WorldWideScience

Sample records for controlled route requests

  1. Highway route controlled quantity shipment routing reports - An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, J.W.; Welles, B.W.; Welch, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations require a postnotification report from the shipper for all shipments of radioactive materials categorized as a Highway Route Controlled Quantity. These postnotification reports, filed in compliance with 49 CFR 172.203(d), have been compiled by the DOT in a database known as the Radioactive Materials Routing Report (RAMRT) since 1982. The data were sorted by each of its elements to establish historical records and trends of Highway Route Controlled Quantity shipments from 1982 through 1987. Approximately 1520 records in the RAMRT database were compiled for this analysis. Approximately half of the shipments reported for the study period were from the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors, with the others being commercial movements. Two DOE installations, EG and G Idaho and Oak Ridge, accounted for nearly half of the DOE activities. Similarly, almost half of the commercial movements were reported by two vendors, Nuclear Assurance Corporation and Transnuclear, Incorporated. Spent fuel from power and research reactors accounted for approximately half of all shipments

  2. Ising model for packet routing control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Chiaki

    2004-01-01

    For packet routing control in computer networks, we propose an Ising model which is defined in order to express competition among a queue length and a distance from a node with a packet to its destination node. By introducing a dynamics for a mean-field value of an Ising spin, we show by computer simulations that effective control of packet routing through priority links is possible

  3. Ophthalmic requirements and considerations for the en route air traffic control specialist : an ergonomic analysis of the visual work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The Federal Air Surgeon requested continued investigation of visual disorders and vision corrective devices as to their relevance to the medical certification of airmen and controllers. The en route Air Traffic Control Specialist (ATCS) works with a ...

  4. Next Generation Network Routing and Control Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Rong

    proved, the dominating Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) cannot address all the issues that in inter-domain QoS routing. Thus a new protocol or network architecture has to be developed to be able to carry the inter-domain traffic with the QoS and TE consideration. Moreover, the current network control also...... lacks the ability to cooperate between different domains and operators. The emergence of label switching transport technology such as of Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) or Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) supports the traffic transport in a finer granularity and more dedicated end-to-end Quality...... (RACF) provides the platform that enables cooperation and ubiquitous integration between networks. In this paper, we investigate in the network architecture, protocols and algorithms for inter-domain QoS routing and traffic engineering. The PCE based inter-domain routing architecture is enhanced...

  5. Congestion control and routing over satellite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinhua

    Satellite networks and transmissions find their application in fields of computer communications, telephone communications, television broadcasting, transportation, space situational awareness systems and so on. This thesis mainly focuses on two networking issues affecting satellite networking: network congestion control and network routing optimization. Congestion, which leads to long queueing delays, packet losses or both, is a networking problem that has drawn the attention of many researchers. The goal of congestion control mechanisms is to ensure high bandwidth utilization while avoiding network congestion by regulating the rate at which traffic sources inject packets into a network. In this thesis, we propose a stable congestion controller using data-driven, safe switching control theory to improve the dynamic performance of satellite Transmission Control Protocol/Active Queue Management (TCP/AQM) networks. First, the stable region of the Proportional-Integral (PI) parameters for a nominal model is explored. Then, a PI controller, whose parameters are adaptively tuned by switching among members of a given candidate set, using observed plant data, is presented and compared with some classical AQM policy examples, such as Random Early Detection (RED) and fixed PI control. A new cost detectable switching law with an interval cost function switching algorithm, which improves the performance and also saves the computational cost, is developed and compared with a law commonly used in the switching control literature. Finite-gain stability of the system is proved. A fuzzy logic PI controller is incorporated as a special candidate to achieve good performance at all nominal points with the available set of candidate controllers. Simulations are presented to validate the theory. An effocient routing algorithm plays a key role in optimizing network resources. In this thesis, we briefly analyze Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite networks, review the Cross Entropy (CE

  6. Dynamic Request Routing for Online Video-on-Demand Service: A Markov Decision Process Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxiong Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the request routing problem in the CDN-based Video-on-Demand system. We model the system as a controlled queueing system including a dispatcher and several edge servers. The system is formulated as a Markov decision process (MDP. Since the MDP formulation suffers from the so-called “the curse of dimensionality” problem, we then develop a greedy heuristic algorithm, which is simple and can be implemented online, to approximately solve the MDP model. However, we do not know how far it deviates from the optimal solution. To address this problem, we further aggregate the state space of the original MDP model and use the bounded-parameter MDP (BMDP to reformulate the system. This allows us to obtain a suboptimal solution with a known performance bound. The effectiveness of two approaches is evaluated in a simulation study.

  7. Guidelines for selecting preferred highway routes for highway-route-controlled quantity shipments of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The document presents guidelines for use by State officials in selecting preferred routes for highway route controlled quantity shipments of radioactive materials. A methodology for analyzing and comparing safety factors of alternative routes is described. Technical information on the impacts of radioactive material transportation needed to apply the methodology is also presented. Application of the methodology will identify the route (or set of routes) that minimizes the radiological impacts from shipments of these radioactive materials within a given State. Emphasis in the document is on practical application of the methodology. Some details of the derivation of the methods and data are presented in the appendices. All references in the body of the report can be found listed in the Bibliography (Appendix F)

  8. Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

  9. Short-term memory, executive control, and children's route learning

    OpenAIRE

    Purser, H. R.; Farran, E. K.; Courbois, Y.; Lemahieu, A.; Mellier, D.; Sockeel, P.; Blades, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and visuospatial long-term memory; the route-learning task was conducted using a maze in a virtual environment. In contrast to previous research, correlation...

  10. A Traveller Information System: Minimisation of the Number of Graphs’ Nodes Involved When Processing Route Requests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendaoud Zakaria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of people using public transport is continuously increasing. Transport companies want to fulfil travellers’ expectations wherever possible. However, the great number of public transport companies operating in the same area can sometimes confuse travellers as to which route they should take and how to obtain the information relative to their journey. In this paper we suggest integrating several traveller information systems from different companies into the same multimodal information system, offering companies the choice not to share their data. This encourages them to join the system. Additionally, we have minimised the number of nodes involved when processing travellers’ requests in order to simplify the calculation process. To put our plan into action, we have opted for a multi-agent system coupled with the Voronoi decomposition for managing the network.

  11. Route-Based Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Today's hybrid electric vehicle controls cannot always provide maximum fuel savings over all drive cycles. Route-based controls could improve HEV fuel efficiency by 2%-4% and help save nearly 6.5 million gallons of fuel annually.

  12. Route-Based Signal Preemption Control of Emergency Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Mu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the signal preemption control of emergency vehicles (EV. A signal preemption control method based on route is proposed to reduce time delay of EV at intersections. According to the time at which EV is detected and the current phase of each intersection on the travelling route of EV, the calculation methods of the earliest start time and the latest start time of green light at each intersection are given. Consequently, the effective time range of green light at each intersection is determined in theory. A multiobjective programming model, whose objectives are the minimal residence time of EV at all intersections and the maximal passing numbers of general society vehicles, is presented. Finally, a simulation calculation is carried out. Calculation results indicate that, by adopting the signal preemption method based on route, the delay of EV is reduced and the number of society vehicles passing through the whole system is increased. The signal preemption control method of EV based on route can reduce the time delay of EV and improve the evacuation efficiency of the system.

  13. RECONFIGURABLE PRODUCT ROUTING AND CONTROL FOR MASS CUSTOMISATION MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Walker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:Reconfigurable control of flexible manufacturing systems can allow for the efficient and responsive production of customised product instances. This can aid in providing make-to-order business models for various small- to medium-sized enterprises in South Africa, and provide competitive advantage in a dynamic global marketplace. Reconfigurable control application requires an understanding of the modes of production variability in mass customisation manufacturing. Temporally uncorrelated workflow routings are considered as one of these production variability modes. In this light, this paper addresses the flexible material payload routing problem, and presents a mobile robot platform that has been developed to research and design reconfigurable routing systems.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING:Verstelbare beheer van aanpasbare vervaardigingstelsels kan die doeltreffende en reaktiewe produksie van doelgemaakte produkeksemplare toelaat. Hierdie beheer kan assisteer in die voorsiening van vervaardig-na-bestellingbesigheidsmodelle aan ’n aantal klein- tot medium-grootte ondernemings in Suid-Afrika, en aan hulle ’n kompeterende voorsprong bied in ’n dinamiese globale mark. Die instelling van verstelbare beheer vereis dat die modi van produkveranderlikheid in massa verbruikersaanpassingsvervaardiging verstaan word. Hierdie artikel spreek die probleem van aanpasbare roetebepaling van materiaalvragte in massa verbruikersaanpassingsvervaardiging aan. ’n Mobiele robot-platform, ontwikkel vir navorsing in verstelbare roetebepalingstelsels, word ook voorgelê.

  14. Use of action requests to control communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the Plant Information Management System (PIMS) that is implemented at Pacific Gas and Electric Company's (PG and E) Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP). PIMS is implemented on IBM mainframes located at the plant, is on-line and interactive, and is accessed via a computer communication system that supports more than 450 IBM 3270 PC workstations. This paper discusses the role of the ACTION REQUEST module of PIMS and how it is used to control plant sensitive communications. The ACTION REQUEST module of PIMS can be accessed from any workstation and during the first year of Commercial Operation of DCPP replaced numerous and redundant forms of manual communication mechanisms. Also in this first year, users at the plant generated approximately 25,000 Action Requests which were controlled through review and approval cycles by PIMS. Each organization assigned action were immediately notified of their responsibilities so that action could be taken in a timely manner. The Diablo Canyon Power Plant broke Westinghouse world-wide operating records for the first year of operation (over 90% availability) due to a well built and reliable plant and due to a responsive Operations organization, which was well informed and controlled

  15. Energy efficient motion control of the electric bus on route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotiev, G. O.; Butarovich, D. O.; Kositsyn, B. B.

    2018-02-01

    At present, the urgent problem is the reduction of energy costs of urban motor transport. The article proposes a method of solving this problem by developing an energy-efficient law governing the movement of an electric bus along a city route. To solve this problem, an algorithm is developed based on the dynamic programming method. The proposed method allows you to take into account the constraints imposed on the phase coordinates, control action, as well as on the time of the route. In the course of solving the problem, the model of rectilinear motion of an electric bus on a horizontal reference surface is considered, taking into account the assumptions that allow it to be adapted for the implementation of the method. For the formation of a control action in the equations of motion dynamics, an algorithm for changing the traction / braking torque on the wheels of an electric bus is considered, depending on the magnitude of the control parameter and the speed of motion. An optimal phase trajectory was obtained on a selected section of the road for the prototype of an electric bus. The article presents the comparison of simulation results obtained with the optimal energy efficient control law with the results obtained by a test driver. The comparison proved feasibility of the energy efficient control law for the automobile city electric transport.

  16. Context Analysis of Customer Requests using a Hybrid Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System and Hidden Markov Models in the Natural Language Call Routing Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustamov, Samir; Mustafayev, Elshan; Clements, Mark A.

    2018-04-01

    The context analysis of customer requests in a natural language call routing problem is investigated in the paper. One of the most significant problems in natural language call routing is a comprehension of client request. With the aim of finding a solution to this issue, the Hybrid HMM and ANFIS models become a subject to an examination. Combining different types of models (ANFIS and HMM) can prevent misunderstanding by the system for identification of user intention in dialogue system. Based on these models, the hybrid system may be employed in various language and call routing domains due to nonusage of lexical or syntactic analysis in classification process.

  17. Context Analysis of Customer Requests using a Hybrid Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System and Hidden Markov Models in the Natural Language Call Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustamov Samir

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The context analysis of customer requests in a natural language call routing problem is investigated in the paper. One of the most significant problems in natural language call routing is a comprehension of client request. With the aim of finding a solution to this issue, the Hybrid HMM and ANFIS models become a subject to an examination. Combining different types of models (ANFIS and HMM can prevent misunderstanding by the system for identification of user intention in dialogue system. Based on these models, the hybrid system may be employed in various language and call routing domains due to nonusage of lexical or syntactic analysis in classification process.

  18. Emission control with route optimization in solid waste collection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    system is used, route distance and route time will be decreased by 24·6% and. 44·3% as ... Keywords. Exhaust emission; route optimization; solid waste collection; GIS, .... Catchment areas for a sales campaign can be analysed. Customers ...

  19. Cost-aware request routing in multi-geography cloud data centres using software-defined networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haitao; Bi, Jing; Li, Bo Hu; Tan, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Current geographically distributed cloud data centres (CDCs) require gigantic energy and bandwidth costs to provide multiple cloud applications to users around the world. Previous studies only focus on energy cost minimisation in distributed CDCs. However, a CDC provider needs to deliver gigantic data between users and distributed CDCs through internet service providers (ISPs). Geographical diversity of bandwidth and energy costs brings a highly challenging problem of how to minimise the total cost of a CDC provider. With the recently emerging software-defined networking, we study the total cost minimisation problem for a CDC provider by exploiting geographical diversity of energy and bandwidth costs. We formulate the total cost minimisation problem as a mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP). Then, we develop heuristic algorithms to solve the problem and to provide a cost-aware request routing for joint optimisation of the selection of ISPs and the number of servers in distributed CDCs. Besides, to tackle the dynamic workload in distributed CDCs, this article proposes a regression-based workload prediction method to obtain future incoming workload. Finally, this work evaluates the cost-aware request routing by trace-driven simulation and compares it with the existing approaches to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  20. Maritime routing and speed optimization with emission control areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerholt, Kjetil; Gausel, Nora T.; Rakke, Jørgen G.

    2015-01-01

    a computational study on a number of realistic shipping routes in order to evaluate possible impacts on sailing paths and speeds, and hence fuel consumption and costs, from the ECA regulations. Moreover, the aim is to examine the implications for the society with regards to environmental effects. Comparisons...... of cases show that a likely effect of the regulations is that ship operators will often choose to sail longer distances to avoid sailing time within ECAs. Another effect is that they will sail at lower speeds within and higher speeds outside the ECAs in order to use less of the more expensive fuel. On some......Strict limits on the maximum sulphur content in fuel used by ships have recently been imposed in some Emission Control Areas (ECAs). In order to comply with these regulations many ship operators will switch to more expensive low-sulphur fuel when sailing inside ECAs. Since they are concerned about...

  1. Energy-Aware Routing Optimization in Dynamic GMPLS Controlled Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Ricciardi, Sergio; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, routing optimizations based on energy sources are proposed in dynamic GMPLS controlled optical networks. The influences of re-routing and load balancing factors on the algorithm are evaluated, with a focus on different re-routing thresholds. Results from dynamic network simulations...

  2. "To Control Tibet, First Pacify Kham": Trade Routes and "Official Routes" (Guandao in Easternmost Kham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Booz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the trade routes in the western Sichuan borderlands that facilitated contact and trade between Chinese counties and Eastern Tibet. In particular, the article offers a description of “official routes” (guandao—which the Chinese emperor twice proclaimed to be the vital mode of access between China and Tibet—from Chengdu, Sichuan’s provincial capital, to Khampa areas, with Lhasa as the final destination. The exchange of goods in this region followed various routes during different periods. From the tenth to sixteenth centuries, transactions occurred primarily along the borders of Amdo (Tib. A mdo, Northeastern Tibet, but for political, economic, and practical reasons, such exchanges became more limited geographically and eventually focused along the Sichuan–Kham/Ngawa border. Many routes shifted to the towns of Kangding (Tib. Dartsedo and Songpan (Tib. Zungchu, the main sites of distribution, where rich opportunities for trade and a strictly limiting transport geography made them important entrepôts that evolved into centers of prosperity. The geographic range of this article reaches to these two towns and leaves the investigation of the routes that led to western centers such as Derge, Batang, Chamdo, and Jyekundo for future research.

  3. Crystallization engineering as a route to epitaxial strain control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Akbashev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The controlled synthesis of epitaxial thin films offers opportunities for tuning their functional properties via enabling or suppressing strain relaxation. Examining differences in the epitaxial crystallization of amorphous oxide films, we report on an alternate, low-temperature route for strain engineering. Thin films of amorphous Bi–Fe–O were grown on (001SrTiO3 and (001LaAlO3 substrates via atomic layer deposition. In situ X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of the crystallization of the amorphous films into the epitaxial (001BiFeO3 phase reveal distinct evolution profiles of crystallinity with temperature. While growth on (001SrTiO3 results in a coherently strained film, the same films obtained on (001LaAlO3 showed an unstrained, dislocation-rich interface, with an even lower temperature onset of the perovskite phase crystallization than in the case of (001SrTiO3. Our results demonstrate how the strain control in an epitaxial film can be accomplished via its crystallization from the amorphous state.

  4. Energy Efficient Link Aware Routing with Power Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiravan, Jeevaa; Sylvia, D; Rao, D Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc networks, the traditional routing protocols make the route selection based on minimum distance between the nodes and the minimum number of hop counts. Most of the routing decisions do not consider the condition of the network such as link quality and residual energy of the nodes. Also, when a link failure occurs, a route discovery mechanism is initiated which incurs high routing overhead. If the broadcast nature and the spatial diversity of the wireless communication are utilized efficiently it becomes possible to achieve improvement in the performance of the wireless networks. In contrast to the traditional routing scheme which makes use of a predetermined route for packet transmission, such an opportunistic routing scheme defines a predefined forwarding candidate list formed by using single network metrics. In this paper, a protocol is proposed which uses multiple metrics such as residual energy and link quality for route selection and also includes a monitoring mechanism which initiates a route discovery for a poor link, thereby reducing the overhead involved and improving the throughput of the network while maintaining network connectivity. Power control is also implemented not only to save energy but also to improve the network performance. Using simulations, we show the performance improvement attained in the network in terms of packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, and residual energy of the network.

  5. Energy Efficient Link Aware Routing with Power Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevaa Katiravan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless ad hoc networks, the traditional routing protocols make the route selection based on minimum distance between the nodes and the minimum number of hop counts. Most of the routing decisions do not consider the condition of the network such as link quality and residual energy of the nodes. Also, when a link failure occurs, a route discovery mechanism is initiated which incurs high routing overhead. If the broadcast nature and the spatial diversity of the wireless communication are utilized efficiently it becomes possible to achieve improvement in the performance of the wireless networks. In contrast to the traditional routing scheme which makes use of a predetermined route for packet transmission, such an opportunistic routing scheme defines a predefined forwarding candidate list formed by using single network metrics. In this paper, a protocol is proposed which uses multiple metrics such as residual energy and link quality for route selection and also includes a monitoring mechanism which initiates a route discovery for a poor link, thereby reducing the overhead involved and improving the throughput of the network while maintaining network connectivity. Power control is also implemented not only to save energy but also to improve the network performance. Using simulations, we show the performance improvement attained in the network in terms of packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, and residual energy of the network.

  6. Access Request Trustworthiness in Weighted Access Control Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lun-wei; LIAO Xiang-ke; WANG Huai-min

    2005-01-01

    Weighted factor is given to access control policies to express the importance of policy and its effect on access control decision. According to this weighted access control framework, a trustworthiness model for access request is also given. In this model, we give the measure of trustworthiness factor to access request, by using some idea of uncertainty reasoning of expert system, present and prove the parallel propagation formula of request trustworthiness factor among multiple policies, and get the final trustworthiness factor to decide whether authorizing. In this model, authorization decision is given according to the calculation of request trustworthiness factor, which is more understandable, more suitable for real requirement and more powerful for security enhancement than traditional methods. Meanwhile the finer access control granularity is another advantage.

  7. Label-controlled optical packet routing technologies and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koonen, A.M.J.; Yan, N.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2007-01-01

    An overview is given of various optical packet labeling techniques. The architecture and technologies are discussed for optical packet routing nodes using orthogonal labeling with optoelectronic label processing, and for nodes using time-serial labeling with all-optical time-serial label processing...

  8. Control of single-photon routing in a T-shaped waveguide by another atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin-Song; Wang, Jing-Wen; Wang, Yan; Li, Yan-Ling; Huang, You-Wen

    2018-04-01

    Quantum routers with a high routing rate of much more than 0.5 are of great importance for quantum networks. We provide a scheme to perform bidirectional high routing-rate transfer in a T-shaped coupled-resonator waveguide (CRW), which extends a recent unidirectional scheme proposed by Lu et al. (Opt Express 23:22955, 2015). By locating an extra two-level atom in the infinite CRW channel of the T-shaped CRW with a three-level system, an effective potential is generated. Our numerical results show that high routing capability from the infinite CRW channel to the semi-infinite channel can be achieved, and routing capability from the semi-infinite CRW channel to the infinite channel can also be significantly enhanced, with the help of the effective potential. Therefore, the proposed double-atom configuration could be utilized as a bidirectional quantum routing controller to implement high transfer rate routing of single photons.

  9. Congestion control for vehicular delay tolerant network routing protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Oham, Chuka Finbars

    2014-01-01

    The Vehicular Delay Tolerant Network (VDTN) is a special and challenging type of the Delay Tolerant Network because of its high mobility, frequent disconnections and nodal congestion features. These challenging features make it prone to congestion which leads to a considerable amount of message drops in the network. To minimize the impact of congestion in the network, we designed and implemented the Congestion Aware Spray and Wait (CASaW) routing protocol. We varied the buffer sizes of the no...

  10. Colloidal templating : a route towards controlled synthesis of functional polymeric nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, S.I.

    2010-01-01

    Template-directed synthesis of polymeric nanoparticles offers better control over particle morphology, shape, structure, composition and properties compare to the conventional emulsion polymerization routes. For the production of anisotropic polymer-clay composite latex particles and polymeric

  11. Demonstration of Optically Controlled re-Routing in a Photonic Crystal Three-Port Switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Combrié, S.; Heuck, Mikkel; Xavier, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present an experimental demonstration of optically controlled re-routing of a signal in a photonic crystal cavity-waveguide structure with 3 ports. This represents a key functionality of integrated all-optical signal processing circuits....

  12. A facile route to shape controlled CdTe nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mntungwa, Nhlakanipho; Rajasekhar, Pullabhotla V.S.R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Zululand, Private Bag X1001, KwaDlangezwa 3886, Empangeni, KZN (South Africa); Revaprasadu, Neerish, E-mail: nrevapra@pan.uzulu.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, University of Zululand, Private Bag X1001, KwaDlangezwa 3886, Empangeni, KZN (South Africa)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A facile hybrid solution based/thermolysis route has been used for the synthesis of hexadecylamine capped CdTe nanoparticles. {yields} This method involves the reaction by the addition of an aqueous suspension of a cadmium salt to a freshly prepared NaHTe solution. {yields} The cadmium salt plays an important role in the growth mechanism of the particles and hence its final morphology. - Abstract: Hexadecylamine (HDA) capped CdTe nanoparticles have been synthesized using a facile hybrid solution based/thermolysis route. This method involves the reaction by the addition of an aqueous suspension or solution of a cadmium salt (chloride, acetate, nitrate or carbonate) to a freshly prepared NaHTe solution. The isolated CdTe was then dispersed in tri-octylphosphine (TOP) and injected into pre-heated HDA at temperatures of 190, 230 and 270 deg. C for 2 h. The particle growth and size distribution of the CdTe particles synthesized using cadmium chloride as the cadmium source were monitored using absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The final morphology of the CdTe nanoparticles synthesized from the various cadmium sources was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM. The cadmium source has an influence on the final morphology of the particles.

  13. A facile route to shape controlled CdTe nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mntungwa, Nhlakanipho; Rajasekhar, Pullabhotla V.S.R.; Revaprasadu, Neerish

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A facile hybrid solution based/thermolysis route has been used for the synthesis of hexadecylamine capped CdTe nanoparticles. → This method involves the reaction by the addition of an aqueous suspension of a cadmium salt to a freshly prepared NaHTe solution. → The cadmium salt plays an important role in the growth mechanism of the particles and hence its final morphology. - Abstract: Hexadecylamine (HDA) capped CdTe nanoparticles have been synthesized using a facile hybrid solution based/thermolysis route. This method involves the reaction by the addition of an aqueous suspension or solution of a cadmium salt (chloride, acetate, nitrate or carbonate) to a freshly prepared NaHTe solution. The isolated CdTe was then dispersed in tri-octylphosphine (TOP) and injected into pre-heated HDA at temperatures of 190, 230 and 270 deg. C for 2 h. The particle growth and size distribution of the CdTe particles synthesized using cadmium chloride as the cadmium source were monitored using absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The final morphology of the CdTe nanoparticles synthesized from the various cadmium sources was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM. The cadmium source has an influence on the final morphology of the particles.

  14. Connectivity-Enhanced Route Selection and Adaptive Control for the Chevrolet Volt: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Wood, E.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2014-09-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory and General Motors evaluated connectivity-enabled efficiency enhancements for the Chevrolet Volt. A high-level model was developed to predict vehicle fuel and electricity consumption based on driving characteristics and vehicle state inputs. These techniques were leveraged to optimize energy efficiency via green routing and intelligent control mode scheduling, which were evaluated using prospective driving routes between tens of thousands of real-world origin/destination pairs. The overall energy savings potential of green routing and intelligent mode scheduling was estimated at 5% and 3% respectively. These represent substantial opportunities considering that they only require software adjustments to implement.

  15. Cognitive process modelling of controllers in en route air traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Satoru; Furuta, Kazuo; Nakata, Keiichi; Kanno, Taro; Aoyama, Hisae; Brown, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, various efforts have been made in air traffic control (ATC) to maintain traffic safety and efficiency in the face of increasing air traffic demands. ATC is a complex process that depends to a large degree on human capabilities, and so understanding how controllers carry out their tasks is an important issue in the design and development of ATC systems. In particular, the human factor is considered to be a serious problem in ATC safety and has been identified as a causal factor in both major and minor incidents. There is, therefore, a need to analyse the mechanisms by which errors occur due to complex factors and to develop systems that can deal with these errors. From the cognitive process perspective, it is essential that system developers have an understanding of the more complex working processes that involve the cooperative work of multiple controllers. Distributed cognition is a methodological framework for analysing cognitive processes that span multiple actors mediated by technology. In this research, we attempt to analyse and model interactions that take place in en route ATC systems based on distributed cognition. We examine the functional problems in an ATC system from a human factors perspective, and conclude by identifying certain measures by which to address these problems. This research focuses on the analysis of air traffic controllers' tasks for en route ATC and modelling controllers' cognitive processes. This research focuses on an experimental study to gain a better understanding of controllers' cognitive processes in air traffic control. We conducted ethnographic observations and then analysed the data to develop a model of controllers' cognitive process. This analysis revealed that strategic routines are applicable to decision making.

  16. The deployment of routing protocols in distributed control plane of SDN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingjing, Zhou; Di, Cheng; Weiming, Wang; Rong, Jin; Xiaochun, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Software defined network (SDN) provides a programmable network through decoupling the data plane, control plane, and application plane from the original closed system, thus revolutionizing the existing network architecture to improve the performance and scalability. In this paper, we learned about the distributed characteristics of Kandoo architecture and, meanwhile, improved and optimized Kandoo's two levels of controllers based on ideological inspiration of RCP (routing control platform). Finally, we analyzed the deployment strategies of BGP and OSPF protocol in a distributed control plane of SDN. The simulation results show that our deployment strategies are superior to the traditional routing strategies.

  17. The Deployment of Routing Protocols in Distributed Control Plane of SDN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Software defined network (SDN provides a programmable network through decoupling the data plane, control plane, and application plane from the original closed system, thus revolutionizing the existing network architecture to improve the performance and scalability. In this paper, we learned about the distributed characteristics of Kandoo architecture and, meanwhile, improved and optimized Kandoo’s two levels of controllers based on ideological inspiration of RCP (routing control platform. Finally, we analyzed the deployment strategies of BGP and OSPF protocol in a distributed control plane of SDN. The simulation results show that our deployment strategies are superior to the traditional routing strategies.

  18. Topology control of tactical wireless sensor networks using energy efficient zone routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha Thulasiraman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The US Department of Defense (DoD routinely uses wireless sensor networks (WSNs for military tactical communications. Sensor node die-out has a significant impact on the topology of a tactical WSN. This is problematic for military applications where situational data is critical to tactical decision making. To increase the amount of time all sensor nodes remain active within the network and to control the network topology tactically, energy efficient routing mechanisms must be employed. In this paper, we aim to provide realistic insights on the practical advantages and disadvantages of using established routing techniques for tactical WSNs. We investigate the following established routing algorithms: direct routing, minimum transmission energy (MTE, Low Energy Adaptive Cluster Head routing (LEACH, and zone clustering. Based on the node die out statistics observed with these algorithms and the topological impact the node die outs have on the network, we develop a novel, energy efficient zone clustering algorithm called EZone. Via extensive simulations using MATLAB, we analyze the effectiveness of these algorithms on network performance for single and multiple gateway scenarios and show that the EZone algorithm tactically controls the topology of the network, thereby maintaining significant service area coverage when compared to the other routing algorithms.

  19. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, A. (Achla); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  20. Generation and Controlled Routing of Single Plasmons on a Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Shailesh; Israelsen, Niels Møller; Huck, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the excitation of single surface plasmon polaritons on a silver nanowire using a nitrogen vacancy center and the subsequent controlled coupling to a second silver nanowire. The coupling efficiency and thus the splitting ratio between the nanowires is controlled by adjusting the gap...... size between the wires with an atomic force microscope. By numerical methods, we estimate the splitting ratios for different gap sizes, and the results support the values obtained in the experiment.......We demonstrate the excitation of single surface plasmon polaritons on a silver nanowire using a nitrogen vacancy center and the subsequent controlled coupling to a second silver nanowire. The coupling efficiency and thus the splitting ratio between the nanowires is controlled by adjusting the gap...

  1. Controlling Thermal Expansion: A Metal?Organic Frameworks Route

    OpenAIRE

    Balestra, Salvador R. G.; Bueno-Perez, Rocio; Hamad, Said; Dubbeldam, David; Ruiz-Salvador, A. Rabdel; Calero, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Controlling thermal expansion is an important, not yet resolved, and challenging problem in materials research. A conceptual design is introduced here, for the first time, for the use of metal?organic frameworks (MOFs) as platforms for controlling thermal expansion devices that can operate in the negative, zero, and positive expansion regimes. A detailed computer simulation study, based on molecular dynamics, is presented to support the targeted application. MOF-5 has been selected as model m...

  2. Controlling Thermal Expansion: A Metal–Organic Frameworks Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Controlling thermal expansion is an important, not yet resolved, and challenging problem in materials research. A conceptual design is introduced here, for the first time, for the use of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) as platforms for controlling thermal expansion devices that can operate in the negative, zero, and positive expansion regimes. A detailed computer simulation study, based on molecular dynamics, is presented to support the targeted application. MOF-5 has been selected as model material, along with three molecules of similar size and known differences in terms of the nature of host–guest interactions. It has been shown that adsorbate molecules can control, in a colligative way, the thermal expansion of the solid, so that changing the adsorbate molecules induces the solid to display positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion. We analyze in depth the distortion mechanisms, beyond the ligand metal junction, to cover the ligand distortions, and the energetic and entropic effect on the thermo-structural behavior. We provide an unprecedented atomistic insight on the effect of adsorbates on the thermal expansion of MOFs as a basic tool toward controlling the thermal expansion. PMID:28190918

  3. Controlling Thermal Expansion: A Metal-Organic Frameworks Route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestra, Salvador R G; Bueno-Perez, Rocio; Hamad, Said; Dubbeldam, David; Ruiz-Salvador, A Rabdel; Calero, Sofia

    2016-11-22

    Controlling thermal expansion is an important, not yet resolved, and challenging problem in materials research. A conceptual design is introduced here, for the first time, for the use of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as platforms for controlling thermal expansion devices that can operate in the negative, zero, and positive expansion regimes. A detailed computer simulation study, based on molecular dynamics, is presented to support the targeted application. MOF-5 has been selected as model material, along with three molecules of similar size and known differences in terms of the nature of host-guest interactions. It has been shown that adsorbate molecules can control, in a colligative way, the thermal expansion of the solid, so that changing the adsorbate molecules induces the solid to display positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion. We analyze in depth the distortion mechanisms, beyond the ligand metal junction, to cover the ligand distortions, and the energetic and entropic effect on the thermo-structural behavior. We provide an unprecedented atomistic insight on the effect of adsorbates on the thermal expansion of MOFs as a basic tool toward controlling the thermal expansion.

  4. A stereo-controlled route to conjugated E-enediynes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lei; JIANG Huanfeng

    2007-01-01

    3-Ene-1,5-diynes are important components of many enediyne antitumor agents and luminescent materials.A stereo-controlled approach to the synthesis of E-enediynes was developed,and it consists of the following two steps:(1)a mild and economical synthesis of dihalo vinyl derivatives via addition of CuBr2 to alkynes;(2) the Sonogashira coupling reaction of the dihalo vinyl derivatives with terminal alkynes to form conjugated enediynes.

  5. An energy-aware engineered control plane for wavelength-routed networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricciardi, Sergio; Wang, Jiayuan; Palmieri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    ' operational expenditures. To face this problem, we propose a single-stage routing and wavelength assignment scheme, based on several network engineering extensions to the Generalised Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) control plane protocols, mainly Open Shortest Path First, with new composed metrics...

  6. Flow control and routing techniques for integrated voice and data networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, O. C.

    1981-10-01

    We consider a model of integrated voice and data networks. In this model the network flow problem is formulated as a convex optimization problem. The objective function comprises two types of cost functions: the congestion cost functions, which limit the average input traffic to values compatible with the network conditions; and the rate limitation cost functions, which ensure that all conversations are fairly treated. A joint flow control and routing algorithm is constructed which determines the routes for each conversation, and effects flow control by setting voice packet lengths and data input rates in a manner that achieves optimal tradeoff between each user's satisfaction and the cost of network congestion. An additional congestion control protocol is specified which could be used in conjunction with the algorithm to make the latter respond more dynamically to network congestion.

  7. Development of operator requested control system applications: Experience with the SLC control system at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanek, M.

    1995-01-01

    The SLC Control system at SLAC has evolved into a powerful tool for operation of the accelerator and for troubleshooting the unique problems encountered in extracting maximum performance from the SLC. The evolution has included the development of many custom applications and user interface features generated from accelerator operator and accelerator physicist requests. These applications are written and maintained primarily by the Controls Software Engineering group, and not by the users themselves. The process of developing and supporting user requested control systems applications at SLAC is described, including the effects of organizational structure, formal and informal procedures, and control system architecture

  8. TASAR Flight Trial 2: Assessment of Air Traffic Controller Acceptability of TASAR Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Husni; Enea, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    In support of the Flight Trial (FT-2) of NASA's prototype of the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) concept, observations were conducted at the air traffic facilities to identify and assess the main factors that affect the acceptability of pilot requests by air traffic controllers. Two observers shadowed air traffic controllers at the Atlanta (ZTL) and Jacksonville (ZJX) air traffic control centers as the test flight pilot made pre-scripted requests to invoke acceptability issues and then they interviewed the observed and other controllers voluntarily. Fifty controllers were interviewed with experience ranging from one to thirty-five years. All interviewed controllers were enthusiastic about the technology and accounting for sector boundaries in pilot requests, particularly if pilots can be made aware of high workload situations. All interviewed controllers accept more than fifty percent of pilot requests; forty percent of them reject less than ten percent of requests. The most common reason for rejecting requests is conflicting with traffic followed by violating letters of agreement (LOAs) and negatively impacting neighboring sector workload, major arrival and departure flows and flow restrictions. Thirty-six requests were made during the test, eight of which were rejected due to: the aircraft already handed off to another sector, violating LOA, opposing traffic, intruding into an active special use airspace (SUA), intruding into another center, weather, and unfamiliarity with the requested waypoint. Nine requests were accepted with delay mostly because the controller needed to locate unfamiliar waypoints or to coordinate with other controllers.

  9. RoCoMAR: Robots’ Controllable Mobility Aided Routing and Relay Architecture for Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokhoon Yoon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In a practical deployment, mobile sensor network (MSN suffers from a low performance due to high node mobility, time-varying wireless channel properties, and obstacles between communicating nodes. In order to tackle the problem of low network performance and provide a desired end-to-end data transfer quality, in this paper we propose a novel ad hoc routing and relaying architecture, namely RoCoMAR (Robots’ Controllable Mobility Aided Routing that uses robotic nodes’ controllable mobility. RoCoMAR repeatedly performs link reinforcement process with the objective of maximizing the network throughput, in which the link with the lowest quality on the path is identified and replaced with high quality links by placing a robotic node as a relay at an optimal position. The robotic node resigns as a relay if the objective is achieved or no more gain can be obtained with a new relay. Once placed as a relay, the robotic node performs adaptive link maintenance by adjusting its position according to the movements of regular nodes. The simulation results show that RoCoMAR outperforms existing ad hoc routing protocols for MSN in terms of network throughput and end-to-end delay.

  10. RoCoMAR: Robots' Controllable Mobility Aided Routing and Relay Architecture for Mobile Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Le, Duc; Oh, Hoon; Yoon, Seokhoon

    2013-01-01

    In a practical deployment, mobile sensor network (MSN) suffers from a low performance due to high node mobility, time-varying wireless channel properties, and obstacles between communicating nodes. In order to tackle the problem of low network performance and provide a desired end-to-end data transfer quality, in this paper we propose a novel ad hoc routing and relaying architecture, namely RoCoMAR (Robots' Controllable Mobility Aided Routing) that uses robotic nodes' controllable mobility. RoCoMAR repeatedly performs link reinforcement process with the objective of maximizing the network throughput, in which the link with the lowest quality on the path is identified and replaced with high quality links by placing a robotic node as a relay at an optimal position. The robotic node resigns as a relay if the objective is achieved or no more gain can be obtained with a new relay. Once placed as a relay, the robotic node performs adaptive link maintenance by adjusting its position according to the movements of regular nodes. The simulation results show that RoCoMAR outperforms existing ad hoc routing protocols for MSN in terms of network throughput and end-to-end delay. PMID:23881134

  11. En route position and time control of aircraft using Kalman filtering of radio aid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Christensen, J. V.

    1973-01-01

    Fixed-time-of-arrival (FTA) guidance and navigation is investigated as a possible technique capable of operation within much more stringent en route separation standards and offering significant advantages in safety, higher traffic densities, and improved scheduling reliability, both en route and in the terminal areas. This study investigated the application of FTA guidance previously used in spacecraft guidance. These FTA guidance techniques have been modified and are employed to compute the velocity corrections necessary to return an aircraft to a specified great-circle reference path in order to exercise en route time and position control throughout the entire flight. The necessary position and velocity estimates to accomplish this task are provided by Kalman filtering of data from Loran-C, VORTAC/TACAN, Doppler radar, radio or barometric altitude,and altitude rate. The guidance and navigation system was evaluated using a digital simulation of the cruise phase of supersonic and subsonic flights between San Francisco and New York City, and between New York City and London.

  12. Intelligent routing protocol for ad hoc wireless network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chaorong; Chen, Chang Wen

    2006-05-01

    A novel routing scheme for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), which combines hybrid and multi-inter-routing path properties with a distributed topology discovery route mechanism using control agents is proposed in this paper. In recent years, a variety of hybrid routing protocols for Mobile Ad hoc wireless networks (MANETs) have been developed. Which is proactively maintains routing information for a local neighborhood, while reactively acquiring routes to destinations beyond the global. The hybrid protocol reduces routing discovery latency and the end-to-end delay by providing high connectivity without requiring much of the scarce network capacity. On the other side the hybrid routing protocols in MANETs likes Zone Routing Protocol still need route "re-discover" time when a route between zones link break. Sine the topology update information needs to be broadcast routing request on local zone. Due to this delay, the routing protocol may not be applicable for real-time data and multimedia communication. We utilize the advantages of a clustering organization and multi-routing path in routing protocol to achieve several goals at the same time. Firstly, IRP efficiently saves network bandwidth and reduces route reconstruction time when a routing path fails. The IRP protocol does not require global periodic routing advertisements, local control agents will automatically monitor and repair broke links. Secondly, it efficiently reduces congestion and traffic "bottlenecks" for ClusterHeads in clustering network. Thirdly, it reduces significant overheads associated with maintaining clusters. Fourthly, it improves clusters stability due to dynamic topology changing frequently. In this paper, we present the Intelligent Routing Protocol. First, we discuss the problem of routing in ad hoc networks and the motivation of IRP. We describe the hierarchical architecture of IRP. We describe the routing process and illustrate it with an example. Further, we describe the control manage

  13. FAA Alleged Waste and Mismanagement of Air Route Traffic Control Centers Critical and Essential Power Systems Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-16

    The Office of Inspector General (OIG) reviewed a complaint from Congressman Deal on behalf of a constituent. The constituent alleged waste and mismanagement occurred in the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Air Route Traffic Control Centers Criti...

  14. 75 FR 61785 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Review of a Revised Information Collection: (OMB Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Information Collection: (OMB Control No. 3206-0201; Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Open Season... collection, ``Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Open Season Express Interactive Voice Response (IVR... other insurance information for self and family enrollments, requesting plan brochures, requesting a...

