference wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christian; Bitsche, Robert; Yde, Anders

    2012-01-01

    design show a rather well performing wind turbine both in terms of power and loads, but in the further work towards the final design the challenges in the control needs to be solved and the balance between power performance and loads and between structural performance and mass will be investigated......This paper describes the design of a rotor and a wind turbine for an artificial 10-MW wind turbine carried out in the Light Rotor project. The turbine called the Light Rotor 10-MW Reference Wind Turbine (LR10-MW RWT), is designed with existing methods and techniques and serves as a reference...... like the determination of the specific power and upscaling of the turbine. The design of Iteration #2 of the LR10-MW RWT is carried out in a sequence between aerodynamic rotor design, structural design and aero-servo-elastic design. Each of these topics is described. The results from the Iteration #2...

  13. 9th IFToMM International Conference on Rotor Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the 9th IFToMM International Conference on Rotor Dynamics. This conference is a premier global event that brings together specialists from the university and industry sectors worldwide in order to promote the exchange of knowledge, ideas, and information on the latest developments and applied technologies in the dynamics of rotating machinery. The coverage is wide ranging, including, for example, new ideas and trends in various aspects of bearing technologies, issues in the analysis of blade dynamic behavior,  condition monitoring of different rotating machines, vibration control, electromechanical and fluid-structure interactions in rotating machinery, rotor dynamics of micro, nano, and cryogenic machines, and applications of rotor dynamics in transportation engineering. Since its inception 32 years ago, the IFToMM International Conference on Rotor Dynamics has become an irreplaceable point of reference for those working in the field, and this book reflects the high qua...

  14. Evaluation of an advanced rotor bore examination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Evaluations of in-service turbine-generator rotor forgings are often based on an ultrasonic examination of the near-bore region. A portable rotor bore examination system has been developed that provides discontinuity characterization required for a thorough rotor evaluation. This automated system, its procedures and operations personnel have now been qualified for full-scale field application. System development has benefited from merging several technologies with new methods for precise alignment of the drive unit, calibration block and rotor. The system runs a custom interactive software package that allows for flexible calibration and motion control as well as data acquisition and manipulation. A comprehensive evaluation procedure was developed for system qualification using test specimens with natural and artificial reflectors, including a unique fatigue-crack block. Following a discussion of the system features, this paper discusses the system evaluation based on this procedure

  15. Integrated technology rotor/flight research rotor hub concept definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, P. G. C.

    1983-01-01

    Two variations of the helicopter bearingless main rotor hub concept are proposed as bases for further development in the preliminary design phase of the Integrated Technology Rotor/Flight Research Rotor (ITR/FRR) program. This selection was the result of an evaluation of three bearingless hub concepts and two articulated hub concepts with elastomeric bearings. The characteristics of each concept were evaluated by means of simplified methodology. These characteristics included the assessment of stability, vulnerability, weight, drag, cost, stiffness, fatigue life, maintainability, and reliability.

  16. Modern rotor balancing - Emerging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, E. S.; Von Pragenau, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    Modern balancing methods for flexible and rigid rotors are explored. Rigid rotor balancing is performed at several hundred rpm, well below the first bending mode of the shaft. High speed balancing is necessary when the nominal rotational speed is higher than the first bending mode. Both methods introduce weights which will produce rotor responses at given speeds that will be exactly out of phase with the responses of an unbalanced rotor. Modal balancing seeks to add weights which will leave other rotor modes unaffected. Also, influence coefficients can be determined by trial and error addition of weights and recording of their effects on vibration at speeds of interest. The latter method is useful for balancing rotors at other than critical speeds and for performing unified balancing beginning with the first critical speed. Finally, low-speed flexible balancing permits low-speed tests and adjustments of rotor assemblies which will not be accessible when operating in their high-speed functional configuration. The method was developed for the high pressure liquid oxygen turbopumps for the Shuttle.

  17. Wind tower with vertical rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, A

    1978-08-03

    The invention concerns a wind tower with vertical rotors. A characteristic is that the useful output of the rotors is increased by the wind pressure, which is guided to the rotors at the central opening and over the whole height of the structure by duct slots in the inner cells. These duct slots start behind the front nose of the inner cell and lead via the transverse axis of the pillar at an angle into the space between the inner cells and the cell body. This measure appreciably increases the useful output of the rotors, as the rotors do not have to provide any displacement work from their output, but receive additional thrust. The wind pressure pressing from inside the rotor and accelerating from the outside produces a better outflow of the wind from the power plant pillar with only small tendency to turbulence, which appreciably improves the effect of the adjustable turbulence smoothers, which are situated below the rotors over the whole height.

  18. Weld-forged rotors of the turbines for nuclear and thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudkovskij, A.F.; German, S.I.

    1979-01-01

    Considered is a principally new technology and equipment for assembling and welding superheavy rotors with mass up to 200 tons. Construction peculiarities and advantages of the application of weld-forged rotors are noted. The technology proposed permits to provide for a horizontal assembling, subsequent welding and quality control of rotors, one bench being used instead of three ones. The application of horizontal assembling and complex welding of rotors in one position permits not only to shorten the cycle of assembling and welding, too decrease the equipment costs and release production capacities, but also to improve substantially the quality of welds and especially the accuracy of rotor production. The equipment allows one to assemble and weld rotors with the mass up to 250 tons at maximum rotor diameter up to 2500 mm and length up to 13000 mm. Presented are data characterizing chemical composition and mechanical properties of steels used for forging of welded rotors. Also given are the results of studying mechanical properties of welded joints, welding and thermal treatment of which were made in accordance with the technology proposed. Serial production of rotors for turbines with the power of 500, 1000 and 1200 Mw is shown to be mastered along with the manufacture of welded rotors for cylinders of low, medium and high pressure turbines

  19. Fuzzy logic estimator of rotor time constant in induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alminoja, J. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland). Control Engineering Laboratory; Koivo, H. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Control Engineering Laboratory

    1997-12-31

    Vector control of AC machines is a well-known and widely used technique in induction machine control. It offers an exact method for speed control of induction motors, but it is also sensitive to the changes in machine parameters. E.g. rotor time constant has a strong dependence on temperature. In this paper a fuzzy logic estimator is developed, with which the rotor time constant can be estimated when the machine has a load. It is more simple than the estimators proposed in the literature. The fuzzy estimator is tested by simulation when step-wise abrupt changes and slow drifting occurs. (orig.) 7 refs.

  20. Determination of the angle of attack on the mexico rotor using experimental data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Hua; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2010-01-01

    characteristics from experimental data on the MEXICO (Model Experiments in controlled Conditions) rotor. Detailed surface pressure and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) flow field at different rotor azimuth positions were examined for determining the sectional airfoil data. It is worthwhile noting that the present...

  1. Rotor assembly and assay method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1993-09-07

    A rotor assembly for carrying out an assay includes a rotor body which is rotatable about an axis of rotation, and has a central chamber and first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth chambers which are in communication with and radiate from the central chamber. The rotor assembly further includes a shuttle which is movable through the central chamber and insertable into any of the chambers, the shuttle including a reaction cup carrying an immobilized antigen or an antibody for transport among the chambers. A method for carrying out an assay using the rotor assembly includes moving the reaction cup among the six chambers by passing the cup through the central chamber between centrifugation steps in order to perform the steps of: separating plasma from blood cells, binding plasma antibody or antigen, washing, drying, binding enzyme conjugate, reacting with enzyme substrate and optically comparing the resulting reaction product with unreacted enzyme substrate solution. The movement of the reaction cup can be provided by attaching a magnet to the reaction cup and supplying a moving magnetic field to the rotor. 34 figures.

  2. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Data Analysis and Conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Jonathan C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barone, Matthew F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yoder, Nathanael C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-01-29

    This report documents the data post-processing and analysis performed to date on the field test data. Results include the control capability of the trailing edge flaps, the combined structural and aerodynamic damping observed through application of step actuation with ensemble averaging, direct observation of time delays associated with aerodynamic response, and techniques for characterizing an operating turbine with active rotor control.

  3. Characteristic analysis of rotor dynamics and experiments of active magnetic bearing for HTR-10GT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guojun; Xu Yang; Shi Zhengang; Gu Huidong

    2005-01-01

    A 10 MW high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR-10) was constructed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) at Tsinghua University of China. The helium turbine and generator system of 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR-10GT) is the second phase for the HTR-10 project. It is to set up a direct helium cycle to replace the current steam cycle. The active magnetic bearing (AMB) instead of ordinary mechanical bearing was chosen to support the rotor in the HTR-10GT. This rotor is vertically mounted to hold the turbine machine, compressors and the power generator together. The rotor's length is 7 m, its weight is about 1500 kg and the rotating speed is 15000 r/min. The structure of the rotor is so complicated that dynamic analysis of the rotor becomes difficult. One of the challenging problems is to exceed natural frequencies with enough stability and safety during reactor start up, power change and shutdown. The dynamic analysis of the rotor is the base for the design of control system. It is important for the rotor to exceed critical speeds. Some kinds of software and methods, such as MSC.Marc, Ansys, and the Transfer Matrix Method, are compared to fully analyze rotor dynamics characteristic in this paper. The modal analysis has been done for the HTR-10GT rotor. MSC.Marc was finally selected to analyze the vibration mode and the natural frequency of the rotor. The effects of AMB stiffness on the critical speeds of the rotor were studied. The design characteristics of the AMB control system for the HTR-10GT were studied and the related experiment to exceed natural frequencies was introduced. The experimental results demonstrate the system functions and validate the control scheme, which will be used in the HTR-10GT project. (authors)

  4. Determination of the losses in a three-phase induction motor with speed controlled by the combined variation of the stator voltage and the rotor resistance; Determinacao das perdas de um motor de inducao trifasico com velocidade controlada pela variacao combinada da tensao do estator e resistencia rotorica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Antonio Tadeu L. de; Sa, Jocelio Souza de; Abreu, Jose Policarpo G. de [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    This work provides several expressions for determination of the losses in inductions motors of slip-rings in steady state; always as possible, the catalogue data of national manufacturers are used. In addition, the influence of the speed control through the combined variation of the stator voltage and rotor resistance in these losses is analysed. (author) 7 refs., 5 figs.

  5. A novel rotor design for a hybrid excited synchronous machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paplicki Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents three novel rotor design concepts for a three-phase electric controlled permanent magnet synchronous machine (ECPMS-machine with hybrid excitation. The influence of magnets and flux-barriers arrangement on the magnetic field distribution and field-weakening characteristics of the machine is examined, based on a three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D-FEA. Moreover, a prototype rotor design based on a new rotor concept with a good field-weakening capability is presented in detail. Finally, the experimental results of no-load back electromotive force (back-EMF waveforms and field-weakening characteristics versus a control coil current of the machine are reported.

  6. Analytical methods in rotor dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Dimarogonas, Andrew D; Chondros, Thomas G

    2013-01-01

    The design and construction of rotating machinery operating at supercritical speeds was, in the 1920s, an event of revolutionary importance for the then new branch of dynamics known as rotor dynamics. In the 1960s, another revolution occurred: In less than a decade, imposed by operational and economic needs, an increase in the power of turbomachinery by one order of magnitude took place. Dynamic analysis of complex rotor forms became a necessity, while the importance of approximate methods for dynamic analysis was stressed. Finally, the emergence of fracture mechanics, as a new branch of applied mechanics, provided analytical tools to investigate crack influence on the dynamic behavior of rotors. The scope of this book is based on all these developments. No topics related to the well-known classical problems are included, rather the book deals exclusively with modern high-power turbomachinery.

  7. Identification of Flap Motion Parameters for Vibration Reduction in Helicopter Rotors with Multiple Active Trailing Edge Flaps

    OpenAIRE

    Dalli, Uğbreve;ur; Yüksel, Şcedilefaatdin

    2011-01-01

    An active control method utilizing the multiple trailing edge flap configuration for rotorcraft vibration suppression and blade loads control is presented. A comprehensive model for rotor blade with active trailing edge flaps is used to calculate the vibration characteristics, natural frequencies and mode shapes of any complex composite helicopter rotor blade. A computer program is developed to calculate the system response, rotor blade root forces and moments under aerodynamic forcing condit...

  8. Energy characteristics of Darrieus rotor ( review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelov, D. N.

    2010-09-01

    Presented below is the review of the results of experimental studies of energy characteristics of Darrieus rotor with vertical rotation axis. Influence of main geometry parameters of the rotor on its energy characteristics has been analyzed. It is shown that Darrieus rotor may have the higher level of energy characteristics than the best propeller wind turbines.

  9. Rotor apparatus for high strength undiffused brushless electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-01-24

    A radial gap brushless electric machine (30) having a stator (31) and a rotor (32) and a main air gap (34) also has at least one stationary excitation coil (35a, 36a) separated from the rotor (32) by a secondary air gap (35e, 35f, 36e, 36f) so as to induce a secondary flux in the rotor (32) which controls a resultant flux in the main air gap (34). Permanent magnetic (PM) material (38) is disposed in spaces between the rotor pole portions (39) to inhibit the second flux from leaking from the pole portions (39) prior to reaching the main air gap (34). By selecting the direction of current in the stationary excitation coil (35a, 36a) both flux enhancement and flux weakening are provided for the main air gap (34). Improvements of a laminated rotor, an end pole structure, and an arrangement of the PM elements for providing an arrangement of the flux paths from the auxiliary field coil assemblies are also disclosed.

  10. Quad-rotor flight path energy optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Edward

    Quad-Rotor unmanned areal vehicles (UAVs) have been a popular area of research and development in the last decade, especially with the advent of affordable microcontrollers like the MSP 430 and the Raspberry Pi. Path-Energy Optimization is an area that is well developed for linear systems. In this thesis, this idea of path-energy optimization is extended to the nonlinear model of the Quad-rotor UAV. The classical optimization technique is adapted to the nonlinear model that is derived for the problem at hand, coming up with a set of partial differential equations and boundary value conditions to solve these equations. Then, different techniques to implement energy optimization algorithms are tested using simulations in Python. First, a purely nonlinear approach is used. This method is shown to be computationally intensive, with no practical solution available in a reasonable amount of time. Second, heuristic techniques to minimize the energy of the flight path are tested, using Ziegler-Nichols' proportional integral derivative (PID) controller tuning technique. Finally, a brute force look-up table based PID controller is used. Simulation results of the heuristic method show that both reliable control of the system and path-energy optimization are achieved in a reasonable amount of time.

  11. Rotor for a brushless micromotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, P.-A.; Delamare, J.; Cugat, O.

    2002-04-01

    Synchronous planar micromotors are studied at LEG, with diameters ranging from φ 3 to φ 8 mm. They combine state-of-the-art collective means of fabrication with watch industry techniques. This paper describes the design, simulation, fabrication and magnetisation of disc-shaped SmCo rotors with several axial pairs of poles.

  12. 232Th, a rigid rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.; Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Y.; Varshney, A.K.; Gupta, D.K.

    2014-01-01

    We undertake the present work to treat 232 Th with a soft rotor formula used recently by C. Bihari et. al for γ-band and modified by J.B. Gupta et. al. It describes energy in terms of moment of inertia and softness parameter

  13. Dynamic Analysis of Composite Rotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Singh

    1996-01-01

    accounted for. Material damping is also taken into account. The layerwise theory is compared with conventionally used equivalent modulus beam theory. Some interesting case studies are presented. The effect of various parameters on dynamic behavior and stability of a composite rotor is presented.

  14. Estimation of Rotor Effective Wind Speed: A Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Mohsen; Knudsen, Torben; Svenstrup, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Modern wind turbine controllers use wind speed information to improve power production and reduce loads on the turbine components. The turbine top wind speed measurement is unfortunately imprecise and not a good representative of the rotor effective wind speed. Consequently, many different model...... aero-servo-elastic turbine simulations and real turbine field experiments in different wind scenarios....

  15. Hybrid Configuration of Darrieus and Savonius Rotors for Stand-alone Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakui, Tetsuya; Tanzawa, Yoshiaki; Hashizume, Takumi; Nagao, Toshio

    The suitable hybrid configuration of Darrieus lift-type and Savonius drag-type rotors for stand-alone wind turbine-generator systems is discussed using our dynamic simulation model. Two types of hybrid configurations are taken up: Type-A installs the Savonius rotor inside the Darrieus rotor and Type-B installs the Savonius rotor outside the Darrieus rotor. The computed results of the output characteristics and the dynamic behaviors of the system operated at the maximum power coefficient points show that Type-A, which has fine operating behavior to wind speed changes and can be compactly designed because of a shorter rotational shaft, is an effective way for self-controlled stand-alone small-scale systems.

  16. Improved Separation of Tone and Broadband Noise Components from Open Rotor Acoustic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Sree

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “open rotor” refers to unducted counter-rotating dual rotors or propellers used for propulsion. The noise generated by an open rotor is very complicated and requires special techniques for its analysis. The determination of its tone and broadband components is vital for properly assessing the noise control parameters and also for validating open rotor noise prediction codes. The data analysis technique developed by Sree for processing raw acoustic data of open rotors has been modified to yield much better results of tone and broadband separation particularly for the case when the two rotor speeds are approximately the same. The modified algorithm is found to eliminate most or all of the “spikes” previously observed in the broadband spectra computed from the original algorithm. A full description of the modified algorithm and examples of improved results from its application are presented in this paper.

  17. A prescribed wake rotor inflow and flow field prediction analysis, user's manual and technical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    A user's manual is provided which includes the technical approach for the Prescribed Wake Rotor Inflow and Flow Field Prediction Analysis. The analysis is used to provide the rotor wake induced velocities at the rotor blades for use in blade airloads and response analyses and to provide induced velocities at arbitrary field points such as at a tail surface. This analysis calculates the distribution of rotor wake induced velocities based on a prescribed wake model. Section operating conditions are prescribed from blade motion and controls determined by a separate blade response analysis. The analysis represents each blade by a segmented lifting line, and the rotor wake by discrete segmented trailing vortex filaments. Blade loading and circulation distributions are calculated based on blade element strip theory including the local induced velocity predicted by the numerical integration of the Biot-Savart Law applied to the vortex wake model.

  18. Quad-Rotor Helicopter Autonomous Navigation Based on Vanishing Point Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quad-rotor helicopter is becoming popular increasingly as they can well implement many flight missions in more challenging environments, with lower risk of damaging itself and its surroundings. They are employed in many applications, from military operations to civilian tasks. Quad-rotor helicopter autonomous navigation based on the vanishing point fast estimation (VPFE algorithm using clustering principle is implemented in this paper. For images collected by the camera of quad-rotor helicopter, the system executes the process of preprocessing of image, deleting noise interference, edge extracting using Canny operator, and extracting straight lines by randomized hough transformation (RHT method. Then system obtains the position of vanishing point and regards it as destination point and finally controls the autonomous navigation of the quad-rotor helicopter by continuous modification according to the calculated navigation error. The experimental results show that the quad-rotor helicopter can implement the destination navigation well in the indoor environment.

  19. Auxiliary bearing design and rotor dynamics analysis of blower fan for HTR-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Mingshan; Yang Guojun; Xu Yang; Zhao Lei; Yu Suyuan

    2005-01-01

    The electromagnetic bearing instead of ordinary mechanical bearing was chosen to support the rotor in the blower fan system with helium of 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled test reactor (HTR-10), and the auxiliary bearing was applied in the HTR-10 as the backup protector. When the electromagnetic bearing doesn't work suddenly for the power broken, the auxiliary bearing is used to support the falling rotor with high rotating speed. The rotor system will be protected by the auxiliary bearing. The design of auxiliary bearing is the ultimate safeguard for the system. This rotor is vertically mounted to hold the blower fan. The rotor's length is about 1.5 m, its weight is about 240 kg and the rotating speed is about 5400 r/min. Auxiliary bearing design and rotor dynamics analysis are very important for the design of blower fan to make success. The research status of the auxiliary bearing was summarized in the paper. A sort of auxiliary bearing scheme was proposed. MSC.Marc was selected to analyze the vibration mode and the natural frequency of the rotor. The scheme design of auxiliary bearing and analysis result of rotor dynamics offer the important theoretical base for the protector design and control system of electromagnetic bearing of the blower fan. (authors)

  20. Pitch link loads reduction of variable speed rotors by variable tuning frequency fluidlastic isolators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Dong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the pitch link loads of variable speed rotors, variable tuning frequency fluidlastic isolators are proposed. This isolator utilizes the variation of centrifugal force due to the change of rotor speed to change the tuning port area ratio, which can change the tuning frequency of the isolator. A rotor model including the model of fluidlastic isolator is coupled with a fuselage model to predict the steady responses of the rotor system in forward flight. The aeroelastic analyses indicate that distinct performance improvement in pitch link load control can be achieved by the utilization of variable frequency isolators compared with the constant tuning frequency isolators. The 4/rev (per revolution pitch link load is observed to be reduced by 87.6% compared with the increase of 56.3% by the constant frequency isolator, when the rotor speed is reduced by 16.7%. The isolation ability at different rotor speeds in different flight states is investigated. To achieve overall load reduction within the whole range of rotor speed, the strategy of the variation of tuning frequency is adjusted. The results indicate that the 4/rev pitch link load within the whole rotor speed range is decreased.

  1. A verification plan of rotor dynamics of turbo-machine system supported by AMB for the GTHTR300 (step 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, Takakazu; Takada, Shoji; Kosugiyama, Shinichi; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Xing, Yan

    2003-01-01

    A program for research and development on magnetic bearing suspended rotor dynamics was planned for the Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor (GTHTR300) plant. The magnetic bearing to suspend the turbo-machine rotor of GTHTR300 is unique because the required load capacity is much larger than that of existing one. The turbo-compressor and generator rotors, each of which is suspended by two radial bearings, pass over the first and the second critical speeds to bending mode, respectively. The rotor design fulfilled the standard limit of vibration amplitude of 75 μm at the rated rotational speed by optimising the stiffness of the magnetic bearings. A test apparatus was designed in the program. The test apparatus is composed of 1/3-scale two test rotors simulating turbo-compressor and generator rotors which are connected by a flexible coupling or a rigid coupling. Because the load capacity is almost in proportion to the projected area of the bearing, the load capacity of the magnetic bearing is almost 1/10 of the actual one. The test rotors were designed so that their critical speeds and vibration modes match the actual ones. The test will verify the rotor design and demonstrate the rotor vibration control technology of the magnetic bearing. This paper shows the outline of the test device and the test plan for the magnetic bearing suspended rotor system. The present study is entrusted from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. (author)

  2. Stability Investigations of Rotors Mounted on Hybrid Magnetorheological Dampers by the Evolutive Method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapoměl, Jaroslav; Kozánek, Jan; Ferfecki, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2014), s. 75-81 ISSN 1802-1484 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : rigid rotors * controllable damping * hybrid magnetorheological dampers * vibration stability Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  3. Wireless Monitoring of Induction Machine Rotor Physical Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Doolan Fernandes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With the widespread use of electric machines, there is a growing need to extract information from the machines to improve their control systems and maintenance management. The present work shows the development of an embedded system to perform the monitoring of the rotor physical variables of a squirrel cage induction motor. The system is comprised of: a circuit to acquire desirable rotor variable(s and value(s that send it to the computer; a rectifier and power storage circuit that converts an alternating current in a continuous current but also stores energy for a certain amount of time to wait for the motor’s shutdown; and a magnetic generator that harvests energy from the rotating field to power the circuits mentioned above. The embedded system is set on the rotor of a 5 HP squirrel cage induction motor, making it difficult to power the system because it is rotating. This problem can be solved with the construction of a magnetic generator device to avoid the need of using batteries or collector rings and will send data to the computer using a wireless NRF24L01 module. For the proposed system, initial validation tests were made using a temperature sensor (DS18b20, as this variable is known as the most important when identifying the need for maintenance and control systems. Few tests have shown promising results that, with further improvements, can prove the feasibility of using sensors in the rotor.

  4. Wireless Monitoring of Induction Machine Rotor Physical Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan Fernandes, Jefferson; Carvalho Souza, Francisco Elvis; Cipriano Maniçoba, Glauco George; Salazar, Andrés Ortiz; de Paiva, José Alvaro

    2017-11-18

    With the widespread use of electric machines, there is a growing need to extract information from the machines to improve their control systems and maintenance management. The present work shows the development of an embedded system to perform the monitoring of the rotor physical variables of a squirrel cage induction motor. The system is comprised of: a circuit to acquire desirable rotor variable(s) and value(s) that send it to the computer; a rectifier and power storage circuit that converts an alternating current in a continuous current but also stores energy for a certain amount of time to wait for the motor's shutdown; and a magnetic generator that harvests energy from the rotating field to power the circuits mentioned above. The embedded system is set on the rotor of a 5 HP squirrel cage induction motor, making it difficult to power the system because it is rotating. This problem can be solved with the construction of a magnetic generator device to avoid the need of using batteries or collector rings and will send data to the computer using a wireless NRF24L01 module. For the proposed system, initial validation tests were made using a temperature sensor (DS18b20), as this variable is known as the most important when identifying the need for maintenance and control systems. Few tests have shown promising results that, with further improvements, can prove the feasibility of using sensors in the rotor.

  5. Rotor calculations for neutron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobert, G.

    1968-01-01

    The determination of stress in a rotating disk plane of symmetry normal to the axis of rotation has been studied by a number of investigators. In a recent paper Reich gives an operating process for an analytical solution in an asymmetric rotating disk. In the report we give the calculation of finite difference stress solutions applicable to the two rotating disks. The equations are then programmed for the 360.75 computer by Fortran methods concerning the rotors of choppers. (author) [fr

  6. Rotor Embedded with Shape Memory Alloy Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gupta

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present analysis, the fundamental natural frequency of a Jeffcott and a two-mass rotor with fibre reinforced composite shaft embedded with shape memory alloy (SMA wires is evaluated by Rayleigh's procedure. The flexibility of rotor supports is taken into account. The effect of three factors, either singly or in combination with each other, on rotor critical speed is studied. The three factors are: (i increase in Young's modulus of SMA (NITINOL wires when activated, (ii tension in wires because of phase recovery stresses, and (iii variation of support stiffness by three times because of activation of SMA in rotor supports. It is shown by numerical examples that substantial variation in rotor critical speeds can be achieved by a combination of these factors which can be effectively used to avoid resonance during rotor coast up/down.

  7. Active vibration reduction of rigid rotor by kinematic excitation of bushes of journal bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ondrouch

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of active lateral vibration reduction of a symmetric, rigid rotor supported by journal bearings are given. They were obtained by computational modelling. Efficiency of the feedback P and PD controllers in the stable revolution interval was examined. The linearized rotor system model was used. The results of the theoretical analysis are assigned for a testing stand where the bearing bush motions are deactivated by piezoelectric actuators connected to the controllers.

  8. Optimization of wind turbine rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygaard, Tor Anders

    1999-07-01

    The Constrained Steepest Descent method has been applied to the optimization of wind turbine rotors through the development of a numerical model. The model consists of an optimization kernel, an aerodynamic model, a structural dynamic model of a rotating beam, and a cost model for the wind turbine. The cost of energy is minimized directly by varying the blade design, the rotational speed and the resulting design of the drive-train and tower. The aerodynamic model is a combination of a fast engineering model based on strip-theory and two and three-dimensional Euler solvers. The two-dimensional Euler solver is used for generation of pre-stall airfoil data. Comparisons with experimental data verify that the engineering model effectively approximates non-stalled flow, except at the blade tip. The three-dimensional Euler solver is in good agreement with the experimental data at the tip, and is therefore a useful supplement for corrections of the tip-loss model, and evaluation of an optimized design. The structural dynamic model evaluates stresses and deformations for the blade. It is based on constitutive relations for a slender beam that are solved with the equations of motions using a finite-difference method. The cost model evaluates the design change of the wind turbine and the resulting costs that occur when a change in blade design modifies the blade mass and the overall forces. The cost model is based on engineering design rules for the drive-train and tower. The model was applied using a Danish 600 kW wind turbine as a reference. Two rotors were optimized using traditional NACA airfoils and a new low-lift airfoil family developed specifically for wind turbine purposes. The cost of energy decreased four percent for the NACA rotor, and seven percent for the low-lift rotor. Optimizations with a high number of degrees of freedom show that a designer has considerable flexibility in choosing some primary parameters such as rated power and rotor diameter, if the rest

  9. Experimental investigation of main rotor wake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanov Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, experimental results of rotor wake in hover mode are presented. The experiments were carried out with a rotor rig model in the T-1K wind tunnel in Kazan National Research Technical University (Kazan Aviation Institute. The rotor consisted of four identical blades. The Q-criterion was used to identify tip vortices for a 2D case. The results were then compared with two different wake models.

