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Sample records for controlled rosuvastatin multinational

  1. Relationship between angina pectoris and outcomes in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction : an analysis of the Controlled Rosuvastatin Multinational Trial in Heart Failure (CORONA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badar, Athar A.; Perez-Moreno, Ana Cristina; Jhund, Pardeep S.; Wong, Chih M.; Hawkins, Nathaniel M.; Cleland, John G. F.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Wikstrand, John; Kjekshus, John; Wedel, Hans; Watkins, Stuart; Gardner, Roy S.; Petrie, Mark C.; McMurray, John J. V.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Angina pectoris is common in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF) but its relationship with outcomes has not been well defined. This relationship was investigated further in a retrospective analysis of the Controlled Rosuvastatin Multinational Trial in Heart Failure

  2. Effects of statin therapy according to plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration in the Controlled Rosuvastatin Multinational Trial in Heart Failure (CORONA): a retrospective analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurray, John J V; Kjekshus, John; Gullestad, Lars

    2009-01-01

    -generating study, we found a significant interaction between hs-CRP and the effect of rosuvastatin for most end points whereby rosuvastatin treatment was associated with better outcomes in patients with hs-CRP > or = 2.0 mg/L. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique...

  3. Rosuvastatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestor® ... Rosuvastatin is used together with diet, weight-loss, and exercise to reduce the risk of heart attack ... who are at risk of developing heart disease. Rosuvastatin is also used to decrease the amount of ...

  4. Telomere length and outcomes in ischaemic heart failure : Data from the COntrolled ROsuvastatin multiNAtional Trial in Heart Failure (CORONA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haver, Vincent G.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Kjekshus, John; Fox, Jayne C.; Wedel, Hans; Wikstrand, John; de Boer, Rudolf A.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; McMurray, John J. V.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; van der Harst, Pim

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Leucocyte telomere length is considered a marker of biological ageing and has been suggested to be shorter in patients with CAD and heart failure compared with healthy controls. The aim of this study was to determine whether telomere length is associated with clinical outcomes in patients with

  5. Risk of Stroke in Chronic Heart Failure Patients Without Atrial Fibrillation: Analysis of the Controlled Rosuvastatin in Multinational Trial Heart Failure (CORONA) and the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Insufficienza Cardiaca-Heart Failure (GISSI-HF) Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H; Perez, Ana-Cristina; Fulton, Rachael L; Jhund, Pardeep S; Latini, Roberto; Tognoni, Gianni; Wikstrand, John; Kjekshus, John; Lip, Gregory Y H; Maggioni, Aldo P; Tavazzi, Luigi; Lees, Kennedy R; McMurray, John J V

    2015-04-28

    Our aim was to describe the incidence and predictors of stroke in patients who have heart failure without atrial fibrillation (AF). We pooled 2 contemporary heart failure trials, the Controlled Rosuvastatin in Multinational Trial Heart Failure (CORONA) and the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Insufficienza cardiaca-Heart Failure trial (GISSI-HF). Of the 9585 total patients, 6054 did not have AF. Stroke occurred in 165 patients (4.7%) with AF and in 206 patients (3.4%) without AF (rates 16.8/1000 patient-years and 11.1/1000 patient-years, respectively). Using Cox proportional-hazards models, we identified the following independent predictors of stroke in patients without AF (ranked by χ(2) value): age (hazard ratio, 1.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.63 per 10 years), New York Heart Association class (1.60, 1.21-2.12 class III/IV versus II), diabetes mellitus treated with insulin (1.87, 1.22-2.88), body mass index (0.74, 0.60-0.91 per 5 kg/m(2) up to 30), and previous stroke (1.81, 1.19-2.74). N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (available in 2632 patients) was also an independent predictor of stroke (hazard ratio, 1.31; 1.11-1.57 per log unit) when added to this model. With the use of a risk score formulated from these predictors, we found that patients in the upper third of risk had a rate of stroke that approximated the risk in patients with AF. A small number of demographic and clinical variables identified a subset of patients who have heart failure without AF at a high risk of stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. An economic evaluation of rosuvastatin treatment in systolic heart failure : evidence from the CORONA trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorgelly, Paula K.; Briggs, Andrew H.; Wedel, Hans; Dunselman, Peter; Hjalmarson, Ake; Kjekshus, John; Waagstein, Finn; Wikstrand, John; Janosi, Andras; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Barrios, Vivencio; Fonseca, Candida; McMurray, John J. V.

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of 10 mg rosuvastatin daily for older patients with systolic heart failure in the Controlled Rosuvastatin Multinational Study in Heart Failure (CORONA) trial. This within trial analysis of CORONA used major cardiovascular (CV) events as the outcome measure. Resourc

  7. Effects of Rosuvastatin on Coronary Flow Reserve and Metabolic Mismatch in Patients With Heart Failure (from the CORONA Study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Harst, Pim; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Tio, Rene A.; Dunselman, Peter H. J. M.; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.; van den Heuvel, Ad F. M.; Voors, Adriaan A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.

    2010-01-01

    In patients with heart failure (HF), statin treatment might improve myocardial perfusion, but could also have detrimental effects on myocardial metabolism. A predefined substudy of the Controlled Rosuvastatin Multinational Trial in Heart Failure (CORONA) trial sought to determine the effects of stat

  8. rosuvastatin (JUPITER)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge; Ridker, Paul M; MacFadyen, Jean G;

    2009-01-01

    were calculated across a range of end points, timeframes, and subgroups using data from Justification for the Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER), a randomized evaluation of rosuvastatin 20 mg versus placebo conducted among 17 802 apparently healthy men...... infarction, stroke, revascularization, or death, the 5-year NNT within JUPITER was 20 (95% CI, 14 to 34). All subgroups had 5-year NNT values for this end point below 50; as examples, 5-year NNT values were 17 for men and 31 for women, 21 for whites and 19 for nonwhites, 18 for those with body mass index 300...

  9. Study on the control mechanism of China aerospace enterprises' binary multinational operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jian; Li Hanling; Wu Weiwei

    2008-01-01

    China's aerospace enterprises carry on the multinational operation and participate in the international competition and the international division of labor and cooperation positively.This article first analyzs China aerospace enterprises' binary multinational business control objective and constructes its model.Then the article analyzes the tangible and intangible control mechanism of China aerospace enterprises' binary multinational operation respectively.Finally,the article constructs the model of China aerospace enterprises' binary multinational operation mechanisms.

  10. Management Control Systems in Subsidiaries of Multinationals in the Emerging Market of Central Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gusc, J.S.; Bremmers, H.J.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2005-01-01

    Using transaction cost theory and the theory of multinational enterprise, this study examines the extent of the degree to which management of multinational companies can control over its subsidiaries' configuration and coordination abilities. Empirical results showed that the subsidiaries enjoyed a

  11. Rosuvastatin-induced pemphigoid.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murad, Aizuri A

    2012-01-01

    Statins are widely prescribed medications and very well tolerated. Rosuvastatin is another member of this drug used to treat dyslipidaemia. It is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Immunobullous disease is usually idiopathic but can be drug-induced. Both idiopathic and iatrogenic forms share common clinical and immunohistological features. The authors report a case of pemphigoid induced by rosuvastatin, a commonly prescribed medication. To our knowledge, there is limited report on rosuvastatin associated with pemphigoid in the literature.

  12. LIPID-LOWERING EFFICACY OF ROSUVASTATIN COMPARED WITH OTHER STATINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Meshkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of lipid-lowering effect of rosuvastatin is presented, as well as the main results of the study of rosuvastatin therapy efficacy , in comparison with other statins, received in controlled clinical trials of the GALAXY program: COMETS, LUNAR, MERCURY-I, SOLAR, STELLAR.

  13. LIPID-LOWERING EFFICACY OF ROSUVASTATIN COMPARED WITH OTHER STATINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Meshkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of lipid-lowering effect of rosuvastatin is presented, as well as the main results of the study of rosuvastatin therapy efficacy , in comparison with other statins, received in controlled clinical trials of the GALAXY program: COMETS, LUNAR, MERCURY-I, SOLAR, STELLAR.

  14. Current perspectives on rosuvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Miao Hu, Brian Tomlinson Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong Abstract: Rosuvastatin is one of the most potent statins available for reducing circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels, which enables more high-risk patients to achieve their lipid goals. Its favorable balance of effects on atherogenic and protective lipoproteins and its pleiotropic effects, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and improvement in endothelial dysfunction, are associated with slowing of progression of atherosclerosis within the artery wall and have been translated into clinical benefits for cardiovascular outcomes. This review provides an update on the safety and the efficacy of rosuvastatin in recent large clinical trials. It appears that rosuvastatin has a beneficial effect on the progression of atherosclerosis across the clinical dosage range of 2.5–40 mg. It reduced cardiovascular events in relatively low-risk subjects with elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and normal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. As with other statins, rosuvastatin did not show overall benefit in terms of survival in patients with heart failure, but certain clinical or biochemical markers reflecting underlying disease characteristics may help to identify subgroups of patients that benefit from statin therapy. In patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing chronic hemodialysis, rosuvastatin had no effect on reducing cardiovascular events. Although there is a slightly increased risk of incident diabetes with this class of agents, the absolute benefits of statin therapy on cardiovascular events overweigh the risk in patients with moderate or high cardiovascular risk or with documented cardiovascular disease. As with other statins, rosuvastatin is an appropriate therapy in addition to antihypertensive treatment to reduce cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. Keywords

  15. Current Perspectives on rosuvastatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Miao; Tomlinson, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Rosuvastatin is one of the most potent statins available for reducing circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, which enables more high-risk patients to achieve their lipid goals. Its favorable balance of effects on atherogenic and protective lipoproteins and its pleiotropic effects, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and improvement in endothelial dysfunction, are associated with slowing of progression of atherosclerosis within the artery wall and have been translated into clinical benefits for cardiovascular outcomes. This review provides an update on the safety and the efficacy of rosuvastatin in recent large clinical trials. It appears that rosuvastatin has a beneficial effect on the progression of atherosclerosis across the clinical dosage range of 2.5–40 mg. It reduced cardiovascular events in relatively low-risk subjects with elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and normal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. As with other statins, rosuvastatin did not show overall benefit in terms of survival in patients with heart failure, but certain clinical or biochemical markers reflecting underlying disease characteristics may help to identify subgroups of patients that benefit from statin therapy. In patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing chronic hemodialysis, rosuvastatin had no effect on reducing cardiovascular events. Although there is a slightly increased risk of incident diabetes with this class of agents, the absolute benefits of statin therapy on cardiovascular events overweigh the risk in patients with moderate or high cardiovascular risk or with documented cardiovascular disease. As with other statins, rosuvastatin is an appropriate therapy in addition to antihypertensive treatment to reduce cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. PMID:23637557

  16. Institutionalism and culture in strategies of multinational firms: the case of Johnson controls Inc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Vargas-Hernández

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze both the internal and external aspects that may pose a risk to the operations of the subsidiaries of the multinational Johnson Controls Inc. in the U.S. and Mexico from an institutional point of view. The main challenges are the impact in the achievement of goals both of workers and of the same organization and the influence institutions have on the organizational environment, for the decommissioning of some branch/ subsidiary.

  17. Local Nordic tobacco interests collaborated with multinational companies to maintain a united front and undermine tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-03-01

    To analyse how local tobacco companies in the Nordic countries, individually and through National Manufacturers' Associations, cooperated with British American Tobacco and Philip Morris in denying the health hazards of smoking and undermining tobacco control. Analysis of tobacco control policies in the Nordic countries and tobacco industry documents. Nordic countries were early adopters of tobacco control policies. The multinational tobacco companies recognised this fact and mobilised to oppose these policies, in part because of fear that they would set unfavourable precedents. Since at least 1972, the Nordic tobacco companies were well informed about and willing to participate in the multinational companies activities to obscure the health dangers of smoking and secondhand smoke and to oppose tobacco control policies. Cooperation between multinational companies, Nordic national manufacturer associations and local companies ensured a united front on smoking and health issues in the Nordic area that was consistent with the positions that the multinational companies were taking. This cooperation delayed smoke-free laws and undermined other tobacco control measures. Local tobacco companies worked with multinational companies to undermine tobacco control in distant and small Nordic markets because of concern that pioneering policies initiated in Nordic countries would spread to bigger market areas. Claims by the local Nordic companies that they were not actively involved with the multinationals are not supported by the facts. These results also demonstrate that the industry appreciates the global importance of both positive and negative public health precedents in tobacco control.

  18. Hepatic HNF1 transcription factors control the induction of PCSK9 mediated by rosuvastatin in normolipidemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bin; Singh, Amar Bahadur; Shende, Vikram Ravindra; Liu, Jingwen

    2017-03-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) impedes low‑density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR)-mediated LDL-cholesterol uptake and has hence emerged as a critical regulator of serum cholesterol levels and a new therapeutic target for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Statins have been shown to elevate circulating PCSK9 levels by stimulating PCSK9 gene transcription, which reduces the clinical efficacy of statin in LDL‑cholesterol reduction. The transcription of PCSK9 is partially controlled by the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF1) binding site embedded in the proximal region of its promoter. In this study, we utilized adenoviral shRNA delivery vectors to generate liver-specific knockdown of HNF1α (Ad‑shHNF1α) or HNF1β (Ad‑shHNF1β) in hamsters to examine the impact of reduced hepatic expression of HNF1 transcription factors on statin‑induced elevation of PCSK9 expression and serum cholesterol levels. We showed that the administration of rosuvastatin (RSV) to normolipidemic hamsters significantly augmented hepatic PCSK9 expression and serum PCSK9 levels. In addition, RSV treatment increased hepatic HNF1α protein levels without a clear effect on HNF1α mRNA expression. Injection of Ad-shHNF1α or Ad‑shHNF1β into hamsters both blunted RSV‑induced elevation of PCSK9 serum concentration and hepatic mRNA and protein levels, which led to significant increases in liver LDLR protein abundance. Furthermore, hepatic depletion of HNF1 factors lowered circulating total cholesterol and non‑high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in RSV‑treated hamsters. Our study demonstrates that both HNF1α and HNF1β are positive regulators of hepatic PCSK9 transcription in hamster species and that transient, liver-specific knockdown of either HNF1α or HNF1β could antagonize the RSV‑induced elevation of serum PCSK9 and reduce circulating cholesterol levels.

  19. Liver toxicity of rosuvastatin therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe Famularo; Luca Miele; Giovanni Minisola; Antonio Grieco

    2007-01-01

    We report here a case of clinically significant liver toxicity after a brief course of rosuvastatin, which is the first statin approved by the regulatory authorities since the withdrawal of cerivastatin. Whether rosuvastatin has a greater potential compared with other statins to damage the liver is unclear and the involved mechanisms are also unknown. However, rosuvastatin is taken up by hepatocytes more selectively and more efficiently than other statins, and this may reasonably represent an important variable to explain the hepatotoxic potential of rosuvastatin. Our report supports the view that a clinically significant risk of liver toxicity should be considered even when rosuvastatin is given at the range of doses used in common clinical practice.

  20. Photocatalytic degradation of rosuvastatin: Analytical studies and toxicity evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Tiele Caprioli, E-mail: tiele@enq.ufrgs.br [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Engenheiro Luiz Englert s/n, CEP: 90040-040 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Pizzolato, Tânia Mara [Chemical Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500, CEP: 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Arenzon, Alexandre [Ecology Center, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500, CEP: 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Segalin, Jeferson [Biotechnology Center, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500, CEP: 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lansarin, Marla Azário [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Engenheiro Luiz Englert s/n, CEP: 90040-040 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of rosuvastatin, which is a drug that has been used to reduce blood cholesterol levels, was studied in this work employing ZnO as catalyst. The experiments were carried out in a temperature-controlled batch reactor that was irradiated with UV light. Preliminary the effects of the photocatalyst loading, the initial pH and the initial rosuvastatin concentration were evaluated. The experimental results showed that rosuvastatin degradation is primarily a photocatalytic process, with pseudo-first order kinetics. The byproducts that were generated during the oxidative process were identified using nano-ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nano-UPLC–MS/MS) and acute toxicity tests using Daphnia magna were done to evaluate the toxicity of the untreated rosuvastatin solution and the reactor effluent. - Highlights: • The photocatalytic degradation of rosuvastatin was studied under UV irradiation. • Commercial catalyst ZnO was used. • Initial rosuvastatin concentration, photocatalyst loading and pH were evaluated. • The byproducts generated during the oxidative process were detected and identified. • Acute toxicity tests using Daphnia magna were carried out.

  1. Efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin in the management of dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Rubba

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Paolo Rubba, Gennaro Marotta, Marco GentileDepartment of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Federico II University of Naples, ItalyAbstract: Rosuvastatin is a synthetic statin that represents an advance in the pharmacologic and clinical properties of statins. Relative to other statins, rosuvastatin possesses a greater number of binding interactions with HMG-CoA reductase and has a high affinity for the active site of the enzyme. As with other statins, serious adverse effects with rosuvastatin therapy are uncommon and primarily involve effects on the liver and skeletal muscle. The risk increases with increasing dosages and coadministration with other drugs interacting with the same metabolic pathway. The degree of LDL reduction is important to achieve the treatment goals suggested by international guidelines. Among the most potent statins, rosuvastatin is capable of getting the majority of patients to their LDL cholesterol goals. In addition, rosuvastatin has been found effective in reducing small-dense LDL, C-reactive protein and in increasing HDL cholesterol levels. Controlled clinical trials using vascular end-points have been performed. In particular, a study demonstrated that rosuvastatin therapy could slow progression and/or cause regression of carotid intima-media thickness over 2 years in middle-aged individuals with a low Framingham risk score (FRS and mild to moderate subclinical atherosclerosis. A primary prevention study (JUPITER was stopped before the programmed end of the study, because of excess benefit for high-risk individuals receiving rosuvastatin treatment. It is suggested that pronounced LDL reduction, in association with significant HDL cholesterol increase, are the bases of a marked preventive action of rosuvastatin. The results from JUPITER support the use of rosuvastatin for primary cardiovascular prevention, in overweight men and women, with near to normal LDL cholesterol and high CRP. There is now evidence of benefit

  2. Effects of Ezetimibe/Simvastatin and Rosuvastatin on Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Neuropathy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geannyne Villegas-Rivera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effects of ezetimibe/simvastatin (EZE/SIMV and rosuvastatin (ROSUV on oxidative stress (OS markers in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN. Methods. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial in adult patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM and DPN, as evaluated by composite scores and nerve conduction studies (NCS. Seventy-four subjects with T2DM were allocated 1 : 1 : 1 to placebo, EZE/SIMV 10/20 mg, or ROSUV 20 mg for 16 weeks. All patients were assessed before and after treatment: primary outcomes were lipid peroxidation (LPO, and nitric oxide (NO surrogate levels in plasma; secondary outcomes included NCS, neuropathic symptom scores, and metabolic parameters. Data were expressed as mean ± SD or SEM, frequencies, and percentages; we used nonparametric analysis. Results. LPO levels were reduced in both statin arms after 16 weeks of treatment (p<0.05 versus baseline, without changes in the placebo group. NO levels were not significantly affected by statin treatment, although a trend towards significance concerning increased NO levels was noted in both statin arms. No significant changes were observed for the NCS or composite scores. Discussion. EZE/SIMV and ROSUV are superior to placebo in reducing LPO in subjects with T2DM suffering from polyneuropathy. This trial is registered with NCT02129231.

  3. Possible effects of rosuvastatin on noise-induced oxidative stress in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Alevtina; Koc, Emine Rabia; Sahin, Semsettin; Duzgun, Ulkuhan; Acar, Burcu; Ilhan, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    The problem of noise has recently gained more attention as it has become an integral part of our daily lives. However, its influence has yet to be fully elucidated. Other than being an unpleasant stimulus, noise may cause health disorders through annoyance and stress, including oxidative stress. Rosuvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, may possess antioxidant properties. Based on rat models, our project investigates the effect of rosuvastatin on noise-induced oxidative stress in the brain tissue. Thirty-two male Wistar albino rats were used. The rats were divided into four groups: Noise exposure plus rosuvastatin usage, only noise exposure, only rosuvastatin usage, and control. After the data had been collected, oxidant and antioxidant parameters were analyzed in the cerebral cortex, brain stem, and cerebellum. Results indicated that superoxide dismutase values were significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex, while malondialdehyde values in the brainstem and cerebellum were significantly increased in the group with only noise exposure. Superoxide dismutase values in the brainstem were significantly increased, but nitric oxide values in the cerebellum and brainstem and malondialdehyde values in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex were significantly decreased in the group where only rosuvastatin was used. During noise exposure, the use of rosuvastatin caused significantly increased superoxide dismutase values in the cerebral cortex and brainstem, but significantly reduced malondialdehyde values in the brain stem. Consequently, our data show that brain tissue was affected by oxidative stress due to continued exposure to noise. This noise-induced stress decreases with rosuvastatin therapy.

  4. Rosuvastatin reduces plasma lipids by inhibiting VLDL production and enhancing hepatobiliary lipid excretion in ApoE*3-Leiden mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsing, DJM; Post, SM; Groenendijk, M; Solaas, K; van der Boom, H; van Duyvenvoorde, W; de Wit, ECM; Bloks, VW; Kuipers, F; Havekes, LM; Princen, HMG

    The present study was designed to investigate the lipid-lowering properties and mechanisms of action of a new HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, rosuvastatin, in female ApoE*3-Leiden transgenic mice. Mice received a high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet containing either rosuvastatin (0 [control], 0.00125%,

  5. Drug of the month. Rosuvastatin (Crestor)

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Rosuvastatin (Crestor) has been recently launched in Belgium by AstraZeneca. This new statin is indicated for the treatment of primary hypercholesterolaemia or combined dyslipidaemia, when changes in dietary habits are insufficient. Direct comparative randomised clinical trials with other statins demonstrated that rosuvastatin exerts a more favourable impact on lipid profile. When compared on a mg basis to other statins, rosuvastatin is associated with a greater reduction in total and LDL cho...