  15. En Route Descent Advisor Multi-Sector Planning Using Active and Provisional Controller Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Robert; Green, Steven

    2003-01-01

    As decision support tools are developed to support controllers in complex air traffic control environments, new approaches to maintaining situation awareness and managing traffic planning must be developed to handle the ever-increasing amounts of alerting and advisory data. Within high-density metering and other environments where flight path changes are the rule, not the exception, and where interactions between these changes are required, current trial planning approaches are limited by potential increases in workload. The Enroute Descent Advisor (EDA) is a set of decision support tool capabilities for managing high-density en route traffic subject to metering restrictions. The EDA system s novel approach builds aircraft plans from combinations of user intent data and builds controller plans from combinations of aircraft plans to effectively maintain situation awareness during traffic planning. By maintaining both active (current) and provisional (proposed) controller plans, EDA supports controllers in coordinated traffic planning both within and between sectors. Ultimately, EDA s multi-sector planning approach will facilitate a transition from current sector-oriented operations to a new trajectory-oriented paradigm, enabling new levels of efficiency and collaboration in air traffic control.

  16. Prioritizing connection requests in GMPLS-controlled optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Koster, A.; Andriolli, N.

    2009-01-01

    We prioritize bidirectional connection requests by combining dynamic connection provisioning with off-line optimization. Results show that the proposed approach decreases wavelength-converter usage, thereby allowing operators to reduce blocking-probably under bulk connection assignment or network...

  17. Towards the Engineering of Dependable P2P-Based Network Control — The Case of Timely Routing Control Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutschku, Kurt; Nakao, Akihiro

    This paper introduces a methodology for engineering best-effort P2P algorithms into dependable P2P-based network control mechanism. The proposed method is built upon an iterative approach consisting of improving the original P2P algorithm by appropriate mechanisms and of thorough performance assessment with respect to dependability measures. The potential of the methodology is outlined by the example of timely routing control for vertical handover in B3G wireless networks. In detail, the well-known Pastry and CAN algorithms are enhanced to include locality. By showing how to combine algorithmic enhancements with performance indicators, this case study paves the way for future engineering of dependable network control mechanisms through P2P algorithms.

  18. The 5 x 5 plan for asthma control: the green route to asthma control

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015 The Author(s). REVIEW. Introduction. Apart from medication to control asthmatic inflammation, ... therapeutic step in achieving asthma control and normal life. ... important at every visit, and is not time consuming or difficult to perform.

  19. Blocking Reduction of Span Restoration Requests in GMPLS Controlled WDM Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jakob Due; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Andriolli, N.

    2006-01-01

    The proposed label preference scheme reduces blocking of span restoration requests in GMPLS optical networks with limited wavelength conversion. By minimizing resource contention and conversion usage, it increases recovery percentage and reduces control plane load.......The proposed label preference scheme reduces blocking of span restoration requests in GMPLS optical networks with limited wavelength conversion. By minimizing resource contention and conversion usage, it increases recovery percentage and reduces control plane load....

  20. Operation Request Gatekeeper: A software system for remote access control of diagnostic instruments in fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abla, G.; Schissel, D. P.; Fredian, T. W.; Stillerman, J. A.; Greenwald, M. J.; Stepanov, D. N.; Ciarlette, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    Tokamak diagnostic settings are repeatedly modified to meet the changing needs of each experiment. Enabling the remote diagnostic control has significant challenges due to security and efficiency requirements. The Operation Request Gatekeeper (ORG) is a software system that addresses the challenges of remotely but securely submitting modification requests. The ORG provides a framework for screening all the requests before they enter the secure machine zone and are executed by performing user authentication and authorization, grammar validation, and validity checks. A prototype ORG was developed for the ITER CODAC that satisfies their initial requirements for remote request submission and has been tested with remote control of the KSTAR Plasma Control System. This paper describes the software design principles and implementation of ORG as well as worldwide test results.

  1. 31 CFR 50.8 - Procedure for requesting determinations of controlling influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determinations of controlling influence. 50.8 Section 50.8 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of... determinations of controlling influence. (a) An insurer or insurers not having control over another insurer under... controlling influence under § 50.5(c)(4)(i) through (iv) or otherwise to request a determination of...

  2. Predicting bat colony survival under controls targeting multiple transmission routes of white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A D; Stevens, D F; Blackwood, J C

    2016-11-21

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a lethal infection of bats caused by the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). Since the first cases of WNS were documented in 2006, it is estimated that as many as 5.5million bats have succumbed in the United States-one of the fastest mammalian die-offs due to disease ever observed, and the first known sustained epizootic of bats. WNS is contagious between bats, and mounting evidence suggests that a persistent environmental reservoir of Pd plays a significant role in transmission as well. It is unclear, however, the relative contributions of bat-to-bat and environment-to-bat transmission to disease propagation within a colony. We analyze a mathematical model to investigate the consequences of both avenues of transmission on colony survival in addition to the efficacy of disease control strategies. Our model shows that selection of the most effective control strategies is highly dependent on the primary route of WNS transmission. Under all scenarios, however, generalized culling is ineffective and while targeted culling of infected bats may be effective under idealized conditions, it primarily has negative consequences. Thus, understanding the significance of environment-to-bat transmission is paramount to designing effective management plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fuzzy-Neural Controller in Service Requests Distribution Broker for SOA-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fras, Mariusz; Zatwarnicka, Anna; Zatwarnicki, Krzysztof

    The evolution of software architectures led to the rising importance of the Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) concept. This architecture paradigm support building flexible distributed service systems. In the paper the architecture of service request distribution broker designed for use in SOA-based systems is proposed. The broker is built with idea of fuzzy control. The functional and non-functional request requirements in conjunction with monitoring of execution and communication links are used to distribute requests. Decisions are made with use of fuzzy-neural network.

  4. Synthesis of SnO2 nanoparticles through the controlled precipitation route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarguen, C. Ararat; Mosquera, A.; Parra, R.; Castro, M.S.; Rodriguez-Paez, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    The controlled precipitation method allowed to the synthesis of SnO 2 with advantageous specific properties, such as size and shape employing an aqueous SnCl 2 .2H 2 O solution as precursor. Through XRD analyses, the optimum pH value of the solution that yielded the desired product was found to be 6.25. After a thermal treatment at 600 deg. C, the final powder presented an average particle size below 50 nm with a surface area of 19 m 2 g -1 and a large reactivity. The evolution of the most important functional groups during the steps involved in this synthesis route is explained in view of the results obtained with FTIR and XRD. A thorough discussion on the different intermediates involved in the whole process is presented on the basis of hydrolysis and condensation reactions. The conclusions are supported with a complete characterization through differential and gravimetric thermal analysis (DTA/TGA), electron microscopies (SEM/TEM) and surface area determinations (BET)

  5. 76 FR 7196 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Request for Authorization of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9264-4] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Request for Authorization of Airborne Toxic Control Measure for In-Use Portable Diesel Engines 50... for In-Use Strategies to Control Emissions from Diesel Engines,'' 13 California Code of Regulations...

  6. Relationship of Employee Attitudes and Supervisor-Controller Ratio to En Route Operational Error Rates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broach, Dana

    2002-01-01

    ...; Rodgers, Mogford, Mogford, 1998). In this study, the relationship of organizational factors to en route OE rates was investigated, based on an adaptation of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS; Shappell & Wiegmann 2000...

  7. Randomised controlled trial of routine individual feedback to improve rationality and reduce numbers of test requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkens, R A; Pop, P; Bugter-Maessen, A M; Grol, R P; Kester, A D; Beusmans, G H; Knottnerus, J A

    1995-02-25

    Feedback can be described as a way to provide information on doctors' performance to enable changes in future behaviour. Feedback is used with the aim of changing test-ordering behaviour. It can lead to reductions in test usage and cost savings. It is not sufficiently clear, however, whether feedback leads to more appropriate test use. Since 1985, the Diagnostic Coordinating Center Maastricht has been giving feedback on diagnostic tests as a routine health care activity to all family doctors in its region. Both quantity and quality of requests are discussed. In a randomised, controlled trial over 2.5 years, discussion of tests not included previously was added to the existing routine feedback. One group of family doctors (n = 39) received feedback on test-group A (electrocardiography, endoscopy, cervical smears, and allergy tests), the other (n = 40) on test-group B (radiographic and ultrasonographic tests). Thus, each group of doctors acted as a control group for the other. Changes in volume and rationality of requests were analysed. The number of requests decreased during the trial (p = 0.036). Request numbers decreased particularly for test-group A (p = 0.04). The proportion of requests that were non-rational decreased more in the intervention than in the control groups (p = 0.009). Rationality improved predominantly for test-group B (p = 0.043). Thus, routine feedback can change the quantity and quality of requests.

  8. Quantum optics. All-optical routing of single photons by a one-atom switch controlled by a single photon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomroni, Itay; Rosenblum, Serge; Lovsky, Yulia; Bechler, Orel; Guendelman, Gabriel; Dayan, Barak

    2014-08-22

    The prospect of quantum networks, in which quantum information is carried by single photons in photonic circuits, has long been the driving force behind the effort to achieve all-optical routing of single photons. We realized a single-photon-activated switch capable of routing a photon from any of its two inputs to any of its two outputs. Our device is based on a single atom coupled to a fiber-coupled, chip-based microresonator. A single reflected control photon toggles the switch from high reflection (R ~ 65%) to high transmission (T ~ 90%), with an average of ~1.5 control photons per switching event (~3, including linear losses). No additional control fields are required. The control and target photons are both in-fiber and practically identical, making this scheme compatible with scalable architectures for quantum information processing. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Research on Strategy Control of Taxi Carpooling Detour Route under Uncertain Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the problem of route choice in taxi carpooling detour, considering the uncertainty of traffic and the characteristic of passengers’ noncomplete rationality, an evolutionary game model of taxi carpooling detour route is built, in which prospect theory is introduced and revenue of strategy is replaced by prospect value. The model reflects more really decision-making psychology of passengers. Then the stable strategies of the model are studied, and the influences of detour distance and traffic congestion on detour carpooling success are analyzed, respectively. The results show that when at least one route of which prospect values for two passenger sides are both positive exists, carpooling route can reach an agreement. The route is stable strategy of evolutionary game, and the passengers requiring short travel time tend to select the nondetour route. With the increase of detour distance and traffic congestion rate, the possibility of reaching an agreement decreases gradually; that is, possibility of carpooling failure increases. So taxi carpooling detour is possible under the certain condition, but some measures must be carried out such as constraints of detour distance and mitigation of traffic congestion to improve carpooling success probability. These conclusions have a certain guiding significance to the formulation of taxi carpooling policy.

  10. Size-controlled synthesis of transition metal nanoparticles through chemical and photo-chemical routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangeysh, Behzad

    The central objective of this work is developing convenient general procedures for controlling the formation and stabilization of nanoscale transition metal particles. Contemporary interest in developing alternative synthetic approaches for producing nanoparticles arises in large part from expanding applications of the nanomaterials in areas such as catalysis, electronics and medicine. This research focuses on advancing the existing nanoparticle synthetic routes by using a new class of polymer colloid materials as a chemical approach, and the laser irradiation of metal salt solution as a photo-chemical method to attain size and shape selectivity. Controlled synthesis of small metal nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 1 to 5nm is still a continuing challenge in nanomaterial synthesis. This research utilizes a new class of polymer colloid materials as nano-reactors and protective agents for controlling the formation of small transition metal nanoparticles. The polymer colloid particles were formed from cross-linking of dinegatively charged metal precursors with partially protonated poly dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate (PDMAEMA). Incorporation of [PtCl6]2- species into the colloidal particles prior to the chemical reduction was effectively employed as a new strategy for synthesis of unusually small platinum nanoparticles with narrow size distributions (1.12 +/-0.25nm). To explore the generality of this approach, in a series of proof-of-concept studies, this method was successfully employed for the synthesis of small palladium (1.4 +/-0.2nm) and copper nanoparticles (1.5 +/-0.6nm). The polymer colloid materials developed in this research are pH responsive, and are designed to self-assemble and/or disassemble by varying the levels of protonation of the polymer chains. This unique feature was used to tune the size of palladium nanoparticles in a small range from 1nm to 5nm. The procedure presented in this work is a new convenient room temperature route for synthesis of

  11. Integrated management tool for controls software problems, requests and project tasking at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogind, D.; Allen, W.; Colocho, W.; DeContreras, G.; Gordon, J.; Pandey, P.; Shoaee, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Accelerator Directorate (AD) Instrumentation and Controls (ICD) Software (SW) Department at SLAC, with its service center model, continuously receives engineering requests to design, build and support controls for accelerator systems lab-wide. Each customer request can vary in complexity from a small software engineering change to a major enhancement. SLAC's Accelerator Improvement Projects (AIPs), along with DOE Construction projects, also contribute heavily to the work load. The various customer requests and projects, paired with the ongoing operational maintenance and problem reports, place a demand on the department that consistently exceeds the capacity of available resources. A centralized repository - comprised of all requests, project tasks, and problems - available to physicists, operators, managers, and engineers alike, is essential to capture, communicate, prioritize, assign, schedule, track, and finally, commission all work components. The Software Department has recently integrated request / project tasking into SLAC's custom online problem tracking 'Comprehensive Accelerator Tool for Enhancing Reliability' (CATER) tool. This paper discusses the newly implemented software request management tool - the workload it helps to track, its structure, features, reports, work-flow and its many usages. (authors)

  12. Dimensions of Air Traffic Control Tower Information Needs: From Information Requests to Display Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Francis T.; Johnson, Brian R.; Crutchfield, Jerry M.

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to determine the information needs of tower air traffic controllers, instructors from the Federal Aviation Administration's Academy in Oklahoma City were asked to control traffic in a high-fidelity tower cab simulator. Information requests were made apparent by eliminating access to standard tower information sources. Instead,…

  13. A Linear Programming Approach to Routing Control in Networks of Constrained Nonlinear Positive Systems with Concave Flow Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Heather M.; Dousse, Nicholas; Langbort, Cedric

    2014-01-01

    We consider control design for positive compartmental systems in which each compartment's outflow rate is described by a concave function of the amount of material in the compartment.We address the problem of determining the routing of material between compartments to satisfy time-varying state constraints while ensuring that material reaches its intended destination over a finite time horizon. We give sufficient conditions for the existence of a time-varying state-dependent routing strategy which ensures that the closed-loop system satisfies basic network properties of positivity, conservation and interconnection while ensuring that capacity constraints are satisfied, when possible, or adjusted if a solution cannot be found. These conditions are formulated as a linear programming problem. Instances of this linear programming problem can be solved iteratively to generate a solution to the finite horizon routing problem. Results are given for the application of this control design method to an example problem. Key words: linear programming; control of networks; positive systems; controller constraints and structure.

  14. Design and Operational Evaluation of the Traffic Management Advisor at the Ft. Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Vincent, Danny; Tobias, Leonard (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA and the FAA have designed and developed and an automation tool known as the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA). The system was operationally evaluated at the Ft. Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC). The TMA is a time-based strategic planning tool that provides Traffic Management Coordinators and En Route Air Traffic Controllers the ability to efficiently optimize the capacity of a demand impacted airport. The TMA consists of trajectory prediction, constraint-based runway scheduling, traffic flow visualization and controllers advisories. The TMA was used and operationally evaluated for forty-one rush traffic periods during a one month period in the Summer of 1996. The evaluations included all shifts of air traffic operations as well as periods of inclement weather. Performance data was collected for engineering and human factor analysis and compared with similar operations without the TMA. The engineering data indicates that the operations with the TMA show a one to two minute per aircraft delay reduction during rush periods. The human factor data indicate a perceived reduction in en route controller workload as well as an increase in job satisfaction. Upon completion of the evaluation, the TMA has become part of the normal operations at the Ft. Worth ARTCC.

  15. 40 CFR 63.1034 - Closed vent systems and control devices; or emissions routed to a fuel gas system or process...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closed vent systems and control devices; or emissions routed to a fuel gas system or process standards. 63.1034 Section 63.1034 Protection... routed to a fuel gas system or process standards. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or operator shall...

  16. On Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Cross-Layer Design: Joint Power Control and Routing for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poor HVincent

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical cross-layer design approach is proposed to increase energy efficiency in ad hoc networks through joint adaptation of nodes' transmitting powers and route selection. The design maintains the advantages of the classic OSI model, while accounting for the cross-coupling between layers, through information sharing. The proposed joint power control and routing algorithm is shown to increase significantly the overall energy efficiency of the network, at the expense of a moderate increase in complexity. Performance enhancement of the joint design using multiuser detection is also investigated, and it is shown that the use of multiuser detection can increase the capacity of the ad hoc network significantly for a given level of energy consumption.

  17. On Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Cross-Layer Design: Joint Power Control and Routing for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Comaniciu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical cross-layer design approach is proposed to increase energy efficiency in ad hoc networks through joint adaptation of nodes' transmitting powers and route selection. The design maintains the advantages of the classic OSI model, while accounting for the cross-coupling between layers, through information sharing. The proposed joint power control and routing algorithm is shown to increase significantly the overall energy efficiency of the network, at the expense of a moderate increase in complexity. Performance enhancement of the joint design using multiuser detection is also investigated, and it is shown that the use of multiuser detection can increase the capacity of the ad hoc network significantly for a given level of energy consumption.

  18. Routing protocol extension for resilient GMPLS multi-domain networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Anna Vasileva; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Romeral, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of multi-domain networks under the Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching control framework in case of a single inter-domain link failure. We propose and evaluate a routing protocol extension for the Border Gateway Protocol, which allows domains to obtain...... two Autonomous System disjoint paths and use them efficiently under failure conditions. Three main applications for the protocol extension are illustrated: reducing traffic loss on existing connections by xploiting pre-selected backup paths derived with our proposal, applying multi-domain restoration...... as survivability mechanism in case of single link failure, and employing proper failure notification mechanisms for routing of future connection requests under routing protocol re-convergence. Via simulations we illustrate the benefits of utilizing the proposed routing protocol extension for networks employing...

  19. 77 FR 53199 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... cars, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles (and limited requirements related to heavy... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [AMS-FRL-9724-4] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request for Waiver of Preemption; Opportunity for Public Hearing and...

  20. 76 FR 2398 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; California Health Interview Survey Cancer Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... annual burden hours requested are 2,177 (see Table 1). There are no Capital Costs, Operating Costs, and/or Maintenance Costs to report. Table 1--Estimates of Annualized Hour Burden Average time Type of... Control Module (CHIS-CCM) 2011. Type of [[Page 2399

  1. 76 FR 26746 - Information Collection Requests to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Numbers: 1625...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Numbers: 1625-0077, 1625-0085 and 1625-0112 AGENCY: Coast... Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA), requesting an... identified by Coast Guard docket number [USCG-2011-0336] to the Docket Management Facility (DMF) at the U.S...

  2. What is the Ideal Route of Administration of Tranexamic Acid in TKA? A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Yup; Chong, Suri; Balasubramanian, Dhanasekaraprabu; Na, Young Gon; Kim, Tae Kyun

    2017-08-01

    TKA commonly involves substantial blood loss and tranexamic acid has been used to reduce blood loss after TKA. Numerous clinical trials have documented the efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) or intraarticular (IA) use of tranexamic acid. Combined administration of tranexamic acid also has been suggested; however, there is no consensus regarding the ideal route of tranexamic acid administration. (1) To compare the efficacy of tranexamic acid in terms of total blood loss and the allogeneic transfusion rate among three routes of administration: IV alone, IA alone, and combined IV and IA. (2) To compare these regimens in terms of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and the frequency of wound complications. In total, 376 patients undergoing TKA between March 2014 and March 2015 were randomized to four groups by the route of tranexamic acid administration: IV only, IA only, low-dose combined (IV + IA injection of 1 g), and high-dose combined (IV + IA injection of 2 g). The calculated total blood loss, allogeneic transfusion rate, decrease in hemoglobin, the frequency of symptomatic deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, wound complications, and periprosthetic joint infection were compared among the groups. Total blood loss was calculated using estimated total body blood volume and hemoglobin loss. The decision regarding when to transfuse was determined based on preset criteria. The high- and low-dose combined groups and the IA-only group had lower total blood loss (564 ± 242 mL, 642 ± 242 mL, and 633 ± 205 mL, respectively) than the IV-only group (764 ± 217 mL; mean differences = 199 mL [95% CI, 116-283 mL], p tranexamic acid administration further reduces blood loss after TKA in comparison to IV use alone; no additional effect in further reducing blood loss was found in combination with IV tranexamic acid. Appropriately powered studies are needed to confirm the safety of this route of administration as the preferred route of administration in TKA. Level I

  3. Study of QoS control and reliable routing method for utility communication network. Application of differentiated service to the network and alternative route establishment by the IP routing protocol; Denryokuyo IP network no QoS seigyo to shinraisei kakuho no hoho. DiffServ ni yoru QoS seigyo no koka to IP ni yoru fuku root ka no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oba, E.

    2000-05-01

    QoS control method which satisfies utilities communication network requirement and alternative route establishment method which is for sustaining communication during a failure are studied. Applicability of DiffServ (Differentiated Service), one of the most promising QoS control method on IP network and studying energetically in IETF WG, is studied and it is found most application used in the utility communication network except for relaying system information could he accommodated to the DiffServ network. An example of the napping of the utility communication applications to the DiffServ PHB (Per Hop Behavior) is shown in this paper. Regarding to the alternative route, usual IP routing protocol cannot establish alternative route which doesn't have common links and nodes in their paths for a destination. IP address duplication with some modification of routing protocol enables such alternative route establishment. MPLS, distance vector algorithm and link state algorithm are evaluated qualitatively, and as a result, we found MPLS is promising way to establish the route. Quantitative evaluation will be future work. (author)

  4. Automated Computer Access Request System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Bryan E.

    2010-01-01

    The Automated Computer Access Request (AutoCAR) system is a Web-based account provisioning application that replaces the time-consuming paper-based computer-access request process at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Auto- CAR combines rules-based and role-based functionality in one application to provide a centralized system that is easily and widely accessible. The system features a work-flow engine that facilitates request routing, a user registration directory containing contact information and user metadata, an access request submission and tracking process, and a system administrator account management component. This provides full, end-to-end disposition approval chain accountability from the moment a request is submitted. By blending both rules-based and rolebased functionality, AutoCAR has the flexibility to route requests based on a user s nationality, JSC affiliation status, and other export-control requirements, while ensuring a user s request is addressed by either a primary or backup approver. All user accounts that are tracked in AutoCAR are recorded and mapped to the native operating system schema on the target platform where user accounts reside. This allows for future extensibility for supporting creation, deletion, and account management directly on the target platforms by way of AutoCAR. The system s directory-based lookup and day-today change analysis of directory information determines personnel moves, deletions, and additions, and automatically notifies a user via e-mail to revalidate his/her account access as a result of such changes. AutoCAR is a Microsoft classic active server page (ASP) application hosted on a Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS).

  5. An Experimental Study of the Effect of Shared Information on Pilot/Controller Re-Route Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John

    1999-01-01

    Air-ground data link systems are being developed to enable pilots and air traffic controllers to share information more fully. The sharing of information is generally expected to enhance their shared situation awareness and foster more collaborative decision making. An exploratory, part-task simulator experiment is described which evaluates the extent to which shared information may lead pilots and controllers to cooperate or compete when negotiating route amendments. The results indicate an improvement in situation awareness for pilots and controllers and a willingness to work cooperatively. Independent of data link considerations, the experiment also demonstrates the value of providing controllers with a good-quality weather representation on their plan view displays. Observed improvements in situation awareness and separation assurance are discussed. It is argued that deployment of this relatively simple, low-risk addition to the plan view displays be accelerated.

  6. Do familiar teammates request and accept more backup? Transactive memory in air traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Jentsch, Kimberly A; Kraiger, Kurt; Cannon-Bowers, Janis A; Salas, Eduardo

    2009-04-01

    The present study investigated factors that explain when and why different groups of teammates are more likely to request and accept backup from one another when needed in an environment characterized by extreme time pressure and severe consequences of error: commercial air traffic control (ATC). Transactive memory theory states that teammates develop consensus regarding the distribution of their relative expertise as well as confidence in that expertise over time and that this facilitates coordination processes. The present study investigated whether this theory could help to explain between-team differences in requesting and accepting backup when needed. The present study used cross-sectional data collected from 51 commercial ATC teams. Hypotheses were tested using multiple regression analysis. Teammates with greater experience working together requested and accepted backup from one another more than those with lesser experience working together. Teammate knowledge consensus and perceived team efficacy appear to have mediated this relationship. Transactive memory theory extends to high-stress environments in which members' expertise is highly overlapping. Teammates' shared mental models about one another increase the likelihood that they will request and accept backup. Teammate familiarity should be considered when choosing among potential replacement team members. Training strategies that accelerate the development of teammate knowledge consensus and team efficacy are warranted.

  7. Request Stream Control for the Access to Broadband Multimedia Educational Resources in the Distance Learning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Pavlovna Bolodurina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a model of queuing system for broadband multimedia educational resources, as well as a model of access to a hybrid cloud system storage. These models are used to enhance the efficiency of computing resources in a distance learning system. An additional OpenStack control module has been developed to achieve the distribution of request streams and balance the load between cloud nodes.

  8. Dynamic Routing during Disaster Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitrianie, S.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Innovations in mobile technology allow people to request route information on their smartphone to reach safe areas during emergency and disaster evacuations. In return, the affected people in the field can send their observation reports, e.g. using a dedicated icon-based disaster language. However,

  9. 75 FR 61784 - Submission for OMB Review; Request for Comment on a New Information Collection: (OMB Control No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ..., Congressional employees, members of Congress, and air traffic controllers. Because these court orders were... is needed on the OPM website so these individuals and their survivors can make the request. We...

  10. Hydrothermal route to VO2 (B) nanorods: controlled synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shaokun; Huang, Qiwei; Zhu, Wanting

    2017-10-01

    One-dimensional vanadium dioxides have attracted intensive attention owing to their distinctive structure and novel applications in catalysis, high energy lithium-ion batteries, chemical sensors/actuators and electrochemical devices etc. In this paper, large-scale VO2 (B) nanorods have been successfully synthesized via a versatile and environment friendly hydrothermal strategy using V2O5 as vanadium source and carbohydrates/alcohols as reductant. The obtained samples are characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TEM, and XPS techniques to investigate the effects of chemical parameters such as reductants, temperature, and time of synthesis on the structure and morphology of products. Results show that pure B phase VO2 with homogeneous nanorod-like morphology can be prepared easily at 180 °C for 3 days with glycerol as reluctant. Typically, the nanorod-like products are 0.5-1 μm long and 50 nm width. Furthermore, it is also confirmed that the products are consisted of VO2, corresponding to the B phase. More importantly, this novel approach is efficient, free of any harmful solvents and surfactants. Therefore, this efficient, green, and cost-saving route will have great potential in the large-scale fabrication of 1D VO2 (B) nanorods from the economic and environmental point of view.

  11. METHOD AND ABSTRACT MODEL FOR CONTROL AND ACCESS RIGHTS BY REQUESTS REDIRECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Shcheglov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We have researched implementation problems of control and access rights of subjects to objects in modern computer systems. We have suggested access control method based on objects access requests redirection. The method possesses a distinctive feature as compared to discretional access control. In case when a subject needs to deny writing (object modification, it is not denied but redirected (access rights are not changed, but operation is performed with another object. This gives the possibility to implement access policies to system objects without breaking the system and applications operability, and share correctly access objects between subjects. This important property of suggested access control method enables to solve fundamentally new system objects securing problems like system resources virtualization aimed to protect system objects from users’ and applications attacks. We have created an abstract model, and it shows that this method (access control from subjects to objects based on requests redirection can be used as self-sufficient access control method, implementing any access control policy (from subjects to objects, thus being an alternative to discretional access control method.

  12. Routing power flows in distribution networks using locally controlled power electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelink, J.; Nguyen, P.H.; Kling, W.L.; Ribeiro, P.F.; Groot, de R.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    The power grid has gradually changed its operation during the recent decades. These developments have encouraged a shift from centralized to decentralized power flow control. A research has been carried out to investigate the possibilities to control power flows using the Smart Power Router (SPR) in

  13. A facile route to controlled synthesis of Co3O4 nanoparticles and their environmental catalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yuming; He Kun; Yin Lin; Zhang Aimin

    2007-01-01

    Using ammonia and Co(CH 3 COO) 2 ·4H 2 O as starting materials, a facile and surfactant-free route to controlled synthesis of Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles was proposed. Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles with average sizes of 3.5, 6, 11, 19 and 70 nm were obtained through adjusting the ethanol amount in the solvent (the ratio of ethanol to water) or the concentration of raw materials. In this process, the presence of enough O 2 was crucial for the formation of pure Co 3 O 4 phase. The environmental catalytic properties of as-obtained Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles were investigated. The results indicated their remarkable catalysis for ozonation degradation of phenol, which denoted a promising application as catalyst in waste-water treatment

  14. Facile and solvent-free routes for the synthesis of size-controllable Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Thanh Hieu; Tran, Dai Lam; Do, Hung Manh; Le, Van Hong; Nguyen, Xuan Phuc; Tran, Vinh Hoang

    2010-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles are one of the most important materials that are widely used in both medically diagnostic and therapeutic research. In this paper, we present some facile and non-toxic synthetic approaches for size-controllable preparations of magnetite nanoparticles, which are appropriate for biomedical applications, namely (i) co-precipitation; (ii) reduction–precipitation and (iii) oxidation–precipitation. Magnetic characterizations of the obtained nanoparticles have been studied and discussed. The oxidation precipitation route was chosen for investigation of the dependence of kinetic driven activation energy and that of coercive force on particle size (and temperature) during the course of the reaction. The structural–magnetic behavior was also correlated. Being solvent and surfactant-free, these methods are advantageous for synthesis and further functionalization towards biomedical applications

  15. Discrete events simulation of a route with traffic lights through automated control in real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo César Teixeira Baptista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the integration and communication in real-time of a discrete event simulation model with an automatic control system. The simulation model of an intersection with roads having traffic lights was built in the Arena environment. The integration and communication have been made via network, and the control system was operated by a programmable logic controller. Scenarios were simulated for the free, regular and congested traffic situations. The results showed the average number of vehicles that entered in the system and that were retained and also the total average time of the crossing of the vehicles on the road. In general, the model allowed evaluating the behavior of the traffic in each of the ways and the commands from the controller to activation and deactivation of the traffic lights.

  16. An optimal control-based algorithm for hybrid electric vehicle using preview route information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, D.V.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.; Serrarens, A.F.A.

    2010-01-01

    Control strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) are generally aimed at optimally choosing the power distribution between the internal combustion engine and the electric motor in order to minimize the fuel consumption and/or emissions. Using vehicle navigation systems in combination with

  17. Rigorous Progress on Algorithms Based Routing and Wavelength Assignment in Trans-Egypt Network (TEGYNET) Management

    OpenAIRE

    Abd El–Naser A. Mohammed; Ahmed Nabih Zaki Rashed; Osama S. Fragallah; Mohamed G. El-Abyad

    2013-01-01

    In simple wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) networks, a connection must be established along a route using a common wavelength on all of the links along the route. The introduction of wavelength converters into WDM cross connects increases the hardware cost and complexity. Given a set of connection requests, the routing and wavelength assignment problem involves finding a route (routing) and assigning a wavelength to each request. This paper has presented the WDM technology is being exten...

  18. An adversarial queueing model for online server routing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifaci, V.

    2007-01-01

    In an online server routing problem, a vehicle or server moves in a network in order to process incoming requests at the nodes. Online server routing problems have been thoroughly studied using competitive analysis. We propose a new model for online server routing, based on adversarial queueing

  19. Quadratic genetic modifications: a streamlined route to cosmological simulations with controlled merger history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Martin P.; Pontzen, Andrew

    2018-02-01

    Recent work has studied the interplay between a galaxy's history and its observable properties using `genetically modified' cosmological zoom simulations. The approach systematically generates alternative histories for a halo, while keeping its cosmological environment fixed. Applications to date altered linear properties of the initial conditions, such as the mean overdensity of specified regions; we extend the formulation to include quadratic features, such as local variance, that determines the overall importance of smooth accretion relative to mergers in a galaxy's history. We introduce an efficient algorithm for this new class of modification and demonstrate its ability to control the variance of a region in a one-dimensional toy model. Outcomes of this work are twofold: (i) a clarification of the formulation of genetic modifications and (ii) a proof of concept for quadratic modifications leading the way to a forthcoming implementation in cosmological simulations.

  20. Tuning Nanocrystal Surface Depletion by Controlling Dopant Distribution as a Route Toward Enhanced Film Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staller, Corey M.; Robinson, Zachary L.; Agrawal, Ankit; Gibbs, Stephen L.; Greenberg, Benjamin L.; Lounis, Sebastien D.; Kortshagen, Uwe R.; Milliron, Delia J.

    2018-05-01

    Electron conduction through bare metal oxide nanocrystal (NC) films is hindered by surface depletion regions resulting from the presence of surface states. We control the radial dopant distribution in tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) NCs as a means to manipulate the NC depletion width. We find in films of ITO NCs of equal overall dopant concentration that those with dopant-enriched surfaces show decreased depletion width and increased conductivity. Variable temperature conductivity data shows electron localization length increases and associated depletion width decreases monotonically with increased density of dopants near the NC surface. We calculate band profiles for NCs of differing radial dopant distributions and, in agreement with variable temperature conductivity fits, find NCs with dopant-enriched surfaces have narrower depletion widths and longer localization lengths than those with dopant-enriched cores. Following amelioration of NC surface depletion by atomic layer deposition of alumina, all films of equal overall dopant concentration have similar conductivity. Variable temperature conductivity measurements on alumina-capped films indicate all films behave as granular metals. Herein, we conclude that dopant-enriched surfaces decrease the near-surface depletion region, which directly increases the electron localization length and conductivity of NC films.

  1. How to Control Airline Routes from the Supply Side: The Case of TAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Kenneth; Costa, Alvaro; Reis, Vasco

    2005-01-01

    Competition in the European airline industry is currently fierce in the face of depressed demand conditions, and in the wake of privatizations and liberalization. The Portuguese flag carrier, TAP Air Portugal, operates within this environment. It is a medium sized carrier that was part of the defunct Qualiflyer Group alliance and has recently joined the Star Alliance. It controls more than 50% of the air market between Europe and Brazil and Europe and Angola. Nevertheless, it has been experiencing financial losses. One reason for this is that, following the reasoning of Ronald Coase (1946), it is difficult for any company with decreasing average costs to recover full costs in a highly competitive market. One way of approaching the problem is to establish quasi-monopoly power and airlines have done this through such things as frequent flyer programs and hub-and-spoke operations. Other airlines, notably charter carriers, have sought to adjust capacity and services to meet an anticipated cash flow. In practice, many have used a combination of measures with mixed success. This paper focuses on how TAP has responded to changing conditions by adjusting its supply-side activities in terms of restructuring its network to maximize potential revenues.

  2. The implementation of common object request broker architecture (CORBA) for controlling robot arm via web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Mahamad Zuhdi Amin; Mohd Yazid Idris; Wan Mohd Nasir Wan Kadir

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the employment of the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) technology in the implementation of our distributed Arm Robot Controller (ARC). CORBA is an industrial standard architecture based on distributed abstract object model, which is developed by Object Management Group (OMG). The architecture consists of five components i.e. Object Request Broker (ORB), Interface Definition Language (IDL), Dynamic Invocation Interface (DII), Interface Repositories (IR) and Object adapter (OA). CORBA objects are different from typical programming objects in three ways i.e. they can be executed on any platform, located anywhere on the network and written in any language that supports IDL mapping. In the implementation of the system, 5 degree of freedom (DOF) arm robot RCS 6.0 and Java as a programming mapping to the CORBA IDL. By implementing this architecture, the objects in the server machine can be distributed over the network in order to run the controller. the ultimate goal for our ARC system is to demonstrate concurrent execution of multiple arm robots through multiple instantiations of distributed object components. (Author)

  3. Attitudes on En Route Air Traffic Control Training and Work: A Comparison of Recruits Initially Trained at the FAA Academy and Recruits Initially Trained at Assigned Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, John J.; And Others

    In the comparison, questionnaires concerning aspects of training-related and work-related attitudes were sent to 225 Air Traffic Control (ATC) trainees who represented groups of attritions and retentions in two En Route training programs; viz, programs that provided basic training at the FAA Academy and programs that provided basic training at the…

  4. Analysis of Serum Concentrations of Tranexamic Acid Given by Alternate Routes in Swine (Sus scrofa) During Controlled Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-17

    60th Medical Group (AMC), Travis AFB, CA INSTITUTIONAL ANIMAL CARE AND USE COMMITTEE (IACUC) FINAL REPORT SUMMARY (Please~ all information. Use...routes. Methods: 15 Yorkshire swine were anesthetized, hemorrhaged 35% of their blood volume, equilibrated and randomized to IV, 10, or IM...measurements or hemorrhage percentage between groups and all were in a congruent state of class Ill shock. Serum sample analysis showed all three routes

  5. THE ROUTE DETERMINATION OF FILING A TAXI TO THE CUSTOMER IN TERMS OF FUNCTIONING OF THE AUTOMATED CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. O. Davidich

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The issues of overall performance increase of taxi transport due to improvement of automated system of dispatching management by its technological processes are considered. The route of taxi submission to a customer is offered to be determined by a criterion of minimum time. To solve the given task the taxi submission route determination technique is developed. It will promote the reduction of passengers’ waiting time and the decrease in operational expenses of a carrier.

  6. Precise Control of Molecular Dynamics with a Femtosecond Frequency Comb - A Weak Field Route to Strong Field Coherent Control

    OpenAIRE

    Pe'er, Avi; Shapiro, Evgeny A.; Stowe, Matthew C.; Shapiro, Moshe; Ye, Jun

    2006-01-01

    We present a general and highly efficient scheme for performing narrow-band Raman transitions between molecular vibrational levels using a coherent train of weak pump-dump pairs of shaped ultrashort pulses. The use of weak pulses permits an analytic description within the framework of coherent control in the perturbative regime, while coherent accumulation of many pulse pairs enables near unity transfer efficiency with a high spectral selectivity, thus forming a powerful combination of pump-d...

  7. Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Raminder P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad hoc sensor networks differ from wireless ad hoc networks from the following perspectives: low energy, lightweight routing protocols, and adaptive communication patterns. This paper proposes an energy-aware routing protocol (EARP suitable for ad hoc wireless sensor networks and presents an analysis for its energy consumption in various phases of route discovery and maintenance. Based on the energy consumption associated with route request processing, EARP advocates the minimization of route requests by allocating dynamic route expiry times. This paper introduces a unique mechanism for estimation of route expiry time based on the probability of route validity, which is a function of time, number of hops, and mobility parameters. In contrast to AODV, EARP reduces the repeated flooding of route requests by maintaining valid routes for longer durations.

  8. 76 FR 12758 - Proposed Information Collection Request of the ETA-9016 (OMB Control No. 1205-0268) on Alien...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... of the ETA-9016 (OMB Control No. 1205-0268) on Alien Claims Activity Report; Comment Request on... the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlement.... In addition, data from the Alien Claims Activity report is being used to assist the Secretary of...

  9. 75 FR 39700 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB; Control Number: 1625-New

    Science.gov (United States)

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    ... Office of Management and Budget; OMB; Control Number: 1625-New AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Sixty... of Management and Budget (OMB) requesting an approval for the following collection of information... the following means: (1) Online: http://www.regulations.gov . (2) Mail: Docket Management Facility...

  10. 75 FR 10297 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Numbers: 1625-0056

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Numbers: 1625-0056 AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Sixty... of Management and Budget (OMB) requesting an extension of its approval for the following collection... . (2) Mail: Docket Management Facility (DMF) (M-30), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), West...

  11. 75 FR 82038 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Numbers: 1625-0058...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Numbers: 1625-0058, 1625-0072 and 1625-0092 AGENCY: Coast... Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA), requesting... Transport Municipal and Commercial Waste, 1625-0072, Waste Management Plans, Refuse Discharge Logs, Letters...

  12. 75 FR 57809 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Numbers: 1625-0002...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Numbers: 1625-0002, 1625-0017, 1625-0019, and 1625- 0030... (ICRs) and Analyses to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) requesting an extension of its approval...://www.regulations.gov . (2) Mail: Docket Management Facility (DMF) (M-30), U.S. Department of...

  13. 76 FR 27073 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Number: 1625-0109

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Number: 1625-0109 AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Sixty....S. Coast Guard intends to submit an Information Collection Request (ICR) to the Office of Management...-0158] to the Docket Management Facility (DMF) at the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). To avoid...

  14. 75 FR 59278 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Numbers: 1625-0062...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Numbers: 1625-0062, 1625-0078, and 1625-0082 AGENCY: Coast... Analyses to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) requesting a revision of its approval for the...: (1) Online: http://www.regulations.gov . (2) Mail: Docket Management Facility (DMF) (M-30), U.S...

  15. 75 FR 1068 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Numbers: 1625-0087

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Numbers: 1625-0087 AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Sixty... Management and Budget (OMB) requesting an extension of its approval for the following collection of...: Docket Management Facility (DMF) (M-30), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), West Building Ground...

  16. 75 FR 19413 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Number: 1625-0089.

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  18. 75 FR 70938 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control numbers: 1625-0108.

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  19. 76 FR 11502 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Number: 1625-0003

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    2011-03-02

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  20. 76 FR 10385 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Number: 1625-0106

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

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  1. 75 FR 6677 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Number: 1625-0086

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Number: 1625-0086 AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Sixty... Management and Budget (OMB) requesting an extension of its approval for the following collection of... following means: (1) Online: http://www.regulations.gov . [[Page 6678

  2. 75 FR 79052 - Proposed Collection; Request for Comments on a Revised Information Collection: (OMB Control No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Civil Service or Federal Employees retirement, Federal or Retired Federal Employees Health Benefits requests to enroll or change enrollment, or Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance coverage. This form...