  10. Strong, Ductile Rotor For Cryogenic Flowmeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royals, W. T.

    1993-01-01

    Improved magnetic flowmeter rotor resists cracking at cryogenic temperatures, yet provides adequate signal to magnetic pickup outside flowmeter housing. Consists mostly of stainless-steel alloy 347, which is ductile and strong at low temperatures. Small bead of stainless-steel alloy 410 welded in groove around circumference of round bar of stainless-steel alloy 347; then rotor machined from bar. Tips of rotor blades contain small amounts of magnetic alloy, and passage of tips detected.

  11. Rotor speed estimation for indirect stator flux oriented induction motor drive based on MRAS scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Agrebi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a conventional indirect stator flux oriented controlled (ISFOC induction motor drive is presented. In order to eliminate the speed sensor, an adaptation algorithm for tuning the rotor speed is proposed. Based on the model reference adaptive system (MRAS scheme, the rotor speed is tuned to obtain an exact ISFOC induction motor drive. The reference and adjustable models, developed in stationary stator reference frame, are used in the MRAS scheme to estimate induction rotor peed from measured terminal voltages and currents. The IP gains speed controller and PI gains current controller are calculated and tuned at each sampling time according to the new estimated rotor speed. The proposed algorithm has been tested by numerical simulation, showing the capability of driving active load; and stability is preserved. Experimental results obtained with a general-purpose 1-kW induction machine are presented showing the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of dynamic performance.

  12. A practical approach to flexible rotor balancing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.I.; Chohan, G.Y.; Khan, M.Z.

    2001-01-01

    There are various conventional methods for flexible rotor balancing. These :methods have been applied successfully for balancing cylindrical rotors since long. One of these mostly used is modal balancing. Besides its usefulness, difficulties are encountered when sufficient number of balancing planes are not available under certain conditions where a rotor is enclosed at its both ends by discs. In this work, a practical technique of counter balancing has been introduced. This technique has proved its importance in balancing the rotors. We would discuss efficiency of this technique over the conventional modal balancing. (author)

  13. Variable Speed Rotor System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Variable speed rotors will give helicopters several advantages: higher top speed, greater fuel efficiency, momentary emergency over-power, resonance detuning...

  14. Thermal state of a turbofan rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bileka, B D; Diachenko, A M; Orinichev, I S

    1988-01-01

    Results of an experimental study of the thermal state of a combined turbofan rotor consisting of a peripheral turbine stage and a central fan stage are reported. In particular, attention is given to the effect of gas temperature, air flow rate, and rotation speed on temperature distributions at characteristic points of the rotor. The relative dimensionless temperatures of the turbofan rotor are shown to be constant under all the regimes investigated. An approximate method is proposed for calculating the temperature of the rotor elements, and the results of calculations are compared with experimental data.

  15. Energy from Swastika-Shaped Rotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCulloch M. E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested here that a swastika-shaped rotor exposed to waves will rotate in the di- rection its arms are pointing (towards the arm-tips due to a sheltering effect. A formula is derived to predict the motion obtainable from swastika rotors of different sizes given the ocean wave height and phase speed and it is suggested that the rotor could provide a new, simpler method of wave energy generation. It is also proposed that the swastika rotor could generate energy on a smaller scale from sound waves and Brownian motion, and potentially the zero point field.

  16. Aeroelastic characteristics of composite bearingless rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielawa, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Owing to the inherent unique structural features of composite bearingless rotors, various assumptions upon which conventional rotor aeroelastic analyses are formulated, are violated. Three such features identified are highly nonlinear and time-varying structural twist, structural redundancy in bending and torsion, and for certain configurations a strongly coupled low frequency bending-torsion mode. An examination of these aeroelastic considerations and appropriate formulations required for accurate analyses of such rotor systems is presented. Also presented are test results from a dynamically scaled model rotor and complementary analytic results obtained with the appropriately reformulated aeroelastic analysis.

  17. A High-Pressure Bi-Directional Cycloid Rotor Flowmeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of the flow rate of various liquids and gases is critical in industrial automation. Rotary positive displacement meters (rotary PD meters are highly accurate flowmeters that are widely employed in engineering applications, especially in custody transfer operations and hydraulic control systems. This paper presents a high pressure rotary PD meter containing a pair of internal cycloid rotors. It has the advantages of concise structure, low pressure loss, high accuracy and low noise. The curve of the internal rotor is designed as an equidistant curtate epicycloid curve with the external rotor curve as its conjugate. The calculation method used to determine the displacement of the cycloid rotor flowmeter is discussed. A prototype was fabricated, and experiments were performed to confirm measurements over a flow range of 1–100 L/min with relative errors of less than ±0.5%. The pressure loss through the flowmeter was about 3 bar at a flow rate of 100 L/min.

  18. Helicopter Rotor Blade Monitoring using Autonomous Wireless Sensor Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Ramirez, Andrea; Loendersloot, Richard; Tinga, Tiedo; Basu, B.

    2013-01-01

    The advancement on Wireless Sensor Networks for vibration monitoring presents important possibilities for helicopter rotor health and usage monitoring. While main rotor blades account for the main source of lift for helicopters, rotor induced vibration establishes an important source for

  19. Balancing High-Speed Rotors at Low Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1986-01-01

    Flexible balancing reduces vibrations at operating speeds. Highspeed rotors in turbomachines dynamically balanced at fraction of operating rotor speed. New method takes into account rotor flexible rather than rigid.

  20. Multiple piece turbine rotor blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A

    2013-05-21

    A multiple piece turbine rotor blade with a shell having an airfoil shape and secured between a spar and a platform with the spar including a tip end piece. a snap ring fits around the spar and abuts against the spar tip end piece on a top side and abuts against a shell on the bottom side so that the centrifugal loads from the shell is passed through the snap ring and into the spar and not through a tip cap dovetail slot and projection structure.

  1. High-Temperature Hybrid Rotor Support System Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Gerald T.

    2004-01-01

    The Army Research Laboratory Vehicle Technology Directorate and the NASA Glenn Research Center demonstrated a unique high-speed, high-temperature rotor support system in September 2003. Advanced turbomachinery is on its way to surpassing the capabilities of rolling-element bearings and conventional dampers. To meet these demands, gas turbine engines of the future will demand increased efficiency and thrust-to-weight ratio, and reduced specific fuel consumption and noise. The more-electric engine replaces oil-lubricated bearings, dampers, gears, and seals with electrical devices. One such device is the magnetic bearing. The Vehicle Technology Directorate and Glenn have demonstrated the operation of a radial magnetic bearing in combination with a hydrostatic bearing at 1000 F at 31,000 rpm (2.3 MDN1). This unique combination takes advantage of a high-temperature rub surface in the event of electrical power loss or sudden overloads. The hydrostatic bearings allow load sharing with the magnetic bearing. The magnetic-hydrostatic bearing combination eliminates wear and high contact stress from sudden acceleration of the rolling-element bearings and overheating. The magnetic bearing enables high damping, adaptive vibration control, and precise rotor positioning, diagnostics, and health monitoring. A model of the test facility used at Glenn for this technology demonstration is shown. A high-temperature heteropolar radial magnetic bearing is located at the center of gravity of the test rotor. There is a 0.022-in. radial air gap between the rotor and stator. Two rub surface hydrostatic bearings were placed on either side of the magnetic bearing. The rotor is supported by a 0.002-in. hydrostatic air film and the magnetic field. The prototype active magnetic bearing cost $24,000 to design and fabricate and a set of four high temperature, rub-surface, hydrostatic bearings cost $28,000. This work was funded by the Turbine-Based Combined Cycle program.

  2. Innovative multi rotor wind turbine designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, S.A.; Sapali, S.N. [College of Engineering. Mechanical Engineering Dept, Pune (India)

    2012-07-01

    Among the renewable energy sources, today wind energy is the most recognized and cost effective. Developers and researchers in this sector are optimistic and continuously working innovatively to improve the technology. The wind power obtained is proportional to the swept area of wind turbine. The swept area is increased by using a single rotor of large diameter or multi rotors in array. The rotor size is growing continuously with mature technology. Multi rotor technology has a long history and the multi rotor concept persists in a variety of modern innovative systems but the concept has fallen out of consideration in mainstream design from the perception that is complex and unnecessary as very large single rotor units are now technically feasible. This work addresses the evaluation of different multi rotor wind turbine systems. These innovative wind turbines are evaluated on the basis of feasibility, technological advantages, security of expected power performance, cost, reliability, impact of innovative system, comparison with existing wind turbine design. The findings of this work will provide guidelines for the practical and economical ways for further research on the multi rotor wind turbines. (Author)

  3. impedance calculations of induction machine rotor conductors.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    computed. The parallel R-L network shown in figure 3 is used in the modeling of the rotor bars. The network total impedance is given by,. (19). Where,. 5. simulation Results. MATLAB m-file for the calculation of the total impedance of the rectangular and trapezoidal rotor bars is developed [10]. The parameters of the bars.

  4. Composite hub/metal blade compressor rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, S.

    1978-01-01

    A low cost compressor rotor was designed and fabricated for a small jet engine. The rotor hub and blade keepers were compression molded with graphite epoxy. Each pair of metallic blades was held in the hub by a keeper. All keepers were locked in the hub with circumferential windings. Feasibility of fabrication was demonstrated in this program.

  5. Flapping inertia for selected rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, John D.; May, Matthew J.

    1991-01-01

    Aerodynamics of helicopter rotor systems cannot be investigated without consideration for the dynamics of the rotor. One of the principal properties of the rotor which affects the rotor dynamics is the inertia of the rotor blade about its root attachment. Previous aerodynamic investigation have been performed on rotor blades with a variety of planforms to determine the performance differences due to blade planform. The blades tested for this investigation have been tested on the U.S. Army 2 meter rotor test system (2MRTS) in the NASA Langley 14 by 22 foot subsonic tunnel for hover performance. This investigation was intended to provide fundamental information on the flapping inertia of five rotor blades with differing planforms. The inertia of the bare cuff and the cuff with a blade extension were also measured for comparison with the inertia of the blades. Inertia was determined using a swing testing technique, using the period of oscillation to determine the effective flapping inertia. The effect of damping in the swing test was measured and described. A comparison of the flapping inertials for rectangular and tapered planform blades of approximately the same mass showed the tapered blades to have a lower inertia, as expected.

  6. Design of helicopter rotor blades with actuators made of a piezomacrofiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhikh, S.; Barkanov, E.; Kovalev, A.; Masarati, P.; Morandini, M.; Riemenschneider, J.; Wierach, P.

    2008-01-01

    For reducing the vibration and noise of helicopter rotor blades, the method of their controlled twisting by using built-in deformation actuators is employed. In this paper, the influence of various design parameters of the blades, including the location of actuators made of a piezomacrofiber material, on the twist angle is evaluated. The results of a parametric analysis performed allowed us to refine the statement of an optimization problem for the rotor blades.

  7. Substantially parallel flux uncluttered rotor machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S.

    2012-12-11

    A permanent magnet-less and brushless synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic rotating field when sourced by polyphase alternating currents. An uncluttered rotor is positioned within the magnetic rotating field and is spaced apart from the stator. An excitation core is spaced apart from the stator and the uncluttered rotor and magnetically couples the uncluttered rotor. The brushless excitation source generates a magnet torque by inducing magnetic poles near an outer peripheral surface of the uncluttered rotor, and the stator currents also generate a reluctance torque by a reaction of the difference between the direct and quadrature magnetic paths of the uncluttered rotor. The system can be used either as a motor or a generator

  8. Computational Analysis of Multi-Rotor Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seokkwan; Lee, Henry C.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    Interactional aerodynamics of multi-rotor flows has been studied for a quadcopter representing a generic quad tilt-rotor aircraft in hover. The objective of the present study is to investigate the effects of the separation distances between rotors, and also fuselage and wings on the performance and efficiency of multirotor systems. Three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a spatially 5th order accurate scheme, dual-time stepping, and the Detached Eddy Simulation turbulence model. The results show that the separation distances as well as the wings have significant effects on the vertical forces of quadroror systems in hover. Understanding interactions in multi-rotor flows would help improve the design of next generation multi-rotor drones.

  9. Open Rotor - Analysis of Diagnostic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Envia, Edmane

    2011-01-01

    NASA is researching open rotor propulsion as part of its technology research and development plan for addressing the subsonic transport aircraft noise, emission and fuel burn goals. The low-speed wind tunnel test for investigating the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a benchmark blade set at the approach and takeoff conditions has recently concluded. A high-speed wind tunnel diagnostic test campaign has begun to investigate the performance of this benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Databases from both speed regimes will comprise a comprehensive collection of benchmark open rotor data for use in assessing/validating aerodynamic and noise prediction tools (component & system level) as well as providing insights into the physics of open rotors to help guide the development of quieter open rotors.

  10. Optimal Aerodynamic Design of Conventional and Coaxial Helicopter Rotors in Hover and Forward Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanetti, Eli B.

    This dissertation investigates the optimal aerodynamic performance and design of conventional and coaxial helicopters in hover and forward flight using conventional and higher harmonic blade pitch control. First, we describe a method for determining the blade geometry, azimuthal blade pitch inputs, optimal shaft angle (rotor angle of attack), and division of propulsive and lifting forces among the components that minimize the total power for a given forward flight condition. The optimal design problem is cast as a variational statement that is discretized using a vortex lattice wake to model inviscid forces, combined with two-dimensional drag polars to model profile losses. The resulting nonlinear constrained optimization problem is solved via Newton iteration. We investigate the optimal design of a compound vehicle in forward flight comprised of a coaxial rotor system, a propeller, and optionally, a fixed wing. We show that higher harmonic control substantially reduces required power, and that both rotor and propeller efficiencies play an important role in determining the optimal shaft angle, which in turn affects the optimal design of each component. Second, we present a variational approach for determining the optimal (minimum power) torque-balanced coaxial hovering rotor using Blade Element Momentum Theory including swirl. We show that the optimal hovering coaxial rotor generates only a small percentage of its total thrust on the portion of the lower rotor operating in the upper rotor's contracted wake, resulting in an optimal design with very different upper and lower rotor twist and chord distributions. We also show that the swirl component of induced velocity has a relatively small effect on rotor performance at the disk loadings typical of helicopter rotors. Third, we describe a more refined model of the wake of a hovering conventional or coaxial rotor. We approximate the rotor or coaxial rotors as actuator disks (though not necessarily uniformly loaded

  11. Rotors stress analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Vullo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Stress and strain analysis of rotors subjected to surface and body loads, as well as to thermal loads deriving from temperature variation along the radius, constitutes a classic subject of machine design. Nevertheless attention is limited to rotor profiles for which governing equations are solvable in closed form. Furthermore very few actual engineering issues may relate to structures for which stress and strain analysis in the linear elastic field and, even more, under non-linear conditions (i.e. plastic or viscoelastic conditions) produces equations to be solved in closed form. Moreover, when a product is still in its design stage, an analytical formulation with closed-form solution is of course simpler and more versatile than numerical methods, and it allows to quickly define a general configuration, which may then be fine-tuned using such numerical methods. In this view, all subjects are based on analytical-methodological approach, and some new solutions in closed form are presented. The analytical formul...

  12. Estimation of long-term drag performance of fouling control coatings using an ocean-placed raft with multiple dynamic rotors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholdt, Asger; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Yebra, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental setup was designed and built to estimate changes in the skin friction of fouling control coatings (FCC) over an extended period of time in conditions simulating the vast majority of ship profiles (regarding speed and activity) in the present market. The setup consisted of two sepa...... within the range of experimental uncertainty. The average surface roughness of the FCCs in the newly applied and mechanically cleaned condition, determined as the Rt(50) and R z parameters, was evaluated as poor predictors of skin friction....

  13. Topping turbine (103-JAT) rotor instability in 1150-STPD Kellogg ammonia plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R.

    1985-01-01

    In two of Agrico's three plants, instabilities in the rotor/bearing system have been an ongoing problem. On occasion plant rates, i.e., machine speed, have been restricted in order to limit the exhaust and shaft relative vibration on the 103-JAT to a maximum value of 89 micrometer (0.0035) peak to peak. The purpose is to acquaint one with Agrico's experiences with exhaust end vibration and rotor instabilities on the 103-JAT topping turbine. The final conclusions arrived at were based on: (1) field acquired data both during steady state and transient conditions; (2) computer modeling of the rotor/bearing system; and (3) vibration data taken from a control rotor during a series of test runs in a high speed balancing machine from 0 to 110% of operating speed.

  14. A novel method for estimating the initial rotor position of PM motors without the position sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostami, Alireza; Asaei, Behzad

    2009-01-01

    Permanent magnet (PM) motors have been used widely in the industrial applications. However, a need of the position sensor is a drawback of their control system. The sensorless methods using the back-EMF (electromotive force) cannot detect the rotor position at a standstill; recently, a few methods proposed to detect the initial rotor position, but they have high estimation error which reduces starting torque of the motor. Therefore, in this paper, a novel method to detect the initial rotor position of the PM motors is proposed, first, by using a space vector model, response of the stator current space vector to the saturation of the stator core is analyzed; then a novel method based on the saturation effect is presented that estimates the initial rotor position and the maximum estimation error is less than 3.8 deg. Simulation results confirm this method is effective and precise, and variation of the motor parameters does not affect its precision.

  15. A novel method for estimating the initial rotor position of PM motors without the position sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostami, Alireza; Asaei, Behzad [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran)

    2009-08-15

    Permanent magnet (PM) motors have been used widely in the industrial applications. However, a need of the position sensor is a drawback of their control system. The sensorless methods using the back-EMF (electromotive force) cannot detect the rotor position at a standstill; recently, a few methods proposed to detect the initial rotor position, but they have high estimation error which reduces starting torque of the motor. Therefore, in this paper, a novel method to detect the initial rotor position of the PM motors is proposed, first, by using a space vector model, response of the stator current space vector to the saturation of the stator core is analyzed; then a novel method based on the saturation effect is presented that estimates the initial rotor position and the maximum estimation error is less than 3.8. Simulation results confirm this method is effective and precise, and variation of the motor parameters does not affect its precision. (author)

  16. Reference Model 2: "Rev 0" Rotor Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barone, Matthew F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Berg, Jonathan Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffith, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The preliminary design for a three-bladed cross-flow rotor for a reference marine hydrokinetic turbine is presented. A rotor performance design code is described, along with modifications to the code to allow prediction of blade support strut drag as well as interference between two counter-rotating rotors. The rotor is designed to operate in a reference site corresponding to a riverine environment. Basic rotor performance and rigid-body loads calculations are performed to size the rotor elements and select the operating speed range. The preliminary design is verified with a simple finite element model that provides estimates of bending stresses during operation. A concept for joining the blades and support struts is developed and analyzed with a separate finite element analysis. Rotor mass, production costs, and annual energy capture are estimated in order to allow calculations of system cost-of-energy. Evaluation Only. Created with Aspose.Pdf.Kit. Copyright 2002-2011 Aspose Pty Ltd Evaluation Only. Created with Aspose.Pdf.Kit. Copyright 2002-2011 Aspose Pty Ltd

  17. Rotor scale model tests for power conversion unit of GT-MHR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxi, C.B.; Daugherty, R.; Shenoy, A. [General Atomics, 3550 General Atomics Court, CA (United States); Kodochigov, N.G.; Belov, S.E. [Experimental Design Bureau of Machine Building, N. Novgorad, RF (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The gas-turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) combines a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor with a closed Brayton gas-turbine cycle power conversion unit (PCU) for thermal to electric energy conversion. The PCU has a vertical orientation and is supported on electromagnetic bearings (EMB). The Rotor Scale Model (RSM) Tests are intended to model directly the control of EMB and rotor-dynamic characteristics of the full-scale GT-MHR Turbo-machine. The objectives of the RSM tests are to: -1) confirm the EMB control system design for the GT-MHR turbo-machine over the full-range of operation, -2) confirm the redundancy and on-line maintainability features that have been specified for the EMBs, -3) provide a benchmark for validation of analytical tools that will be used for independent analyses of the EMB subsystem design, -4) provide experience with the installation, operation and maintenance of EMBs supporting multiple rotors with flexible couplings. As with the full-scale turbo-machine, the RSM will incorporate two rotors that are joined by a flexible coupling. Each of the rotors will be supported on one axial and two radial EMBs. Additional devices, similar in concept to radial EMBs, will be installed to simulate magnetic and/or mechanical forces representing those that would be seen by the exciter, generator, compressors and turbine. Overall, the length of the RSM rotor is about 1/3 that of the full-scale turbo-machine, while the diameter is approximately 1/5 scale. The design and sizing of the rotor is such that the number of critical speeds in the RSM are the same as in the full-scale turbo-machine. The EMBs will also be designed such that their response to rotor-dynamic forces is representative of the full-scale turbo-machine. (authors)

  18. 14 CFR 27.547 - Main rotor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main rotor structure. 27.547 Section 27.547... structure. (a) Each main rotor assembly (including rotor hubs and blades) must be designed as prescribed in this section. (b) [Reserved] (c) The main rotor structure must be designed to withstand the following...

  19. Internal Friction And Instabilities Of Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes study of effects of internal friction on dynamics of rotors prompted by concern over instabilities in rotors of turbomachines. Theoretical and experimental studies described. Theoretical involved development of nonlinear mathematical models of internal friction in three joints found in turbomachinery - axial splines, Curvic(TM) splines, and interference fits between smooth cylindrical surfaces. Experimental included traction tests to determine the coefficients of friction of rotor alloys at various temperatures, bending-mode-vibration tests of shafts equipped with various joints and rotordynamic tests of shafts with axial-spline and interference-fit joints.

  20. Turbine rotors inspection problems associated with independent inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, J.O.; Martinez, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    As is well know, the serious problems affecting turbine-generator set rotors and moving parts, such as stress-corrosion cracking and/or the phenomena of creep/fatigue, have led the companies possessing these components to make considerable investments in terms of economy and human resources with a view to finding means for control and solutions. The fact that certain countries, such as Spain, have a limited number of fossil-fuelled and/or nuclear plants, with different suppliers and designs, means that the control and solving of such problems necessarily imply significant technological dependence and, consequently, that the resources used imply high associated costs that is most cases have to be paid in overseas currencies. This fact led several Spanish plant owners to propose that Tecnatom carry out an R ampersand D project aimed at developing and integral turbine rotor inspection and evaluation system designed to reduce technological dependence in this area through the application of in-house technology. This project identified as PC-850059 has been subsidized by the Spanish authorities through The Interministerial Commission of Science ampersand Technology. This article describes the developments achieved and the difficulties inherent to independent turbine rotor inspection and evaluation

  1. A Static Burst Test for Composite Flywheel Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Stefan; Schulz, Alexander; Sima, Harald; Koch, Thomas; Kaltenbacher, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    High efficient and safe flywheels are an interesting technology for decentralized energy storage. To ensure all safety aspects, a static test method for a controlled initiation of a burst event for composite flywheel rotors is presented with nearly the same stress distribution as in the dynamic case, rotating with maximum speed. In addition to failure prediction using different maximum stress criteria and a safety factor, a set of tensile and compressive tests is carried out to identify the parameters of the used carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) material. The static finite element (FE) simulation results of the flywheel static burst test (FSBT) compare well to the quasistatic FE-simulation results of the flywheel rotor using inertia loads. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the presented method is a very good controllable and observable possibility to test a high speed flywheel energy storage system (FESS) rotor in a static way. Thereby, a much more expensive and dangerous dynamic spin up test with possible uncertainties can be substituted.

  2. Outdoor altitude stabilization of QuadRotor based on type-2 fuzzy and fuzzy PID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicaksono, H.; Yusuf, Y. G.; Kristanto, C.; Haryanto, L.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a design of altitude stabilization of QuadRotor based on type-2 fuzzy and fuzzy PID. This practical design is implemented outdoor. Barometric and sonar sensor were used in this experiment as an input for the controller YoHe. The throttle signal as a control input was provided by the controller to leveling QuadRotor in particular altitude and known well as altitude stabilization. The parameter of type-2 fuzzy and fuzzy PID was tuned in several heights to get the best control parameter for any height. Type-2 fuzzy produced better result than fuzzy PID but had a slow response in the beginning.

  3. Magnetostatic analysis of a rotor system supported by radial active magnetic bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferfecki P.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The development and the design of a radial active magnetic bearing (AMB reflects a complex process of the multidisciplinary rotor dynamics, electromagnetism and automatic control analysis. Modelling is performed by application of the physical laws from different areas, e.g. Newton's laws of motion and Maxwell's equations. The new approach in the numerical modelling of radial AMB and design methodology allowing automatic generation of primary dimensions of the radial AMB is proposed. Instead of the common way of computation of electromagnetic forces by linearizing at the centre position of the rotor with respect to rotor displacement and coil current, the finite element computation of electromagnetic forces is used. The heteropolar radial AMB consisting of eight pole shoes was designed by means of the built up algorithms for rotor system with two discs fixed on the cantilever shaft. A study of the influence of the nonlinear magnetization characteristics of a rotor and stator material on the equilibrium position of a rotor system is carried out. The performed numerical study shows that results obtained from the analytical nonlinear relation for electromagnetic forces can be considerably different from forces computed with magnetostatic finite element analysis.

  4. The effect of blade pitch in the rotor hydrodynamics of a cross-flow turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoano, Miguel; Huera-Huarte, Francisco

    2016-11-01

    In this work we will show how the hydrodynamics of the rotor of a straight-bladed Cross-Flow Turbine (CFT) are affected by the Tip Speed Ratio (TSR), and the blade pitch angle imposed to the rotor. The CFT model used in experiments consists of a three-bladed (NACA-0015) vertical axis turbine with a chord (c) to rotor diameter (D) ratio of 0.16. Planar Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) was used, with the laser sheet aiming at the mid-span of the blades, illuminating the inner part of the rotor and the near wake of the turbine. Tests were made by forcing the rotation of the turbine with a DC motor, which provided precise control of the TSR, while being towed in a still-water tank at a constant Reynolds number of 61000. A range of TSRs from 0.7 to 2.3 were covered for different blade pitches, ranging from 8° toe-in to 16° toe-out. The interaction between the blades in the rotor will be discussed by examining dimensionless phase-averaged vorticity fields in the inner part of the rotor and mean velocity fields in the near wake of the turbine. Supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, Grant BES-2013-065366 and project DPI2015-71645-P.

  5. Lieb's correlation inequality for plane rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivasseau, V.

    1980-01-01

    We prove a conjecture by E. Lieb, which leads to the Lieb inequality for plane rotors. As in the Ising model case, this inequality implies the existence of an algorithm to compute the transition temperature of this model. (orig.)

  6. Thermomechanical Behavior of Rotor with Rubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy T. Sawicki

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analytical study of the dynamics and stability of rotors subjected to rubbing due to contact with seals, taking account of associated thermal effects. The seal interaction force acting on the shaft gives rise to a friction force, which is a source of heating and can induce so-called spiral vibrations. A mathematical model that has been developed couples the heat-conduction equation with the equations for motion of the rotor. Numerical simulations have been conducted that show the thermomechanical behavior of the rotor at various operating conditions. A procedure for analyzing the stability of multibearing rotors based on the system eigenvalue analysis and the state-space approach has been proposed. Finally, the experimental data related to full annular rub have been presented.

  7. Open rotor noise impact on airport communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The highly tonal noise spectra produced by Open Rotor (OR) engines differ greatly from the relatively : smooth, atonal noise spectra produced by typical Turbofan (TF) engines. Understanding the effects of : these spectral differences on received nois...

  8. Interlayer toughening of fiber composite flywheel rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Scott E.; Deteresa, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    An interlayer toughening mechanism to mitigate the growth of damage in fiber composite flywheel rotors for long application. The interlayer toughening mechanism may comprise one or more tough layers composed of high-elongation fibers, high-strength fibers arranged in a woven pattern at a range from 0.degree. to 90.degree. to the rotor axis and bound by a ductile matrix material which adheres to and is compatible with the materials used for the bulk of the rotor. The number and spacing of the tough interlayers is a function of the design requirements and expected lifetime of the rotor. The mechanism has particular application in uninterruptable power supplies, electrical power grid reservoirs, and compulsators for electric guns, as well as electromechanical batteries for vehicles.

  9. Valve-aided twisted Savonius rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Rajkumar, M.; Saha, U.K.

    2006-05-15

    Accessories, such as end plates, deflecting plates, shielding and guide vanes, may increase the power of a Savonius rotor, but make the system structurally complex. In such cases, the rotor can develop a relatively large torque at small rotational speeds and is cheap to build, however it harnesses only a small fraction of the incident wind energy. Another proposition for increasing specific output is to place non-return valves inside the concave side of the blades. Such methods have been studied experimentally with a twisted-blade Thus improving a Savonius rotor's energy capture. This new concept has been named as the 'Valve-Aided Twisted Savonius'rotor. Tests were conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel to evaluate performance. This mechanism is found to be independent of flow direction, and shows potential for large machines. [Author].