  6. Multinational Enterprises Logistics Cost Control%跨国公司企业物流成本的控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄进

    2015-01-01

    Refer to related literature review of logistics cost control, this paper proposes the whole idea and structure of research. In order to clarify the scope of logistics cost, the related concepts and theories of logistics cost are introduced and the multinational enterprises logistics activities and their characteristics are analyzed. Then, through analyzing the actual case of ABC Company, the logistics company business processes are discussed to discover its shortcomings, and based on the case analysis, this paper proposes multinational enterprises logistics cost models and optimization countermeasures about cost control.%文章首先参考相关物流成本控制的文献综述,提出整体的研究思路与结构,然后介绍物流成本相关概念及理论,旨在阐明物流成本的涉及范围。在此基础上,分析了跨国公司的物流活动及其特性。通过分析ABC公司的实际案例,探讨了公司的物流业务流程,分析其存在的不足之处,然后在案例分析的基础上提出跨国公司物流成本模型及相关的成本控制优化对策。

  7. Stability of extemporaneously prepared rosuvastatin oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Shtayah, Rania; Qadumi, Ayman; Ghanem, Mashour; Qedan, Rawan; Daibes, Marah; Awwad, Somud Abu; Jaradat, Nidal; Kittana, Naim

    2017-10-01

    The stability of an extemporaneously prepared rosuvastatin suspension stored over 30 days under various storage conditions was evaluated. Rosuvastatin suspension was extemporaneously prepared using commercial rosuvastatin tablets as the source of active pharmaceutical ingredient. The organoleptic properties, dissolution profile, and stability of the formulation were investigated. For the stability studies, samples of the suspension were stored under 2 storage conditions, room temperature (25 °C and 60% relative humidity) and accelerated stability chambers (40 °C and 75% relative humidity). Viscosity, pH, organoleptic properties, and microbial contamination were evaluated according to the approved specifications. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for the analysis and quantification of rosuvastatin in selected samples. Microbiological investigations were also conducted. The prepared suspension showed acceptable organoleptic properties. It showed complete release of rosuvastatin within 15 minutes. The pH of the suspension was 9.8, which remained unchanged during the stability studies. The microbiological investigations demonstrated that the preparation was free of any microbial contamination. In addition, the suspension showed stability within at least the period of use of a 100-mL rosuvastatin bottle. Extemporaneously prepared rosuvastatin 20-mg/mL suspension was stable for 30 days when stored at room temperature. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Possible effects of rosuvastatin on noise-induced oxidative stress in rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alevtina Ersoy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of noise has recently gained more attention as it has become an integral part of our daily lives. However, its influence has yet to be fully elucidated. Other than being an unpleasant stimulus, noise may cause health disorders through annoyance and stress, including oxidative stress. Rosuvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, may possess antioxidant properties. Based on rat models, our project investigates the effect of rosuvastatin on noise-induced oxidative stress in the brain tissue. Thirty-two male Wistar albino rats were used. The rats were divided into four groups: Noise exposure plus rosuvastatin usage, only noise exposure, only rosuvastatin usage, and control. After the data had been collected, oxidant and antioxidant parameters were analyzed in the cerebral cortex, brain stem, and cerebellum. Results indicated that superoxide dismutase values were significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex, while malondialdehyde values in the brainstem and cerebellum were significantly increased in the group with only noise exposure. Superoxide dismutase values in the brainstem were significantly increased, but nitric oxide values in the cerebellum and brainstem and malondialdehyde values in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex were significantly decreased in the group where only rosuvastatin was used. During noise exposure, the use of rosuvastatin caused significantly increased superoxide dismutase values in the cerebral cortex and brainstem, but significantly reduced malondialdehyde values in the brain stem. Consequently, our data show that brain tissue was affected by oxidative stress due to continued exposure to noise. This noise-induced stress decreases with rosuvastatin therapy.

  9. Emerging Market Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Hobdari, Bersant

    2017-01-01

    International knowledge flows and innovation are becoming ever more important to the competitiveness of multinational corporations. Emerging market multinationals (EMNCs) in specific are deploying increasingly activist measures to harness foreign sources of knowledge and innovation as a strategy...

  10. [Drug of the month. Rosuvastatin (Crestor)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, A J

    2004-01-01

    Rosuvastatin (Crestor) has been recently launched in Belgium by AstraZeneca. This new statin is indicated for the treatment of primary hypercholesterolaemia or combined dyslipidaemia, when changes in dietary habits are insufficient. Direct comparative randomised clinical trials with other statins demonstrated that rosuvastatin exerts a more favourable impact on lipid profile. When compared on a mg basis to other statins, rosuvastatin is associated with a greater reduction in total and LDL cholesterol levels and a greater increase of HDL cholesterol concentration, with a similar decrease in triglyceride levels. At the usual dosage of 10 mg, rosuvastatin allowed to reduce LDL cholesterol below recommended target levels for at risk patients among almost 80% of treated individuals in phase III clinical trials. If necessary, the daily dosage may be increased to 20 mg, or up to 40 mg (maximal dose), mostly in case of severe familial hypercholesterolaemia. Safety profile is good and similar to that of other commercialised statins. Rosuvastatin is currently evaluated in an extensive programme of randomised clinical trials (Galaxy programme) in order to demonstrate its efficacy in both prevention of atherosclerosis and reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  11. The Risk Implications of Multinational Enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Multinational structure has been linked to operational flexibilities that can improve corporate adaptability and a knowledge-based view suggests that multinational resource diversity can facilitate responsive opportunities. The enhanced maneuverability from this can reduce earnings...... regressions on archival data to control for pre-selection biases. Findings – The analyses indicate that multinationality is associated with lower downside risk as well as higher upside potential and leads to reduced performance risk. The study finds no trace of diminishing effects from higher degrees...... debate about the risk effects of a multinational corporate structure and confirms that a diverse multinational presence is associated with positive risk outcomes. Originality/value – The paper complements a limited number of studies with equivocal results and adopts alternative risk outcome measures...

  12. Deranged smooth muscle α-actin as a biomarker of intestinal pseudo-obstruction: a controlled multinational case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, C H; Silk, D B A; Darzi, A; Veress, B; Feakins, R; Raimundo, A H; Crompton, T; Browning, E C; Lindberg, G; Martin, J E

    2004-01-01

    Background and aims: Chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIIP) is a severe motility disorder associated with significant morbidity. Several histopathological (neuropathic and myopathic) phenotypes have been described but only a single adult with jejunal smooth (circular) muscle α-actin deficiency. We present a prospective multinational case series investigating smooth muscle α-actin deficiency as a biomarker of this disease. Methods: A total of 115 fully clinically and physiologically (including prolonged (24 hour) ambulatory jejunal manometry) characterised CIIP patients from three European centres were studied. Immunohistochemical localisation of actins and other cytoskeletal proteins were performed on laparoscopic full thickness jejunal biopsies and compared with adult controls. Distribution of α-actin was also characterised in other gut regions and in the developing human alimentary tract. Results: Twenty eight of 115 (24%) CIIP patient biopsies had absent (n = 22) or partial (n = 6) jejunal smooth muscle α-actin immunostaining in the circular muscle layer. In contrast, smooth muscle α-actin staining was preserved in the longitudinal muscle and in adult jejunal controls (n = 20). Comparative study of other adult alimentary tract regions and fetal small intestine, suggested significant spatial and temporal variations in smooth muscle α-actin expression. Conclusions: The ability to modulate α-smooth muscle actin expression, evident in development, is maintained in adult life and may be influenced by disease, rendering it a valuable biomarker even in the absence of other structural abnormalities. PMID:15479676

  13. Multinationals and Institutional Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    This article discusses how institutional competitiveness and multinationals are mutually enriching concepts. Seen from the perspective of Multinationals, institutional competitiveness becomes expressed at two levels. At the level of corporate HQs institutional competitiveness proves itself...... competitiveness of Liberal Market Economies and Coordinated Markets Economies under the current competitive regime....

  14. Multinationality and Opaqueness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Pantzalis, Christos; Park, Jung Chul

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether and how multinationality affects the opaqueness of the firm. We use multiple alternative measurements of multinationality and opaqueness. Spanning nearly three decades for a large sample of US non-financial firms, we find a statistically and economically significant, positive...

  15. The Hypolipidemic and Pleiotropic Effects of Rosuvastatin Are Not Enhanced by Its Association with Zinc and Selenium Supplementation in Coronary Artery Disease Patients: A Double Blind Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena-Evangelista, Karine Cavalcanti Maurício; Pedrosa, Lucia Fatima Campos; Paiva, Maria Sanali Moura Oliveira; Dias, Paula Cristina Silveira; Ferreira, Diana Quitéria Cabral; Cozzolino, Sílvia Maria Franciscato; Faulin, Tanize Espírito Santo; Abdalla, Dulcinéia Saes Parra

    2015-01-01

    Objective Statins treatment may modify the levels of zinc and selenium, minerals that can improve vascular function and reduce oxidative damage and inflammation in atherosclerotic patients. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of rosuvastatin, alone or associated with zinc and selenium supplementation, on lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and mineral status in coronary artery disease patients. Material and Methods A double-blind randomized clinical trial was performed in which patients (n = 76) were treated with 10 mg rosuvastatin over 4 months associated or not with zinc (30 mg/d) and selenium (150 μg/d) supplementation. The following parameters were analyzed before and after the intervention: anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), electronegative low density lipoprotein (LDL(-)) concentrations, activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), zinc and selenium concentrations in blood plasma and erythocytes. Significance was determined using an α of 5% (two-tailed). Results We found that rosuvastatin therapy was efficient in reducing total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and hs-CRP independently of mineral supplementation. Neither treatment was associated with significant changes in LDL(-). Similarly, the antioxidant enzymes GPx and SOD activity were unchanged by treatments. Neither treatment was associated with significant differences in concentrations of zinc or selenium in blood plasma and erythocytes of studied groups. Conclusion Rosuvastatin treatment did not affect zinc and selenium levels in coronary artery disease patients. The zinc and selenium supplementation at doses used in this study did not change lipid profile or SOD and GPx activity in patients receiving rosuvastatin. Further studies should be focused on testing alternative doses and supplements in different populations to contribute for a consensus on the ideal choice of antioxidants

  16. Control of Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease among Multinational Patient Population in the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Mahmeed, Wael; Arafah, Mohamed; Al-Hinai, Ali T.; Shehab, Abdullah; Al-Tamimi, Omer; Al-Awadhi, Mahmoud; Al-Herz, Shorook; Al-Anazi, Faisal; Al-Nemer, Khalid; Metwally, Othman; Al-Khadra, Akram; Fakhry, Mohammed; Elghetany, Hossam; Medani, Abdel R.; Yusufali, Afzal H.; Al-Jassim, Obaid; Al-Hallaq, Omar; Baslaib, Fahad O.A.S.; Amin, Haitham; Santos, Raul D.; Al-Waili, Khalid; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Al-Rasadi, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the control of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in the Centralized Pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolaemia (CEPHEUS) in the Arabian Gulf. Of the 4398 enrolled patients, overall mean age was 57 ± 11 years, 60% were males, 13% were smokers, 76% had diabetes, 71% had metabolic syndrome and 78% had very high ASCVD risk status. The proportion of subjects with body mass index <25 kg/m2, HbA1c <7% (in diabetics), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) <2.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) and <1.8 mmol/L (70 mg/dL) for high and very high ASCVD risk cohorts, respectively and controlled blood pressure (<140/90 mmHg) was 14, 26, 31% and 60%, respectively. Only 1.4% of the participants had all of their CVD risk factors controlled with significant differences among the countries (P < .001). CVD risk goal attainment rates were significantly lower in those with very high ASCVD risk compared with those with high ASCVD risk status (P < .001). Females were also, generally, less likely to attain goals when compared with males (P < .001). PMID:26496982

  17. HRM and IR in Multinational Corporations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Minbaeva, Dana

    2009-01-01

    As multinational corporations operate in multiple countries, headquarters must take into account differences in local settings when seeking the means to coordinate and control subsidiaries. The local system of industrial relations sets the framework for what kind of human resource management...... a multinational corporation can implement. Yet another question is whether the still stronger multinationals can change the existing systems of industrial relations, directly or indirectly. The paper analyzes four Danish enterprises over a 10-year period. This longitudinal study shows that none...

  18. Technology transfer by multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    Kostyantyn Zuzik

    2003-01-01

    The paper analyses the issue of technology transfer by multinational corporations. The following questions are explored: (a) world market of technologies, the role of MNCs (b) Choice of the technology transfer mode, Dunning's OLI-theory as a factor of the choice of the mode of transfer (c) measurement and profitability of technology transfer (d) transfer of technology through partnerships, JVs, alliances and through M&As (e) aspects of technology transfer by services multinationals. Paper uti...

  19. Technology transfer by multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The paper analyses the issue of technology transfer by multinational corporations. The following questions are explored: (a) world market of technologies, the role of MNCs (b) Choice of the technology transfer mode, Dunning's OLI-theory as a factor of the choice of the mode of transfer (c) measurement and profitability of technology transfer (d) transfer of technology through partnerships, JVs, alliances and through M&As (e) aspects of technology transfer by services multinationals. Paper uti...

  20. Chronic oral administration of low-dose combination of fenofibrate and rosuvastatin protects the rat heart against experimentally induced acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Monika; Khanna, Deepa; Kalra, Sanjeev; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2016-10-01

    Fenofibrate and rosuvastatin at low doses might have experimental pleiotropic benefits. This study investigated the combined effect of low doses of fenofibrate and rosuvastatin in isoproterenol-induced experimental myocardial infarction. Rats administered isoproterenol (85 mg/kg/day, s.c.) for 2 days (day 29 and day 30) of 30 days experimental protocol developed significant myocardial infarction that was accompanied with high myocardial oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, elevated serum markers of cardiac injury, lipid abnormalities, and elevated circulatory levels of C-reactive protein. Pretreatment with low doses of fenofibrate (30 mg/kg/day p.o., 30 days) and rosuvastatin (2 mg/kg/day p.o., 30 days) both alone or in combination markedly prevented isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction and associated abnormalities while the low-dose combination of fenofibrate and rosuvastatin was more effective. Histopathological study in isoproterenol control rat heart showed necrosis with edema and acute inflammation at the margins of necrotic area. The rat heart from low-dose fenofibrate and rosuvastatin pretreated group showed scanty inflammation and no ischemia. In conclusion, fenofibrate and rosuvastatin pretreatment in low doses might have a therapeutic potential to prevent the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction. Moreover, their combined treatment option might offer superior therapeutic benefits via a marked reduction in myocardial infarct size and oxidative stress, suggesting a possibility of their pleiotropic cardioprotective action at low doses. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  1. Comparison of Low-Dose Rosuvastatin with Atorvastatin in Lipid-Lowering Efficacy and Safety in a High-Risk Pakistani Cohort: An Open-Label Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rehman Arshad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Treatment of hyperlipidemia is helpful in both primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke. Aim. To compare lipid-lowering efficacy of rosuvastatin with atorvastatin. Methodology. This open-label randomized controlled trial was carried out at 1 Mountain Medical Battalion from September 2012 to August 2013 on patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, myocardial infarction, or stroke, meriting treatment with a statin. Those with secondary causes of dyslipidemia were excluded. Blood samples for estimation of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, and LDL-C were collected after a 12-hour fast. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either atorvastatin 10 mg HS or rosuvastatin 5 mg HS daily. Lipid levels were rechecked after six weeks. Results. Atorvastatin was used in 63 patients and rosuvastatin in 66. There was a greater absolute and percent reduction in serum LDL-C levels with rosuvastatin as compared to atorvastatin (0.96 versus 0.54 mg/dL; P=0.011 and 24.34 versus 13.66%; P=0.045, whereas reduction in all other fractions was equal. Myalgias were seen in 5 (7.94% patients treated with atorvastatin and 8 (12.12% patients treated with rosuvastatin (P: 0.432. Conclusion. Rosuvastatin produces a greater reduction in serum LDL-C levels and should therefore be preferred over atorvastatin.

  2. DIMENSIONS OF MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria - Ramona SARBU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Capital, creating new jobs, innovation, advanced technologies and the know-how transfer to local firms, human resources with a high level of training, effective management capacity, providing the necessary inputs for the evolution of the activity under the best conditions of efficiency, the access of local consumers to a variety of products and services are the main advantages that multinational enterprises (MNEs bring in the countries where they expand their activities, with a significant impact on economic activities, between national economies. The purpose of this study is the analysis of the main non-financial multinationals in the world, based on the assets held abroad and depending on the transnationality index (TNI in 2013. In order to achieve the purpose of the current paper we employed data from UNCTAD database and the World Investment Report (WIR from 2015. Information on multinationals ranked by foreign assets according to the World Investment Report in 2015 show that, based on the TNI, European multinationals, such as the ones in France, Italy, Germany and Norway, have a higher transnationality index compared to multinationals from larger countries, such as the US and China. Among the top 10 European multinationals, the transnationality index reached an average of 55 % in 2013.

  3. Determinants of central control and subsidiary autonomy in HRM: the case of foreign-owned multinational companies in Spain'

    OpenAIRE

    Belizon, Maria Jesus; Gunnigle, Patrick; Morley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed                            This article examines the factors affecting HRM subsidiary autonomy within multinational companies (MNCs). Drawing on institutional theory arguments, along with an analysis of the impact of international HRM structures, it attempts to identify the multiplicity of factors influencing subsidiary autonomy with regard to HRM. Using data gathered from a highly representative survey of foreign MNC subsidiaries located in Spain, the ...

  4. Organizational architecture of multinational company

    OpenAIRE

    Vrbová, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    The Bachelor's Thesis ,,Organizational architecture of multinational company" sets the target to analyse organizational structures used in multinational companies at present. In the teoretical section is briefly described development of this subject, basic concepts associated with organizational architecture such as globalization, multinational companies and organizational architecture. I also generalized main characteristics of organizational forms and describe their pros and cons. The pract...

  5. Safety and vasopressor effect of rosuvastatin in septic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa A. El Gendy

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: Rosuvastatin 20 mg/day in septic patients increased number ABPSPD, decreased time to initial ABPSPD, norepinephrine dose and duration, with no significant elevation in transaminases or CPK.

  6. Multinational Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Multinational colleges and universities pose numerous challenges to the traditional models of quality assurance that are designed to validate domestic higher education. When institutions cross international borders, at least two quality assurance protocols are involved. To guard against fraud and abuse, quality assurance in the host country is…

  7. Rosuvastatin in diabetic hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdaas, Hallvard; Holme, Ingar; Schmieder, Roland E

    2011-01-01

    A randomized, placebo-controlled trial in diabetic patients receiving hemodialysis showed no effect of atorvastatin on a composite cardiovascular endpoint, but analysis of the component cardiac endpoints suggested that atorvastatin may significantly reduce risk. Because the AURORA (A Study to Eva...

  8. Association of Lipoproteins, Insulin Resistance, and Rosuvastatin With Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugani, Sagar B.; Akinkuolie, Akintunde O.; Paynter, Nina; Glynn, Robert J.; Ridker, Paul M; Mora, Samia

    2016-01-01

    Importance Statins decrease low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, and cardiovascular events, but increase the risk of being diagnosed with diabetes. The risk factors associated with incident diabetes are incompletely characterized. Objective To investigate the association of lipoprotein subclasses and size, and a novel lipoprotein insulin resistance (LPIR) score (a composite of six lipoprotein measures), with incident diabetes among individuals randomized to high-intensity statin or placebo. Design JUPITER was an international, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. A prespecified secondary aim was to assess the effect of rosuvastatin on diabetes, and incident diabetes was monitored for a median of 2.0 years. Setting The study was conducted at 1315 sites in 26 countries. Participants JUPITER comprised 17802 men ≥50 years and women ≥60 years with LDL cholesterol diabetes were excluded. Intervention Rosuvastatin, 20mg daily, or placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures Among 11918 participants in JUPITER, we measured baseline size and concentration of lipids, apolipoproteins, and lipoproteins and, in 9180 of these, at 12 months after randomization to rosuvastatin or placebo. LPIR score, a correlate of insulin resistance, was calculated as a weighted combination of size and concentration of LDL, very low-density lipoprotein(VLDL), and high-density lipoprotein(HDL) particles. Results Rosuvastatin lowered LDL particles(−49%), VLDL particles(−20%), and triglycerides(−15%), and shifted the lipoprotein subclass distribution towards smaller LDL size(−2%), larger VLDL size(3%), and lower LPIR score(−3%). In analyses adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnic origin, exercise, education, family history, and smoking, the hazard ratio for diabetes per standard deviation of LPIR score was 1.99 (1.64–2.42) in placebo and 2.06 (1.74–2.43) in rosuvastatin-allocated individuals. After additional adjustment for systolic blood pressure, body-mass index, hs

  9. Multinationals Move Inland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2008-01-01

    Central China, initially overlooked by many foreign investors as being too far from the ports in Tianjin, Shanghai and Shenzhen, is emerging as an essential destination for multinationals in China.The Future of Central China: A Provincial Roadmap There is a huge manufacturing drive in central China. Businesses are moving inland to set up projects, investments and operations here, primarily due to lower labor and land costs as well as preferential policies for manufacturers. Multinational companies also are starting to view the region as the next step toward an integrated China strategy, and the consumer population in the second-and third-tier cities in central China represents a growing, largely untapped domestic market for foreign products and services.

  10. The Multinational Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Glenn; Hull Kristensen, Peer; Whitley, Richard

    In contrast to the traditional view of multinational firms as cohesive rational actors maximizing the use of resources across national boundaries, the contributors to this volume argue that they are complex social arenas where competing groups draw on resources from their own socially......-embedded locations in developing new transnational social relationships. As firms seek to manage across national and institutional boundaries, they stretch their existing capacities and routines and develop new sets of transnational social relationships through different groups competing and cooperating...