  3. New Hybrid Route to Biomimetic Synthesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morse, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    To develop economical low-temperature routes to biomimetic synthesis of high-performance composite materials, with control of composition and structure based on the molecular mechanisms controlling...

  4. On line routing per mobile phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieding, Thomas; Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    On-line routing is concerned with building vehicle routes in an ongoing fashion in such a way that customer requests arriving dynamically in time are efficiently and effectively served. An indispensable prerequisite for applying on-line routing methods is mobile communication technology....... Additionally it is of utmost importance that the employed communication system is suitable integrated with the firm’s enterprise application system and business processes. On basis of a case study, we describe in this paper a system that is cheap and easy to implement due to the use of simple mobile phones...

  5. Whirlpool routing for mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Woo

    2010-01-01

    We present the Whirlpool Routing Protocol (WARP), which efficiently routes data to a node moving within a static mesh. The key insight in WARP\\'s design is that data traffic can use an existing routing gradient to efficiently probe the topology, repair the routing gradient, and communicate these repairs to nearby nodes. Using simulation, controlled testbeds, and real mobility experiments, we find that using the data plane for topology maintenance is highly effective due to the incremental nature of mobility updates. WARP leverages the fact that converging flows at a destination make the destination have the region of highest traffic. We provide a theoretical basis for WARP\\'s behavior, defining an "update area" in which the topology must adjust when a destination moves. As long as packets arrive at a destination before it moves outside of the update area, WARP can repair the topology using the data plane. Compared to existing protocols, such as DYMO and HYPER, WARP\\'s packet drop rate is up to 90% lower while sending up to 90% fewer packets.

  6. Hurricane Evacuation Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Hurricane Evacuation Routes in the United States A hurricane evacuation route is a designated route used to direct traffic inland in case of a hurricane threat. This...

  7. SD-EAR: Energy Aware Routing in Software Defined Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Banerjee

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s internet-of-things (IoT environment, wireless sensor networks (WSNs have many advantages, with broad applications in different areas including environmental monitoring, maintaining security, etc. However, high energy depletion may lead to node failures in WSNs. In most WSNs, nodes deplete energy mainly because of the flooding and broadcasting of route-request (RREQ packets, which is essential for route discovery in WSNs. The present article models wireless sensor networks as software-defined wireless sensor networks (SD-WSNs where the network is divided into multiple clusters or zones, and each zone is controlled by a software-defined network (SDN controller. The SDN controller is aware of the topology of each zone, and finds out the optimum energy efficient path from any source to any destination inside the zone. For destinations outside of the zone, the SDN controller of the source zone instructs the source to send a message to all of the peripheral nodes in that zone, so that they can forward the message to the peripheral nodes in other zones, and the process goes on until a destination is found. As far as energy-efficient path selection is concerned, the SDN controller of a zone is aware of the connectivity and residual energy of each node. Therefore, it is capable of discovering an optimum energy efficient path from any source to any destination inside as well as outside of the zone of the source. Accordingly, flow tables in different routers are updated dynamically. The task of route discovery is shifted from individual nodes to controllers, and as a result, the flooding of route-requests is completely eliminated. Software-defined energy aware routing (SD-EARalso proposes an innovative sleeping strategy where exhausted nodes are allowed to go to sleep through a sleep request—sleep grant mechanism. All of these result in huge energy savings in SD-WSN, as shown in the simulation results.

  8. Large graph visualization of millions of connections in the CERN control system network traffic: analysis and design of routing and firewall rules with a new approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gallerani, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The CERN Technical Network (TN) TN was intended to be a network for accelerator and infrastructure operations. However, today, more than 60 million IP packets are routed every hour between the General Purpose Network (GPN) and the TN, involving more than 6000 different hosts. In order to improve the security of the accelerator control system, it is fundamental to understand the network traffic between the two networks and to define new appropriate routing and firewall rules without impacting operations. The complexity and huge size of the infrastructure and the number of protocols and services involved, have discouraged for years any attempt to understand and control the network traffic between the GPN and the TN. In this paper, we show a new way to solve the problem graphically. Combining the network traffic analysis with the use of large graph visualization algorithms we produced usable 2D large color topology maps of the network identifying the inter-relations of the control system machines and s...

  9. Nudging socially isolated people towards well-being with the 'Happiness Route': design of a randomized controlled trial for the evaluation of a happiness-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Laura A; Westerhof, Gerben J; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T

    2013-09-20

    The Happiness Route is an innovative intervention that uses a happiness-based approach for people with an accumulation of risk factors for low well-being: socially isolated people with health impairments and a low socioeconomic status. The goal of this intervention is to improve well-being by engaging participants in intrinsically motivated activities with methods from positive psychology. We hypothesize that the primary outcome measure, emotional, social and psychological well-being of participants of the Happiness Route, will increase in comparison to the traditional and commonly-used problem-based approach. Secondary outcome measures are health-related quality of life, psychosocial functioning and health care consumption. Participants will be socially isolated people with health problems and a low socioeconomic status. Participants will be recruited in ten Dutch communities and candidates will be signed up by intermediaries, professionals from the health and social sector. Randomly assigned, half of the participants will follow the Happiness Route and half of the participants will follow the active, problem-focused control group 'Customized Care'. In total, 256 participants will be included. In both conditions, participants will receive counseling sessions from trained counselors. In the control group, participants will talk about their problems and the care they get and counselors help to optimize their care. In the Happiness Route, the counselor ask questions such as "How do you want to live your life?". The intervention helps people to find their 'passion', i.e., a positive goal-engaged and intrinsically motivated activity. It enables them to follow their passion through by a once-only personal happiness budget (maximal €500). We use well-validated and reliable questionnaires to measure primary and secondary outcome measures at baseline, directly after the intervention and at a nine-month follow-up. Shortcomings of earlier intervention studies in positive

  10. MQARR-AODV: A NOVEL MULTIPATH QOS AWARE RELIABLE REVERSE ON-DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.G. Santhiya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Network is an infra structure less wireless ad-hoc network that does not require any basic central control. The topology of the network changes drastically due to very fast mobility of nodes. So an adaptive routing protocol is needed for routing in MANET. AODV (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector routing is the effective and prominent on-demand Ad-hoc routing protocols. During route establishment phase in traditional AODV, only one route reply message will be sent in the reverse path to establish routing path. The high mobility of nodes may affect the reply messages which lead to the retransmission of route request message by the sender which in turn leads to higher communication delay, power consumption and the reduction in the ratio of packets delivered. Sending multiple route reply messages and establishing multiple paths in a single path discovery will reduce the routing overhead involved in maintaining the connection between source and destination nodes. Multipath routing can render high scalability, end-to-end throughput and provide load balancing in MANET. The new proposed novel Multipath QoS aware reliable routing protocol establishes two routes of maximum node disjoint paths and the data transfer is carried out in the two paths simultaneously. To select best paths, the new proposed protocol uses three parameters Link Eminence, MAC overhead and node residual energy. The experimental values prove that the MQARR-AODV protocol achieves high reliability, stability, low latency and outperforms AODV by the less energy consumption, overhead and delay.

  11. VINE ROUTES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyuben Hristov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a scheme for the modern vine route in Bulgaria. Five basic vine routes and one international, between Bulgaria, Macedonia and Greece are defined. All routes consider characteristic varieties of grapes and kinds of vine products. Vine tourist products combined with visits of important natural and anthropological object are in the bases of the defined routes. The described routes are an important contribution to development of alternative tourist products in the country.

  12. Flight deck human factors issues for National Airspace System (NAS) en route controller pilot data link communications (CPDLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Fundamental differences exist between transmissions of Air Traffic Control clearances over voice and those transmitted via Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC). This paper provides flight deck human factors issues that apply to processin...

  13. Laboratory-controlled Challenges of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with Streptococcus agalactiae: Comparisons between Immersion, Oral, Intracoelomic and Intramuscular Routes of Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, E; Zayas, M; Tobar, J; Illanes, O; Yount, S; Francis, S; Dennis, M M

    2016-11-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the aetiological agent of streptococcosis in fish, is an important pathogen of cultured and wild fish worldwide. To gain a better understanding of the pathogenesis of streptococcosis in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and to identify the experimental route of infection that most closely mimics natural disease, fingerlings were challenged with S. agalactiae utilizing different delivery methods. Fingerlings were challenged via intracoelomic injection (ICinj), intramuscular injection (IMinj), orally or by immersion with serial dilutions of S. agalactiae. The dose lethal to 50% of test fish 15 days post challenge was 120 colony forming units (CFU)/fish after ICinj, and 10 5  CFU/fish after IMinj. Acute mortalities were present in both groups, but were higher in the fish challenged by ICinj. Very low mortalities were observed in the fish challenged via oral or immersion routes. Post-mortem evaluation of survivors revealed classical lesions associated with fish streptococcosis, including granulomatous or lymphohistiocytic epicarditis, splenitis, meningitis, myocarditis, choroiditis and exophthalmia. The information obtained improves our understanding of the pathogenesis of streptococcosis in fish, and provides useful information regarding controlled experimental infections in tilapia challenged with S. agalactiae. Results from this study suggest that IMinj challenge methods are not only suitable to induce streptococcosis in tilapia, but they may be the preferred method to study the pathogenesis of the naturally-occurring disease in this species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Routing in opportunistic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dhurandher, Sanjay; Anpalagan, Alagan; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive guide to selected topics, both ongoing and emerging, in routing in OppNets. The book is edited by worldwide technical leaders, prolific researchers and outstanding academics, Dr. Isaac Woungang and co-editors, Dr. Sanjay Kumar Dhurandher, Prof. Alagan Anpalagan and Prof. Athanasios Vasilakos. Consisting of contributions from well known and high profile researchers and scientists in their respective specialties, the main topics that are covered in this book include mobility and routing, social-aware routing, context-based routing, energy-aware routing, incentive-aware routing, stochastic routing, modeling of intermittent connectivity, in both infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets. Key Features: Discusses existing and emerging techniques for routing in infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets. Provides a unified covering of otherwise disperse selected topics on routing in infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets.  Includes a set of PowerPoint slides and g...

  15. 10 CFR 900.5 - Request for coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... request shall contain: (1) The exact legal name of the requester; its principal place of business; whether... line; (iii) The design and height of the support structures; (iv) The proposed route (including the... facility has submitted an interconnection request with a transmission organization or electric reliability...

  16. Hazmat Routes (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Hazardous Material Routes (NTAD) were developed using the 2004 First Edition TIGER/Line files. The routes are...

  17. 78 FR 69664 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Approval of State Coastal Nonpoint...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Collection Request; Comment Request; Approval of State Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Programs AGENCY... to submit an information collection request (ICR), ``Approval of State Coastal Nonpoint Pollution... Watershed Protection Division, Office of Wetlands Oceans and Watersheds, Mail Code 4503-T, Environmental...

  18. Zone routing in a torus network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer

    2013-01-29

    A system for routing data in a network comprising a network logic device at a sending node for determining a path between the sending node and a receiving node, wherein the network logic device sets one or more selection bits and one or more hint bits within the data packet, a control register for storing one or more masks, wherein the network logic device uses the one or more selection bits to select a mask from the control register and the network logic device applies the selected mask to the hint bits to restrict routing of the data packet to one or more routing directions for the data packet within the network and selects one of the restricted routing directions from the one or more routing directions and sends the data packet along a link in the selected routing direction toward the receiving node.

  19. Incremental Validity of Biographical Data in the Prediction of En Route Air Traffic Control Specialist Technical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Previous research demonstrated that an empirically-keyed, response-option scored biographical data (biodata) : scale predicted supervisory ratings of air traffic control specialist (ATCS) job performance (Dean & Broach, : 2011). This research f...

  20. 75 FR 30845 - Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System (LOCCS) Voice Response System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... subject proposal. Payment request vouchers for distribution of grant funds using the automated Voice... Lists the Following Information Title of Proposal: Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-46] Request Voucher for Grant...

  1. State alternative route designations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ''state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective

  2. Study of a Dynamic Cooperative Trading Queue Routing Control Scheme for Freeways and Facilities with Parallel Queues

    OpenAIRE

    Lloret-Batlle, Roger; Jayakrishnan, R.

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the coalitional stability of a new cooperative control policy for freeways and parallel queuing facilities with multiple servers. Based on predicted future delays per queue or lane, a VOT-heterogeneous population of agents can agree to switch lanes or queues and transfer payments to each other in order to minimize the total cost of the incoming platoon. The strategic interaction is captured by an n-level Stackelberg model with coalitions, while the cooperative structure ...

  3. Information Security Controls against Cross-Site Request Forgery Attacks on Software Applications of Automated Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabanov, A. V.; Markov, A. S.; Tsirlov, V. L.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents statistical results and their consolidation, which were received in the study into security of various web-application against cross-site request forgery attacks. Some of the results were received in the study carried out within the framework of certification for compliance with information security requirements. The paper provides the results of consolidating information about the attack and protection measures, which are currently used by the developers of web-applications. It specifies results of the study, which demonstrate various distribution types: distribution of identified vulnerabilities as per the developer type (Russian and foreign), distribution of the security measures used in web-applications, distribution of the identified vulnerabilities as per the programming languages, data on the number of security measures that are used in the studied web-applications. The results of the study show that in most cases the developers of web-applications do not pay due attention to protection against cross-site request forgery attacks. The authors give recommendations to the developers that are planning to undergo a certification process for their software applications.

  4. Aircraft route forecasting under adverse weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hauf

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper storm nowcasts in the terminal manoeuvring area (TMA of Hong Kong International Airport are used to forecast deviation routes through a field of storms for arriving and departing aircraft. Storms were observed and nowcast by the nowcast system SWIRLS from the Hong Kong Observatory. Storms were considered as no-go zones for aircraft and deviation routes were determined with the DIVSIM software package. Two days (21 and 22 May 2011 with 22 actual flown routes were investigated. Flights were simulated with a nowcast issued at the time an aircraft entered the TMA or departed from the airport. These flights were compared with a posteriori simulations, in which all storm fields were known and circumnavigated. Both types of simulated routes were then compared with the actual flown routes. The qualitative comparison of the various routes revealed generally good agreement. Larger differences were found in more complex situations with many active storms in the TMA. Route differences resulted primarily from air traffic control measures imposed such as holdings, slow-downs and shortcuts, causing the largest differences between the estimated and actual landing time. Route differences could be enhanced as aircraft might be forced to circumnavigate a storm ahead in a different sense. The use of route forecasts to assist controllers coordinating flights in a complex moving storm field is discussed. The study emphasises the important application of storm nowcasts in aviation meteorology.

  5. Galvanic Replacement Coupled to Seeded Growth as a Route for Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Plasmonic Nanorattles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Zanaga, Daniele; Altantzis, Thomas; Rodal-Cedeira, Sergio; Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel; Pérez-Juste, Jorge; Bals, Sara; Liz-Marzán, Luis M

    2016-09-14

    Shape-controlled synthesis of metal nanoparticles (NPs) requires mechanistic understanding toward the development of modern nanoscience and nanotechnology. We demonstrate here an unconventional shape transformation of Au@Ag core-shell NPs (nanorods and nanocubes) into octahedral nanorattles via room-temperature galvanic replacement coupled with seeded growth. The corresponding morphological and chemical transformations were investigated in three dimensions, using state-of-the-art X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) tomography. The addition of a reducing agent (ascorbic acid) plays a key role in this unconventional mechanistic path, in which galvanic replacement is found to dominate initially when the shell is made of Ag, while seeded growth suppresses transmetalation when a composition of Au:Ag (∼60:40) is reached in the shell, as revealed by quantitative XEDS tomography. This work not only opens new avenues toward the shape control of hollow NPs beyond the morphology of sacrificial templates, but also expands our understanding of chemical transformations in nanoscale galvanic replacement reactions. The XEDS electron tomography study presented here can be generally applied to investigate a wide range of nanoscale morphological and chemical transformations.

  6. Joint Optimization of Star P-hub Median Problem and Seat Inventory Control Decisions Considering a Hybrid Routing Transportation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tikani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the problem of integrated capacitated hub location problem and seat inventory control considering concept and techniques of revenue management. We consider an airline company maximizes its revenue by utilizing the best network topology and providing proper booking limits for all itineraries and fare classes. The transportation system arises in the form of a star/star network and includes both hub-stop and non-stop flights. This problem is formulated as a two-stage stochastic integer program with mixed-integer recourse. We solve various instances carried out from the Turkish network data set. Due to the NP-hardness of the problem, we propose a hybrid optimization method, consisting of an evolutionary algorithm based on genetic algorithm and exact solution. The quality of the solutions found by the proposed meta-heuristic is compared with the original version of GA and the mathematical programming model. The results obtained by the proposed model imply that integrating hub location and seat inventory control problem would help to increase the total revenue of airline companies. Also, in the case of serving non-stop flights, the model can provide more profit by employing less number of hubs.

  7. G-quadruplex induced chirality of methylazacalix[6]pyridine via unprecedented binding stoichiometry: en route to multiplex controlled molecular switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ai-Jiao; Shen, Meng-Jie; Xiang, Jun-Feng; Zhang, En-Xuan; Li, Qian; Sun, Hong-Xia; Wang, Li-Xia; Xu, Guang-Zhi; Tang, Ya-Lin; Xu, Li-Jin; Gong, Han-Yuan

    2015-05-01

    Nucleic acid based molecular device is a developing research field which attracts great interests in material for building machinelike nanodevices. G-quadruplex, as a new type of DNA secondary structures, can be harnessed to construct molecular device owing to its rich structural polymorphism. Herein, we developed a switching system based on G-quadruplexes and methylazacalix[6]pyridine (MACP6). The induced circular dichroism (CD) signal of MACP6 was used to monitor the switch controlled by temperature or pH value. Furthermore, the CD titration, Job-plot, variable temperature CD and 1H-NMR experiments not only confirmed the binding mode between MACP6 and G-quadruplex, but also explained the difference switching effect of MACP6 and various G-quadruplexes. The established strategy has the potential to be used as the chiral probe for specific G-quadruplex recognition.

  8. Controlled synthesis of multi-shelled transition metal oxide hollow structures through one-pot solution route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Wang; Yi-Jun Yang; Ying Ma; Jian-Nian Yao

    2013-01-01

    As one type of promising candidates fot environmental and energy-related systems,multi-shelled transition metal oxide hollow structures (MS-TMOHSs) have drawn great scientific and technical interest in the past few years.This article highlights recent advances in one-pot solution synthesis of MS-TMOHSs.We begin it with an overview of synthetic strategies that have been exploited to achieve these peculiar structures.We then focus on one-pot solution approaches in the following four sections:i) soft templates directed growth; ii) Ostwald ripening; iii) controlled etching; and iv) gas bubble assisted growth.After giving a brief discussion on the unique properties and applications of these multi-shelled hollow structures,we conclude this review with the general challenges and the potential future directions of this exciting area of research.

  9. From Rice Bran to High Energy Density Supercapacitors: A New Route to Control Porous Structure of 3D Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jianhua; Cao, Chuanbao; Ma, Xilan; Idrees, Faryal; Xu, Bin; Hao, Xin; Lin, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Controlled micro/mesopores interconnected structures of three-dimensional (3D) carbon with high specific surface areas (SSA) are successfully prepared by carbonization and activation of biomass (raw rice brans) through KOH. The highest SSA of 2475 m2 g-1 with optimized pore volume of 1.21 cm3 g-1 (40% for mesopores) is achieved for KOH/RBC = 4 mass ratio, than others. The as-prepared 3D porous carbon-based electrode materials for supercapacitors exhibit high specific capacitance specifically at large current densities of 10 A g-1 and 100 A g-1 i.e., 265 F g-1 and 182 F g-1 in 6 M KOH electrolyte, respectively. Moreover, a high power density ca. 1223 W kg-1 (550 W L-1) and energy density 70 W h kg-1 (32 W h L-1) are achieved on the base of active material loading (~10 mg cm2) in the ionic liquid. The findings can open a new avenue to use abundant agricultural by-products as ideal materials with promising applications in high-performance energy-storage devices.

  10. Relationship between Air Traffic Selection and Training (AT-SAT)) Battery Test Scores and Composite Scores in the Initial en Route Air Traffic Control Qualification Training Course at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Ronald Scott

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: This study focused on the development and use of the AT-SAT test battery and the Initial En Route Qualification training course for the selection, training, and evaluation of air traffic controller candidates. The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was used to measure the linear relationship between the…

  11. En route to controlled catalytic CVD synthesis of densely packed and vertically aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Boncel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic chemical vapour deposition (c-CVD technique was applied in the synthesis of vertically aligned arrays of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs. A mixture of toluene (main carbon source, pyrazine (1,4-diazine, nitrogen source and ferrocene (catalyst precursor was used as the injection feedstock. To optimize conditions for growing the most dense and aligned N-CNT arrays, we investigated the influence of key parameters, i.e., growth temperature (660, 760 and 860 °C, composition of the feedstock and time of growth, on morphology and properties of N-CNTs. The presence of nitrogen species in the hot zone of the quartz reactor decreased the growth rate of N-CNTs down to about one twentieth compared to the growth rate of multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs. As revealed by electron microscopy studies (SEM, TEM, the individual N-CNTs (half as thick as MWCNTs grown under the optimal conditions were characterized by a superior straightness of the outer walls, which translated into a high alignment of dense nanotube arrays, i.e., 5 × 108 nanotubes per mm2 (100 times more than for MWCNTs grown in the absence of nitrogen precursor. In turn, the internal crystallographic order of the N-CNTs was found to be of a ‘bamboo’-like or ‘membrane’-like (multi-compartmental structure morphology. The nitrogen content in the nanotube products, which ranged from 0.0 to 3.0 wt %, was controlled through the concentration of pyrazine in the feedstock. Moreover, as revealed by Raman/FT-IR spectroscopy, the incorporation of nitrogen atoms into the nanotube walls was found to be proportional to the number of deviations from the sp2-hybridisation of graphene C-atoms. As studied by XRD, the temperature and the [pyrazine]/[ferrocene] ratio in the feedstock affected the composition of the catalyst particles, and hence changed the growth mechanism of individual N-CNTs into a ‘mixed base-and-tip’ (primarily of the base-type type as compared to the purely

  12. En route to controlled catalytic CVD synthesis of densely packed and vertically aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncel, Slawomir; Pattinson, Sebastian W; Geiser, Valérie; Shaffer, Milo S P; Koziol, Krzysztof K K

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic chemical vapour deposition (c-CVD) technique was applied in the synthesis of vertically aligned arrays of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs). A mixture of toluene (main carbon source), pyrazine (1,4-diazine, nitrogen source) and ferrocene (catalyst precursor) was used as the injection feedstock. To optimize conditions for growing the most dense and aligned N-CNT arrays, we investigated the influence of key parameters, i.e., growth temperature (660, 760 and 860 °C), composition of the feedstock and time of growth, on morphology and properties of N-CNTs. The presence of nitrogen species in the hot zone of the quartz reactor decreased the growth rate of N-CNTs down to about one twentieth compared to the growth rate of multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs). As revealed by electron microscopy studies (SEM, TEM), the individual N-CNTs (half as thick as MWCNTs) grown under the optimal conditions were characterized by a superior straightness of the outer walls, which translated into a high alignment of dense nanotube arrays, i.e., 5 × 10(8) nanotubes per mm(2) (100 times more than for MWCNTs grown in the absence of nitrogen precursor). In turn, the internal crystallographic order of the N-CNTs was found to be of a 'bamboo'-like or 'membrane'-like (multi-compartmental structure) morphology. The nitrogen content in the nanotube products, which ranged from 0.0 to 3.0 wt %, was controlled through the concentration of pyrazine in the feedstock. Moreover, as revealed by Raman/FT-IR spectroscopy, the incorporation of nitrogen atoms into the nanotube walls was found to be proportional to the number of deviations from the sp(2)-hybridisation of graphene C-atoms. As studied by XRD, the temperature and the [pyrazine]/[ferrocene] ratio in the feedstock affected the composition of the catalyst particles, and hence changed the growth mechanism of individual N-CNTs into a 'mixed base-and-tip' (primarily of the base-type) type as compared to the purely 'base'-type for undoped

  13. 76 FR 7194 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Request for Authorization of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9264-3] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control... Toxic Control Measure (ATCM) for in-use portable diesel-fueled engines 50 brake-horsepower (hp) and... within-the-scope confirmation. \\2\\ This includes: California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control...

  14. Highway and interline transportation routing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    The potential impacts associated with the transportation of hazardous materials are important issues to shippers, carriers, and the general public. Since transportation routes are a central characteristic in most of these issues, the prediction of likely routes is the first step toward the resolution of these issues. In addition, US Department of Transportation requirements (HM-164) mandate specific routes for shipments of highway controlled quantities of radioactive materials. In response to these needs, two routing models have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These models have been designated by DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Transportation Management Division (DOE/EM) as the official DOE routing models. Both models, HIGHWAY and INTERLINE, are described

  15. Trust-Based Route Selection in Dynamic Source Routin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Connell, Paul O

    2006-01-01

    in the mobile wireless network. However, blindly trusting all other nodes to respect the routing protocol exposes the local node to a wide variety of vulnerabilities. Traditional security mechanisms rely on either the authenticated identity of the requesting principal or some form of credentials that authorise...

  16. Comparison of MANET routing protocols using a scaled indoor wireless grid

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnson, DL

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available accumulation feature of Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) by adding the accumulated route, back to the source, to the Route Request packet. It retains the destination sequence number feature of AODV but HELLO packets are an optional feature and are normally left... than the inbound traffic as the routing algorithm makes a decision to rebroadcast the packet or not and Figure 20 confirms this. DYMO shows the least amount of routing traffic due to its lack of HELLO packets. This is also due to no further...

  17. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. 75 FR 41244 - Proposed Collection; Request for Comments on an Existing Information Collection: (OMB Control No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... information collection. ``Self-Certification of Full-Time School Attendance for the School Year'' (OMB Control... other forms of information technology. We estimate 14,000 RI 25-14s will be processed annually. We... Information Collection: (OMB Control No. 3206-0032; RI 25-14 and RI 25- 14A) AGENCY: Office of Personnel...

  19. Short Term Strategies for a Dynamic Multi-Period Routing Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelelli, E.; Bianchessi, N.; Mansini, R.; Speranza, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a Dynamic Multi-Period Routing Problem (DMPRP) faced by a company which deals with on-line pick-up requests and has to serve them by a fleet of uncapacitated vehicles over a finite time horizon. When a request is issued, a deadline of a given number of days d ≤ 2 is associated to it: if

  20. Location-Based Self-Adaptive Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks in Home Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong SeungHo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of wireless sensor networks in home automation (WSNHA is attractive due to their characteristics of self-organization, high sensing fidelity, low cost, and potential for rapid deployment. Although the AODVjr routing algorithm in IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee and other routing algorithms have been designed for wireless sensor networks, not all are suitable for WSNHA. In this paper, we propose a location-based self-adaptive routing algorithm for WSNHA called WSNHA-LBAR. It confines route discovery flooding to a cylindrical request zone, which reduces the routing overhead and decreases broadcast storm problems in the MAC layer. It also automatically adjusts the size of the request zone using a self-adaptive algorithm based on Bayes' theorem. This makes WSNHA-LBAR more adaptable to the changes of the network state and easier to implement. Simulation results show improved network reliability as well as reduced routing overhead.

  1. Traffic Route Modelling and Assignment with Intelligent Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunicina Nadezhda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of signal transmitting environment for multimodal traffic control will enhance the integration of emergency and specialized transport routing tools in usual traffic control paradigms - it is one of the opportunities offered by modern intelligent traffic control systems. The improvement of effective electric power use in public transport system is an advantage of Intelligent Transport System (ITS. The research is connected with the improvement of on-line traffic control and adaptation of special traffic lighting alternatives by ITS. The assignment of the nearest appropriate transport will be done by passenger request, but unlike information system, the transport planning is done on demand. The task can be solved with the help of modern technical methods and equipment, as well as by applying control paradigms of the distributed systems. The problem is solved with the help of calculations hyper-graph and scheduling theory. The goal of the research is to develop methods, which support scheduling of the emergency transport, using high performance computing.

  2. Routing and scheduling problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander

    couple of decades. To deliver competitive service and price, transportation today needs to be cost effective. A company requiring for things to be shipped will aim at having the freight shipped as cheaply as possible while often satisfying certain time constraints. For the transportation company......, the effectiveness of the network is of importance aiming at satisfying as many costumer demands as possible at a low cost. Routing represent a path between locations such as an origin and destination for the object routed. Sometimes routing has a time dimension as well as the physical paths. This may...... set cost making the cost of the individual vehicle routes inter-dependant. Depending on the problem type, the size of the problems and time available for solving, different solution methods can be applicable. In this thesis both heuristic methods and several exact methods are investigated depending...

  3. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan [Princeton, NJ; Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton On Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Mount Kisco, NY; Takken, Todd E [Mount Kisco, NY; Vranas, Pavlos M [Bedford Hills, NY

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  4. Proxies for Anonymous Routing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Michael G; Syverson, Paul F; Goldschlag, David M

    1996-01-01

    ...), and file transfers (FTP) have been implemented. Onion routing provides application independent, real-time, and bi-directional anonymous connections that are resistant to both eavesdropping and traffic analysis...

  5. Routes and Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — he Routes_Stations table is composed of fixed rail transit systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico....

  6. Effects of carprofen administered by different routes to control experimental uveitis in dogs Efeitos do carprofeno, aplicado por diferentes vias, no controle de uveítes experimentais em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Ribeiro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of carprofen, administered by different routes, was studied in experimental uveitis in dogs. Anterior chamber paracenteses was accomplished at two different moments (M0 and M1, with a five hour interval between them. At M0 and M1, 0.2mL of aqueous humor was collected and quantitation of total protein and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were determined. Four groups were formed (n=8, which received carprofen at the end of M0, by the following routes: subcutaneous (GIm, subconjunctival (GII, and topical (GIII. A fourth group that received no treatment was instituted (Control. Conjunctival histopathology of the GII animals was performed. In all groups, values of protein and PGE2 significantly enhanced at M1; however, they did not significantly change among groups at M1. Inflammatory exudate of acute character and mild hemorrhage were seen at histopathology after carprofen administration. Carprofen was unable to inhibit PGE2 synthesis and the protein influx to the anterior chamber by any of the tested routes. However, the reduction of 44% in protein levels (topical suggests that the agent can be used by this route as an adjuvant to control uveitis in dogs.Estudaram-se os efeitos do carprofeno, aplicado por diferentes vias, em uveítes experimentais em cães. Realizou-se paracentese de câmara anterior em dois momentos (M0 e M1, com intervalo de cinco horas entre si. Em M0 e M1, colheram-se 0,2mL de humor aquoso e determinaram-se as concentrações de proteína total e de prostaglandina E2 (PGE2. Constituíram-se quatro grupos (n = 8, que receberam carprofeno ao final de M0 pelas vias subcutânea (GI, subconjuntival (GII e tópica (GIII. Um quarto grupo não recebeu tratamento (controle. Procedeu-se à avaliação histopatológica nos indivíduos do GII. Em todos os grupos, encontrou-se aumento significativo dos níveis proteicos e de PGE2 em M1. Não se observou diferença significativa, em M1, entre os grupos para nenhum dos parâmetros estudados

  7. Routed planar networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Aldous

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling a road network as a planar graph seems very natural. However, in studying continuum limits of such networks it is useful to take {\\em routes} rather than {\\em edges} as primitives. This article is intended to introduce the relevant (discrete setting notion of {\\em routed network} to graph theorists. We give a naive classification of all 71 topologically different such networks on 4 leaves, and pose a variety of challenging research questions.

  8. FAA Training. Continued Improvements Needed in FAA's Controller Field Training Program. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Div.

    Having examined the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) current program for providing field training to developmental and full-performance-level air traffic controllers, the General Accounting Office (GAO) recommends ensuring that FAA and contractor personnel are providing training consistently and uniformly. Further changes needed to ensure…

  9. Transportation routing analysis geographic information system -- TRAGIS, a multimodal transportation routing tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    Over 15 years ago, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed two transportation routing models: HIGHWAY, which predicts truck transportation routes, and INTERLINE, which predicts rail transportation routes. Subsequent modifications have been made to enhance each of these models. Some of these changes include population density information for routes, HM-164 routing regulations for highway route controlled quantities of radioactive materials (RAM) truck shipments, and inclusion of waterway routing into INTERLINE. The AIRPORT model, developed 2 years after the HIGHWAY and INTERLINE models, serves as an emergency response tool. This model identifies the nearest airports from a designated location. Currently, the AIRPORT model is inactive. The Transportation Management Division of the US Department of Energy held a Baseline Requirements Assessment Session on the HIGHWAY, INTERLINE, and AIRPORT models in April 1994 to bring together many users of these models and other experts in the transportation routing field to discuss these models and to decide on the capabilities that needed to be added. Of the many needs discussed, the primary one was to have the network databases within a geographic information system (GIS). As a result of the Baseline Requirements Session, the development of a new GIS model has been initiated. This paper will discuss the development of the new Transportation Routing Analysis GIS (TRAGIS) model at ORNL

  10. 40 CFR 63.1015 - Closed vent systems and control devices; or emissions routed to a fuel gas system or process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... devices; or emissions routed to a fuel gas system or process. 63.1015 Section 63.1015 Protection of... fuel gas system or process. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or operator shall comply with this... emissions from equipment leaks to a fuel gas system or process shall comply with the provisions of subpart...

  11. RSRP: A Robust Secure Routing Protocol in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Ditipriya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm RSRP to build a robust secure routing protocol in mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs. This algorithm is based on some basic schemes such as RSA_CRT for encryption and decryption of messages; CRT for safety key generation, Shamir’s secret sharing principle for generation of secure routes. Those routes which are free from any malicious node and which belong to the set of disjoint routes between a source-destination pair are considered as probable routes. Shamir’s secret sharing principle is applied on those probable routes to obtain secure routes. Finally, most trustworthy and stable route is selected among those secure routes. Selection of the final route depends on some criteria of the nodes present in a route e.g.: battery power, mobility and trust value. In addition, complexity of key generation is reduced to a large extent by using RSA-CRT instead of RSA. In turn, the routing becomes less expensive and most secure and robust one. Performance of this routing protocol is then compared with non-secure routing protocols (AODV and DSR, secure routing scheme using secret sharing, security routing protocol using ZRP and SEAD depending on basic characteristics of these protocols. All such comparisons show that RSRP shows better performance in terms of computational cost, end-to-end delay and packet dropping in presence of malicious nodes in the MANET, keeping the overhead in terms of control packets same as other secure routing protocols.

  12. Diagnostic throughput factor analysis for en-route airspace and optimal aircraft trajectory generation based on capacity prediction and controller workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sanghyun

    Today's National Airspace System (NAS) is approaching its limit to efficiently cope with the increasing air traffic demand. Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) with its ambitious goals aims to make the air travel more predictable with fewer delays, less time sitting on the ground and holding in the air to improve the performance of the NAS. However, currently the performance of the NAS is mostly measured using delay-based metrics which do not capture a whole range of important factors that determine the quality and level of utilization of the NAS. The factors affecting the performance of the NAS are themselves not well defined to begin with. To address these issues, motivated by the use of throughput-based metrics in many areas such as ground transportation, wireless communication and manufacturing, this thesis identifies the different factors which majorly affect the performance of the NAS as demand (split into flight cancellation and flight rerouting), safe separation (split into conflict and metering) and weather (studied as convective weather) through careful comparison with other applications and performing empirical sensitivity analysis. Additionally, the effects of different factors on the NAS's performance are quantitatively studied using real traffic data with the Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) for various sectors and centers of the NAS on different days. In this thesis we propose a diagnostic tool which can analyze the factors that have greater responsibility for regions of poor and better performances of the NAS. Based on the throughput factor analysis for en-route airspace, it was found that weather and controller workload are the major factors that decrease the efficiency of the airspace. Also, since resources such as air traffic controllers, infrastructure and airspace are limited, it is becoming increasingly important to use the available resources efficiently. To alleviate the impact of the weather and controller

  13. Transportation of radioactive materials routing analysis: The Nevada experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardila-Coulson, M.V.

    1991-01-01

    In 1987, the Nevada State Legislature passed a Bill requiring the Nevada Dept. of Transportation to develop and enforce a plan for highway routing of highway route controlled quantity shipments of radioactive materials and high-level radioactive waste. A large network with all the major highways in Nevada was created and used in a computer model developed by Sandia National Labs. Twenty-eight highway parameters that included geometrics, traffic characteristics, environment and special facilities were collected. Alternative routes were identified by minimizing primary parameters (population density and accident rates). An analysis using the US DOT Guidelines were performed to identify a preferred route from the alternative routes

  14. Collective network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  15. Optimizing well intervention routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Ronaldo O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Schiozer, Denis J.; Bordalo, Sergio N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Centro de Estudo do Petroleo (CEPETRO)]. E-mail: denis@dep.fem.unicamp.br; bordalo@dep.fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents a method for optimizing the itinerary of work over rigs, i.e., the search for the route of minimum total cost, and demonstrates the importance of the dynamics of reservoir behaviour. The total cost of a route includes the rig expenses (transport, assembly and operation), which are functions of time and distances, plus the losses of revenue in wells waiting for the rig, which are also dependent of time. A reservoir simulator is used to evaluate the monetary influence of the well shutdown on the present value of the production curve. Finally, search algorithms are employed to determine the route of minimal cost. The Simulated Annealing algorithm was also successful in optimizing the distribution of a list of wells among different work over rigs. The rational approach presented here is recommended for management teams as a standard procedure to define the priority of wells scheduled for work over. (author)

  16. 31 CFR 1.5 - Specific requests for other records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... balance due. (c) Requests for records not in control of bureau; referrals; consultations. (1) When a... to the requester. (2) This subpart applies only to records in the possession or control of the bureau... determination. (v) “Other” Requester. This refers to a requester who does not fall within any of the previously...

  17. Multihop Wireless Networks Opportunistic Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Kai; Li, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to opportunistic routing an emerging technology designed to improve the packet forwarding reliability, network capacity and energy efficiency of multihop wireless networks This book presents a comprehensive background to the technological challenges lying behind opportunistic routing. The authors cover many fundamental research issues for this new concept, including the basic principles, performance limit and performance improvement of opportunistic routing compared to traditional routing, energy efficiency and distributed opportunistic routing protocol desig

  18. Controlled synthesis of high-quality nickel sulfide chain-like tubes and echinus-like nanostructures by a solution chemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yahui; Guo Lin; He Lin; Liu, Kang; Chen Chinping; Zhang Qi; Wu Ziyu

    2007-01-01

    Chain-like NiS tubes and echinus-like nickel sulfide (Ni 3 S 2 ) nanostructures were synthesized successfully by a solution chemical route. The growth models of these two materials and the most possible mutation process between these two different morphologies are discussed. The temperature and field dependent magnetizations, M(T) and M(H), show that both the samples have a very weak ferromagnetism and exhibit a strong paramagnetic response in a high applied field

  19. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Marietta Schupp, EMBL Photolab

    2008-01-01

    Dr Sabine Hentze, specialist in human genetics, giving an Insight Lecture entitled "Human Genetics – Diagnostics, Indications and Ethical Issues" on 23 September 2008 at EMBL Heidelberg. Activities in a achool in Budapest during a visit of Angela Bekesi, Ambassadors for the SET-Routes programme.

  20. Overview of the Meraka wireless grid test bed for evaluation of ad-hoc routing protocols

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnson, D

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available to the source, to the Route Request packet. It retains the destination sequence number feature of AODV but HELLO packets are an optional feature and are normally left out by default. It also does away with the gratuitous RREP feature of AODV. Routing... spiral algorithm makes a decision to rebroadcast the packet or not and Fig. 5. confirms this. DYMO shows the least amount of routing traffic due to its lack of HELLO packets. This is also due to no further routing packets being transmitted once...

  1. Controlled synthesis of high-quality nickel sulfide chain-like tubes and echinus-like nanostructures by a solution chemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yahui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China); Guo Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China); He Lin [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, Kang [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Chen Chinping [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang Qi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China); Wu Ziyu [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese of Academy of Science, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2007-12-05

    Chain-like NiS tubes and echinus-like nickel sulfide (Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}) nanostructures were synthesized successfully by a solution chemical route. The growth models of these two materials and the most possible mutation process between these two different morphologies are discussed. The temperature and field dependent magnetizations, M(T) and M(H), show that both the samples have a very weak ferromagnetism and exhibit a strong paramagnetic response in a high applied field.

  2. OSPF-TE Extensions for Green Routing in Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Ricciardi, S.; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes extensions to the OSPF-TE protocol to enable green routing in GMPLS-controlled optical networks. Simulation results show a remarkable reduction in CO2 emissions by preferring network elements powered by green energy sources in the connection routing.......This paper proposes extensions to the OSPF-TE protocol to enable green routing in GMPLS-controlled optical networks. Simulation results show a remarkable reduction in CO2 emissions by preferring network elements powered by green energy sources in the connection routing....