  10. Recent quality of ultra large rotor shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Akira; Kinoshita, Shushi; Morita, Kikuo; Kikuchi, Hideo; Takada, Masayoshi

    1983-01-01

    Large size and high quality are required for rotor shafts accompanying recent trend of thermal and nuclear power generation toward large capacity. As for the low pressure rotor shafts for large capacity turbines, the disks and a shaft tend to be made into one body instead of conventional shrink fit construction, because of the experience of rotor accidents and the improvement of reliability. Therefore the ingots required become more and more large, and excellent production techniques are required for steel making, forging and heat treatment. Kobe Steel Ltd. have made about 20 large generator shafts from 420 t and 500 t ingots, and confirmed their stable high quality. Also a one-body low pressure rotor of 2600 mm diameter was made for trial, and its quality was examined. It was confirmed that the effect of forging and heat treatment was given sufficiently, and the production techniques for super-large one-body rotors were established. In steel making, vacuum degassing was applied twice to decrease hydrogen content, and VV restriction forging and pre-stage treatment were carried out. The properties of large rotors are reported. (Kako, I.)

  11. Dynamic Gust Load Analysis for Rotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Dai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic load of helicopter rotors due to gust directly affects the structural stress and flight performance for helicopters. Based on a large deflection beam theory, an aeroelastic model for isolated helicopter rotors in the time domain is constructed. The dynamic response and structural load for a rotor under the impulse gust and slope-shape gust are calculated, respectively. First, a nonlinear Euler beam model with 36 degrees-of-freedoms per element is applied to depict the structural dynamics for an isolated rotor. The generalized dynamic wake model and Leishman-Beddoes dynamic stall model are applied to calculate the nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic forces on rotors. Then, we transformed the differential aeroelastic governing equation to an algebraic one. Hence, the widely used Newton-Raphson iteration algorithm is employed to simulate the dynamic gust load. An isolated helicopter rotor with four blades is studied to validate the structural model and the aeroelastic model. The modal frequencies based on the Euler beam model agree well with published ones by CAMRAD. The flap deflection due to impulse gust with the speed of 2m/s increases twice to the one without gust. In this numerical example, results indicate that the bending moment at the blade root is alleviated due to elastic effect.

  12. Aerodynamic Simulation of the MEXICO Rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herraez, I; Medjroubi, W; Peinke, J; Stoevesandt, B

    2014-01-01

    CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations are a very promising method for predicting the aerodynamic behavior of wind turbines in an inexpensive and accurate way. One of the major drawbacks of this method is the lack of validated models. As a consequence, the reliability of numerical results is often difficult to assess. The MEXICO project aimed at solving this problem by providing the project partners with high quality measurements of a 4.5 meters rotor diameter wind turbine operating under controlled conditions. The large measurement data-set allows the validation of all kind of aerodynamic models. This work summarizes our efforts for validating a CFD model based on the open source software OpenFoam. Both steady- state and time-accurate simulations have been performed with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model for several operating conditions. In this paper we will concentrate on axisymmetric inflow for 3 different wind speeds. The numerical results are compared with pressure distributions from several blade sections and PIV-flow data from the near wake region. In general, a reasonable agreement between measurements the and our simulations exists. Some discrepancies, which require further research, are also discussed

  13. On Stability of Open-Loop Operation without Rotor Information for Brushless DC Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Open-loop operation mode is often used to control the Brushless DC Motors (BLDCMs without rotor position sensors when the back electromotive force (EMF is too weak due to the very low rotor velocity. The rotor position information is not necessary in this mode and the stator windings are supplied with voltages under a certain ratio of the amplitude to the frequency. However, the rotor synchronization will be destroyed once if the commutation instant is inappropriate. In order to improve the reliability of the open-loop operation mode, a dynamic equation is established to represent the synchronization error between the rotor and the stator. Thereafter, the stability of the open-loop control mode is analyzed by using Lyapunov indirect method. Theoretical analysis indicates that the open-loop control mode is asymptotically stable only when the commutation instant of the stator current lags behind the ideal one suitably. Finally, theoretical analysis is verified through the experimental results of a certain BLDCM.

  14. THE DESIGN OF AXIAL PUMP ROTORS USING THE NUMERICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali BEAZIT

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The researches in rotor theory, the increasing use of computers and the connection between design and manufacturing of rotors, have determined the revaluation and completion of classical rotor geometry. This paper presents practical applications of mathematical description of rotor geometry. A program has been created to describe the rotor geometry for arbitrary shape of the blade. The results can be imported by GAMBIT - a processor for geometry with modeling and mesh generations, to create a mesh needed in hydrodynamics analysis of rotor CFD. The results obtained are applicable in numerical methods and are functionally convenient for CAD/CAM systems.

  15. Overview of the Novel Intelligent JAXA Active Rotor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shigeru; Kobiki, Noboru; Tanabe, Yasutada; Johnson, Wayne; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Young, Larry A.

    2010-01-01

    The Novel Intelligent JAXA Active Rotor (NINJA Rotor) program is a cooperative effort between JAXA and NASA, involving a test of a JAXA pressure-instrumented, active-flap rotor in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center. The objectives of the program are to obtain an experimental database of a rotor with active flaps and blade pressure instrumentation, and to use that data to develop analyses to predict the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance of rotors with active flaps. An overview of the program is presented, including a description of the rotor and preliminary pretest calculations.

  16. A Method to Transit the Rotor-to-Stator Rubbing to Normal Motion Using the Phase Characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqiong Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A method is proposed to transit the rotor-to-stator rubbing to no-rub motion through active auxiliary bearing. The key point of this technique is to express the attractive domain of no-rub motion based on the phase characteristic and to represent the desired status. The feedback actuation is applied by an active auxiliary bearing to drive the rotor approaching the desired status. After that, the control actuation is turned off. Although the desired status is still in rubbing, it is in the attractive domain of no-rub motion, and the response of the rotor is automatically attracted to no-rub motion.

  17. Arrangement for matching a wind rotor to an electrical generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beusse, H

    1978-04-06

    The invention concerns an arrangement for matching a wind power machine to an electrical generator, which feeds a consumer network. According to the invention first generator using the shaft horsepower of the wind power machine feeds an electric water, which is coupled to a second generator, whose power is taken to the consumer network. The output signal of a computer which has the annemometer feeding into it controls the excitation of the motor at sufficient wind speed, so that the speed of rotation of the second generator is practically constant, and a spted regulator takes excess energy via a controlled rectifier (thyristor) to a shunt circuit of the motor, if the wind power exceeds the load taken from the output of the second generator. As an extension of the arrangement according to the invention it is proposed to arrange a Diesel engine in the shaft of the second generator, which can be controlled at constant speed by the control device, so that it takes over the missing output if the wind power is less than the load at the generator output. Apart from this, it is proposed that the loading of the wind rotor should be controlled by the control device so that it only comes in if the wind rotor has reached a stable working point after accelerating on no load.

  18. Rotor-generated unsteady aerodynamic interactions in a 1½ stage compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, John J.

    Because High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) remains the predominant surprise failure mode in gas turbine engines, HCF avoidance design systems are utilized to identify possible failures early in the engine development process. A key requirement of these analyses is accurate determination of the aerodynamic forcing function and corresponding airfoil unsteady response. The current study expands the limited experimental database of blade row interactions necessary for calibration of predictive HCF analyses, with transonic axial-flow compressors of particular interest due to the presence of rotor leading edge shocks. The majority of HCF failures in aircraft engines occur at off-design operating conditions. Therefore, experiments focused on rotor-IGV interactions at off-design are conducted in the Purdue Transonic Research Compressor. The rotor-generated IGV unsteady aerodynamics are quantified when the IGV reset angle causes the vane trailing edge to be nearly aligned with the rotor leading edge shocks. A significant vane response to the impulsive static pressure perturbation associated with a shock is evident in the point measurements at 90% span, with details of this complex interaction revealed in the corresponding time-variant vane-to-vane flow field data. Industry wide implementation of Controlled Diffusion Airfoils (CDA) in modern compressors motivated an investigation of upstream propagating CDA rotor-generated forcing functions. Whole field velocity measurements in the reconfigured Purdue Transonic Research Compressor along the design speedline reveal steady loading had a considerable effect on the rotor shock structure. A detached rotor leading edge shock exists at low loading, with an attached leading edge and mid-chord suction surface normal shock present at nominal loading. These CDA forcing functions are 3--4 times smaller than those generated by the baseline NACA 65 rotor at their respective operating points. However, the IGV unsteady aerodynamic response to the CDA

  19. Preliminary Aerodynamic Investigation of Fan Rotor Blade Morphing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies currently under development may enable controlled blade shape variability, or so-called blade morphing, to be practically employed in aircraft engine fans and compressors in the foreseeable future. The current study is a relatively brief, preliminary computational fluid dynamics investigation aimed at partially demonstrating and quantifying the aerodynamic potential of fan rotor blade morphing. The investigation is intended to provide information useful for near-term planning, as well as aerodynamic solution data sets that can be subsequently analyzed using advanced acoustic diagnostic tools, for the purpose of making fan noise comparisons. Two existing fan system models serve as baselines for the investigation: the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan with a design tip speed of 806 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.294, and the Source Diagnostic Test fan with a design tip speed of 1215 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.470. Both are 22-in. sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle models that have undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study, restricted to fan rotor blade morphing only, involves a fairly simple blade morphing technique. Specifically, spanwise-linear variations in rotor blade-section setting angle are applied to alter the blade shape; that is, the blade is linearly retwisted from hub to tip. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are made between morphed-blade and corresponding baseline configurations on the basis of equal fan system thrust, where rotor rotational speed for the morphed-blade fan is varied to change the thrust level for that configuration. The results of the investigation confirm that rotor blade morphing could be a useful technology, with the potential to enable significant improvements in fan aerodynamic performance. Even though the study is very limited in scope and confined to simple geometric perturbations of two existing fan

  20. A rotor optimization using regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giansante, N.

    1984-01-01

    The design and development of helicopter rotors is subject to the many design variables and their interactions that effect rotor operation. Until recently, selection of rotor design variables to achieve specified rotor operational qualities has been a costly, time consuming, repetitive task. For the past several years, Kaman Aerospace Corporation has successfully applied multiple linear regression analysis, coupled with optimization and sensitivity procedures, in the analytical design of rotor systems. It is concluded that approximating equations can be developed rapidly for a multiplicity of objective and constraint functions and optimizations can be performed in a rapid and cost effective manner; the number and/or range of design variables can be increased by expanding the data base and developing approximating functions to reflect the expanded design space; the order of the approximating equations can be expanded easily to improve correlation between analyzer results and the approximating equations; gradients of the approximating equations can be calculated easily and these gradients are smooth functions reducing the risk of numerical problems in the optimization; the use of approximating functions allows the problem to be started easily and rapidly from various initial designs to enhance the probability of finding a global optimum; and the approximating equations are independent of the analysis or optimization codes used.

  1. None of the Rotor Residues of F1-ATPase Are Essential for Torque Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwata, Ryohei; Kohori, Ayako; Kawakami, Tomonari; Shiroguchi, Katsuyuki; Furuike, Shou; Adachi, Kengo; Sutoh, Kazuo; Yoshida, Masasuke; Kinosita, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    F1-ATPase is a powerful rotary molecular motor that can rotate an object several hundred times as large as the motor itself against the viscous friction of water. Forced reverse rotation has been shown to lead to ATP synthesis, implying that the mechanical work against the motor’s high torque can be converted into the chemical energy of ATP. The minimal composition of the motor protein is α3β3γ subunits, where the central rotor subunit γ turns inside a stator cylinder made of alternately arranged α3β3 subunits using the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. The rotor consists of an axle, a coiled coil of the amino- and carboxyl-terminal α-helices of γ, which deeply penetrates the stator cylinder, and a globular protrusion that juts out from the stator. Previous work has shown that, for a thermophilic F1, significant portions of the axle can be truncated and the motor still rotates a submicron sized bead duplex, indicating generation of up to half the wild-type (WT) torque. Here, we inquire if any specific interactions between the stator and the rest of the rotor are needed for the generation of a sizable torque. We truncated the protruding portion of the rotor and replaced part of the remaining axle residues such that every residue of the rotor has been deleted or replaced in this or previous truncation mutants. This protrusionless construct showed an unloaded rotary speed about a quarter of the WT, and generated one-third to one-half of the WT torque. No residue-specific interactions are needed for this much performance. F1 is so designed that the basic rotor-stator interactions for torque generation and control of catalysis rely solely upon the shape and size of the rotor at very low resolution. Additional tailored interactions augment the torque to allow ATP synthesis under physiological conditions. PMID:24853745

  2. Estimation of dynamic rotor loads for the rotor systems research aircraft: Methodology development and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, R. W.; Bahrami, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft uses load cells to isolate the rotor/transmission systm from the fuselage. A mathematical model relating applied rotor loads and inertial loads of the rotor/transmission system to the load cell response is required to allow the load cells to be used to estimate rotor loads from flight data. Such a model is derived analytically by applying a force and moment balance to the isolated rotor/transmission system. The model is tested by comparing its estimated values of applied rotor loads with measured values obtained from a ground based shake test. Discrepancies in the comparison are used to isolate sources of unmodeled external loads. Once the structure of the mathematical model has been validated by comparison with experimental data, the parameters must be identified. Since the parameters may vary with flight condition it is desirable to identify the parameters directly from the flight data. A Maximum Likelihood identification algorithm is derived for this purpose and tested using a computer simulation of load cell data. The identification is found to converge within 10 samples. The rapid convergence facilitates tracking of time varying parameters of the load cell model in flight.

  3. Tip Vortex and Wake Characteristics of a Counterrotating Open Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanZante, Dale E.; Wernet, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    One of the primary noise sources for Open Rotor systems is the interaction of the forward rotor tip vortex and blade wake with the aft rotor. NASA has collaborated with General Electric on the testing of a new generation of low noise, counterrotating Open Rotor systems. Three-dimensional particle image velocimetry measurements were acquired in the intra-rotor gap of the Historical Baseline blade set. The velocity measurements are of sufficient resolution to characterize the tip vortex size and trajectory as well as the rotor wake decay and turbulence character. The tip clearance vortex trajectory is compared to results from previously developed models. Forward rotor wake velocity profiles are shown. Results are presented in a form as to assist numerical modeling of Open Rotor system aerodynamics and acoustics.

  4. Prediction of helicopter rotor noise in hover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusyumov A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two mathematical models are used in this work to estimate the acoustics of a hovering main rotor. The first model is based on the Ffowcs Williams-Howkings equations using the formulation of Farassat. An analytical approach is followed for this model, to determine the thickness and load noise contributions of the rotor blade in hover. The second approach allows using URANS and RANS CFD solutions and based on numerical solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Howkings equations. The employed test cases correspond to a model rotor available at the KNRTUKAI aerodynamics laboratory. The laboratory is equipped with a system of acoustic measurements, and comparisons between predictions and measurements are to be attempted as part of this work.

  5. Prediction of helicopter rotor noise in hover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusyumov, A. N.; Mikhailov, S. A.; Garipova, L. I.; Batrakov, A. S.; Barakos, G.

    2015-05-01

    Two mathematical models are used in this work to estimate the acoustics of a hovering main rotor. The first model is based on the Ffowcs Williams-Howkings equations using the formulation of Farassat. An analytical approach is followed for this model, to determine the thickness and load noise contributions of the rotor blade in hover. The second approach allows using URANS and RANS CFD solutions and based on numerical solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Howkings equations. The employed test cases correspond to a model rotor available at the KNRTUKAI aerodynamics laboratory. The laboratory is equipped with a system of acoustic measurements, and comparisons between predictions and measurements are to be attempted as part of this work.

  6. Aircraft rotor blade with passive tuned tab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, T. G. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A structure for reducing vibratory airloading in a rotor blade with a leading edge and a trailing edge includes a cut out portion at the trailing edge. A substantially wedge shaped cross section, inertially deflectable tab, also with a leading edge and a trailing edge is pivotally mounted in the cut out portion. The trailing edge of the tab may move above and below the rotor blade. A torsion strap applies force against the tab when the trailing edge of the tab is above and below the rotor blade. A restraining member is slidably movable along the torsion strap to vary torsional biasing force supplied by the torsion bar to the tab. A plurality of movable weights positioned between plates vary a center of gravity of the tab. Skin of the tab is formed from unidirectional graphite and fiberglass layers. Sliders coupled with a pinned degree of freedom at rod eliminate bending of tab under edgewise blade deflection.

  7. Parametric Blade Study Test Report Rotor Configuration. Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    location and a ball bearing at the aft location; radial runout does not exceed 0.001 inch. Forward and aft buffer controlled gap carbon seals were used...made to measured compressor temperatures and pressures, facility flowrate, and rotor wheel speed to correspond to standard inlet conditions of...0662 .1034 STRM- BLADE BLADE WHEEL LINE SECT. LEAN SPEED NUMBER ANGLE ANGLE I -53.96 7.35 1497.5 2 -52.68 8.11 1434.6 3 -51.88 7.15 1372.5 4 -50.49

  8. Manufacture of large monoblock LP rotor forgings and their quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Akira; Kinoshita, Shushi; Kohno, Masayoshi; Miyakawa, Mutsuhiro; Kikuchi, Hideo

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the manufacturing and the quality of large monoblock low pressure rotors forged from 360 ton and 420 ton ingots. To obtain good and homogenous mechanical properties throughout a rotor, a computer was used to determine the heat treatment conditions. It was found that the technique was very effective at predicting mechanical properties of a monoblock rotor. Mechanical properties including the fracture toughness and fatigue crack propagation characteristics of monoblock rotor forgings proved satisfactory. (author)

  9. Rotor scale model tests for power conversion unit of GT-MHR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxi, C.B., E-mail: baxicb1130@hotmail.com [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Telengator, A.; Razvi, J. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) combines a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) nuclear heat source with a closed Brayton gas-turbine cycle power conversion unit (PCU) for thermal to electric energy conversion. The PCU has a vertical orientation and is supported on electromagnetic bearings (EMB). The rotor scale model (RSM) tests are intended to directly model the control of EMB and rotor dynamic characteristics of the full-scale GT-MHR turbo-machine (TM). The objectives of the RSM tests are to: Bullet Confirm the EMB control system design for the GT-MHR turbo machine over the full-range of operation. Bullet Confirm the redundancy and on-line maintainability features that have been specified for the EMBs. Bullet Provide a benchmark for validation of analytical tools that will be used for independent analyses of the EMB subsystem design. Bullet Provide experience with the installation, operation and maintenance of EMBs supporting multiple rotors with flexible couplings. As with the full-scale TM, the RSM incorporates two rotors that are joined by a flexible coupling. Each of the rotors is supported on one axial and two radial EMBs. Additional devices, similar in concept to radial EMBs, are installed to simulate magnetic and/or mechanical forces representing those that would be seen by the exciter, generator, compressors and turbine. Overall, the lengths of the RSM rotor is about 1/3rd that of the full-scale TM, while the diameters are approximately 1/5th scale. The design and sizing of the rotor is such that the number and values of critical speeds in the RSM are the same as in the full-scale TM. The EMBs are designed such that their response to rotor dynamic forces is representative of the full-scale TM. The fabrication and assembly of the RSM was completed at the end of 2008. All start up adjustments were finished in December 2009. To-date the generator rotor has been supported in the EMBs and rotated up to 1800 rpm. Final tests are

  10. Simple theoretical models for composite rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valisetty, R. R.; Rehfield, L. W.

    1984-01-01

    The development of theoretical rotor blade structural models for designs based upon composite construction is discussed. Care was exercised to include a member of nonclassical effects that previous experience indicated would be potentially important to account for. A model, representative of the size of a main rotor blade, is analyzed in order to assess the importance of various influences. The findings of this model study suggest that for the slenderness and closed cell construction considered, the refinements are of little importance and a classical type theory is adequate. The potential of elastic tailoring is dramatically demonstrated, so the generality of arbitrary ply layup in the cell wall is needed to exploit this opportunity.

  11. Dovetail Rotor Construction For Permanent-Magnet Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintz, Lawrence J., Jr.; Puskas, William J.

    1988-01-01

    New way of mounting magnets in permanent-magnet, electronically commutated, brushless dc motors. Magnets wedge shaped, tapering toward center of rotor. Oppositely tapered pole pieces, electron-beam welded to rotor hub, retain magnets against centrifugal force generated by spinning rotor. To avoid excessively long electron-beam welds, pole pieces assembled in segments rather than single long bars.

  12. Vibration amplitude rule study for rotor under large time scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuan; Zuo Jianli; Duan Changcheng

    2014-01-01

    The rotor is an important part of the rotating machinery; its vibration performance is one of the important factors affecting the service life. This paper presents both theoretical analyses and experimental demonstrations of the vibration rule of the rotor under large time scales. The rule can be used for the service life estimation of the rotor. (authors)

  13. Diagnostics of the vibrations of complex rotor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugraytis, I. Y.; Ragulskis, K. M.; Ionushas, R. A.; Karuzhene, I. P.

    1973-01-01

    The parameters of the imbalance of a complex rotor system, having n parallel rotors and having six degrees of freedom, can be determined from the parameters of the vibrations of two appropriate degrees of freedom. This considerably simplifies diagnostics of the vibrations of complex rotor systems.

  14. Hydraulic performance of sluice gate with unloaded upstream rotor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... compared to the flow under rotor and weir flow conditions. The video analysis also indicated that significant perturbation exists for the rotor angular speed. The normalized perturbation intensity varied from a minimum of 8% to a maximum of 60%. Keywords: sluice gate, rotor, angular speed, video analysis, hydropower ...

  15. Stator for a rotating electrical machine having multiple control windings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manoj R.; Lewandowski, Chad R.

    2001-07-17

    A rotating electric machine is provided which includes multiple independent control windings for compensating for rotor imbalances and for levitating/centering the rotor. The multiple independent control windings are placed at different axial locations along the rotor to oppose forces created by imbalances at different axial locations along the rotor. The multiple control windings can also be used to levitate/center the rotor with a relatively small magnetic field per unit area since the rotor and/or the main power winding provides the bias field.

  16. Dynamic Analysis of a Rotor System Supported on Squeeze Film Damper with Air Entrainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Han, Bingbing; Zhang, Kunpeng; Ding, Qian

    2017-12-01

    Squeeze film dampers (SFDs) are widely used in compressors and turbines to suppress the vibration while traversing critical speeds. In practical applications, air ingestion from the outside environment and cavitation may lead to a foamy lubricant that weakens oil film damping and dynamic performance of rotor system. In this paper, a rigid rotor model is established considering both lateral and pitching vibration under different imbalance excitations to evaluate the effect of air entrainment on rotor system. Tests with three different imbalances are carried out on a rotor-SFD apparatus. Volume controlled air in mixture ranging from pure oil to all air are supplied to the SFD. The transient response of rotor is measured in the experiments. The results show that two-phase flow produces significant influence on the system stability and dynamical response. The damping properties are weakened by entrained air, such as the damping on high frequency components of rolling ball bearing. Super-harmonic resonance and bifurcation are observed, as well as the low frequency components due to air entrainment.

  17. Experimental apparatus and its operational characteristics for MHD rotating machine with superconducting rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsurai, Makoto; Karasaki, Takashi; Sekiguchi, Tadashi; Matsuda, Shoji; Ichikawa, Hayao.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents the construction and operational characteristics of the experimental apparatus of MHD rotating machine with superconducting rotor, which has the electromechanical energy conversion function based on the inductive interactions between travelling magnetic field produced by the rotor and MHD working fluid. The machine consists of a rotating-dewar type superconducting rotor and a coaxially rotating metal cylinder which simulates the liquid metal MHD working fluid, and the both of them are driven separately by speed-controlled driving motors. The superconducting magnets installed in the rotor has the 8 shaped winding whose outer diameter is 11 cm and hight is 11 cm, and with the excitation current of 200 A (rating), it produces screw type magnetic field in the inductive interaction region of the cylinder with the peak value of 0.2 Wb/m 2 , whereas the average field strength reaches almost 4 Wb/m 2 inside the winding. In this condition, mutual interaction force is 30 N in the peripheral direction and 8 N in the axial direction and the total driving power of motors is 1,300 W when the relative rotation speed of the rotor and the cylinder is 800 rpm. Observed characteristics of this machine are for the most part in agreement with those estimated by the theoretical analysis. (auth.)

  18. Further Examination of the Vibratory Loads Reduction Results from the NASA/ARMY/MIT Active Twist Rotor Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Sekula, Martin K.

    2002-01-01

    The vibration reduction capabilities of a model rotor system utilizing controlled, strain-induced blade twisting are examined. The model rotor blades, which utilize piezoelectric active fiber composite actuators, were tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel using open-loop control to determine the effect of active-twist on rotor vibratory loads. The results of this testing have been encouraging, and have demonstrated that active-twist rotor designs offer the potential for significant load reductions in future helicopter rotor systems. Active twist control was found to use less than 1% of the power necessary to operate the rotor system and had a pronounced effect on both rotating- and fixed-system loads, offering reductions in individual harmonic loads of up to 100%. A review of the vibration reduction results obtained is presented, which includes a limited set of comparisons with results generated using the second-generation version of the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD II) rotorcraft comprehensive analysis.

  19. Statistical Methods in Assembly Quality Management of Multi-Element Products on Automatic Rotor Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pries, V. V.; Proskuriakov, N. E.

    2018-04-01

    To control the assembly quality of multi-element mass-produced products on automatic rotor lines, control methods with operational feedback are required. However, due to possible failures in the operation of the devices and systems of automatic rotor line, there is always a real probability of getting defective (incomplete) products into the output process stream. Therefore, a continuous sampling control of the products completeness, based on the use of statistical methods, remains an important element in managing the quality of assembly of multi-element mass products on automatic rotor lines. The feature of continuous sampling control of the multi-element products completeness in the assembly process is its breaking sort, which excludes the possibility of returning component parts after sampling control to the process stream and leads to a decrease in the actual productivity of the assembly equipment. Therefore, the use of statistical procedures for continuous sampling control of the multi-element products completeness when assembled on automatic rotor lines requires the use of such sampling plans that ensure a minimum size of control samples. Comparison of the values of the limit of the average output defect level for the continuous sampling plan (CSP) and for the automated continuous sampling plan (ACSP) shows the possibility of providing lower limit values for the average output defects level using the ACSP-1. Also, the average sample size when using the ACSP-1 plan is less than when using the CSP-1 plan. Thus, the application of statistical methods in the assembly quality management of multi-element products on automatic rotor lines, involving the use of proposed plans and methods for continuous selective control, will allow to automating sampling control procedures and the required level of quality of assembled products while minimizing sample size.

  20. Development of an aeroelastic methodology for surface morphing rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, James R.

    Helicopter performance capabilities are limited by maximum lift characteristics and vibratory loading. In high speed forward flight, dynamic stall and transonic flow greatly increase the amplitude of vibratory loads. Experiments and computational simulations alike have indicated that a variety of active rotor control devices are capable of reducing vibratory loads. For example, periodic blade twist and flap excitation have been optimized to reduce vibratory loads in various rotors. Airfoil geometry can also be modified in order to increase lift coefficient, delay stall, or weaken transonic effects. To explore the potential benefits of active controls, computational methods are being developed for aeroelastic rotor evaluation, including coupling between computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational structural dynamics (CSD) solvers. In many contemporary CFD/CSD coupling methods it is assumed that the airfoil is rigid to reduce the interface by single dimension. Some methods retain the conventional one-dimensional beam model while prescribing an airfoil shape to simulate active chord deformation. However, to simulate the actual response of a compliant airfoil it is necessary to include deformations that originate not only from control devices (such as piezoelectric actuators), but also inertial forces, elastic stresses, and aerodynamic pressures. An accurate representation of the physics requires an interaction with a more complete representation of loads and geometry. A CFD/CSD coupling methodology capable of communicating three-dimensional structural deformations and a distribution of aerodynamic forces over the wetted blade surface has not yet been developed. In this research an interface is created within the Fully Unstructured Navier-Stokes (FUN3D) solver that communicates aerodynamic forces on the blade surface to University of Michigan's Nonlinear Active Beam Solver (UM/NLABS -- referred to as NLABS in this thesis). Interface routines are developed for

  1. Regeneration characteristics of desiccant rotor with microwave and hot-air heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Mitsuhiro; Hanada, Takuya; Yabe, Satoshi; Matsuda, Hitoki

    2013-01-01

    Microwave heating, because of its advantages of direct and rapid heating of materials, has the potential to be employed as a novel regeneration method of desiccant rotors in humidity conditioners. We proposed a combined regeneration process, which combines microwave heating and conventional hot-air heating. The system is expected to achieve high heating rate during an initial regeneration period by assisting water desorption using the additional energy of the microwave. In this study, the regeneration characteristics of a desiccant rotor were experimentally investigated under conditions of microwave heating, hot-air heating, and combined heating at various microwave powers and hot-air temperatures. The effectiveness of the combined regeneration was evaluated in terms of the regeneration ratio, the initial regeneration rate, the temperature distribution in the rotor, and finally in terms of the energy consumption. It was demonstrated that combined heating was effective at leveling non-uniform temperature distribution in the rotor. Combined heating achieved higher ratios and initial rates in regeneration compared to just microwave and hot-air heating. This result was obviously attributed to the additional input of microwave energy, resulting that average rotor temperature increased by microwave absorption of rotor. Moreover, it was also effective for enhancement of regeneration to level the temperature distribution in the rotor by combination of two heating methods with different heating mechanisms. Both the initial regeneration rate and the equilibrium regeneration ratio for combined heating were found to increase as the microwave power increased. A linear relationship was observed with respect to microwave power. From the viewpoint of energy consumption, it may be possible to apply combined and microwave heating to humidity control systems that switch between adsorption and regeneration in short cycle times, if the conversion and absorption efficiencies of the

  2. Definition and analytical evaluation of a power management system for tilt-rotor aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J. J.; Alexander, H. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews the special design criteria which apply to power management in a tilt-rotor aircraft. These include the need for accurate and fast control of rpm and thrust, while accounting for the dynamic interactions between rotor systems caused by cross-shafting and aircraft lateral/directional response. The power management system is also required to provide acceptable high speed sensitivity to longitudinal turbulence. It is shown that the criteria can best be met using a single governor adjusting the collective pitch by an amount proportional to a combination of the average rpm and the integral of the average rpm of the two rotors. This system is evaluated and compared with other candidate systems in hover and cruise flight.