  11. Effect of fixed-dose combinations of ezetimibe plus rosuvastatin in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia: MRS-ROZE (Multicenter Randomized Study of ROsuvastatin and eZEtimibe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Yoon, Young Won; Rha, Seung-Woon; Hong, Soon-Jun; Kwak, Choong-Hwan; Kim, Weon; Nam, Chang-Wook; Rhee, Moo-Yong; Park, Tae-Ho; Hong, Taek-Jong; Park, Sungha; Ahn, Youngkeun; Lee, Namho; Jeon, Hui-Kyung; Jeon, Dong-Woon; Han, Kyoo-Rok; Moon, Keon-Woong; Chae, In-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to compare the effects of fixed-dose combinations of ezetimibe plus rosuvastatin to rosuvastatin alone in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia, including a subgroup analysis of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or metabolic syndrome (MetS). This multicenter eight-week randomized double-blind phase III study evaluated the safety and efficacy of fixed-dose combinations of ezetimibe 10 mg plus rosuvastatin, compared with rosuvastatin alone in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia. Four hundred and seven patients with primary hypercholesterolemia who required lipid-lowering treatment according to the ATP III guideline were randomized to one of the following six treatments for 8 weeks: fixed-dose combinations with ezetimibe 10 mg daily plus rosuvastatin (5, 10, or 20 mg daily) or rosuvastatin alone (5, 10, or 20 mg daily). Fixed-dose combination of ezetimibe plus rosuvastatin significantly reduced LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels compared with rosuvastatin alone. Depending on the rosuvastatin dose, these fixed-dose combinations of ezetimibe plus rosuvastatin provided LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride reductions of 56%-63%, 37%-43%, and 19%-24%, respectively. Moreover, the effect of combination treatment on cholesterol levels was more pronounced in patients with DM or MetS than in non-DM or non-MetS patients, respectively, whereas the effect of rosuvastatin alone did not differ between DM vs non-DM or MetS vs non-MetS patients. Fixed-dose combinations of ezetimibe and rosuvastatin provided significantly superior efficacy to rosuvastatin alone in lowering LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Moreover, the reduction rate was greater in patients with DM or MetS. © 2016 The Authors Cardiovascular Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Rosuvastatin blocks hERG current and prolongs cardiac repolarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Isabelle; Vigneault, Patrick; Drolet, Benoît; Turgeon, Jacques

    2012-02-01

    Blocking of the potassium current I(Kr) [human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG)] is generally associated with an increased risk of long QT syndrome (LQTS). The 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, rosuvastatin, is a methanesulfonamide derivative, which shows structural similarities with several I(Kr) blockers. Hence, we assessed the effects of rosuvastatin on cardiac repolarization by using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models. Patch clamp experiments on hERG-transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells established the potency of rosuvastatin to block hERG [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50) ) = 195 nM]. We showed in isolated guinea pig hearts that 195 nM rosuvastatin prolonged (basic cycle length of 250 ms; p cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug resistance gene (MDR1)] and influx [organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 2B1] transporters involved in the disposition and cardiac distribution of the drug. Genetic polymorphisms observed for BCRP, MDR1, and OATP2B1, and IC(50) determined for hERG blocking lead us to propose that some patients may be at risk of rosuvastatin-induced LQTS.

  13. Dual Effect of Rosuvastatin on Glucose Homeostasis Through Improved Insulin Sensitivity and Reduced Insulin Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunkhe, Vishal A; Mollet, Inês G; Ofori, Jones K; Malm, Helena A; Esguerra, Jonathan L S; Reinbothe, Thomas M; Stenkula, Karin G; Wendt, Anna; Eliasson, Lena; Vikman, Jenny

    2016-08-01

    Statins are beneficial in the treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but these lipid-lowering drugs are associated with increased incidence of new on-set diabetes. The cellular mechanisms behind the development of diabetes by statins are elusive. Here we have treated mice on normal diet (ND) and high fat diet (HFD) with rosuvastatin. Under ND rosuvastatin lowered blood glucose through improved insulin sensitivity and increased glucose uptake in adipose tissue. In vitro rosuvastatin reduced insulin secretion and insulin content in islets. In the beta cell Ca(2+) signaling was impaired and the density of granules at the plasma membrane was increased by rosuvastatin treatment. HFD mice developed insulin resistance and increased insulin secretion prior to administration of rosuvastatin. Treatment with rosuvastatin decreased the compensatory insulin secretion and increased glucose uptake. In conclusion, our data shows dual effects on glucose homeostasis by rosuvastatin where insulin sensitivity is improved, but beta cell function is impaired.

  14. Telmisartan increases systemic exposure to rosuvastatin after single and multiple doses, and in vitro studies show telmisartan inhibits ABCG2-mediated transport of rosuvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Miao; Lee, Hon-Kit; To, Kenneth K W; Fok, Benny S P; Wo, Siu-Kwan; Ho, Chung-Shun; Wong, Chun-Kwok; Zuo, Zhong; Chan, Thomas Y K; Chan, Juliana C N; Tomlinson, Brian

    2016-12-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) plays an important role in the disposition of rosuvastatin. Telmisartan, a selective angiotension-II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker, inhibits the transport capacity of ABCG2, which may result in drug interactions. This study investigated the pharmacokinetic interaction between rosuvastatin and telmisartan and the potential mechanism. In this two-phase fixed-order design study, healthy subjects received single doses of 10 mg rosuvastatin at baseline and after telmisartan 40 mg daily for 14 days. Patients with hyperlipidaemia who had been taking rosuvastatin 10 mg daily for at least 4 weeks were given telmisartan 40 mg daily for 14 days together with rosuvastatin. Plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin were measured over 24 h before and after telmisartan administration. In vitro experiments using a bidirectional transport assay were performed to investigate the involvement of ABCG2 in the interaction. Co-administration of telmisartan significantly increased the maximum plasma concentration (C max) and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of rosuvastatin by 71 and 26 %, respectively. The T max values were reduced after administration of telmisartan. There was no significant difference in the interaction of rosuvastatin with telmisartan between healthy volunteers and patients receiving long-term rosuvastatin therapy or among subjects with the different ABCG2 421 C>A genotypes. The in vitro experiment demonstrated that telmisartan inhibited ABCG2-mediated efflux of rosuvastatin. This study demonstrated that telmisartan significantly increased the systemic exposure to rosuvastatin after single and multiple doses.

  15. Rosuvastatin, inflammation, C-reactive protein, JUPITER, and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease--a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kones, Richard

    2010-12-09

    The major public health concern worldwide is coronary heart disease, with dyslipidemia as a major risk factor. Statin drugs are recommended by several guidelines for both primary and secondary prevention. Rosuvastatin has been widely accepted because of its efficacy, potency, and superior safety profile. Inflammation is involved in all phases of atherosclerosis, with the process beginning in early youth and advancing relentlessly for decades throughout life. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-studied, nonspecific marker of inflammation which may reflect general health risk. Considerable evidence suggests CRP is an independent predictor of future cardiovascular events, but direct involvement in atherosclerosis remains controversial. Rosuvastatin is a synthetic, hydrophilic statin with unique stereochemistry. A large proportion of patients achieve evidence-based lipid targets while using the drug, and it slows progression and induces regression of atherosclerotic coronary lesions. Rosuvastatin lowers CRP levels significantly. The Justification for Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) trial was designed after the observation that when both low density lipoprotein and CRP were reduced, patients fared better than when only LDL was lowered. Advocates and critics alike acknowledge that the benefits of rosuvastatin in JUPITER were real. After a review, the US Food and Drug Administration extended the indications for rosuvastatin to include asymptomatic JUPITER-eligible individuals with one additional risk factor. The American Heart Association and Centers of Disease Control and Prevention had previously recognized the use of CRP in persons with "intermediate risk" as defined by global risk scores. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines went further and recommended use of statins in persons with low LDL and high CRP levels at intermediate risk. The JUPITER study focused attention on ostensibly healthy individuals with

  16. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  17. The relative impact of country of origin and universal contingencies on internationalization strategies and corporate control in multinational enterprises : Worldwide and European perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harzing, A.W.; Sorge, A.

    2003-01-01

    We examine the importance of country-of-origin effects and of universal contingencies such as industrial recipes in organizational practices at the international level of multinational enterprises. This is based on a study comparing European (Finnish, French, German, Dutch, Swiss, Swedish, British),

  18. Very rapid effect of pitavastatin on microvascular function in comparison to rosuvastatin: reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kono Y

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yasushi Kono,1 Shota Fukuda,1 Kenei Shimada,2 Koki Nakanishi,2 Kenichiro Otsuka,2 Tomoichiro Kubo,1 Satoshi Jissho,1 Haruyuki Taguchi,1 Junichi Yoshikawa,3 Minoru Yoshiyama21Department of Medicine, Osaka Ekisaikai Hospital, Nishi-ku, Osaka, Japan; 2Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Osaka City University School of Medicine, Abeno-ku, Osaka, Japan; 3Nishinomiya Watanabe Cardiovascular Center, Nishinomiya, JapanBackground: It has been reported that pitavastatin improves endothelial function faster than other statins. Recently introduced reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT provides objective and quantitative assessment of peripheral microvascular function.Purpose: This study aimed to investigate whether peripheral microvascular function improved 2 hours after pitavastatin in subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD using RH-PAT, and the results were compared with those of rosuvastatin.Methods: This study included 94 subjects with CAD, assigned to a group given 2 mg of pitavastatin (n = 36, a group given 2.5 mg of rosuvastatin (n = 38, and a control group (n = 20. RH-PAT examinations were performed before and 2 hours after statin administration.Results: The RH-PAT index increased 2 hours after pitavastatin administration from 1.82 ± 0.45 to 2.16 ± 0.62 (P = 0.02, whereas there were no differences in the RH-PAT index in the rosuvastatin group (1.79 ± 0.71 to 1.91 ± 0.53, P = 0.09 and the control group (1.68 ± 0.36 to 1.84 ± 0.58, P = 0.4. No significant changes were observed at 2 hours in serum cholesterol levels in each group.Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that peripheral microvascular function improved 2 hours after a single clinical dose of pitavastatin, but not after rosuvastatin.Keywords: coronary artery disease, statin, microvascular function

  19. Multinational Firms and Business Cycle Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menno, Dominik Francesco

    . The effects measured in the data are quantitatively consistent with the model predictions. Finally, I show that more FDI increases households' welfare by reducing aggregate risk on the production side; this effect,however, is partially mitigated by multinational specific shocks.......This paper studies the effect of foreign direct investment (FDI) on the transmission of international business cycles. I document for the G7 countries between 1991 and 2006 that increases in bilateral FDI linkages are associated with more synchronized investment cycles. I also find...... that the relation between FDI integration and synchronization of gross domestic product (GDP) is - yet positive - statistically insignificant after controlling for time fixed effects. I then study a model of international business cycles with an essential role for FDI and shocks to multinational activity...

  20. Multinational Risk and Performance Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2012-01-01

    structure may also require irreversible investments and impose maintenance and processing costs that contravene the implied resilience and agility benefits. We distinguish between downside risk and upside potential as the relevant outcome measures to assess the implied advantages of multinationality....... Consistent with the rationales of the OLI paradigm, we argue that multinational reach particularly in knowledge-based industries can reduce downside risk and enhance upside potential. These results introduce more nuances to the ongoing debate about multinational risk and performance effects. Based on a large...... cross-sectional dataset, we find that flexibility and responsiveness thrives on a multinational presence among firms operating in information-driven knowledge businesses. In contrast, internationalizing firms in capital-based network services display adverse risk effects....

  1. A prospective, randomized study: Evaluation of the effect of rosuvastatin in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chogtu, Bharti; Kuriachan, Sanitha; Magazine, Rahul; Shetty, K. Ranjan; Kamath, Asha; George, Manu Mathew; Tripathy, Amruta; Kumar, D. Mahesh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Statins by their anti-inflammatory and endothelial stabilizing effect can be beneficial in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pulmonary hypertension (PH). The present study was done to evaluate the effect of rosuvastatin on pulmonary functions and quality of life (QOL) in patients with concomitant COPD and PH. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, study conducted in patients with COPD and PH. A total of sixty patients were assigned to receive either rosuvastatin 10 mg or placebo once a day in addition to their conventional treatment for 12 weeks. Routine blood investigations, pulmonary functions, echocardiogram, exercise capacity, and QOL using a questionnaire were assessed at the baseline and after 12 weeks. Results: In patients of rosuvastatin group, there was a statistically significant increase in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) (P = 0.04) but no significant change in other pulmonary functions: Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC), and echocardiogram parameters. There was a significant increase in 6-min walk test (6-min walk distance) (P = 0.03) at the end of 12 weeks. On comparing with placebo, rosuvastatin showed a significant reduction (P = 0.045) in COPD exacerbations while adverse effects did not differ. Conclusion: Statins have a favorable effect on patients with COPD and PH regarding the improvement in PEFR, COPD exacerbations, and exercise capacity. Such effects can be beneficial in these patients and more so in patients with concomitant coronary artery disease or hyperlipidemia where long-term benefits of statins have been established. PMID:27721534

  2. Performance improvement in multinational corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis work is to develop a performance improvement model template which supports multinational corporations in their daily operations. This has been achieved through literature review and four case studies. With analysis and synthesis, a complete performance improvement model template is carried out based on balanced score card which can be considered as an instruction or reference for improvement work in multinational corporations. After experienced the transformation from i...

  3. Organizational architecture of multinational companies

    OpenAIRE

    Sikorová, Lenka

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of the bachelor thesis Organizational Architecture of Multinational Companies is to elaborate the overview of organizational structures that are used by modern global companies. The thesis contains an analysis of such companies development, principles of functioning, pros and cons and the opportunities which these brings. It also contains a description of the basic concepts associated with organizational architecture such as globalization, multinational companies and organizatio...

  4. Continuing Exposure to Low-Dose Nonylphenol Aggravates Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Dysfunction and Role of Rosuvastatin Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Chia-Hung

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonylphenol (NP, an environmental organic compound, has been demonstrated to enhance reactive-oxygen species (ROS synthesis. Chronic exposure to low-dose adenine (AD has been reported to induce chronic kidney disease (CKD. Methods In this study, we tested the hypothesis that chronic exposure to NP will aggravate AD-induced CKD through increasing generations of inflammation, ROS, and apoptosis that could be attenuated by rosuvastatin. Fifty male Wistar rats were equally divided into group 1 (control, group 2 (AD in fodder at a concentration of 0.25%, group 3 (NP: 2 mg/kg/day, group 4 (combined AD & NP, and group 5 (AD-NP + rosuvastatin: 20 mg/kg/day. Treatment was continued for 24 weeks for all animals before being sacrificed. Results By the end of 24 weeks, serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine levels were increased in group 4 than in groups 1–3, but significantly reduced in group 5 as compared with group 4 (all p  Conclusion NP worsened AD-induced CKD that could be reversed by rosuvastatin therapy.

  5. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ROSUVASTATIN CALCIUM AND ASPIRIN IN MARKETED FORMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godavariya Vijay D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple, specific, accurate and precise reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of Rosuvastatin calcium and Aspirin from Capsule dosage forms using C18 column (¬Grace Smart (250mm x 4.6mm, 5 µm. The sample was analyzed using Water (0.5 ml tri-ethyl amine in 100mL of double distilled water: Acetonitrile in the ratio of 50:50(% v/v pH adjusted to 4.0 with orthophosphoric acid, as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detection at 243 nm. The retention time for Rosuvastatin calcium and Aspirin was found to be 4.30 and 3.44 min respectively. The method can be used for estimation of combination of these drugs in capsules. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. The linearity of developed method was achieved in the range of 6 – 14 μg/mL (r2=0.9997 for Rosuvastatin calcium and 45 – 105 μg/mL (r2=0.9989 for Aspirin and assay of capsules were between 98.0-102.0%. Due to these attributes, the proposed method could be used for routine quality control analysis of these drugs in combined dosage forms.

  6. Effects of rosuvastatin on expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 after vascular balloon injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Hong Li; Qi-Xin Wang; Jing-Wei Zhou; Xian-Ming Chu; Yu-Lin Man; Ping Liu; Bei-Bei Ren; Ting-Ru Sun; Yi An

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects and mechanisms of rosuvastatin on angiotensin -converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the process of neointimal formation after vascular balloon injury in rats, and to explore the effects of ACE2 and rosuvastatin in restenosis. Methods Thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly allocated into three groups: control group (n = 12), surgery group (n = 12), and statin group (n = 12). Aortic endothelial denudation of rats was performed using 2F balloon catheters. At days 14 and 28 after injury, aortic arteries were harvested to examine the following. Intimal thickening was examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. We measured angiotensin II (Ang II) and angiotensin 1-7 (Ang-[1–7]) levels by a radioimmunological method or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Protein and mRNA expression of ACE2 and Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1) were investigated by immunohistochemistry, Western blots, and Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We measured changes in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) by immunohistochemistry. The level of phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (P-ERK1/2) was evaluated by Western blotting. Results Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and intimal thickening were higher at day 14 after vascular balloon injury in the surgery group compared with the control group. Proliferation of VSMC was decreased by day 28 after injury, while intimal thickening continued. With rosuvastatin treatment, the extent of VSMC proliferation and intimal thickening was reduced at day 14 and 28 after injury. Ang II and P-ERK levels were significantly increased, Ang-(1–7) levels were significantly decreased, mRNA and protein expressions of ACE2 were significantly decreased, and AT1 expression was significantly increased at days 14 and 28 after vascular balloon injury in the surgery group compared with the control group. PCNA expression was higher in the surgery group than in the control group, and it

  7. Protective effect of simvastatin and rosuvastatin on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh A Maheshwari

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that simvastatin and rosuvastatin significantly ameliorate experimental colitis in rats, and these effects could be explained by their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity.

  8. MD-Logic overnight type 1 diabetes control in home settings: A multicentre, multinational, single blind randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimri, Revital; Bratina, Natasa; Kordonouri, Olga; Avbelj Stefanija, Magdalena; Fath, Maryam; Biester, Torben; Muller, Ido; Atlas, Eran; Miller, Shahar; Fogel, Aviel; Phillip, Moshe; Danne, Thomas; Battelino, Tadej

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the safety, efficacy and need for remote monitoring of the MD-Logic closed-loop system during short-term overnight use at home. Seventy-five patients (38 male; aged 10-54 years; average A1c, 7.8% ± 0.7%, 61.8 ± 7.2 mmol/mol) were enrolled from 3 clinical sites. Patients were randomly assigned to participate in 2 overnight crossover periods, each including 4 consecutive nights, 1 under closed-loop control and 1 under sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy in the patient's home. Both study arms were supervised using a remote-monitoring system in a blinded manner. Primary endpoints were time spent with glucose levels below 70 mg/dL and percentage of nights in which mean overnight glucose levels were within 90 to 140 mg/dL. The median [interquartile range] percentage of time spent in hypoglycaemia was significantly lower on nights when MD-Logic was used, compared to SAP therapy (2.07 [0, 4.78] and 2.6 [0, 10.34], respectively; P = .004) and the percentage of individual nights with a mean overnight glucose level in target was significantly greater (75 [42, 75] and 50 [25,75], respectively; P = .008). The time spent in target range was increased by a median of 28% (P = .001), with the same amount of insulin (10.69 [7.28, 13.94] and 10.41[6.9, 14.07], respectively; P = .087). The remote monitoring triggered calls for hypoglycaemia at twice the rate during SAP therapy compared to closed-loop control (62 and 29, respectively; P = .002). The MD-Logic system demonstrated a safe and efficient profile during overnight use by children, adolescents and adults with type 1 diabetes and, therefore, provides an effective means of mitigating the risk of nocturnal hypoglycaemia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Rosuvastatin vs. protease inhibitor switching for hypercholesterolaemia: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F J; Monteiro, P; Baker, D; Bloch, M; Roth, N; Finlayson, R; Moore, R; Hoy, J; Martinez, E; Carr, A

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin initiation with those of switching of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/rs) in HIV-1-infected adults with hypercholesterolaemia and increased cardiovascular risk scores. In this open-label, multicentre study, HIV-1-infected adults on PI/r-based therapy with viral load < 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL, fasting total cholesterol ≥ 5.5 mmol/L (both for ≥ 6 months) and elevated cardiovascular risk (Framingham score ≥ 8% or diabetes or family history), and not on lipid-lowering therapy, were randomized to open-label rosuvastatin 10 mg/day or to PI/r switching, both with standardized diet/exercise advice. The primary endpoint was change in total cholesterol at week 12 (intention to treat). There were 43 participants (23 on rosuvastatin). Baseline characteristics were: mean [± standard deviation (SD)] age 55 (8.5) years, 42 (98%) male, 41 (95%) white race, and mean (± SD) total cholesterol 6.2 (1.2) mmol/L. At enrolment, PI/rs were lopinavir/ritonavir (n = 22; 51%), atazanavir/ritonavir (n = 12; 28%) and darunavir/ritonavir (n = 9; 21%). The commonest PI/r substitutes were raltegravir (n = 9; 45%) and rilpivirine (n = 4; 20%). All participants were adherent through to week 12. Rosuvastatin yielded greater declines than PI/r switching in total (- 21.4% vs. - 8.7%, respectively; P = 0.003) and low-density lipoprotein (- 29.9% vs. - 1.0%, respectively; P < 0.001) cholesterol, but smaller declines in very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (P < 0.01). Cholesterol lowering was greater in participants on atazanavir/ritonavir or once-daily darunavir/ritonavir (vs. lopinavir/ritonavir). More study drug-related adverse events (mostly grade 1 nausea/diarrhoea; 10 vs. one, respectively; P = 0.001) occurred with PI/r switching than with rosuvastatin. In adults receiving a PI/r, rosuvastatin 10 mg/day for 12 weeks yielded larger decreases in total and low-density lipoprotein

  10. Improved Hypertension Control with the Imidazoline Agonist Moxonidine in a Multinational Metabolic Syndrome Population: Principal Results of the MERSY Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazova, Irina; Schlaich, Markus P

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of moxonidine on blood pressure and aspects of the metabolic syndrome in racially diverse population of patients encountered in routine medical practice. Physicians collected data on a minimum of three consecutive patients with uncontrolled essential hypertension and criteria for metabolic syndrome, eligible to receive moxonidine (0.2-0.4 mg once daily) for 6 months, either as monotherapy or as adjunct therapy to current antihypertensive treatment. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) declined by an average of 24.5 + 14.3 mmHg and 12.6 + 9.1 mmHg, respectively. BP responder rates defined as attaining BP < 140/90 mmHg were significantly (P < 0.001) and substantially higher among younger patients, nonpostmenopausal women, and patients receiving monotherapy. While potentially relevant improvements in the entire cohort were observed in regard to body weight (-2.1 ± 5.4 kg), fasting plasma glucose (from 6.8 to 6.2 mmol/L), and triglycerides (2.4 to 2.0 mmol/L), statistically significant changes in metabolic parameters could only be detected in subgroup analyses. Moxonidine therapy reduced blood pressure and improved rates of blood pressure control in this group of patients. While the observed trend towards improvement in various metabolic parameters merits further investigation, the overall effect of moxonidine treatment is consistent with a reduction of total cardiovascular risk in this hypertensive metabolic syndrome cohort.