  3. British Dance: Black Routes

    OpenAIRE

    Adair, C.; Burt, Ramsay, 1953-

    2016-01-01

    British Dance: Black Routes re-examines the distinctive contributions made to British dance by dancers who are Black. Covering the period 1946 to the present, it presents a radical re-reading of dancers and their companies, placing their achievements within a broader historical, cultural and artistic context. The result of a two year research project, British Dance and the African Diaspora, led by editors Christy Adair and Ramsay Burt, the collection looks at artists working with contempor...

  4. Remote-controlled module-assisted synthesis of O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine as tumor PET tracer using two different radiochemical routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingwei; Yin Duanzhi; Zhang Lan; Zhou Wei; Wang Yongxian

    2006-01-01

    The positron-emitter fluorine-18 labeled amino acid O-(2-[ 18 F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ([ 18 F]FET) has shown very promising perspectives for brain tumor diagnosis with positron emission tomography (PET). There have been two existing preparation routes of [ 18 F]FET named direct nucleophilic radiofiuorination of protected L-tyrosine and radiofiuoroallcylation of unprotected L-tyrosine, respectively. A general module was designed specifically for the routine synthesis of [ 18 F]FET, which could be suitable for the present two chemical methods with simple modifications. The fluorinated intermediates and the final product were separated and purified using solid phase extraction (SPE) on the Sep-Pak silica plus cartridge instead of the time-consuming high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedures. The total synthesis time was about 50-60 rain with good radiochemical yield (about 20-40%, no-decay-corrected) and good radiochemical purity (more than 97%) for both the synthetic methods. (authors)

  5. A facile strategy for the fabrication of uniform CdS nanowires with high yield and its controlled morphological growth with the assistance of PEG in hydrothermal route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Kaushik; Maiti, Uday Narayan; Majumder, Tapas Pal; Debnath, Subhas Chandra

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel wurtzite cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanowires with uniform diameter were synthesized by using a rapid and simple solvothermal route. CdS nano structures with certain morphology could be selectively produced by only varying the concentration of poly ethylene glycol (PEG) as a surfactant in the reaction system with cadmium acetate, sulphur powder and ethelynediamine (EDA). We extensively studied UV-vis absorption spectra, photoluminescence spectra after confirming CdS nanowires with diameter 24-25 nm and length ranging up to several nano meters by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Therefore we may definitely propose a new formation mechanism of CdS nanowires assisted by PEG with its illustrating optical properties.

  6. A MODIFIED ROUTE DISCOVERY APPROACH FOR DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING (DSR PROTOCOL IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Azmi Allahham

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc networks (MANETs involved in many applications, whether commercial or military because of their characteristics that do not depend on the infrastructure as well as the freedom movement of their elements, but in return has caused this random mobility of the nodes many of the challenges, where the routing is considered one of these challenges. There are many types of routing protocols that operate within MANET networks, which responsible for finding paths between the source and destination nodes with the modernization of these paths which are constantly changing due to the dynamic topology of the network stemming from the constant random movement of the nodes. The DSR (Dynamic Source Routing routing protocol algorithm is one of these routing protocols which consist of two main stages; route discovery and maintenance, where the route discovery algorithm operates based on blind flooding of request messages. blind flooding is considered as the most well known broadcasting mechanism, it is inefficient in terms of communication and resource utilization, which causing increasing the probability of collisions, repeating send several copies of the same message, as well as increasing the delay. Hence, a new mechanism in route discovery stage and in caching the routes in DSR algorithm according to the node's location in the network and the direction of the broadcast is proposed for better performance especially in terms of delay as well as redundant packets rate. The implementation of proposed algorithms showed positive results in terms of delay, overhead, and improve the performance of MANETs in general.

  7. Preventing Restricted Space Inference in Online Route Planning Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Dorfmeister

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Online route planning services compute routes from any given location to a desired destination address. Unlike offline implementations, they do so in a traffic-aware fashion by taking into consideration up-to-date map data and real-time traffic information. In return, users have to provide precise location information about a route’s endpoints to a not necessarily trusted service provider. As suchlike leakage of personal information threatens a user’s privacy and anonymity, this paper presents PrOSPR, a comprehensive approach for using current online route planning services in a privacy-preserving way, and introduces the concept of k-immune route requests to avert inference attacks based on restricted space information. Using a map-based approach for creating cloaked regions for the start and destination addresses, our solution queries the online service for routes between subsets of points from these regions. This, however, might result in the returned path deviating from the optimal route. By means of empirical evaluation on a real road network, we demonstrate the feasibility of our approach regarding quality of service and communication overhead.

  8. Robustness of airline route networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  9. ROUTE PLAN DESIGNER FOR TRACTOR GUIDANCE SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveistrup, Daniel; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Green, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Earlier works have shown field trial designs to be very labor extensive, even when combining autoguidancesystems with conventional machinery.Designing routes for semi-automated systems in a controlled manner is both resource demandingand complicated. Different types of auto-guidance systems vary ...

  10. Personal continuous route pattern mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian YE; Ling CHEN; Gen-cai CHEN

    2009-01-01

    In the daily life, people often repeat regular routes in certain periods. In this paper, a mining system is developed to find the continuous route patterns of personal past trips. In order to count the diversity of personal moving status, the mining system employs the adaptive GPS data recording and five data filters to guarantee the clean trips data. The mining system uses a client/server architecture to protect personal privacy and to reduce the computational load. The server conducts the main mining procedure but with insufficient information to recover real personal routes. In order to improve the scalability of sequential pattern mining, a novel pattern mining algorithm, continuous route pattern mining (CRPM), is proposed. This algorithm can tolerate the different disturbances in real routes and extract the frequent patterns. Experimental results based on nine persons' trips show that CRPM can extract more than two times longer route patterns than the traditional route pattern mining algorithms.

  11. 78 FR 46332 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; National Estuary Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... Request; Comment Request; National Estuary Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... request (ICR), ``National Estuary Program'' (EPA ICR No. 1500.08, OMB Control No. 2040-0138 to the Office... comments to OMB. Abstract: The National Estuary Program (NEP) involves collecting information from the...

  12. 75 FR 14455 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Request Voucher for Grant Payment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Information Collection: Comment Request; Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System... Notice also lists the following information: Title of proposal: Request Voucher for Grant Payment and..., if applicable: 2535-0102. Description of the need for the information and proposed use: Payment...

  13. Research on Innovating, Applying Multiple Paths Routing Technique Based on Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithm for Routing Messages in Service - Oriented Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Long

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available MANET (short for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network consists of a set of mobile network nodes, network configuration changes very fast. In content based routing, data is transferred from source node to request nodes is not based on destination addresses. Therefore, it is very flexible and reliable, because source node does not need to know destination nodes. If We can find multiple paths that satisfies bandwidth requirement, split the original message into multiple smaller messages to transmit concurrently on these paths. On destination nodes, combine separated messages into the original message. Hence it can utilize better network resources, causes data transfer rate to be higher, load balancing, failover. Service Oriented Routing is inherited from the model of content based routing (CBR, combined with several advanced techniques such as Multicast, multiple path routing, Genetic algorithm to increase the data rate, and data encryption to ensure information security. Fuzzy logic is a logical field study evaluating the accuracy of the results based on the approximation of the components involved, make decisions based on many factors relative accuracy based on experimental or mathematical proof. This article presents some techniques to support multiple path routing from one network node to a set of nodes with guaranteed quality of service. By using these techniques can decrease the network load, congestion, use network resources efficiently.

  14. Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Fang

    2010-01-01

    The Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network (R3MOO N) provides advanced communications networking technologies suitable for the lunar surface environment and applications. The R3MOON techn ology is based on a detailed concept of operations tailored for luna r surface networks, and includes intelligent routing algorithms and wireless mesh network implementation on AGNC's Coremicro Robots. The product's features include an integrated communication solution inco rporating energy efficiency and disruption-tolerance in a mobile ad h oc network, and a real-time control module to provide researchers an d engineers a convenient tool for reconfiguration, investigation, an d management.

  15. Elisabeth Badinter, Fausse route

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Juchat, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Elisabeth Badinter, philosophe de formation, est l’auteure de nombreux ouvrages sur la condition féminine et les rapports hommes/femmes dans la société. Avec Fausse route, elle signe une vision polémique du féminisme occidental. Son ouvrage a suscité de nombreuses critiques de femmes dans diverses revues destinées au grand public. Hélène Strohl, recenseur de la revue Culture en mouvement, conclut que cet ouvrage est peu scientifique, sujet à caution : « Argument contre argument, amalgame cont...

  16. Comparison of actual and predicted routes used in the shipment of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Harrison, I.G.

    1985-01-01

    A number of highway controlled shipments of radioactive materials have been made over the past several years. An excellent example showing the variability of actual routes is the transfer of 45 shipments between the Three Mile Island reactor in Pennsylvania and Scoville, Idaho in 1982 and 1983. Six different routes varying between 2273 and 2483 miles were used. Approximately 75% of these shipments followed a common route which passed through ten Urbanized Areas, defined by the Census Bureau as having a population exceeding 100,000 people. Other routes, while shorter in distance, passed through as many as 14 Urbanized Areas. Routes predicted by the Oak Ridge routing model did not exactly duplicate actual routes used. However, the analysis shows that the routing model does make a good estimate of transportation routes actually chosen by shippers of radioactive materials. In actual practice, a number of factors (weather, road conditions, driver preference, etc.) influence the actual route taken. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Suppressing traffic-driven epidemic spreading by adaptive routing strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    The design of routing strategies for traffic-driven epidemic spreading has received increasing attention in recent years. In this paper, we propose an adaptive routing strategy that incorporates topological distance with local epidemic information through a tunable parameter h. In the case where the traffic is free of congestion, there exists an optimal value of routing parameter h, leading to the maximal epidemic threshold. This means that epidemic spreading can be more effectively controlled by adaptive routing, compared to that of the static shortest path routing scheme. Besides, we find that the optimal value of h can greatly relieve the traffic congestion in the case of finite node-delivering capacity. We expect our work to provide new insights into the effects of dynamic routings on traffic-driven epidemic spreading.

  18. Low Carbon Footprint Routes for Bird Watching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ta Fang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bird watching is one of many recreational activities popular in ecotourism. Its popularity, therefore, prompts the need for studies on energy conservation. One such environmentally friendly approach toward minimizing bird watching’s ecological impact is ensuring a reduced carbon footprint by using an economic travel itinerary comprising a series of connected routes between tourist attractions that minimizes transit time. This study used a travel-route planning approach using geographic information systems to detect the shortest path, thereby solving the problems associated with time-consuming transport. Based on the results of road network analyses, optimal travel-route planning can be determined. These methods include simulated annealing (SA and genetic algorithms (GA. We applied two algorithms in our simulation research to detect which one is an appropriate algorithm for running carbon-routing algorithms at the regional scale. SA, which is superior to GA, is considered an excellent approach to search for the optimal path to reduce carbon dioxide and high gasoline fees, thereby controlling travel time by using the shortest travel routes.

  19. Routing Service Quality—Local Driver Behavior Versus Routing Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceikute, Vaida; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    of the quality of one kind of location-based service, namely routing services. Specifically, the paper presents a framework that enables the comparison of the routes provided by routing services with the actual driving behaviors of local drivers. Comparisons include route length, travel time, and also route...... popularity, which are enabled by common driving behaviors found in available trajectory data. The ability to evaluate the quality of routing services enables service providers to improve the quality of their services and enables users to identify the services that best serve their needs. The paper covers......Mobile location-based services is a very successful class of services that are being used frequently by users with GPS-enabled mobile devices such as smartphones. This paper presents a study of how to exploit GPS trajectory data, which is available in increasing volumes, for the assessment...

  20. An algorithm for routing optimization in DiffServ-aware MPLS networks

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Atzori; Fabio D'Andreagiovanni; Carlo Mannino; Tatiana Onali

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the constrained-based routing problem in DiffServaware MPLS networks. We consider a dynamic context in which new requests appear over time, asking for reconfigurations of the previous allocation. In the classical approach, a multi-phase heuristic procedure is adopted: the new requests are evaluated considering available bandwidth; if the bandwidth is not sufficient, preemption and rerouting of one or more connections are performed in sequence. As an alternative, we propos...

  1. Parametric optimisation of core–shell ZnS:Mn/ZnS nanoparticles prepared by ultrasound-controlled wet chemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Suranjan, E-mail: suranjansen@iitb.ac.in [National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE), IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Department of Energy Science and Engineering, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Solanki, Chetan Singh, E-mail: chetanss@iitb.ac.in [National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE), IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Department of Energy Science and Engineering, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Sharma, Pratibha, E-mail: pratibha_sharma@iitb.ac.in [National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE), IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Department of Energy Science and Engineering, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2014-01-15

    Core–shell type manganese-doped zinc sulphide nanoparticles ZnS:Mn/ZnS, showing strong absorption of ultraviolet light in the 280–450 nm range and emitting orange-yellow light close to 600 nm, were synthesised for eventual deployment as wavelength down-shifters for solar cells. While most syntheses described in literature employed long reaction times and high reaction/annealing temperatures in excess of 100 °C, this work presents a facile low-temperature wet chemical route. Key synthesis parameters – including zinc to sulphur ratio, manganese doping percentage, reaction sequence and ultrasonication time – were optimised systematically to achieve optimum orange emission intensity. Nanoparticles with average size ∼2.3 nm and showing bright orange emission under UV excitation were ultimately achieved. Various characterisation techniques, namely HRTEM, XRD, ICP, ESR, UV–visible absorption spectrometry and fluorescence spectroscopy, were used to probe the nature of the sample. -- Highlights: • Shell formation achieved by ultrasonic decomposition of zinc–thiourea complex. • Optimal zinc to sulphur ratio in reaction mix was found to be 1:1.2. • Optimal manganese doping percentage was found to be 5.8%. • Addition of cationic precursors to anionic precursors proved to be favourable. • Ultrasonication times exceeding 15 min were detrimental to emission intensity.

  2. Towards seasonal Arctic shipping route predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, K.; Melia, N.; Hawkins, E.; Day, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    In our previous work [1] we showed how trans-Arctic shipping routes would become more available through the 21st century as sea ice declines, using CMIP5 models with means and stds calibrated to PIOMAS sea ice observations. Sea ice will continue to close shipping routes to open water vessels through the winter months for the foreseeable future so the availability of open sea routes will vary greatly from year to year. Here [2] we look at whether the trans-Arctic shipping season period can be predicted in seasonal forecasts, again using several climate models, and testing both perfect and imperfect knowledge of the initial sea ice conditions. We find skilful predictions of the upcoming summer shipping season can be made from as early as January, although typically forecasts may show lower skill before a May `predictability barrier'. Focussing on the northern sea route (NSR) off Siberia, the date of opening of this sea route is twice as variable as the closing date, and this carries through to reduced predictability at the start of the season. Under climate change the later freeze-up date accounts for 60% of the lengthening season, Fig1 We find that predictive skill is state dependent with predictions for high or low ice years exhibiting greater skill than for average ice years. Forecasting the exact timing of route open periods is harder (more weather dependent) under average ice conditions while in high and low ice years the season is more controlled by the initial ice conditions from spring onwards. This could be very useful information for companies planning vessel routing for the coming season. We tested this dependence on the initial ice conditions by changing the initial ice state towards climatologically average conditions and show directly that early summer sea-ice thickness information is crucial to obtain skilful forecasts of the coming shipping season. Mechanisms for this are discussed. This strongly suggests that good sea ice thickness observations

  3. An overview of smart grid routing algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junsheng; OU, Qinghai; Shen, Haijuan

    2017-08-01

    This paper summarizes the typical routing algorithm in smart grid by analyzing the communication business and communication requirements of intelligent grid. Mainly from the two kinds of routing algorithm is analyzed, namely clustering routing algorithm and routing algorithm, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of two kinds of typical routing algorithm in routing algorithm and applicability.

  4. Shuttle requests

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Please note that starting from 1 March 2007, the shuttle requests: for official visits or bidders' conferences on the CERN site; towards/from the airport or central Geneva; for long distances, shall be made via Fm.Support@cern.ch or by calling 77777. The radio taxi will still be reachable at 76969. TS/FM Group

  5. Least loaded and route fragmentation aware RSA strategies for elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batham, Deepak; Yadav, Dharmendra Singh; Prakash, Shashi

    2017-12-01

    Elastic optical networks (EONs) provide flexibility to assign wide range of spectral resources to the connection requests. In this manuscript, we address two issues related to spectrum assignment in EONs: the non uniform spectrum assignment along different links of the route and the spectrum fragmentation in the network. To address these issues, two routing and spectrum assignment (RSA) strategies have been proposed: Least Loaded RSA (LLRSA) and Route Fragmentation Aware RSA (RFARSA). The LLRSA allocates spectrum homogeneously along different links in the network, where as RFARSA accords priority to the routes which are less fragmented. To highlight the salient features of the two strategies, two new metrics, route fragmentation index (RFI) and standard deviation (SD) are introduced. RFI is defined as the ratio of non-contiguous FSs to the total available free FSs on the route, and SD relates to the measure of non-uniformity in the allocation of resources on the links in the network. A simulation program has been developed to evaluate the performance of the proposed (LLRSA and RFARSA) strategies, and the existing strategies of shortest path RSA (SPRSA) and spectrum compactness based defragmentation (SCD) strategies, on the metric of RFI, bandwidth blocking probability (BBP), network capacity utilized, and SD. The variation in the metrics on the basis of number of requests and the bandwidth (number of FSs) requested has been studied. It has been conclusively established that the proposed strategies (LLRSA and RFARSA) outperform the existing strategies in terms of all the metrics.

  6. An efficient adsorption of indigo carmine dye from aqueous solution on mesoporous Mg/Fe layered double hydroxide nanoparticles prepared by controlled sol-gel route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M A; Brick, A A; Mohamed, A A

    2017-05-01

    A new approach for removal of indigo carmine blue (IC) dye which is extensively used in jeans manufacture was successfully performed on novel mesoporous [LDH] nanoparticles prepared by sol-gel route using CTAB as shape and pore directing agent. The physicochemical features were monitored by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformer infra-red (FTIR), N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, Field emission electron microscope (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The influence of reaction parameters affecting dye adsorption including contact time, initial dye concentration, pH and temperature were investigated. Textural analysis and HRTEM images indicate the existence of mesoporous spherical nanoparticles of size = 26 nm connected to each other's and embedded large numbers of mesopores of average pore radius = 43.5 Å. A successful adsorption of IC on LDH nanoparticles of surface area = 85.6 m 2 /g at various pH with maximum adsorption capacity = 62.8 mg/g at pH = 9.5. Langmuir model is more favorable to describe the adsorption of IC rather than Freundlich model which reflecting the preferential formation of monolayer on the surface of LDH. Both film diffusion and the intraparticle diffusion affect the dye adsorption. The values of enthalpy change (ΔH) for and (ΔS) are + 28.18 and + 0.118 kJ/mol, respectively indicating that the removal process is endothermic. The results indicated that LDH nanoparticles conserved a good activity even after five consecutive cycles of reuse. Our results suggest that mesoporous LDH nanoparticles are considered a potential novel adsorbent for remediation of wastewater containing IC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vertex routing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, D; Gros, C

    2009-01-01

    A class of models describing the flow of information within networks via routing processes is proposed and investigated, concentrating on the effects of memory traces on the global properties. The long-term flow of information is governed by cyclic attractors, allowing to define a measure for the information centrality of a vertex given by the number of attractors passing through this vertex. We find the number of vertices having a nonzero information centrality to be extensive/subextensive for models with/without a memory trace in the thermodynamic limit. We evaluate the distribution of the number of cycles, of the cycle length and of the maximal basins of attraction, finding a complete scaling collapse in the thermodynamic limit for the latter. Possible implications of our results for the information flow in social networks are discussed.

  8. Southern states' routing agency report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    The Southern states' routing agency report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing programs relative to the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source ad scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed

  9. Southern States' Routing Agency Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The Southern States' Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed

  10. Programs for control of an analog-signal switching network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ottavio, T.; Enriquez, R.; Katz, R.; Skelly, J.

    1989-01-01

    A suite of programs has been developed to control the network of analog-signal switching multiplexers in the AGS complex. The software is driven by a relational database which describes the architecture of the multiplexer tree and the set of available analog signals. Signals are routed through a three-layer multiplexer tree, to be made available at four consoles each with three 4-trace oscilloscopes. A menu-structured operator interface program is available at each console, to accept requests to route any available analog signal to any of that console's 12 oscilloscope traces. A common routing-server program provides automatic routing-server program provides automatic routing of requested signals through the layers of multiplexers, maintaining a reservation database to denote free and in-use trunks. Expansion of the analog signal system is easily accommodated in software by adding new signals, trunks, multiplexers, or consoles to the database. Programmatic control of the triggering signals for each of the oscilloscopes is also provided. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Lessons learned by southern states in designating alternative routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to discuss the ''lessons learned'' by the five states within the southem region that have designated alternative or preferred routes under the regulations of the Department of Transportation (DOT) established for the transportation of radioactive materials. The document was prepared by reviewing applicable federal laws and regulations, examining state reports and documents and contacting state officials and routing agencies involved in making routing decisions. In undertaking this project, the Southern States Energy Board hopes to reveal the process used by states that have designated alternative routes and thereby share their experiences (i.e., lessons learned) with other southern states that have yet to make designations. Under DOT regulations (49 CFR 177.826), carriers of highway route controlled quantities of radioactive materials (which include spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste) must use preferred routes selected to reduce time in transit. Such preferred routes consist of (1) an interstate system highway with use of an interstate system bypass or beltway around cities when available, and (2) alternate routes selected by a ''state routing agency.''

  12. North Atlantic IFR Route Planning Chart GEO-TIFF - Aeronautical Information Services Digital Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — North Atlantic Route Chart is designed for FAA Controllers to monitor transatlantic flights, this 5-color chart shows oceanic control areas, coastal navigation aids,...

  13. North Atlantic IFR Route Planning Chart PDF File - Aeronautical Information Services Digital Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — North Atlantic Route Chart is designed for FAA Controllers to monitor transatlantic flights, this 5-color chart shows oceanic control areas, coastal navigation aids,...

  14. Route Selection with Unspecified Sites Using Knowledge Based Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoh, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Nobuaki; Nakamura, Tomohiro

    This paper addresses the problem of selecting a route to a given destination that traverses several non-specific sites (e.g. a bank, a gas station) as requested by a driver. The proposed solution uses a genetic algorithm that includes viral infection. The method is to generate two populations of viruses as domain specific knowledge in addition to a population of routes. A part of an arterial road is regarded as a main virus, and a road that includes a site is regarded as a site virus. An infection occurs between two points common to a candidate route and the virus, and involves the substitution of the intersections carried by the virus for those on the existing candidate route. Crossover and infection determine the easiest-to-drive and quasi-shortest route through the objective landmarks. Experiments using actual road maps show that this infection-based mechanism is an effective way of solving the problem. Our strategy is general, and can be effectively used in other optimization problems.

  15. Shuttle requests

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Please note that, to improve the service we provide, a new telephone number - 72500 - has been set up for all shuttle requests concerning: journeys within the CERN site, i.e. official visits or bidders' conferences; journeys to or from the airport or city centre; long-distance journeys. However, it will still be possible to submit requests in writing to Fm.Support@cern. The radio taxi can also still be reached on 76969. The TS/FM group would also like to inform you that details of all light logistics services (transport of persons, distribution and collection of parcels up to 1 tonne, distribution and collection of mail) can be found on the group's website: http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/fm/fm.htm TS/FM Group 160239

  16. Stochastic vehicle routing with recourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath; Saket, Rishi

    2012-01-01

    instantiations, a recourse route is computed - but costs here become more expensive by a factor λ. We present an O(log2n ·log(nλ))-approximation algorithm for this stochastic routing problem, under arbitrary distributions. The main idea in this result is relating StochVRP to a special case of submodular...

  17. Route-external and route-internal landmarks in route descriptions : Effects of route length and map design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerbeek, Hans; Maes, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    Landmarks are basic ingredients in route descriptions. They often mark choice points: locations where travellers choose from different options how to continue the route. This study focuses on one of the loose ends in the taxonomy of landmarks. In a memory-based production experiment in which

  18. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Thomas, Tom; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against

  19. 78 FR 23975 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... definition of a controlled foreign corporation, foreign base company income and foreign personal holding...

  20. A novel insight into beaconless geo-routing

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed; Abed-Meraim, Karim; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    Beaconless geo-routing protocols have been traditionally analyzed assuming equal communication ranges for the data and control packets. This is not true in reality, since the communication range is in practice function of the packet length. As a

  1. A Cross-Layer Route Discovery Framework for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jieyi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most reactive routing protocols in MANETs employ a random delay between rebroadcasting route requests (RREQ in order to avoid "broadcast storms." However this can lead to problems such as "next hop racing" and "rebroadcast redundancy." In addition to this, existing routing protocols for MANETs usually take a single routing strategy for all flows. This may lead to inefficient use of resources. In this paper we propose a cross-layer route discovery framework (CRDF to address these problems by exploiting the cross-layer information. CRDF solves the above problems efficiently and enables a new technique: routing strategy automation (RoSAuto. RoSAuto refers to the technique that each source node automatically decides the routing strategy based on the application requirements and each intermediate node further adapts the routing strategy so that the network resource usage can be optimized. To demonstrate the effectiveness and the efficiency of CRDF, we design and evaluate a macrobian route discovery strategy under CRDF.

  2. PKCζ regulates Notch receptor routing and activity in a Notch signaling-dependent manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjöqvist, M.; Antfolk, D.; Ferraris, S.; Rraklli, V.; Haga, C.; Antila, C.; Mutvei, A.; Imanishi, S.Y.; Holmberg, J.; Jin, S.; Eriksson, J.E.; Lendahl, U.; Sahlgren, C.M.

    Activation of Notch signaling requires intracellular routing of the receptor, but the mechanisms controlling the distinct steps in the routing process is poorly understood. We identify PKCζ as a key regulator of Notch receptor intracellular routing. When PKCζ was inhibited in the developing chick

  3. A chemical bath deposition route to facet-controlled Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} thin films with improved visible light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunjakar, Jayavant L.; Jo, Yun Kyung; Kim, In Young; Lee, Jang Mee; Patil, Sharad B. [Department of Chemistry and Nanoscience, College of Natural Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760 (Korea, Republic of); Pyun, Jae-Chul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Seong-Ju, E-mail: hwangsju@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Nanoscience, College of Natural Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    A facile, economic, and reproducible chemical bath deposition (CBD) method is developed for the fabrication of facet-controlled Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} thin films with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity. The fine-control of bath temperature, precursor, complexing agent, substrate, and solution pH is fairly crucial in preparing the facet-selective thin film of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} nanocrystal. The change of precursor from silver nitrate to silver acetate makes possible the tailoring of the crystal shape of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} from cube to rhombic dodecahedron and also the bandgap tuning of the deposited films. The control of [Ag{sup +}]/[phosphate] ratio enables to maximize the loading amount of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} crystals per the unit area of the deposited film. All the fabricated Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} thin films show high photocatalytic activity for visible light-induced degradation of organic molecules, which can be optimized by tailoring the crystal shape of the deposited crystals. This CBD method is also useful in preparing the facet-controlled hybrid film of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}–ZnO photocatalyst. The present study clearly demonstrates the usefulness of the present CBD method for fabricating facet-controlled thin films of metal oxosalt and its nanohybrid. - Highlights: • The crystal facet of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} films can be tuned by chemical bath deposition. • The crystal shape of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is tailorable from cube to rhombic dodecahedron. • Facet-tuned Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} film shows enhanced visible light photocatalyst activity.

  4. Size control and supporting of palladium nanoparticles made by laser ablation in saline solution as a facile route to heterogeneous catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzun, Galina; Nakamura, Junji; Zhang, Xiaorui; Barcikowski, Stephan; Wagener, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We studied laser-generated, size-controlled palladium nanoparticles in saline solution. • Palladium nanoparticles were electrostatically stabilized by anions. • Photo- and electrocatalyst are prepared by supporting Pd nanoparticles to TiO 2 and graphene. • Particle size does not change during supporting process, while 18 wt% load has been achieved. • Palladium nanoparticles and graphene undergo a redox-reaction during adsorption. - Abstract: In the literature many investigations on colloidal stability and size control of gold nanoparticles are shown but less for ligand-free palladium nanoparticles, which can be promising materials in various applications. Palladium nanoparticles are perspective materials for a manifold of energy application like photo- and electrocatalysis or hydrogen storage. For this purpose, size-controlled nanoparticles with clean surfaces and facile immobilization on catalyst supports are wanted. Laser ablation in saline solution yields ligand-free, charged colloidal palladium nanoparticles that are supported by titania and graphene nanosheets as model systems for photo- and electrocatalysis, respectively. By adjusting the ionic strength during laser ablation in liquid, it is possible to control stability and particle size without compromising subsequent nanoparticle adsorption of supporting materials. A quantitative deposition of nearly 100% yield with up to 18 wt% nanoparticle load was achieved. The average size of the laser-generated nanoparticles remains the same after immobilization on a support material, in contrast to other preparation methods of catalysts. The characterization by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals a redox reaction between the immobilized nanoparticles and the graphene support

  5. Road Routes for Waste Disposal - MDC_RecyclingRoute

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — This CURBSIDE RECYCLING ROUTES BOUNDARIES LAYER IS A polygon feature class created for the Miami-Dade Department of Solid Waste Management (DSWM). It contains the...

  6. Capacity Constrained Routing Algorithms for Evacuation Route Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Qingsong; George, Betsy; Shekhar, Shashi

    2006-01-01

    .... In this paper, we propose a new approach, namely a capacity constrained routing planner which models capacity as a time series and generalizes shortest path algorithms to incorporate capacity constraints...

  7. Pheromone based alternative route planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangbing Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose an improved alternative route calculation based on alternative figures, which is suitable for practical environments. The improvement is based on the fact that the main traffic route is the road network skeleton in a city. Our approach using nodes may generate a higher possibility of overlapping. We employ a bidirectional Dijkstra algorithm to search the route. To measure the quality of an Alternative Figures (AG, three quotas are proposed. The experiment results indicate that the improved algorithm proposed in this paper is more effective than others.

  8. Route planning algorithms: Planific@ Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Martín Ortega

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Planific@ is a route planning project for the city of Madrid (Spain. Its main aim is to develop an intelligence system capable of routing people from one place in the city to any other using the public transport. In order to do this, it is necessary to take into account such things as: time, traffic, user preferences, etc. Before beginning to design the project is necessary to make a comprehensive study of the variety of main known route planning algorithms suitable to be used in this project.

  9. Surface state modulation through wet chemical treatment as a route to controlling the electrical properties of ZnO nanowire arrays investigated with XPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, Alex M.; Maffeis, Thierry G.; Allen, Martin W.; Morgan, David; Davies, Philip R.; Jones, Daniel R.; Evans, Jonathan E.; Smith, Nathan A.; Wilks, Steve P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct measurement of the surface band bending exhibited by ZnO nanowires using monochromatic XPS. • Modulation of the surface depletion region using wet chemical treatment (EtOH, H 2 O 2 ). • The measured surface potential barrier agrees with electrical measurements of individual nanowires. • H 2 O 2 depletes the nanowire of charge carriers while EtOH donates electrons at the surface. • EtOH has the effect of restoring the surface potential barrier of oxidised nanowires. - Abstract: ZnO is a wide bandgap semiconductor that has many potential applications including solar cell electrodes, transparent thin film transistors and gas/biological sensors. Since the surfaces of ZnO materials have no amorphous or oxidised layers, they are very environmentally sensitive, making control of their semiconductor properties challenging. In particular, the electronic properties of ZnO nanostructures are dominated by surface effects while surface conduction layers have been observed in thin films and bulk crystals. Therefore, the ability to use the ZnO materials in a controlled way depends on the development of simple techniques to modulate their surface electronic properties. Here, we use monochromatic x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to investigate the use of different wet chemical treatments (EtOH, H 2 O 2 ) to control the electronic properties of ZnO nanowires by modulating the surface depletion region. The valence band and core level XPS spectra are used to explore the relationship between the surface chemistry of the nanowires and the surface band bending

  10. Port Authority of Allegheny County Transit Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shapefile of Transit Routes - Please refer to each resource for active dates of the route information. Routes change over time,

  11. Critical Routes: Women Facing Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Nazareth Meneghel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Critical Routes International Seminar – Women Facing Violence , which took place in Porto Alegre in 2008. The seminar was promoted by the Graduate Program on Collective Health at Unisinos and by the Public Health School/RS and was supported by outstanding researchers working in the fields of collective health, and social and human sciences. Initially, we discuss some conceptual aspects about gender violence, its dimensions and its consequences for the health and the life quality of the affected women. Our understanding is that violence is one of the most effective methods of controlling women in societies scarred with gender hierarchies. The structure of the seminar focused on three main discussion themes: breaking up with the violence, mechanisms for working with gender and hearing the services. These themes were chosen aiming at looking for ways to help the women and to explore efficient mechanisms to combat, reduce and, if possible, eliminate the violence perpetrated against women. At the end of the seminar, we reiterate the political commitment on the accomplishment of the public policies to face violence and the fight against all inequality, discrimination and violence forms based on gender.

  12. Route analysis for MHD equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Fumio; Aizawa, Tatsuhiko

    1982-01-01

    In Tokamak facilities which are promising in nuclear fusion reactor development, the plasma in the core is often described by MHD approximation. Specifically, since an axisymmetric torus is approximately assumed as the first wall (shell) shape in actual Tokamak facilities, the Grad-Shafranov equation to be satisfied by an axisymmetric equilibrium solution for ideal MHD fluid must be solved, and the characteristics of its solution must be clarified. This paper shows the outline of the numerical calculation which employs both the incremental method taking the particular incremental nodal point values as the control parameters and the interaction method in accordance with Newton method at the same time, the analysis objective being a non-linear eigenvalue problem dealing the boundary of plasma region with surrounding vacuum region as the free boundary. Next, the detailed route analysis of the equilibrium solution is performed, utilizing the above numerical calculation technique, to clarify the effect of shell shape on the behaviour of the equilibrium solution. As the shape of the shell, a rectangular section torus, which have a notch depression at a part of the shell inner boundary, is considered. In the paper, the fundamental MHD equation and its approximate solution by the finite element method, the behaviour of plasma equilibrium solution in a shell having a notch, and the effect of notch shapes on plasma behaviour are described. This analysis verifies the effectiveness of the calculation method. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  13. RECOVERY ACT: DYNAMIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION MANAGEMENT OF ROUTING TELECOM AND DATA CENTERS THROUGH REAL-TIME OPTIMAL CONTROL (RTOC): Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ron Moon

    2011-06-30

    This final scientific report documents the Industrial Technology Program (ITP) Stage 2 Concept Development effort on Data Center Energy Reduction and Management Through Real-Time Optimal Control (RTOC). Society is becoming increasingly dependent on information technology systems, driving exponential growth in demand for data center processing and an insatiable appetite for energy. David Raths noted, 'A 50,000-square-foot data center uses approximately 4 megawatts of power, or the equivalent of 57 barrels of oil a day1.' The problem has become so severe that in some cases, users are giving up raw performance for a better balance between performance and energy efficiency. Historically, power systems for data centers were crudely sized to meet maximum demand. Since many servers operate at 60%-90% of maximum power while only utilizing an average of 5% to 15% of their capability, there are huge inefficiencies in the consumption and delivery of power in these data centers. The goal of the 'Recovery Act: Decreasing Data Center Energy Use through Network and Infrastructure Control' is to develop a state of the art approach for autonomously and intelligently reducing and managing data center power through real-time optimal control. Advances in microelectronics and software are enabling the opportunity to realize significant data center power savings through the implementation of autonomous power management control algorithms. The first step to realizing these savings was addressed in this study through the successful creation of a flexible and scalable mathematical model (equation) for data center behavior and the formulation of an acceptable low technical risk market introduction strategy leveraging commercial hardware and software familiar to the data center market. Follow-on Stage 3 Concept Development efforts include predictive modeling and simulation of algorithm performance, prototype demonstrations with representative data center equipment to

  14. VT Route Log Points 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This data layer is used with VTrans' Integrated Route Log System (IRA). It is also used to calibrate the linear referencing systems, including the End-to-End and...

  15. Predicting Catastrophic BGP Routing Instabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen, Lien

    2004-01-01

    .... Currently, this critical function is performed by the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) version 4 RF01771. Like all routing protocols, BGP is vulnerable to instabilities that reduce its effectiveness...

  16. Traffic restrictions on Routes Bloch, Maxwell and Bohr

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    Excavation and pipework is being carried out in the framework of the transfer of the waste water treatment plant for the effluents from the surface treatment workshops from Building 254 to Building 676, currently under construction. This work may encroach onto Routes Bloch, Maxwell and Bohr and disrupt the flow of traffic. Users are requested to comply with the road signs that will be erected. The work is expected to last until the beginning of December 2008. Thank you for your understanding. TS/CE and TS/FM Groups Tel.7 4188 or 16 4314

  17. New TPG bus route 28

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Geneva's Public Transport services (TPG) have recently inaugurated a new bus line 28, connecting the La Tour Hospital in Meyrin to the international organisations in Geneva, via the airport. All signs associated with this route will be yellow in colour. Timetables and route details can be found at http://www.tpg.ch. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  18. Route around real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrier, Francois

    1996-01-01

    The greater and greater autonomy and complexity asked to the control and command systems lead to work on introducing techniques such as Artificial Intelligence or concurrent object programming in industrial applications. However, while the critical feature of these systems impose to control the dynamics of the proposed solutions, their complexity often imposes a high adaptability to a partially modelled environment. The studies presented start from low level control and command systems to more complex applications at higher levels, such as 'supervision systems'. Techniques such as temporal reasoning and uncertainty management are proposed for the first studies, while the second are tackled with programming techniques based on the real time object paradigm. The outcomes of this itinerary crystallize on the ACCORD project which targets to manage - on the whole life cycle of a real time application - these two problematics, sometimes antagonistic: control of the dynamics and adaptivity. (author) [fr

  19. Practicing more retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Tongtong; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2016-09-01

    A wealth of research has shown that retrieval practice plays a significant role in improving memory retention. The current study focused on one simple yet rarely examined question: would repeated retrieval using two different retrieval routes or using the same retrieval route twice lead to greater long-term memory retention? Participants elaborately learned 22 Japanese-Chinese translation word pairs using two different mediators. Half an hour after the initial study phase, the participants completed two retrieval sessions using either one mediator (Tm1Tm1) or two different mediators (Tm1Tm2). On the final test, which was performed 1week after the retrieval practice phase, the participants received only the cue with a request to report the mediator (M1 or M2) followed by the target (Experiment 1) or only the mediator (M1 or M2) with a request to report the target (Experiment 2). The results of Experiment 1 indicated that the participants who practiced under the Tm1Tm2 condition exhibited greater target retention than those who practiced under the Tm1Tm1 condition. This difference in performance was due to the significant disadvantage in mediator retrieval and decoding of the unpracticed mediator under the Tm1Tm1 condition. Although mediators were provided to participants on the final test in Experiment 2, decoding of the unpracticed mediators remained less effective than decoding of the practiced mediators. We conclude that practicing multiple retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention than focusing on a single retrieval route. Thus, increasing retrieval variability during repeated retrieval practice indeed significantly improves long-term retention in a delay test. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Routing of individual polymers in designed patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jakob Bach; Liu, Lei; Kodal, Anne Louise Bank

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic polymers are ubiquitous in the modern world, but our ability to exert control over the molecular conformation of individual polymers is very limited. In particular, although the programmable self-assembly of oligonucleotides and proteins into artificial nanostructures has been...... demonstrated, we currently lack the tools to handle other types of synthetic polymers individually and thus the ability to utilize and study their single-molecule properties. Here we show that synthetic polymer wires containing short oligonucleotides that extend from each repeat can be made to assemble...... into arbitrary routings. The wires, which can be more than 200 nm in length, are soft and bendable, and the DNA strands allow individual polymers to self-assemble into predesigned routings on both two- and three-dimensional DNA origami templates. The polymers are conjugated and potentially conducting, and could...

  1. Routing of individual polymers in designed patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Jakob Bach; Liu, Lei; Bank Kodal, Anne Louise; Madsen, Mikael; Li, Qiang; Song, Jie; Woehrstein, Johannes B.; Wickham, Shelley F. J.; Strauss, Maximilian T.; Schueder, Florian; Vinther, Jesper; Krissanaprasit, Abhichart; Gudnason, Daniel; Smith, Anton Allen Abbotsford; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Zelikin, Alexander N.; Besenbacher, Flemming; Birkedal, Victoria; Yin, Peng; Shih, William M.; Jungmann, Ralf; Dong, Mingdong; Gothelf, Kurt V.

    2015-10-01

    Synthetic polymers are ubiquitous in the modern world, but our ability to exert control over the molecular conformation of individual polymers is very limited. In particular, although the programmable self-assembly of oligonucleotides and proteins into artificial nanostructures has been demonstrated, we currently lack the tools to handle other types of synthetic polymers individually and thus the ability to utilize and study their single-molecule properties. Here we show that synthetic polymer wires containing short oligonucleotides that extend from each repeat can be made to assemble into arbitrary routings. The wires, which can be more than 200 nm in length, are soft and bendable, and the DNA strands allow individual polymers to self-assemble into predesigned routings on both two- and three-dimensional DNA origami templates. The polymers are conjugated and potentially conducting, and could therefore be used to create molecular-scale electronic or optical wires in arbitrary geometries.