  3. Experimental and numerical study of the British Experimental Rotor Programme blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Alan; Duque, Earl P. N.

    1990-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests on the British Experimental Rotor Programme (BERP) tip are described, and the results are compared with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results. The test model was molded using the Lynx-BERP blade tooling to provide a semispan, cantilever wing comprising the outboard 30 percent of the rotor blade. The tests included both surface-pressure measurements and flow visualization to obtain detailed information of the flow over the BERP tip for a range of angles of attack. It was observed that, outboard of the notch, favorable pressure gradients exist which ensure attached flow, and that the tip vortex also remains stable to large angles of attack. On the rotor, these features yield a very gradual break in control loads when the retreating-blade limit is eventually reached. Computational and experimental results were generally found to be in good agreement.

  4. Arrays of dipolar molecular rotors in Tris(o-phenylenedioxy) cyclotriphosphazene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ke; Dron, Paul I; Kaleta, Jiří; Rogers, Charles T; Michl, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Regular two-dimensional or three-dimensional arrays of mutually interacting dipolar molecular rotors represent a worthy synthetic objective. Their dielectric properties, including possible collective behavior, will be a sensitive function of the location of the rotors, the orientation of their axes, and the size of their dipoles. Host-guest chemistry is one possible approach to gaining fine control over these factors. We describe the progress that has been achieved in recent years using tris (o-phenylenedioxy)cyclotriphosphazene as a host and a series of rod-shaped dipolar molecular rotors as guests. Structures of both surface and bulk inclusion compounds have been established primarily by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Low-temperature dielectric spectroscopy revealed rotational barriers as low as 1.5 kcal/mol, but no definitive evidence for collective behavior has been obtained so far.

  5. Time domain system identification of longitudinal dynamics of single rotor model helicopter using sidpac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaizer, A.N.; Hussain, I.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a time-domain approach for identification of longitudinal dynamics of single rotor model helicopter. A frequency sweep excitation input signal is applied for hover flying mode widely used for space state linearized model. A fully automated programmed flight test method provides high quality flight data for system identification using the computer controlled flight simulator X-plane. The flight test data were recorded, analyzed and reduced using the SIDPAC (System Identification Programs for Air Craft) toolbox for MATLAB, resulting in an aerodynamic model of single rotor helicopter. Finally, the identified model of single rotor helicopter is validated on Raptor 30-class model helicopter at hover showing the reliability of proposed approach. (author)

  6. Analysis of generator bearing vibration data for diagnosing rotor circuit malfunction in DFIGs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Sweeney, Christian W.; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2014-01-01

    Doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs) are the most popular configuration met in the wind energy sector occu- pying approximately 65 % of the total market share. Condition monitoring of wind turbine generators is performed based on vibration data collected from accelerometers mounted on the drive....... In this paper generator bearing vibration signature for a DFIG under operation with one rotor phase coil open is analysed and presented. Further this failure mode is compared to rotor dynamics fault, such as rotational looseness, and the difference in signature is discussed. Vibration data from a multi...... end and non-drive end bearings, meeting the requirements of numerous turbine operators for condition based maintenance. In a DFIG the voltage applied to the rotor is controlled by a converter, where electric connection between the two is accom- plished by using slip rings. Improper connection between...

  7. Dynamic Thermal Analysis of DFIG Rotor-side Converter during Balanced Grid Fault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    and the rotor voltage during the balanced grid fault is firstly addressed. By using the traditional demagnetizing control, the damping of the stator flux and the safety operation area are theoretically evaluated with various amounts of demagnetizing current. It is observed that the higher demagnetizing current...... leads to faster stator flux damping and lower induced rotor voltage, but it brings higher loss as well as the thermal cycling of the power device. Based on the simulation of the stator flux evolution and the thermal behavior of each power semiconductor, it is concluded that there is a trade...

  8. Actuator line/Navier–Stokes computations for the MEXICO rotor: comparison with detailed measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2012-01-01

    In the European collaborative MEXICO (Model Experiments in Controlled Conditions) project, a series of experiments was carried out on a 4.5 m diameter wind turbine rotor to validate numerical diagnostics tools. Here, some of the measured data are compared with computations of the combined actuator...... line/Navier–Stokes (AL/NS) model developed at the Technical University of Denmark. The AL/NS model was combined with a large eddy simulation technique and used to compute the flow past the MEXICO rotor in free air and in the DNW German‐Dutch wind tunnel for three commonly defined test cases at wind...

  9. A prediction method of temperature distribution and thermal stress for the throttle turbine rotor and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a prediction method of the temperature distribution for the thermal stress for the throttle-regulated steam turbine rotor is proposed. The rotor thermal stress curve can be calculated according to the preset power requirement, the operation mode and the predicted critical parameters. The results of the 660 MW throttle turbine rotor show that the operators are able to predict the operation results and to adjust the operation parameters in advance with the help of the inertial element method. Meanwhile, it can also raise the operation level, thus providing the technical guarantee for the thermal stress optimization control and the safety of the steam turbine rotor under the variable load operation.

  10. The Influence of Slowly Varying Mass on Severity of Dynamics Nonlinearity of Bearing-Rotor Systems with Pedestal Looseness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinearity measure is proposed to investigate the influence of slowly varying mass on severity of dynamics nonlinearity of bearing-rotor systems with pedestal looseness. A nonlinear mathematical model including the effect of slowly varying disk mass is developed for a bearing-rotor system with pedestal looseness. The varying of equivalent disk mass is described by a cosine function, and the amplitude coefficient is used as a control parameter. Then, nonlinearity measure is employed to quantify the severity of dynamics nonlinearity of bearing-rotor systems. With the increasing of looseness clearances, the curves that denote the trend of nonlinearity degree are plotted for each amplitude coefficient of mass varying. It can be concluded that larger amplitude coefficients of the disk mass varying will have more influence on the severity of dynamics nonlinearity and generation of chaotic behaviors in rotor systems with pedestal looseness.

  11. Rotor Systems of Aircraft Jet Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Kamenický

    2000-01-01

    engine's both coaxial rotors, their supports (including their hydrodynamic dampers, and its casing as well. Besides the short description of the engine design peculiarities and of its calculating model, there is also a short description of the used method of calculations, with focus on its peculiarities as well. Finally, some results of calculations and conclusions that follow from them are presented.

  12. Rotor Design for Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Hjort

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Diffuser augmented wind turbines (DAWTs can increase mass flow through the rotor substantially, but have often failed to fulfill expectations. We address high-performance diffusers, and investigate the design requirements for a DAWT rotor to efficiently convert the available energy to shaft energy. Several factors can induce wake stall scenarios causing significant energy loss. The causality between these stall mechanisms and earlier DAWT failures is discussed. First, a swirled actuator disk CFD code is validated through comparison with results from a far wake swirl corrected blade-element momentum (BEM model, and horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT reference results. Then, power efficiency versus thrust is computed with the swirled actuator disk (AD code for low and high values of tip-speed ratios (TSR, for different centerbodies, and for different spanwise rotor thrust loading distributions. Three different configurations are studied: The bare propeller HAWT, the classical DAWT, and the high-performance multi-element DAWT. In total nearly 400 high-resolution AD runs are generated. These results are presented and discussed. It is concluded that dedicated DAWT rotors can successfully convert the available energy to shaft energy, provided the identified design requirements for swirl and axial loading distributions are satisfied.

  13. Development of the optimum rotor theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; van Kuik, Gijs A.M.

    The purpose of this study is the examination of optimum rotor theories with ideal load distributions along the blades, to analyze some of the underlying ideas and concepts, as well as to illuminate them. The book gives the historical background of the issue and presents the analysis of the problems...

  14. Piezoelectric actuation of helicopter rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieven, Nicholas A. J.

    2001-07-01

    The work presented in this paper is concerned with the application of embedded piezo-electric actuators in model helicopter rotor blades. The paper outlines techniques to define the optimal location of actuators to excite particular modes of vibration whilst the blade is rotating. Using composite blades the distribution of strain energy is defined using a Finite Element model with imposed rotor-dynamic and aerodynamics loads. The loads are specified through strip theory to determine the position of maximum bending moment and thus the optimal location of the embedded actuators. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated on a 1/4 scale fixed cyclic pitch rotor head. Measurement of the blade displacement is achieved by using strain gauges. In addition a redundant piezo-electric actuator is used to measure the blades' response characteristics. The addition of piezo-electric devices in this application has been shown to exhibit adverse aeroelastic effects, such as counter mass balancing and increased drag. Methods to minimise these effects are suggested. The outcome of the paper is a method for defining the location and orientation of piezo-electric devices in rotor-dynamic applications.

  15. Warm damper for a superconducting rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    A warm damper for a superconducting rotor is described which uses a laminar assembly of a conductive tube and a plurality of support tubes. The conductive tube is soldered to axially adjacent support tubes and the resulting composite tube is explosively welded to two or more support tubes disposed adjacent to its radially inner and outer surfaces

  16. Flywheel system using wire-wound rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Edward Young; Bender, Donald Arthur; Means, Andrew E.; Snyder, Philip K.

    2016-06-07

    A flywheel is described having a rotor constructed of wire wound onto a central form. The wire is prestressed, thus mitigating stresses that occur during operation. In another aspect, the flywheel incorporates a low-loss motor using electrically non-conducting permanent magnets.

  17. The Evolution of Rotor and Blade Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangler, J.

    2000-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a historical perspective of the evolution of rotor and blade design during the last 20 years. This evolution is a balanced integration of economic, aerodynamic, structural dynamic, noise, and aesthetic considerations, which are known to be machine type and size dependent.

  18. Dynamics of fluidic devices with applications to rotor pitch links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Lloyd H., III

    impedance. At low frequency, the pitch link must have high impedance to pass through the pilot's collective and cyclic commands to control the aircraft. At higher frequencies, however, the pitch-link impedance can be tuned to change the blade pitching response to higher harmonic loads. Active blade control to produce higher harmonic pitch motions has been shown to reduce hub loads and increase rotor efficiency. This work investigates whether fluidic pitch links can passively provide these benefits. An analytical model of a fluidic pitch link is derived and incorporated into a rotor aeroelastic simulation for a rotor similar to that of the UH-60. Eighty-one simulations with varied fluidic pitch link parameters demonstrate that their impedance can be tailored to reduce rotor power and all six hub forces and moments. While no impedance was found that simultaneously reduced all components, the results include cases with reductions in the lateral 4/rev hub force of up to 91% and 4/rev hub pitching moment of up to 67%, and main rotor power of up to 5%.

  19. Method for repairing a steam turbine or generator rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.E.; Amos, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described for repairing low alloy steel steam turbine or generator rotors, the method comprising: a. machining mating attachments on a replacement end and a remaining portion of the original rotor; b. mating the replacement end and the original rotor; c. welding the replacement end to the original rotor by narrow-gap gas metal arc or submerged arc welding up to a depth of 1/2-2 inches from the rotor surface; d. gas tungsten arc welding the remaining 1/2-2 inches; e. boring out the mating attachment and at least the inside 1/4 inch of the welding; and f. inspecting the bore

  20. Equivalence Between Squirrel Cage and Sheet Rotor Induction Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Ankita; Singh, S. K.; Srivastava, R. K.

    2016-06-01

    Due to topological changes in dual stator induction motor and high cost of its fabrication, it is convenient to replace the squirrel cage rotor with a composite sheet rotor. For an experimental machine, the inner and outer stator stampings are normally available whereas the procurement of rotor stampings is quite cumbersome and is not always cost effective. In this paper, the equivalence between sheet/solid rotor induction motor and squirrel cage induction motor has been investigated using layer theory of electrical machines, so as to enable one to utilize sheet/solid rotor in dual port experimental machines.

  1. Rotor Performance Enhancement Using Slats on the Inner Part of a 10MW Rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunaa, Mac; Zahle, Frederik; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2013-01-01

    The present work continues the investigations of using slats on the inner parts of wind turbine rotors by using an updated version of the 2D CFD based airfoil/slat design tool earlier used by the authors in combination with the rotor design methods from [8] to design slats for 0:1 > r=R > 0......:3 for the LightRotor baseline 10 MW reference rotor [10]. For the slatted case, a retwisting of the slatted inner part of the rotor was allowed for the slats to be able to work as intended. The new addition to the 2D CFD based design tool is that the representation of the airfoil and slats are done using splines......, thus allowing for a much broader design space than in the previous works where only the position, size and additional camber of the slat airfoil could be adjusted. The aerodynamic performance of a slatted rotor is for the first time evaluated using 3D CFD in this work, and the results are compared...

  2. Rotor Performance Enhancement Using Slats on the Inner Part of a 10MW Rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The present work continues the investigations of using slats on the inner parts of wind turbine rotors by using an updated version of the 2D CFD based airfoil/slat design tool earlier used by the authors in combination with the rotor design methods from [8] to design slats for 0:1 > r=R > 0......:3 for the LightRotor baseline 10 MW reference rotor [10]. For the slatted case, a retwisting of the slatted inner part of the rotor was allowed for the slats to be able to work as intended. The new addition to the 2D CFD based design tool is that the representation of the airfoil and slats are done using splines......, thus allowing for a much broader design space than in the previous works where only the position, size and additional camber of the slat airfoil could be adjusted. The aerodynamic performance of a slatted rotor is for the first time evaluated using 3D CFD in this work, and the results are compared...

  3. A novel piezoelectric actuator with a screw-coupled stator and rotor for driving an aperture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoniu; Zhou, Shengqiang

    2016-01-01

    Variable apertures have become very important in optical applications. This paper presents a new type of piezoelectric actuator with a screw-coupled stator and rotor that is developed to operate an aperture. The actuator and the aperture are integrated to control the luminous flux. To open or close, the aperture only needs to rotate through a limited angle. Therefore, the actuator is designed so that the rotor and the stator are simply connected by a screw to couple the axial preload and the circumferential movement. The torque and velocity of the actuator are produced by its circumferential motion. The preload of the actuator is applied by deforming the rotor along the axial direction. This method of preloading makes it difficult to keep the preload constant during the actuator’s work. To overcome this problem, a novel flexible rotor with a low stiffness is designed. An equivalent stiffness model of the rotor is presented for the design of a flexible rotor. Its design parameters are determined by a numerical model and confirmed using the finite element method. A prototype is fabricated to drive the aperture. The experimental results demonstrate a resolution of 20 μrad and a rotational range of 300°. The opening and closing durations of the aperture are 96 ms and 97.2 ms, respectively, for a rotation range of 90°. The rotation angle of the actuator is linearly related to time, which shows that its performance is controlled well. The novel screw-coupled piezoelectric actuator for driving an aperture features high resolution, high speed, simple structure and compact size. (paper)

  4. Rotor Voltage Dynamics in the Doubly Fed Induction Generator During Grid Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Francisco K. A.; Luna, Alvaro; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new control strategy for the rotor-side converter (RSC) of wind turbines (WTs) based on doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) that intends to improve its low-voltage ride through capability. The main objective of this work is to design an algorithm that would enable the sys...

  5. Inclusion Compound Based Approach to Arrays of Artificial Dipolar Molecular Rotors. A Surface Inclusion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kobr, L.; Zhao, K.; Shen, K.; Comotti, A.; Bracco, S.; Shoemaker, R. K.; Sozzani, P.; Clark, N.A.; Price, J. C.; Rogers, C. T.; Michl, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 24 (2012), s. 10122-10131 ISSN 0002-7863 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 227756 - DIPOLAR ROTOR ARRAY Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : controlled rotary motion * solid-state dynamics * aromatic nanochannels * NMR-spectroscopy * single-molecule Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 10.677, year: 2012

  6. Utilization of rotor kinetic energy storage for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-05-03

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine, the power system comprises an electric machine (12) further comprising a first excitation source (47), a permanent magnet rotor (28) and a magnetic coupling rotor (26) spaced from the permanent magnet rotor and at least one second excitation source (43), the magnetic coupling rotor (26) also including a flywheel having an inertial mass to store kinetic energy during an initial acceleration to an operating speed; and wherein the first excitation source is electrically connected to the second excitation source for power cycling such that the flywheel rotor (26) exerts torque on the permanent magnet rotor (28) to assist braking and acceleration of the permanent magnet rotor (28) and consequently, the vehicle. An axial gap machine and a radial gap machine are disclosed and methods of the invention are also disclosed.

  7. Evaluation of effect of oil film of rotor bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, L. B.; Maksarov, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    The high-rpm rotors were subjected to the dynamic analysis. Oscillations of a rotor spinning in gapped bearings were considered. It was stated that the rotor necks motion pattern depends on a lot of factors: a ratio of static and dynamic loads on the bearing, radial clearance size, presence of oil film between a neck and a bearing, elastic and inertial properties of a mounting group. The most unfavourable mode where static and dynamic loads are equal was detected without taking into account the oil film impact. The impact of oil film on the bearing assembly dynamics is significant in high-rpm rotors. The presence of oil film can possibly cause rotor buckling failure and self-starting. Rotor motion stability in small was studied. Herewith, various schemes were considered. Expressions, determining the stability zones of a rigid rotor on the fixed support and the supports with elastic and inertial elements, were given.

  8. Rotor for a line start permanent magnet machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfi, Mike; Schiferl, Rich; Umans, Stephen

    2017-07-11

    A rotor comprises laminations with a plurality of rotor bar slots with an asymmetric arrangement about the rotor. The laminations also have magnet slots equiangularly spaced about the rotor. The magnet slots extend near to the rotor outer diameter and have permanent magnets disposed in the magnet slots creating magnetic poles. The magnet slots may be formed longer than the permanent magnets disposed in the magnets slots and define one or more magnet slot apertures. The permanent magnets define a number of poles and a pole pitch. The rotor bar slots are spaced from adjacent magnet slots by a distance that is at least 4% of the pole pitch. Conductive material is disposed in the rotor bar slots, and in some embodiments, may be disposed in the magnet slot apertures.

  9. Hover Testing of the NASA/Army/MIT Active Twist Rotor Prototype Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Wilkie, W. Keats; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Shin, Sangloon

    2000-01-01

    Helicopter rotor individual blade control promises to provide a mechanism for increased rotor performance and reduced rotorcraft vibrations and noise. Active material methods, such as piezoelectrically actuated trailing-edge flaps and strain-induced rotor blade twisting, provide a means of accomplishing individual blade control without the need for hydraulic power in the rotating system. Recent studies have indicated that controlled strain induced blade twisting can be attained using piezoelectric active fiber composite technology. In order to validate these findings experimentally, a cooperative effort between NASA Langley Research Center, the Army Research Laboratory, and the MIT Active Materials and Structures Laboratory has been developed. As a result of this collaboration an aeroelastically-scaled active-twist model rotor blade has been designed and fabricated for testing in the heavy gas environment of the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The results of hover tests of the active-twist prototype blade are presented in this paper. Comparisons with applicable analytical predictions of active-twist frequency response in hovering flight are also presented.

  10. Integral Twist Actuation of Helicopter Rotor Blades for Vibration Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, SangJoon; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.

    2001-01-01

    Active integral twist control for vibration reduction of helicopter rotors during forward flight is investigated. The twist deformation is obtained using embedded anisotropic piezocomposite actuators. An analytical framework is developed to examine integrally-twisted blades and their aeroelastic response during different flight conditions: frequency domain analysis for hover, and time domain analysis for forward flight. Both stem from the same three-dimensional electroelastic beam formulation with geometrical-exactness, and axe coupled with a finite-state dynamic inflow aerodynamics model. A prototype Active Twist Rotor blade was designed with this framework using Active Fiber Composites as the actuator. The ATR prototype blade was successfully tested under non-rotating conditions. Hover testing was conducted to evaluate structural integrity and dynamic response. In both conditions, a very good correlation was obtained against the analysis. Finally, a four-bladed ATR system is built and tested to demonstrate its concept in forward flight. This experiment was conducted at NASA Langley Tansonic Dynamics Tunnel and represents the first-of-a-kind Mach-scaled fully-active-twist rotor system to undergo forward flight test. In parallel, the impact upon the fixed- and rotating-system loads is estimated by the analysis. While discrepancies are found in the amplitude of the loads under actuation, the predicted trend of load variation with respect to its control phase correlates well. It was also shown, both experimentally and numerically, that the ATR blade design has the potential for hub vibratory load reduction of up to 90% using individual blade control actuation. Using the numerical framework, system identification is performed to estimate the harmonic transfer functions. The linear time-periodic system can be represented by a linear time-invariant system under the three modes of blade actuation: collective, longitudinal cyclic, and lateral cyclic. A vibration

  11. Single-crystal-material-based induced-shear actuation for vibration reduction of helicopters with composite rotor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, Prashant M; Jung, Sung Nam

    2008-01-01

    In this study, an assessment is made for the helicopter vibration reduction of composite rotor blades using an active twist control concept. Special focus is given to the feasibility of implementing the benefits of the shear actuation mechanism along with elastic couplings of composite blades for achieving maximum vibration reduction. The governing equations of motion for composite rotor blades with surface bonded piezoceramic actuators are obtained using Hamilton's principle. The equations are then solved for dynamic response using finite element discretization in the spatial and time domains. A time domain unsteady aerodynamic theory with free wake model is used to obtain the airloads. A newly developed single-crystal piezoceramic material is introduced as an actuator material to exploit its superior shear actuation authority. Seven rotor blades with different elastic couplings representing stiffness properties similar to stiff-in-plane rotor blades are used to investigate the hub vibration characteristics. The rotor blades are modeled as a box beam with actuator layers bonded on the outer surface of the top and bottom of the box section. Numerical results show that a notable vibration reduction can be achieved for all the combinations of composite rotor blades. This investigation also brings out the effect of different elastic couplings on various vibration-reduction-related parameters which could be useful for the optimal design of composite helicopter blades

  12. Single-crystal-material-based induced-shear actuation for vibration reduction of helicopters with composite rotor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Prashant M.; Jung, Sung Nam

    2008-12-01

    In this study, an assessment is made for the helicopter vibration reduction of composite rotor blades using an active twist control concept. Special focus is given to the feasibility of implementing the benefits of the shear actuation mechanism along with elastic couplings of composite blades for achieving maximum vibration reduction. The governing equations of motion for composite rotor blades with surface bonded piezoceramic actuators are obtained using Hamilton's principle. The equations are then solved for dynamic response using finite element discretization in the spatial and time domains. A time domain unsteady aerodynamic theory with free wake model is used to obtain the airloads. A newly developed single-crystal piezoceramic material is introduced as an actuator material to exploit its superior shear actuation authority. Seven rotor blades with different elastic couplings representing stiffness properties similar to stiff-in-plane rotor blades are used to investigate the hub vibration characteristics. The rotor blades are modeled as a box beam with actuator layers bonded on the outer surface of the top and bottom of the box section. Numerical results show that a notable vibration reduction can be achieved for all the combinations of composite rotor blades. This investigation also brings out the effect of different elastic couplings on various vibration-reduction-related parameters which could be useful for the optimal design of composite helicopter blades.

  13. Heating temperature effect on ferritic grain size of rotor steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheremnykh, V.G.; Derevyankin, E.V.; Sakulin, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The heating temperature effect on ferritic grain size of two steels 13Kh1M1FA and 25Kh1M1FA is evaluated. It is shown that exposure time increase at heating temperatures below 1000 deg C up to 10h changes but slightly the size of the Cr-Mo-V ferritic grain of rotor steel cooled with 25 deg C/h rate. Heating up to 1000 deg C and above leads to substantial ferritic grain growth. The kinetics of ferritic grain growth is determined by the behaviour of phases controlling the austenitic grain growth, such as carbonitrides VCsub(0.14)Nsub(0.78) in 13Kh1M1FA steel and VCsub(0.18)Nsub(0.72) in 25Kh1M1FA steel. Reduction of carbon and alloying elements content in steel composition observed at the liquation over rotor length leads to a certain decrease of ferritic grain resistance to super heating

  14. [Treatment of organic waste gas by adsorption rotor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Run-Ye; Zheng, Liang-Wei; Mao, Yu-Bo; Wang, Jia-De

    2013-12-01

    The adsorption rotor is applicable to treating organic waste gases with low concentration and high air volume. The performance of adsorption rotor for purifying organic waste gases was investigated in this paper. Toluene was selected as the simulative gaseous pollutant and the adsorption rotor was packed with honeycomb modified 13X molecular sieves (M-13X). Experimental results of the fixed adsorption and the rotor adsorption were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that some information on the fixed adsorption was useful for the rotor adsorption. Integrating the characteristics of the adsorbents, waste gases and the structures of the rotor adsorption, the formulas on optimal rotor speed and cycle removal efficiency of the adsorption rotor were deduced, based on the mass and heat balances of the adsorbing process. The numerical results were in good agreement with the experimental data, which meant that the formulas on optimal rotor speed and cycle removal efficiency could be effectively applied in design and operation of the adsorption rotor.

  15. Almost-global tracking for a rigid body with internal rotors

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Aradhana; Banavar, Ravi N.

    2017-01-01

    Almost-global orientation trajectory tracking for a rigid body with external actuation has been well studied in the literature, and in the geometric setting as well. The tracking control law relies on the fact that a rigid body is a simple mechanical system (SMS) on the $3-$dimensional group of special orthogonal matrices. However, the problem of designing feedback control laws for tracking using internal actuation mechanisms, like rotors or control moment gyros, has received lesser attention...

  16. Tenth ASME wind energy symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, D.E.; Veers, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at the Fourteenth Annual Energy-Sources Technology Conference and Exhibition. Included are the following papers: Wind Power Farm Site Selection, Turbulence characterization for wind energy development, Effects of insect configuration on wind turbine airfoils, Power fluctuations from horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines, Power regulation by active yaw control for a teetered wind rotor, and economic aspects of wind energy

  17. Improved servo-controlled inertial clock for laboratory tests of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyh, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    An inertial clock, consisting of a protected macroscopic rotor as the time base, was developed and tested preliminarily and partially by Cheung. This research offers considerable refinement of the equipment and the operating software, and includes serious testing of the experimental behavior. The inertial clock uses magnetic suspension to levitate a capped hollow cylindrical rotor (called the shroud rotor) within a vacuum chamber. A second rotor (called the proof rotor) is magnetically suspended within the shroud rotor. The shroud rotor is caused to corotate precisely with the rotating proof rotor by a microcomputer-controlled eddy current drive feedback servo loop. This produces a drag-free environment for the proof rotor which becomes the inertial timekeeper. In this way corotation effectively eliminates the residual gas drag on the proof rotor and the magnetic suspension bearing reduces bearing drag

  18. Closed continuous-flow centrifuge rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breillatt, Jr., Julian P.; Remenyik, Carl J.; Sartory, Walter K.; Thacker, Louis H.; Penland, William Z.

    1976-01-01

    A blood separation centrifuge rotor having a generally parabolic core disposed concentrically and spaced apart within a housing having a similarly shaped cavity. Blood is introduced through a central inlet and into a central passageway enlarged downwardly to decrease the velocity of the entrant blood. Septa are disposed inside the central passageway to induce rotation of the entrant blood. A separation chamber is defined between the core and the housing wherein the whole blood is separated into red cell, white cell, and plasma zones. The zones are separated by annular splitter blades disposed within the separation chamber. The separated components are continuously removed through conduits communicating through a face seal to the outside of the rotor.