  11. Improved Hypertension Control with the Imidazoline Agonist Moxonidine in a Multinational Metabolic Syndrome Population: Principal Results of the MERSY Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Chazova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the effects of moxonidine on blood pressure and aspects of the metabolic syndrome in racially diverse population of patients encountered in routine medical practice. Physicians collected data on a minimum of three consecutive patients with uncontrolled essential hypertension and criteria for metabolic syndrome, eligible to receive moxonidine (0.2–0.4 mg once daily for 6 months, either as monotherapy or as adjunct therapy to current antihypertensive treatment. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP declined by an average of 24.5+14.3 mmHg and 12.6+9.1 mmHg, respectively. BP responder rates defined as attaining BP < 140/90 mmHg were significantly (P<0.001 and substantially higher among younger patients, nonpostmenopausal women, and patients receiving monotherapy. While potentially relevant improvements in the entire cohort were observed in regard to body weight (-2.1±5.4 kg, fasting plasma glucose (from 6.8 to 6.2 mmol/L, and triglycerides (2.4 to 2.0 mmol/L, statistically significant changes in metabolic parameters could only be detected in subgroup analyses. Moxonidine therapy reduced blood pressure and improved rates of blood pressure control in this group of patients. While the observed trend towards improvement in various metabolic parameters merits further investigation, the overall effect of moxonidine treatment is consistent with a reduction of total cardiovascular risk in this hypertensive metabolic syndrome cohort.

  12. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  13. Rosuvastatin, lycopene and omega-3 fatty acids: A potential treatment for systemic inflammation in COPD; a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan J. Williams

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that rosuvastatin, omega-3 fatty acids and lycopene have some anti-inflammatory effects systemically, but rosuvastatin may increase airway neutrophils, which would be undesirable in COPD patients, warranting further investigation.

  14. 浅析跨国企业经济犯罪的治理%Control of economic crime of multinational enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨朋朋

    2014-01-01

    近些年来,持续发生数起涉及跨国公司在华实施跨国商业贿赂案件。从2004年的“朗讯”风波到近日葛兰素史克(中国)投资有限公司被调查,跨国公司在华的跨国商业贿赂存在手段多样、行为隐蔽、难以追究的特点。除了直接的金钱交易和吃喝玩乐等传统贿赂手段外,更多的跨国公司选择了免费出国旅游、海外培训、赞助领导干部子女到国外留学,合办面向政府官员和企业高管的EMBA班等新的手段。本文在分析跨国公司商业贿赂的危害及原因之后,提出了治理跨国公司商业贿赂的法律建议。%In recent years, continuous occurred several Multi-National Corporation implement transnational commercial bribery cases in China. From the 2004"lucent"storm the GlaxoSmithKline (Chinese) Investment Company Limited was investigated, the Multi-National Corporation in the Chinese transnational commercial bribery exists in a variety of means, the hidden behavior, difficult to investigate. In addition to money as a means of transaction and idle away in seeking pleasure and other traditional bribery, more Multi-National Corporation choose the free travel abroad, overseas training, sponsored by the cadre of leaders of their children to study abroad, the new means by government officials and business executives for EMBA class. The paper after the analysis of harm and reason of commercial bribery of Multi-National Corporation, to put forward suggestions of legislation of commercial bribery governance Multi-National Corporation.

  15. Rosuvastatin and cardiovascular events in patients undergoing hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellström, Bengt C; Jardine, Alan G; Schmieder, Roland E;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Statins reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients at high cardiovascular risk. However, a benefit of statins in such patients who are undergoing hemodialysis has not been proved. METHODS: We conducted an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, prospective...... trial involving 2776 patients, 50 to 80 years of age, who were undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. We randomly assigned patients to receive rosuvastatin, 10 mg daily, or placebo. The combined primary end point was death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke......: In patients undergoing hemodialysis, the initiation of treatment with rosuvastatin lowered the LDL cholesterol level but had no significant effect on the composite primary end point of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00240331.)...

  16. Facile LC-UV methods for simultaneous monitoring of ciprofloxacin and rosuvastatin in API, formulations and human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arayne, M Saeed; Sultana, Najma; Tabassum, Arman

    2015-02-01

    An efficient, selective and cost-effective liquid chromatographic assay was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of ciprofloxacin and rosuvastatin in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API), pharmaceutical formulations and in human serum. The chromatographic system consisted of mobile phase methanol-water, 90:10 v/v at pH 3.0 adjusted with o-phosphoric acid, pumped at 1.0 mL/min through a prepacked Purospher Star C18 (5 µm, 25 × 0.46 cm) column and effluent was monitored at the isosbestic point (255 nm) as well as at the λmax of individual drugs (243 and 271 nm). The method was validated over a linear concentration range of 0.25-15 µg/mL for ciprofloxacin and 0.33-20 µg/mL for rosuvastatin (r(2)  ≥ 0.999). The ranges of reliable response (limits of detection and quantitation) for ciprofloxacin were 3-15 and 9-45 ng/mL and 17-29 and 52-88 ng/mL, respectively, for rosuvastatin in all API, pharmaceutical formulations and human serum. Analytical recovery from human serum was >98% and relative standard deviation (RSD) was ciprofloxacin and rosuvastatin, respectively. No matrix interferences, ion suppression/enhancement and carry-over were detected. The total assay run time was less than 5 min. In another study, for optimum performance the detector was programmed for multiwavelength scanning at the absorption maxima of each component. Consequently, the linearity range was improved and limit of detection and quantitation values were down to 1-4 and 4-12 ng/mL for ciprofloxacin and 3-5 and 9-15 ng/mL for rosuvastatin, respectively. The validation parameters fitted ICH guidelines through the isosbestic and individual λmax approach. The small sample volume and simplicity of preparation make this method suitable for use in human serum samples, pharmaceutical formulations, quality control, drug-drug interaction studies, clinical laboratories, drug research centers and forensic medical centers. Copyright © 2014

  17. Innovation and Institutional Embeddedness of Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogrebnyakov, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    Review of: Innovation and Institutional Embeddedness of Multinational Corporations / edited by Martin Heidenreich. (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2012)......Review of: Innovation and Institutional Embeddedness of Multinational Corporations / edited by Martin Heidenreich. (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2012)...

  18. Rosuvastatin: Role in Cardiovascular High-risk Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Feliciano-Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins are the lipid-lowering drug family of first choice in situations of hypercholesterolemia or mixed dyslipidemia with predominant increase in cholesterol. The evidence shows conclusively that each one of the commercially available statins have proven benefits on outcomes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, rosuvastatin has certain pharmacokinetic efficacy and cost-effectiveness characteristics that make it an attractive molecule to be the statin of choice in patients at high cardiovascular risk.

  19. Human resource policy and Danish multinational companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Daniel; Søborg, Henrik

    A study of Danish multinational companies' human resource policy in their subsidiaries in Malaysia and Singapore.The sample of companies consists of 8 Danish multinational companies with activities in both Malaysia and Singapore.......A study of Danish multinational companies' human resource policy in their subsidiaries in Malaysia and Singapore.The sample of companies consists of 8 Danish multinational companies with activities in both Malaysia and Singapore....

  20. Human resource policy and Danish multinational companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Daniel; Søborg, Henrik

    A study of Danish multinational companies' human resource policy in their subsidiaries in Malaysia and Singapore.The sample of companies consists of 8 Danish multinational companies with activities in both Malaysia and Singapore.......A study of Danish multinational companies' human resource policy in their subsidiaries in Malaysia and Singapore.The sample of companies consists of 8 Danish multinational companies with activities in both Malaysia and Singapore....

  1. STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION IN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Cristina VASILE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article intends to show how multinational companies gain market share and visibility by using the appropriate strategic communication. The study evaluate the base framework, analysis, tools, data sources, sets of improvement plans and results that some multinational companies obtain by using strategic communication. The analysed companies are American based mainly communicative corporations and it will be underlined the importance of communication in the current economic environment. The results will show how important strategic communication is along the information used and the strategic management in targeting the position in the market.

  2. Rosuvastatin safety: An experimental study of myotoxic effects and mitochondrial alterations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ganainy, Samar O; El-Mallah, Ahmed; Abdallah, Dina; Khattab, Mahmoud M; Mohy El-Din, Mahmoud M; El-Khatib, Aiman S

    2017-01-04

    Myopathy is the most commonly reported adverse effect of statins. All statins are associated with myopathy, though with different rates. Rosuvastatin is a potent statin reported to induce myopathy comparable to earlier statins. However, in clinical practice most patients could tolerate rosuvastatin over other statins. This study aimed to evaluate the myopathic pattern of rosuvastatin in rats using biochemical, functional and histopathological examinations. The possible deleterious effects of rosuvastatin on muscle mitochondria were also examined. The obtained results were compared to myopathy induced by atorvastatin in equimolar dose. Results showed that rosuvastatin induced a rise in CK, a slight increase in myoglobin level together with mild muscle necrosis. Motor activity, assessed by rotarod, showed that rosuvastatin decreased rats' performance. All these manifestations were obviously mild compared to the prominent effects of atorvastatin. Parallel results were obtained in mitochondrial dysfunction parameters. Rosuvastatin only induced a slight increase in LDH and a minor decrease in ATP (∼14%) and pAkt (∼12%). On the other hand, atorvastatin induced an increase in LDH, lactate/pyruvate ratio and a pronounced decline in ATP (∼80%) and pAkt (∼65%). These findings showed that rosuvastatin was associated with mild myotoxic effects in rats, especially when compared to atorvastatin.

  3. Effects of rosuvastatin on postprandial leukocytes in mildly hyperlipidemic patients with premature coronary sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, A J H H M van; Plokker, H W M; Asbeck, B S van; Rabelink, T J; Kessel, K P M van; Jansen, E H J M; Stehouwer, C D A; Cabezas, M Castro

    2006-01-01

    We investigated whether pro-inflammatory aspects of the postprandial phase can be modulated by rosuvastatin in premature coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. Herefore standardized 8 h oral fat loading tests were performed off-treatment and after rosuvastatin 40 mg/d in 20 male CAD patients (50 +/

  4. Managing hypercholesterolemia and preventing cardiovascular events in elderly and younger Chinese adults: focus on rosuvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Z

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Zhen Wang, Junbo GeDepartment of Cardiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Coronary heart disease (CHD is the leading cause of death worldwide. The efficacy and safety of statins in primary and secondary prevention of CHD is confirmed in several large studies, and rosuvastatin is the latest statin on market. We review the published literature on rosuvastatin in Chinese people. The pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin in Chinese is somewhat different from that in Caucasians, but this does not influence the linear relationship between dosage and efficacy and with no drug accumulation. Rosuvastatin 5–20 mg/day is effective and safe in decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in both younger and elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia, even in very elderly patients. Rosuvastatin also shows anti-inflammatory and antiatherosclerosis features, such as reducing carotid intima-media thickness and plaque area. Rosuvastatin can also improve the prognosis of Chinese CHD patients, such as in the case of acute myocardial infarction. Its adverse-event rate is low and comparable to other statins. In conclusion, rosuvastatin is effective and safe for younger or elderly Chinese patients.Keywords: rosuvastatin, Chinese, younger, elderly

  5. Short-term Rosuvastatin Treatment for the Prevention of Contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Receiving Moderate or High Volumes of Contrast Media: A Sub-analysis of the TRACK-D Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current randomized trials have demonstrated the effects of short-term rosuvastatin therapy in preventing contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI. However, the consistency of these effects on patients administered different volumes of contrast media is unknown. Methods: In the TRACK-D trial, 2998 patients with type 2 diabetes and concomitant chronic kidney disease (CKD who underwent coronary/peripheral arterial angiography with or without percutaneous intervention were randomized to short-term (2 days before and 3 days after procedure rosuvastatin therapy or standard-of-care. This prespecified analysis compared the effects of rosuvastatin versus standard therapy in patients exposed to (moderate contrast volume [MCV], 200-300 ml, n = 712 or (high contrast volume [HCV], ≥300 ml, n = 220. The primary outcome was the incidence of CIAKI. The secondary outcome was a composite of death, dialysis/hemofiltration or worsened heart failure at 30 days. Results: Rosuvastatin treatment was associated with a significant reduction in CIAKI compared with the controls (2.1% vs. 4.4%, P = 0.050 in the overall cohort and in patients with MCV (1.7% vs. 4.5%, P = 0.029, whereas no benefit was observed in patients with HCV (3.4% vs. 3.9%, P = 0.834. The incidence of secondary outcomes was significantly lower in the rosuvastatin group compared with control group (2.7% vs. 5.3%, P = 0.049 in the overall cohort, but it was similar between the patients with MCV (2.0% vs. 4.2%, P = 0.081 or HCV (5.1% vs. 8.8%, P = 0.273. Conclusions: Periprocedural short-term rosuvastatin treatment is effective in reducing CIAKI and adverse clinical events for patients with diabetes and CKD after their exposure to a moderate volume of contrast medium.

  6. The Performance and Risk Management Implications of Multinationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Andersen, Torben

    Multinational enterprise in control of dispersed overseas resources and capabilities has been linked to strategic flexibility that allows the firm to take advantage of opportunities and manage exposures imposed by changing environmental conditions. This paper analyzes the implied performance...... and risk management effects in a comprehensive sample of public firms and finds supportive evidence for the proposition that multinationality can enhance performance across industries. However, the ability to exploit upside potential and avoid downside risk is industry specific. The positive effects...... of multinationality are found particularly pronounced among firms operating in knowledge intensive service industries while firms in capital-intensive primary industries display the inverse relationships. Keywords: Strategic flexibility, Real options, Risk management...

  7. Globalization : Countries, Cities and Multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Acs, Zoltan J.

    2011-01-01

    McCann P. and Acs Z. J. Globalization: countries, cities and multinationals, Regional Studies. This paper explores the relationship between the size of a country, the size of its cities, and the importance of economies of scale in the modern era of globalization. In order to do this, it integrates t

  8. Organisational Learning And Multinational Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Nooteboom (Bart)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIncreasingly, it has been recognised that in their process of internationalisation multinationals may learn. They may take a strategy not only of exploitation, to leverage existing assets, competencies and products, built up in their home countries, but also, and perhaps even primarily,

  9. Globalization : Countries, Cities and Multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Acs, Zoltan J.

    2011-01-01

    McCann P. and Acs Z. J. Globalization: countries, cities and multinationals, Regional Studies. This paper explores the relationship between the size of a country, the size of its cities, and the importance of economies of scale in the modern era of globalization. In order to do this, it integrates

  10. Unravelling learning within multinational corporations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saka-Helmhout, Ayse

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the impact of institutional variation on the extent to which subsidiary firms learn from multinational corporations. Learning is conceptualized here as consisting of two aspects: knowledge flow and reinforcement of or change in routines to incorporate the behaviourist assumptio

  11. Globalization : Countries, Cities and Multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Acs, Zoltan J.

    2011-01-01

    McCann P. and Acs Z. J. Globalization: countries, cities and multinationals, Regional Studies. This paper explores the relationship between the size of a country, the size of its cities, and the importance of economies of scale in the modern era of globalization. In order to do this, it integrates t

  12. Effects of manidipine plus rosuvastatin versus olmesartan plus rosuvastatin on markers of insulin resistance in patients with impaired fasting glucose, hypertension, and mixed dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberopoulos, Evangelos N; Moutzouri, Elisavet; Rizos, Christos V; Barkas, Fotis; Liamis, George; Elisaf, Moses S

    2013-03-01

    To compare the effect of manidipine 20 mg plus rosuvastatin 10 mg versus olmesartan 20 mg plus rosuvastatin 10 mg on markers of insulin resistance in patients with mixed dyslipidemia, hypertension, and impaired fasting glucose (IFG). This study had a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded endpoint (PROBE) design. A total of 40 patients with IFG, mixed dyslipidemia, and stage 1 hypertension were included. Following dietary intervention, patients were randomly allocated to rosuvastatin (10 mg/d) plus olmesartan (20 mg/d) or manidipine (20 mg/d). The primary end point was the between-group difference in changes in the Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index following 3 months of treatment. Secondary end points included changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin levels, and glucosylated hemoglobin. At the end of the 3-month treatment period, a significant increase in HOMA-IR index by 14% (from 2.4 [0.5-7.9] to 2.7 [0.5-5.2], P = .02 versus baseline) was seen in the olmesartan plus rosuvastatin group. On the contrary, no significant change in HOMA-IR index was observed in the manidipine plus rosuvastatin group (1.7 [0.5-5.2] to 1.7 [0.8-6.0], P = NS versus baseline, P = .04 versus olmesartan plus rosuvastatin group). An increase in fasting insulin levels was observed in the olmesartan plus rosuvastatin group (+8%, from 10.1 [2.0-29.6] to 10.9 [2.0-19.1] μU/mL, P olmesartan plus rosuvastatin group). Fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin did not change significantly in any group. Manidipine seems to ameliorate the possible statin-associated increase in insulin resistance as compared with olmesartan in patients with IFG, hypertension, and mixed dyslipidemia.

  13. Effects of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin on inflammatory factors and left ventricular remodeling in patients with non-ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Zhou; Le Qu; Xiao-Li Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effects of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin on inflammatory factors and left ventricular remodeling in patients with non-ST segment elevation acute myocardial. Methods:A total of 100 cases patients of NSTEMI were selected that they were admitted during January 2013 to December 2014 and randomly divided into observer group and control group, each of 50 cases. Patients were given a comprehensive treatment of myocardial infarction, the control group was given the treatment of rosuvastatin and the observer group was given the treatment of atorvastatin over the same period, compared the related indicators of serum inflammatory factors and left ventricular remodeling after treatment in two groups. Results:The observer group serum TNF- , IL-6, hs-CRP levels were significantly lower than the control group in the treatment of 1 month, 3 months. The observer group was treated for 1 month, 3 months LVEF was significantly higher than the control group, and LVEDD, LVESD, PWT was significantly lower than the control group. The observer group was treated for 1 month, 3 months AngⅡ, PⅢNP, NT-proBNP level was significantly lower than the control group.Conclusions:The rosuvastatin is better than the atorvastatin in improving the level of NSTEMI inflammatory factors, prevention of left ventricular remodeling.

  14. Lean Transformation of Multinational Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Rikke Vestergaard; Johansen, John

    2008-01-01

    triggered. This paper reports on exploratory studies from a multinational company adopting centrally managed pilot projects as a transformation mechanism for continuous change towards a lean business system and an organizational culture of continuous improvements (CI). Competitive pressure demands...... from a multinational company adopting centrally managed pilot projects as a transformation mechanism for continuous change towards a lean business system and an organizational culture of continuous improvements (CI).......Abstract. Competitive pressure demands that companies constantly strive to catch up to world class manufacturing performance and practice. Continuous change is a mode of competition for many companies [1]. This is a departure from the punctuated equilibrium model of change in which change is event...

  15. Effect of rosuvastatin on serum cTNI, Cys-C, Hcy and myocardial enzyme, Inflammatory cytokines in acute myocardial infarction with PCI surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Shen; Zeng-Xin Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of rosuvastatin on serum cTNI, Cys-C, Hcy and myocardial enzyme, inflammatory factors in acute myocardial infarction with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) surgery.Methods:A total of 80 patients with acute myocardial infarction were randomly divided into control group (40 cases) and experiment group (40 cases), the control group were given atorvastatin on the basis of basic therapy, and the experiment group were given rosuvastatin on the basis of basic therapy. The change of serum cTNI, Cys-C, Hcy, LDH, CK, CK-MB, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 in 24 hours and 8 weeks after PCI surgery of two groups were compared.Results:The serum cTNI, Cys-C, Hcy, LDH, CK, CK-MB, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 in 8 weeks after PCI surgery of two groups were significantly lower than that of 24 hours after PCI surgery (P<0.05). The serum cTNI, Cys-C, Hcy, LDH, CK, CK-MB, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 in 8 weeks after PCI surgery of experiment group were significantly lower than that of 8 weeks in control group (P<0.05).Conclusions: Rosuvastatin can significantly decrease the myocardial enzyme, inflammatory cytokines in acute myocardial infarction with PCI surgery. It plays an important role in protecting the heart function, reversing myocardial damage, and inhibiting cardiac remodeling.

  16. Cohesion in Multinational Military Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    He openly admitted his homosexual orientation at a staff meeting; by doing that he clearly stated his guidelines toward gays . He had developed a...of units and consequentially unit effectiveness (Dupuy 1993, 2948). Some nations permit openly gay and lesbian personnel and others may not. Social...may cause less tension. However, for some nations involvement of gays and lesbians in multinational units may be offensive, while other nations are

  17. National culture and multinational performance

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George; Tzeremes, Nickolaos

    2008-01-01

    The question of why some multinational corporations perform better than others is in the centre of the analysis of many international business disciplines and the subject of a never-ending debate. In that respect this paper provides empirical evidence by combining strategic management theories and performance measurement techniques. Specifically, it illustrates a way of strategic performance measurement by emphasising the impact of home country’s national culture on MNCs’ performance. Our emp...

  18. Multinational banks and development finance

    OpenAIRE

    Weller, Christian E.; Scher, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    Financial market recommendations for less industrialized economies, particularly in the wake of the recent financial crises, have included a push for more international financial competition. The entry of multinational banks (MNBs) into developing economies is supposed to create more market discipline for domestic banks, thus making them more efficient, and enhancing financial stability. Using data from the BIS and the IMF, we look at the determinants of MNB presence, at MNB activities, and t...