  2. Incorporation of Spatial Interactions in Location Networks to Identify Critical Geo-Referenced Routes for Assessing Disease Control Measures on a Large-Scale Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzai-Hung Wen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases mainly spread through interpersonal contact. Class suspension is the most direct strategy to prevent the spread of disease through elementary or secondary schools by blocking the contact network. However, as university students usually attend courses in different buildings, the daily contact patterns on a university campus are complicated, and once disease clusters have occurred, suspending classes is far from an efficient strategy to control disease spread. The purpose of this study is to propose a methodological framework for generating campus location networks from a routine administration database, analyzing the community structure of the network, and identifying the critical links and nodes for blocking respiratory disease transmission. The data comes from the student enrollment records of a major comprehensive university in Taiwan. We combined the social network analysis and spatial interaction model to establish a geo-referenced community structure among the classroom buildings. We also identified the critical links among the communities that were acting as contact bridges and explored the changes in the location network after the sequential removal of the high-risk buildings. Instead of conducting a questionnaire survey, the study established a standard procedure for constructing a location network on a large-scale campus from a routine curriculum database. We also present how a location network structure at a campus could function to target the high-risk buildings as the bridges connecting communities for blocking disease transmission.

  3. Helpdesk troubleshooting requests

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind all CERN users that the FM Help Desk handles all work and repair requests and other enquiries relating to CERN's tertiary buildings, in particular the following systems and equipment: Electricity and lighting in office buildings, halls and workshops Heating, ventilation and air conditioning in office buildings, halls and workshops Lifts (excluding those in underground areas) Motorised doors Buildings and their equipment: roofs, doors, windows, blinds, etc. Plumbing Toilets Cleaning (all buildings and underground areas) Restaurant equipment Roads and green areas Waste collection The FM Helpdesk is open between 7.30 a.m. and 6.30 p.m. and can be contacted on Tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). Troubleshooting requests, complaints and work requests will only be accepted during these hours. Outside these hours and for any problems relating to non-tertiary buildings or to equipment not included in the above list, please contact the TI Control Room on Tel. 72201, 24 hours a d...

  4. Controlled sp(2) Functionalization of Boron Doped Diamond as a Route for the Fabrication of Robust and Nernstian pH Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Zoë J; Borrill, Alexandra J; Newland, Jonathan C; Newton, Mark E; Macpherson, Julie V

    2016-01-05

    The development of a voltammetric boron doped diamond (BDD) pH sensor is described. To obtain pH sensitivity, laser micromachining (ablation) is utilized to introduce controlled regions of sp(2) carbon into a high quality polycrystalline BDD electrode. The resulting sp(2) carbon is activated to produce electrochemically reducible quinone groups using a high temperature acid treatment, followed by anodic polarization. Once activated, no further treatment is required. The quinone groups show a linear (R(2) = 0.999) and Nernstian (59 mV/(pH unit)) pH-dependent reductive current-voltage response over a large analyzable pH range, from pH 2 to pH 12. Using the laser approach, it is possible to optimize sp(2) coverage on the BDD surface, such that a measurable pH response is recorded, while minimizing background currents arising from oxygen reduction reactions on sp(2) carbon in the potential region of interest. This enables the sensor to be used in aerated solutions, boding well for in situ analysis. The voltammetric response of the electrode is not compromised by the presence of excess metal ions such as Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+). Furthermore, the pH sensor is stable over a 3 month period (the current time period of testing), can be stored in air between measurements, requires no reactivation of the surface between measurements, and can be reproducibly fabricated using the proposed approach. The efficacy of this pH sensor in a real-world sample is demonstrated with pH measurements in U.K. seawater.

  5. The equipment access software for a distributed UNIX-based accelerator control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimov, Nikolai; Zelepoukine, Serguei; Zharkov, Eugeny; Charrue, Pierre; Gareyte, Claire; Poirier, Herve

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a generic equipment access software package for a distributed control system using computers with UNIX or UNIX-like operating systems. The package consists of three main components, an application Equipment Access Library, Message Handler and Equipment Data Base. An application task, which may run in any computer in the network, sends requests to access equipment through Equipment Library calls. The basic request is in the form Equipment-Action-Data and is routed via a remote procedure call to the computer to which the given equipment is connected. In this computer the request is received by the Message Handler. According to the type of the equipment connection, the Message Handler either passes the request to the specific process software in the same computer or forwards it to a lower level network of equipment controllers using MIL1553B, GPIB, RS232 or BITBUS communication. The answer is then returned to the calling application. Descriptive information required for request routing and processing is stored in the real-time Equipment Data Base. The package has been written to be portable and is currently available on DEC Ultrix, LynxOS, HPUX, XENIX, OS-9 and Apollo domain. ((orig.))

  6. Cluster Based Hierarchical Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Rashed, Md. Golam; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Rahim, Muhammad Sajjadur; Ullah, Shaikh Enayet

    2012-01-01

    The efficient use of energy source in a sensor node is most desirable criteria for prolong the life time of wireless sensor network. In this paper, we propose a two layer hierarchical routing protocol called Cluster Based Hierarchical Routing Protocol (CBHRP). We introduce a new concept called head-set, consists of one active cluster head and some other associate cluster heads within a cluster. The head-set members are responsible for control and management of the network. Results show that t...

  7. 75 FR 20616 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Numbers: 1625-0007...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... Management (ISM) Code. OMB Control Number: 1625-0084. Summary: This information helps to determine whether U... to issue ISM Code certificates for the United States. Frequency: On occasion. Burden Estimate: The...

  8. Energy Aware Cluster Based Routing Scheme For Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Sohini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN has emerged as an important supplement to the modern wireless communication systems due to its wide range of applications. The recent researches are facing the various challenges of the sensor network more gracefully. However, energy efficiency has still remained a matter of concern for the researches. Meeting the countless security needs, timely data delivery and taking a quick action, efficient route selection and multi-path routing etc. can only be achieved at the cost of energy. Hierarchical routing is more useful in this regard. The proposed algorithm Energy Aware Cluster Based Routing Scheme (EACBRS aims at conserving energy with the help of hierarchical routing by calculating the optimum number of cluster heads for the network, selecting energy-efficient route to the sink and by offering congestion control. Simulation results prove that EACBRS performs better than existing hierarchical routing algorithms like Distributed Energy-Efficient Clustering (DEEC algorithm for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks and Energy Efficient Heterogeneous Clustered scheme for Wireless Sensor Network (EEHC.

  9. Vehicle Routing With User Generated Trajectory Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceikute, Vaida; Jensen, Christian S.

    Rapidly increasing volumes of GPS data collected from vehicles provide new and increasingly comprehensive insight into the routes that drivers prefer. While routing services generally compute shortest or fastest routes, recent studies suggest that local drivers often prefer routes that are neithe...

  10. Independent programmable CAMAC crate controller based on KR580IK80A microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulik, O.V.; Andronov, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The RTKAM-2 independent programmable CAMAC crate controller is designed for use as a remote terminal in systems for automation of physics research. The built-in 12K-byte RAM is automatically changed to 24-bit organization in exchanges with the crate dataway. A nonstandard 24-level priority-interrupt system allows an LAM-request routing to be accessed in 5.5 μsec. Communication with the base computer is through a two conductor line

  11. Route Flap Damping Made Usable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelsser, Cristel; Maennel, Olaf; Mohapatra, Pradosh; Bush, Randy; Patel, Keyur

    The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), the de facto inter-domain routing protocol of the Internet, is known to be noisy. The protocol has two main mechanisms to ameliorate this, MinRouteAdvertisementInterval (MRAI), and Route Flap Damping (RFD). MRAI deals with very short bursts on the order of a few to 30 seconds. RFD deals with longer bursts, minutes to hours. Unfortunately, RFD was found to severely penalize sites for being well-connected because topological richness amplifies the number of update messages exchanged. So most operators have disabled it. Through measurement, this paper explores the avenue of absolutely minimal change to code, and shows that a few RFD algorithmic constants and limits can be trivially modified, with the result being damping a non-trivial amount of long term churn without penalizing well-behaved prefixes' normal convergence process.

  12. 77 FR 11136 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; a Multi-Center International Hospital-Based Case-Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... proposed projects to be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval... conclusively established and the identification of the key, functional alleles in gene regions associated with... underlying genetic structure. A multidisciplinary case- control study of lymphoma in Asia, where lymphoma...

  13. 76 FR 29767 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... associated with specific types of food or specific methods of manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding... specific methods of manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding food. In particular, we welcome input on... controls (e.g., procedures and practices utilized to minimize the risk of contamination) for human food and...

  14. Whirlpool routing for mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Woo; Kusy, Branislav; Azim, Tahir; Shihada, Basem; Levis, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Using simulation, controlled testbeds, and real mobility experiments, we find that using the data plane for topology maintenance is highly effective due to the incremental nature of mobility updates. WARP leverages the fact that converging flows at a destination make the destination have the region of highest traffic. We provide a theoretical basis for WARP's behavior, defining an "update area" in which the topology must adjust when a destination moves. As long as packets arrive at a destination before it moves outside of the update area, WARP can repair the topology using the data plane. Compared to existing protocols, such as DYMO and HYPER, WARP's packet drop rate is up to 90% lower while sending up to 90% fewer packets.

  15. 77 FR 58577 - Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ...Notice is hereby given that the presiding administrative law judge has issued a Final Initial Determination and Recommended Determination on Remedy and Bonding in the above-captioned investigation. The Commission is soliciting comments on public interest issues raised by the recommended relief, specifically a limited exclusion order and a cease and desist order against certain video game systems and wireless controllers and components thereof, imported by respondent Nintendo Co., Ltd., of Kyoto, Japan and Nintendo America, Inc. of Redmond, Washington (collectively, ``Nintendo'').

  16. Modeling and control of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell with the air compressor according to requested electrical current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malekbala Mohammad Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to design and investigate the dynamic behavior of a PEM fuel cell system. Dynamic analysis of a PEM fuel cell system has been done in Matlab\\Simulink software according to electrical current that has been applied from hybrid system. In addition, dynamical fuel cell system has been explained according to oriented control that is started from air injection compressor model. Also hydrogen valve actuator has been controlled according to the compressor model. The results of the fuel cell dynamic model as well as the applied compressor model are fully validated based on the available results in the open literature. Finally, the effects of several operating parameters of the fuel cell system such as anode and cathode pressures, cell voltage, compressor voltage, compressor mass flow rate variation with respect to inlet pressure ratio, net and stack powers on the dynamic behavior of the hybrid system are investigated. The results show that the model can predict the dynamic behavior of the fuel cell system accurately and it can be used directly for any control purposes.

  17. Request for Information Response for the Flight Validation of Adaptive Control to Prevent Loss-of-Control Events. Overview of RFI Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive control should be integrated with a baseline controller and only used when necessary (5 responses). Implementation as an emergency system. Immediately re-stabilize and return to controlled flight. Forced perturbation (excitation) for fine-tuning system a) Check margins; b) Develop requirements for amplitude of excitation. Adaptive system can improve performance by eating into margin constraints imposed on the non-adaptive system. Nonlinear effects due to multi-string voting.

  18. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of CuO Nanocrystals by a Room Temperature Solid-Phase Route%室温固相合成形貌可控的CuO纳米晶及其表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文忠; 王丽娟

    2012-01-01

    通过室温固相反应法成功制备出具有一维棒状和球型状的CuO纳米晶.研究结果表明,在反应过程中,表面活性剂对CuO纳米晶的形貌起着决定性的作用.当反应过程在表面活性剂聚乙二醇400液态环境中进行时,所制备的CuO为一维棒状纳米晶.纳米棒的直径为6~14 nm、长度为100~400 nm;当反应过程在表面活性剂聚氧乙烯9醚液态环境中进行时,则所制备的CuO为球形纳米粒子,纳米粒子的直径为4~11nm,平均直径为7 nm.用X射线粉末衍射和透射显微镜技术对所制备纳米晶的成分、晶相、形状和尺寸进行了表征分析.对不同形貌CuO纳米晶的形成机理作了深入的讨论,提出了CuO纳米棒的表面活性剂软模板诱导自组装生长机理.%A room temperature solid-phase route has been developed for the synthesis of CuO nanocrystals with rod- and spherical-like morphology by using surfaetant as shape controller. The results indicate that the surfactant plays a key role in controlling the shape of CuO nanocrystals. The monoclinic phase CuO rod-like nanocrystals with diameter of 6 ~ 14 nm and length of 100 - 400 nm were successfully synthesized when the surfactant polyethylene glycol 400 was used as shape controller. If the surfactant nonylphenyl ether(9)was used as shape controller, keeping the other ecperimental conditions constant, the monoclinic phase CuO spherical nanocrystals with diameter of 4 - 11 nm and an average diameter of 7 nm were fabricated. XRD and TEM techniques were used to study on composition, phase, morphology and size of the as-prepaped CuO nanocrystals. The growth mechanism of CuO nanocrystals has been discussed in detail. A surfactant soft template induced self- assemble growth mechanism was proposed for the formation of Cuo nanorods.

  19. Overview: Routes to Open Access

    OpenAIRE

    Tullney, Marco; van Wezenbeek, Wilma

    2017-01-01

    Slides of an overview presentation given at a CESAER workshop on Open Access, February 2nd, 2017, in Brussels Cover major routes to more open access as discussed in the Task Force Open Science of CESAER: (national) open access strategies open access mandates open access incentives open access awareness open access publishing open access infrastructure

  20. Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Hassan; Eshow, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview, presents the high level software architecture of DWR, based on the CTAS software framework and the Direct-To automation tool. The document also covers external and internal data flows, required dataset, changes to the Direct-To software for DWR, collection of software statistics, and the code structure.

  1. Emissions allocation in transportation routes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, B.P.J.; Velázquez Martínez, J.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    This article studies the allocation of CO2 emissions to a specific shipment in routing transportation. The authors show that this problem differs from a cost allocation problem specifically because the concavity condition does not hold necessarily in the CO2 allocation problem. This implies that a

  2. Roots/Routes: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Dalene M.

    2009-01-01

    This narrative and poetic rendering acts as an articulation of a journey of many routes. It is a storying of critical research issues and events as performances of lived experience. It is a metissage of hybrid, but interrelated, themes that find cohesion through fragmentation and coalescence, severance, and regrowth. These themes are invoked by…

  3. Roots/Routes: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Dalene M.

    2009-01-01

    This narrative acts as an articulation of a journey of many routes. Following Part I of the same research journey of rootedness/routedness, it debates the nature of transformation and transcendence beyond personal and political paradoxes informed by neoliberalism and related repressive globalizing discourses. Through a more personal, descriptive,…

  4. Dynamic Routing and Coordination in Multi-Agent Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    epidemics spreading . Bibliography (J1) F. Pasqualetti, S. Zampieri, and F. Bullo. Controllability metrics, limitations and algorithms for complex networks ...controllability properties of the clusters and on their coupling strength. We validate our results with examples from power networks , social networks , and...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Supported by this project, we designed innovative routing, planning and coordination strategies for robotic networks and

  5. 76 FR 49769 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... in Organizational Structure. Agency form number: FR Y-10E. OMB control number: 7100-0297. Frequency... OMB control numbers to collection of information requests and requirements conducted or sponsored by... control number. Request for Comment on Information Collection Proposal The following information...

  6. 76 FR 24537 - Paperwork Reduction Act; Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... President, Office of National Drug Control Policy, Drug-Free Communities (DFC) Support Program, 750 17th... OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY Paperwork Reduction Act; Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Office of National Drug Control Policy. ACTION: 60-Day notice and request for comments...

  7. The Time Window Vehicle Routing Problem Considering Closed Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsa Syahputri, Nenna; Mawengkang, Herman

    2017-12-01

    The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) determines the optimal set of routes used by a fleet of vehicles to serve a given set of customers on a predefined graph; the objective is to minimize the total travel cost (related to the travel times or distances) and operational cost (related to the number of vehicles used). In this paper we study a variant of the predefined graph: given a weighted graph G and vertices a and b, and given a set X of closed paths in G, find the minimum total travel cost of a-b path P such that no path in X is a subpath of P. Path P is allowed to repeat vertices and edges. We use integer programming model to describe the problem. A feasible neighbourhood approach is proposed to solve the model

  8. Benefits Analysis of Multi-Center Dynamic Weather Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Kapil; McNally, David; Morando, Alexander; Clymer, Alexis; Lock, Jennifer; Petersen, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic weather routes are flight plan corrections that can provide airborne flights more than user-specified minutes of flying-time savings, compared to their current flight plan. These routes are computed from the aircraft's current location to a flight plan fix downstream (within a predefined limit region), while avoiding forecasted convective weather regions. The Dynamic Weather Routes automation has been continuously running with live air traffic data for a field evaluation at the American Airlines Integrated Operations Center in Fort Worth, TX since July 31, 2012, where flights within the Fort Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center are evaluated for time savings. This paper extends the methodology to all Centers in United States and presents benefits analysis of Dynamic Weather Routes automation, if it was implemented in multiple airspace Centers individually and concurrently. The current computation of dynamic weather routes requires a limit rectangle so that a downstream capture fix can be selected, preventing very large route changes spanning several Centers. In this paper, first, a method of computing a limit polygon (as opposed to a rectangle used for Fort Worth Center) is described for each of the 20 Centers in the National Airspace System. The Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool, a nationwide simulation and analysis tool, is used for this purpose. After a comparison of results with the Center-based Dynamic Weather Routes automation in Fort Worth Center, results are presented for 11 Centers in the contiguous United States. These Centers are generally most impacted by convective weather. A breakdown of individual Center and airline savings is presented and the results indicate an overall average savings of about 10 minutes of flying time are obtained per flight.

  9. Technical Report: Sleep-Route - Routing through Sleeping Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Chayan; Rao, Vijay S.; Prasad, R. Venkatesha

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose an energy-efficient data gathering scheme for wireless sensor network called Sleep-Route, which splits the sensor nodes into two sets - active and dormant (low-power sleep). Only the active set of sensor nodes participate in data collection. The sensing values of the dormant sensor nodes are predicted with the help of an active sensor node. Virtual Sensing Framework (VSF) provides the mechanism to predict the sensing values by exploiting the data correlation among ...

  10. Route Scherrer and Route Einstein closed for construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please note that Route Scherrer will be inaccessible for two and a half months from the beginning of March and that part of Route Einstein will be closed for two weeks from the end of February.   Figure 1. The part of Route Scherrer between Building 510 and Building 53 (see Figure 1) will be closed from the beginning of March until mid-May for civil engineering works.   The superheated water pipes supplying the buildings in this area date back to 1959 and therefore present a significant risk of leakage. In order to ensure the reliable supply of superheated water, and, by extension, heating, to all premises near the Main Building (i.e. Buildings 500, 501, 503, 60, 62, 63 and 64), a new buried service duct will be installed between the basements of Buildings 53 and 61 to house a new superheated water pipe. Figure 2. The following car parks will, however, remain accessible for the duration of the works: the Cèdres car park, the car park for Buildings 4 and 5, and the ca...

  11. Suppressing traffic-driven epidemic spreading by use of the efficient routing protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wu, Zhi-Xi

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive work on the interplay between traffic dynamics and epidemic spreading, the control of epidemic spreading by routing strategies has not received adequate attention. In this paper, we study the impact of an efficient routing protocol on epidemic spreading. In the case of infinite node-delivery capacity, where the traffic is free of congestion, we find that that there exist optimal values of routing parameter, leading to the maximal epidemic threshold. This means that epidemic spreading can be effectively controlled by fine tuning the routing scheme. Moreover, we find that an increase in the average network connectivity and the emergence of traffic congestion can suppress the epidemic outbreak. (paper)

  12. Hedberg Research Conference on Fundamental Controls on Flow in Carbonates: Request for Travel Support for Post-Doctoral Fellows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2013-04-28

    Carbonate reservoirs pose a scientific and engineering challenge to geophysical prediction and monitoring of fluid flow in the subsurface. Difficulties in interpreting hydrological, reservoir and other exploration data arise because carbonates are composed of a hierarchy of geological structures, constituents and processes that span a wide spectrum of length and time scales. What makes this problem particularly challenging is that length scales associated with physical structure and processes are often not discrete, but overlap, preventing the definition of discrete elements at one scale to become the building blocks of the next scale. This is particularly true for carbonates where complicated depositional environments, subsequent post-deposition diagenesis and geochemical interactions result in pores that vary in scale from submicron to centimeters to fractures, variation in fabric composition with fossils, minerals and cement, as well as variations in structural features (e.g., oriented inter- and intra layered - interlaced bedding and/or discontinuous rock units). In addition, this complexity is altered by natural and anthropogenic processes such as changes in stress, fluid content, reactive fluid flow, etc. Thus an accurate geophysical assessment of the flow behavior of carbonate reservoirs requires a fundamental understanding of the interplay of textural and structural features subjected to physical processes that affect and occur on various length and time scales. To address this complexity related to carbonates, a Hedberg conference on “Fundamental Controls on Flow in Carbonates” was held July 8 to 13, 2012, to bring together industry and academic scientists to stimulate innovative ideas that can accelerate research advances related to flow prediction and recovery in carbonate reservoirs. Participants included scientist and engineers from multiple disciplines (such as hydrology, structural geology, geochemistry, reservoir engineering, geophysics

  13. Shortest Paths and Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn

    This thesis presents how to parallelize a shortest path labeling algorithm. It is shown how to handle Chvátal-Gomory rank-1 cuts in a column generation context. A Branch-and-Cut algorithm is given for the Elementary Shortest Paths Problem with Capacity Constraint. A reformulation of the Vehicle...... Routing Problem based on partial paths is presented. Finally, a practical application of finding shortest paths in the telecommunication industry is shown....

  14. Seeded Growth Route to Noble Calcium Carbonate Nanocrystal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminul Islam

    Full Text Available A solution-phase route has been considered as the most promising route to synthesize noble nanostructures. A majority of their synthesis approaches of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 are based on either using fungi or the CO2 bubbling methods. Here, we approached the preparation of nano-precipitated calcium carbonate single crystal from salmacis sphaeroides in the presence of zwitterionic or cationic biosurfactants without external source of CO2. The calcium carbonate crystals were rhombohedron structure and regularly shaped with side dimension ranging from 33-41 nm. The high degree of morphological control of CaCO3 nanocrystals suggested that surfactants are capable of strongly interacting with the CaCO3 surface and control the nucleation and growth direction of calcium carbonate nanocrystals. Finally, the mechanism of formation of nanocrystals in light of proposed routes was also discussed.

  15. New routes of allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricigil, Mitat; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Sakarya, Engin Umut; Sakalar, Emine Güven; Senturk, Mehmet; Reisacher, William R; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-11-01

    Allergen immunotherapy is the only cure for immunoglobulin E mediated type I respiratory allergies. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) are the most common treatments. In this article, we reviewed new routes of allergen immunotherapy. Data on alternative routes to allow intralymphatic immunotherapy (ILIT), epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT), local nasal immunotherapy (LNIT), oral immunotherapy (OIT), and oral mucosal immunotherapy (OMIT) were gathered from the literature and were discussed. ILIT features direct injection of allergens into lymph nodes. ILIT may be clinically effective after only a few injections and induces allergen-specific immunoglobulin G, similarly to SCIT. A limitation of ILIT is that intralymphatic injections are required. EPIT features allergen administration by using patches mounted on the skin. EPIT seeks to target epidermal antigen-presenting Langerhans cells rather than mast cells or the vasculature; this should reduce both local and systemic adverse effects. LNIT involves the spraying of allergen extracts into the nasal cavity. Natural or chemically modified allergens (the latter, termed allergoids, lack immunoglobulin E reactivity) are prepared in a soluble form. OIT involves the regular administration of small amounts of a food allergen by mouth and commences with low oral doses, which are then increased as tolerance develops. OMIT seeks to deliver allergenic proteins to an expanded population of Langerhans cells in the mucosa of the oral cavity. ILIT, EPIT, LNIT, OIT, and OMIT are new routes for allergen immunotherapy. They are safe and effective.

  16. Cultural Routes and Intangible Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enza Zabbini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical interpretation of thematic routes helps to predict the effects on the territories visited by cultured tourists who want to enrich their cultural and emotional baggage. After the analysis of some interpretations, this paper will examine how the practical implementation of an itinerary approved by the Council of Europe has evolved over the years. And it will also reflect on the practical results in the areas involved in that project. "The Hannibal Pathway ", the main overland walk on the "Phoenician Route - Cultural Route recognized by the Council of Europe" – represents a case of study that allows to reflect over the impact of cultural tourism based on immaterial heritage. In fact, in the areas where the battle of 21 June 217 BC took place, nothing tangible is left, except the landscape that has kept its conformation intact. In these areas, thanks to the foresight of the local governments in the last three decades, the landscape of the plain has been preserved. This makes possible today to propose an historical path precisely based on the landscape and on the new techniques for the valorization of the heritage. In the Tuoro plain it is possible to see the battlefields, thus retracing the various stages of the battle, supported by the Documentation Centre of the Capra Palace and virtual reconstructions of high technical quality.

  17. VANET Routing Protocols: Pros and Cons

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Bijan; Ibrahim, Md.; Bikas, Md. Abu Naser

    2012-01-01

    VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network) is a new technology which has taken enormous attention in the recent years. Due to rapid topology changing and frequent disconnection makes it difficult to design an efficient routing protocol for routing data among vehicles, called V2V or vehicle to vehicle communication and vehicle to road side infrastructure, called V2I. The existing routing protocols for VANET are not efficient to meet every traffic scenarios. Thus design of an efficient routing protocol h...

  18. Routing Data Authentication in Wireless Networks; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TORGERSON, MARK D.; VAN LEEUWEN, BRIAN P.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss several specific threats directed at the routing data of an ad hoc network. We address security issues that arise from wrapping authentication mechanisms around ad hoc routing data. We show that this bolt-on approach to security may make certain attacks more difficult, but still leaves the network routing data vulnerable. We also show that under a certain adversarial model, most existing routing protocols cannot be secured with the aid of digital signatures

  19. Developing an eco-routing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The study develops eco-routing algorithms and investigates and quantifies the system-wide impacts of implementing an eco-routing system. Two eco-routing algorithms are developed: one based on vehicle sub-populations (ECO-Subpopulation Feedback Assign...

  20. Is Entrepreneurship a Route Out of Deprivation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankish, Julian S.; Roberts, Richard G.; Coad, Alexander Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Frankish J. S., Roberts R. G., Coad A. and Storey D. J. Is entrepreneurship a route out of deprivation?, Regional Studies. This paper investigates whether entrepreneurship constitutes a route out of deprivation for those living in deprived areas. The measure of income/wealth used is based...... the wealth distribution. Hence, entrepreneurship can be a route out of deprivation....

  1. The Pyramidal Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens

    This paper introduces the Pyramidal Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (PCVRP) as a restricted version of the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP). In the PCVRP each route is required to be pyramidal in a sense generalized from the Pyramidal Traveling Salesman Problem (PTSP). A pyramidal...

  2. The pyramidal capacitated vehicle routing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the pyramidal capacitated vehicle routing problem (PCVRP) as a restricted version of the capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP). In the PCVRP each route is required to be pyramidal in a sense generalized from the pyramidal traveling salesman problem (PTSP). A pyramidal...

  3. Optimization of routing strategies for data transfer in peer-to-peer networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Atsushi; Igarashi, Akito

    2014-01-01

    Since peer-to-peer file-sharing systems have become familiar recently, the information traffic in the networks is increasing. Therefore it causes various traffic problems in peer-to-peer networks. In this paper, we model some features of the peer-to-peer networks, and investigate the traffic problems. Peer-to-peer networks have two notable characters. One is that each peer frequently searches for a file and download it from a peer who has the requested file. To decide whether a peer has the requested file or not in modelling of the search and download process, we introduce file-parameter P j , which expresses the amount of files stored in peer j. It is assumed that if P j is large, peer j has many files and can meet other peers' requests with high probability. The other character is that peers leave and join into the network repeatedly. Many researchers address traffic problems of data transfer in computer communication networks. To our knowledge, however, no reports focus on those in peer-to-peer networks whose topology changes with time. For routing paths of data transfer, generally, the shortest paths are used in usual computer networks. In this paper, we introduce a new optimal routing strategy which uses weights of peers to avoid traffic congestion. We find that the new routing strategy is superior to the shortest path strategy in terms of congestion frequency in data transfer

  4. Air Cargo Transportation Route Choice Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obashi, Hiroshi; Kim, Tae-Seung; Oum, Tae Hoon

    2003-01-01

    Using a unique feature of air cargo transshipment data in the Northeast Asian region, this paper identifies the critical factors that determine the transshipment route choice. Taking advantage of the variations in the transport characteristics in each origin-destination airports pair, the paper uses a discrete choice model to describe the transshipping route choice decision made by an agent (i.e., freight forwarder, consolidator, and large shipper). The analysis incorporates two major factors, monetary cost (such as line-haul cost and landing fee) and time cost (i.e., aircraft turnaround time, including loading and unloading time, custom clearance time, and expected scheduled delay), along with other controls. The estimation method considers the presence of unobserved attributes, and corrects for resulting endogeneity by use of appropriate instrumental variables. Estimation results find that transshipment volumes are more sensitive to time cost, and that the reduction in aircraft turnaround time by 1 hour would be worth the increase in airport charges by more than $1000. Simulation exercises measures the impacts of alternative policy scenarios for a Korean airport, which has recently declared their intention to be a future regional hub in the Northeast Asian region. The results suggest that reducing aircraft turnaround time at the airport be an effective strategy, rather than subsidizing to reduce airport charges.

  5. An Overlay Architecture for Throughput Optimal Multipath Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-14

    maximum throughput. Finally, we propose a threshold-based policy (BP-T) and a heuristic policy (OBP), which dynamically control traffic bifurcations...network stability region is available . Second, given any subset of nodes that are controllable, we also wish to develop an optimal routing policy that...case when tunnels do not overlap. We also develop a heuristic overlay control policy for use on general topologies, and show through simulation that

  6. The Silk Route from Land to Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Weatherford

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Silk Route reached its historic and economic apogee under the Mongol Empire (1207–1368, as a direct result of the policies of Chinggis Khan (Genghis Khan and his successors. Because the land network proved inefficient for the amount of goods needing transport from one part of the empire to another, the Mongols expanded the Silk Route to ocean shipping and thus created the first Maritime Silk Route. The sea traffic initially expanded the land routes but soon strangled them. With the expansion of the Maritime Silk Route through the fourteenth century, the land connections reverted to local networks and lost their global importance.

  7. 33 CFR 273.17 - Annual budget request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual budget request. 273.17... DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL § 273.17 Annual budget request. The Aquatic Plant Control Program is a... to utilize within the budget year taking into account the foreseeable availability of local funds to...

  8. Computer-Assisted Periodical Routing and Renewal Audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkey, A. Neil

    1973-01-01

    A computer-assisted periodical control system was designed to reduce clerical time required to maintain records in three areas: renewal audit, routing, and records-keeping. The renewal audit features are unusual and are described in detail. (3 references) (Author/DH)

  9. Deflection routing scheme for GMPLS-based OBS networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eid, Arafat; Mahmood, Waqar; Alomar, Anwar

    2010-01-01

    Integrating the Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) framework into an Optical Burst Switching (OBS) Control Plane is a promising solution to alleviating most of OBS performance and design issues. However, implementing the already proposed OBS deflection routing schemes is not appli...

  10. A Genetic Algorithm on Inventory Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Aydın

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Inventory routing problem can be defined as forming the routes to serve to the retailers from the manufacturer, deciding on the quantity of the shipment to the retailers and deciding on the timing of the replenishments. The difference of inventory routing problems from vehicle routing problems is the consideration of the inventory positions of retailers and supplier, and making the decision accordingly. Inventory routing problems are complex in nature and they can be solved either theoretically or using a heuristics method. Metaheuristics is an emerging class of heuristics that can be applied to combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper, we provide the relationship between vendor-managed inventory and inventory routing problem. The proposed genetic for solving vehicle routing problem is described in detail.

  11. Partial Path Column Generation for the Vehicle Routing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Petersen, Bjørn

    This paper presents a column generation algorithm for the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP) and the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW). Traditionally, column generation models of the CVRP and VRPTW have consisted of a Set Partitioning master problem with each column...... of the giant tour’; a so-called partial path, i.e., not necessarily starting and ending in the depot. This way, the length of the partial path can be bounded and a better control of the size of the solution space for the pricing problem can be obtained....

  12. 78 FR 31972 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Request Voucher for Grant Payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... Information Collection for Public Comment; Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System... information: Title Of Proposal: Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System (LOCCS... and proposed use: Payment request vouchers for distribution of grant funds using the automated Voice...

  13. 22 CFR 212.34 - Procedures for responding to requests for records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... what extent the Agency can provide the information requested. Upon the making of that determination... the name of the controlling agency and of the address from which the material may be requested, unless...

  14. Radiological mapping of Mumbai-Arakkonam rail route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavan, R.V.; Patil, S.S.; Solase, S.; Saindane, S.S.; Murali, S.

    2018-01-01

    Presently usage of sources of radiation in various fields of application has increased significantly. If such radiation sources get misplaced, lost from administrative control mechanism or smuggled out, it is advisable to have the countrywide baseline data on radiological aspects. As a part of emergency preparedness programme, it had been planned to generate the radiological baseline data for various road routes and cities in India. The radiological mapping is useful for updates on the trend of the radiation level at various locations/routes. The radiation mapping of Mumbai-Arakkonam rail route was carried out by using various state of the art monitoring systems/instruments. The radiological data at every railway stations were analyzed thoroughly. The overall increase in radiation level was found mainly due to the presence of higher concentration of naturally occurring radionuclide's in the environment mainly 40 K and 232 Th

  15. Dynamic Vehicle Routing Using an Improved Variable Neighborhood Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingcheng Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively solve the dynamic vehicle routing problem with time windows, the mathematical model is established and an improved variable neighborhood search algorithm is proposed. In the algorithm, allocation customers and planning routes for the initial solution are completed by the clustering method. Hybrid operators of insert and exchange are used to achieve the shaking process, the later optimization process is presented to improve the solution space, and the best-improvement strategy is adopted, which make the algorithm can achieve a better balance in the solution quality and running time. The idea of simulated annealing is introduced to take control of the acceptance of new solutions, and the influences of arrival time, distribution of geographical location, and time window range on route selection are analyzed. In the experiment, the proposed algorithm is applied to solve the different sizes' problems of DVRP. Comparing to other algorithms on the results shows that the algorithm is effective and feasible.

  16. SHIPPING REQUESTS ON EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group

    2001-01-01

    Users are informed that as from 1 September 2001 all Shipping Requests must be made on EDH using the appropriate electronic form. The submission of user requests directly into EDH will help rationalise the activities of the Shipping Service (Import & Export), with requests being automatically forwarded to hierarchical supervisors thereby improving the processing speed and facilitating the follow-up. Thank you for your collaboration.

  17. A Dual-Route Perspective on Eye Movements of Dyslexic Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawelka, Stefan; Gagl, Benjamin; Wimmer, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed eye movement abnormalities of adolescent dyslexic readers and interpreted the findings by linking the dual-route model of single word reading with the E-Z Reader model of eye movement control during silent sentence reading. A dysfunction of the lexical route was assumed to account for a reduced number of words which received…

  18. Novel routes to nanodispersed semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Novel synthetic routes to nanodispersed compound semiconductors using organometallic precursors have been developed. The quantum dots have been studied by optical absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, infra red spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. Polar Lewis base solvents such as tri-n-octylphosphine oxide and 4-ethylpyridine were utilized as both passivating agent and dispersing medium. In the the search for new solvent systems and passivating agents, and investigation was also made into the use of dimethyl sulfoxide as a reaction solvent and capping agent in the preparation of nanocrystalline CdS. Existing routes using metal alkyls and silylated precursors in hot TOPO were improved by substituting the metal alkyl with an metal alkyl adduct. Cadmium monothiocarbamate and a related precursor, cadmium thioacetate were investigated as possible single source precursors to nanometer sized CdS. The thermolysis of diorganophosphides in the Lewis bases coordinating solvent (4-ethylpridine) has been investigated, including studies of decompositon mechanisms, and quantum dots of Cd 3 P 2 , Zn 3 P 2 , Inp and GaP have been prepared. The synthesis of InAs using the metal chloride and an aminoarsenide precursor in 4-ethylpridine has also been developed. A simple method for the organization of III-V materials into glass like aggregates has been described. (author)

  19. Routing and wavelength assignment based on normalized resource and constraints for all-optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Seong-Soon; Nam, Hyun-Soon; Lim, Chang-Kyu

    2003-08-01

    With the rapid growth of the Optical Internet, high capacity pipes is finally destined to support end-to-end IP on the WDM optical network. Newly launched 2D MEMS optical switching module in the market supports that expectations of upcoming a transparent optical cross-connect in the network have encouraged the field applicable research on establishing real all-optical transparent network. To open up a customer-driven bandwidth services, design of the optical transport network becomes more challenging task in terms of optimal network resource usage. This paper presents a practical approach to finding a route and wavelength assignment for wavelength routed all-optical network, which has λ-plane OXC switches and wavelength converters, and supports that optical paths are randomly set up and released by dynamic wavelength provisioning to create bandwidth between end users with timescales on the order of seconds or milliseconds. We suggest three constraints to make the RWA problem become more practical one on deployment for wavelength routed all-optical network in network view: limitation on maximum hop of a route within bearable optical network impairments, limitation on minimum hops to travel before converting a wavelength, and limitation on calculation time to find all routes for connections requested at once. We design the NRCD (Normalized Resource and Constraints for All-Optical Network RWA Design) algorithm for the Tera OXC: network resource for a route is calculated by the number of internal switching paths established in each OXC nodes on the route, and is normalized by ratio of number of paths established and number of paths equipped in a node. We show that it fits for the RWA algorithm of the wavelength routed all-optical network through real experiments on the distributed objects platform.

  20. Load Balancing Routing with Bounded Stretch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Siyuan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Routing in wireless networks has been heavily studied in the last decade. Many routing protocols are based on classic shortest path algorithms. However, shortest path-based routing protocols suffer from uneven load distribution in the network, such as crowed center effect where the center nodes have more load than the nodes in the periphery. Aiming to balance the load, we propose a novel routing method, called Circular Sailing Routing (CSR, which can distribute the traffic more evenly in the network. The proposed method first maps the network onto a sphere via a simple stereographic projection, and then the route decision is made by a newly defined "circular distance" on the sphere instead of the Euclidean distance in the plane. We theoretically prove that for a network, the distance traveled by the packets using CSR is no more than a small constant factor of the minimum (the distance of the shortest path. We also extend CSR to a localized version, Localized CSR, by modifying greedy routing without any additional communication overhead. In addition, we investigate how to design CSR routing for 3D networks. For all proposed methods, we conduct extensive simulations to study their performances and compare them with global shortest path routing or greedy routing in 2D and 3D wireless networks.

  1. Generating Heat Maps of Popular Routes Online from Massive Mobile Sports Tracking Application Data in Milliseconds While Respecting Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Sainio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The breakthrough of GPS-equipped smartphones has enabled the collection of track data from human mobility on massive scales that can be used in route recommendation, urban planning and traffic management. In this work we present a fast map server that can generate and visualize heat maps of popular routes online from massive sports track data based on client preferences, e.g., running routes lasting less than an hour. The heat maps shown respect user privacy by not showing routes with less than a predefined number of different users, for instance five. The results are represented to the client using a dynamic tile layer. The current implementation uses data collected by the Sports Tracker mobile application with over 800,000 different tracks and 2.8 billion GPS data points. Stress tests indicate that the server can handle hundreds of simultaneous client requests in a single server configuration.

  2. Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.

  3. Predicting transportation routes for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Clarke, D.B.; McGuire, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in transportation logistics of radioactive wastes as part of the overall waste transportation program. A Spent Fuel Logistics Model (SFLM), was developed to predict overall material balances representing the flow of spent fuel assemblies from reactors to away-from-reactor storage facilities and/or to federal repositories. The transportation requirements to make these shipments are also itemized. The next logical step in the overall transportation project was the development of a set of computer codes which would predict likely transportation routes for waste shipments. Two separate routing models are now operational at ORNL. Routes for truck transport can be estimated with the HIGHWAY program, and rail and barge routes can be predicted with the INTERLINE model. This paper discusses examples of the route estimates and applications of the routing models

  4. Risk assessment of alternative proliferation routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Husseiny, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Multi-Attribute Decision Theory is applied to rank II alternative routes to nuclear proliferation in order of difficulty in acquiring nuclear weapons by nonnuclear countries. The method is based on reducing the various variables affecting the decision to a single function providing a measure for the proliferation route. The results indicate that the most difficult route to obtain atomic weapons is through nuclear power reactors, specifically the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor, heavy water Canada deuterium uranium reactor, and light water reactors such as boiling water and pressurized water reactors. The easiest routes are supercritical centrifuge isotope separation, laser isotope separation, and research reactor. However, nonnuclear routes available that result in substantial damage to life and property are easier than any nuclear route

  5. Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    COVERED (From- To) 09-05-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks 5b . GRANT NUMBER . 5c...reliability of wireless sensor networks. 15. SUBJECT TERMS wireless sensor networks, sinkhole attack, routing protocol 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std . Z39.18 1 Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks MIDN 1/C

  6. A joint routing and speed optimization problem

    OpenAIRE

    Fukasawa, Ricardo; He, Qie; Santos, Fernando; Song, Yongjia

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cost contributes to a significant portion of operating cost in cargo transportation. Though classic routing models usually treat fuel cost as input data, fuel consumption heavily depends on the travel speed, which has led to the study of optimizing speeds over a given fixed route. In this paper, we propose a joint routing and speed optimization problem to minimize the total cost, which includes the fuel consumption cost. The only assumption made on the dependence between the fuel cost an...