  19. The Dynamics of Rotor with Rubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy T. Sawicki

    1999-01-01

    characteristics of rub-induced rotor response, initial conditions, as well as appropriate ranges of system parameters. Of special interest are the changes in the apparent nonlinearity of the system dynamics as rubs are induced at different rotor speeds. In particular, starting with 2nd order sub/superharmonics, which are symptomatic of quadratic nonlinearity, progressively higher order polynomial behavior is excited, i.e., cubic, giving rise to 3rd order sub/superharmonics. As the speed is transitioned between such apparent nonlinearities, chaotic like behavior is induced because of the lack of whole or rational tone tuning between the apparent system frequency and the external source noise. The cause of such behavior will be discussed in detail along with the results of several parametric studies.

  20. Design study of prestressed rotor spar concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleich, D.

    1980-01-01

    Studies on the Bell Helicopter 540 Rotor System of the AH-1G helicopter were performed. The stiffness, mass and geometric configurations of the Bell blade were matched to give a dynamically similar prestressed composite blade. A multi-tube, prestressed composite spar blade configuration was designed for superior ballistic survivability at low life cycle cost. The composite spar prestresses, imparted during fabrication, are chosen to maintain compression in the high strength cryogenically stretchformed 304-L stainless steel liner and tension in the overwrapped HTS graphite fibers under operating loads. This prestressing results in greatly improved crack propagation and fatigue resistance as well as enhanced fiber stiffness properties. Advantages projected for the prestressed composite rotor spar concept include increased operational life and improved ballistic survivability at low life cycle cost.

  1. Aerodynamic design of the National Rotor Testbed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, Christopher Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    A new wind turbine blade has been designed for the National Rotor Testbed (NRT) project and for future experiments at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility with a specific focus on scaled wakes. This report shows the aerodynamic design of new blades that can produce a wake that has similitude to utility scale blades despite the difference in size and location in the atmospheric boundary layer. Dimensionless quantities circulation, induction, thrust coefficient, and tip-speed-ratio were kept equal between rotor scales in region 2 of operation. The new NRT design matched the aerodynamic quantities of the most common wind turbine in the United States, the GE 1.5sle turbine with 37c model blades. The NRT blade design is presented along with its performance subject to the winds at SWiFT. The design requirements determined by the SWiFT experimental test campaign are shown to be met.

  2. High-fidelity linear time-invariant model of a smart rotor with adaptive trailing edge flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergami, Leonardo; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2017-01-01

    aero-servo-elastic model support the design, systematic tuning and model synthesis of smart rotor control systems. As an example application, the gains of an individual flap controller are tuned using the Ziegler-Nichols method for the full-order poles. The flap controller is based on feedback...

  3. Research on Modeling of the Agile Satellite Using a Single Gimbal Magnetically Suspended CMG and the Disturbance Feedforward Compensation for Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peiling; Yan, Ning

    2012-01-01

    The magnetically suspended Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) has the advantages of long-life, micro-vibration and being non-lubricating, and is the ideal actuator for agile maneuver satellite attitude control. However, the stability of the rotor in magnetic bearing and the precision of the output torque of a magnetically suspended CMG are affected by the rapid maneuvers of satellites. In this paper, a dynamic model of the agile satellite including a magnetically suspended single gimbal control moment gyroscope is built and the equivalent disturbance torque effected on the rotor is obtained. The feedforward compensation control method is used to depress the disturbance on the rotor. Simulation results are given to show that the rotor displacement is obviously reduced. PMID:23235442

  4. Research on Modeling of the Agile Satellite Using a Single Gimbal Magnetically Suspended CMG and the Disturbance Feedforward Compensation for Rotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Yan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The magnetically suspended Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG has the advantages of long-life, micro-vibration and being non-lubricating, and is the ideal actuator for agile maneuver satellite attitude control. However, the stability of the rotor in magnetic bearing and the precision of the output torque of a magnetically suspended CMG are affected by the rapid maneuvers of satellites. In this paper, a dynamic model of the agile satellite including a magnetically suspended single gimbal control moment gyroscope is built and the equivalent disturbance torque effected on the rotor is obtained. The feedforward compensation control method is used to depress the disturbance on the rotor. Simulation results are given to show that the rotor displacement is obviously reduced.

  5. Optimal Rotor Design of Line Start Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor by Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Minh Dinh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Line start permanent magnet synchronous motor (LSPMSM is one of the highest efficiency motors due to no rotor copper loss at synchronous speed and self-starting. LSPMSM has torque characteristics of both induction motor IM and Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor-PMSM. Using Genetic Algorithm (GA for balancing magnetic cost and for copper loss minimization, the magnetic sizes and geometry parameter of stator and rotor are found and manufactured for industrial evaluation. This article is also taking account practical manufacturing factors to minimize mass production cost. In order to maximize efficiency, an optimal design method of cage-bars and magnet shape has to be considered. The geometry parameters of stator and rotor can be obtained by an analytical model method and validated by FEM simulation. This paper presents the optimal rotor design of a three-phase line-start permanent magnet motor (LSPM considering the starting torque and efficiency. To consider nonlinear characteristics, the design process is comprised of the FEM and analytical method. During this study, permanent-magnets and cage bars were designed using the magnetic equivalent circuit method and the barriers that control all magnetic flux were designed using the FEM, and the tradeoff of starting torque and efficiency is controlled by weight function in Taguchi method simulation. Finally, some practical results have been obtained and analyzed based on a LSPMSM test bench.

  6. Transonic airfoil design for helicopter rotor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ahmed A.; Jackson, B.

    1989-01-01

    Despite the fact that the flow over a rotor blade is strongly influenced by locally three-dimensional and unsteady effects, practical experience has always demonstrated that substantial improvements in the aerodynamic performance can be gained by improving the steady two-dimensional charateristics of the airfoil(s) employed. The two phenomena known to have great impact on the overall rotor performance are: (1) retreating blade stall with the associated large pressure drag, and (2) compressibility effects on the advancing blade leading to shock formation and the associated wave drag and boundary-layer separation losses. It was concluded that: optimization routines are a powerful tool for finding solutions to multiple design point problems; the optimization process must be guided by the judicious choice of geometric and aerodynamic constraints; optimization routines should be appropriately coupled to viscous, not inviscid, transonic flow solvers; hybrid design procedures in conjunction with optimization routines represent the most efficient approach for rotor airfroil design; unsteady effects resulting in the delay of lift and moment stall should be modeled using simple empirical relations; and inflight optimization of aerodynamic loads (e.g., use of variable rate blowing, flaps, etc.) can satisfy any number of requirements at design and off-design conditions.

  7. An experimental study on improvement of Savonius rotor performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.H. Mahmoud

    2012-03-01

    In this work different geometries of Savonius wind turbine are experimentally studied in order to determine the most effective operation parameters. It was found that, the two blades rotor is more efficient than three and four ones. The rotor with end plates gives higher efficiency than those of without end plates. Double stage rotors have higher performance compared to single stage rotors. The rotors without overlap ratio (β are better in operation than those with overlap. The results show also that the power coefficient increases with rising the aspect ratio (α. The conclusions from the measurements of the static torque for each rotor at different wind speeds verify the above summarized results of this work.

  8. Rotor assembly and method for automatically processing liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1992-12-22

    A rotor assembly is described for performing a relatively large number of processing steps upon a sample, such as a whole blood sample, and a diluent, such as water. It includes a rotor body for rotation about an axis and includes a network of chambers within which various processing steps are performed upon the sample and diluent and passageways through which the sample and diluent are transferred. A transfer mechanism is movable through the rotor body by the influence of a magnetic field generated adjacent the transfer mechanism and movable along the rotor body, and the assembly utilizes centrifugal force, a transfer of momentum and capillary action to perform any of a number of processing steps such as separation, aliquoting, transference, washing, reagent addition and mixing of the sample and diluent within the rotor body. The rotor body is particularly suitable for automatic immunoassay analyses. 34 figs.

  9. HPOTP low-speed flexible rotor balancing, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1985-01-01

    A method was developed that shows promise in overcoming many balancing limitations. This method establishes one or more windows for low speed, out-of-housing balancing of flexible rotors. These windows are regions of speed and support flexibility where two conditions are simultaneously fulfilled. First, the rotor system behaves flexibly; therefore, there is separation among balance planes. Second, the response due to balance weights is large enough to reliably measure. The analytic formulation of the low-speed flexible rotor balancing method is described. The results of proof-of-principle tests conducted under the program are presented. Based on this effort, it is concluded that low speed flexible rotor balancing is a viable technology. In particular, the method can be used to balance a rotor bearing system at low speed which results in smooth operation above more than one bending critical speed. Furthermore, this balancing methodology is applicable to SSME turbopump rotors.

  10. Rotor blade boundary layer measurement hardware feasibility demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. R.; Lawton, T. D.

    1972-01-01

    A traverse mechanism which allows the measurement of the three dimensional boundary layers on a helicopter rotor blade has been built and tested on a full scale rotor to full scale conditions producing centrifugal accelerations in excess of 400 g and Mach numbers of 0.6 and above. Boundary layer velocity profiles have been measured over a range of rotor speeds and blade collective pitch angles. A pressure scanning switch and transducer were also tested on the full scale rotor and found to be insensitive to centrifugal effects within the normal main rotor operating range. The demonstration of the capability to measure boundary layer behavior on helicopter rotor blades represents the first step toward obtaining, in the rotating system, data of a quality comparable to that already existing for flows in the fixed system.

  11. A generic approach for photogrammetric survey using a six-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahar, K N; Mohd, W M N W; Ahmad, A; Akib, W A A W M

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a rapid production of slope mapping using multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The objective of this study is to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric results based on novel method of multi-rotor UAV images as well as to analyze the slope error distribution that are obtained from the UAV images. This study only concentrates on multi-rotor UAV which also known as Hexacopter. An operator can control the speed of multi-rotor UAV during flight mission. Several ground control points and checkpoints were established using Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK- GPS) at the slope area. Ground control points were used in exterior orientation during image processing in sequence to transform image coordinates into local coordinate system. Checkpoints were established at the slope area for accuracy assessment. A digital camera, Sony NEX-5N was used for image acquisition of slope area from UAV platforms. The digital camera was mounted vertically at the bottom of UAV and captured the images at an altitude. All acquired images went through photogrammetric processing including interior orientation, exterior orientation and bundle adjustment using photogrammetric software. Photogrammetric results such as digital elevation model, and digital orthophoto including slope map were assessed. UAV is able to acquire data within short period of time with low budget compared to the previous methods such as satellite images and airborne laser scanner. Analysis on slope analysis and error distribution analysis are discussed in this paper to determine the quality of slope map in the area of interest. In summary, multi-rotor UAV is suited in slope mapping studies

  12. Rotor calculations for neutron spectroscopy; Calculs des rotors de spectrometres a neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobert, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The determination of stress in a rotating disk plane of symmetry normal to the axis of rotation has been studied by a number of investigators. In a recent paper Reich gives an operating process for an analytical solution in an asymmetric rotating disk. In the report we give the calculation of finite difference stress solutions applicable to the two rotating disks. The equations are then programmed for the 360.75 computer by Fortran methods concerning the rotors of choppers. (author) [French] La determination des contraintes dans les disques symetriques, en rotation a ete etudiee par de nombreux auteurs. Dans un recent rapport, Reich donne une solution pour le calcul des disques asymetriques. Ce rapport concerne l'application du calcul des contraintes par differences finies aux deux types de rotors. Les equations ecrites en langage Fortran pour l'ordinateur 360.75 concerne les rotors de choppers. (auteur)

  13. Aeroelastic response and stability of tiltrotors with elastically-coupled composite rotor blades. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Mark W.

    1993-01-01

    There is a potential for improving the performance and aeroelastic stability of tiltrotors through the use of elastically-coupled composite rotor blades. To study the characteristics of tiltrotors with these types of rotor blades it is necessary to formulate a new analysis which has the capabilities of modeling both a tiltrotor configuration and an anisotropic rotor blade. Background for these formulations is established in two preliminary investigations. In the first, the influence of several system design parameters on tiltrotor aeroelastic stability is examined for the high-speed axial flight mode using a newly-developed rigid-blade analysis with an elastic wing finite element model. The second preliminary investigation addresses the accuracy of using a one-dimensional beam analysis to predict frequencies of elastically-coupled highly-twisted rotor blades. Important aspects of the new aeroelastic formulations are the inclusion of a large steady pylon angle which controls tilt of the rotor system with respect to the airflow, the inclusion of elastic pitch-lag coupling terms related to rotor precone, the inclusion of hub-related degrees of freedom which enable modeling of a gimballed rotor system and engine drive-train dynamics, and additional elastic coupling terms which enable modeling of the anisotropic features for both the rotor blades and the tiltrotor wing. Accuracy of the new tiltrotor analysis is demonstrated by a comparison of the results produced for a baseline case with analytical and experimental results reported in the open literature. Two investigations of elastically tailored blades on a baseline tiltrotor are then conducted. One investigation shows that elastic bending-twist coupling of the rotor blade is a very effective means for increasing the flutter velocity of a tiltrotor, and the magnitude of coupling required does not have an adverse effect on performance or blade loads. The second investigation shows that passive blade twist control via

  14. Rotor for processing liquids using movable capillary tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W.F.; Burtis, C.A.; Walker, W.A.

    1987-07-17

    A rotor assembly for processing liquids, especially whole blood samples, is disclosed. The assembly includes apparatus for separating non-liquid components of whole blood samples from liquid components, apparatus for diluting the separated liquid component with a diluent and apparatus for transferring the diluted sample to an external apparatus for analysis. The rotor assembly employs several movable capillary tubes to handle the sample and diluents. A method for using the rotor assembly to process liquids is also described. 5 figs.

  15. Uranium accumulation in CTF and ETF-II rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    In the expanding technology of uranium enrichment by gas centrifuge, efforts are being made to become more and more familar with the reactions taking place inside the rotor tube while the machine is operational. Inspection of the rotor after shutdown shows where uranium containing compounds are deposited. A study of these deposits from several ETF, CTF and CPL rotors has provided insight as to accumulation amounts, its composition and deposition parameters involved

  16. Rotor blade online monitoring and fault diagnosis technology research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesauro, Angelo; Pavese, Christian; Branner, Kim

    Rotor blade online monitoring and fault diagnosis technology is an important way to find blade failure mechanisms and thereby improve the blade design. Condition monitoring of rotor blades is necessary in order to ensure the safe operation of the wind turbine, make the maintenance more economical...... of the rotor, icing and lightning. Research is done throughout the world in order to develop and improve such measurement systems. Commercial hardware and software available for the described purpose is presented in the report....

  17. Tunneling of coupled methyl quantum rotors in 4-methylpyridine: Single rotor potential versus coupling interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Somayeh; Sebastiani, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    We study the influence of rotational coupling between a pair of methyl rotators on the tunneling spectrum in condensed phase. Two interacting adjacent methyl groups are simulated within a coupled-pair model composed of static rotational potential created by the chemical environment and the interaction potential between two methyl groups. We solve the two-dimensional time-independent Schrödinger equation analytically by expanding the wave functions on the basis set of two independent free-rotor functions. We investigate three scenarios which differ with respect to the relative strength of single-rotor and coupling potential. For each scenario, we illustrate the dependence of the energy level scheme on the coupling strength. It is found that the main determinant of splitting energy levels tends to be a function of the ratio of strengths of coupling and single-rotor potential. The tunnel splitting caused by coupling is maximized for the coupled rotors in which their total hindering potential is relatively shallow. Such a weakly hindered methyl rotational potential is predicted for 4-methylpyridine at low temperature. The experimental observation of multiple tunneling peaks arising from a single type of methyl group in 4-methylpyridine in the inelastic neutron scattering spectrum is widely attributed to the rotor-rotor coupling. In this regard, using a set of first-principles calculations combined with the nudged elastic band method, we investigate the rotational potential energy surface (PES) of the coaxial pairs of rotors in 4-methylpyridine. A Numerov-type method is used to numerically solve the two-dimensional time-independent Schrödinger equation for the calculated 2D-density functional theory profile. Our computed energy levels reproduce the observed tunneling transitions well. Moreover, the calculated density distribution of the three methyl protons resembles the experimental nuclear densities obtained from the Fourier difference method. By mapping the

  18. Equations of motion for a rotor blade, including gravity, pitch action and rotor speed variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Bjarne Skovmose

    2007-01-01

    This paper extends Hodges-Dowell's partial differential equations of blade motion, by including the effects from gravity, pitch action and varying rotor speed. New equations describing the pitch action and rotor speeds are also derived. The physical interpretation of the individual terms...... in the equations is discussed. The partial differential equations of motion are approximated by ordinary differential equations of motion using an assumed mode method. The ordinary differential equations are used to simulate a sudden pitch change of a rotating blade. This work is a part of a project on pitch blade...

  19. Numerical modeling of a rotor misalignment; Modelado numerico del desalineamiento de un rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon Pina, Roberto

    2009-12-15

    In the turbo-machinery area after an unbalancing, the misalignment is the fault that most frequently appears, and this one has been little studied compared to the unbalance. The misalignment appears when the geometric centers of two shafts and/or bearings do not coincide, these differences take place by different factors such as: incorrect installation of the bearings or rotors, thermal effects, or rotor weight, to mention some of them. The of the misalignment diagnosis continues being an area little studied, since the effects it generates are complex and include diverse physical processes reason why it presents/displays similar symptoms to those of other faults; thus, one of the methods that are used to diagnose this fault, is based on analyzing the vibration phantoms but this works only under particular conditions. In order to reproduce the dynamic behavior of a misaligned rotor, in the present work non-linear simplified models of the supports are used, whose objective is to contribute to facilitate future studies of the flow-dynamic behavior of the bearing, helping to identify the type and magnitude of the existing non-linearity in the supports and leaning in the analysis of the vibratory behavior of misaligned rotors observed in the field. [Spanish] En el area de turbomaquinaria despues del desbalance, el desalineamiento es la falla que se presenta con mayor frecuencia, y esta se ha estudiado poco comparada con el desbalance. El desalineamiento se presenta cuando los centros geometricos de dos flechas y/o chumaceras no coinciden, estas diferencias se producen por diferentes factores como: instalacion incorrecta de las chumaceras o rotores, efectos termicos, o el peso del rotor, por mencionar algunos. El diagnostico del desalineamiento sigue siendo una area poco estudiada, ya que los efectos que genera son complejos y abarcan diversos procesos fisicos por lo que presenta sintomas similares a los de otras fallas; asi, uno de los metodos que se utilizan para

  20. Simulation and experimental validation of the dynamical model of a dual-rotor vibrotactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklós, Á.; Szabó, Z.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a novel design for small vibrotactors called the Dual Excenter is presented, which makes it possible to produce vibrations with independently adjustable frequency and amplitude. This feature has been realized using two coaxially aligned eccentric rotors, which are driven by DC motors independently. The prototype of the device has been built, where mechanical components are integrated on a frame with two optical sensors for the measurement of angular velocity and phase angle. The system is equipped with a digital controller. Simulations confirm the results of analytical investigations and they allow us to model the sampling method of the signals of the angular velocity and the phase angle between the rotors. Furthermore, we model the discrete behavior of the controller, which is a PI controller for the angular velocities and a PID controller for the phase angle. Finally, simulation results are compared to experimental ones, which show that the Dual Excenter concept is feasible.

  1. Mathematical model of secondary rotor of centrifuge based on magnetic or electromagnetic overhead and bottom viscous damper taking into account flexibility and viscosity of rotor, and program of calculating dynamics of rotor in centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronov, I.N.

    1999-01-01

    The attempts to development of the rotor-dampers universal model with ability of fast correction of the parameters of mock-up rotor and dampers, their construction were made. The model that takes into account viscous characteristics of the material of the centrifuge rotor and allows research numerically into the rotor behaviour during over-speeding is suggested. The examples of calculations as show good effect of electromagnetic damping on the dynamics of the centrifuge rotor are given [ru

  2. Note: Attenuation motion of acoustically levitated spherical rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, P.; Hong, Z. Y.; Yin, J. F.; Yan, N.; Zhai, W.; Wang, H. P.

    2016-11-01

    Here we observe the attenuation motion of spherical rotors levitated by near-field acoustic radiation force and analyze the factors that affect the duration time of free rotation. It is found that the rotating speed of freely rotating rotor decreases exponentially with respect to time. The time constant of exponential attenuation motion depends mainly on the levitation height, the mass of rotor, and the depth of concave ultrasound emitter. Large levitation height, large mass of rotor, and small depth of concave emitter are beneficial to increase the time constant and hence extend the duration time of free rotation.

  3. Mechanical coupling for a rotor shaft assembly of dissimilar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun [Glastonbury, CT; Bombara, David [New Hartford, CT; Green, Kevin E [Broad Brook, CT; Bird, Connic [Rocky Hill, CT; Holowczak, John [South Windsor, CT

    2009-05-05

    A mechanical coupling for coupling a ceramic disc member to a metallic shaft includes a first wedge clamp and a second wedge clamp. A fastener engages a threaded end of a tie-bolt to sandwich the ceramic disc between the wedge clamps. An axial spring is positioned between the fastener and the second wedge clamp to apply an axial preload along the longitudinal axis. Another coupling utilizes a rotor shaft end of a metallic rotor shaft as one wedge clamp. Still another coupling includes a solid ceramic rotor disc with a multiple of tie-bolts radially displaced from the longitudinal axis to exert the preload on the solid ceramic rotor disc.

  4. PIV in a model wind turbine rotor wake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik; Naumov, Igor; Karbadin, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements of the flow in the wake of scale model of a horizontal axis wind turbine is presented Near the rotor, measurements are made in vertical planes intersecting the rotor axis These planes capture flow effect from the tip and root vortices...... perpendicular to the rotor axis is used to investigate the dynamics in the far wake Here, a precessing core is found and data indicate that the Strouhal number of the precessing is independent of the rotor speed...

  5. Dynamic Analysis of Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobitz, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    The dynamic response characteristics of the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) rotor are important factors governing the safety and fatigue life of VAWT systems. The principal problems are the determination of critical rotor speeds (resonances) and the assessment of forced vibration response amplitudes. The solution to these problems is complicated by centrifugal and Coriolis effects which can have substantial influence on rotor resonant frequencies and mode shapes. The primary tools now in use for rotor analysis are described and discussed. These tools include a lumped spring mass model (VAWTDYN) and also finite-element based approaches. The accuracy and completeness of current capabilities are also discussed.

  6. Open Rotor Noise Shielding by Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yueping; Czech, Michael J.; Thomas, Russell H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of open rotor noise shielding by Blended Wing Body (BWB) aircraft by using model scale test data acquired in the Boeing Low Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF) with a legacy F7/A7 rotor model and a simplified BWB platform. The objective of the analysis is the understanding of the shielding features of the BWB and the method of application of the shielding data for noise studies of BWB aircraft with open rotor propulsion. By studying the directivity patterns of individual tones, it is shown that though the tonal energy distribution and the spectral content of the wind tunnel test model, and thus its total noise, may differ from those of more advanced rotor designs, the individual tones follow directivity patterns that characterize far field radiations of modern open rotors, ensuring the validity of the use of this shielding data. Thus, open rotor tonal noise shielding should be categorized into front rotor tones, aft rotor tones and interaction tones, not only because of the different directivities of the three groups of tones, but also due to the differences in their source locations and coherence features, which make the respective shielding characteristics of the three groups of tones distinctly different from each other. To reveal the parametric trends of the BWB shielding effects, results are presented with variations in frequency, far field emission angle, rotor operational condition, engine installation geometry, and local airframe features. These results prepare the way for the development of parametric models for the shielding effects in prediction tools.

  7. Rotor pole refurbishment for hydrogenerators: insulation problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, R.R.; Rux, L.

    2005-01-01

    Rotor poles for Unit 1 at Lower Granite Powerhouse were removed from the rotor and shipped to a repair facility for refurbishment. Upon inspection, it was found that all of the pole bodies exhibited a distinct bow, center to end, on the pole mounting surface. In some cases, the deflection was as much as 0.106 inch. Concerns were raised about how this condition might affect the ability to properly insulate and/or re-seat the poles. This paper presents details of the rotor pole and field winding evaluation, the problems encountered, and the solutions implemented to successfully refurbish the rotor poles and field winding. (author)

  8. Numerical simulation of a hovering rotor using embedded grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Earl-Peter N.; Srinivasan, Ganapathi R.

    1992-01-01

    The flow field for a rotor blade in hover was computed by numerically solving the compressible thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations on embedded grids. In this work, three embedded grids were used to discretize the flow field - one for the rotor blade and two to convect the rotor wake. The computations were performed at two hovering test conditions, for a two-bladed rectangular rotor of aspect ratio six. The results compare fairly with experiment and illustrates the use of embedded grids in solving helicopter type flow fields.

  9. THEORY OF MUM FOR METAL SPHERICAL ROTOR WITH CONTACTLESS SUSPENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Xiaoxia; Gao Zhongyu; Wang Yongliang

    2004-01-01

    Based on the motion equations of an unbalanced spherical rotor with contactless suspension,three methods of MUM (mass unbalance measurement) are put forward to measure the total mass unbalance,radical mass unbalance and radical mass unbalance of the rotor.Total mass unbalance is obtained when the unbalanced rotor plays as a simple pendulum in static situation.The pendulant period and pendulant midpoint indicate magnitude and direction of total mass unbalance of the rotor respectively.Analysis of the motion equations by using the averaging method yields that the rotor will do a special side oscillation when an auxiliary system makes the rotor spin about its pole axis which is orientating toward the local vertical.The radical mass unbalance can be obtained by building a proper displacement sensor to sense the amplitude of the side oscillation.Necessary analysis of the motion equations also shows that when the rotor spins at a small angular velocity and the rotary axis is perpendicular to the vertical,the pole axis of the rotor will precess slowly about the vertical by virtue of the axial mass unbalance.The axial mass unbalance can be estimated from the time history of the spin vector of the rotor.Finally,measurement precision of the three methods is compared and how the external torque affects the measurement precision for the three methods are examined.

  10. Production of intermediate energy beams by high speed rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, C.W.; Bale, T.J.; Cosgrove, P.; Kirby, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    A rotor apparatus intended for the study of gas/surface interaction processes is presently nearing completion. The carbon fiber rotors under consideration are constructed with shapes derived from long thin cylindrical rods oriented with the longest axis in a horizontal plane, and spun in a horizontal plane about an axis which is perpendicular to the long axis and passes through the mid-point of the cylinder. The beam formation processes are discussed and rotor diagrams presented. Performance of these types of high speed rotor show them to have a very important future as sources of intermediate energy molecular beams

  11. Polarization-Dependent Measurements of Molecular Super Rotors with Oriented Angular Momenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Matthew J.; Toro, Carlos; Liu, Qingnan; Mullin, Amy S.

    2014-05-01

    Controlling molecular motion would enable manipulation of energy flow between molecules. Here we have used an optical centrifuge to investigate energy transfer between molecular super rotors with oriented angular momenta. The polarizable electron cloud of the molecules interacts with the electric field of linearly polarized light that angularly accelerates over the time of the optical pulse. This process drives molecules into high angular momentum states that are oriented with the optical field and have energies far from equilibrium. High resolution transient IR spectroscopy reveals the dynamics of collisional energy transfer for these super excited rotors. The results of this study leads to a more fundamental understanding of energy balance in non-equilibrium environments and the physical and chemical properties of gases in a new regime of energy states. Results will be presented for several super rotor species including carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and acetylene. Polarization-dependent measurements reveal the extent to which the super rotors maintain spatial orientation of high angular momentum states.

  12. The effect of solidity on the performance of H-rotor Darrieus turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S. M. Rakibul; Ali, Mohammad; Islam, Md. Quamrul

    2016-01-01

    Utilization of wind energy has been investigated for a long period of time by different researchers in different ways. Out of which, the Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine and the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine have now advanced design, but still there is scope to improve their efficiency. The Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) has the advantage over Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) for working on omnidirectional air flow without any extra control system. A modified H-rotor Darrieus type VAWT is analysed in this paper, which is a lift based wind turbine. The effect of solidity (i.e. chord length, no. of blades) on power coefficient (C_P) of H-rotor for different tip speed ratios is numerically investigated. The study is conducted using time dependent RANS equations using SST k-ω model. SIMPLE scheme is used as pressure-velocity coupling and in all cases, the second order upwind discretization scheme is chosen for getting more accurate solution. In results, different parameters are compared, which depict the performance of the modified H-rotor Darrieus type VAWT. Double layered H-rotor having inner layer blades with longer chord gives higher power coefficient than those have inner layer blades with smaller chord.

  13. The effect of solidity on the performance of H-rotor Darrieus turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, S. M. Rakibul; Ali, Mohammad; Islam, Md. Quamrul

    2016-07-01

    Utilization of wind energy has been investigated for a long period of time by different researchers in different ways. Out of which, the Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine and the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine have now advanced design, but still there is scope to improve their efficiency. The Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) has the advantage over Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) for working on omnidirectional air flow without any extra control system. A modified H-rotor Darrieus type VAWT is analysed in this paper, which is a lift based wind turbine. The effect of solidity (i.e. chord length, no. of blades) on power coefficient (CP) of H-rotor for different tip speed ratios is numerically investigated. The study is conducted using time dependent RANS equations using SST k-ω model. SIMPLE scheme is used as pressure-velocity coupling and in all cases, the second order upwind discretization scheme is chosen for getting more accurate solution. In results, different parameters are compared, which depict the performance of the modified H-rotor Darrieus type VAWT. Double layered H-rotor having inner layer blades with longer chord gives higher power coefficient than those have inner layer blades with smaller chord.