  19. A pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interaction between rosuvastatin and valsartan in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung JA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jin Ah Jung,1 Soo-Yun Lee,2 Jung-Ryul Kim,1 Jae-Wook Ko,1,2 Seong Bok Jang,3 Su Youn Nam,3 Wooseong Huh1,41Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Samsung Medical Center, 2Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, 3Yuhan Research Institute, Yuhan Corporation, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, KoreaPurpose: Valsartan, an angiotensin-receptor blocker, and rosuvastatin, a competitive inhibitor of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, are frequently coadministered to treat patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia. The study reported here sought to evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between rosuvastatin and valsartan in healthy Korean subjects. Subjects and methods: Thirty healthy male Korean subjects were administered with rosuvastatin (20 mg/day, valsartan (160 mg/day, and both drugs concomitantly for 4 days in a randomized, open-label, multiple-dose, three-treatment, three-period crossover study. Plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin, N-desmethyl rosuvastatin, and valsartan were determined using validated high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Lipid profiles and vital signs (systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate were measured for the pharmacodynamic assessment.Results: For rosuvastatin, the geometric mean ratios (90% confidence intervals [CIs] of coadministration to mono-administration were 0.8809 (0.7873-0.9857 for maximum plasma concentration at steady state and 0.9151 (0.8632-0.9701 for area under the concentration–time curve (AUC over a dosing interval at steady state. For valsartan, the geometric mean ratios (90% CIs of those were 0.9300 (0.7946-1.0884 and 1.0072 (0.8893-1.1406, respectively. There were no significant differences in the metabolic ratio of N

  20. Association of Lipoproteins, Insulin Resistance, and Rosuvastatin With Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus : Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugani, Sagar B; Akinkuolie, Akintunde O; Paynter, Nina; Glynn, Robert J; Ridker, Paul M; Mora, Samia

    2016-05-01

    Statins decrease levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides as well as cardiovascular events but increase the risk for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The risk factors associated with incident T2DM are incompletely characterized. To investigate the association of lipoprotein subclasses and size and a novel lipoprotein insulin resistance (LPIR) score (a composite of 6 lipoprotein measures) with incident T2DM among individuals randomized to a high-intensity statin or placebo. This secondary analysis of the JUPITER trial (a placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial) was conducted at 1315 sites in 26 countries and enrolled 17 802 men 50 years or older and women 60 years or older with LDL cholesterol levels less than 130 mg/dL, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels of at least 2 mg/L, and triglyceride levels less than 500 mg/dL. Those with T2DM were excluded. A prespecified secondary aim was to assess the effect of rosuvastatin calcium on T2DM. Incident T2DM was monitored for a median of 2.0 years. Data were collected from February 4, 2003, to August 20, 2008, and analyzed (intention-to-treat) from December 1, 2013, to January 21, 2016. Rosuvastatin calcium, 20 mg/d, or placebo. Size and concentration of lipids, apolipoproteins, and lipoproteins at baseline (11 918 patients with evaluable plasma samples) and 12 months after randomization (9180 patients). The LPIR score, a correlate of insulin resistance, was calculated as a weighted combination of size and concentrations of LDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. Among the 11 918 patients (4334 women [36.4%]; median [interquartile range] age, 66 [60-71] years), rosuvastatin lowered the levels of LDL particles (-39.6%; 95% CI, -49.4% to -24.6%), VLDL particles (-19.6%; 95% CI, -40.6% to 10.3%), and VLDL triglycerides (-15.2%; 95% CI, -35.9% to 11.3%) and shifted the lipoprotein subclass distribution toward smaller LDL size (-1.5%; 95

  1. Effective Strategy-Making in Multinational Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Andersson, Ulf; Palmié, Maximilian

    We outline commonalities between studies of subsidiary decentralization and autonomous strategy-making in the international business and strategic management fields. This suggests that corporate headquarters should engage in strategy-making processes that provide a combination of formal direction...... requirements. We identify some important nuances in the integration-responsiveness conundrum supported by an empirical study of 351 multinational subsidiaries. We discuss the implications for multinational strategy practice and suggest future research venues to investigate strategy-making in multinational...

  2. IT ENABLED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P.THAPLIYAL

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a high dependence on IT for knowledge sharing in multinationals and the expectations from IT is high. The risk to fall into the trap of investments for expensive IT solutions is very high for multinational companies. Multinational companies possess dispersed knowledge all around the world and it is important to recognize that most of the part of this knowledge is tacit. Therefore even though IT facilitate the knowledge management and sharing between different units of multinational companies, it is crucial to develop other means to share the tacit part of the knowledge base.

  3. Chromatin remodeling by rosuvastatin normalizes TSC2-/meth cell phenotype through the expression of tuberin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesma, Elena; Ancona, Silvia; Orpianesi, Emanuela; Grande, Vera; Di Giulio, Anna Maria; Gorio, Alfredo

    2013-05-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multi-systemic syndrome caused by mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 gene. In TSC2-null cells, Rheb, a member of the Ras family of GTPases, is constitutively activated. Statins inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and block the synthesis of isoprenoid lipids with inhibition of Rheb farnesylation and RhoA geranylgeranylation. The effects of rosuvastatin on the function of human TSC2(-/-) and TSC2(-/meth) α-actin smooth muscle (ASM) cells have been investigated. The TSC2(-/-) and TSC2(-/meth) ASM cells, previously isolated in our laboratory from the renal angiomyolipoma of two TSC patients, do not express tuberin and bear loss of heterozigosity caused by a double hit on TSC2 and methylation of TSC2 promoter, respectively. Exposure to rosuvastatin affected TSC2(-/meth) ASM cell growth and promoted tuberin expression by acting as a demethylating agent. This occurred without changes in interleukin release. Rosuvastatin also reduced RhoA activation in TSC2(-/meth) ASM cells, and it required coadministration with the specific mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor rapamycin to be effective in TSC2(-/-) ASM cells. Rapamycin enhanced rosuvastatin effect in inhibiting cell proliferation in TSC2(-/-) and TSC2(-/meth) ASM cells. Rosuvastatin alone did not alter phosphorylation of S6 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and at the higher concentration, rosuvastatin and rapamycin slightly decreased ERK phosphorylation. These results suggest that rosuvastatin may potentially represent a treatment adjunct to the therapy with mTOR inhibitors now in clinical development for TSC. In particular, rosuvastatin appears useful when the disease is originated by epigenetic defects.

  4. MANAGEMENT OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN MULTINATIONAL TEAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep Gultekin; Cemil Ulukan

    2012-01-01

    Assurance of efficiency and productivity of multinational teams necessitates policies, rules, and procedures covering underlying characteristics of team members’ home country cultures, potential cross-cultural conflicts and their solutions, cultural awareness in the organization, and harmonization mechanisms for different cultures with the organizational culture, etc. In spite of ever-increasing importance, studies addressing multinational teams and cultural differences simultaneously are ins...

  5. Who Gets to Lead the Multinational Team?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paunova, Minna

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the emergence of informal leadership in multinational teams. Building on and extending status characteristics theory, the article proposes and tests a model that describes how global inequalities reproduce in multinational teams, and accounts for who gets to lead these teams...

  6. Successes and Challenges of Emerging Economy Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Successes and Challenges of Emerging Economy Multinationals investigates a broad variety of cases presenting clear evidence of fast successful internationalization of emerging economy multinationals originating not only from big economic players such as China, India and Russia but also from other...... directions for further theoretical expansion and new empirical research....

  7. Successes and Challenges of Emerging Economy Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Successes and Challenges of Emerging Economy Multinationals investigates a broad variety of cases presenting clear evidence of fast successful internationalization of emerging economy multinationals originating not only from big economic players such as China, India and Russia but also from other...

  8. Financialization and the Multinational Corporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    The terrain on which states, trade unions and social movements confront multinational corporations has changed dramatically over the last two decades as a result of two phenomena – the disaggregation of the supply chain and the financialization of corporations. Trade unions and social movements...... are integrally related within the same process of neoliberal globalization. It argues that trade unions and social movements need to connect together issues to do with the relocation and restructuring of employment with issues of financialization and the need for financial reform. Change will only be effective...

  9. 瑞舒伐他汀对肾小球硬化症患者动脉粥样硬化的影响%The effect of rosuvastatin on atherosclerotic status in patients with glomerulosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂元; 陈苏

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨瑞舒伐他汀对肾小球硬化症患者炎性反应介质和抗动脉粥样硬化的作用.方法 选择38例肾小球硬化症患者,随机分为2组,观察组22例予瑞舒伐他汀10 mg口服,每天1次,对照组16例·1.73 m-2,P<0.05],对照组无明显变化(P>0.05).观察组eGFR、尿蛋白改善均优于对照组(P2. 6mmol/L were randomly assigned to receive 10 mg/day rosuvastatin ( observation group, n = 22 ) or without rosuavastatin treatment ( control group, n = 16 ). Lipid profile, estimated glomerular filtration rate ( eGFR ), high sensitivity C reactive protein ( hs-CRP ), and intima media thickness ( IMT ) were measured before and 12 months after rosuvastatin was added to the treatment. Results Total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol,triglycerides,proteinuria and hs-CRP were significantly reduced in patients who received rosuvastatin treatment. These parameters remained unchanged in patients who did not treated with rosuvastatin. The IMT decreased from ( 1. 89 ± 0. 98 )mm to ( 1. 75 ± 0. 87 )mm after 12 months treatment ( P 0. 05 ). The improvement of eGFR and proteinuria in observation group was superior to those in control group( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion It provided that the rosuvastatin had beneficial effect on cholesterol levels, in addition to reduce the maximal IMT and modified the inflammatory state.

  10. Rapid response to lipids profile and leukocyte gene expression after rosuvastatin administration in Chinese healthy volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA Cong-xiao; LI Yi-shi; LIU Yu-qing; LIU Hong; LI Na; WU Ying; XU Li; HUANG Yi-ling

    2008-01-01

    Background Statins are potent lipid-lowering agents widely used in medicaI practice.There has been growing evidence suggesting the pleiotropic effects of statins In addition to the lipid-lowering effect.However,it is still unclear how rapidly the beneficial effects of statins occur.The transcriptome of peripheral blood cells can be used as a sensor to drug therapy.The purpose of the study was to investigate the acute effects of rosuvastatin both on lipids profile and gene expression of peripheral leukocytes following therapy with a single dose of rosuvastatin.Methods Thirty healthy Chinese male volunteers were enrolled.The serum lipids,high-sensitivity C-reactive protein,and plasma fibrinogen were determined before and 72 hours after administration of 20 mg of rosuvastatin.The differentially expressed genes of peripheral leukocytes after administration of rosuvastatin were screened using human oligonucleotide microarray gene expression chips.Then four of the differentially expressed genes including ATM,CASP8,IL8RB and S100B were verified by real-time polymerase chain reaction(PCR).Results Rosuvastatin decreased both serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly 72 hours after administration of a single dose of 20 mg rosuvastatin.However,no significant changes occurred in blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol,triglycerides,C-reactive protein and fibrinogen after the treatment.A total of 24 genes were differentially expressed after the treatment.They were involved in important cell biological processes such as cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction,apoptosis signaling,etc.Conclusions Rosuvastatin rapidly modulates the serum lipids and affects the gene expression of peripheral leukocytes in healthy volunteers.This finding provides some new clues for further studies on its potential pleiotropic effects.

  11. Clinical efficacy of rosuvastatin in lipid management in Chinese patients in Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vivian W.Y. Lee; T.S. Chau; Vice P.H. Leung; Kenneth K.C. Lee; Brian Tomlinson

    2009-01-01

    Background Rosuvastatin has been claimed to be more potent than other statins in its ability to lower the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. This study aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy of rosuvastatin in LDL cholesterol lowering therapy for new or switched hyperlipidaemic Chinese patients.Methods This study was a retrospective one in patients who took rosuvastatin in the outpatient clinics of Prince of Wales Hospital during the period of July 1,2004 to June 30, 2005. The prescribing pattern, the utilization pattern and the side effect profile were recorded. Attainment of lipid goals for each patient was assessed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEPATP) III guidelines.Results A total of 261 Chinese patients (mean age (64.8±12) years; 55.6% male) were recruited into the study. The mean LDL-cholesterol level was (3.50±1.29) mmol/L prior to Rosuvastatin and (2.30±1.73) mmol/L after Rosuvastatin treatment (P<0.0001). Rosuvastatin raised the LDL-cholesterol goal achievement rate from 28.0% to 74.3% in all patients combined (P<0.0001) and from 11.0% to 79.0% for statin naive patients (P<0.0001). Approximately 4% of patients developed side effects including myalgia, elevated liver enzymes, and dizziness.Conclusion Rosuvastatin was effective in improving LDL-cholesterol goal attainment and lowering LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels in either newly started or switched patients.

  12. Multinational Experiment 7. Maritime Security Region: The Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 08 JUL 2013 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multinational Experiment...thousand meters. Vast ledges of subsea land extend from the surrounding continents and underlie nearly two thirds of the ocean. The central Arctic... models had predicted. According to satellite measurements the minimum area of sea ice has decreased by more than 11 percent per decade over the last 30

  13. LOGISTIC SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS IN MULTINATIONAL OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin PINZARIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The requirements for the logistic support in multinational operations are not totally different than those for classic operations, as we know them at the present moment. But what differentiates them for sure, is the multinational framework that incorporates the military actions, the multiculturalism of tactics, techniques and procedures by which NATO and non-NATO member states, that participate in the multinational operation, understand to provide the logistic support to their own troops, as well as the different roles accepted to be fulfilled by one country or another (Lead Nation for Logistics, Specialized Role Nation, Host Nation Support, etc.

  14. Effects of maximal doses of atorvastatin versus rosuvastatin on small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximal doses of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin are highly effective in lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels; however, rosuvastatin has been shown to be significantly more effective than atorvastatin in lowering LDL cholesterol and in increasing high-density lipo...

  15. Improved efficacy for ezetimibe and rosuvastatin by attenuating the induction of PCSK9[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ason, Brandon; Tep, Samnang; Davis, Harry R.; Xu, Yiming; Tetzloff, Glen; Galinski, Beverly; Soriano, Ferdie; Dubinina, Natalya; Zhu, Lei; Stefanni, Alice; Wong, Kenny K.; Tadin-Strapps, Marija; Bartz, Steven R.; Hubbard, Brian; Ranalletta, Mollie; Sachs, Alan B.; Flanagan, W. Michael; Strack, Alison; Kuklin, Nelly A.

    2011-01-01

    Reducing circulating LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c) reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease in people with hypercholesterolemia. Current approaches to reduce circulating LDL-c include statins, which inhibit cholesterol synthesis, and ezetimibe, which blocks cholesterol absorption. Both elevate serum PCSK9 protein levels in patients, which could attenuate their efficacy by reducing the amount of cholesterol cleared from circulation. To determine whether PCSK9 inhibition could enhance LDL-c lowering of both statins and ezetimibe, we utilized small interfer­ing RNAs (siRNAs) to knock down Pcsk9, together with ezetimibe, rosuvastatin, and an ezetimibe/rosuvastatin combination in a mouse model with a human-like lipid profile. We found that ezetimibe, rosuvastatin, and ezetimibe/rosuvastatin combined lower serum cholesterol but induce the expression of Pcsk9 as well as the Srebp-2 hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Pcsk9 knockdown in combination with either treatment led to greater reductions in serum non-HDL with a near-uniform reduction of all LDL-c subfractions. In addition to reducing serum cholesterol, the combined rosuvastatin/ezetimibe/Pcsk9 siRNA treatment exhibited a significant reduction in serum APOB protein and triglyceride levels. Taken together, these data provide evidence that PCSK9 inhibitors, in combination with current therapies, have the potential to achieve greater reductions in both serum cholesterol and triglycerides. PMID:21262787

  16. Rosuvastatin inhibits the smooth muscle cell proliferation by targeting TNFα mediated Rho kinase pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Sun; Hao Tong; Man Zhang; Xiao-Hang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNFα) is capable of activating Rho kinase pathway which leads to smooth muscle cell proliferation and the intervention function of Rosuvastatin, and clarify the mechanism and intervention manner of anti-atherosclerosis by Rosuvastatin. Methods Wistar neonate rat smooth muscle cells were cultured, and the activity of cell proliferation was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT). The expression of Rho kinase genes after the stimulation of TNFα was evaluated by RT-PCR. Western blot method was used to measure the protein expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) after TNFα stimulation and Rosuvastatin intervention in smooth muscle cell. Results The TNFα stimulation significantly enhanced the expression of Rho kinase and increased the expression of PCNA protein in smooth muscle cells (P < 0.05). These effects were positively correlated with prolonged treatment whereas additional Rosuvastatin administration inhibited the above-mentioned effects (P < 0.05). Conclusions The activation of TNFα mediated Rho kinase signaling pathway can significantly promote smooth muscle cell proliferation, and Rosuvastatin can not only inhibit this pathway but also the induced proliferation.

  17. Subsidiary Initiative Taking in Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dörrenbacher, Christoph; Gammelgaard, Jens

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the political maneuvering that accompanies subsidiary initiative taking in multinational corporations. On the basis of an explorative empirical investigation of subsidiary initiative taking in the French subsidiaries of six German MNCs, the paper explores the activities...

  18. Knowledge transfer and expatriation in multinational corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Michailova, Snejina

    2004-01-01

    Research on multinational corporation (MNC) knowledge transfer has argued continuously for the behavior of knowledge senders to be a determinant of knowledge transfer. Although the importance of disseminative capacity regarding knowledge transfer has been illustrated in numerous conceptual studies...

  19. Emerging Market Multinational Companies and Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estrin, Saul; Nielsen, Bo B.; Nielsen, Sabina

    2017-01-01

    We develop a multilevel theoretical framework for investigating the role of home country urbanization for emerging market multinational companies' (EMNCs) international expansion. We propose that more urbanized home environments directly increase EMNC's proclivity to internationalize and moderate...

  20. Emerging Market Multinational Companies and Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard; Estrin, Saul; Nielsen, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    This paper furthers our understanding of the role of contextual conditions influencing internationalization of emerging market multinational companies (EMNCs). We use resource-based, industrial organization, and economic development theories to develop a multilevel theoretical framework...

  1. Knowledge Flows, Governance and the Multinational Enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Pedersen, Torben

    This work contributes to the understanding of knowledge governance in the multinational corporation. Intra-firm and inter-firm processes of knowledge creation, sharing and exploitation have attracted increasingly managerial and scholarly interest. However the relation between particular knowledge...

  2. Taxing the Financially Integrated Multinational Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    This paper develops a theoretical model of corporate taxation in the presence of financially integrated multinational firms. Under the assumption that multinational firms at least partly use internal loans to finance foreign investment, we find that the optimal corporate tax rate is positive from...... the perspective of a small, open economy. This finding contrasts the standard result that the optimal source based capital tax is zero. Intuitively, to the extent that multinational firms finance investment in country i with loans from affiliates in country j, the burden of corporate taxes in the latter country...... partly fall on investment and thus workers in the former country. This tax exporting mechanism introduces a scope for corporate taxes, which is not present in standard models of international taxation. Accounting for the internal capital markets of multinational firms thus represents a way to resolve...

  3. Taxing the Financially Integrated Multinational Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    This paper develops a theoretical model of corporate taxation in the presence of financially integrated multinational firms. Under the assumption that multinational firms at least partly use internal loans to finance foreign investment, we find that the optimal corporate tax rate is positive from...... the tension between standard theory predicting zero capital taxes and the casual observation that countries tend to employ corporate taxes at fairly high rates....

  4. Multinational Performance and Risk Management Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Juul Andersen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Multinational enterprise provides access to a diverse resource base that may support options related business initiatives and operational flexibilities with a potential to improve performance and risk management capabilities. Hence, multinationality should be associated with strategic responsiveness as real option structures allow the corporation to exploit new initiatives and pursue alternative actions. This, in turn should improve economic performance and risk management capabilities as cor...

  5. International Taxation and Multinational Firm Location Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios Cobos, Salvador; Huizinga, Harry; Laeven, Luc; Gaëtan J.A. Nicodème

    2008-01-01

    Using a large international firm-level data set, we estimate separate effects of host and parent country taxation on the location decisions of multinational firms. Both types of taxation are estimated to have a negative impact on the location of new foreign subsidiaries. In fact, the impact of parent country taxation is estimated to be relatively large, possibly reflecting its international discriminatory nature. For the cross-section of multinational firms, we find that parent firms tend to ...

  6. The Protective Effect of Rosuvastatin on Ischemic Brain Injury and Its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To study the protective effect of rosuvastatin on ischemic brain injury and its mechanism,in on ischemic brain injury and its mechanism,focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA)-luminal filament technique. The cerebral blood flow was monitored with laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). The slices of brain tissue were stained with cresyl-violet. The cerebral e quantified with ImageJ software. The expressions of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and activated caspase-3 were detected with Western blot. The inducible NO were immunohistochemically observed. The results demonstrated that rosuvastatin (20 mg/kg) could remarkably decrease infarct volume and cerebral edema after MCAO ots showed that the expression of eNOS in cerebral cortex before and after ischemia was (100±43.3) %, (1668.9±112.2) % respectively (P<0.001), rosuvastatin gulated the expression of eNOS in non-ischemic cortex (P<0.001), whereas in ischemic cortex of rosuvastatin group the expression of eNOS was (1678.8±121.3) %. There was no hemic cortex, nonetheless the expression of activated caspase-3 increased after ischemia, and rosuvastatin significantly diminished it (P<0.01). Immunoaled no iNOS-positive cells in non-ischemic brain area, while in ischemic brain area the number of iNOS positive cells went up, and rosuvastatin could significantly reduced them.'s neural protection on ischemic brain injury are to enhance expression of eNOS, to inhibit expression of iNOS and activated caspase-3.mia/reperfusion; NOS; caspase-3

  7. Short-term Rosuvastatin Treatment for the Prevention of Contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Receiving Moderate or High Volumes of Contrast Media: A Sub-analysis of the TRACK-D Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Zhang; Yi Li; Gui-Zhou Tao; Yun-Dai Chen; Tao-Hong Hu; Xue-Bin Cao; Quan-Min Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background:Current randomized trials have demonstrated the effects of short-term rosuvastatin therapy in preventing contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI).However,the consistency of these effects on patients administered different volumes of contrast media is unknown.Methods:In the TRACK-D trial,2998 patients with type 2 diabetes and concomitant chronic kidney disease (CKD) who underwent coronary/peripheral arterial angiography with or without percutaneous intervention were randomized to short-term (2 days before and 3 days after procedure) rosuvastatin therapy or standard-of-care.This prespecified analysis compared the effects of rosuvastatin versus standard therapy in patients exposed to (moderate contrast volume [MCV],200-300 ml,n =712) or (high contrast volume [HCV],≥300 ml,n =220).The primary outcome was the incidence of CIAKI.The secondary outcome was a composite of death,dialysis/hemofiltration or worsened heart failure at 30 days.Results:Rosuvastatin treatment was associated with a significant reduction in CIAKI compared with the controls (2.1% vs.4.4%,P =0.050) in the overall cohort and in patients with MCV (1.7% vs.4.5%,P =0.029),whereas no benefit was observed in patients with HCV (3.4% vs.3.9%,P =0.834).The incidence of secondary outcomes was significantly lower in the rosuvastatin group compared with control group (2.7% vs.5.3%,P =0.049) in the overall cohort,but it was similar between the patients with MCV (2.0% vs.4.2%,P =0.081) or HCV (5.1% vs.8.8%,P =0.273).Conclusions:Periprocedural short-term rosuvastatin treatment is effective in reducing CIAKI and adverse clinical events for patients with diabetes and CKD after their exposure to a moderate volume of contrast medium.