  7. A Machine Learning Concept for DTN Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudukovich, Rachel; Hylton, Alan; Papachristou, Christos

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept and architecture of a machine learning based router for delay tolerant space networks. The techniques of reinforcement learning and Bayesian learning are used to supplement the routing decisions of the popular Contact Graph Routing algorithm. An introduction to the concepts of Contact Graph Routing, Q-routing and Naive Bayes classification are given. The development of an architecture for a cross-layer feedback framework for DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) protocols is discussed. Finally, initial simulation setup and results are given.

  8. JISCARD GUI, a graphical interface application for simple and quick calculation of aviation route doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Martin; Ryufuku, Susumu; Yasuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Pilots, flight attendants, and passengers aboard jet aircrafts are subjected to higher cosmic radiation levels at high altitude than on the ground. Additional dose, received during flight is called 'aviation route dose'. Addressing the needs for precise and easy determination of aviation route doses (Sv), the authors have developed a new application 'JISCARD GUI' with a graphical user interface which provides dose rate (Sv/h) distribution along a flight route and aviation route dose. The graphical interface made with Adobe Flash provide functions to select airports on dynamic map or to search by airport/city names, and to report resulting aviation route doses and graphs of dose rate change through a flight. Dose rate data at several cut off rigidity, Rc and force field potential, FFP were calculated in advance using a PHITS-based analytical model and stored in the server as matrix data. Upon user's request of departure/arrival airports and flight date, interpolation using matrix data substantiates derivation of dose rate distribution in a simple and quick manner with sufficient accuracy. Precision of the dose calculation was verified by comparison with JISCARD EX (MS-Excel version) released in September 2008. This advanced application will be open to public through the website of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in the near future. (author)

  9. US Hazardous Materials Routes, Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [hazardous_material_routes_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Hazardous Material Routes were developed using the 2004 First Edition TIGER/Line files. The routes are...

  10. Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System -- TRAGIS, progress on improving a routing tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Lester, P.B.

    1998-05-01

    The Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System (TRAGIS) model provides a useful tool to calculate and analyze transportation routes for radioactive materials within the continental US. This paper outlines some of the features available in this model

  11. Cesarean delivery on maternal request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Meera; Visco, Anthony G; Hartmann, Katherine; Wechter, Mary Ellen; Gartlehner, Gerald; Wu, Jennifer M; Palmieri, Rachel; Funk, Michele Jonsson; Lux, Linda; Swinson, Tammeka; Lohr, Kathleen N

    2006-03-01

    The RTI International-University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Evidence-based Practice Center (RTI-UNC EPC) systematically reviewed the evidence on the trend and incidence of cesarean delivery (CD) in the United States and in other developed countries, maternal and infant outcomes of cesarean delivery on maternal request (CDMR) compared with planned vaginal delivery (PVD), factors affecting the magnitude of the benefits and harms of CDMR, and future research directions. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Collaboration resources, and Embase and identified 1,406 articles to examine against a priori inclusion criteria. We included studies published from 1990 to the present, written in English. Studies had to include comparison between the key reference group (CDMR or proxies) and PVD. A primary reviewer abstracted detailed data on key variables from included articles; a second senior reviewer confirmed accuracy. We identified 13 articles for trends and incidence of CD, 54 for maternal and infant outcomes, and 5 on modifiers of CDMR. The incidence of CDMR appears to be increasing. However, accurately assessing either its true incidence or trends over time is difficult because currently CDMR is neither a well-recognized clinical entity nor an accurately reported indication for diagnostic coding or reimbursement. Virtually no studies exist on CDMR, so the knowledge base rests chiefly on indirect evidence from proxies possessing unique and significant limitations. Furthermore, most studies compared outcomes by actual routes of delivery, resulting in great uncertainty as to their relevance to planned routes of delivery. Primary CDMR and planned vaginal delivery likely do differ with respect to individual outcomes for either mothers or infants. However, our comprehensive assessment, across many different outcomes, suggests that no major differences exist between primary CDMR and planned vaginal delivery, but the evidence is too weak to conclude definitively that differences

  12. 77 FR 48554 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

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    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

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  14. 77 FR 75970 - Information Collection Activity; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... . Title: Request for Release of Lien and/or Approval of Sale. OMB Control Number: 0572-0041. Type of... security instruments, e.g., the RUS mortgage, limit the rights of a RUS borrower to dispose of its capital assets. The RUS Form 793, Request for Release of Lien and/or Approval of Sale, allows the...

  15. 75 FR 38774 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will... Social Network Analysis. OMB Control Number: None. Form Number(s): None. Type of Request: Regular... on these issues in many capacities. A social network analysis will serve to identify the network of...

  16. 78 FR 69643 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will... Rationalization Social Study. OMB Control Number: None. Form Number(s): NA. Type of Request: Regular submission... negative social impacts. Sufficient non-economic social science data will be collected to describe the...

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    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will... Social Study. OMB Control Number: None. Form Number(s): NA. Type of Request: Regular submission. Number... understanding of social impacts in fisheries--achieved through the collection of data on fishing communities, as...

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    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will... Rationalization Social Study. OMB Control Number: 0648-0606. Form Number(s): NA. Type of Request: Regular... fishery. An understanding of social impacts in fisheries--achieved through the collection of data on...

  19. 40 CFR 205.57-1 - Test request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test request. 205.57-1 Section 205.57-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.57-1 Test request. (a) The...

  20. 76 FR 7532 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

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    ... Requirements. OMB Control Number: 0648-0351. Form Number(s): NA. Type of Request: Regular submission (extension... the gear is to be marked for the purposes of visibility (e.g., buoys, radar reflectors, or other... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Department of Commerce will...

  1. Cooperative Optimization QoS Cloud Routing Protocol Based on Bacterial Opportunistic Foraging and Chemotaxis Perception for Mobile Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujuan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to strengthen the mobile Internet mobility management and cloud platform resources utilization, optimizing the cloud routing efficiency is established, based on opportunistic bacterial foraging bionics, and puts forward a chemotaxis perception of collaborative optimization QoS (Quality of Services cloud routing mechanism. The cloud routing mechanism is based on bacterial opportunity to feed and bacterial motility and to establish the data transmission and forwarding of the bacterial population behavior characteristics. This mechanism is based on the characteristics of drug resistance of bacteria and the structure of the field, and through many iterations of the individual behavior and population behavior the bacteria can be spread to the food gathering area with a certain probability. Finally, QoS cloud routing path would be selected and optimized based on bacterial bionic optimization and hedge mapping relationship between mobile Internet node and bacterial population evolution iterations. Experimental results show that, compared with the standard dynamic routing schemes, the proposed scheme has shorter transmission delay, lower packet error ratio, QoS cloud routing loading, and QoS cloud route request overhead.

  2. Route churn: an analysis of low-cost carrier route continuity in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, J.G.; Zuidberg, J.

    2016-01-01

    Discontinuity of air routes is a subject that has been analysed in various ways. For example, the complex network approach focuses on network robustness and resilience due to route interruptions during a relatively short period. Also seasonal interruptions of air routes are a well-documented

  3. Planning routes around the world: International evidence for southern route preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunyé, Tad T.; Andonova, Elena; Meneghetti, Chiara; Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Wienemann, Rasmus; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2012-01-01

    Three studies test whether the southern route preference, which describes the tendency for route planners to disproportionately select south- rather than north-going routes, can be attributed to regional elevation patterns; specifically, we ask whether this effect replicates in three topographically

  4. Comparison of policies in dynamic routing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelelli, E.; Bianchessi, N.; Mansini, R.; Speranza, M. G.

    2010-01-01

    We consider a company that has to satisfy customers' pick-up requests arriving over time every day. The overall objective of the company is to serve as many requests as possible at a minimum operational cost. When organizing its business the company has to fix some features of the service that may

  5. The QKD network: model and routing scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Zhang, Hongqi; Su, Jinhai

    2017-11-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) technology can establish unconditional secure keys between two communicating parties. Although this technology has some inherent constraints, such as the distance and point-to-point mode limits, building a QKD network with multiple point-to-point QKD devices can overcome these constraints. Considering the development level of current technology, the trust relaying QKD network is the first choice to build a practical QKD network. However, the previous research didn't address a routing method on the trust relaying QKD network in detail. This paper focuses on the routing issues, builds a model of the trust relaying QKD network for easily analysing and understanding this network, and proposes a dynamical routing scheme for this network. From the viewpoint of designing a dynamical routing scheme in classical network, the proposed scheme consists of three components: a Hello protocol helping share the network topology information, a routing algorithm to select a set of suitable paths and establish the routing table and a link state update mechanism helping keep the routing table newly. Experiments and evaluation demonstrates the validity and effectiveness of the proposed routing scheme.

  6. Routing in Optical and Stochastic Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, S.

    2015-01-01

    In most types of networks (e.g., optical or transportation networks), finding one or more best paths from a source to a destination, is one of the biggest concerns of network users and providers. This process is known as routing. The routing problems differ accordingly depending on different

  7. Classification of Dynamic Vehicle Routing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Solomon, Marius M.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses important characteristics seen within dynamic vehicle routing problems. We discuss the differences between the traditional static vehicle routing problems and its dynamic counterparts. We give an in-depth introduction to the degree of dynamism measure which can be used to c...

  8. Environmental factors along the Northern Sea Route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjeld, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Northern Sea Route runs ca 5,600 nautical miles across the top of Russia from Murmansk to Vladivostok, and includes half of the Arctic basin. An environmental impact assessment is needed for this route because of the potential for commercial shipping to disturb the vulnerable Arctic environment along the route. For example, Russian development of oil and gas resources in the area served by the route is expected to rise dramatically in the near future. Drilling in the route area offshore has already begun, and potential blowouts or tanker spills are of concern. A pilot study on the environment along this route was conducted in 1990/91, focusing on a study of the literature and communications with Russian scientists working on Arctic ecology. Existing data seem to be insufficient and generally only cover the westernmost and easternmost parts of the route. A five-year research plan is proposed to provide an inventory of Arctic species in the route area and levels of contaminants present, to assess the environmental sensitivity of the area, and analyze impacts that increased shipping might have on the environment. Protection measures will also be suggested. 1 fig

  9. Optimizing departure times in vehicle routes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.L.; Hans, Elias W.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Most solution methods for the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW) develop routes from the earliest feasible departure time. However, in practice, temporal traffic congestions make that such solutions are not optimal with respect to minimizing the total duty time. Furthermore, VRPTW

  10. Routing in Wireless Multimedia Home Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hop, Laurens

    This paper describes an adapted version of the destination sequenced distance vector routing protocol (DSDV) which is suitable to calculate routes in a wireless real-time home network. The home network is based on a IEEE 802.11b ad hoc network and uses a scheduled token to enforce real-time

  11. Routing in Wireless Multimedia Home Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hop, Laurens

    This paper describes an adapted version of the destination sequenced distance vector routing protocol (DSDV) which is suitable to calculate routes in a wireless ¿real-time¿ home network. The home network is based on a IEEE 802.11b ad hoc network and uses a scheduled token to enforce real-time

  12. Perspectives on Illegal Routes in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    University of Kwazulu-Natal. Pietermaritzburg, South ... Key Words: Nigeria Immigration Service, Illegal Routes, Security Policing, Border,. State .... transported weapons across borders to sell them in exchange for food or other commodities. ... The study's respondents were of the opinion that illegal routes exist around the ...

  13. Optimizing Departure Times in Vehicle Routes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.L.; Hans, Elias W.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Most solution methods for the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW) develop routes from the earliest feasible departure time. In practice, however, temporary traffic congestion make such solutions non-optimal with respect to minimizing the total duty time. Furthermore, the VRPTW does not

  14. Energy Efficient Routing in Nomadic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2007-01-01

    We present an evaluation of a novel energy-efficient routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. We combine two techniques for optimizing energy levels with a well-known routing protocol. We examine the behavior of this combination in a nomadic network setting, where some nodes are stationary...

  15. Joint route planning under varying market conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, Frans; Bräysy, Olli; Dullaert, Wout; Fleuren, Hein; Salomon, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - To provide empirical evidence on the level of savings that can be attained by joint route planning and how these savings depend on specific market characteristics. Design/methodology/approach - Joint route planning is a measure that companies can take to decrease the costs of their

  16. Time and timing in vehicle routing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabali, O.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of goods to a set of geographically dispersed customers is a common problem faced by carrier companies, well-known as the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP). The VRP consists of finding an optimal set of routes that minimizes total travel times for a given number of vehicles with a fixed

  17. 75 FR 39620 - Proposed Information Collection (Dependents' Educational Assistance (DEA) Election Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... (Dependents' Educational Assistance (DEA) Election Request) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... veterans beginning date to start their DEA benefits. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the.... Title: Dependents' Educational Assistance (DEA) Election Request, VA Form Letter 22-909. OMB Control...

  18. 78 FR 17778 - Proposed Information Collection (Dependents' Educational Assistance (DEA) Election Request...

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    2013-03-22

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  19. 78 FR 63496 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Medical...

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    2010-09-30

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  1. 78 FR 21617 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Final Endorsement of Credit Instrument

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    2013-04-11

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    2011-09-21

    ... (Request for Transportation Expense Reimbursement) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... needed to determine children with spina bifida eligibility for reimbursement of transportation expenses...: Request for Transportation Expense Reimbursement (38 CFR 21.8370). OMB Control Number: 2900-0580. Type of...

  3. SDN-enabled dynamic WDM networks to address routing information inaccuracy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ravhuanzwo, Lusani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Large dynamic wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) networks based on the distributed control mechanism are susceptible to routing information inaccuracies. Factors such as non-negligible propagation delays, infrequent network state updates...

  4. Routing architecture and security for airborne networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongmei; Xie, Peng; Li, Jason; Xu, Roger; Levy, Renato

    2009-05-01

    Airborne networks are envisioned to provide interconnectivity for terrestial and space networks by interconnecting highly mobile airborne platforms. A number of military applications are expected to be used by the operator, and all these applications require proper routing security support to establish correct route between communicating platforms in a timely manner. As airborne networks somewhat different from traditional wired and wireless networks (e.g., Internet, LAN, WLAN, MANET, etc), security aspects valid in these networks are not fully applicable to airborne networks. Designing an efficient security scheme to protect airborne networks is confronted with new requirements. In this paper, we first identify a candidate routing architecture, which works as an underlying structure for our proposed security scheme. And then we investigate the vulnerabilities and attack models against routing protocols in airborne networks. Based on these studies, we propose an integrated security solution to address routing security issues in airborne networks.

  5. Entanglement-Gradient Routing for Quantum Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor

    2017-10-27

    We define the entanglement-gradient routing scheme for quantum repeater networks. The routing framework fuses the fundamentals of swarm intelligence and quantum Shannon theory. Swarm intelligence provides nature-inspired solutions for problem solving. Motivated by models of social insect behavior, the routing is performed using parallel threads to determine the shortest path via the entanglement gradient coefficient, which describes the feasibility of the entangled links and paths of the network. The routing metrics are derived from the characteristics of entanglement transmission and relevant measures of entanglement distribution in quantum networks. The method allows a moderate complexity decentralized routing in quantum repeater networks. The results can be applied in experimental quantum networking, future quantum Internet, and long-distance quantum communications.

  6. User habits and multimodal route planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géza Katona

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of route planning researches are monitored by logistic and automotive industries. The economic aspects of the cost saving are in the focus of the attention. An optimal route could cause time or fuel savings. An effective driving or an optimal route is a good basis to achieve an economical aim. Moreover the spread of new automotive solutions especially in case of electric cars the optimisation has particular significance regarding the limited battery storage. Additionally the autonomous car development could not be neglected. As a result the society could expect safer roads, better space usage and effective resource management. Nevertheless the requirements of users are extremely diverse, which is not negligible. Supporting these aims, in this paper the connection between the multimodal route planning and the user requirements are investigated. The examination is focused to a sensitivity analysis and a survey to evaluate the data and support the settings of a user habit effect to the final route.

  7. 78 FR 49730 - Collection of Information; Proposed Extension of Approval; Comment Request-Publicly Available...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... to the information collection: Reports of harm, manufacturer comments, branding information, and the... business portal for such requests. Branding Information: Using the business portal, registered businesses may voluntarily submit branding information to assist CPSC in correctly and timely routing reports of...

  8. A novel insight into beaconless geo-routing

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Beaconless geo-routing protocols have been traditionally analyzed assuming equal communication ranges for the data and control packets. This is not true in reality, since the communication range is in practice function of the packet length. As a consequence, a substantial discrepancy may exist between analytical and empirical results offered in beaconless geo-routing literature. Furthermore, performance of beaconless geo-routing protocols has typically considered using single-hop metrics only. End-to-end performance is considered in literature only occasionally and mainly in terms of simulation only. In this paper, we re-examine this class of protocols. We first incorporate practical packet detection models in order to capture the dependency of the communication range on the packet\\'s length. We then develop a detailed analytical framework for the end-to-end delay and energy performance of beaconless geo-routing protocols. Finally, we present two different application scenarios and study various tradeoffs in light of the framework developed. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Harmonic analysis of the stability of reverse routing in channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal downstream routing of a flood flow is a highly stable process for Froude numbers less than 1 and hence the results are reliable. In contrast, reverse routing in an upstream direction, which may be required for flow control, is potentially unstable. This paper reports the results of a study of the practical limits on channel lengths for reverse routing. Harmonic analysis is applied to the full non-linear solution of the St. Venant equations for three different wave patterns and two different wave periods, for a particular channel with a Froude number of 0.5. Reverse routing can be done for prismatic channels longer than 100 km. For long periods (>10 hours the shape of the upstream hydrograph is recovered well. However, when the wave period is short (<1 hour, the high frequency components of the upstream hydrograph and, thus, its shape, are not recovered. These limits are influenced by the channel morphology and shape of the wave. Further work is needed to determine how these factors interact.

  10. Dynamic route guidance strategy in a two-route pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mianfang; Xiong, Shengwu; Li, Bixiang

    2016-05-01

    With the rapid development of transportation, traffic questions have become the major issue for social, economic and environmental aspects. Especially, during serious emergencies, it is very important to alleviate road traffic congestion and improve the efficiency of evacuation to reduce casualties, and addressing these problems has been a major task for the agencies responsible in recent decades. Advanced road guidance strategies have been developed for homogeneous traffic flows, or to reduce traffic congestion and enhance the road capacity in a symmetric two-route scenario. However, feedback strategies have rarely been considered for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flows with variable velocities and sizes in an asymmetric multi-route traffic system, which is a common phenomenon in many developing countries. In this study, we propose a weighted road occupancy feedback strategy (WROFS) for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flows, which considers the system equilibrium to ease traffic congestion. In order to more realistic simulating the behavior of mixed traffic objects, the paper adopted a refined and dynamic cellular automaton model (RDPV_CA model) as the update mechanism for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flow. Moreover, a bounded rational threshold control was introduced into the feedback strategy to avoid some negative effect of delayed information and reduce. Based on comparisons with the two previously proposed strategies, the simulation results obtained in a pedestrian-vehicle traffic flow scenario demonstrated that the proposed strategy with a bounded rational threshold was more effective and system equilibrium, system stability were reached.

  11. Dynamic routing and spectrum assignment based on multilayer virtual topology and ant colony optimization in elastic software-defined optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Qinghua; Tian, Feng; Rao, Lan; Xin, Xiangjun

    2017-07-01

    Elastic software-defined optical networks greatly improve the flexibility of the optical switching network while it has brought challenges to the routing and spectrum assignment (RSA). A multilayer virtual topology model is proposed to solve RSA problems. Two RSA algorithms based on the virtual topology are proposed, which are the ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm of minimum consecutiveness loss and the ACO algorithm of maximum spectrum consecutiveness. Due to the computing power of the control layer in the software-defined network, the routing algorithm avoids the frequent link-state information between routers. Based on the effect of the spectrum consecutiveness loss on the pheromone in the ACO, the path and spectrum of the minimal impact on the network are selected for the service request. The proposed algorithms have been compared with other algorithms. The results show that the proposed algorithms can reduce the blocking rate by at least 5% and perform better in spectrum efficiency. Moreover, the proposed algorithms can effectively decrease spectrum fragmentation and enhance available spectrum consecutiveness.

  12. Placement of effective work-in-progress limits in route-specific unit-based pull systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziengs, N.; Riezebos, J.; Germs, R.

    2012-01-01

    Unit-based pull systems control the throughput time of orders in a production system by limiting the number of orders on the shop floor. In production systems where orders can follow different routings on the shop floor, route-specific pull systems that control the progress of orders on the shop

  13. A Comprehensive Survey on Hierarchical-Based Routing Protocols for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks: Review, Taxonomy, and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Sabor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducing mobility to Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs puts new challenges particularly in designing of routing protocols. Mobility can be applied to the sensor nodes and/or the sink node in the network. Many routing protocols have been developed to support the mobility of WSNs. These protocols are divided depending on the routing structure into hierarchical-based, flat-based, and location-based routing protocols. However, the hierarchical-based routing protocols outperform the other routing types in saving energy, scalability, and extending lifetime of Mobile WSNs (MWSNs. Selecting an appropriate hierarchical routing protocol for specific applications is an important and difficult task. Therefore, this paper focuses on reviewing some of the recently hierarchical-based routing protocols that are developed in the last five years for MWSNs. This survey divides the hierarchical-based routing protocols into two broad groups, namely, classical-based and optimized-based routing protocols. Also, we present a detailed classification of the reviewed protocols according to the routing approach, control manner, mobile element, mobility pattern, network architecture, clustering attributes, protocol operation, path establishment, communication paradigm, energy model, protocol objectives, and applications. Moreover, a comparison between the reviewed protocols is investigated in this survey depending on delay, network size, energy-efficiency, and scalability while mentioning the advantages and drawbacks of each protocol. Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with future directions.

  14. Ultrathin ZnSe nanowires: one-pot synthesis via a heat-triggered precursor slow releasing route, controllable Mn doping and application in UV and near-visible light detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Xing, Guanjie; Tang, Shilin; Li, Xiaohong; Fan, Louzhen; Li, Yunchao

    2017-10-12

    We report herein a heat-triggered precursor slow releasing route for the one-pot synthesis of ultrathin ZnSe nanowires (NWs), which relies on the gradual dissolving of Se powder into oleylamine containing a soluble Zn precursor under heating. This route allows the reaction system to maintain a high monomer concentration throughout the entire reaction process, thus enabling the generation of ZnSe NWs with diameter down to 2.1 nm and length approaching 400 nm. The size-dependent optical properties and band-edge energy levels of the ZnSe NWs were then explored in depth by UV-visible spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry, respectively. Considering their unique absorption properties, these NWs were specially utilized for fabricating photoelectrochemical-type photodetectors (PDs). Impressively, the PDs based on the ZnSe NWs with diameters of 2.1 and 4.5 nm exhibited excellent responses to UVA and near-visible light, respectively: both possessed ultrahigh on/off ratios (5150 for UVA and 4213 for near-visible light) and ultrawide linear response ranges (from 2.0 to 9000 μW cm -2 for UVA and 5.0 to 8000 μW cm -2 for near-visible light). Furthermore, these ZnSe NWs were selectively doped with various amounts of Mn 2+ to tune their emission properties. As a result, ZnSe NW film-based photochromic cards were creatively developed for visually detecting UVA and near-visible radiation.

  15. Programmable Logic Controllers for Research on the Cyber Security of Industrial Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-12

    any commercial carriers for shipment of the Goods . WESCO will use its reasonable efforts to comply with Buyer’s requests as to method and route of...and includes a small electrical substation control environment. The lab has already been used to support the research of the PI and his student ...large gToup of gTaduate and undergTadnatc students . The PI is also dcvclopiug a course on control systems security, and t lms wi ll use the lab to

  16. Partial path column generation for the vehicle routing problem with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn; Jepsen, Mads Kehlet

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a column generation algorithm for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW). Traditionally, column generation models of the VRPTW have consisted of a Set Partitioning master problem with each column representing a route, i.e., a resource feasible path starting...... and ending at the depot. Elementary routes (no customer visited more than once) have shown superior results on difficult instances (less restrictive capacity and time windows). However, the pricing problems do not scale well when the number of feasible routes increases, i.e., when a route may contain a large...... number of customers. We suggest to relax that ‘each column is a route’ into ‘each column is a part of the giant tour’; a so-called partial path, i.e., not necessarily starting and ending in the depot. This way, the length of the partial path can be bounded and a better control of the size of the solution...

  17. On routing strategy with finite-capacity effect on scale-free networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, S.; Jiang, X.; Ma, L.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Z.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a class of systems with finite-capacity effect to investigate routing-strategy optimization. The local topology and the variable capacity, two crucial elements for routing, are naturally coupled by considering the interactions among packets. We show how the combination of these two elements controls the normal and efficient functioning of routing in the frame of condensation and coverage, respectively. Specifically, it is shown that the dynamic behaviors of diffusing packets exhibit condensation, for which exact results of the stationary state and phase transition are given. Further, we explore the diffusion coverage of routed packets through simulation. Various alternatives for the strategy parameters are illustrated to apply standard techniques to alleviate condensation and accelerate coverage. Our results provide a practical way for the design of optimal routing strategies in complex networks by the manipulation of a few parameters. (author)

  18. EpSoc: Social-Based Epidemic-Based Routing Protocol in Opportunistic Mobile Social Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halikul Lenando

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In opportunistic networks, the nature of intermittent and disruptive connections degrades the efficiency of routing. Epidemic routing protocol is used as a benchmark for most of routing protocols in opportunistic mobile social networks (OMSNs due to its high message delivery and latency. However, Epidemic incurs high cost in terms of overhead and hop count. In this paper, we propose a hybrid routing protocol called EpSoc which utilizes the Epidemic routing forwarding strategy and exploits an important social feature, that is, degree centrality. Two techniques are used in EpSoc. Messages’ TTL is adjusted based on the degree centrality of nodes, and the message blocking mechanism is used to control replication. Simulation results show that EpSoc increases the delivery ratio and decreases the overhead ratio, the average latency, and the hop counts as compared to Epidemic and Bubble Rap.

  19. High throughput route selection in multi-rate wireless mesh networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yi-fei; GUO Xiang-li; SONG Mei; SONG Jun-de

    2008-01-01

    Most existing Ad-hoc routing protocols use the shortest path algorithm with a hop count metric to select paths. It is appropriate in single-rate wireless networks, but has a tendency to select paths containing long-distance links that have low data rates and reduced reliability in multi-rate networks. This article introduces a high throughput routing algorithm utilizing the multi-rate capability and some mesh characteristics in wireless fidelity (WiFi) mesh networks. It uses the medium access control (MAC) transmission time as the routing metric, which is estimated by the information passed up from the physical layer. When the proposed algorithm is adopted, the Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing can be improved as high throughput AODV (HT-AODV). Simulation results show that HT-AODV is capable of establishing a route that has high data-rate, short end-to-end delay and great network throughput.

  20. Cooperative Route Planning for Multiple Aircraft in a Semifree ATC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Semifree Flight theory used in a civil air traffic control (ATC system to improve the capability of the traditional Free Flight mode. The progressiveness and hidden defects of the “Free Flight” model in civil aviation are analysed, and the Semifree Flight ATC system mode is introduced. Moreover, this paper presents the collaborative route planning method, which is the most important method used in the Semifree Flight ATC system. This collaborative route planning method can plan routes for each aircraft (either in flight or just before achieving flight in real time, and the routes can satisfy all the safety constraints. The final numerical simulations verify the correctness and practicability of the Semifree Flight theory and the collaborative route planning method.

  1. AWA RMAT Service Requests -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Lotus Notes application used by local support to request AWA Tier 3 support (RMATS). Consolidates and automates several routine IT support tasks and facilitates more...

  2. TRANSPORT/HANDLING REQUESTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe ST/HM

    2002-01-01

    A new EDH document entitled 'Transport/Handling Request' will be in operation as of Monday, 11th February 2002, when the corresponding icon will be accessible from the EDH desktop, together with the application instructions. This EDH form will replace the paper-format transport/handling request form for all activities involving the transport of equipment and materials. However, the paper form will still be used for all vehicle-hire requests. The introduction of the EDH transport/handling request form is accompanied by the establishment of the following time limits for the various services concerned: 24 hours for the removal of office items, 48 hours for the transport of heavy items (of up to 6 metric tons and of standard road width), 5 working days for a crane operation, extra-heavy transport operation or complete removal, 5 working days for all transport operations relating to LHC installation. ST/HM Group, Logistics Section Tel: 72672 - 72202

  3. Comprehensive Routing Security Development and Deployment for the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Legacy addresses are IPv4 addresses . As the market for IPv4 addresses becomes stronger, it is anticipated that those who hold legacy space will...express and transmit the information needed to stop route leaks. 4.8.7 Uncertain Address Records. Larger ISPs, especially those who have a long history ...information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS . 1. REPORT DATE (DD

  4. Key issues and technical route of cyber physical distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, P. X.; Chen, B.; Zheng, L. J.; Zhang, G. L.; Fan, Y. L.; Pei, T.

    2017-01-01

    Relying on the National High Technology Research and Development Program, this paper introduced the key issues in Cyber Physical Distribution System (CPDS), mainly includes: composite modelling method and interaction mechanism, system planning method, security defence technology, distributed control theory. Then on this basis, the corresponding technical route is proposed, and a more detailed research framework along with main schemes to be adopted is also presented.

  5. Porcelain tiles by the dry route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchiades, F. G.; Daros, M. T.; Boschi, A. O.

    2010-01-01

    In Brazil, the second largest tile producer of the world, at present, 70% of the tiles are produced by the dry route. One of the main reasons that lead to this development is the fact that the dry route uses approximately 30% less thermal energy them the traditional wet route. The increasing world concern with the environment and the recognition of the central role played by the water also has pointed towards privileging dry processes. In this context the objective of the present work is to study the feasibility of producing high quality porcelain tiles by the dry route. A brief comparison of the dry and wet route, in standard conditions industrially used today to produce tiles that are not porcelain tiles, shows that there are two major differences: the particle sizes obtained by the wet route are usually considerably finer and the capability of mixing the different minerals, the intimacy of the mixture, is also usually better in the wet route. The present work studied the relative importance of these differences and looked for raw materials and operational conditions that would result in better performance and glazed porcelain tiles of good quality. (Author) 7 refs.

  6. Cognitive Routing in Software-Defined Underwater Acoustic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Ghafoor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There are two different types of primary users (natural acoustic and artificial acoustic, and there is a long propagation delay for acoustic links in underwater cognitive acoustic networks (UCANs. Thus, the selection of a stable route is one of the key design factors for improving overall network stability, thereby reducing end-to-end delay. Software-defined networking (SDN is a novel approach that improves network intelligence. To this end, we propose a novel SDN-based routing protocol for UCANs in order to find a stable route between source and destination. A main controller is placed in a surface buoy that is responsible for the global view of the network, whereas local controllers are placed in different autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs that are responsible for a localized view of the network. The AUVs have fixed trajectories, and sensor nodes within transmission range of the AUVs serve as gateways to relay the gathered information to the controllers. This is an SDN-based underwater communications scheme whereby two nodes can only communicate when they have a consensus about a common idle channel. To evaluate our proposed scheme, we perform extensive simulations and improve network performance in terms of end-to-end delay, delivery ratio, and overhead.

  7. 78 FR 26620 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ..., including through the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. DATES..., Washington, DC 20301-1600. Title and OMB Control Number: Post Government Employment Advice Opinion Request... obtain minimal information on which to base an opinion about post Government employment of select former...

  8. 77 FR 35660 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ...; WHS Form 09; OMB Control Number 0704-TBD. Needs and Uses: The information collection requirement is...) and the outcome of such requests. Respondents are employees of WHS serviced components or applicants for employment of WHS serviced components. Dated: May 7, 2012. Patricia L. Toppings, OSD Federal...

  9. The Complexity of Architecture : An Analysis of Design Intentions and Theories in the Norwegian National Tourist Routes

    OpenAIRE

    Roan, Beck

    2013-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the design intentions of architects in the Norwegian National Tourist Routes. Since architecture is not an isolated concept, this analysis incorporates philosophical and theoretical ideas in an investigation of the Tourist Route site design. Although they were hired to build compelling architectural sites along unique Norwegian nature, the Tourist Route architects also address subjects like practicality, balance, intention, meaning, control, freedom, and reflection in the...

  10. Cost analysis of hybrid adaptive routing protocol for heterogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NONITA SHARMA

    Event detection; wireless sensor networks; hybrid routing; cost benefit analysis; proactive routing; reactive routing. 1. ... additional energy, high processing power, etc. are deployed to extend the .... transmit to its parent node. (2) Reactive ...

  11. Research on Large-Scale Road Network Partition and Route Search Method Combined with Traveler Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Xin Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined with improved Pallottino parallel algorithm, this paper proposes a large-scale route search method, which considers travelers’ route choice preferences. And urban road network is decomposed into multilayers effectively. Utilizing generalized travel time as road impedance function, the method builds a new multilayer and multitasking road network data storage structure with object-oriented class definition. Then, the proposed path search algorithm is verified by using the real road network of Guangzhou city as an example. By the sensitive experiments, we make a comparative analysis of the proposed path search method with the current advanced optimal path algorithms. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can increase the road network search efficiency by more than 16% under different search proportion requests, node numbers, and computing process numbers, respectively. Therefore, this method is a great breakthrough in the guidance field of urban road network.

  12. 77 FR 75971 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Ecosystems for Recreation/Tourism. OMB Control Number: None. Form Number(s): NA. Type of Request: Regular... all ecosystem services for the Guanica Bay Watershed and for recreation-tourism for all of Puerto Rico...

  13. 77 FR 48959 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Along the California Coastline Part of the California Signage Plan Initiative. OMB Control Number: None...: This request is for a new information collection. The California Signage Plan is an organized and...

  14. 77 FR 50986 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ...: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Title: Coastal Zone Management Program Administration. OMB Control Number: 0648-0119. Form Number(s): NA. Type of Request: Regular submission (revision...; [[Page 50987

  15. 76 FR 4643 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ...): Lessons from the Research and Profiles of Promising Programs. OMB Control Number: Pending. Agency Form... grade 12 and to describe contextual factors that contribute to their effectiveness. Requests for copies...

  16. A Novel Load Balancing Scheme for Multipath Routing Protocol in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokilamani Mounagurusamy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent advancements in information and communication technology create a great demand for multipath routing protocols. In MANET, nodes can be arbitrarily located and can move freely at any given time. The topology of MANET can change rapidly and unpredictably. Because wireless link capacities are usually limited, congestion is possible in MANETs. Hence, balancing the load in a MANET is important since nodes with high load will deplete their batteries quickly, thereby increasing the probability of disconnecting or partitioning the network. To overcome these, the multipath protocol should be aware of load at route discovery phase. The main objective of the proposed article is to balance the load on a node and to extend the lifetime of the node due to the congestion, energy depletion and link failures. This article describes a novel load and congestion aware scheme called Path Efficient Ad-hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector (PE-AOMDV protocol to increase the performance of routing process in MANET in terms of congestion, end-to-end delay and load balancing. A new threshold value and a counter variable are introduced to limit the number of communication paths passing over a node in route discovery phase. For every new request the counter variable is incremented by one and the threshold value is compared to see whether the maximum number of connections has been reached or not. The proposed method is network simulator ns-2 and it is found that there is a significant improvement in the proposed scheme. It reduces the energy consumption, average end-to-end delay and normalized routing overhead. Also the proposed scheme increases packet delivery ratio, throughput and minimizes routing overheads.

  17. Dams and Obstructions along Iowa's Canoe Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This dataset represents obstruction to canoe and boat users of the canoe routes of Iowa. This may represent actual dams, rock dams (natural or man made), large...

  18. Integrating routing decisions in public transportation problems

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Marie E

    2014-01-01

    This book treats three planning problems arising in public railway transportation planning: line planning, timetabling, and delay management, with the objective to minimize passengers’ travel time. While many optimization approaches simplify these problems by assuming that passengers’ route choice is independent of the solution, this book focuses on models which take into account that passengers will adapt their travel route to the implemented planning solution. That is, a planning solution and passengers’ routes are determined and evaluated simultaneously. This work is technically deep, with insightful findings regarding complexity and algorithmic approaches to public transportation problems with integrated passenger routing. It is intended for researchers in the fields of mathematics, computer science, or operations research, working in the field of public transportation from an optimization standpoint. It is also ideal for students who want to gain intuition and experience in doing complexity proofs ...

  19. Commercial vehicle route tracking using video detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-31

    Interstate commercial vehicle traffic is a major factor in the life of any road surface. The ability to track : these vehicles and their routes through the state can provide valuable information to planning : activities. We propose a method using vid...

  20. Quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Kenji; Sumimoto, Michinori; Murafuji, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We have been investigating “quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development” using in silico screenings and applied the method to several targets. Another example was conducted to develop synthesis routes for a urea derivative, namely 1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)urea. While five synthesis routes were examined, only three routes passed the second in silico screening. Among them, the reaction of 7-amino-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-chromen-2-one and O-methyl carbamate with BF 3 as an additive was ranked as the first choice for synthetic work. We were able to experimentally obtain the target compound even though its yield was as low as 21 %. The theoretical result was thus consistent with that observed. The summary of transition state data base (TSDB) is also provided. TSDB is the key to reducing time of in silico screenings

  1. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to the k-location capacitated vehicle routing problem (k-LocVRP) consists of a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k identical vehicles, each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k...... depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. In obtaining this result, we introduce a common generalization of the k-median and minimum...... spanning tree problems (called k median forest), which might be of independent interest. We give a local-search based (3+ε)-approximation algorithm for k median forest, which leads to a (12+ε)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant ε>0....

  2. Coordinated Platoon Routing in a Metropolitan Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Jeffrey; Munson, Todd; Sokolov, Vadim

    2016-10-10

    Platooning vehicles—connected and automated vehicles traveling with small intervehicle distances—use less fuel because of reduced aerodynamic drag. Given a network de- fined by vertex and edge sets and a set of vehicles with origin/destination nodes/times, we model and solve the combinatorial optimization problem of coordinated routing of vehicles in a manner that routes them to their destination on time while using the least amount of fuel. Common approaches decompose the platoon coordination and vehicle routing into separate problems. Our model addresses both problems simultaneously to obtain the best solution. We use modern modeling techniques and constraints implied from analyzing the platoon routing problem to address larger numbers of vehicles and larger networks than previously considered. While the numerical method used is unable to certify optimality for candidate solutions to all networks and parameters considered, we obtain excellent solutions in approximately one minute for much larger networks and vehicle sets than previously considered in the literature.

  3. Human BDCM Mulit-Route PBPK Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set contains the code for the BDCM human multi-route model written in the programming language acsl. The final published manuscript is provided since it...

  4. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. In obtaining this result, we introduce a common generalization of the k-median and minimum...... spanning tree problems (called k median forest), which might be of independent interest. We give a local-search based (3+ε)-approximation algorithm for k median forest, which leads to a (12+ε)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant ε>0.......We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to the k-location capacitated vehicle routing problem (k-LocVRP) consists of a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k identical vehicles, each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k...

  5. Dynamic Escape Routes for Naval Ships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Villalonga, Francisco J

    2005-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of optimal evacuation of a naval ship. We propose the use of a dynamic escape-route system which employs a signaling system to adapt the emergency egress process to the instigating contingency...

  6. Pharmacokinetics of Alternative Administration Routes of Melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetner, D.; Andersen, L. P.H.; Rosenberg, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Melatonin is traditionally administered orally but has a poor and variable bioavailability. This study aims to present an overview of studies investigating the pharmacokinetics of alternative administration routes of melatonin. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed...... and included experimental or clinical studies, investigating pharmacokinetics of alternative administration routes of melatonin in vivo. Alternative administration routes were defined as all administration routes except oral and intravenous. Results: 10 studies were included in the review. Intranasal....... Subcutaneous injection of melatonin displayed a rapid absorption rate compared to oral administration. Conclusion: Intranasal administration of melatonin has a large potential, and more research in humans is warranted. Transdermal application of melatonin has a possible use in a local application, due to slow...

  7. Interface Assignment-Based AODV Routing Protocol to Improve Reliability in Multi-Interface Multichannel Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Suk Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of wireless mesh networks (WMNs has greatly increased, and the multi-interface multichannel (MIMC technic has been widely used for the backbone network. Unfortunately, the ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV routing protocol defined in the IEEE 802.11s standard was designed for WMNs using the single-interface single-channel technic. So, we define a problem that happens when the legacy AODV is used in MIMC WMNs and propose an interface assignment-based AODV (IA-AODV in order to resolve that problem. IA-AODV, which is based on multitarget path request, consists of the PREQ prediction scheme, the PREQ loss recovery scheme, and the PREQ sender assignment scheme. A detailed operation according to various network conditions and services is introduced, and the routing efficiency and network reliability of a network using IA-AODV are analyzed over the presented system model. Finally, after a real-world test-bed for MIMC WMNs using the IA-AODV routing protocol is implemented, the various indicators of the network are evaluated through experiments. When the proposed routing protocol is compared with the existing AODV routing protocol, it performs the path update using only 14.33% of the management frames, completely removes the routing malfunction, and reduces the UDP packet loss ratio by 0.0012%.