  14. Flap-lag stability data for a small-scale isolated hingeless rotor in forward flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnulty, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    An isolated, hingeless rotor with discrete flap and lead-lag flexures and relatively rigid blades was tested in the Aeroflightdynamics Directorate's 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel. The lead-lag stability of a structurally simple rotor configuration in forward flight was determined. The model tested had no cyclic pitch control, and was therefore operated untrimmed at several collective pitch angles, at shaft angles from 0 deg to -20 deg, and at advance ratios as high as 0.55. Two inplane natural frequencies, 0.61/rev and 0.72/rev, were tested for configuration both with and without structural flap lag coupling. Concomitant hover testing of the model was also conducted. Representative plots of the frequency and damping data are presented to show general trends, and complete tabular data and model properties information are included for use in detailed correlation exercises. The most prominent feature of the forward flight data is an abrupt increase in damping with advance ratio at certain high-speed, high shaft-angle conditions, with high flapping loads. The hover data are consistent with previous experimental and theoretical results for hingeless rotors without kinematic couplings. Overall, the data quality is very good and the data are expected to be useful in the development and validation of rotor aeroelastic stability analyses.

  15. The effect of solidity on the performance of H-rotor Darrieus turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, S. M. Rakibul, E-mail: rakibulhassan21@gmail.com; Ali, Mohammad, E-mail: mali@me.buet.ac.bd; Islam, Md. Quamrul, E-mail: quamrul@me.buet.ac.bd [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    Utilization of wind energy has been investigated for a long period of time by different researchers in different ways. Out of which, the Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine and the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine have now advanced design, but still there is scope to improve their efficiency. The Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) has the advantage over Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) for working on omnidirectional air flow without any extra control system. A modified H-rotor Darrieus type VAWT is analysed in this paper, which is a lift based wind turbine. The effect of solidity (i.e. chord length, no. of blades) on power coefficient (C{sub P}) of H-rotor for different tip speed ratios is numerically investigated. The study is conducted using time dependent RANS equations using SST k-ω model. SIMPLE scheme is used as pressure-velocity coupling and in all cases, the second order upwind discretization scheme is chosen for getting more accurate solution. In results, different parameters are compared, which depict the performance of the modified H-rotor Darrieus type VAWT. Double layered H-rotor having inner layer blades with longer chord gives higher power coefficient than those have inner layer blades with smaller chord.

  16. Simplified rotor load models and fatigue damage estimates for offshore wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskulus, M

    2015-02-28

    The aim of rotor load models is to characterize and generate the thrust loads acting on an offshore wind turbine. Ideally, the rotor simulation can be replaced by time series from a model with a few parameters and state variables only. Such models are used extensively in control system design and, as a potentially new application area, structural optimization of support structures. Different rotor load models are here evaluated for a jacket support structure in terms of fatigue lifetimes of relevant structural variables. All models were found to be lacking in accuracy, with differences of more than 20% in fatigue load estimates. The most accurate models were the use of an effective thrust coefficient determined from a regression analysis of dynamic thrust loads, and a novel stochastic model in state-space form. The stochastic model explicitly models the quasi-periodic components obtained from rotational sampling of turbulent fluctuations. Its state variables follow a mean-reverting Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Although promising, more work is needed on how to determine the parameters of the stochastic model and before accurate lifetime predictions can be obtained without comprehensive rotor simulations. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Two Rotor Stratified Charge Rotary Engine (SCRE) Engine System Technology Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, T.; Mack, J.; Mount, R.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes results of an evaluation of technology enablement component technologies as integrated into a two rotor Stratified Charge Rotary Engine (SCRE). The work constitutes a demonstration of two rotor engine system technology, utilizing upgraded and refined component technologies derived from prior NASA Contracts NAS3-25945, NAS3-24628 and NAS-23056. Technical objectives included definition of, procurement and assembly of an advanced two rotor core aircraft engine, operation with Jet-A fuel at Take-Off rating of 340 BHP (254kW) and operation at a maximum cruise condition of 255 BHP (190kW), 75% cruise. A fuel consumption objective of 0.435 LBS/BHP-Hr (265 GRS/kW-Hr) was identified for the maximum cruise condition. A critical technology component item, a high speed, unit injector fuel injection system with electronic control was defined, procured and tested in conjunction with this effort. The two rotor engine configuration established herein defines an affordable, advanced, Jet-A fuel capability core engine (not including reduction gear, propeller shaft and some aircraft accessories) for General Aviation of the mid-1990's and beyond.

  18. System for manufacturing wooden rotor blades for small wind mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, B

    1991-05-01

    Acknowledging the need (also in developing countries) for small windmill wings with various patterns and aerodynamic characteristics a simple, low-cost hand-controlled copying milling machine was built (with standard parts) to reduce production time for one wing to 1-2 hours. A sensor-roll transfers the airfoil pattern to a set of two saw blades, driven by an electric motor, which carves the airfoil out of a wooden beam. It is thus possible to cut out each cross section of the wing and manufacture a constantly reproducible rotor blade. The hard-foam airfoil models - their shapes, material and production, the laminated beam - the preparation of the wood and the lamination, and the copying milling machine itself - its design and how to build, operate and maintain it, are described in detail. (AB)

  19. Development and industrial utilisation of rotor balancing techniques at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanton, J.P.; Rondelet, D.

    1997-01-01

    The object of this document is to present, on the one hand, the industrial practice that exists at EDF in the area of rotor balancing, and, on the other hand, some recent development works, also in this area. One describes in a first part, for different types of machines concerned, the tools of calculation used, the performances that are obtained, and the encountered problems. Considering developments, one reminds first the characteristics of the EQUILOP 3.0 software, then one describes the validation that has been realized for it under a new computer environment. Additional operational possibilities that would be foreseeable for a new version of this software are indicated. A study currently under way of a balancing process which makes use of active control techniques is briefly described. Perspectives open by the utilization of numerical models of the machines as deduced from a recent study are exposed, and illustrated by a very simple example. (authors)

  20. Asynchronous machine rotor speed estimation using a tabulated numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huu Phuc; De Miras, Jérôme; Charara, Ali; Eltabach, Mario; Bonnet, Stéphane

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes a new method to estimate the rotor speed of the asynchronous machine by looking at the estimation problem as a nonlinear optimal control problem. The behavior of the nonlinear plant model is approximated off-line as a prediction map using a numerical one-step time discretization obtained from simulations. At each time-step, the speed of the induction machine is selected satisfying the dynamic fitting problem between the plant output and the predicted output, leading the system to adopt its dynamical behavior. Thanks to the limitation of the prediction horizon to a single time-step, the execution time of the algorithm can be completely bounded. It can thus easily be implemented and embedded into a real-time system to observe the speed of the real induction motor. Simulation results show the performance and robustness of the proposed estimator.

  1. T55 power turbine rotor multiplane-multispeed balancing study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    A rotordynamic analysis of the T55-L-11C engine was used to evaluate the balancing needs of the power turbine and to optimize the balancing procedure. As a result, recommendations were made for implementation of a multiplane-multispeed balancing plan. Precision collars for the attachment of trial weights to a slender rotor were designed enabling demonstration balancing on production hardware. The quality of the balance was then evaluated by installing a high speed balanced power turbine in an engine and running in a test cell at the Corpus Christi Army depot. The engine used had been tested prior to the turbine changeout and showed acceptable overall vibration levels for the engine were significantly reduced, demonstrating the ability of multiplane-multispeed balancing to control engine vibration.

  2. Design and initial testing of a one-bladed 30-meter-diameter rotor on the NASA/DOE mod-O wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, R. D.; Ensworth, C. B. F.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of a one-bladed horizontal-axis wind turbine has been of interest to wind turbine designers for many years. Many designs and economic analyses of one-bladed wind turbines have been undertaken by both United States and European wind energy groups. The analyses indicate significant economic advantages but at the same time, significant dynamic response concerns. In an effort to develop a broad data base on wind turbine design and operations, the NASA Wind Energy Project Office has tested a one-bladed rotor at the NASA/DOE Mod-O Wind Turbine Facility. This is the only known test on an intermediate-sized one-bladed rotor in the United States. The 15.2-meter-radius rotor consists of a tip-controlled blade and a counterweight assembly. A rigorous test series was conducted in the Fall of 1985 to collect data on rotor performance, drive train/generator dynamics, structural dynamics, and structural loads. This report includes background information on one-bladed rotor concepts, and Mod-O one-bladed rotor test configuration, supporting design analysis, the Mod-O one-blade rotor test plan, and preliminary test results.

  3. Reversible airfoils for stopped rotors in high speed flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemiec, Robert; Jacobellis, George; Gandhi, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    This study starts with the design of a reversible airfoil rib for stopped-rotor applications, where the sharp trailing-edge morphs into the rounded leading-edge, and vice-versa. A NACA0012 airfoil is approximated in a piecewise linear manner and straight, rigid outer profile links used to define the airfoil contour. The end points of the profile links connect to control links, each set on a central actuation rod via an offset. Chordwise motion of the actuation rod moves the control and the profile links and reverses the airfoil. The paper describes the design methodology and evolution of the final design, based on which two reversible airfoil ribs were fabricated and used to assemble a finite span reversible rotor/wing demonstrator. The profile links were connected by Aluminum strips running in the spanwise direction which provided stiffness as well as support for a pre-tensioned elastomeric skin. An inter-rib connector with a curved-front nose piece supports the leading-edge. The model functioned well and was able to reverse smoothly back-and-forth, on application and reversal of a voltage to the motor. Navier–Stokes CFD simulations (using the TURNS code) show that the drag coefficient of the reversible airfoil (which had a 13% maximum thickness due to the thickness of the profile links) was comparable to that of the NACA0013 airfoil. The drag of a 16% thick elliptical airfoil was, on average, about twice as large, while that of a NACA0012 in reverse flow was 4–5 times as large, even prior to stall. The maximum lift coefficient of the reversible airfoil was lower than the elliptical airfoil, but higher than the NACA0012 in reverse flow operation. (paper)

  4. Flowfield Characteristics on a Retreating Rotor Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-03

    Rotating Disk, IMECE2013 ASME 2013 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition. 21-NOV-13, . : , Michael Mayo, Nicholas Motahari...Number: Discipline Brandon Liberi 0.00 Jackson Merkl 0.00 Vaibhav Kumar 0.00 Nicholas Motahari 0.00 Ryan McMullen 0.00 0.00 5 NAME Total Number...horizontal and vertical pixel position of the far ends of the rotor hub and performing an inverse tan operation. Davis 7.2 software by LaVision was used to

  5. Bragg rotor spectrometer for tokamak diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnsley, R.; Evans, K.D.; Peacock, N.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses high thru'put broad band (1-24 angstrom) x-ray spectrometer having absolute calibration for wavelength and intensity and demonstrated on the DITE tokamak. This instrument has a self-contained vacuum system which allows full spatial scans of the DITE plasma. Data acquisition and drive mechanism for the rotor and filter selection are operated remotely from a SADA. Results are presented of fast spectral surveys and λ-lock time-evolution of impurity emission during neutral beam injection. Spatial scans of the absolute impurity concentrations are derived

  6. Rotor theories by Professor Joukowsky: Momentum theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kuik, G. A. M.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Okulov, V. L.

    2015-01-01

    in these developments. Although he cooperated with other famous aerodynamicists like Prandtl, his contribution is not well recognized as most of his publications are in Russian. The paper discusses the role of the English, Russian and German research schools in the beginning of the Twentieth Century...... is the basis of current rotor design codes. He applied some assumptions limiting the validity to moderate and high tip speed ratios. Sorensen and van Kuik published a solution for wind turbines with very low tip speed ratios, which is now expanded to propellers as well, with one remaining assumption...

  7. Design optimization for active twist rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Ji Won

    This dissertation introduces the process of optimizing active twist rotor blades in the presence of embedded anisotropic piezo-composite actuators. Optimum design of active twist blades is a complex task, since it involves a rich design space with tightly coupled design variables. The study presents the development of an optimization framework for active helicopter rotor blade cross-sectional design. This optimization framework allows for exploring a rich and highly nonlinear design space in order to optimize the active twist rotor blades. Different analytical components are combined in the framework: cross-sectional analysis (UM/VABS), an automated mesh generator, a beam solver (DYMORE), a three-dimensional local strain recovery module, and a gradient based optimizer within MATLAB. Through the mathematical optimization problem, the static twist actuation performance of a blade is maximized while satisfying a series of blade constraints. These constraints are associated with locations of the center of gravity and elastic axis, blade mass per unit span, fundamental rotating blade frequencies, and the blade strength based on local three-dimensional strain fields under worst loading conditions. Through pre-processing, limitations of the proposed process have been studied. When limitations were detected, resolution strategies were proposed. These include mesh overlapping, element distortion, trailing edge tab modeling, electrode modeling and foam implementation of the mesh generator, and the initial point sensibility of the current optimization scheme. Examples demonstrate the effectiveness of this process. Optimization studies were performed on the NASA/Army/MIT ATR blade case. Even though that design was built and shown significant impact in vibration reduction, the proposed optimization process showed that the design could be improved significantly. The second example, based on a model scale of the AH-64D Apache blade, emphasized the capability of this framework to

  8. Several rotor noise sources and treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangler, J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Noise has been a design consideration in the development of advanced blades and turbines at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. During atmospheric testing associated with these efforts various types of aeroacoustic noise have been encountered. This presentation discusses several of these noise sources and treatments used to mitigate or eliminate the noise. Tonal noise resulting from tip-vortex/trailing-edge interaction and laminar separation bubbles was found to be easily eliminated. Impulsive noise resulting from blade/vortex interaction for rotors that furl and that due to tower shadow can be mitigated by various means. (au)

  9. Linear dynamic coupling in geared rotor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, J. W.; Mitchell, L. D.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of high frequency oscillations caused by the gear mesh, on components of a geared system that can be modeled as rigid discs are analyzed using linear dynamic coupling terms. The coupled, nonlinear equations of motion for a disc attached to a rotating shaft are presented. The results of a trial problem analysis show that the inclusion of the linear dynamic coupling terms can produce significant changes in the predicted response of geared rotor systems, and that the produced sideband responses are greater than the unbalanced response. The method is useful in designing gear drives for heavy-lift helicopters, industrial speed reducers, naval propulsion systems, and heavy off-road equipment.

  10. Morphing Downwind-Aligned Rotor Concept Based on a 13-MW Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichter, Brian; Steele, Adam; Loth, Eric; Moriarty, Patrick; Selig, Michael

    2016-04-01

    To alleviate the mass-scaling issues associated with conventional upwind rotors of extreme-scale wind turbines (>/=10 MW), a morphing downwind-aligned rotor (MoDaR) concept is proposed herein. The concept employs a downwind rotor with blades whose elements are stiff (no intentional flexibility) but with hub-joints that can be unlocked to allow for moment-free downwind alignment. Aligning the combination of gravitational, centrifugal and thrust forces along the blade path reduces downwind cantilever loads, resulting in primarily tensile loading. For control simplicity, the blade curvature can be fixed with a single morphing degree of freedom using a near-hub joint for coning angle: 22 degrees at rated conditions. The conventional baseline was set as the 13.2-MW Sandia 100-m all glass blade in a three-bladed upwind configuration. To quantify potential mass savings, a downwind load-aligning, two-bladed rotor was designed. Because of the reduced number of blades, the MoDaR concept had a favorable 33% mass reduction. The blade reduction and coning led to a reduction in rated power, but morphing increased energy capture at lower speeds such that both the MoDaR and conventional rotors have the same average power: 5.4 MW. A finite element analysis showed that quasi-steady structural stresses could be reduced, over a range of operating wind speeds and azimuthal angles, despite the increases in loading per blade. However, the concept feasibility requires additional investigation of the mass, cost and complexity of the morphing hinge, the impact of unsteady aeroelastic influence because of turbulence and off-design conditions, along with system-level Levelized Cost of Energy analysis.

  11. Experimental Study on a Rotor for WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Marchalot, Tanguy

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the power conversion capabilities of one single rotor of the WEPTOS wave energy converter. The investigation focuses mainly on defining the optimal weight distribution in the rotor in order to improve the hydraulic performance through...

  12. Causal Scale of Rotors in a Cardiac System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikaga, Hiroshi; Prieto-Castrillo, Francisco; Kawakatsu, Mari; Dehghani, Nima

    2018-04-01

    Rotors of spiral waves are thought to be one of the potential mechanisms that maintain atrial fibrillation (AF). However, disappointing clinical outcomes of rotor mapping and ablation to eliminate AF raise a serious doubt on rotors as a macro-scale mechanism that causes the micro-scale behavior of individual cardiomyocytes to maintain spiral waves. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the causal relationship between rotors and spiral waves in a numerical model of cardiac excitation. To accomplish the aim, we described the system in a series of spatiotemporal scales by generating a renormalization group, and evaluated the causal architecture of the system by quantifying causal emergence. Causal emergence is an information-theoretic metric that quantifies emergence or reduction between micro- and macro-scale behaviors of a system by evaluating effective information at each scale. We found that the cardiac system with rotors has a spatiotemporal scale at which effective information peaks. A positive correlation between the number of rotors and causal emergence was observed only up to the scale of peak causation. We conclude that rotors are not the universal mechanism to maintain spiral waves at all spatiotemporal scales. This finding may account for the conflicting benefit of rotor ablation in clinical studies.

  13. The rotor theories by Professor Joukowsky: Vortex theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Wood, David H.

    2015-01-01

    This is the second of two articles with the main, and largely self-explanatory, title "Rotor theories by Professor Joukowsky". This article considers rotors with finite number of blades and is subtitled "Vortex theories". The first article with subtitle "Momentum theories", assessed the starring...

  14. Modeling of high speed micro rotors in moderate flow confinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikmen, E.; van der Hoogt, Peter; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Sas, P.; Bergen, B.

    2008-01-01

    The recent developments in high speed micro rotating machinery lead to the need for multiphysical modeling of the rotor and the surrounding medium. In this study, thermal and flow induced effects on rotor dynamics of geometries with moderate flow confinement are studied. The structure is modeled via

  15. Simulations of wind turbine rotor with vortex generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, Frederik; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents simulations of the DTU 10MW wind turbine rotor equipped with vortex generators (VGs) on the inner part of the blades. The objective is to study the influence of different VG configurations on rotor performance and in particular to investigate the radial dependence of VGs, i...

  16. Stability of Rotor Systems: A Complex Modelling Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kliem, Wolfhard; Pommer, Christian; Stoustrup, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    A large class of rotor systems can be modelled by a complex matrix differential equation of secondorder. The angular velocity of the rotor plays the role of a parameter. We apply the Lyapunov matrix equation in a complex setting and prove two new stability results which are compared...

  17. Effects of increasing tip velocity on wind turbine rotor design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resor, Brian Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maniaci, David Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Berg, Jonathan Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Richards, Phillip William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-05-01

    A reduction in cost of energy from wind is anticipated when maximum allowable tip velocity is allowed to increase. Rotor torque decreases as tip velocity increases and rotor size and power rating are held constant. Reduction in rotor torque yields a lighter weight gearbox, a decrease in the turbine cost, and an increase in the capacity for the turbine to deliver cost competitive electricity. The high speed rotor incurs costs attributable to rotor aero-acoustics and system loads. The increased loads of high speed rotors drive the sizing and cost of other components in the system. Rotor, drivetrain, and tower designs at 80 m/s maximum tip velocity and 100 m/s maximum tip velocity are created to quantify these effects. Component costs, annualized energy production, and cost of energy are computed for each design to quantify the change in overall cost of energy resulting from the increase in turbine tip velocity. High fidelity physics based models rather than cost and scaling models are used to perform the work. Results provide a quantitative assessment of anticipated costs and benefits for high speed rotors. Finally, important lessons regarding full system optimization of wind turbines are documented.

  18. Composite rotor blades for large wind energy installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussmann, A.; Molly, J.; Muser, D.

    1980-01-01

    The design of large wind power systems in Germany is reviewed with attention given to elaboration of the total wind energy system, aerodynamic design of the rotor blade, and wind loading effects. Particular consideration is given to the development of composite glass fiber/plastic or carbon fiber/plastic rotor blades for such installations.

  19. Composite rotor blades for large wind energy installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kussmann, A; Molly, J P; Muser, D

    1979-06-01

    The design of large wind power systems in Germany is reviewed with attention given to elaboration of the total wind energy system, aerodynamic design of the rotor blade, and wind loading effects. Particular consideration is given to the development of composite glass fiber/plastic or carbon fiber/plastic rotor blades for such installations.

  20. Vibration due to non-circularity of a rotating ring having discrete radial supports - With application to thin-walled rotor/magnetic bearing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakkaew, Wichaphon; Cole, Matthew O. T.

    2018-06-01

    This paper investigates the vibration arising in a thin-walled cylindrical rotor subject to small non-circularity and coupled to discrete space-fixed radial bearing supports. A Fourier series description of rotor non-circularity is incorporated within a mathematical model for vibration of a rotating annulus. This model predicts the multi-harmonic excitation of the rotor wall due to bearing interactions. For each non-circularity harmonic there is a set of distinct critical speeds at which resonance can potentially arise due to flexural mode excitation within the rotor wall. It is shown that whether each potential resonance occurs depends on the multiplicity and symmetry of the bearing supports. Also, a sufficient number of evenly spaced identical supports will eliminate low order resonances. The considered problem is pertinent to the design and operation of thin-walled rotors with active magnetic bearing (AMB) supports, for which small clearances exist between the rotor and bearing and so vibration excitation must be limited to avoid contacts. With this motivation, the mathematical model is further developed for the case of a distributed array of electromagnetic actuators controlled by feedback of measured rotor wall displacements. A case study involving an experimental system with short cylindrical rotor and a single radial AMB support is presented. The results show that flexural mode resonance is largely avoided for the considered design topology. Moreover, numerical predictions based on measured non-circularity show good agreement with measurements of rotor wall vibration, thereby confirming the validity and utility of the theoretical model.

  1. Anisotropic piezoelectric twist actuation of helicopter rotor blades: Aeroelastic analysis and design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, William Keats

    1997-12-01

    An aeroelastic model suitable for control law and preliminary structural design of composite helicopter rotor blades incorporating embedded anisotropic piezoelectric actuator laminae is developed. The aeroelasticity model consists of a linear, nonuniform beam representation of the blade structure, including linear piezoelectric actuation terms, coupled with a nonlinear, finite-state unsteady aerodynamics model. A Galerkin procedure and numerical integration in the time domain are used to obtain a soluti An aeroelastic model suitable for control law and preliminary structural design of composite helicopter rotor blades incorporating embedded anisotropic piezoelectric actuator laminae is developed. The aeroelasticity model consists of a linear, nonuniform beam representation of the blade structure, including linear piezoelectric actuation terms, coupled with a nonlinear, finite-state unsteady aerodynamics model. A Galerkin procedure and numerical integration in the time domain are used to obtain amited additional piezoelectric material mass, it is shown that blade twist actuation approaches which exploit in-plane piezoelectric free-stain anisotropies are capable of producing amplitudes of oscillatory blade twisting sufficient for rotor vibration reduction applications. The second study examines the effectiveness of using embedded piezoelectric actuator laminae to alleviate vibratory loads due to retreating blade stall. A 10 to 15 percent improvement in dynamic stall limited forward flight speed, and a 5 percent improvement in stall limited rotor thrust were numerically demonstrated for the active twist rotor blade relative to a conventional blade design. The active twist blades are also demonstrated to be more susceptible than the conventional blades to dynamic stall induced vibratory loads when not operating with twist actuation. This is the result of designing the active twist blades with low torsional stiffness in order to maximize piezoelectric twist authority

  2. Aerodynamic loads and rotor performance for the Darrieus wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraschivoiu, I.

    1981-12-01

    Aerodynamic blade loads and rotor performance are studied for the Darrieus windmill by using a double-multiple streamtube model. The Darrieus is represented as a pair of actuator disks in tandem at each level of the rotor, with upstream and downstream half-cycles. An equilibrium velocity exists in the center plane, and the upwind velocity is higher than the downwind velocity; lift and drag coefficients are calculated from the Reynolds number and the local angle of attack. Half-rotor torque and power are found by averaging the contributions from each streamtube at each position of the rotor in the upwind cycle. An example is provided for a 17 m Darrieus employing NACA blades. While the method is found to be suitable for predicting blade and rotor performance, the need to incorporate the effects of dynamic stall in the model is stressed as a means to improve accuracy.

  3. DESIGN EVALUATIONS OF DOUBLE ROTOR SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.V. ARAVIND

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The absence of magnets makes the reluctance machine typical for low cogging operations with the torque depending on the stator rotor interaction area. The air gap between stator pole and rotor pole gives a huge effect on the reluctance variation. The primitive double rotor switched reluctance machine lags to improvise the effect of the ripple value though the torque density is higher compared to conventional machines. An optimised circular hole position and dimensioned in the stator pole of lowers the torque ripple and reduce the acoustic noise as presented in this paper. A comparative evaluation of the conventional double rotor machine with this improved structure is done through numerical design and evaluations for the same sizing. It is found that the motor constant square density. It is found that the double rotor switched reluctance machine is improved by 140% to conventional machine.

  4. Disc rotors with permanent magnets for brushless DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawsey, Robert A.; Bailey, J. Milton

    1992-01-01

    A brushless dc permanent magnet motor drives an autonomous underwater vehe. In one embodiment, the motor comprises four substantially flat stators in stacked relationship, with pairs of the stators axially spaced, each of the stators comprising a tape-wound stator coil, and first and second substantially flat rotors disposed between the spaced pairs of stators. Each of the rotors includes an annular array of permanent magnets embedded therein. A first shaft is connected to the first rotor and a second, concentric shaft is connected to the second rotor, and a drive unit causes rotation of the two shafts in opposite directions. The second shaft comprises a hollow tube having a central bore in which the first shaft is disposed. Two different sets of bearings support the first and second shafts. In another embodiment, the motor comprises two ironless stators and pairs of rotors mounted on opposite sides of the stators and driven by counterrotating shafts.

  5. The application of advanced rotor (performance) methods for design calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussel, G.J.W. van [Delft Univ. of Technology, Inst. for Wind Energy, Delft (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    The calculation of loads and performance of wind turbine rotors has been a topic for research over the last century. The principles for the calculation of loads on rotor blades with a given specific geometry, as well as the development of optimal shaped rotor blades have been published in the decades that significant aircraft development took place. Nowadays advanced computer codes are used for specific problems regarding modern aircraft, and application to wind turbine rotors has also been performed occasionally. The engineers designing rotor blades for wind turbines still use methods based upon global principles developed in the beginning of the century. The question what to expect in terms of the type of methods to be applied in a design environment for the near future is addressed here. (EG) 14 refs.

  6. Remaining life assessment of a high pressure turbine rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ninh; Little, Alfie

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes finite element and fracture mechanics based modelling work that provides a useful tool for evaluation of the remaining life of a high pressure (HP) steam turbine rotor that had experienced thermal fatigue cracking. An axis-symmetrical model of a HP rotor was constructed. Steam temperature, pressure and rotor speed data from start ups and shut downs were used for the thermal and stress analysis. Operating history and inspection records were used to benchmark the damage experienced by the rotor. Fracture mechanics crack growth analysis was carried out to evaluate the remaining life of the rotor under themal cyclic loading conditions. The work confirmed that the fracture mechanics approach in conjunction with finite element modelling provides a useful tool for assessing the remaining life of high temperature components in power plants.

  7. The fracture mechanics of steam turbine electron beam welded rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Increased steam turbine unit ratings presupposes that steelmakers are capable of manufacturing larger and larger rotor components. However, there are few steelmakers in the world capable of manufacturing monobloc rotors for high rated turbines, which limits the choice of supplier. Most nuclear turbine rotors have a composite arrangement and are made either by shrinking discs on a shaft or using elements welded together. Those in favour of welding have applied a classical socalled ''submerged'' method using a filler metal. However welding can also be performed by using an Electron Beam in a vacuum room without a filler metal. This technique has many advantages: mechanical characteristics of the joint are identical to those of the base material after tempering without heat affected zones. Moreover, parts are only very slightly deformed during welding. Two steam turbine rotors have been produced in this way. This paper described the destructive tests carried out in the four Electron Beam (EB) welds (two on each rotor)

  8. Interlaminar stress analysis for carbon/epoxy composite space rotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Lian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the previous works that appears in the International Journal of Multiphysics, Varatharajoo, Salit and Goh (2010. An approach incorporating cohesive zone modelling technique is incorporated into an optimized flywheel to properly simulate the stresses at the layer interfaces. Investigation on several fiber stacking sequences are also conducted to demonstrate the effect of fiber orientations on the overall rotor stress as well as the interface stress behaviour. The results demonstrated that the rotor interlaminar stresses are within the rotor materials' ultimate strength and that the fiber direction with a combination of 45°/-45°/0° offers the best triple layer rotor among the few combinations selected for this analysis. It was shown that the present approach can facilitate also further investigation on the interface stress behaviour of rotating rotors.