  8. Indigenous and multinational pharmaceutical companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja, J

    1983-01-01

    There is a set of complex relationships between governments and the pharmaceutical companies. These relationships can be analysed in many different ways. In the following article the drug system of each country will be the unit of analysis. The drug system includes all the decision processes, formal as well as informal, from the production or importation of drugs to the intake of the drug by the patient. The aim of this paper is to discuss how environmental factors, the strategies of the drug companies and the national policies, will effect the drug system of a country. Satisfying solutions to the economical and health goals of the country will be searched for. If we want a more rational discussion in this area, professionally and politically, we need more empirical knowledge about the multinational drug companies and their effects on society. This does not mean that we shall sit waiting for this new knowledge. We have to make decisions using todays knowledge. However, in the long run rational decision strategy must include ways to collect important empirical data about the phenomenom under investigation. The aim of this survey is to indicate areas where we already have quite good knowledge and indicate other areas where this data is missing.

  9. Entry Strategy, Leader Risk Preference and Knowledge Transfer Effectiveness within Chinese Multinational Company: Based on the Perspective of Control%进入战略、领导者风险偏好与中国跨国公司知识转移效果——基于控制的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈怀超; 范建红

    2015-01-01

    Cross-border knowledge transfer can help to improve the innovative ability of multinational company, which increasingly gains the attention of academics and practitioners. In view of this, taking the Chinese Multina-tional Company as the research object, from the perspective of control, the paper analyzes the direct influence of the two-phase selecting of entry strategy (Greenfield/Mergers and Acquisitions, Wholly Owned Subsidiary/Joint Ven-ture) on the knowledge transfer effectiveness between the headquarter and branches of multinational company, and examines the moderation effect of leader risk preference in the influencing process. The research result shows that with the higher control force, the Greenfield is more facilitate for effective cross-border knowledge transfer within Chinese multinational company than the mergers and acquisitions; with the higher control force, the Wholly Owned Subsidiary is more facilitate for effective cross-border knowledge transfer within Chinese multinational com-pany than the Joint Venture; the leader risk preference doesnot moderate the influence of the selection between Greenfield and Mergers and Acquisitions on cross-border knowledge transfer effectiveness within Chinese Multina-tional Company; the leader risk preference strengthens the control force of Wholly Owned Subsidiary, so positive-ly moderates the influence of the selection between Wholly Owned Subsidiary and Joint Venture on cross-border knowledge transfer effectiveness within Chinese Multinational Company.%跨国界知识转移有助于提高跨国公司的创新能力,日益得到学者和业界人士的重视.鉴于此,以中国跨国公司为研究对象,从控制的视角分析了进入战略两阶段(绿地/并购,独资/合资)选择对跨国公司总部与东道国分支机构之间知识转移效果的直接影响,并探究领导者风险偏好在这一影响过程中的调节效应.研究结果表明,相对于并购而言,绿地的控制力较高,更有

  10. Rosuvastatin attenuates mucus secretion in a murine model of chronic asthma by inhibiting the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Tao; ZHANG Wei; WANG Dao-xin; HUANG Ni-wen; BO Hong; DENG Wang; DENG Jia

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by reversible bronchial constriction,pulmonary inflammation and airway remodeling.Current standard therapies for asthma provide symptomatic control,but fail to target the underlying disease pathology.Furthermore,no therapeutic agent is effective in preventing airway remodeling.A substantial amount of evidence suggests that statins have anti-inflammatory properties and immunomodulatory activity.In this study,we investigated the effect of rosuvastatin on airway inflammation and its inhibitory mechanism in mucus hypersecretion in a murine model of chronic asthma.Methods BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged by ovalbumin to induce asthma.The recruitment of inflammatory cells into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the lung tissues were measured by Diff-Quik staining and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining.ELISA was used for measuring the levels of IL-4,IL-5,IL-13 and TNF-α in BALF.Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining was used for mucus secretion.Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR)32 expression was measured by means of immunohistochemistry,reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting.Results Rosuvastatin reduced the number of total inflammatory cells,lymphocytes,macrophages,neutrophils,and eosinophils recruited into BALF,the levels of IL-4,IL-5,IL-13 and TNF-α in BALF,along with the histological mucus index (HMI) and GABAAR β2 expression.Changes occurred in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusions Based on its ability to reduce the inflammatory response and mucus hypersecretion by regulating GABAAR activity in a murine model of chronic asthma,rosuvastatin may be a useful therapeutic agent for treatment of asthma.

  11. Information systems strategic planning in multinational corporations: from subsidiaries' perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mohdzain, Mohdzaher

    2003-01-01

    This thesis examined information systems strategic planning in multinationals from the perspective of the subsidiaries. A research framework was synthesised from a combination of literature in the fields of multinational strategy and IS strategic planning. The research was carried out using multiple case studies involving eight multinational subsidiaries operating in Malaysia and a multinational subsidiary operating in the UK. The subsidiaries were units in four ...

  12. Effective Strategy-Making in Multinational Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Andersson, Ulf; Palmié, Maximilian

    for global efficiencies and autonomy for effective local responses. Strategic guidance from headquarters frames subsidiary decisions in line with corporate priorities and distributed decision power coupled with informal exchange of information facilitates strategic responses in tune with local market......We outline commonalities between studies of subsidiary decentralization and autonomous strategy-making in the international business and strategic management fields. This suggests that corporate headquarters should engage in strategy-making processes that provide a combination of formal direction...... requirements. We identify some important nuances in the integration-responsiveness conundrum supported by an empirical study of 351 multinational subsidiaries. We discuss the implications for multinational strategy practice and suggest future research venues to investigate strategy-making in multinational...

  13. MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia P. BLĂJUȚ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the significant share of multinational companies in international trade that are a factor of developing global economies. In the context of economic globalization the activity of multinational companies and their foreign direct investment have a strong impact on the host country which presents advantages and disadvantages for them. The main objective of this article is the review of the important role played by multinationals in economic development, especially in developed economies. In the economies in which they operate, they bring capital, technology transfer, improve the national reputation and influence the other companies to invest in this countries, they provide a substantial source of revenue for the government and always improve the balance of payments in the host country.

  14. Vertically Integrated Multinationals and Productivity Spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementi, Federico; Bergmann, Friedrich

    How does the activity of foreign multinationals affect the competitiveness of local companies in the host countries? Previous studies have identified the interactions of domestic firms with foreign clients as main mechanism of diffusion of knowledge. However, backward productivity spillovers...... are not automatic. In this paper, we study how these externalities are affected by the strategy of vertical integration of foreign multinationals. Our analysis, based on firm-level data of European manufacturing companies, shows that local firms perceive weaker backward spillovers if client foreign affiliates...... are vertically integrated in their industry. The spillovers that arise from the activity of companies that do not invest in the domestic firms’ industry are 2.6 to 5 times stronger than the ones than come from affiliates of multinationals that invest in the industry of local firms....

  15. MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia P. BLĂJUȚ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the significant share of multinational companies in international trade that are a factor of developing global economies. In the context of economic globalization the activity of multinational companies and their foreign direct investment have a strong impact on the host country which presents advantages and disadvantages for them. The main objective of this article is the review of the important role played by multinationals in economic development, especially in developed economies. In the economies in which they operate, they bring capital, technology transfer, improve the national reputation and influence the other companies to invest in this countries, they provide a substantial source of revenue for the government and always improve the balance of payments in the host country.

  16. Guillain-Barré syndrome and adjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine: Multinational case-control study in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne); S. Romio (Silvana); K. Johansen (Kari); D.M. Weibel (Daniel); J. Bonhoeffer (Jan); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To assess the association between pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Five European countries. Participants: 104 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and its variant Miller-Fisher syndrome matched to one

  17. Multinational corporations and infectious disease: Embracing human rights management techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcito, Kendyl; Singer, Burton H; Weiss, Mitchell G; Winkler, Mirko S; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-01-01

    Global health institutions have called for governments, international organisations and health practitioners to employ a human rights-based approach to infectious diseases. The motivation for a human rights approach is clear: poverty and inequality create conditions for infectious diseases to thrive, and the diseases, in turn, interact with social-ecological systems to promulgate poverty, inequity and indignity. Governments and intergovernmental organisations should be concerned with the control and elimination of these diseases, as widespread infections delay economic growth and contribute to higher healthcare costs and slower processes for realising universal human rights. These social determinants and economic outcomes associated with infectious diseases should interest multinational companies, partly because they have bearing on corporate productivity and, increasingly, because new global norms impose on companies a responsibility to respect human rights, including the right to health. We reviewed historical and recent developments at the interface of infectious diseases, human rights and multinational corporations. Our investigation was supplemented with field-level insights at corporate capital projects that were developed in areas of high endemicity of infectious diseases, which embraced rights-based disease control strategies. Experience and literature provide a longstanding business case and an emerging social responsibility case for corporations to apply a human rights approach to health programmes at global operations. Indeed, in an increasingly globalised and interconnected world, multinational corporations have an interest, and an important role to play, in advancing rights-based control strategies for infectious diseases. There are new opportunities for governments and international health agencies to enlist corporate business actors in disease control and elimination strategies. Guidance offered by the United Nations in 2011 that is widely embraced

  18. Atorvastatin versus rosuvastatin in non-diabetic patients with dyslipidemia: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donepudi Pavan Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Both atorvastatin and rosuvastatin are equally powerful statins and very effective in reducing the triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels. They are also effective in lowering hs-CRP and elevating vitamin D levels. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 656-660

  19. Rosuvastatin attenuates angiotensin II-induced neointimal formation after stent implantation in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Harst, Pim; Groenewegen, Hendrik C.; Roks, Anton J. M.; Buikema, Hendrik; Zijlstra, Felix; van Gilst, Wiek H.; de Smet, Bart J. G. L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective We investigated the efficacy of oral rosuvastatin treatment to reduce in-stent neointima formation, both in the absence and presence of high levels of the proproliferative substance angiotensin II (Ang II). Background Drawbacks of current drug-eluting stents include inhibition of reendothe

  20. Effect of rosuvastatin on inflammatory factors and carotid atherosclerotic plaque in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Jun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Carotid atherosclerosis is closely related with ischemic stroke occurrence, development and recurrence. This study aims to make an evaluation of the effects of rosuvastatin on inflammatory factors, serum lipid and carotid atherosclerotic plaque in patients with acute ischemic stroke. In this study, 98 patients with acute ischemic stroke and carotid atherosclerosis were given oral administration of rosuvastatin calcium (10 mg once every night, and the course of treatment was 6 months. After treatment, the changes of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and blood lipid were measured, as well as carotid atherosclerotic intima-media thickness (IMT and the calculation of carotid atherosclerotic plaque score. According to the examination results, after 6 months' treatment with rosuvastatin, serum hs-CRP, TNF-α, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG and low-density lipoprotein cholestrol (LDL-C decreased significantly (P < 0.01, for all, while high-density lipoprotein cholestrol (HDL-C increased significantly (P < 0.01; the total number of plaque reduced, while the number of stable plaque increased (P < 0.05; carotid artery IMT and carotid artery plaque score decreased significantly (P < 0.05. There were significant differences between before and after treatment. The results of this study show that rosuvastatin plays a role in anti-inflammation and alleviates the degree of carotid atherosclerotic plaque.

  1. Rosuvastatin reduces neointima formation in a rat model of balloon injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preusch MR

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Processes of restenosis, following arterial injury, are complex involving different cell types producing various cytokines and enzymes. Among those enzymes, smooth muscle cell-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are thought to take part in cell migration, degrading of extracellular matrix, and neointima formation. MMP-9, also known as gelatinase B, is expressed immediately after vascular injury and its expression and activity can be inhibited by statins. Using an established in vivo model of vascular injury, we investigated the effect of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor rosuvastatin on MMP-9 expression and neointima formation. Materials and methods 14-week old male Sprague Dawley rats underwent balloon injury of the common carotid artery. Half of the animals received rosuvastatin (20 mg/kg body weight/day via oral gavage, beginning 3 days prior to injury. Gelatinase activity and neointima formation were analyzed 3 days and 14 days after balloon injury, respectively. 14 days after vascular injury, proliferative activity was assessed by staining for Ki67. Results After 14 days, animals in the rosuvastatin group showed a decrease in total neointima formation (0.194 ± 0.01 mm2 versus 0.124 ± 0.02 mm2, p Conclusions Rosuvastatin attenuates neointima formation without affecting early MMP-9 activity in a rat model of vascular injury.

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids plus rosuvastatin improves endothelial function in South Asians with dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Mindrescu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Catalin Mindrescu1,2,3, Rakesh P Gupta1,3, Eileen V Hermance1, Mary C DeVoe1, Vikas R Soma1, John T Coppola1,2, Cezar S Staniloae1,21Comprehensive Cardiovascular Center, Saint Vincent’s Hospital Manhattan, New York, NY, USA; 2New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA; 3Rakesh P Gupta and Catalin Mindrescu contributed equally to this article.Background: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of statins plus omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs on endothelial function and lipid profile in South Asians with dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction, a population at high risk for premature coronary artery disease.Methods: Thirty subjects were randomized to rosuvastatin 10 mg and omega-3-PUFAs 4 g or rosuvastatin 10 mg. After 4 weeks, omega-3-PUFAs were removed from the first group and added to subjects in the second group. All subjects underwent baseline, 4-, and 8-week assessment of endothelial function and lipid profile.Results: Compared to baseline, omega-3-PUFAs plus rosuvastatin improved endothelial-dependent vasodilation (EDV: −1.42% to 11.36%, p = 0.001, and endothelial-independent vasodilation (EIV: 3.4% to 17.37%, p = 0.002. These effects were lost when omega-3-PUFAs were removed (EDV: 11.36% to 0.59%, p = 0.003. In the second group, rosuvastatin alone failed to improve both EDV and EIV compared to baseline. However, adding omega-3-PUFAs to rosuvastatin, significantly improved EDV (−0.66% to 14.73%, p = 0.001 and EIV (11.02% to 24.5%, p = 0.001. Addition of omega-3-PUFAs further improved the lipid profile (triglycerides 139 to 91 mg/dl, p = 0.006, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 116 to 88 mg/dl, p = 0.014.Conclusions: Combined therapy with omega-3-PUFAs and rosuvastatin improves endothelial function in South Asian subjects with dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction.Keywords: omega-3 fatty acids, endothelial function, South Asians, dyslipidemia, rosuvastatin

  3. LOCATION DECISIONS OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia P. BLĂJUȚ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the location decisions of foreign direct investments by the most important global multinational companies in Romania. The study covers the top 100 multinational companies, according to Fortune and underline that all of them have the headquarters location in the United States. In particular, this analysis presents the distribution of global companies based on the main industry and major economic sectors. The first company, from the rank 100, that invests in our country is Exxon Mobil (the number two on the list and has numerous projects in petroleum refining industry in many other countries, because energy sector is one of the most important ones in the global economy.

  4. LOCATION DECISIONS OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia P. BLĂJUȚ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the location decisions of foreign direct investments by the most important global multinational companies in Romania. The study covers the top 100 multinational companies, according to Fortune and underline that all of them have the headquarters location in the United States. In particular, this analysis presents the distribution of global companies based on the main industry and major economic sectors. The first company, from the rank 100, that invests in our country is Exxon Mobil (the number two on the list and has numerous projects in petroleum refining industry in many other countries, because energy sector is one of the most important ones in the global economy.

  5. CRM System Implementation in a Multinational Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Alok; Mishra, Deepti

    The concept of customer relationship management (CRM) resonates with managers in today's competitive economy. As more and more organizations realize the significance of becoming customer-centric in today's competitive era, they embrace CRM as a core business strategy. CRM an integration of information technology and relationship marketing provides the infrastructure that facilitates long-term relationship building with customers at an enterprise-wide level. Successful CRM implementation is a complex, expensive and rarely technical projects. This paper presents the successful implementation of CRM in a multinational organization. This study will facilitate in understanding transition, constraints and implementation of CRM in multinational enterprises.

  6. Shaping Regional Strategies of Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich; Heinicke, Patrick; Rasche, Andreas

    This paper examines the factors that drive the success of multinational corporations (MNCs) in their pursuit of regional strategies. We develop a comprehensive regional success factor model to investigate the effects of regional management autonomy and regional product/service adaption on the reg......This paper examines the factors that drive the success of multinational corporations (MNCs) in their pursuit of regional strategies. We develop a comprehensive regional success factor model to investigate the effects of regional management autonomy and regional product/service adaption...

  7. Who Gets to Lead the Multinational Team?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paunova, Minna

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the emergence of informal leadership in multinational teams. Building on and extending status characteristics theory, the article proposes and tests a model that describes how global inequalities reproduce in multinational teams, and accounts for who gets to lead these teams...... of their core self-evaluations. A study of over 230 individuals from 46 nationalities working in 36 self-managing teams generally supports the expected main and moderation effects. Individual core self-evaluations enhance an otherwise weak effect of English proficiency, but compensate for low levels of national...

  8. ExStroke Pilot Trial of the effect of repeated instructions to improve physical activity after ischaemic stroke: a multinational randomised controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Gudrun; Krarup, Lars-Henrik; Zeng, Xianrong;

    2009-01-01

    training programme before discharge and at five follow-up visits during 24 months. Control patients had follow-up visits with the same frequency but without instructions in physical activity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physical activity assessed with the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) at each...... infarction, or falls and fractures. CONCLUSION: Repeated encouragement and verbal instruction in being physically active did not lead to a significant increase in physical activity measured by the PASE score. More intensive strategies seem to be needed to promote physical activity after ischaemic stroke...

  9. Rosuvastatin and ellagic acid protect against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in hyperlipidemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai A. Elhemely

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia (HL with subsequent coronary atherosclerosis is the major trigger of ischemia and hence, myocardial infarction (MI occurs. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of pretreatment with rosuvastatin and ellagic acid, as well as their combination on isoproterenol-induced MI in hyperlipidemic rats. Adult rats were fed with a cholesterol-rich diet for seven weeks and received rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg and/or ellagic acid (30 mg/kg by oral gavage daily starting from the fifth week then subcutaneously injected with two doses 24-h apart of 100 mg/kg isoproterenol in the last two days. ECG pattern was monitored and both cardiac biomarkers (cTnI, CK-MB, LDH and AST and lipid profile (TC, TG, HDL-c and LDL-c were measured in serum. MDA and GSH levels were quantified in cardiac homogenates and heart tissue damage was examined by histopathology. Furthermore, the expression levels of iNOS, eNOS, Bax and Bcl-2 in heart samples were assessed by western blotting. Three-week pretreatment with rosuvastatin and/or ellagic acid markedly ameliorated HL- and isoproterenol-induced alterations in ECG, cardiac markers, oxidation markers, lipid profile and heart architecture. Both drugs downregulated iNOS and upregulated eNOS, while only rosuvastatin and the combination downregulated Bax. This study provides evidence that rosuvastatin and ellagic acid possess cardioprotective effect on the hyperlipidemic-myocardial infarction rat model and the combination does not offer extra protection than monotherapy.

  10. Race differences: modeling the pharmacodynamics of rosuvastatin in Western and Asian hypercholesterolemia patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan YANG; Lu-jin LI; Kun WANG; Ying-chun HE; Yu-cheng SHENG; Ling XU; Xiao-hui HUANG; Feng GUO; Qing-shan ZHENG

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate race differences in the pharmacodynamics of rosuvastatin in Western and Asian hypercholesterolemia patients using a population pharmacodynamic (PPD) model generated and validated using published clinical efficacy trials.Methods: Published studies randomized trials with rosuvastatin treatment for at least 4 weeks in hypercholesterolemia patients were used for model building and validation. Population pharmacodynamic analyses were performed to describe the dose-response relationship with the mean values of LDL-C reduction (%) from dose-ranging trials using NONMEM software. Baseline LDL-C and race were analyzed as the potential covariates. Model robustness was evaluated using the bootstrap method and the data-splitting method,and Monte Carlo simulation was performed to assess the predictive performance of the PPD model with the mean effects from the onedose trials.Results: Of the 36 eligible trials,14 dose-ranging trials were used in model development and 22 one-dose trials were used for model prediction. The dose-response of rosuvastatin was successfully described by a simple Emax model with a fixed E0,which provided a common Emax and an approximate twofold difference in ED50 for Westerners and Asians. The PPD model was demonstrated to be stable and predictive.Conclusion: The race differences in the pharmacodynamics of rosuvastatin are consistent with those observed in the pharmacokinetics of the drug,confirming that there is no significant difference in the exposure-response relationship for LDL-C reduction between Westerners and Asians. The study suggests that for a new compound with a mechanism of action similar to that of rosuvastatin,its efficacy in Western populations plus its pharmacokinetics in bridging studies in Asian populations may be used to support a registration of the new compound in Asian countries.

  11. Strategy of Human Resources Localization for Multinational Corpora-tions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马明娜

    2014-01-01

    With the swift growth of China’s economy in recent years, the number of multinational corporations in China is in-creasing rapidly, and during their process of management, the strategy of human resources localization is widely used. Though there are a lot of scholars who have done research on advantages, negative effects and implementation of this strategy, there are still not enough studies have been made about the enlightenments for China. Therefore, this study aims at representing more modern and advanced opinions by stating superiority and inferior of multinational corporations’human resources localization strategy on the basis of predecessors’studies. This study is based on multinational corporation human resources localization theo-ries, research on certain multinational corporations located in China, and data and information from relative journals, books, newspapers and internet. The conclusion of this paper is as below:though human resources localization strategy has obvious ad-vantages, the management shall control the“degree”in case of“over-localization”;secondly, as Chinese corporations, it is neces-sary to possess their own core technology instead of being a manufacturer only;and last, Chinese corporations should learn from foreign multinationals that balancing between globalization and localization, to maximize the benefits.