  8. Efficient Networks Communication Routing Using Swarm Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Koushal Kumar

    2012-01-01

    As demonstrated by natural biological swarm’s collective intelligence has an abundance of desirable properties for problem-solving like in network routing. The focus of this paper is in the applications of swarm based intelligence in information routing for communication networks. As we know networks are growing and adopting new platforms as new technologies comes. Also according to new demands and requirements networks topologies and its complexity is increasing with time. Thus it is becomin...

  9. Learning Points and Routes to Recommend Trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Dawei; Ong, Cheng Soon; Xie, Lexing

    2016-01-01

    The problem of recommending tours to travellers is an important and broadly studied area. Suggested solutions include various approaches of points-of-interest (POI) recommendation and route planning. We consider the task of recommending a sequence of POIs, that simultaneously uses information about POIs and routes. Our approach unifies the treatment of various sources of information by representing them as features in machine learning algorithms, enabling us to learn from past behaviour. Info...

  10. Self-Interested Routing in Queueing Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ali K. Parlaktürk; Sunil Kumar

    2004-01-01

    We study self-interested routing in stochastic networks, taking into account the discrete stochastic dynamics of such networks. We analyze a two-station multiclass queueing network in which the system manager chooses the scheduling rule and individual customers choose routes in a self-interested manner. We show that this network can be unstable in Nash equilibrium under some scheduling rules. We also design a nontrivial scheduling rule that negates the performance degradation resulting from s...

  11. An Evolutionary Mobility Aware Multi-Objective Hybrid Routing Algorithm for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkarni, Nandkumar P.; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    deliberation. To tackle these two problems, Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks (MWSNs) is a better choice. In MWSN, Sensor nodes move freely to a target area without the need for any special infrastructure. Due to mobility, the routing process in MWSN has become more complicated as connections in the network can...... such as Average Energy consumption, Control Overhead, Reaction Time, LQI, and HOP Count. The authors study the influence of energy heterogeneity and mobility of sensor nodes on the performance of EMRP. The Performance of EMRP compared with Simple Hybrid Routing Protocol (SHRP) and Dynamic Multi-Objective Routing...

  12. Route selection issues for NWPA shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.V.; Harrison, I.G.

    1993-01-01

    Questions surrounding the designation of routes for the movement of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) have broad implications. Federal regulations prescribe rules to be applied in the selection of highway routes. In most cases, these rules will lead to a clear selection of one route between an origin and destination point. However, in other cases, strict application of the regulations does not result in a clear choice of a preferred route. The regulations also provide discretion to State governments and carriers to select alternative routes to enhance the safety of the shipment. Railroad shipments of radioactive materials are not subject to Federal routing regulations. Since the railroads operate on private property, it has been assumed that they know the best way to move freight on their system. This discretion, while desirable for addressing unique local safety concerns or for responding to temporary safety concerns such as road problems, weather conditions, or construction areas, leads to significant opportunity for misunderstandings and uneasiness on the part of local residents

  13. The Route Analysis Based On Flight Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriyanto, Nur; Saleh, Chairul; Fauzi, Achmad; Rachman Dzakiyullah, Nur; Riza Iwaputra, Kahfi

    2016-02-01

    Economic development effects use of air transportation since the business process in every aspect was increased. Many people these days was prefer using airplane because it can save time and money. This situation also effects flight routes, many airlines offer new routes to deal with competition. Managing flight routes is one of the problems that must be faced in order to find the efficient and effective routes. This paper investigates the best routes based on flight performance by determining the amount of block fuel for the Jakarta-Denpasar flight route. Moreover, in this work compares a two kinds of aircraft and tracks by calculating flight distance, flight time and block fuel. The result shows Jakarta-Denpasar in the Track II has effective and efficient block fuel that can be performed by Airbus 320-200 aircraft. This study can contribute to practice in making an effective decision, especially helping executive management of company due to selecting appropriate aircraft and the track in the flight plan based on the block fuel consumption for business operation.

  14. Optimal routing of IP packets to multi-homed servers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, K.L.

    1992-08-01

    Multi-homing, or direct attachment to multiple networks, offers both performance and availability benefits for important servers on busy networks. Exploiting these benefits to their fullest requires a modicum of routing knowledge in the clients. Careful policy control must also be reflected in the routing used within the network to make best use of specialized and often scarce resources. While relatively straightforward in theory, this problem becomes much more difficult to solve in a real network containing often intractable implementations from a variety of vendors. This paper presents an analysis of the problem and proposes a useful solution for a typical campus network. Application of this solution at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is studied and the problems and pitfalls encountered are discussed, as are the workarounds used to make the system work in the real world

  15. Energy- Efficient Routing Protocols For Wireless Sensor Network A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep Kaur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been plenty of interest in building and deploying sensor networks. Wireless sensor network is a collection of a large number of small nodes which acts as routers also. These nodes carry very limited power source which is non-rechargeable and non-replaceable which makes energy consumption an significant issue. Energy conservation is a very important issue for prolonging the lifetime of the network. As the sensor nodes act like routers as well the determination of routing technique plays a key role in controlling the consumption of energy. This paper describes the framework of wireless sensor network and the analysis and study of various research work related to Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks.

  16. Pseudo-Cycle-Based Multicast Routing in Wormhole-Routed Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG JianPing (宋建平); HOU ZiFeng (侯紫峰); XU Ming (许铭)

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of fault-tolerant multicast routing in wormholerouted multicomputers. A new pseudo-cycle-based routing method is presented for constructing deadlock-free multicast routing algorithms. With at most two virtual channels this technique can be applied to any connected networks with arbitrary topologies. Simulation results show that this technique results in negligible performance degradation even in the presence of a large number of faulty nodes.

  17. SAFEBIKE: A Bike-sharing Route Recommender with Availability Prediction and Safe Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Weisheng; Chen, Fanglan; Fu, Kaiqun; Lu, Chang-Tien

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents SAFEBIKE, a novel route recommendation system for bike-sharing service that utilizes station information to infer the number of available bikes in dock and recommend bike routes according to multiple factors such as distance and safety level. The system consists of a station level availability predictor that predicts bikes and docks amount at each station, and an efficient route recommendation service that considers safety and bike/dock availability factors. It targets use...

  18. A Computer Simulation of the System-Wide Effects of Parallel-Offset Route Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauderdale, Todd A.; Santiago, Confesor; Pankok, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Most aircraft managed by air-traffic controllers in the National Airspace System are capable of flying parallel-offset routes. This paper presents the results of two related studies on the effects of increased use of offset routes as a conflict resolution maneuver. The first study analyzes offset routes in the context of all standard resolution types which air-traffic controllers currently use. This study shows that by utilizing parallel-offset route maneuvers, significant system-wide savings in delay due to conflict resolution of up to 30% are possible. It also shows that most offset resolutions replace horizontal-vectoring resolutions. The second study builds on the results of the first and directly compares offset resolutions and standard horizontal-vectoring maneuvers to determine that in-trail conflicts are often more efficiently resolved by offset maneuvers.

  19. Controllable synthesis of (NH4)Fe2(PO4)2(OH)·2H2O using two-step route: Ultrasonic-intensified impinging stream pre-treatment followed by hydrothermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bin; Li, Guang; Yang, Xiaogang; Chen, Luming; Chen, George Z

    2018-04-01

    (NH 4 )Fe 2 (PO 4 ) 2 (OH)·2H 2 O samples with different morphology are successfully synthesized via two-step synthesis route - ultrasonic-intensified impinging stream pre-treatment followed by hydrothermal treatment (UIHT) method. The effects of the adoption of ultrasonic-intensified impinging stream pre-treatment, reagent concentration (C), pH value of solution and hydrothermal reaction time (T) on the physical and chemical properties of the synthesised (NH 4 )Fe 2 (PO 4 ) 2 (OH)·2H 2 O composites and FePO 4 particles were systematically investigated. Nano-seeds were firstly synthesized using the ultrasonic-intensified T-mixer and these nano-seeds were then transferred into a hydrothermal reactor, heated at 170 °C for 4 h. The obtained samples were characterized by utilising XRD, BET, TG-DTA, SEM, TEM, Mastersizer 3000 and FTIR, respectively. The experimental results have indicated that the particle size and morphology of the obtained samples are remarkably affected by the use of ultrasonic-intensified impinging stream pre-treatment, hydrothermal reaction time, reagent concentration, and pH value of solution. When such (NH 4 )Fe 2 (PO 4 ) 2 (OH)·2H 2 O precursor samples were transformed to FePO 4 products after sintering at 650 °C for 10 h, the SEM images have clearly shown that both the precursor and the final product still retain their monodispersed spherical microstructures with similar particle size of about 3 μm when the samples are synthesised at the optimised condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Bellman Ford algorithm - in Routing Information Protocol (RIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krianto Sulaiman, Oris; Mahmud Siregar, Amir; Nasution, Khairuddin; Haramaini, Tasliyah

    2018-04-01

    In a large scale network need a routing that can handle a lot number of users, one of the solutions to cope with large scale network is by using a routing protocol, There are 2 types of routing protocol that is static and dynamic, Static routing is manually route input based on network admin, while dynamic routing is automatically route input formed based on existing network. Dynamic routing is efficient used to network extensively because of the input of route automatic formed, Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is one of dynamic routing that uses the bellman-ford algorithm where this algorithm will search for the best path that traversed the network by leveraging the value of each link, so with the bellman-ford algorithm owned by RIP can optimize existing networks.

  1. HELPDESK TROUBLESHOOTING REQUESTS

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    As of the 08/03/2004 all the repair requests and other communication concerning the CERN tertiary buildings that so far have been transmitted to the TCR via 72201 will be handled directly by the FM helpdesk under the phone number 77777, i.e. problems on systems and equipment as: • Electricity and lighting in office buildings, halls and workshops • Heating and air conditioning in office buildings, halls and workshops • Lifts (excluded the ones in shafts) • Motorised doors • Building structure and equipment: roofs, doors, windows, blinds, etc. • Plumbing • Toilets • Cleaning (CERN wide) • Restaurant equipment • Roads and green areas • Wastes collection The FM Helpdesk is available between 07h30 and 18h30. Troubleshooting requests, complaints and work requests will only be accepted during these opening hours. Outside these opening hours and for any problem in a machine building or on equipment that is ...

  2. Challenges in Request Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Anita Friis

    2014-01-01

    and its customers. The study provides an insight into a new area of supply chain management, including the process activity flow and challenges involved across the process. Furthermore, the method is dyadic including the customer in the case study, which is rare in related research....... profitability. This research study seeks to investigate the challenges of RQM in practice. Existing demand chain management literature is used as a basis for developing a RQM framework. RQM is investigated through an explorative research design in a dyadic B2B case study including a global industrial company......Request management (RQM) is a new term used for managing customer requests for new products. It is the counterpart to typical product development processes, which has no direct customer involvement. It is essential to manage customer requests in a structured and efficient way to obtain...

  3. 78 FR 65658 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... relevant survey experience, organizational survey capacity, and quality control procedures. The Marketplace... or OMB control number. To be assured consideration, comments and recommendations must be received by... Information Collection Request: New collection (Request for a new OMB control number); Title of Information...

  4. A Cross-Layer Routing Design for Multi-Interface Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Chieh Tsai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs technologies have received significant attentions. WMNs not only accede to the advantages of ad hoc networks but also provide hierarchical multi-interface architecture. Transmission power control and routing path selections are critical issues in the past researches of multihop networks. Variable transmission power levels lead to different network connectivity and interference. Further, routing path selections among different radio interfaces will also produce different intra-/interflow interference. These features tightly affect the network performance. Most of the related works on the routing protocol design do not consider transmission power control and multi-interface environment simultaneously. In this paper, we proposed a cross-layer routing protocol called M2iRi2 which coordinates transmission power control and intra-/interflow interference considerations as routing metrics. Each radio interface calculates the potential tolerable-added transmission interference in the physical layer. When the route discovery starts, the M2iRi2 will adopt the appropriate power level to evaluate each interface quality along paths. The simulation results demonstrate that our design can enhance both network throughput and end-to-end delay.

  5. Mapping cattle trade routes in southern Somalia: a method for mobile livestock keeping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempia, S; Braidotti, F; Aden, H H; Abdulle, M H; Costagli, R; Otieno, F T

    2010-12-01

    The Somali economy is the only one in the world in which more than half the population is dependent on nomadic pastoralism. Trade typically involves drovers trekking animals over long distances to markets. A pilot approach for mapping trade routes was undertaken, using the Afmadow to Garissa routes in southern Somalia. The methodology included conducting a workshop with traders to gather preliminary information about the most-used routes and general husbandry practices and training selected drovers to collect data about key features along the routes, using hand-held global positioning system (GPS) devices, radio collar GPS and pictorial data forms. Collected data were then integrated into geographic information systems for analysis. The resultant spatial maps describe the Afmadow to Garissa routes, the speed of livestock movement along these routes and relevant environmental and social features affecting this speed. These data are useful for identifying critical control points for health screening along the routes, which may enable the establishment of a livestock certification system in nomadic pastoral environments.

  6. Energy Efficiency Performance Improvements for Ant-Based Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamu Murtala Zungeru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main problem for event gathering in wireless sensor networks (WSNs is the restricted communication range for each node. Due to the restricted communication range and high network density, event forwarding in WSNs is very challenging and requires multihop data forwarding. Currently, the energy-efficient ant based routing (EEABR algorithm, based on the ant colony optimization (ACO metaheuristic, is one of the state-of-the-art energy-aware routing protocols. In this paper, we propose three improvements to the EEABR algorithm to further improve its energy efficiency. The improvements to the original EEABR are based on the following: (1 a new scheme to intelligently initialize the routing tables giving priority to neighboring nodes that simultaneously could be the destination, (2 intelligent update of routing tables in case of a node or link failure, and (3 reducing the flooding ability of ants for congestion control. The energy efficiency improvements are significant particularly for dynamic routing environments. Experimental results using the RMASE simulation environment show that the proposed method increases the energy efficiency by up to 9% and 64% in converge-cast and target-tracking scenarios, respectively, over the original EEABR without incurring a significant increase in complexity. The method is also compared and found to also outperform other swarm-based routing protocols such as sensor-driven and cost-aware ant routing (SC and Beesensor.

  7. Intelligent QoS routing algorithm based on improved AODV protocol for Ad Hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huibin, Liu; Jun, Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks were playing an increasingly important part in disaster reliefs, military battlefields and scientific explorations. However, networks routing difficulties are more and more outstanding due to inherent structures. This paper proposed an improved cuckoo searching-based Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing protocol (CSAODV). It elaborately designs the calculation methods of optimal routing algorithm used by protocol and transmission mechanism of communication-package. In calculation of optimal routing algorithm by CS Algorithm, by increasing QoS constraint, the found optimal routing algorithm can conform to the requirements of specified bandwidth and time delay, and a certain balance can be obtained among computation spending, bandwidth and time delay. Take advantage of NS2 simulation software to take performance test on protocol in three circumstances and validate the feasibility and validity of CSAODV protocol. In results, CSAODV routing protocol is more adapt to the change of network topological structure than AODV protocol, which improves package delivery fraction of protocol effectively, reduce the transmission time delay of network, reduce the extra burden to network brought by controlling information, and improve the routing efficiency of network.

  8. Efectos Territoriales y Urbanísticos de la transformación de la Ruta Chile-5 en Vía Concesionada de Acceso Controlado: El caso del Corredor de la Ruta 5. / Territorial and urban effects of transforming Chile-Route-5 through concessions with controlled access: The case of the Route-5 Corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henríquez Orellana, Patricia

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de identificar los efectos territoriales y urbanísticos verificados con la transformación de la antigua Ruta 5 en una vía de peaje y accesos controlados y contrastarlos con la previsión y objetivos asignados comúnmente a un proyecto de esta naturaleza. Interesa destacar efectos producidos en: la movilidad local, identificando cambios de hábitos de los habitantes; la planeación urbana; generación de proyectos de infraestructura de transporte u otros asociados al mejoramiento de la Ruta CH-5./In this article the author identifies the effects on the land and the urban planning caused by the changes that occurred in the former Ruta CH-5 Highway that now has toll booths and controlled entrances and exits. The author compares this situation to the objective and results of a traditional project of this kind. Some of the important effects are: mobility in a local level, change in the habits oh the inhabitants, urban planning, the birth of new transportation infrastructure projects and other projects that may improve Ruta CH-5 Highway.

  9. Request for All - Generalized Request Framework for PhEDEx

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, C-H; Ratnikova, N.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Zhang, X.; Magini, N.

    2014-01-01

    PhEDEx has been serving CMS community since 2004 as the data broker. Every PhEDEx operation is initiated by a request, such as request to move data, request to delete data, and so on. A request has it own life cycle, including creation, approval, notification, and book keeping and the details depend on its type. Currently, only two kinds of requests, transfer and deletion, are fully integrated in PhEDEx. They are tailored specifically to the operations workflows. To be able to serve a new type of request it generally means a fair amount of development work.After several years of operation, we have gathered enough experience to rethink the request handling in PhEDEx. Generalized Request Project is set to abstract such experience and come up with a request system which is not tied into current workflow yet it is general enough to accommodate current and future requests.The challenges are dealing with different stages in a requests life cycle, complexity of approval process and complexity of the ability and auth...

  10. Cooperative HARQ with Poisson Interference and Opportunistic Routing

    KAUST Repository

    Kaveh, Mostafa

    2014-01-06

    This presentation considers reliable transmission of data from a source to a destination, aided cooperatively by wireless relays selected opportunistically and utilizing hybrid forward error correction/detection, and automatic repeat request (Hybrid ARQ, or HARQ). Specifically, we present a performance analysis of the cooperative HARQ protocol in a wireless adhoc multihop network employing spatial ALOHA. We model the nodes in such a network by a homogeneous 2-D Poisson point process. We study the tradeoff between the per-hop rate, spatial density and range of transmissions inherent in the network by optimizing the transport capacity with respect to the network design parameters, HARQ coding rate and medium access probability. We obtain an approximate analytic expression for the expected progress of opportunistic routing and optimize the capacity approximation by convex optimization. By way of numerical results, we show that the network design parameters obtained by optimizing the analytic approximation of transport capacity closely follows that of Monte Carlo based exact transport capacity optimization. As a result of the analysis, we argue that the optimal HARQ coding rate and medium access probability are independent of the node density in the network.

  11. Alternative routes to olefins. Chances and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiswinkel, A.; Delhomme, C.; Ponceau, M. [Linde AG, Pullach (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    In the future, conventional raw materials which are used for the production of olefins will get shorter and more expensive and alternative raw materials and production routes will gain importance. Natural gas, coal, shale oil or bio-mass are potential sources for the production of olefins, especially ethylene and propylene, as major base chemicals. Several potential production routes were already developed in the past, but cost, energy and environmental considerations might make these unattractive or unfeasible in comparison to traditional processes (e.g. steam cracking). Other processes such as methanol to olefins processes were successfully developed and first commercial units are running. In addition, combination of traditional processes (e.g. coal/biomass gasification, Fischer-Tropsch and steam cracking) might enable new pathways. Besides, dehydration of ethanol is opening direct routes from biomass to 'green' ethylene. However, for these 'bio-routes', feedstock availability and potential land use conflict with food production (sugar cane, wheat,..) still need to be evaluated. finally, new oxidative routes, including processes such as oxidative coupling of methane or oxidative dehydrogenation, are still at an early development stage but present potential for future industrial applications. (orig.) (Published in summary form only)

  12. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  13. Routing algorithms in networks-on-chip

    CERN Document Server

    Daneshtalab, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a single-source reference to routing algorithms for Networks-on-Chip (NoCs), as well as in-depth discussions of advanced solutions applied to current and next generation, many core NoC-based Systems-on-Chip (SoCs). After a basic introduction to the NoC design paradigm and architectures, routing algorithms for NoC architectures are presented and discussed at all abstraction levels, from the algorithmic level to actual implementation.  Coverage emphasizes the role played by the routing algorithm and is organized around key problems affecting current and next generation, many-core SoCs. A selection of routing algorithms is included, specifically designed to address key issues faced by designers in the ultra-deep sub-micron (UDSM) era, including performance improvement, power, energy, and thermal issues, fault tolerance and reliability.   ·         Provides a comprehensive overview of routing algorithms for Networks-on-Chip and NoC-based, manycore systems; ·         Describe...

  14. Sigma Routing Metric for RPL Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sanmartin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the adaptation of a specific metric for the RPL protocol in the objective function MRHOF. Among the functions standardized by IETF, we find OF0, which is based on the minimum hop count, as well as MRHOF, which is based on the Expected Transmission Count (ETX. However, when the network becomes denser or the number of nodes increases, both OF0 and MRHOF introduce long hops, which can generate a bottleneck that restricts the network. The adaptation is proposed to optimize both OFs through a new routing metric. To solve the above problem, the metrics of the minimum number of hops and the ETX are combined by designing a new routing metric called SIGMA-ETX, in which the best route is calculated using the standard deviation of ETX values between each node, as opposed to working with the ETX average along the route. This method ensures a better routing performance in dense sensor networks. The simulations are done through the Cooja simulator, based on the Contiki operating system. The simulations showed that the proposed optimization outperforms at a high margin in both OF0 and MRHOF, in terms of network latency, packet delivery ratio, lifetime, and power consumption.

  15. Routing strategies in traffic network and phase transition in network ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dynamics of information traffic over scale-free networks has been investigated systematically. A series of routing strategies of data packets have been proposed, including the local routing strategy, the next-nearest-neighbour routing strategy, and the mixed routing strategy based on local static and dynamic information.

  16. Beyond Traditional DTN Routing: Social Networks for Opportunistic Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Schurgot, Mary R.; Comaniciu, Cristina; Jaffrès-Runser, Katia

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the evolution of routing protocols for intermittently connected ad hoc networks and discusses the trend toward social-based routing protocols. A survey of current routing solutions is presented, where routing protocols for opportunistic networks are classified based on the network graph employed. The need to capture performance tradeoffs from a multi-objective perspective is highlighted.

  17. Children's route choice during active transportation to school: Difference between shortest and actual route

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessing, D.; Vries, S.I. de; Hegeman, G.; Verhagen, E.; Mechelen, W. van; Pierik, F.H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to increase our understanding of environmental correlates that are associated with route choice during active transportation to school (ATS) by comparing characteristics of actual walking and cycling routes between home and school with the shortest possible

  18. Robust against route failure using power proficient reliable routing in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malathi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to propose a novel routing protocol for Mobile Adhoc Network communication which reduces the route failure during transmission. The proposed routing protocol uses 3 salient parameters to discover the path which ensure the reliable communication. The quality of the channel, link quality and energy level of the node are the major reasons for unintentional node failure in mobile Adhoc network. So the proposed routing protocol considers these three parameters to select the best forwarder node in the path. The reliable data communication is achieved by transmitting data via path selected by the proposed routing scheme has been proven using network simulator (NS2. Keywords: Channel quality, Link quality, Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET, Residual energy

  19. An electrolytic route to fusion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    A patent has been granted by the Swedish Patent Authority for a new process to initiate and control energy generation through fusion reactions of hydrogen. According to the patent-holder, the Swedish company AB Technology Development, the fusion power process could be available for commercial applications within 4-5 years if laboratory and pilot plant tests prove successful. The new process employs a high voltage discharge in heavy water to create conditions under which, according to the patent holder, a high probability of fusion is achieved without the extraordinary high temperatures required in a conventional fusion reactor. (author)

  20. At Your Request

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorduijn, A.S.; Gameren, van Yvonne; Vasse, Emmelyne; Roos, de N.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition in hospitals may be combatted by improving the meal service. Aim: To evaluate whether At Your Request®, a meal service concept by Sodexo with a restaurant style menu card and room service, improved patient satisfaction, nutritional status, and food intake

  1. Personal Information Request Form

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    PC Forms Inc. 834-4048

    To apply for information under the Privacy Act, complete this form or a written request mentioning the Act. Describe the information being sought and provide any relevant details necessary to help the. International Development Research Centre. (IDRC) find it. If you require assistance, refer to. Info Source (Sources of ...

  2. Logic Programming with Requests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Schreye, Danny; Etalle, Sandro; van Raamsdonk, Femke

    1999-01-01

    We propose an extension of logic programming where the user can specify, together with the initial query, the information he is interested in by means of a request. This allows one to extract a result from an incomplete computation, such as the prefix of an infinite derivation. The classical

  3. Pheromone Static Routing Strategy for Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mao-Bin; Henry, Y. K. Lau; Ling, Xiang; Jiang, Rui

    2012-12-01

    We adopt the concept of using pheromones to generate a set of static paths that can reach the performance of global dynamic routing strategy [Phys. Rev. E 81 (2010) 016113]. The path generation method consists of two stages. In the first stage, a pheromone is dropped to the nodes by packets forwarded according to the global dynamic routing strategy. In the second stage, pheromone static paths are generated according to the pheromone density. The output paths can greatly improve traffic systems' overall capacity on different network structures, including scale-free networks, small-world networks and random graphs. Because the paths are static, the system needs much less computational resources than the global dynamic routing strategy.

  4. Evolution Strategies in the Multipoint Connections Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Krulikovska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Routing of multipoint connections plays an important role in final cost and quality of a found connection. New algorithms with better results are still searched. In this paper, a possibility of using the evolution strategies (ES for routing is presented. Quality of found connection is evaluated from the view of final cost and time spent on a searching procedure. First, parametrical analysis of results of the ES are discussed and compared with the Prim’s algorithm, which was chosen as a representative of the deterministic routing algorithms. Second, ways for improving the ES are suggested and implemented. The obtained results are reviewed. The main improvements are specified and discussed in conclusion.

  5. Hazardous materials routing - risk management of mismanagement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickman, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    Along with emergency planning and preparedness, the placement of restrictions on routing has become an increasingly popular device for managing the highway and rail risks of hazardous materials transportation. Federal studies conducted in 1985 indicate that at that time there were 513 different state and local restrictions on the routing of hazardous materials for these two modes of transportation, and that there were 136 state and local notification requirements, that is, restrictions that take the form of a statute or ordinance requiring advance warning or periodic reporting about hazardous materials shipments. Routing restrictions also take the form of prohibiting the use of road, a tunnel, or a bridge for a specified set of hazardous materials

  6. Generalized routing protocols for multihop relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2011-07-01

    Performance of multihop cooperative networks depends on the routing protocols employed. In this paper we propose the last-n-hop selection protocol, the dual path protocol, the forward-backward last-n-hop selection protocol and the forward-backward dual path protocol for the routing of data through multihop relay networks. The average symbol error probability performance of the schemes is analysed by simulations. It is shown that close to optimal performance can be achieved by using the last-n-hop selection protocol and its forward-backward variant. Furthermore we also compute the complexity of the protocols in terms of number of channel state information required and the number of comparisons required for routing the signal through the network. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Waste Collection Vehicle Routing Problem: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Han

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Waste generation is an issue which has caused wide public concern in modern societies, not only for the quantitative rise of the amount of waste generated, but also for the increasing complexity of some products and components. Waste collection is a highly relevant activity in the reverse logistics system and how to collect waste in an efficient way is an area that needs to be improved. This paper analyzes the major contribution about Waste Collection Vehicle Routing Problem (WCVRP in literature. Based on a classification of waste collection (residential, commercial and industrial, firstly the key findings for these three types of waste collection are presented. Therefore, according to the model (Node Routing Problems and Arc Routing problems used to represent WCVRP, different methods and techniques are analyzed in this paper to solve WCVRP. This paper attempts to serve as a roadmap of research literature produced in the field of WCVRP.

  8. 78 FR 46360 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... Information Collection: Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System (LOCCS) Voice.... Description of the need for the information and proposed use: Payment request vouchers for distribution of.... A. Overview of Information Collection Title of Information Collection: Request Voucher for Grant...

  9. 76 FR 51970 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Underground...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program under the Safe Drinking Water Act established a Federal and State... Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program AGENCY... Water Protection Division/Underground Injection Control Program, Mailcode: 4606M, Environmental...

  10. The roles of gender, age and cognitive development in children's pedestrian route selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, B K; Ulrich, T; Lyday, B

    2012-03-01

    Thousands of American children under the age of 10 years are injured annually as pedestrians. Despite the scope of this public health problem, knowledge about behavioural control and developmental factors involved in the aetiology of child pedestrian safety is limited. The present study examined the roles of gender, age and two aspects of cognitive development (visual search and efficiency of processing) in children's safe pedestrian route selection. Measures of cognitive functioning (visual search and efficiency) and selections of risky pedestrian routes were collected from 65 children aged 5-9 years. Boys, younger children and those with less developed cognitive functioning selected riskier pedestrian routes. Cognitive functioning also subsumed age as a predictor of risky route selections. Our findings suggest developmental differences, specifically less developed cognitive functioning, play important roles in children's pedestrian decision making. Directions for future examination are discussed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. DARAL: A Dynamic and Adaptive Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Estévez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of Smart City projects is pushing researchers and companies to develop more efficient embedded hardware and also more efficient communication technologies. These communication technologies are the focus of this work, presenting a new routing algorithm based on dynamically-allocated sub-networks and node roles. Among these features, our algorithm presents a fast set-up time, a reduced overhead and a hierarchical organization, which allows for the application of complex management techniques. This work presents a routing algorithm based on a dynamically-allocated hierarchical clustering, which uses the link quality indicator as a reference parameter, maximizing the network coverage and minimizing the control message overhead and the convergence time. The present work based its test scenario and analysis in the density measure, considered as a node degree. The routing algorithm is compared with some of the most well known routing algorithms for different scenario densities.

  12. A Sociability-Based Routing Scheme for Delay-Tolerant Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabbri Flavio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of choosing the best forwarders in Delay-Tolerant Networks (DTNs is crucial for minimizing the delay in packet delivery and for keeping the amount of generated traffic under control. In this paper, we introduce sociable routing, a novel routing strategy that selects a subset of optimal forwarders among all the nodes and relies on them for an efficient delivery. The key idea is that of assigning to each network node a time-varying scalar parameter which captures its social behavior in terms of frequency and types of encounters. This sociability concept is widely discussed and mathematically formalized. Simulation results of a DTN of vehicles in urban environment, driven by real mobility traces, and employing sociable routing, is presented. Encouraging results show that sociable routing, compared to other known protocols, achieves a good compromise in terms of delay performance and amount of generated traffic.

  13. A LOOP-BASED APPROACH IN CLUSTERING AND ROUTING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yanping; Wang Xin; Xue Xiangyang; C.K. Toh

    2006-01-01

    Although clustering is a convenient framework to enable traffic control and service support in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs), it is seldom adopted in practice due to the additional traffic overhead it leads to for the resource limited ad hoc network. In order to address this problem, we proposed a loop-based approach to combine clustering and routing. By employing loop topologies, topology information is disseminated with a loop instead of a single node, which provides better robustness, and the nature of a loop that there are two paths between each pair of nodes within a loop suggests smart route recovery strategy. Our approach is composed of setup procedure, regular procedure and recovery procedure to achieve clustering, routing and emergent route recovering.

  14. Evaluation and development the routing protocol of a fully functional simulation environment for VANETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Azhar Tareq; Warip, Mohd Nazri Mohd; Yaakob, Naimah; Abduljabbar, Waleed Khalid; Atta, Abdu Mohammed Ali

    2017-11-01

    Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) is an area of wireless technologies that is attracting a great deal of interest. There are still several areas of VANETS, such as security and routing protocols, medium access control, that lack large amounts of research. There is also a lack of freely available simulators that can quickly and accurately simulate VANETs. The main goal of this paper is to develop a freely available VANETS simulator and to evaluate popular mobile ad-hoc network routing protocols in several VANETS scenarios. The VANETS simulator consisted of a network simulator, traffic (mobility simulator) and used a client-server application to keep the two simulators in sync. The VANETS simulator also models buildings to create a more realistic wireless network environment. Ad-Hoc Distance Vector routing (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) were initially simulated in a city, country, and highway environment to provide an overall evaluation.

  15. Eco-sustainable routing in optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricciardi, Sergio; Wang, Jiayuan; Palmieri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    infrastructures are now widely recognized to play a fundamental role in the emission of green-house gases (GHG) in the at- mosphere, signicantly aecting the environmental sustainability of new evolutions in network architectures as well as technological developments in communication devices. In this paper......, a novel eco-sustainable Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) algorithm, based on shortest-path routing with an adaptive link weighting function relying on an extension of the OSPF-TE protocol to convey carbon footprint information, has been proposed to decrease the network ecological impact while...

  16. Applied Multiprotocol Routing in IP Telephony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Voznak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the project was to create a multi-protocol system using SIP, H.323 and MGCP standards, which would ensure routing to various types of VoIP networks. The priority was to provide multi-protocol support to SIP and H.323 signalling and the support of the routing using the ENUM standard which has recently passed from the trial phase into full operation in the Czech Republic. The document describes the system's architecture and the components used. It also briefly describes ENUM.

  17. PROPOSAL OF ALGORITHM FOR ROUTE OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ramon de Carvalho Sousa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article uses “Six Sigma” methodology for the elaboration of an algorithm for routing problems which is able to obtain more efficient results than those from Clarke and Wright´s (CW algorithm (1964 in situations of random increase of product delivery demands, facing the incapability of service level increase . In some situations, the algorithm proposed obtained more efficient results than the CW algorithm. The key factor was a reduction in the number of mistakes (one way routes and in the level of result variation.

  18. Developing New Tourism routes in Coastal Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Flognfeldt, Thor

    2013-01-01

    For Norwegians the name of our country is based on a route - "the way to the North" - and this was not a built route but using of the coast-line itself. As long as the boats and ships were the main means of travel this coastal way - "Nor-way" - was the main communication basis for most people, and for transport of goods. But even in the interior of the country, water, namely rivers and lakes were the main structures for communication. The lakes were most efficient for transport during the col...

  19. Vessels Route Planning Problem with Uncertain Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Neumann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to find a solution for route planning in a transport networks, where the costs of tracks, factor of safety and travel time are ambiguous. This approach is based on the Dempster-Shafer theory and well known Dijkstra's algorithm. In this approach important are the influencing factors of the mentioned coefficients using uncertain possibilities presented by probability intervals. Based on these intervals the quality intervals of each route can be determined. Applied decision rules can be described by the end user.

  20. Modeling route choice criteria from home to major streets: A discrete choice approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Osiris Vidana-Bencomo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A discrete choice model that consists of three sub-models was developed to investigates the route choice criteria of drivers who travel from their homes in the morning to the access point along the major streets that bound the Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZs. The first sub-model is a Nested Logit Model (NLM that estimates the probability of a driver has or has no multiple routes, and if the driver has multiple routes, the route selection criteria are based on the access point’s intersection control type or other factors. The second sub-model is a Mixed Logit (MXL model. It estimates the probabilities of the type of intersection control preferred by a driver. The third sub-model is a NLM that estimates the probabilities of a driver selecting his/her route for its shortest travel time or to avoid pedestrian, and if the aim is to take the fastest route, the decision criteria is based on the shortest distance or minimum stops and turns. Data gathered in a questionnaire survey were used to estimate the sub-models. The attributes of the utility functions of the sub-models are the driver’s demographic and trip characteristics. The model provides a means for transportation planners to distribute the total number of home-based trips generated within a TAZ to the access points along the major streets that bound the TAZ.

  1. 78 FR 56225 - Information Collection Request Submitted to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request; Soil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ...EPA has submitted the following Information Collection Request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: ``Soil Fumigant Risk Mitigation'' (EPA ICR No. 2451.01, OMB Control No. 2070- New). This is a request for approval of a new collection. The ICR, which is abstracted below, describes the nature of the information collection activity and its expected burden and costs. Copies of the ICR and related documents are available in the docket.

  2. Simple pragmatic approach to mesh routing using BATMAN

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnson, D

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available realisation that a routing algorithm for a large static mesh needs to be developed from first principles and as a result the BATMAN project was started. In BATMAN all nodes periodically broadcasts hello packets, also known as originator messages, to its... not have. OLSR was used with the following settings • HELLO interval = 1 second. • Topology Control (TC) interval = 1 second. • HELLO validity interval = 200 seconds. • TC validity interval = 100 seconds. • Fisheye = ON (TC messages are sent with 3...

  3. A Review of Function Allocation and En Route Separation Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Timothy A.; Aweiss, Arwa S.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Daiker, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Today's air traffic control system has reached a limit to the number of aircraft that can be safely managed at the same time. This air traffic capacity bottleneck is a critical problem along the path to modernization for air transportation. The design of the next separation assurance system to address this problem is a cornerstone of air traffic management research today. This report reviews recent work by NASA and others in the areas of function allocation and en route separation assurance. This includes: separation assurance algorithms and technology prototypes; concepts of operations and designs for advanced separation assurance systems; and specific investigations into air-ground and human-automation function allocation.

  4. FFT Bifurcation Analysis of Routes to Chaos via Quasiperiodic Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Borkowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of a ring of seven unidirectionally coupled nonlinear Duffing oscillators is studied. We show that the FFT analysis presented in form of a bifurcation graph, that is, frequency distribution versus a control parameter, can provide a valuable and helpful complement to the corresponding typical bifurcation diagram and the course of Lyapunov exponents, especially in context of detailed identification of the observed attractors. As an example, bifurcation analysis of routes to chaos via 2-frequency and 3-frequency quasiperiodicity is demonstrated.

  5. Routes to spatiotemporal chaos in Kerr optical frequency combs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coillet, Aurélien; Chembo, Yanne K

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the various routes to spatiotemporal chaos in Kerr optical frequency combs, obtained through pumping an ultra-high Q-factor whispering-gallery mode resonator with a continuous-wave laser. The Lugiato-Lefever model is used to build bifurcation diagrams with regards to the parameters that are externally controllable, namely, the frequency and the power of the pumping laser. We show that the spatiotemporal chaos emerging from Turing patterns and solitons display distinctive dynamical features. Experimental spectra of chaotic Kerr combs are also presented for both cases, in excellent agreement with theoretical spectra.

  6. A new route to copper nitrate hydroxide microcrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Haixia; Yang Qing; Tang Kaibin

    2006-01-01

    A solution evaporation route has been successfully developed for the growth of copper nitrate hydroxide microcrystals using copper nitrate solution as the starting material in the absence of any surfactants or templates. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis measurements. Controlled experiments suggested that the reaction temperature and solution concentration played an important role on the formation of the products. A possible formation mechanism of the products was also proposed

  7. 77 FR 34384 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... of Changes in Organizational Structure. Agency form number: FR Y-10E. OMB control number: 7100-0297... assign OMB control numbers to collection of information requests and requirements conducted or sponsored... control number. DATES: Comments must be submitted on or before August 10, 2012. ADDRESSES: You may submit...

  8. Obsidian trade routes in the mayan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, N

    1972-12-08

    Obsidian from two sources in highland Guatemala has been found at 23 sites of the Classic Mayan civilization, mainly in the nonvolcanic lowlands to the north. The distribution, together with trade routes suggested by topography and documentary sources, suggests efficient waterborne transport and competition between sources for the lowland market.

  9. Optimal solutions for routing problems with profits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archetti, C.; Bianchessi, N.; Speranza, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a branch-and-price algorithm to solve two well-known vehicle routing problems with profits, the Capacitated Team Orienteering Problem and the Capacitated Profitable Tour Problem. A restricted master heuristic is applied at each node of the branch-and-bound tree in order to

  10. Routing in Networks with Random Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambos, Nicholas

    1997-01-01

    We examine the problems of routing and server assignment in networks with random connectivities. In such a network the basic topology is fixed, but during each time slot and for each of tis input queues, each server (node) is either connected to or disconnected from each of its queues with some probability.

  11. Automated Flight Routing Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hok K.; Morando, Alex; Grabbe, Shon

    2010-01-01

    Airspace capacity reduction due to convective weather impedes air traffic flows and causes traffic congestion. This study presents an algorithm that reroutes flights in the presence of winds, enroute convective weather, and congested airspace based on stochastic dynamic programming. A stochastic disturbance model incorporates into the reroute design process the capacity uncertainty. A trajectory-based airspace demand model is employed for calculating current and future airspace demand. The optimal routes minimize the total expected traveling time, weather incursion, and induced congestion costs. They are compared to weather-avoidance routes calculated using deterministic dynamic programming. The stochastic reroutes have smaller deviation probability than the deterministic counterpart when both reroutes have similar total flight distance. The stochastic rerouting algorithm takes into account all convective weather fields with all severity levels while the deterministic algorithm only accounts for convective weather systems exceeding a specified level of severity. When the stochastic reroutes are compared to the actual flight routes, they have similar total flight time, and both have about 1% of travel time crossing congested enroute sectors on average. The actual flight routes induce slightly less traffic congestion than the stochastic reroutes but intercept more severe convective weather.