  9. An Integrated NDE and FEM Characterization of Composite Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.

    2000-01-01

    A structural assessment by integrating finite-element methods (FEM) and a nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of two flywheel rotor assemblies is presented. Composite rotor A is pancake like with a solid hub design, and composite rotor B is cylindrical with a hollow hub design. Detailed analyses under combined centrifugal and interference-fit loading are performed. Two- and three-dimensional stress analyses and two-dimensional fracture mechanics analyses are conducted. A comparison of the structural analysis results obtained with those extracted via NDE findings is reported. Contact effects due to press-fit conditions are evaluated. Stress results generated from the finite-element analyses were corroborated with the analytical solution. Cracks due to rotational loading up to 49 000 rpm for rotor A and 34 000 rpm for rotor B were successfully imaged with NDE and predicted with FEM and fracture mechanics analyses. A procedure that extends current structural analysis to a life prediction tool is also defined.

  10. Effect of Bearing Housings on Centrifugal Pump Rotor Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, A. S.; Rudenko, A. A.; Simonovskiy, V. I.; Kozlov, O. M.

    2017-08-01

    The article deals with the effect of a bearing housing on rotor dynamics of a barrel casing centrifugal boiler feed pump rotor. The calculation of the rotor model including the bearing housing has been performed by the method of initial parameters. The calculation of a rotor solid model including the bearing housing has been performed by the finite element method. Results of both calculations highlight the need to add bearing housings into dynamic analyses of the pump rotor. The calculation performed by modern software packages is more a time-taking process, at the same time it is a preferred one due to a graphic editor that is employed for creating a numerical model. When it is necessary to view many variants of design parameters, programs for beam modeling should be used.

  11. Condition assessment of over 250 turbine and generator rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, D.R.; Jhansale, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Results of condition assessment studies on 259 turbine and generator rotors following bore inspections are presented. The rotors were manufactured by Allis-Chalmers, General Electric and Westinghouse. Methodologies and criteria used for nondestructive inspections, condition assessment and life extension procedures are described. Several trends are observed and some interesting conclusions offered. Essentially about 9.3% of the rotors evaluated required life extensions via overbore/bottlebore to remove harmful flaws, and/or revised cold start procedures to reduce thermal stresses. None of the rotors was condemned. Based on these studies, it is concluded that all rotors from units larger than 10 MW should be periodically inspected and their condition assessed on a case by case basis for continued reliable service

  12. Dynamic Characteristics of Rotors on Passive and Active Thrust Fluid-film Bearings with Fixed Pads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babin Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of fluid-film bearings in rotor machines in many cases could have no alternative due to obvious advantages when compared to roller element bearings. Integration of information technology in mechanical engineering resulting in emergence of a new field of research – mechatronic bearings which allowed tracking condition of the most important parts of a machine and adjusting operational parameters of the system. Application of servo valves to control the flow rate through a fluid-film bearing is the most universal and simple way of rotor’s position control due to relative simplicity of modelling and absence of need to radically change the design of conventional hydrodynamic bearings. In the present paper numerical simulations of passive (conventional as opposed to mechatronic and active hybrid thrust fluid-film bearings with a central feeding chamber are presented, that are parts of a mechatronic rotor-bearing node. Numerical model of an active thrust bearing is based on solution of equations of hydrodynamics, rotor dynamics and an additional model of a servo valve. Various types of control have been investigated: P, PI and PID control, and the dynamic behaviour of a system has been estimated under various loads, namely static, periodic and impulse. A design of a test rig has been proposed to study passive and active thrust fluid-film bearings aimed at, among other, validation of numerical results of active bearings simulation.

  13. Cascade Analysis of a Floating Wind Turbine Rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliassen, Lene; Jakobsen, Jasna B; Knauer, Andreas; Nielsen, Finn Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Mounting a wind turbine on a floating foundation introduces more complexity to the aerodynamic loading. The floater motion contains a wide range of frequencies. To study some of the basic dynamic load effect on the blades due to these motions, a two-dimensional cascade approach, combined with a potential vortex method, is used. This is an alternative method to study the aeroelastic behavior of wind turbines that is different from the traditional blade element momentum method. The analysis tool demands little computational power relative to a full three dimensional vortex method, and can handle unsteady flows. When using the cascade plane, a ''cut'' is made at a section of the wind turbine blade. The flow is viewed parallel to the blade axis at this cut. The cascade model is commonly used for analysis of turbo machineries. Due to the simplicity of the code it requires little computational resources, however it has limitations in its validity. It can only handle two-dimensional potential flow, i.e. including neither three-dimensional effects, such as the tip loss effect, nor boundary layers and stall effects are modeled. The computational tool can however be valuable in the overall analysis of floating wind turbines, and evaluation of the rotor control system. A check of the validity of the vortex panel code using an airfoil profile is performed, comparing the variation of the lift force, to the theoretically derived Wagner function. To analyse the floating wind turbine, a floating structure with hub height 90 m is chosen. An axial motion of the rotor is considered

  14. Dynamics of the line-start reluctance motor with rotor made of SMC material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smółka Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Design and control of electric motors in such a way as to ensure the expected motor dynamics, are the problems studied for many years. Many researchers tried to solve this problem, for example by the design optimization or by the use of special control algorithms in electronic systems. In the case of low-power and fractional power motors, the manufacture cost of the final product is many times less than cost of electronic system powering them. The authors of this paper attempt to improve the dynamic of 120 W line-start synchronous reluctance motor, energized by 50 Hz mains (without any electronic systems. The authors seek a road enabling improvement of dynamics of the analyzed motor, by changing the shape and material of the rotor, in such a way to minimize the modification cost of the tools necessary for the motor production. After the initial selection, the analysis of four rotors having different tooth shapes, was conducted.

  15. Inclusion Compound Based Approach to Forming Arrays of Artificial Dipolar Molecular Rotors: A Search for Optimal Rotor Structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kobr, L.; Zhao, K.; Shen, X.; Shoemaker, R. K.; Rogers, C. T.; Michl, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2013), s. 443-448 ISSN 0935-9648 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 227756 - DIPOLAR ROTOR ARRAY Grant - others:NSF(US) CHE 0848663 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : inclusion compounds * molecular rotors * ferroelectricity * two-dimensional arrays Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 15.409, year: 2013

  16. Vibration reduction methods and techniques for rotorcraft utilizing on-blade active control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rotor blades adapted for vibration control have the added benefit of extended blade and rotor life, as well as improved passenger comfort. Approaches that have been...

  17. Concepts for the development of light-weight composite structures for rotor burst containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holms, A. G.

    1977-01-01

    Based on published results on rotor burst containment with single materials, and on body armor using composite materials, a set of hypotheses is established as to what variables might control the design of a weight-efficient protective device. Based on modern concepts for the design and analysis of small optimum seeking experiments, a particular experiment for evaluating the hypotheses and materials was designed. The design and methods for the analysis of results are described.

  18. Rotor cage fault diagnosis in three-phase induction motors based on a current and virtual flux approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Dulce F.; Pires, V. Fernao; Martins, J.F.; Pires, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the detection of a rotor cage fault in a three-phase PWM feed induction motor. In inverter-fed machines there are some difficulties for the detection of a rotor cage fault. These difficulties are due to the fault signature that will be contained in the currents or voltages applied to the machine. In this way, a new approach based on the current and a virtual flux is proposed. The use of the virtual flux allows the improving of the signal to noise ratio. This approach also allows the identification of a rotor cage fault independently of the type of control used in the ac drive. The theoretical principle of this method is discussed. Simulation and experimental results are presented in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach

  19. Effects of the friction coefficient on the torque characteristics of a hydraulic cam-rotor vane motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Qiankun; Wang, Xuyong; Yuan, Fan; Chen, Liang Shen; Tao, Jian Feng [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Miao, Zhong Hua [School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University, Shanghai (China)

    2016-08-15

    The friction coefficient between the vane and the slot is one of the most critical factors that affects the performance of a continuous rotary hydraulic cam-rotor vane motor. To study the effects of this coefficient on the torque characteristics of the motor, the mathematical model for the normal force and the disturbing torque between the cam rotors and the vanes of the motor was established by analyzing the forces exerted on the vanes. The mathematical model was simulated with MATLAB, and simulation results show that an increase in the friction coefficient would simultaneously decrease the normal force and increase the disturbing torque, which would negatively affect the performance of the motor. Further experimental research indicated that the low-speed performance of the hydraulic cam-rotor motor was significantly improved when the friction coefficient was reduced by controlling the parallelism tolerance, flatness and roughness between the vanes and the slots.

  20. Analysis of a Stretched Derivative Aircraft with Open Rotor Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Hendricks, Eric S.; Haller, William J.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Research into advanced, high-speed civil turboprops received significant attention during the 1970s and 1980s when fuel efficiency was the driving focus of U.S. aeronautical research. But when fuel prices declined sharply there was no longer sufficient motivation to continue maturing the technology. Recent volatility in fuel prices and increasing concern for aviation's environmental impact, however, have renewed interest in unducted, open rotor propulsion and revived research by NASA and a number of engine manufacturers. Recently, NASA and General Electric have teamed to conduct several investigations into the performance and noise of an advanced, single-aisle transport with open rotor propulsion. The results of these initial studies indicate open rotor engines have the potential to provide significant reduction in fuel consumption compared to aircraft using turbofan engines with equivalent core technology. In addition, noise analysis of the concept indicates that an open rotor aircraft in the single-aisle transport class would be able to meet current noise regulations with margin. The behavior of derivative open rotor transports is of interest. Heavier, "stretched" derivative aircraft tend to be noisier than their lighter relatives. Of particular importance to the business case for the concept is how the noise margin changes relative to regulatory limits within a family of similar open rotor aircraft. The subject of this report is a performance and noise assessment of a notional, heavier, stretched derivative airplane equipped with throttle-push variants of NASA's initial open rotor engine design.

  1. Aeroelastic characteristics of the AH-64 bearingless tail rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, D.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a wind tunnel test program to determine the performance loads and dynamic characteristics of the Composite Flexbeam Tail Rotor (CFTR) for the AH-64 Advanced Attack Helicopter are reported. The CFTR uses an elastomeric shear attachment of the flexbeam to the hub to provide soft-inplane S-mode and stiff-inplane C-mode configuration. The properties of the elastomer were selected for proper frequency placement and scale damping of the inplane S-mode. Kinematic pitch-lag coupling was introduced to provide the first cyclic inplane C-mode damping at high collective pitch. The CFTR was tested in a wind tunnel over the full slideslip envelop of the AH-64. It is found that the rotor was aeroelastically stable throughout the complete collective pitch range and up to rotor speeds of 1403 rpm. The dynamic characteristics of the rotor were found to be satisfactory at all pitch angles and rotor speeds of the tunnel tests. The design characteristics of the rotor which permit the high performance characteristics are discussed. Several schematic drawings and photographs of the rotor are provided.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Tower Rotor Interaction for Downwind Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam Janajreh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Downwind wind turbines have lower upwind rotor misalignment, and thus lower turning moment and self-steered advantage over the upwind configuration. In this paper, numerical simulation to the downwind turbine is conducted to investigate the interaction between the tower and the blade during the intrinsic passage of the rotor in the wake of the tower. The moving rotor has been accounted for via ALE formulation of the incompressible, unsteady, turbulent Navier-Stokes equations. The localized CP, CL, and CD are computed and compared to undisturbed flow evaluated by Panel method. The time history of the CP, aerodynamic forces (CL and CD, as well as moments were evaluated for three cross-sectional tower; asymmetrical airfoil (NACA0012 having four times the rotor's chord length, and two circular cross-sections having four and two chords lengths of the rotor's chord. 5%, 17%, and 57% reductions of the aerodynamic lift forces during the blade passage in the wake of the symmetrical airfoil tower, small circular cross-section tower and large circular cross-section tower were observed, respectively. The pronounced reduction, however, is confined to a short time/distance of three rotor chords. A net forward impulsive force is also observed on the tower due to the high speed rotor motion.

  3. Redesign of steam turbine rotor blades and rotor packages – Environmental analysis within systematic eco-design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Systematic approach to eco-design of steam turbine rotor blades was applied. • Eco-innovative solutions are based on structural and technological change. • At the stage of detailed design the variants were analyzed using LCA. • Main achieved benefits: energy and material savings, lower environmental impact. • Benefits related to the possible scale of the solution practical application. - Abstract: Eco-design of steam turbine blades could be one of the possibilities of decreasing the environmental impact of energy systems based on turbines. The paper investigates the eco-design approach to elaboration of the rotor blades and packages. The purpose is to present the course of eco-design of the rotor blades and the rotor packages taking account of eco-design assumptions, solutions and the concept itself. The following eco-design variants of the rotor blades and the rotor packages are considered: elements of the rotor blades made separately (baseline variant of the rotor blades); elements of the rotor blades made of one piece of material; blades in packages made separately and welded (baseline variant of the rotor packages); packages milled as integral elements. At the stage of detailed design, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed in relation to a functional unit – the rotor blades and packages ready for installation in a steam turbine, which is the stage of the turbine. The obtained results indicate that eco-innovative solutions for the turbine blades and packages could be achieved through structural and technological changes. Applying new solutions of the rotor blades may produce the following main benefits: 3.3% lower use of materials, 29.4% decrease in energy consumption at the manufacturing stage, 7.7% decrease in the environmental impact in the life cycle. In relation to the rotor packages, the following main benefits may be achieved: 20.5% lower use of materials, 25.0% decrease in energy consumption at the production stage, 16

  4. How far is smart rotor research and what steps need to be taken to build a full-scale prototype?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhammer, L.O.; Van Kuik, G.A.M.; De Breuker, R.

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade research on the field of smart rotor has advanced significantly. Fundamental aerodynamics, structural and control concepts have been established and simulators created for distributed flaps on wind turbine blades, which are considered the most promising option. Also a proof of

  5. Multidisciplinary Aerodynamic Design of a Rotor Blade for an Optimum Rotor Speed Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayi Xie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aerodynamic design of rotor blades is challenging, and is crucial for the development of helicopter technology. Previous aerodynamic optimizations that focused only on limited design points find it difficult to balance flight performance across the entire flight envelope. This study develops a global optimum envelope (GOE method for determining blade parameters—blade twist, taper ratio, tip sweep—for optimum rotor speed helicopters (ORS-helicopters, balancing performance improvements in hover and various freestream velocities. The GOE method implements aerodynamic blade design by a bi-level optimization, composed of a global optimization step and a secondary optimization step. Power loss as a measure of rotor performance is chosen as the objective function, referred to as direct power loss (DPL in this study. A rotorcraft comprehensive code for trim simulation with a prescribed wake method is developed. With the application of the GOE method, a DPL reduction of as high as 16.7% can be achieved in hover, and 24% at high freestream velocity.

  6. Structural modeling for multicell composite rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfield, Lawrence W.; Atilgan, Ali R.

    1987-01-01

    Composite material systems are currently good candidates for aerospace structures, primarily for the design flexibility they offer, i.e., it is possible to tailor the material and manufacturing approach to the application. A working definition of elastic or structural tailoring is the use of structural concept, fiber orientation, ply stacking sequence, and a blend of materials to achieve specific performance goals. In the design process, choices of materials and dimensions are made which produce specific response characteristics, and which permit the selected goals to be achieved. Common choices for tailoring goals are preventing instabilities or vibration resonances or enhancing damage tolerance. An essential, enabling factor in the design of tailored composite structures is structural modeling that accurately, but simply, characterizes response. The objective of this paper is to present a new multicell beam model for composite rotor blades and to validate predictions based on the new model by comparison with a finite element simulation in three benchmark static load cases.

  7. Complex harmonic modal analysis of rotor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dong Ju

    2015-01-01

    Complex harmonic analysis for rotor systems has been proposed from the strict complex modal analysis based upon Floquet theory. In this process the harmonic balance method is adopted, effectively associated with conventional eigenvalue analysis. Also, the harmonic coefficients equivalent to dFRFs in harmonic mode has been derived in practice. The modes are classified from identifying the modal characteristics, and the adaptation of harmonic balance method has been proven by comparing the results of the stability analyses from Floque theory and the eigen analysis. The modal features of each critical speed are depicted in quantitatively and qualitatively by showing that the strengths of each component of the harmonic coefficients are estimated from the order of magnitude analysis according to their harmonic patterns. This effectiveness has been verified by comparing with the numerical solutions

  8. Adaptive trailing edge flaps for active load alleviation in a smart rotor configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergami, L.

    2013-08-15

    The work investigates the development of an active smart rotor concept from an aero-servo-elastic perspective. An active smart rotor is a wind turbine rotor that, through a combination of sensors, control units and actuators, is able to alleviate the fluctuating part of the aerodynamic loads it has to withstand. The investigation focuses on a specific actuator type: the Adaptive Trailing Edge Flap (ATEF), which introduces a continuous deformation of the aft part of the airfoil camber-line. An aerodynamic model that accounts for the steady and unsteady effects of the flap deflection on a 2D airfoil section is developed, and, considering both attached and separated flow conditions, is validated by comparison against Computational Fluid Dynamic solutions and a panel code method. The aerodynamic model is integrated in the BEM-based aeroelastic simulation code HAWC2, thus providing a tool able to simulate the response of a wind turbine equipped with ATEF. A load analysis of the NREL 5 MW reference turbine in its baseline configuration reveals that the highest contribution to the blade flapwise fatigue damage originates from normal operation above rated wind speed, and from loads characterized by frequencies below 1 Hz. The analysis also reports that periodic load variations on the turbine blade account for nearly 11 % of the blade flapwise lifetime fatigue damage, while the rest is ascribed to load variations from disturbances of stochastic nature. The study proposes a smart rotor configuration with flaps laid out on the outer 20 % of the blade span, from 77 % to 97% of the blade length. The configuration is first tested with a simplified cyclic control approach, which gives a preliminary indication of the load alleviation potential, and also reveals the possibility to enhance the rotor energy capture below rated conditions by using the flaps. Two model based control algorithms are developed to actively alleviate the fatigue loads on the smart rotor with ATEF. The first

  9. Prospects for development of wind turbines with orthogonal rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelov, D. N.; Krivospitsky, V. P.

    2008-03-01

    The experimental data obtained previously on the investigation of power characteristics and the possibility of the self-start of the Darrieus rotor are anlysed. These results are used at the design of new two-tier wind turbines with straight blades. The full-scale tests of two design variants showed the prospects for the development of wind turbines with the Darrieus rotor. At a reasonable design, they do not need any devices for the rotor orientation and start-up, are little sensitive to wind gusts and can have a high level of power characteristics, which is not inferior to the best samples of the units of propeller type.

  10. CAA modeling of helicopter main rotor in hover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusyumov Alexander N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work rotor aeroacoustics in hover is considered. Farfield observers are used and the nearfield flow parameters are obtained using the in house HMB and commercial Fluent CFD codes (identical hexa-grids are used for both solvers. Farfield noise at a remote observer position is calculated at post processing stage using FW–H solver implemented in Fluent and HMB. The main rotor of the UH-1H helicopter is considered as a test case for comparison to experimental data. The sound pressure level is estimated for different rotor blade collectives and observation angles.

  11. Aerodynamic Support of a Big Industrial Turboblower Rotor

    OpenAIRE

    Šimek, Jiří; Kozánek, Jan; Šafr, Milan

    2007-01-01

    Aerodynamic bearing support for the rotor of a 100 kW input industrial turboblower with operational speed of 18 000 rpm was designed and manufactured. Rotor with mass of about 50 kg is supported in two tilting-pad journal bearings 120 mm in diameter, axial forces are taken up by aerodynamic spiral groove thrust bearing 250 mm in diameter. Some specific features of the bearing design are described in the paper and the results of rotor support tests are presented. The paper is an extended versi...

  12. Computations of Torque-Balanced Coaxial Rotor Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seokkwan; Chan, William M.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    Interactional aerodynamics has been studied for counter-rotating coaxial rotors in hover. The effects of torque balancing on the performance of coaxial-rotor systems have been investigated. The three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved on overset grids using high-order accurate schemes, dual-time stepping, and a hybrid turbulence model. Computational results for an experimental model are compared to available data. The results for a coaxial quadcopter vehicle with and without torque balancing are discussed. Understanding interactions in coaxial-rotor flows would help improve the design of next-generation autonomous drones.

  13. Dynamic Analysis of Rotor Systems Considering Ball Bearing Contact Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngjin; Lee, Jongmahn; Oh, Dongho

    2013-01-01

    We propose a finite element modeling method considering the ball bearing contact mechanism, and the developed method was verified through experimental and analytical results of inner and outer race-type rotor systems. A comparison of the proposed method with conventional method reveals that there is little difference in the results of the inner race-type rotor system, but there are considerable differences in the results of the outer race-type rotor system such that predictions of greater accuracy can be made. Therefore, the proposed method can be used for accurately predicting the dynamic characteristics of an outer race-type rotary machine

  14. Corrosion cracking of rotor steels of steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melekhov, R.K.; Litvintseva, E.N.

    1994-01-01

    Results of investigation of stress corrosion cracking of steam turbine materials in nuclear, fossil and geothermal power plants have been analysed. The role of factors that cause damage to rotor discs, mono block and welding rotors of steam turbines has been shown. These are yield stress and steel composition, stress intensity coefficient and crack growth rate, composition and temperature of the condensed steam and water, electrochemical conditions. The conclusion has been made about the state of stress corrosion cracking of the rotors materials, and main investigation trends which are necessary to solve this problem have been listed

  15. CAA modeling of helicopter main rotor in hover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusyumov, Alexander N.; Mikhailov, Sergey A.; Batrakov, Andrey S.; Kusyumov, Sergey A.; Barakos, George

    In this work rotor aeroacoustics in hover is considered. Farfield observers are used and the nearfield flow parameters are obtained using the in house HMB and commercial Fluent CFD codes (identical hexa-grids are used for both solvers). Farfield noise at a remote observer position is calculated at post processing stage using FW-H solver implemented in Fluent and HMB. The main rotor of the UH-1H helicopter is considered as a test case for comparison to experimental data. The sound pressure level is estimated for different rotor blade collectives and observation angles.

  16. Design of a wind turbine rotor for maximum aerodynamic efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Gaunaa, Mac

    2009-01-01

    The design of a three-bladed wind turbine rotor is described, where the main focus has been highest possible mechanical power coefficient, CP, at a single operational condition. Structural, as well as off-design, issues are not considered, leading to a purely theoretical design for investigating...... maximum aerodynamic efficiency. The rotor is designed assuming constant induction for most of the blade span, but near the tip region, a constant load is assumed instead. The rotor design is obtained using an actuator disc model, and is subsequently verified using both a free-wake lifting line method...

  17. Finite Element Analysis of the Rotor System of a Magnetically Suspended Compound Molecule Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Pingfan; Zhao Lei; Shi Zhengang; Yang Guojun

    2014-01-01

    A novel magnetically suspended compound molecule pump has been designed, which has been supported by the active magnetic bearings (AMBs) system with 5 degrees of freedom. According to the characteristics of the high speed and AMBs, the rotor system of the magnetically suspended compound molecule pump has been analyzed by the finite element method. Modal analysis has been performed for the rotor, thus modal frequencies and corresponding modal shapes have been obtained. For the high rotating speed the blades usually have tended to be destroyed as the results of the centrifugal deformation and vibration. So several static parameters have been analyzed, such as stress distributions and deformations. Simulation results provide a theoretical foundation for the design of the magnetically suspended compound molecule pump’s controllers. The reliability and safety of the structure have been verified completely. Furthermore, this paper is of great significance for the pumps’ future developments. (author)

  18. CFD Modeling and Simulation of Aeorodynamic Cooling of Automotive Brake Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhocien, Ali; Omar, Wan Zaidi Wan

    Braking system is one of the important control systems of an automotive. For many years, the disc brakes have been used in automobiles for the safe retarding of the vehicles. During the braking enormous amount of heat will be generated and for effective braking sufficient heat dissipation is essential. The thermal performance of disc brake depends upon the characteristics of the airflow around the brake rotor and hence the aerodynamics is an important in the region of brake components. A CFD analysis is carried out on the braking system as a case study to make out the behavior of airflow distribution around the disc brake components using ANSYS CFX software. We are interested in the determination of the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) on each surface of a ventilated disc rotor varying with time in a transient state using CFD analysis, and then imported the surface film condition data into a corresponding FEM model for disc temperature analysis.

  19. Energy and momentum management of the Space Station using magnetically suspended composite rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhaure, D. B.; Oglevie, R. E.; Keckler, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    The research addresses the feasibility of using magnetically suspended composite rotors to jointly perform the energy and momentum management functions of an advanced manned Space Station. Recent advancements in composite materials, magnetic suspensions, and power conversion electronics have given flywheel concepts the potential to simultaneously perform these functions for large, long duration spacecraft, while offering significant weight, volume, and cost savings over conventional approaches. The Space Station flywheel concept arising out of this study consists of a composite-material rotor, a large-angle magnetic suspension (LAMS) system, an ironless armature motor/generator, and high-efficiency power conversion electronics. The LAMS design permits the application of appropriate spacecraft control torques without the use of conventional mechanical gimbals. In addition, flywheel systems have the growth potential and modularity needed to play a key role in many future system developments.

  20. A simulation study of active feedback supression of dynamic response in helicopter rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, D. D.; Bessey, R. L.; Dodge, F. T.

    1975-01-01

    A parameter study is presented for active feedback control applied to a helicopter rotor blade during forward flight. The study was performed on an electromechanical apparatus which included a mechanical model rotor blade and electronic analog simulation of interaction between blade deflections and aerodynamic loading. Blade response parameters were obtained for simulated vortex impinging at the blade tip at one pulse per revolution, and for a pulse which traveled from the blade tip toward its root. Results show that the response in a 1 - 10-per-rev frequency band is diminished by the feedback action, but at the same time responses at frequencies above 10-per-rev become increasingly more prominent with increased feedback amplitude, and can even lead to instability at certain levels. It appears that the latter behavior results from limitations of the laboratory simulation apparatus, rather than genuine potential behavior for a prototype helicopter.

  1. System and method for smoothing a salient rotor in electrical machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Alexander, James Pellegrino; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Torrey, David A.

    2016-12-13

    An electrical machine exhibiting reduced friction and windage losses is disclosed. The electrical machine includes a stator and a rotor assembly configured to rotate relative to the stator, wherein the rotor assembly comprises a rotor core including a plurality of salient rotor poles that are spaced apart from one another around an inner hub such that an interpolar gap is formed between each adjacent pair of salient rotor poles, with an opening being defined by the rotor core in each interpolar gap. Electrically non-conductive and non-magnetic inserts are positioned in the gaps formed between the salient rotor poles, with each of the inserts including a mating feature formed an axially inner edge thereof that is configured to mate with a respective opening being defined by the rotor core, so as to secure the insert to the rotor core against centrifugal force experienced during rotation of the rotor assembly.

  2. Design of bearings for rotor systems based on stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, D.; Barrett, L. E.; Knospe, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    Design of rotor systems incorporating stable behavior is of great importance to manufacturers of high speed centrifugal machinery since destabilizing mechanisms (from bearings, seals, aerodynamic cross coupling, noncolocation effects from magnetic bearings, etc.) increase with machine efficiency and power density. A new method of designing bearing parameters (stiffness and damping coefficients or coefficients of the controller transfer function) is proposed, based on a numerical search in the parameter space. The feedback control law is based on a decentralized low order controller structure, and the various design requirements are specified as constraints in the specification and parameter spaces. An algorithm is proposed for solving the problem as a sequence of constrained 'minimax' problems, with more and more eigenvalues into an acceptable region in the complex plane. The algorithm uses the method of feasible directions to solve the nonlinear constrained minimization problem at each stage. This methodology emphasizes the designer's interaction with the algorithm to generate acceptable designs by relaxing various constraints and changing initial guesses interactively. A design oriented user interface is proposed to facilitate the interaction.

  3. The Parrot UAV Controlled by PID Controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Koszewnik Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the process of modeling and designing control laws for four-rotor type of the Parrot UAV. The state space model is obtained by using several phenomena like gyroscopic effects for rigid bodies, propellers and rotors. The obtained model has been used to design PID control laws for roll, pitch, yaw angle and altitude, respectively. The numerical simulations of the closed loop model are shown that system in satisfy way stabilize flight of the quadro-rotor in all considered dire...