  12. Topical 5% lidocaine (lignocaine) medicated plaster treatment for post-herpetic neuralgia: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational efficacy and safety trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Andreas; Bruxelle, Jean; Rogers, Peter; Hans, Guy; Bösl, Irmgard; Baron, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a distressing neuropathic pain condition mainly affecting elderly patients. Neuropathic pain symptoms can be of a burning, shooting and stabbing nature, and may continue for prolonged periods and are often poorly controlled by polymedication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of topical analgesic treatment (5% lidocaine [lignocaine] medicated plaster) compared with placebo plaster in patients with PHN. This was a double-blind, placebo plaster-controlled, parallel-group, multicentre study employing enriched enrolment with randomized withdrawal methodology. After an initial 8-week open-label, active run-in phase, responders entered a 2-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase. The study was conducted at 33 outpatient investigational centres in 12 European countries. Patients with PHN were selected who were aged >/=50 years, had experienced neuropathic pain persisting for >/=3 months after rash healing, and had a mean pain intensity of >/=4 on an 11-point numerical rating scale. A total of 265 patients entered the open-label phase and subsequently a pre-defined number of 71 patients entered the randomized phase. Patients applied up to three 5% lidocaine medicated plasters for up to 12 hours per day. The primary endpoint of the study was time-to-exit due to a >/=2-point reduction in pain relief on two consecutive days of plaster application using a 6-point verbal rating scale. Of the 265 patients entering the run-in phase, 51.7% achieved at least moderate pain relief. In the double-blind phase (full analysis set, n = 71), median times-to-exit were 13.5 (range 2-14) and 9.0 (range 1-14) days for lidocaine and placebo plaster groups, respectively (p = 0.151). For per-protocol patients (n = 34), median time-to-exit was 14.0 (range 3-14) and 6.0 (range 1-14) days for lidocaine and placebo plaster groups, respectively (p = 0.0398). Drug-related adverse events occurred in 13.6% of patients

  13. LICC: L-BLP25 in patients with colorectal carcinoma after curative resection of hepatic metastases--a randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter, multinational, double-blinded phase II trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schimanski Carl

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 15-20% of all patients initially diagnosed with colorectal cancer develop metastatic disease and surgical resection remains the only potentially curative treatment available. Current 5-year survival following R0-resection of liver metastases is 28-39%, but recurrence eventually occurs in up to 70%. To date, adjuvant chemotherapy has not improved clinical outcomes significantly. The primary objective of the ongoing LICC trial (L-BLP25 In Colorectal Cancer is to determine whether L-BLP25, an active cancer immunotherapy, extends recurrence-free survival (RFS time over placebo in colorectal cancer patients following R0/R1 resection of hepatic metastases. L-BLP25 targets MUC1 glycoprotein, which is highly expressed in hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. In a phase IIB trial, L-BLP25 has shown acceptable tolerability and a trend towards longer survival in patients with stage IIIB locoregional NSCLC. Methods/Design This is a multinational, phase II, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a sample size of 159 patients from 20 centers in 3 countries. Patients with stage IV colorectal adenocarcinoma limited to liver metastases are included. Following curative-intent complete resection of the primary tumor and of all synchronous/metachronous metastases, eligible patients are randomized 2:1 to receive either L-BLP25 or placebo. Those allocated to L-BLP25 receive a single dose of 300 mg/m2 cyclophosphamide (CP 3 days before first L-BLP25 dose, then primary treatment with s.c. L-BLP25 930 μg once weekly for 8 weeks, followed by s.c. L-BLP25 930 μg maintenance doses at 6-week (years 1&2 and 12-week (year 3 intervals unless recurrence occurs. In the control arm, CP is replaced by saline solution and L-BLP25 by placebo. Primary endpoint is the comparison of recurrence-free survival (RFS time between groups. Secondary endpoints are overall survival (OS time, safety, tolerability, RFS/OS in MUC-1 positive

  14. Efficacy of rosuvastatin in achieving target HDL, LDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with newly diagnosed dyslipidaemia: an open label, nonrandomised, non-interventional and observational study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Siddharth N; Arneja, Jaspal

    2013-10-01

    Asian Indians with dyslipidaemia should be treated as aggressively as if they had a CHD risk equivalent-similar to the treatment of patients with diabetes or heart disease. To evaluate efficacy of Rosuvastatin in achieving target HDL, LDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with newly diagnosed dyslipidaemia, but without known coronary artery disease. The study was an open label, nonrandomised, non-interventional, observational study in India involving T2DM patients who require statin therapy to control dyslipidaemia. Data were collected at baseline, interim (8 weeks) and subsequently at 16 weeks of Rosuvastatin (10 and 20 mg) therapy. Efficacy of the treatment was assessed by evaluating whether subjects reached target LDL and total cholesterol levels according to NCEP ATP III guidelines. Four thousand three hundred and sixty-nine patients completed the study. Out of 4369, 1115 (25.52%) have achieved a target LDL level of cholesterol target and 50.06% achieved triglyceride target. The adverse events reported were generally mild. On the basis of the above results, it can be concluded that Rosuvastatin safely and beneficially alters the entire spectrum of lipoproteins in Indian patients.

  15. Impact of treatment with rosuvastatin and atorvastatin on cardiovascular outcomes: evidence from the Archimedes-simulated clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colivicchi F

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Furio Colivicchi,1 Catarina Sternhufvud,2 Sanjay K Gandhi3 1Cardiology Division, Emergency Department, San Filippo Neri Hospital, ASL Roma E, Rome, Italy; 2Global Payer Evidence and Pricing, AstraZeneca R&D, Mölndal, Sweden; 3Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research, TEVA Pharmaceuticals, Frazer, PA, United States Objective: No clinical trials have been conducted to directly compare the effect of the two high-intensity statins, rosuvastatin and atorvastatin, on cardiovascular outcomes. However, three such trials have been computer-simulated using the Archimedes model, an individual-based simulation of human physiology and behaviors, treatment interventions, and health care systems. The results are reviewed here.Methods: The first simulated trial assessed clinical outcomes in patients receiving available doses of the two drugs. The second assessed the impact of initial treatment decisions, while the third assessed the effect of switching from rosuvastatin to atorvastatin.Results: In the first simulated trial, treatment with rosuvastatin was estimated to result in greater reductions than treatment with atorvastatin in major adverse cardiac event (MACE rates at 5 years and 20 years at all doses examined (relative risk [RR]: 0.897, 0.888, and 0.930 at 5 years for rosuvastatin 20 mg vs atorvastatin 40 mg, rosuvastatin 40 mg vs atorvastatin 80 mg, and rosuvastatin 20 mg vs atorvastatin 80 mg, respectively; all P<0.05. In the second simulated trial, outcomes were significantly better in patients initially prescribed rosuvastatin than in those initially prescribed atorvastatin (RR of MACE at 5 years: 0.918; P<0.001. In the third simulated trial, risk of MACE was significantly greater in patients switching from rosuvastatin to atorvastatin than in those remaining on rosuvastatin (RR at 5 years: 1.109; P<0.001.Conclusion: The results of these simulated clinical trials suggest improved outcomes among patients receiving rosuvastatin relative to

  16. Efficacy and safety of linagliptin in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled by metformin: A multinational 24-week, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiqing; Yang, Jinkui; Yang, Gangyi; Gong, Yan; Patel, Sanjay; Zhang, Candice; Izumoto, Toshiyasu; Ning, Guang

    2016-03-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Asia, clinical trials for glucose-lowering therapies are often dominated by Caucasian and/or Western populations. The present Phase III randomized placebo-controlled double-blind, 24-week study evaluated the efficacy and safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin added to metformin in Asian T2DM patients. In all, 306 patients (n = 265 Chinese; n = 24 Malaysian; n = 17 Filipino), aged 18-80 years with HbA1c between ≥7.0 and ≤10.0% and on metformin therapy were randomized (2:1) to either linagliptin 5 mg daily or placebo added to metformin. Antidiabetes drugs other than metformin were washed out prior to randomization. The primary endpoint was change in mean HbA1c from baseline after 24 weeks. Baseline characteristics were well-matched between the groups (overall mean [±SD] HbA1c 8.0 ± 0.8%). Adjusted mean (±SE) HbA1c decreased in the linagliptin and placebo groups by -0.66 ± 0.05 and -0.14 ± 0.07%, respectively (placebo-corrected difference -0.52 ± 0.09%; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.70, -0.34; P Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Helping Behavior in Multinational Executive Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mors, Marie Louise; Miller, Stewart; McDonald, Michael

    This study develops a framework that draws upon the socio-psychology and network literatures to explain helping behavior in an executive’s multinational network. Focusing on executives' perceptions of willingness to help, we examine network structure (geographic and organizational boundaries), st...

  18. Managing Human Resources in a Multinational Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumetzberger, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To develop more sensitivity for different patterns of human resource management in multinational companies. Design/methodology/approach: Systemic approach; the concepts and models are based on the evaluation of consulting projects in the field of human resource management. Findings: A concept of four typical varieties of human resource…

  19. Multinational Subsidiary Performance: Evidence from the Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... the availability of intangible assets (such as knowledge/skills base of employees) ... strings; and more evidently, their strong financial muscle due to the high initial capital ... in the model (see table 1) were drawn from the multinational ..... charges on loans and advances) through high credit pricing practices.

  20. Managing Human Resources in a Multinational Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumetzberger, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To develop more sensitivity for different patterns of human resource management in multinational companies. Design/methodology/approach: Systemic approach; the concepts and models are based on the evaluation of consulting projects in the field of human resource management. Findings: A concept of four typical varieties of human resource…

  1. Training Practices of Multinational Companies in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Connie; Hyland, Paul; Soosay, Claudine

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore a range of training practices adopted by multinational companies (MNCs) operating in Asia. It investigated the level of training expenditure, the nature of training programs offered and the concerns about training in MNCs. Design/methodology/approach: Data were obtained through a survey of 529 MNCs…

  2. Vertically Integrated Multinationals and Productivity Spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementi, Federico; Bergmann, Friedrich

    How does the activity of foreign multinationals affect the competitiveness of local companies in the host countries? Previous studies have identified the interactions of domestic firms with foreign clients as main mechanism of diffusion of knowledge. However, backward productivity spillovers are ...

  3. Global Oligopolistic Competition and Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.; Hoenen, Anne Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary International Business (IB) literature has ’forgotten’ a key insight of the early foreign direct investment (FDI) literature, namely that FDI often is driven by strategic interaction of multinational corporations (MNCs) in oligopolistic industries. Instead, the IB literature has...

  4. Towards strategic CSR in the multinational corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt; Thorup-Jensen, Line

    2014-01-01

    CSR is a context-specific phenomenon, which makes working strategically with CSR particularly challenging for multinational corporation as it must allow for the various contexts of operation. Based on the extant literature, this article provides a conceptual presentation of MNC's opportunities...

  5. Training Practices of Multinational Companies in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Connie; Hyland, Paul; Soosay, Claudine

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore a range of training practices adopted by multinational companies (MNCs) operating in Asia. It investigated the level of training expenditure, the nature of training programs offered and the concerns about training in MNCs. Design/methodology/approach: Data were obtained through a survey of 529 MNCs…

  6. Rosuvastatin reduces rat intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with the preservation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuji Naito; Toshikazu Yoshikawa; Kazuhiro Katada; Tomohisa Takagi; Hisato Tsuboi; Masaaki Kuroda; Osamu Handa; Satoshi Kokura; Norimasa Yoshida; Hiroshi Ichikawa

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effect of rosuvastatin on ischemia-reperfusion (I-R)-induced small intestinal injury and inflammation in rats, and to determine the effect of this agent on the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein.METHODS: Intestinal damage was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by clamping both the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac trunk for 30 min, followed by reperfusion for 60 min. Rosuvastatin dissolved in physiological saline was administered intraperitoneally 60min before ischemia. The severity of the intestinal mucosal injury and inflammation were evaluated by several biochemical markers, as well as by histological findings.The protein levels of eNOS were determined by Western blot.RESULTS: The levels of both intraluminal hemoglobin and protein, as indices of mucosal damage, were significantly increased in the I-R group compared with those in the sham-operated group. These increases, however,were significantly inhibited by treatment with rosuvastatin in a dose-dependent manner. The protective effects of rosuvastatin were also confirmed by histological findings. Exposure of the small intestine to I-R resulted in mucosal inflammation characterized by significant increases in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, tissueassociated myeloperoxidase activity, and the mucosal contents of rat cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α).These increases in inflammatory parameters after I-R were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with rosuvastatin at a dose of 10 mg/kg. Furthermore, mRNA expression of CINC-1 and TNF-α was increased after t-R, and this increase was also inhibited by rosuvastatin. The mucosal protein levels of eNOS decreased during I-R,but were preserved in rats treated with rosuvastatin.CONCLUSION: Rosuvastatin inhibits rat intestinal injury and inflammation induced by I-R, and its protection is associated with the preservation of eNOS protein.

  7. Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Adjuvanted Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Vaccines: A Multinational Self-Controlled Case Series in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Jeanne P.; Olberg, Henning K.; de Vries, Corinne S.; Sammon, Cormac; Andrews, Nick; Svanström, Henrik; Mølgaard-Nielsen, Ditte; Hviid, Anders; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Sommet, Agnès; Saussier, Christel; Castot, Anne; Heijbel, Harald; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Sparen, Par; Mosseveld, Mees; Schuemie, Martijn; van der Maas, Nicoline; Jacobs, Bart C.; Leino, Tuija; Kilpi, Terhi; Storsaeter, Jann; Johansen, Kari; Kramarz, Piotr; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Sturkenboom, Miriam C. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following the United States' 1976 swine flu vaccination campaign in the USA led to enhanced active surveillance during the pandemic influenza (A(H1N1)pdm09) immunization campaign. This study aimed to estimate the risk of GBS following influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination. Methods A self-controlled case series (SCCS) analysis was performed in Denmark, Finland, France, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Information was collected according to a common protocol and standardised procedures. Cases classified at levels 1–4a of the Brighton Collaboration case definition were included. The risk window was 42 days starting the day after vaccination. Conditional Poisson regression and pooled random effects models estimated adjusted relative incidences (RI). Pseudo likelihood and vaccinated-only methods addressed the potential contraindication for vaccination following GBS. Results Three hundred and three (303) GBS and Miller Fisher syndrome cases were included. Ninety-nine (99) were exposed to A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination, which was most frequently adjuvanted (Pandemrix and Focetria). The unadjusted pooled RI for A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination and GBS was 3.5 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.2–5.5), based on all countries. This lowered to 2.0 (95% CI: 1.2–3.1) after adjustment for calendartime and to 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1–3.2) when we accounted for contra-indications. In a subset (Netherlands, Norway, and United Kingdom) we further adjusted for other confounders and there the RI decreased from 1.7 (adjusted for calendar month) to 1.4 (95% CI: 0.7–2.8), which is the main finding. Conclusion This study illustrates the potential of conducting European collaborative vaccine safety studies. The main, fully adjusted analysis, showed that the RI of GBS was not significantly elevated after influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination (RI = 1.4 (95% CI: 0.7–2.8). Based on the upper limits of the pooled estimate we can rule

  8. Vosaroxin plus cytarabine versus placebo plus cytarabine in patients with first relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia (VALOR): a randomised, controlled, double-blind, multinational, phase 3 study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravandi, Farhad; Ritchie, Ellen K.; Sayar, Hamid; Lancet, Jeffrey E.; Craig, Michael D.; Vey, Norbert; Strickland, Stephen A.; Schiller, Gary J.; Jabbour, Elias; Erba, Harry P.; Pigneux, Arnaud; Horst, Heinz-August; Recher, Christian; Klimek, Virginia M.; Cortes, Jorge; Roboz, Gail J.; Odenike, Olatoyosi; Thomas, Xavier; Havelange, Violaine; Maertens, Johan; Derigs, Hans-Günter; Heuser, Michael; Damon, Lloyd; Powell, Bayard L.; Gaidano, Gianluca; Carella, Angelo-Michele; Wei, Andrew; Hogge, Donna; Craig, Adam R.; Fox, Judith A.; Ward, Renee; Smith, Jennifer A.; Acton, Gary; Mehta, Cyrus; Stuart, Robert K.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Safe and effective treatments are urgently needed for patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We investigated the efficacy and safety of vosaroxin, a first-in-class anticancer quinolone derivative, plus cytarabine in patients with relapsed/refractory AML. Methods VALOR was a phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 101 international sites. Patients were randomised 1:1 to vosaroxin (90 mg/m2 IV days 1,4) plus cytarabine (1 g/m2 IV days 1–5) (vos/cyt) or placebo plus cytarabine (pla/cyt) using a permuted block procedure stratified by disease status, age, and geographic location. All participants were blind to treatment assignment. Primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and 30- and 60-day mortality. Efficacy analyses were by intention-to-treat; safety analyses included all treated patients. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01191801). Findings Between December 2010 and September 2013, 711 patients were randomised to vos/cyt (n=356) or pla/cyt (n=355). Median OS was 7·5 months with vos/cyt and 6·1 months with pla/cyt (hazard ratio 0·87; unstratified log-rank p=0·061; stratified p=0·0241) and was supported by a sensitivity analysis censoring for subsequent transplant (6·7 and 5·3 months; p=0·0243). Complete remission (CR) rate was higher with vos/cyt vs pla/cyt (30·1% vs 16·3%, p<0·0001). Early mortality rates were equivalent (vos/cyt vs pla/cyt: 30-day, 7·9% vs 6·6%; 60-day, 19·7% vs 19·4%). Treatment-related deaths occurred at any time in 18 patients (5·1%) with vos/cyt and 8 (2·3%) with pla/cyt. Grade ≥3 adverse events more frequent with vos/cyt included febrile neutropenia (167/355 [47%] vs 117/350 [33%]), stomatitis (54 [15%] vs 10 [3%]), hypokalaemia (52 [15%] vs 21 [6%]), sepsis (42 [12%] vs 18 [5%]), and pneumonia (39 [11%] vs 26 [7%]). Interpretation Addition of vosaroxin to cytarabine prolonged survival in patients with relapsed/refractory AML

  9. Guillain-Barre syndrome and adjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 vaccines: a multinational self-controlled case series in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Romio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS following the United States' 1976 swine flu vaccination campaign in the USA led to enhanced active surveillance during the pandemic influenza (A(H1N1pdm09 immunization campaign. This study aimed to estimate the risk of GBS following influenza A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination. METHODS: A self-controlled case series (SCCS analysis was performed in Denmark, Finland, France, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Information was collected according to a common protocol and standardised procedures. Cases classified at levels 1-4a of the Brighton Collaboration case definition were included. The risk window was 42 days starting the day after vaccination. Conditional Poisson regression and pooled random effects models estimated adjusted relative incidences (RI. Pseudo likelihood and vaccinated-only methods addressed the potential contraindication for vaccination following GBS. RESULTS: Three hundred and three (303 GBS and Miller Fisher syndrome cases were included. Ninety-nine (99 were exposed to A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination, which was most frequently adjuvanted (Pandemrix and Focetria. The unadjusted pooled RI for A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination and GBS was 3.5 (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 2.2-5.5, based on all countries. This lowered to 2.0 (95% CI: 1.2-3.1 after adjustment for calendartime and to 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-3.2 when we accounted for contra-indications. In a subset (Netherlands, Norway, and United Kingdom we further adjusted for other confounders and there the RI decreased from 1.7 (adjusted for calendar month to 1.4 (95% CI: 0.7-2.8, which is the main finding. CONCLUSION: This study illustrates the potential of conducting European collaborative vaccine safety studies. The main, fully adjusted analysis, showed that the RI of GBS was not significantly elevated after influenza A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination (RI = 1.4 (95% CI: 0.7-2.8. Based on the upper limits of the pooled estimate we can rule out with

  10. Cuboidal lipid polymer nanoparticles of rosuvastatin for oral delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suares, Divya; Prabhakar, Bala

    2017-02-01

    The present work aimed to develop and characterize sustained release cuboidal lipid polymeric nanoparticles (LPN) of rosuvastatin calcium (ROS) by solvent emulsification-evaporation process. A three factor, two level (2(3)) full-factorial design was applied to study the effect of independent variables, i.e. amount of lipid, surfactant and polymer on dependent variables, i.e. percent entrapment efficiency and particle size. Optimized formulations were further studied for zeta potential, TEM, in vitro drug release and ex vivo intestinal permeability. Cuboidal nanoparticles exhibited average particle size 61.37 ± 3.95 nm, entrapment efficiency 86.77 ± 1.27% and zeta potential -6.72 ± 3.25 mV. Nanoparticles were lyophilized to improve physical stability and obtain free-flowing powder. Effect of type and concentration of cryoprotectant required to lyophilize nanoparticles was optimized using freeze-thaw cycles. Mannitol as cryoprotectant in concentration of 5-8% w/v was found to be optimal providing zeta potential -20.4 ± 4.63 mV. Lyophilized nanoparticles were characterized using FTIR, DSC, XRD and SEM. Absence of C=C and C-F aromatic stretch at 1548 and 1197 cm(-1), respectively, in LPN indicated coating of drug by lipid and polymer. In vitro diffusion of ROS using dialysis bag showed pH-independent sustained release of ROS from LPN in comparison to drug suspension. Intestinal permeability by non-everted gut sac model showed prolonged release of ROS from LPN owing to adhesion of polymer to mucus layer. In vivo absorption of ROS from LPN resulted in 3.95-fold increase in AUC0-last and 7.87-fold increase in mean residence time compared to drug suspension. Furthermore modified tyloxapol-induced rat model demonstrated the potential of ROS-loaded LPN in reducing elevated lipid profile.