  12. Graphical route information on variable message signs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkim, T.P.; Mede, P.H.J. van der; Janssen, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on experiments in the Netherlands on the use of graphical route information panels (GRIP) as part of variable message systems (VMS) providing information to drivers. GRIP appear to be as safe as regular VMS. Digestion of the information presented is initially quicker for regular VMS, but

  13. A Decentralized Approach to Formation Flight Routing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.G.; Lopes dos Santos, Bruno F.; Verhagen, C.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an optimization-based cooperative planning system for the efficient routing and scheduling of flight formations. This study considers the use of formation flight as a means to reduce the overall fuel consumption of civil aviation in long-haul operations. It

  14. Variable-speed, portable routing skate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, W. A.

    1967-01-01

    Lightweight, portable, variable-speed routing skate is used on heavy metal subassemblies which are impractical to move to a stationary machine. The assembly, consisting of the housing with rollers, router, and driving mechanism with transmission, weighs about forty pounds. Both speed and depth of cut are adjustable.

  15. Traffic disruption route Einstein near building 170

    CERN Multimedia

    A Lopez - TS/CE

    2005-01-01

    The TS/CE Group informs you that, for the duration of the work at Building 170, there may be some disruption to traffic on route Einstein in the vicinity of Building 170. The work is due to take place from the 14th to 18th February. For more information, please contact 165029. A. Lopez TS/CE

  16. Phone Routing using the Dynamic Memory Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Claus Nicolaj; Krink, Thiemo

    2002-01-01

    In earlier studies a genetic algorithm (GA) extended with the dynamic memory model has shown remarkable performance on real-world-like problems. In this paper we experiment with routing in communication networks and show that the dynamic memory GA performs remarkable well compared to ant colony...

  17. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Aguilar Igartua, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR) protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation). PMID:27669254

  18. Scenemash: multimodal route summarization for city exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J. van den; Rudinac, S.; Worring, M.

    2016-01-01

    The potential of mining tourist information from social multimedia data gives rise to new applications offering much richer impressions of the city. In this paper we propose Scenemash, a system that generates multimodal summaries of multiple alternative routes between locations in a city. To get

  19. 76 FR 28460 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Rock Burst...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Rock Burst Control Plan--Pertains to Underground Metal and Nonmetal... develop a rock burst plan within 90 days after a rock burst has been experienced. Stress data are normally... Administration (MSHA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Burst Control Plan--Pertains to...

  20. Contraceptive attitudes and contraceptive failure among women requesting induced abortion in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.; Gammeltoft, Tine

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate how contraceptive attitudes among Danish-born and immigrant women influence the request of induced abortion. Method: A case-control study, the case group comprising 1,095 Danish-born women and 233 immigrant women requesting abortion, in comparison with a control group of 1...

  1. 78 FR 31557 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ..., Attention: Document Identifier/OMB Control Number ------, Room C4-26-05, 7500 Security Boulevard, Baltimore... essentially the same concept known in the private insurance industry as coordination of benefits; it refers to.... Type of Information Collection Request: New collection (Request for a new OMB control number); Title of...

  2. Route of delivery following successful external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policiano, Catarina; Costa, Ana; Valentim-Lourenço, Alexandre; Clode, Nuno; Graça, Luís M

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the delivery route and the indications for cesarean delivery after successful external cephalic version (ECV). A retrospective matched case-control study was conducted at a hospital in Lisbon, Portugal, between 2002 and 2012. Each woman who underwent successful ECV (n = 44) was compared with the previous and next women who presented for labor management and who had the same parity and a singleton vertex pregnancy at term (n = 88). The outcome measures were route of delivery, indications for cesarean delivery, and incidence of nonreassuring fetal status. Attempts at ECV were successful in 62 (46%) of 134 women, and 44 women whose fetuses remained in a cephalic presentation until delivery were included in the study. The rates of intrapartum cesarean delivery and operative vaginal delivery did not differ significantly between cases and controls (intrapartum cesarean delivery, 9 [20%] vs 16 [18%], P = 0.75; operative vaginal delivery, 14 [32%] vs 19 [22%], P = 0.20). The indications for cesarean delivery after successful ECV did not differ; in both groups, cesarean delivery was mainly performed for labor arrest disorders (cases, 6 [67%] vs controls, 13 [81%]; P = 0.63). Successful ECV was not associated with increased rates of intrapartum cesarean delivery or operative vaginal delivery. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Porcelain tiles by the dry route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boschi, A. O.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the second largest tile producer of the world, at present, 70% of the tiles are produced by the dry route. One of the main reasons that lead to this development is the fact that the dry route uses approximately 30% less thermal energy them the traditional wet route. The increasing world concern with the environment and the recognition of the central role played by the water also has pointed towards privileging dry processes. In this context the objective of the present work is to study the feasibility of producing high quality porcelain tiles by the dry route. A brief comparison of the dry and wet route, in standard conditions industrially used today to produce tiles that are not porcelain tiles, shows that there are two major differences: the particle sizes obtained by the wet route are usually considerably finer and the capability of mixing the different minerals, the intimacy of the mixture, is also usually better in the wet route. The present work studied the relative importance of these differences and looked for raw materials and operational conditions that would result in better performance and glazed porcelain tiles of good quality.

    En Brasil, en este momento segundo productor mundial, el 70% de los pavimentos cerámicos se obtiene por vía seca. Una de las razones fundamentales se debe a que esta vía supone un consumo energético inferior, en un 30%, a la via húmeda tradicional. La creciente preocupación mundial sobre los problemas medioambientales y el reconocimiento del papel central que juega el agua en este proceso han favorecido el desarrollo de la vía seca. En este contexto, el objetivo del presente trabajo es estudiar la viabilidad de la producción de pavimentos porcelánicos de alta calidad por vía seca. Una breve comparación entre ambas vías, en las condiciones standard de producción vigentes para producciones que no son de porcelánico, indican que existen dos diferencias substanciales; el tamaño de

  4. Contamination of cars and exposure dose to drivers traveling through the Route 6 in the restricted area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Hiroto; Sasaki, Satoru; Shimomura, Masanori; Takano, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Hiroki; Inoue, Ryo; Yamada, Norikazu

    2012-05-01

    Traffic on the Route 6 will increase after the revision of evacuation area and restricted area. At the request of the Local Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters established in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) has surveyed the effect on cars and drivers traveling through the Route 6 in the restricted area as listed bellow. (1) Investigation of contamination of cars traveling through the Route 6. (2) Investigation of exposure dose of drivers traveling through the Route 6. The maximum contamination at the surface of tires and tire-houses of cars traveling through the Route 6 is estimated to be 2 Bq/cm"2 (this concentration is correspond to 470 cpm). The external exposure dose of drivers will be about 4 μSv when they run through the restricted area at a pace of 40 km/h. The internal exposure dose will be small because of the low radioactive concentration in the air. It is important not to stay long in high radiation areas to prevent unnecessary exposure. The main source of the contamination is sand cloud thrown up by the wheels. Though, the radioactivity of the sand cloud is proportional to the surface concentration of roads and dose rate of each area, contamination level by the sand cloud will remain low level. Significant contamination is likely to be caused by running on the soil. So, it is important not to run on the soil on the local road around the Route 6 or road shoulder of the Route 6. It is recommended to wash tires and tire-houses when accidentally run on the soil. (author)

  5. Improving the Security and Performance of the BaBar Detector Controls System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotturi, Karen D.

    2003-01-01

    It starts out innocently enough--users want to monitor Online data and so run their own copies of the detector control GUIs in their offices and at home. But over time, the number of processes making requests for values to display on GUIs, webpages and stripcharts can grow, and affect the performance of an Input/Output Controller (IOC) such that it is unable to respond to requests from requests critical to data-taking. At worst, an IOC can hang, its CPU having been allocated 100% to responding to network requests. For the BaBar Online Detector Control System, we were able to eliminate this problem and make great gains in security by moving all of the IOCs to a non-routed, virtual LAN and by enlisting a workstation with two network interface cards to act as the interface between the virtual LAN and the public BaBar network. On the interface machine, we run the Experimental Physics Industrial Control System (EPICS) Channel Access (CA) gateway software (originating from Advanced Photon Source). This software accepts as inputs, all the channels which are loaded into the EPICS databases on all the IOCs. It polls them to update its copy of the values. It answers requests from applications by sending them the currently cached value. We adopted the requirement that data-taking would be independent of the gateway, so that, in the event of a gateway failure, data-taking would be uninterrupted. In this way, we avoided introducing any new risk elements to data-taking. Security rules already in use by the IOC were propagated to the gateway's own security rules and the security of the IOCs themselves was improved by removing them from the public BaBar network

  6. Performance of clustering techniques for solving multi depot vehicle routing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana M. Toro-Ocampo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle routing problem considering multiple depots is classified as NP-hard. MDVRP determines simultaneously the routes of a set of vehicles and aims to meet a set of clients with a known demand. The objective function of the problem is to minimize the total distance traveled by the routes given that all customers must be served considering capacity constraints in depots and vehicles. This paper presents a hybrid methodology that combines agglomerative clustering techniques to generate initial solutions with an iterated local search algorithm (ILS to solve the problem. Although previous studies clustering methods have been proposed like strategies to generate initial solutions, in this work the search is intensified on the information generated after applying the clustering technique. Besides an extensive analysis on the performance of techniques, and their effect in the final solution is performed. The operation of the proposed methodology is feasible and effective to solve the problem regarding the quality of the answers and computational times obtained on request evaluated literature

  7. Route planning module as a part of Supply Chain Management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Košíček

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the demand for creating a systematic approach for managing sales, ordering, and logistics has increased. Supply Chain Management (SCM is one of the responses to problems that have arose with the need for managing complex supply chains. Nowadays, most of the activities of Supply Chain Management is realized or supported with computing technologies. Route planning is an important part of Supply Chain Management related to both procurement and distribution. Route planning systems specify the sequences in which the selected transport vehicles should supply the demand points by requested quantities of goods at the right time. The paper is focused on the analysis of a route planning system which could be used as a part of Supply Chain Management information system or as a standalone application. It describes basic techniques and frameworks of transportation problems as well as important functional requirements, considering recent trends in the field of distribution planning. As a result, functional specification of basic features and other components of system are provided. The paper is a result of a joint initiative of the authors and a vendor of business information systems.

  8. Energy-efficient routing, modulation and spectrum allocation in elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yanxia; Gu, Rentao; Ji, Yuefeng

    2017-07-01

    With tremendous growth in bandwidth demand, energy consumption problem in elastic optical networks (EONs) becomes a hot topic with wide concern. The sliceable bandwidth-variable transponder in EON, which can transmit/receive multiple optical flows, was recently proposed to improve a transponder's flexibility and save energy. In this paper, energy-efficient routing, modulation and spectrum allocation (EE-RMSA) in EONs with sliceable bandwidth-variable transponder is studied. To decrease the energy consumption, we develop a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model with corresponding EE-RMSA algorithm for EONs. The MILP model jointly considers the modulation format and optical grooming in the process of routing and spectrum allocation with the objective of minimizing the energy consumption. With the help of genetic operators, the EE-RMSA algorithm iteratively optimizes the feasible routing path, modulation format and spectrum resources solutions by explore the whole search space. In order to save energy, the optical-layer grooming strategy is designed to transmit the lightpath requests. Finally, simulation results verify that the proposed scheme is able to reduce the energy consumption of the network while maintaining the blocking probability (BP) performance compare with the existing First-Fit-KSP algorithm, Iterative Flipping algorithm and EAMGSP algorithm especially in large network topology. Our results also demonstrate that the proposed EE-RMSA algorithm achieves almost the same performance as MILP on an 8-node network.

  9. Multicast routing for wavelength-routed WDM networks with dynamic membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Nen-Fu; Liu, Te-Lung; Wang, Yao-Tzung; Li, Bo

    2000-09-01

    Future broadband networks must support integrated services and offer flexible bandwidth usage. In our previous work, we explore the optical link control layer on the top of optical layer that enables the possibility of bandwidth on-demand service directly over wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) networks. Today, more and more applications and services such as video-conferencing software and Virtual LAN service require multicast support over the underlying networks. Currently, it is difficult to provide wavelength multicast over the optical switches without optical/electronic conversions although the conversion takes extra cost. In this paper, based on the proposed wavelength router architecture (equipped with ATM switches to offer O/E and E/O conversions when necessary), a dynamic multicast routing algorithm is proposed to furnish multicast services over WDM networks. The goal is to joint a new group member into the multicast tree so that the cost, including the link cost and the optical/electronic conversion cost, is kept as less as possible. The effectiveness of the proposed wavelength router architecture as well as the dynamic multicast algorithm is evaluated by simulation.

  10. HELPDESK TROUBLESHOOTING REQUESTS

    CERN Multimedia

    FM and CSE Group, TS Department

    2004-01-01

    As of the 08/03/2004 all the repair requests and other communication concerning the CERN tertiary buildings that so far have been transmitted to the TCR via 72201 will be handled directly by the FM helpdesk under the phone number 77777, i.e. problems on systems and equipment as: Electricity and lighting in office buildings, halls and workshops Heating and air conditioning in office buildings, halls and workshops Lifts (excluded the ones in shafts) Motorised doors Building structure and equipment: roofs, doors, windows, blinds, etc. Plumbing Toilets Cleaning (CERN wide) Restaurant equipment Roads and green areas Wastes collection The FM Helpdesk is available between 07h30 and 18h30. Troubleshooting requests, complaints and work requests will only be accepted during these opening hours. Outside these opening hours and for any problem in a machine building or on equipment that is not in the list above, you shall continue to contact the TCR under 72201 - 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Machine buildings are ...

  11. HELPDESK TROUBLESHOOTING REQUESTS

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2004-01-01

    As of the 08/03/2004 all the repair requests and other communication concerning the CERN tertiary buildings that so far have been transmitted to the TCR via 72201 will be handled directly by the FM helpdesk under the phone number 77777, i.e. problems on systems and equipment as: Electricity and lighting in office buildings, halls and workshops Heating and air conditioning in office buildings, halls and workshops Lifts (excluded the ones in shafts) Motorised doors Building structure and equipment: roofs, doors, windows, blinds, etc. Plumbing Toilets Cleaning (CERN wide) Restaurant equipment Roads and green areas Wastes collection The FM Helpdesk is available between 07h30 and 18h30. Troubleshooting requests, complaints and work requests will only be accepted during these opening hours. Outside these opening hours and for any problem in a machine building or on equipment that is not in the list above, you shall continue to contact the TCR under 72201 - 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Machine buildings are e...

  12. Route assessment using comparative risk factors integrated through a GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, D.M.; O'Connell, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The assessment of potential alternative routes for the shipment of spent nuclear fuel was simplified through the use of comparative risk factors evaluated using detailed route and environmental attributes. The route characteristics, integrated into risk measures, vary strongly with location and were developed from national, state, and local sources. The route data and evaluation were managed using a geographic information system (GIS). An assessment of four real North Florida routes was performed and an interstate highway route exhibited the lowest risk based on the application of the risk factors

  13. A Survey of Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangash, Javed Iqbal; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Anisi, Mohammad Hossein; Khan, Abdul Waheed

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) constitute a subset of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) responsible for monitoring vital sign-related data of patients and accordingly route this data towards a sink. In routing sensed data towards sinks, WBSNs face some of the same routing challenges as general WSNs, but the unique requirements of WBSNs impose some more constraints that need to be addressed by the routing mechanisms. This paper identifies various issues and challenges in pursuit of effective routing in WBSNs. Furthermore, it provides a detailed literature review of the various existing routing protocols used in the WBSN domain by discussing their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:24419163

  14. Comparison of routing metrics for wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nxumalo, SL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available in each and every relay node so as to find the next hop for the packet. A routing metric is simply a measure used for selecting the best path, used by a routing protocol. Figure 2 shows the relationship between a routing protocol and the routing... on its QoS-awareness level. The routing metrics that considered QoS the most were selected from each group. This section discusses the four routing metrics that were compared in this paper, which are: hop count (HOP), expected transmission count (ETX...

  15. ABORt: Acknowledgement-Based Opportunistic Routing Protocol for High Data Rate Multichannel WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamadoun Tall

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The ease of deployment and the auto-configuration capabilities of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs make them very attractive in different domains like environmental, home automation or heath care applications. The use of multichannel communications in WSNs helps to improve the overall performance of the network. However, in heavy traffic scenarios, routing protocols should be adapted to allow load balancing and to avoid losing data packets due to congestion and queue overflow. In this paper, we present an Acknowledgement-Based Opportunistic Routing (ABORt protocol designed for high data rate multichannel WSNs. It is a low overhead protocol that does not rely on synchronization for control traffic exchange during the operational phase of the network. ABORt is an opportunistic protocol that relies on link layer acknowledgements to disseminate routing metrics, which helps to reduce overhead. The performance of ABORt is evaluated using the Cooja simulator and the obtained results show that ABORt has a high packet delivery ratio with reduced packet end-to-end delay compared to two single channel routing protocols and two multichannel routing protocols that use number of hops and expected transmission count as routing metrics.

  16. StateGEN/StateNET - A structured method to perform route comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, J.W.; Erickson, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    StateGEN/StateNET is a modeling structure and routing algorithm designed expressly to address the needs of state and local governments to perform analyses of routing alternatives. StateGEN/StateNET is designed to permit the user to construct a network and assign attributes of interest to the network on a personal computer (PC). The completed network is then transferred via a modem to the TRANSNET system and the preferred route is determined based upon attribute weights assigned by the user. This modeling structure permits the state or local government to perform a routing analysis, such as that required by the US Department of Transportation (DOT) for Highway Route-Controlled Quantity shipments of radioactive materials, with a minimum of resources. StateGEN/StateNET provides a computerized version of the DOT guidelines or allows the user to structure their own network parameters. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the Department of Energy (DOE) lead organization for transportation research and development. The DOE Office of Defense Programs has been the prime sponsor of development of models and associated databases used to analyze the impacts of the transportation of radioactive materials. The routing algorithms used in StateGEN/StateNET were based on the existing models on TRANSNET, a system which was developed to enable outside users to access analytical codes and associated data developed for the DOE

  17. StateGEN/StateNET--A structured method to perform route comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, J.W.; Erickson, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    StateGEN/StateNET is a modelling structure and routing algorithm designed expressly to address the needs of state and local governments to perform analyses of routing alternatives. StateGEN/StateNET is designed to permit the user to construct a network and assign attributes of interest to the network on a personal computer (PC). The completed network is then transferred via a modem to the TRANSNET system (Cashwell, 1989) and the preferred route is determined based upon attribute weights assigned by the user. This modelling structure permits the state or local to perform a routing analysis, such as that required by the US Department of Transportation (DOT) for Highway Route-Controlled Quantity shipments of radioactive materials, with a minimum of resources. StateGEN/StateNET provides a computerized version of the DOT guidelines (Cashwell, 1989) or allows the user to structure their own network parameters. Sandia national Laboratories (SNL) is the Department of Energy's (DOE) lead organization for transportation research and development. The DOE Office of Defense Programs has been the prime sponsor of development of models and associated databases used to analyze the impacts of the transportation of radioactive materials. The routing algorithms used in StateGEN/StateNET were based on the existing models on TRANSNET, a system which was developed to enable outside users to access analytical codes and associated data developed for the DOE. 2 refs

  18. PNW River Reach Files -- 1:100k LLID Routed Streams (routes)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This feature class includes the ROUTE features from the 2001 version of the PNW River Reach files Arc/INFO coverage. Separate, companion feature classes are also...

  19. Walking along the Fibroblast Growth Factor 10 Route: A Key Pathway to Understand the Control and Regulation of Epithelial and Mesenchymal Cell-Lineage Formation during Lung Development and Repair after Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Agha, Elie; Bellusci, Saverio

    2014-01-01

    Basic research on embryonic lung development offers unique opportunities to make important discoveries that will impact human health. Developmental biologists interested in the molecular control of branching morphogenesis have intensively studied the developing lung, with its complex and seemingly stereotyped ramified structure. However, it is also an organ that is linked to a vast array of clinical problems in humans such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature babies and emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, fibrosis, and cancer in adults. Epithelial stem/progenitor cells reside in niches where they interact with specific extracellular matrices as well as with mesenchymal cells; the latter are still poorly characterized. Interactions of epithelial stem/progenitor cells with their microenvironments are usually instructive, controlling quiescence versus activation, proliferation, differentiation, and migration. During the past 18 years, Fgf10 has emerged not only as a marker for the distal lung mesenchyme during early lung development, but also as a key player in branching morphogenesis and a critical component of the niche for epithelial stem cells. In this paper, we will present the current knowledge regarding the lineage tree in the lung, with special emphasis on cell-lineage decisions in the lung mesenchyme and the role of Fgf10 in this context.

  20. Walking along the Fibroblast Growth Factor 10 Route: A Key Pathway to Understand the Control and Regulation of Epithelial and Mesenchymal Cell-Lineage Formation during Lung Development and Repair after Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie El Agha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic research on embryonic lung development offers unique opportunities to make important discoveries that will impact human health. Developmental biologists interested in the molecular control of branching morphogenesis have intensively studied the developing lung, with its complex and seemingly stereotyped ramified structure. However, it is also an organ that is linked to a vast array of clinical problems in humans such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature babies and emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, fibrosis, and cancer in adults. Epithelial stem/progenitor cells reside in niches where they interact with specific extracellular matrices as well as with mesenchymal cells; the latter are still poorly characterized. Interactions of epithelial stem/progenitor cells with their microenvironments are usually instructive, controlling quiescence versus activation, proliferation, differentiation, and migration. During the past 18 years, Fgf10 has emerged not only as a marker for the distal lung mesenchyme during early lung development, but also as a key player in branching morphogenesis and a critical component of the niche for epithelial stem cells. In this paper, we will present the current knowledge regarding the lineage tree in the lung, with special emphasis on cell-lineage decisions in the lung mesenchyme and the role of Fgf10 in this context.

  1. Vaccination of cattle with Mycobacterium bovis BCG by a combination of systemic and oral routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddle, Bryce M; Denis, Michel; Aldwell, Frank E; Martin Vordermeier, H; Glyn Hewinson, R; Neil Wedlock, D

    2008-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine delivered to calves by the subcutaneous (s.c.) or by the oral route in a formulated lipid matrix has been previously shown to induce similar levels of protection against bovine tuberculosis. The current study was aimed at determining whether a combination of delivering BCG by s.c. and oral routes would enhance levels of protection, compared to only one route of vaccination. Forty calves were randomly divided into four groups (10/group). Calves were vaccinated with 10(6)colony forming units (CFU) of BCG Pasteur by the s.c. route or orally with 10(9)CFU BCG incorporated into a lipid formulation. One group received a combination of BCG administered by both the s.c. and oral routes and a non-vaccinated group served as a control. The two groups of calves that received s.c. BCG produced strong IFN-gamma responses in whole blood cultures stimulated with bovine purified protein derivative (PPD) 3 weeks after vaccination. Cattle vaccinated just with oral BCG in a lipid matrix produced a strong IFN-gamma response 8 weeks after vaccination, and peaking at 11 weeks after vaccination. All calves were challenged by the intratracheal route with M. bovis 15 weeks after vaccination and were euthanized and necropsied to assess protection at 17 weeks following challenge. BCG given s.c. or orally induced significant and comparable levels of protection against the virulent challenge. Vaccination of cattle by a combination of s.c./oral routes did not enhance protection beyond that achieved by s.c. or oral vaccination alone. We conclude that vaccination of cattle with BCG by a combination of routes has no beneficial additive effects, compared to a single s.c. administration of BCG or BCG given orally in a lipid formulation.

  2. Routing Protocols for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: Taxonomy, Research Challenges, Routing Strategies and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar; Ali, Ihsan; Ghani, Abdullah; Khan, Nawsher; Alsaqer, Mohammed; Rahman, Atiq Ur; Mahmood, Hasan

    2018-05-18

    Recent research in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) has gained the attention of researchers in academia and industry for a number of applications. They include disaster and earthquake prediction, water quality and environment monitoring, leakage and mine detection, military surveillance and underwater navigation. However, the aquatic medium is associated with a number of limitations and challenges: long multipath delay, high interference and noise, harsh environment, low bandwidth and limited battery life of the sensor nodes. These challenges demand research techniques and strategies to be overcome in an efficient and effective fashion. The design of routing protocols for UWSNs is one of the promising solutions to cope with these challenges. This paper presents a survey of the routing protocols for UWSNs. For the ease of description, the addressed routing protocols are classified into two groups: localization-based and localization-free protocols. These groups are further subdivided according to the problems they address or the major parameters they consider during routing. Unlike the existing surveys, this survey considers only the latest and state-of-the-art routing protocols. In addition, every protocol is described in terms of its routing strategy and the problem it addresses and solves. The merit(s) of each protocol is (are) highlighted along with the cost. A description of the protocols in this fashion has a number of advantages for researchers, as compared to the existing surveys. Firstly, the description of the routing strategy of each protocol makes its routing operation easily understandable. Secondly, the demerit(s) of a protocol provides (provide) insight into overcoming its flaw(s) in future investigation. This, in turn, leads to the foundation of new protocols that are more intelligent, robust and efficient with respect to the desired parameters. Thirdly, a protocol can be selected for the appropriate application based on its described

  3. Simulation of Controller Pilot Data Link Communications over VHF Digital Link Mode 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretmersky, Steven C.; Murawski, Robert; Nguyen, Thanh C.; Raghavan, Rajesh S.

    2004-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has established an operational plan for the future Air Traffic Management (ATM) system, in which the Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) is envisioned to evolve into digital messaging that will take on an ever increasing role in controller to pilot communications, significantly changing the way the National Airspace System (NAS) is operating. According to FAA, CPDLC represents the first phase of the transition from the current analog voice system to an International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) compliant system in which digital communication becomes the alternate and perhaps primary method of routine communication. The CPDLC application is an Air Traffic Service (ATS) application in which pilots and controllers exchange messages via an addressed data link. CPDLC includes a set of clearance, information, and request message elements that correspond to existing phraseology employed by current Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures. These message elements encompass altitude assignments, crossing constraints, lateral deviations, route changes and clearances, speed assignments, radio frequency assignments, and various requests for information. The pilot is provided with the capability to respond to messages, to request clearances and information, to report information, and to declare/rescind an emergency. A 'free text' capability is also provided to exchange information not conforming to defined formats. This paper presents simulated results of the aeronautical telecommunication application Controller Pilot Data Link Communications over VHF Digital Link Mode 3 (VDL Mode 3). The objective of this simulation study was to determine the impact of CPDLC traffic loads, in terms of timely message delivery and capacity of the VDL Mode 3 subnetwork. The traffic model is based on and is used for generating air/ground messages with different priorities. Communication is modeled for the en route domain of the Cleveland

  4. Indoor Semantic Modelling for Routing: The Two-Level Routing Approach for Indoor Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans perform many activities indoors and they show a growing need for indoor navigation, especially in unfamiliar buildings such as airports, museums and hospitals. Complexity of such buildings poses many challenges for building managers and visitors. Indoor navigation services play an important role in supporting these indoor activities. Indoor navigation covers extensive topics such as: 1 indoor positioning and localization; 2 indoor space representation for navigation model generation; 3 indoor routing computation; 4 human wayfinding behaviours; and 5 indoor guidance (e.g., textual directories. So far, a large number of studies of pedestrian indoor navigation have presented diverse navigation models and routing algorithms/methods. However, the major challenge is rarely referred to: how to represent the complex indoor environment for pedestrians and conduct routing according to the different roles and sizes of users. Such complex buildings contain irregular shapes, large open spaces, complicated obstacles and different types of passages. A navigation model can be very complicated if the indoors are accurately represented. Although most research demonstrates feasible indoor navigation models and related routing methods in regular buildings, the focus is still on a general navigation model for pedestrians who are simplified as circles. In fact, pedestrians represent different sizes, motion abilities and preferences (e.g., described in user profiles, which should be reflected in navigation models and be considered for indoor routing (e.g., relevant Spaces of Interest and Points of Interest. In order to address this challenge, this thesis proposes an innovative indoor modelling and routing approach – two-level routing. It specially targets the case of routing in complex buildings for distinct users. The conceptual (first level uses general free indoor spaces: this is represented by the logical network whose nodes represent the spaces and edges

  5. Route Monopolie and Optimal Nonlinear Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournut, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    To cope with air traffic growth and congested airports, two solutions are apparent on the supply side: 1) use larger aircraft in the hub and spoke system; or 2) develop new routes through secondary airports. An enlarged route system through secondary airports may increase the proportion of route monopolies in the air transport market.The monopoly optimal non linear pricing policy is well known in the case of one dimension (one instrument, one characteristic) but not in the case of several dimensions. This paper explores the robustness of the one dimensional screening model with respect to increasing the number of instruments and the number of characteristics. The objective of this paper is then to link and fill the gap in both literatures. One of the merits of the screening model has been to show that a great varieD" of economic questions (non linear pricing, product line choice, auction design, income taxation, regulation...) could be handled within the same framework.VCe study a case of non linear pricing (2 instruments (2 routes on which the airline pro_ddes customers with services), 2 characteristics (demand of services on these routes) and two values per characteristic (low and high demand of services on these routes)) and we show that none of the conclusions of the one dimensional analysis remain valid. In particular, upward incentive compatibility constraint may be binding at the optimum. As a consequence, they may be distortion at the top of the distribution. In addition to this, we show that the optimal solution often requires a kind of form of bundling, we explain explicitly distortions and show that it is sometimes optimal for the monopolist to only produce one good (instead of two) or to exclude some buyers from the market. Actually, this means that the monopolist cannot fully apply his monopoly power and is better off selling both goods independently.We then define all the possible solutions in the case of a quadratic cost function for a uniform

  6. Route Fidelity during Marine Megafauna Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis W. Horton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and protection of marine megafauna require robust knowledge of where and when animals are located. Yet, our ability to predict animal distributions in space and time remains limited due to difficulties associated with studying elusive animals with large home ranges. The widespread deployment of satellite telemetry technology creates unprecedented opportunities to remotely monitor animal movements and to analyse the spatial and temporal trajectories of these movements from a variety of geophysical perspectives. Reproducible patterns in movement trajectories can help elucidate the potential mechanisms by which marine megafauna navigate across vast expanses of open-ocean. Here, we present an empirical analysis of humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae, great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias, and northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris satellite telemetry-derived route fidelity movements in magnetic and gravitational coordinates. Our analyses demonstrate that: (1 humpback whales, great white sharks and northern elephant seals are capable of performing route fidelity movements across millions of square kilometers of open ocean with a spatial accuracy of better than 150 km despite temporal separations as long as 7 years between individual movements; (2 route fidelity movements include significant (p < 0.05 periodicities that are comparable in duration to the lunar cycles and semi-cycles; (3 latitude and bedrock-dependent gravitational cues are stronger predictors of route fidelity movements than spherical magnetic coordinate cues when analyzed with respect to the temporally dependent moon illumination cycle. We further show that both route fidelity and non-route fidelity movement trajectories, for all three species, describe overlapping in-phase or antiphase sinusoids when individual movements are normalized to the gravitational acceleration present at migratory departure sites. Although these empirical results provide an

  7. Performance Measurement Baseline Change Request

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Performance Measurement Baseline Change Request template is used to document changes to scope, cost, schedule, or operational performance metrics for SSA's Major...

  8. Chlorpyrifos PBPK/PD model for multiple routes of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poet, Torka S; Timchalk, Charles; Hotchkiss, Jon A; Bartels, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    1. Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an important pesticide used to control crop insects. Human Exposures to CPF will occur primarily through oral exposure to residues on foods. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model has been developed that describes the relationship between oral, dermal and inhalation doses of CPF and key events in the pathway for cholinergic effects. The model was built on a prior oral model that addressed age-related changes in metabolism and physiology. This multi-route model was developed in rats and humans to validate all scenarios in a parallelogram design. 2. Critical biological effects from CPF exposure require metabolic activation to CPF oxon, and small amounts of metabolism in tissues will potentially have a great effect on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic outcomes. Metabolism (bioactivation and detoxification) was therefore added in diaphragm, brain, lung and skin compartments. Pharmacokinetic data are available for controlled human exposures via the oral and dermal routes and from oral and inhalation studies in rats. The validated model was then used to determine relative dermal versus inhalation uptake from human volunteers exposed to CPF in an indoor scenario.

  9. Air Traffic Controller Acceptability of Unmanned Aircraft System Detect-and-Avoid Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Eric R.; Isaacson, Douglas R.; Stevens, Derek

    2016-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted with 15 retired air traffic controllers to investigate two research questions: (a) what procedures are appropriate for the use of unmanned aircraft system (UAS) detect-and-avoid systems, and (b) how long in advance of a predicted close encounter should pilots request or execute a separation maneuver. The controller participants managed a busy Oakland air route traffic control sector with mixed commercial/general aviation and manned/UAS traffic, providing separation services, miles-in-trail restrictions and issuing traffic advisories. Controllers filled out post-scenario and post-simulation questionnaires, and metrics were collected on the acceptability of procedural options and temporal thresholds. The states of aircraft were also recorded when controllers issued traffic advisories. Subjective feedback indicated a strong preference for pilots to request maneuvers to remain well clear from intruder aircraft rather than deviate from their IFR clearance. Controllers also reported that maneuvering at 120 seconds until closest point of approach (CPA) was too early; maneuvers executed with less than 90 seconds until CPA were more acceptable. The magnitudes of the requested maneuvers were frequently judged to be too large, indicating a possible discrepancy between the quantitative UAS well clear standard and the one employed subjectively by manned pilots. The ranges between pairs of aircraft and the times to CPA at which traffic advisories were issued were used to construct empirical probability distributions of those metrics. Given these distributions, we propose that UAS pilots wait until an intruder aircraft is approximately 80 seconds to CPA or 6 nmi away before requesting a maneuver, and maneuver immediately if the intruder is within 60 seconds and 4 nmi. These thresholds should make the use of UAS detect and avoid systems compatible with current airspace procedures and controller expectations.

  10. Size-controlled synthesis of NiFe2O4 nanospheres via a PEG assisted hydrothermal route and their catalytic properties in oxidation of alcohols by periodic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Bappi; Purkayastha, Debraj Dhar; Dhar, Siddhartha Sankar

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of NiFe 2 O 4 NPs with (C 4 H 9 ) 3 N as hydroxylating agent. • PEG 4000 was used as surfactant to control sizes of NPs. • The TEM images revealed the material to be spherical in shape with sizes 2–10 nm. • NiFe 2 O 4 was used as recyclable catalyst for oxidation of alcohols by periodic acid. - Abstract: A novel and facile approach for synthesis of spinel nickel ferrites (NiFe 2 O 4 ) nanoparticles (NPs) employing homogeneous chemical precipitation followed by hydrothermal heating is reported. The synthesis involves use of tributylamine (TBA) as a hydroxylating agent in synthesis of nickel ferrites. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 was used as surfactant. As-synthesized NiFe 2 O 4 NPs were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N 2 adsorption–desorption isotherm (BET) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The XRD pattern revealed formation of cubic face-centered NiFe 2 O 4 and TEM image showed spherical particles of sizes 2–10 nm. These NiFe 2 O 4 NPs were used as magnetically recoverable catalyst in oxidation of cyclic alcohols to their corresponding aldehydes by periodic acid. This eco-friendly procedure affords products in very high yield and selectivity. The reusability of the catalyst is proved to be noteworthy as the material exhibits no significant changes in its catalytic activity even after five cycles of reuse.

  11. Public policies of struggle against air pollution. A survey requested by the National Assembly Committee for assessment and control of public policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    This report focuses on the assessment and perspectives of French public policies of struggle against outdoor air pollution, out of problems related to greenhouse gas emissions. It is based on a sectoral analysis of actions undertaken by public authorities, but also and more particularly on measures adopted within the frame of pollution peak management in March 2014 and March 2015, as well as on plans for atmosphere protection adopted in Ile-de-France, in the Arve river valley, in Bouches-du-Rhone, in Haute-Normandie, and in the Grenoble region, as these regions display very different characteristics in terms of atmospheric pollution. A questionnaire was also sent to regional authorities, and measures adopted for air quality control in some neighbouring countries (Germany, Italy, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Switzerland) have been examined. The report shows that stakes are always better identified and addressed (general improvement of regulated pollutants, confirmed risks for health, a constraining regulatory framework, and pollutants still to be better controlled). However, it shows that measures are not coherent enough. It highlights contradictions with other national policies, badly organised governance, the existence of multiple legal and financial tools but with not well known expenses, and a not very convincing management of pollution peaks. It discusses efforts to be amplified: a wider scope of application of the polluter-pay principle, a better distribution of efforts among activity sectors, an implementation of more ambitious arrangements in the transport sector, and a better communication for a better change acceptance

  12. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

    2014-09-01

    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  13. Latent factors and route choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    . A reliable dataset was prepared through measures of internal consistency and sampling adequacy, and data were analyzed with a proper application of factor analysis to the route choice context. For the dataset obtained from the survey, six latent constructs affecting driver behaviour were extracted and scores...... on each factor for each survey participant were calculated. Path generation algorithms were examined with respect to observed behaviour, through a measure of reproduction with deterministic techniques of the routes indicated in the answers to the survey. Results presented evidence that the majority...... and Link Nested Logit. Estimates were produced from model specifications that considered level-of-service, label and facility dummy variables. Moreover, a modelling framework was designed to represent drivers’ choices as affected by the latent constructs extracted with factor analysis. Previous experience...

  14. Chemical Routes to Colloidal Chalcogenide Nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaak, Raymond E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2014-11-25

    This project began with an emphasis on developing new low-­temperature synthetic routes to intermetallic alloys in order to advance the synthesis and processing science of superconducting materials, as well as to potentially discover new materials that would be inaccessible using more traditional higher-­temperature methods. Our initial target materials, chosen as model systems for developing new low-­temperature solution-­based synthetic platforms, were based on well known superconducting alloys, including Nb3M (M = Ga, Ge, Sn), Bi-­M (M = In, Cu), and MgCNi3. Several key, fundamental synthetic challenges that underpinned the formation of these materials using solution chemistry routes were identified and investigated.

  15. Design alternatives for wavelength routing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliotis, K.; Papadimitriou, G. I.; Pomportsis, A. S.

    2003-03-01

    This paper attempts to provide a high level overview of many of the technologies employed in optical networks with a focus on wavelength-routing networks. Optical networks involve a number of technologies from the physics of light through protocols and networks architectures. In fact there is so much technology and know-how that most people involved with optical networks only have a full understanding of the narrow area they deal with. We start first examining the principles that govern light and its use as a wave guide, and then turn our focus to the various components that constitute an optical network and conclude with the description of all optical networks and wavelength-routed networks in greater detail.

  16. Effective Privacy-Preserving Online Route Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente, Carmen Ruiz; Assent, Ira; Jensen, Christian S.

    2011-01-01

    An online Route Planning Service (RPS) computes a route from one location to another. Current RPSs such as Google Maps require the use of precise locations. However, some users may not want to disclose their source and destination locations due to privacy concerns. An approach that supplies fake...... privacy. The solution re-uses a standard online RPS rather than replicate this functionality, and it needs no trusted third party. The solution is able to compute the exact results without leaking of the exact locations to the RPS or un-trusted parties. In addition, we provide heuristics that reduce...... the number of times that the RPS needs to be queried, and we also describe how the accuracy and privacy requirements can be relaxed to achieve better performance. An empirical study offers insight into key properties of the approach....

  17. Rich Vehicle Routing Problems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Min

    very short computational time on real-life data involving up to 200 pairs of suppliers and customers. The second problem we consider is a dynamic vehicle routing problem with multiple objectives over a planning horizon that consists of multiple periods. In this problem, customer orders are revealed...... the company’s solution in terms of all the objectives, including the travel time, customer waiting and daily workload balances, under the given constraints considered in the work. Finally, we address an integrated vehicle routing and driver scheduling problem, in which a large number of practical constraints....... The method is implemented and tested on real-life data involving up to 2000 orders. It is shown that the method is able to provide solutions of good quality within reasonable running time....

  18. Enabling Routes as Context in Mobile Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brilingaite, Agne; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Zokaite, Nora

    With the continuing advances in wireless communications, geo-positioning, and portable electronics, an infrastructure is emerging that enables the delivery of on-line, location-enabled services to very large numbers of mobile users. A typical usage situation for mobile services is one characteriz...... and accumulates the routes of a user along with their usage patterns and that makes the routes available to services. Experiences from using the component on logs of GPS positions acquired from vehicles traveling within a real road network are reported....... by a small screen and no keyboard, and by the service being only a secondary focus of the user. Under such circumstances, it is particularly important to deliver the "right" information and service at the right time, with as little user interaction as possible. This may be achieved by making services context...

  19. ASR performance analysis of an experimental call routing system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modipa, T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Call routing is an important application of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technology. In this paper the authors discuss the main issues affecting the performance of a call routing system and describe the ASR component of the "Auto...

  20. Route Choice Model Based on Game Theory for Commuters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licai Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The traffic behaviours of commuters may cause traffic congestion during peak hours. Advanced Traffic Information System can provide dynamic information to travellers. Due to the lack of timeliness and comprehensiveness, the provided information cannot satisfy the travellers’ needs. Since the assumptions of traditional route choice model based on Expected Utility Theory conflict with the actual situation, a route choice model based on Game Theory is proposed to provide reliable route choice to commuters in actual situation in this paper. The proposed model treats the alternative routes as game players and utilizes the precision of predicted information and familiarity of traffic condition to build a game. The optimal route can be generated considering Nash Equilibrium by solving the route choice game. Simulations and experimental analysis show that the proposed model can describe the commuters’ routine route choice decisionexactly and the provided route is reliable.