  4. The Parrot UAV Controlled by PID Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszewnik Andrzej

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the process of modeling and designing control laws for four-rotor type of the Parrot UAV. The state space model is obtained by using several phenomena like gyroscopic effects for rigid bodies, propellers and rotors. The obtained model has been used to design PID control laws for roll, pitch, yaw angle and altitude, respectively. The numerical simulations of the closed loop model are shown that system in satisfy way stabilize flight of the quadro-rotor in all considered directions.

  5. DESARROLLO DE UN INSTRUMENTO VIRTUAL PARA EL BALANCEAMIENTO DINAMICO DE ROTORES DEVELOPMENT OF A VIRTUAL INSTRUMENT FOR ROTOR DYNAMICS BALANCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Estupiñán P

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo resalta la importancia del balanceamiento de rotores como principal herramienta dentro de las tareas correctivas del mantenimiento predictivo, con el fin de que se reduzcan las vibraciones y sus efectos secundarios en las máquinas rotatorias. Se ha desarrollado un instrumento virtual para el balanceamiento dinámico de rotores, basado en un sistema de adquisición de datos (SAD. El instrumento tiene incluidos todos los cálculos necesarios para balancear rotores en un plano y en dos planos, a partir de la medición de los datos de vibración, utilizando el procedimiento de los coeficientes de influencia o utilizando un procedimiento de medición sin fase. También se ha incluido un módulo para determinar la severidad vibratoria del rotor y un módulo de análisis de vibraciones, que incluye análisis espectral y de la forma de onda. Este instrumento virtual es una herramienta útil para el balanceamiento de rotores en laboratorio así como también en la industria.This article highlights the importance of rotor balancing like the most important corrective action included in a predictive maintenance program, whose main objective is reducing the vibrations level and its secondary effect in rotary machines. A virtual instrument, based in a data acquisition system has been developed for rotor balancing. With this instrument it is possible to balance rotors in a single or two-plane, using the influence coefficient method or a no phase method. Also the instrument includes a function to determine the vibration severity and a function of vibration analysis with spectral and waveform analysis included. This virtual instrument is useful for rotor balancing in the laboratory as well as in the industry.

  6. Material Optimization of Carbon/Epoxy Composite Rotor for Spacecraft Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    R Varatharajoo; M Salit; G Hong

    2016-01-01

    An investigation to optimize the carbon/epoxy composite rotor is performed for the spacecraft energy storage application. A highspeed multi-layer rotor design is proposed and different composite materials are tested to achieve the most suitable recipe. First, the analytical rotor evaluation is performed to establish a reliable numerical rotor model. Then, finite element analysis (FEA) is employed in order to optimise the multi-layer composite rotor design. Subsequently, the modal analysis is ...

  7. Design and control of a vertical takeoff and landing fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malang, Yasir

    With the goal of extending capabilities of multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for wetland conservation missions, a novel hybrid aircraft design consisting of four tilting rotors and a fixed wing is designed and built. The tilting rotors and nonlinear aerodynamic effects introduce a control challenge for autonomous flight, and the research focus is to develop and validate an autonomous transition flight controller. The overall controller structure consists of separate cascaded Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controllers whose gains are scheduled according to the rotors' tilt angle. A control mechanism effectiveness factor is used to mix the multi-rotor and fixed-wing control actuators during transition. A nonlinear flight dynamics model is created and transition stability is shown through MATLAB simulations, which proves gain-scheduled control is a good fit for tilt-rotor aircraft. Experiments carried out using the prototype UAV validate simulation results for VTOL and tilted-rotor flight.

  8. DESARROLLO DE UN INSTRUMENTO VIRTUAL PARA EL BALANCEAMIENTO DINAMICO DE ROTORES DEVELOPMENT OF A VIRTUAL INSTRUMENT FOR ROTOR DYNAMICS BALANCING

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Estupiñán P; César San Martin; Luis Canales M

    2006-01-01

    El presente trabajo resalta la importancia del balanceamiento de rotores como principal herramienta dentro de las tareas correctivas del mantenimiento predictivo, con el fin de que se reduzcan las vibraciones y sus efectos secundarios en las máquinas rotatorias. Se ha desarrollado un instrumento virtual para el balanceamiento dinámico de rotores, basado en un sistema de adquisición de datos (SAD). El instrumento tiene incluidos todos los cálculos necesarios para balancear rotores en un plano ...

  9. A SVDD and K-Means Based Early Warning Method for Dual-Rotor Equipment under Time-Varying Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhinong Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Under frequently time-varying operating conditions, equipment with dual rotors like gas turbines is influenced by two rotors with different rotating speeds. Alarm methods of fixed threshold are unable to consider the influences of time-varying operating conditions. Hence, those methods are not suitable for monitoring dual-rotor equipment. An early warning method for dual-rotor equipment under time-varying operating conditions is proposed in this paper. The influences of time-varying rotating speeds of dual rotors on alarm thresholds have been considered. Firstly, the operating conditions are divided into several limited intervals according to rotating speeds of dual rotors. Secondly, the train data within each interval is processed by SVDD and the allowable ranges (i.e., the alarm threshold of the vibration are determined. The alarm threshold of each interval of operating conditions is obtained. The alarm threshold can be expressed as a sphere, whose controlling parameters are the coordinate of the center and the radius. Then, the cluster center of the test data, whose alarm state is to be judged, can be extracted through K-means. Finally, the alarm state can be obtained by comparing the cluster center with the corresponding sphere. Experiments are conducted to validate the proposed method.

  10. Analysis of the Strength on the Rotor Punching Sheet of Nuclear Reactor Cooling Medium Driving Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GE Bao-jun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A strong stress is withstood by the rotor punching sheet during the running of nuclear reactor cooling medium driving motor. In order to study the strength on the rotor punching sheet and the influential factor of its stress,the rotor of driving motor was the research object, the three-dimensional rotor model of driving motor is established by the finite element method to obtain the Mires equivalent stress nephogram and check the rotor’s strength with setting parameters and constraints. According to different rotor speeds,the different average temperatures of rotor punching sheet and shaft and the different static magnitude of interference between rotor punching sheet and shaft,the research about how the contact pressure of matching surface between rotor punching sheet and shaft and the Mires equivalent stress are impacted is carried on. The results show that the maximum Miser equivalent stress value of rotor punching sheet emerges on the axial vents,the stress value is beyond the tensile limit of the materialand. The greater the static magnitude of interference and the smaller temperature difference of rotor punching sheet and shaft lead to the greater interface compressive stress of rotor punching sheet and shaft and the greater maximum Mires equivalent stress value of rotor punching sheet. The higher the rotor speed lead to the smaller interface compressive stress of rotor punching sheet and shaft and the greater equivalent stress value of rotor punching sheet.

  11. TORNADO concept and realisation of a rotor for small VAWTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horia DUMITRESCU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a three-tier configuration for a vertical axis rotor was successfully developed into a experimental model. The rotor assembly is divided into three tiers with three straight blades in each tier. The three-tiers are shifted by an angle of 400 generating a full helical flow field inside the rotor. Thereby the new configuration has some different mechanism of torque generation as other Darrieus rotors. The three-tier configuration facilitates the operation by enabling the turbine to self-start at wind velocity as low as 2 m/s with good performance and a smoother driving torque. At the same time the design couples an esthetic appearance with low noise level.

  12. Towards More Efficient Comprehensive Rotor Noise Simulation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rotorcraft design and optimization currently still rely largely on simplified (low-fidelity) models, such as rotor disk or wake models to reduce the turn-around time...

  13. Rotor position sensor switches currents in brushless dc motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Reluctance switch incorporated in an induction motor is used for sensing rotor position and switching armature circuits in a brushless dc motor. This device drives the solar array system of an unmanned space satellite.

  14. Wave-Rotor-Enhanced Gas Turbine Engine Demonstrator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Welch, Gerard

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory, NASA Glenn Research Center, and Rolls-Royce Allison are working collaboratively to demonstrate the benefits and viability of a wave-rotor-topped gas turbine engine...

  15. Rapid In-Place Composite Rotor Damage Detection, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations is proposing to further develop the Rapid In-Place Composite Rotor Damage Detection (RIPCoRDD) System for determining and tracking the structural...

  16. Rapid In-Place Composite Rotor Damage Detection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations is proposing to develop the Rapid In-Place Composite Rotor Damage Detection (RIPCoRDD) for determining and tracking the structural health of...

  17. Re-analysis of exponential rigid-rotor astron equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelace, R.V.; Larrabee, D.A.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    Previous studies of exponential rigid-rotor astron equilibria include particles which are not trapped in the self-field of the configuration. The modification of these studies required to exclude untrapped particles is derived

  18. Usage of modal synthesis method with condensation in rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeman V.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with mathematical modelling of vibration and modal analysis of rotors composed of a flexible shaft and several flexible disks. The shaft is modelled as a one dimensional continuum whereon flexible disks modelled as a three dimensional continuum are rigid mounted to shaft. The presented approach allows to introduce continuously distributed centrifugal and gyroscopic effects. The finite element method was used for shaft and disks discretization. The modelling of such flexible multi-body rotors with large DOF number is based on the system decomposition into subsystems and on the modal synthesis method with condensation. Lower vibration mode shapes of the mutually uncoupled and non-rotating subsystems are used for creation of the rotor condensed mathematical model. An influence of the different level of a rotor condensation model on the accuracy of calculated eigenfrequencies and eigenvectors is discussed.

  19. Computational Analysis of Flow Through a Transonic Compressor Rotor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bochette, Nikolaus J

    2005-01-01

    .... In examining this problem two Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes have been used by the Naval Postgraduate School to predict the performance of a transonic compressor rotor that is being tested with steam ingestion...

  20. Stiffness Characteristics of Composite Rotor Blades With Elastic Couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, David J.; Nixon, Mark W.; Kosmatka, John B.

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies on rotor aeroelastic response and stability have shown the beneficial effects of incorporating elastic couplings in composite rotor blades. However, none of these studies have clearly identified elastic coupling limits and the effects of elastic couplings on classical beam stiffnesses of representative rotor blades. Knowledge of these limits and effects would greatly enhance future aeroelastic studies involving composite rotor blades. The present study addresses these voids and provides a preliminary design database for investigators who may wish to study the effects of elastic couplings on representative blade designs. The results of the present study should provide a basis for estimating the potential benefits associated with incorporating elastic couplings without the need for first designing a blade cross section and then performing a cross-section analysis to obtain the required beam section properties as is customary in the usual one-dimensional beam-type approach.

  1. Aero dynamical and mechanical behaviour of the Savonius rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aouachria, Z. [Batna Univ., (Algeria). Applied Energetic Physics Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    Although the Savonius wind turbine is not as efficient as the traditional Darrieus wind turbine, its rotor design has many advantages such as simple construction; acceptance of wind from all directions; high starting torque; operation at relatively low speed; and easy adaptation to urban sites. These advantages may outweigh its low efficiency and make it suitable for small-scale power requirements such as pumping and rural electrification. This paper presented a study of the aerodynamic behaviour of a Savonius rotor, based on blade pressure measurements. A two-dimensional analysis method was used to determine the aerodynamic strengths, which leads to the Magnus effect and the generation of the vibrations on the rotor. The study explained the vibratory behaviour of the rotor and proposed an antivibration system to protect the machine. 14 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  2. A Surface-Mounted Rotor State Sensing System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A surface-mounted instrumentation system for measuring rotor blade motions on rotorcraft, for use both in flight and in wind tunnel testing, is proposed for...

  3. Optical evidence of quantum rotor orbital excitations in orthorhombic manganites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovaleva, Natalia; Kugel, K.I.; Potůček, Z.; Kusmartseva, O.E.; Goryachev, N.S.; Bryknar, Z.; Demikhov, E.I.; Trepakov, Vladimír; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kusmartsev, F.V.; Stoneham, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 5 (2016), s. 890-901 ISSN 1063-7761 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : optical evidence * rotor orbital excitations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2016

  4. 76 FR 42020 - Airworthiness Standards; Rotor Overspeed Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Capability. The r.p.m. (revolutions per minute) at which the part fails or bursts. Rotor Growth. The total... appropriate, that they be the basis of U.S. standards. Fourth, the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (Pub...

  5. On the performance analysis of Savonius rotor with twisted blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, U.K.; Rajkumar, M. Jaya [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781 039 (India)

    2006-09-15

    The present investigation is aimed at exploring the feasibility of twisted bladed Savonius rotor for power generation. The twisted blade in a three-bladed rotor system has been tested in a low speed wind tunnel, and its performance has been compared with conventional semicircular blades (with twist angle of 0{sup o}). Performance analysis has been made on the basis of starting characteristics, static torque and rotational speed. Experimental evidence shows the potential of the twisted bladed rotor in terms of smooth running, higher efficiency and self-starting capability as compared to that of the conventional bladed rotor. Further experiments have been conducted in the same setup to optimize the twist angle. (author)

  6. Modal Characteristics of Novel Wind Turbine Rotors with Hinged Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongya; Zeng, Pan; Lei, Liping

    2018-03-01

    The vibration problems of the wind turbine rotors have drawn public attention as the size of wind turbine has increased incredibly. Although various factors may cause the vibration problems, the flexibility is a big threat among them. Therefore, ensuring the high stiffness of the rotors by adopting novel techniques becomes a necessity. The study was a further investigation of several novel designs regarding the dynamic behaviour and the influencing mechanism. The modal testing experiments were conducted on a traditional blade and an isolated blade with the hinged rods mounted close to the root. The results showed that the rod increased both the modal frequency and the damping of the blade. More studies were done on the rods’ impact on the wind turbine rotor with a numerical model, where dimensionless parameters were defined to describe the configuration of the interveined and the bisymmetrical rods. Their influences on the modal frequencies of the rotor were analyzed and discussed.

  7. Whole blood analysis rotor assembly having removable cellular sedimentation bowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.

    1975-08-26

    A rotor assembly for performing photometric analyses using whole blood samples is described. Following static loading of a gross blood sample within a centrally located, removable, cell sedimentation bowl, the red blood cells in the gross sample are centrifugally separated from the plasma, the plasm displaced from the sedimentation bowl, and measured subvolumes of plasma distributed to respective sample analysis cuvettes positioned in an annular array about the rotor periphery. Means for adding reagents to the respective cuvettes are also described. (auth)

  8. Radial Flow Effects On A Retreating Rotor Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    birds , marine life and even insect wings. In some cases such as helicopters, wind turbines and compres- sors, dynamic stall becomes the primary...on dynamic stall and reverse flow as applied to a helicopter rotor in forward flight and a wind turbine operating at a yaw angle. While great...occurring on a retreating blade with a focus on dynamic stall and reverse flow as applied to a helicopter rotor in forward flight and a wind turbine

  9. Dynamic measurement of matter creation using a feedback rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, L.I.

    1989-01-01

    A room-temperature version of an experiment to search for cosmological matter creation using a precision rotor has been underway at University of Virginia since the late 1970's. The ultimate goal of this experiment is to be able to detect a change in the rotor moment of inertia I at a rate I/I≤10 -18 per second. In the original measurement strategy, and I/I was to be detected as an anomalous drag torque causing the rotor angular momentum to decay, with time constant Γ* = 10 -18 seconds. Here an alternate method of detecting an I/I using a precision rotor is proposed. In this alternate strategy, the rotor is driven by negative derivative feedback to follow a time-dependent reference of either exponential or sinusoidal form. An I/I is detected as an anomalous response of the rotor to the drive torque. Since this alternate strategy is not based on the detection of a drag torque, it can be used to verify that an observed rotor spin-down is caused by an I/I, rather than some other loss mechanism. Signal-to-noise ratios are developed for this strategy, and a way of differentiating positive from null results is described. Matter-creation tests performed using the alternate strategy indicate that the EST device produces noise which currently limits the sensitivity of the experiment. Null results were at least one order of magnitude above the theoretical values of the minimum detectable I/I. Also, anomalous drift in the rotor response caused the detection of positive results. These limitations are shown to be due to nonlinearity and asymmetry in the EST device, which can be corrected in future efforts

  10. The aerodynamic design of an advanced rotor airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, J. A., Jr.; Hinson, B. L.

    1978-01-01

    An advanced rotor airfoil, designed utilizing supercritical airfoil technology and advanced design and analysis methodology is described. The airfoil was designed subject to stringent aerodynamic design criteria for improving the performance over the entire rotor operating regime. The design criteria are discussed. The design was accomplished using a physical plane, viscous, transonic inverse design procedure, and a constrained function minimization technique for optimizing the airfoil leading edge shape. The aerodynamic performance objectives of the airfoil are discussed.

  11. Dipolar rotors orderly aligned in mesoporous fluorinated organosilica architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Bracco, Silvia; Beretta, Mario; Cattaneo, Alice Silvia; Comotti, Angiolina; Falqui, Andrea; Zhao, Ke; Rogers, Charles T.; Sozzani, Piero

    2015-01-01

    New mesoporous covalent frameworks, based on hybrid fluorinated organosilicas, were prepared to realize a periodic architecture of fast molecular rotors containing dynamic dipoles in their structure. The mobile elements, designed on the basis of fluorinated p-divinylbenzene moieties, were integrated into the robust covalent structure through siloxane bonds, and showed not only the rapid dynamics of the aromatic rings (ca. 108 Hz at 325 K), as detected by solid-state NMR spectroscopy, but also a dielectric response typical of a fast dipole reorientation under the stimuli of an applied electric field. Furthermore, the mesochannels are open and accessible to diffusing in gas molecules, and rotor mobility could be individually regulated by I2 vapors. The iodine enters the channels of the periodic structure and reacts with the pivotal double bonds of the divinyl-fluoro-phenylene rotors, affecting their motion and the dielectric properties. Oriented molecular rotors: Fluorinated molecular rotors (see picture) were engineered in mesoporous hybrid organosilica architectures with crystalline order in their walls. The rotor dynamics was established by magic angle spinning NMR and dielectric measurements, indicating a rotational correlation time as short as 10-9 s at 325 K. The dynamics was modulated by I2 vapors entering the pores.

  12. Theoretical analysis of the flow around a Savonius rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aouachria, Z.; Djoumati, D. [Batna Univ., Batna (Algeria). Laboratoire de Physique Energetique Appliquee; Djamel, H. [Batna Univ., Batna (Algeria). Dept. de Mecanique Energetique

    2009-07-01

    While Savonius rotors do not perform as well as Darrieus wind turbine rotors, Savonius rotors work in all wind directions, do not require a rudder, and are capable of operating at relatively low speeds. A discrete vortex method was used to analyze the complex flow around a Savonius rotor. Velocity and pressure fields obtained in the analysis were used to determine both mechanical and energetic rotor performance. Savonius rotor bi-blades were considered in relation to 4 free eddies, the leakage points of each blade, and the distribution of basic eddies along the blades. Each blade was divided into equal elementary arcs. Linear equations and Kelvin theorem were reduced to a single equation. Results showed good agreement with data obtained in previous experimental studies. The study demonstrated that vortice emissions were unbalanced. The resistant blade had 2 vortice emissions, while the driving blade had only a single vortex. The results of the study will be used to clarify the mechanical and aerodynamic functions as well as to determine the different values between the blades and the speed of the turbine's engine. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Offline detection of broken rotor bars in AC induction motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Craig Stephen

    ABSTRACT. OFFLINE DETECTION OF BROKEN ROTOR BARS IN AC INDUCTION MOTORS. The detection of the broken rotor bar defect in medium- and large-sized AC induction machines is currently one of the most difficult tasks for the motor condition and monitoring industry. If a broken rotor bar defect goes undetected, it can cause a catastrophic failure of an expensive machine. If a broken rotor bar defect is falsely determined, it wastes time and money to physically tear down and inspect the machine only to find an incorrect diagnosis. Previous work in 2009 at Baker/SKF-USA in collaboration with the Korea University has developed a prototype instrument that has been highly successful in correctly detecting the broken rotor bar defect in ACIMs where other methods have failed. Dr. Sang Bin and his students at the Korea University have been using this prototype instrument to help the industry save money in the successful detection of the BRB defect. A review of the current state of motor conditioning and monitoring technology for detecting the broken rotor bar defect in ACIMs shows improved detection of this fault is still relevant. An analysis of previous work in the creation of this prototype instrument leads into the refactoring of the software and hardware into something more deployable, cost effective and commercially viable.

  14. Hybrid algorithm for rotor angle security assessment in power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Prasad Wadduwage

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transient rotor angle stability assessment and oscillatory rotor angle stability assessment subsequent to a contingency are integral components of dynamic security assessment (DSA in power systems. This study proposes a hybrid algorithm to determine whether the post-fault power system is secure due to both transient rotor angle stability and oscillatory rotor angle stability subsequent to a set of known contingencies. The hybrid algorithm first uses a new security measure developed based on the concept of Lyapunov exponents (LEs to determine the transient security of the post-fault power system. Later, the transient secure power swing curves are analysed using an improved Prony algorithm which extracts the dominant oscillatory modes and estimates their damping ratios. The damping ratio is a security measure about the oscillatory security of the post-fault power system subsequent to the contingency. The suitability of the proposed hybrid algorithm for DSA in power systems is illustrated using different contingencies of a 16-generator 68-bus test system and a 50-generator 470-bus test system. The accuracy of the stability conclusions and the acceptable computational burden indicate that the proposed hybrid algorithm is suitable for real-time security assessment with respect to both transient rotor angle stability and oscillatory rotor angle stability under multiple contingencies of the power system.

  15. Acoustic Characterization of a Multi-Rotor Unmanned Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feight, Jordan; Gaeta, Richard; Jacob, Jamey

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the noise produced by a small multi-rotor rotary wing aircraft, or drone, is measured and characterized. The aircraft is tested in different configurations and environments to investigate specific parameters and how they affect the acoustic signature of the system. The parameters include rotor RPM, the number of rotors, distance and angle of microphone array from the noise source, and the ambient environment. The testing environments include an anechoic chamber for an idealized setting and both indoor and outdoor settings to represent real world conditions. PIV measurements are conducted to link the downwash and vortical flow structures from the rotors with the noise generation. The significant factors that arise from this study are the operational state of the aircraft and the microphone location (or the directivity of the noise source). The directivity in the rotor plane was shown to be omni-directional, regardless of the varying parameters. The tonal noise dominates the low to mid frequencies while the broadband noise dominates the higher frequencies. The fundamental characteristics of the acoustic signature appear to be invariant to the number of rotors. Flight maneuvers of the aircraft also significantly impact the tonal content in the acoustic signature.

  16. Stability of rotor systems: A complex modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kliem, Wolfhard; Pommer, Christian; Stoustrup, Jakob

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of a large class of rotor systems can be modelled by a linearized complex matrix differential equation of second order, Mz + (D + iG)(z) over dot + (K + iN)z = 0, where the system matrices M, D, G, K and N are real symmetric. Moreover M and K are assumed to be positive definite and D...... approach applying bounds of appropriate Rayleigh quotients. The rotor systems tested are: a simple Laval rotor, a Laval rotor with additional elasticity and damping in the bearings, and a number of rotor systems with complex symmetric 4 x 4 randomly generated matrices.......The dynamics of a large class of rotor systems can be modelled by a linearized complex matrix differential equation of second order, Mz + (D + iG)(z) over dot + (K + iN)z = 0, where the system matrices M, D, G, K and N are real symmetric. Moreover M and K are assumed to be positive definite and D...

  17. Dipolar rotors orderly aligned in mesoporous fluorinated organosilica architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Bracco, Silvia

    2015-02-16

    New mesoporous covalent frameworks, based on hybrid fluorinated organosilicas, were prepared to realize a periodic architecture of fast molecular rotors containing dynamic dipoles in their structure. The mobile elements, designed on the basis of fluorinated p-divinylbenzene moieties, were integrated into the robust covalent structure through siloxane bonds, and showed not only the rapid dynamics of the aromatic rings (ca. 108 Hz at 325 K), as detected by solid-state NMR spectroscopy, but also a dielectric response typical of a fast dipole reorientation under the stimuli of an applied electric field. Furthermore, the mesochannels are open and accessible to diffusing in gas molecules, and rotor mobility could be individually regulated by I2 vapors. The iodine enters the channels of the periodic structure and reacts with the pivotal double bonds of the divinyl-fluoro-phenylene rotors, affecting their motion and the dielectric properties. Oriented molecular rotors: Fluorinated molecular rotors (see picture) were engineered in mesoporous hybrid organosilica architectures with crystalline order in their walls. The rotor dynamics was established by magic angle spinning NMR and dielectric measurements, indicating a rotational correlation time as short as 10-9 s at 325 K. The dynamics was modulated by I2 vapors entering the pores.

  18. Development and construction of an HTS rotor for ship propulsion application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick, W; Frank, M; Kummeth, P; Rabbers, J J; Wilke, M; Schleicher, K, E-mail: wolfgang.nick@siemens.co [Siemens AG, CT PS 3, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, D-91050 Erlangen (Germany)

    2010-06-01

    A low-speed high-torque HTS machine is being developed at Siemens on the basis of previous steps (400kW demonstrator, 4MVA generator). The goal of the programme is to utilize the characteristic advantages offered by electrical machines with HTS-excited rotor, such as efficiency, compact size, and dynamic performance. To be able to address future markets, requirements from ship classification as well as potential customers have to be met. Electromagnetic design cannot be focused on nominal operation only, but has to deal with failure modes like short circuit too. Utilization of superconductor requires to consider margins taking into account that the windings have to operate reliably not only in 'clean' laboratory conditions, but in rough environment with the stator connected to a power converter. Extensive quality control is needed to ensure homogenous performance (current capacity, electrical insulation, dimensions) for the large quantity of HTS (45 km). The next step was to set up and operate a small-scale 'industrial' manufacturing process to produce HTS windings in a reproducible way, including tests at operating conditions. A HTS rotor includes many more components compared to a conventional one, so tough geometric tolerances must be met to ensure robust performance of the system. All this gives a challenging task, which will be concluded by cold testing of the rotor in a test facility. Then the rotor will be delivered for assembly to the stator. In following machine tests the performance of the innovative HTS drive system will be demonstrated.

  19. Evaluation of the useful life of steam turbine rotors; Evaluacion de vida util de rotores de turbinas de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnero Parra, Antonio; Garcia Illescas, Rafael; Kubiak Szyszka, Janusz [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    This article presents the methodology applied by the Management of Turbomachinery of the Institute of Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), for the evaluation of the remaining useful life of steam turbine rotors in the phase of initiation of fissures. The evaluation of the remaining useful life of turbines, will reveal the real state of health of the rotor and will serve as a base for the future decision making that guarantees their structural integrity. [Spanish] El presentes articulo presenta la metodologia aplicada por la Gerencia de Turbomaquinaria del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), para la evaluacion de la vida util remanente de rotores de turbinas de vapor en la fase de iniciacion de fisuras. La evaluacion de la vida util de turbinas, revelar el estado real de salud del rotor y servira de base para la toma de decisiones futuras que garanticen su integridad estructural.

  20. Comprehensive Modeling and Analysis of Rotorcraft Variable Speed Propulsion System With Coupled Engine/Transmission/Rotor Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSmidt, Hans A.; Smith, Edward C.; Bill, Robert C.; Wang, Kon-Well

    2013-01-01

    This project develops comprehensive modeling and simulation tools for analysis of variable rotor speed helicopter propulsion system dynamics. The Comprehensive Variable-Speed Rotorcraft Propulsion Modeling (CVSRPM) tool developed in this research is used to investigate coupled rotor/engine/fuel control/gearbox/shaft/clutch/flight control system dynamic interactions for several variable rotor speed mission scenarios. In this investigation, a prototypical two-speed Dual-Clutch Transmission (DCT) is proposed and designed to achieve 50 percent rotor speed variation. The comprehensive modeling tool developed in this study is utilized to analyze the two-speed shift response of both a conventional single rotor helicopter and a tiltrotor drive system. In the tiltrotor system, both a Parallel Shift Control (PSC) strategy and a Sequential Shift Control (SSC) strategy for constant and variable forward speed mission profiles are analyzed. Under the PSC strategy, selecting clutch shift-rate results in a design tradeoff between transient engine surge margins and clutch frictional power dissipation. In the case of SSC, clutch power dissipation is drastically reduced in exchange for the necessity to disengage one engine at a time which requires a multi-DCT drive system topology. In addition to comprehensive simulations, several sections are dedicated to detailed analysis of driveline subsystem components under variable speed operation. In particular an aeroelastic simulation of a stiff in-plane rotor using nonlinear quasi-steady blade element theory was conducted to investigate variable speed rotor dynamics. It was found that 2/rev and 4/rev flap and lag vibrations were significant during resonance crossings with 4/rev lagwise loads being directly transferred into drive-system torque disturbances. To capture the clutch engagement dynamics, a nonlinear stick-slip clutch torque model is developed. Also, a transient gas-turbine engine model based on first principles mean