  11. [Rosuvastatin improves insulin sensitivity in overweight rats induced by high fat diet. Role of SIRT1 in adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Muñoz, María; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Sandra; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Lahera, Vicente; de Las Heras, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    To study the effects of rosuvastatin on insulin resistance in overweight rats induced by high fat diet, as well as potential mediators. We used male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet (CT) or high fat diet (33.5% fat) (HFD); half of the animals HFD were treated with rosuvastatin (15mg/kg/day) (HFD+Rosu) for 7 weeks. HFD rats showed increased body, epididymal and lumbar adipose tissue weights. Treatment with Rosu did not modify body weight or the weight of the adipose packages in HFD rat. Plasma glucose and insulin levels and HOMA index were higher in HFD rats, and rosuvastatin treatment reduced them. Leptin/adiponectin ratio in plasma and lumbar adipose tissue were higher in HDF rats, and were reduced by rosuvastatin. SIRT-1, PPAR-γ and GLUT-4 protein expression in lumbar adipose tissue were lower in HFD rats and Rosu normalized expression of the three mediators. Rosuvastatin ameliorates insulin sensitivity induced by HFD in rats. This effect is mediated by several mechanisms including reduction of leptin and enhancement of SIRT-1, PPAR-γ and GLUT-4 expression in white adipose tissue. SIRT1 could be considered a major mediator of the beneficial effects of rosuvastatin on insulin sensitivity in overweight rats induced by diet. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin for lipid lowering in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: results from the URANUS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berne Christian

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The Use of Rosuvastatin versus Atorvastatin iN type 2 diabetes mellitUS (URANUS study compared rosuvastatin with atorvastatin for the reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods After a 6-week dietary run-in, patients aged ≥ 18 years with type 2 diabetes and LDL-C ≥ 3.3 mmol/L were randomised to double-blind treatment with rosuvastatin 10 mg (n = 232 or atorvastatin 10 mg (n = 233 for 4 weeks. Doses were then titrated up to a maximum of rosuvastatin 40 mg or atorvastatin 80 mg over 12 weeks to achieve the 1998 European LDL-C goal ( Results Rosuvastatin reduced LDL-C levels significantly more than atorvastatin during the fixed-dose and titration periods (p Conclusion At the start dose and following dose titration, rosuvastatin was significantly more effective than atorvastatin at reducing LDL-C and achieving European LDL-C goals in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  13. A comparative study of anti-inflammatory activity of lovastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin and rosuvastatin on acute and chronic inflammation in animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santoshkumar R Jeevangi; S Manjunath; Sachidananda G Shetti; Chetan Manjunath; Prashant Dass

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-inflammatory activity of Lovastatin, Simvastatin, Atorvastatin, and Rosuvastatin on acute and chronic models of inflammation, to compare with the effect of Diclofenac sodium and amongst themselves in rats. Methods: Carrageenin induce rat paw edema method in which 5 animals of each group (6 groups) received orally 4% gum acacia, Diclofenac and 4 statins respectively 1 h before Carrageenin injection in paw. The paw edema volume measured with plethysmograph after 3 h and percentage inhibition of edema in various groups calculated. Rexin pellet granuloma method in which 4 rexin pellets were implanted into dorsum of skin of each rat of 6 groups (n=5) including control, Diclofenac and 4 statin groups respectively. Rats were orally fed with drugs daily for 7 days and on 8th day rexin pellets were removed after sacrificing the rat and dried in incubator 60oC overnight. Pellets were then weighed and percentage inhibition of granulation tissue was calculated and sent for histopathological examination.Results:All the 4 statins showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in the present study in both acute as well as chronic models of inflammation. The anti-inflammatory activity of the 4 statins was significant on comparison with Diclofenac. Lovastatin and Simvastatin demonstrated 10-20% more anti-inflammatory activity than Atorvastatin and Rosuvastatin. Conclusions: The present study revealed the anti-inflammatory effect of statins and thus suggests that the statins have a potential anti-atherosclerotic activity along with its lipid lowering property.

  14. Enhancing Command and Control in Multinational Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    the twentieth century. This new geopolitical role brought with it an initially reluctant move away from isolationism and a gradual acceptance of...However, high technology solutions face two major hurdles that limit their full potential. First, budget constraints and national protectionism of

  15. Global Cities and Multinational Enterprise Location Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goerzen, Anthony; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    We combine the concept of location derived by economic geographers with theories of the multinational enterprise (MNE) and the liability of foreignness developed by international business scholars, to examine the factors that propel MNEs toward, or away from, “global cities”. We argue that three ...... the heterogeneous strategies and capabilities of MNEs – the primary agents of economic globalization – that shape the nature of global cities.......We combine the concept of location derived by economic geographers with theories of the multinational enterprise (MNE) and the liability of foreignness developed by international business scholars, to examine the factors that propel MNEs toward, or away from, “global cities”. We argue that three...... distinctive characteristics of global cities – global interconnectedness, cosmopolitanism, and abundance of advanced producer services – help MNEs overcome the costs of doing business abroad, and we identify the contingencies under which these characteristics combine with firm attributes to exert...

  16. Corporate Responsible Behavior in Multinational Enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2017-01-01

    A stringent pursuit of responsible behavior implies that the firm does no harm to the environment and the social structure of society. This is virtually impossible to achieve since business development inevitably will influence the surrounding nature as well as economic transactions affect...... as instigators of corporate responsible behavior and sustainable performance has not been studied in the context of complex multinational organizations (Siegel, 2014; Walden and Balven, 2014). Inconsistent empirical results in leadership research further question the current state of the field (Van Knippenberg...... and Sitkin, 2013). Somewhat at odds with prior studies, Hooijberg, Lane and Deversé (2010) find no relationship between values and leader effectiveness, and Andersen (2011) does not trace any managerial effects on multinational risk outcomes. This could be due to incomplete definitions and measures...

  17. Emerging Multinational Companies and Strategic Fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Filatotchev, Igor; Hobdari, Bersant

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness in international business that institutional factors need to be better incorporated into the understanding of international investments decisions of multinational companies. This applies equally to outward foreign direct investment by emerging economy firms....... The intense renewal of interest in these ‘emerging multinationals’ over the last half decade or so has stimulated an increasing volume of contributions offering alternative theoretical perspectives, macro-level surveys of aggregate trends and case studies of firms and their strategies and operations. Not much...... which considers flows of outward investment from emerging economies as framed by institutional pressures at the firm level towards achieving fit between the environment, strategies, structures, resources and practices of the firm. For the multinational firm this fit must be attained along multiple...

  18. Plasma Drug Concentrations of Orally Administered Rosuvastatin in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Papich, Mark G; Brandão, João; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N

    2015-03-01

    Atherosclerotic diseases are common in pet psittacine birds, in particular Amazon parrots. While hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia have not definitely been associated with increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis in parrots, these are important and well-known risk factors in humans. Therefore statin drugs such as rosuvastatin constitute the mainstay of human treatment of dyslipidemia and the prevention of atherosclerosis. No pharmacologic studies have been performed in psittacine birds despite the high prevalence of atherosclerosis in captivity. Thirteen Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were used to test a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg of rosuvastatin with blood sampling performed according to a balanced incomplete block design over 36 hours. Because low plasma concentrations were produced in the first study, a subsequent pilot study using a dose of 25 mg/kg in 2 Amazon parrots was performed. Most plasma samples for the 10 mg/kg dose and all samples for the 25 mg/kg dose had rosuvastatin concentration below the limits of quantitation. For the 10 mg/kg study, the median peak plasma concentration and time to peak plasma concentration were 0.032 μg/mL and 2 hours, respectively. Our results indicate that rosuvastatin does not appear suitable in Amazon parrots as compounded and used at the dose in this study. Pharmacodynamic studies investigating lipid-lowering effects of statins rather than pharmacokinetic studies may be more practical and cost effective in future studies to screen for a statin with more ideal properties for potential use in psittacine dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic diseases.

  19. Effects of rosuvastatin on electronegative LDL as characterized by capillary isotachophoresis: the ROSARY Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Bo; Matsunaga, Akira; Rainwater, David L.; Miura, Shin-ichiro; Noda, Keita; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Uehara, Yoshinari; Shirai, Kazuyuki; Ogawa, Masahiro; Saku, Keijiro

    2009-01-01

    Electronegative LDL, a charge-modified LDL (cm-LDL) subfraction that is more negatively charged than normal LDL, has been shown to be inflammatory. We previously showed that pravastatin and simvastatin reduced the electronegative LDL subfraction, fast-migrating LDL (fLDL), as analyzed by capillary isotachophoresis (cITP). The present study examined the effects of rosuvastatin on the more electronegative LDL subfraction, very-fast-migrating LDL (vfLDL), and small, dense charge-modified LDL (sd...

  20. [Multi-national clinical therapy studies. Design, management and costs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demol, P; Weihrauch, T R

    1997-02-15

    The development of new drugs requires increasingly the performance of large multinational clinical trials (MCT) with a common protocol. They must be planned when the demonstration of a hypothesis, which requires specific conditions (for example availability of patients with rare diseases, a particular infrastructure or expert knowledge in trial centers) has to be proven in an acceptable time. Our own experience has shown that such multinational trials are more time-consuming in their preparation and their analysis than multicenter trials which are run in one country. MCTs are associated with complex problems due to many differences in medical culture, treatment strategies, administrative guidelines, etc., between countries. When possible MCTs should be realized in countries and centers with relatively similar medical practices. A global coordination is necessary to control the progress of the trial in the different countries. The major requirements for the successful realisation of an MCT, from the writing of the first draft of the protocol until the publication of the results, are a well-coordinated multidisciplinary team and an effective project management.

  1. Foreign investment multinational companies and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Popov, Đorđe

    2013-01-01

    There is no universal answer on the question whether foreign investments stimulate economic development. The positive effect of foreign direct investments will follow when the investments is carried out under normal conditions of competition. That means, above all, low barriers for foreign trade and the low level of restrictions for foreign owned companies. In such circumstances, multinational corporations can assist the economies of penetration to make its businesses more efficient. Foreign ...

  2. Taxes and Decision Rights in Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2006-01-01

    We examine how a multinational's choice to centralize or de-centralize itsdecision structure is affected by country tax differentials. Within a simple model that emphasizes the multiple conflicting roles of transfer prices in MNEs — here, as a strategic pre-commitment device and a tax manipulatio...... commitment and non-commitment to transfer prices, and for alternative modes of competition.Keywords: Centralized vs. de-centralized decisions, taxes, transfer prices, MNEs.JEL-Classification: H25, F23, L23....

  3. Human Resource Outsourcing: Lesson from Multinational Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Hasliza Abdul Halim; Norbani Che Ha

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the consequence of the organization internalization on the practice of human resource (HR) outsourcing among manufacturing organizations. The assumption is that HR outsourcing is perceived as an innovative practice and that multinational enterprise (MNEs) will employ this practice more than local organizations. The data was gathered from survey questionnaires of 232 manufacturing organizations. Of the sample, 113 organizations engaged with HR outsourcing, and 71 are MNEs t...

  4. Identifying Motivational Factors within a Multinational Company

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Bradutanu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to identify the main motivational factors within a multinational company. The first objective is to identify work functions, formulated on Abraham Maslow’s pyramid, following the identification of the key characteristics that motivate an employee at the work place and last, but not least, the type of motivation that employees focus, intrinsic or extrinsic. The research method targeted a questionnaire based survey, including various company employees and an interv...

  5. A Strategic Risk Management Framework for Multinational Enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Andersen, Torben

    2005-01-01

    Liberalizations of international trade and improvements in communication and information technologies allow companies to organize around extensive multinational structures of cross-border sourcing networks. In a freely interacting market setting multinational enterprise is exposed to financial...... and economic risks that can be monitored within conventional reporting systems and managed through use of various derivative instruments. All the while, a dispersed multinational structure can be vulnerable to disruptions caused by changing economic conditions, competitive moves, and geopolitical developments...

  6. Value-Chain Networks and Entrepreneurial Output in Multinational Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitratos, Pavlos; Andersson, Ulf; Liouka, Ioanna

    2011-01-01

    on their entrepreneurial output. Entrepreneurial output can generate superior performance and positive externalities to the subsidiary. Based on a large-scale study of 268 multinational subsidiaries in the UK, we find that value-chain networks have a higher positive impact than multinational corporation (MNC) networks......Value-chain networks are of major importance to multinational subsidiaries, yet they have failed to receive significant attention in the literature. We extend the knowledge-based view of the firm by exploring whether three different types of multinational subsidiary networks have dissimilar impact...

  7. Impact on the carotid intima-medial thickness and safety of rosuvastatin in Chinese patients with carotid atherosclerosis:a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯雪茹

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin in Chinese patients with carotid atherosclerosis.Methods A systematic search of Pubmed,EMBase,CENTRAL,CBMdisc,CNKI and WANFANG databases up the January 2013 was performed to identify studies comparing rosuvastatin with a placebo or other statins on carotid intima-medial thickness(IMT)with a minimum

  8. Differences of CD4+ T lymphocyte miRNA gene expression in acute coronary artery syndrome (ACS patients and the effects of rosuvastatin on its expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong TAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects of rosuvastatin on the expression profile of peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes miRNA gene in the patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS and screen the differentially expressed miRNAs before and after treatment, and elucidate the mechanisms of rosuvastatin calcium in the treatment of patients with ACS. Methods Nine cases were selected from the patients with ACS treated in the General Hospital of Jinan Military Command from Mar. to Jul. of 2012, with other 9 cases selected as controls, whose degree of coronary artery stenosis was less than 50% as confirmed by 320CT. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated by density gradient centrifugation, and CD4+ T lymphocytes were isolated by immunomagnetic beads method. miRNAs of CD4+ T lymphocytes were detected by miRNA gene chip technology. The differentially expressed miRNAs between ACS patients and normal control, and those in ACS patients before and after treatment were screened. Three of the maximum difference miRNAs were selected and followed by verification by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results More than 1900 genes were detected by gene microarray, of which more than 300 genes showed significant differences in expression. Comparing the ACS patients and normal controls, 126 genes were significantly up-regulated, including miRNA-21, miRNA-142, and miRNA-20a; and 202 genes were significantly down-regulated, including miRNA-4734, miRNA-1182, and miRNA-1273f. A total of 157 genes were significantly up-regulated after treatment with rosuvastatin calcium (20mg/d×10d, such as miRNA-4734, miRNA-1182, and miRNA-663b; and 137 genes were significantly down-regulated, such as miRNA-4789, miRNA-5692c, and miRNA-26a. The results were validated by RT-PCR and they were same as miRNA microarray. Conclusion Rosuvastain may play a role in the treatment of patients with ACS by regulating a series of miRNAs such as miRNA-4734, miRNA-1182, and mi

  9. Heterozygous inactivation of the Nf1 gene in myeloid cells enhances neointima formation via a rosuvastatin-sensitive cellular pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Brian K; Bessler, Waylan K; Mali, Raghuveer; Mund, Julie A; Downing, Brandon; Li, Fang; Sarchet, Kara N; DiStasi, Matthew R; Conway, Simon J; Kapur, Reuben; Ingram, David A

    2013-03-01

    Mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene cause Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Neurofibromin, the protein product of NF1, functions as a negative regulator of Ras activity. Some NF1 patients develop cardiovascular disease, which represents an underrecognized disease complication and contributes to excess morbidity and mortality. Specifically, NF1 patients develop arterial occlusion resulting in tissue ischemia and sudden death. Murine studies demonstrate that heterozygous inactivation of Nf1 (Nf1(+/-)) in bone marrow cells enhances neointima formation following arterial injury. Macrophages infiltrate Nf1(+/-) neointimas, and NF1 patients have increased circulating inflammatory monocytes in their peripheral blood. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that heterozygous inactivation of Nf1 in myeloid cells is sufficient for neointima formation. Specific ablation of a single copy of the Nf1 gene in myeloid cells alone mobilizes a discrete pro-inflammatory murine monocyte population via a cell autonomous and gene-dosage dependent mechanism. Furthermore, lineage-restricted heterozygous inactivation of Nf1 in myeloid cells is sufficient to reproduce the enhanced neointima formation observed in Nf1(+/-) mice when compared with wild-type controls, and homozygous inactivation of Nf1 in myeloid cells amplified the degree of arterial stenosis after arterial injury. Treatment of Nf1(+/-) mice with rosuvastatin, a stain with anti-inflammatory properties, significantly reduced neointima formation when compared with control. These studies identify neurofibromin-deficient myeloid cells as critical cellular effectors of Nf1(+/-) neointima formation and propose a potential therapeutic for NF1 cardiovascular disease.

  10. Rosuvastatin and the JUPITER trial: critical appraisal of a lifeless planet in the galaxy of primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Antonio; Wright, James M

    2012-01-01

    In November 2008, the JUPITER trial was published in the New England Journal of Medicine. JUPITER is an acronym for Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin. It was an AstraZeneca sponsored randomized double-blind trial comparing rosuvastatin 20 mg with placebo in 17,802 apparently healthy men and women with LDL cholesterol JUPITER trial have been widely publicized, and based on the trial, the main regulatory agencies have approved rosuvastatin for the indication of primary prevention of vascular events. However, the interpretation and clinical implications of the JUPITER trial have been questioned and remain controversial. The objective of this commentary is to evaluate the relevance, design, results, and conclusions of the JUPITER study.

  11. Ethics in international business: multinational approaches to child labor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; van Tulder, R.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    How do multinationals address conflicting norms and expectations? This article focuses on corporate codes of ethics in the area of child labor as possible expressions of Strategic International Human Resource Management. It analyses whether fifty leading multinational adopt universal ethical norms

  12. Ethics in international business: multinational approaches to child labor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; van Tulder, R.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    How do multinationals address conflicting norms and expectations? This article focuses on corporate codes of ethics in the area of child labor as possible expressions of Strategic International Human Resource Management. It analyses whether fifty leading multinational adopt universal ethical norms (

  13. Establishing a Communication Link between Multinational Companies and Their Subsidiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Hema; Golen, Steven

    A key characteristic of multinational companies is a worldwide perspective and orientation in managerial decision making. In its quest for international opportunities, a multinational company confronts many problems and uncertainties in evaluating and dealing with political, legal, economic, social, cultural, and governmental policy variables and…

  14. Taxation and the transfer of technology by multinational firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyzes a multinational's transfer of technology to a foreign subsidiary for the case where there is a risk of expropriation. An expropriation is assumed to give rise to competition between the parts of the previous multinational enterprise. To reduce the benefit of expropriation, the

  15. Disruptive Innovation by Emerging Multinational Latecomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    Despite the growing interest in the emerging-economy multinational enterprise (EMNE), there is little knowledge about the underlying mechanism for EMNEs as latecomers to catch up with and even leapfrog the traditional MNEs as early-movers. The cross-fertilization between the research streams...... on disruptive innovation (DI) and the bottom of the pyramid (BOP) provides a great opportunity to shed light on the key issue. To take advantage of this “missed” opportunity, I integrate the two reframed constructs of DI and BOP and also develop a typology of four ideal-typical innovations toward a theory...

  16. Towards strategic CSR in the multinational corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt; Thorup-Jensen, Line

    2014-01-01

    CSR is a context-specific phenomenon, which makes working strategically with CSR particularly challenging for multinational corporation as it must allow for the various contexts of operation. Based on the extant literature, this article provides a conceptual presentation of MNC's opportunities...... to work with CSR acknowledging and taking into account the the context embeddedness of CSR. We propose that MNCs consider four decision areas establishwhen developing strategic CSR. Furthermore, we present a framework model for CSR that takes into account the MNC's need to consider both a local...... and a global CSR approach....

  17. Job strain among Malaysian office workers of a multinational company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizura, H; Retneswari, M; Moe, H; Hoe, V C W; Bulgiba, A

    2010-05-01

    Information on job strain exposure among Malaysian workers in multinational companies is limited. To investigate the prevalence and factors associated with high job strain among office workers of a multinational company in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in November 2007 among 470 eligible workers. Respondents self-administered the Job Content Questionnaire downloaded from the company's intranet. A median-split procedure was applied to create four groups according to the Job Demand-Control Model: active, passive, high and low job strain. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between socio-demographic, occupational and psychosocial factors and high job strain. A total of 356 questionnaires were received (response rate 76%). Twenty-one per cent of respondents were in the high job strain group, 35% were in the passive group, whereas 26% and 17% of workers were in the low strain and active groups, respectively. After controlling for confounders, three factors were found to be associated with high job strain: male workers (adjusted OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.04-3.64), working >48 h per week (adjusted OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.44-4.39) and job insecurity (adjusted OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.27). One protective factor for high job strain was the scale 'created skill', which is part of skill discretion (adjusted OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.57-0.86). About one in five workers in this study experience high job strain. Work improvement measures include reducing long working hours and job insecurity and giving workers the opportunity to learn, use creativity and develop abilities.

  18. Multinationality as real option facilitator – Illusion or reality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Pantzalis, Christos; Park, Jung Chul

    2016-01-01

    Previous literature provides multiple conflicting arguments on why and when multinationality should enhance or impede the value-relevance of firms’ real options. We address this issue by examining whether the relationship between stock returns and changes in return volatility varies with multinat......Previous literature provides multiple conflicting arguments on why and when multinationality should enhance or impede the value-relevance of firms’ real options. We address this issue by examining whether the relationship between stock returns and changes in return volatility varies...... with multinationality. Our results indicate that multinationality does indeed act as a real option facilitator. Furthermore, we show that, consistent with the notion that there are limits to the operating flexibility associated with multinationality this benefit only accrues fully if the firm is not financially...

  19. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor rosuvastatin improves abnormal brain electrical activity via mechanisms involving eNOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, F B; Kilic, U; Caglayan, B; Ethemoglu, M S; Caglayan, A B; Ekimci, N; Demirci, S; Dogan, A; Oztezcan, S; Sahin, F; Yilmaz, B; Kilic, E

    2015-01-22

    Apart from its repressing effect on plasma lipid levels, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors exert neuroprotective functions in animal models of neurodegenerative disorders. In view of these promising observations, we were interested in whether HMG-CoA reductase inhibition would affect epileptiform activity in the brain. To elucidate this issue, atorvastatin, simvastatin and rosuvastatin were administered orally at a dose of 20 mg/kg each for 3 days and their anti-epileptic activities were tested and compared in rats. Epileptiform activity in the brain was induced by an intracortical penicillin G injection. Among HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, simvastatin-treatment was less effective in terms of spike frequency as compared with atorvastatin- and rosuvastatin-treated animals. Atorvastatin treatment reduced spike frequencies and amplitudes significantly throughout the experiment. However, the most pronounced anti-epileptic effect was observed in rosuvastatin-treated animals, which was associated with improved blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA and decreased expressions of pro-apoptotic p53, Bax and caspase-3 mRNAs. Inhibition of eNOS activity with L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) reversed the anti-epileptic effect of rosuvastatin significantly. However, L-NAME did not alter the effect of rosuvastatin on the levels of p53, Bax and caspase-3 mRNA expression. Here, we provide evidence that among HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, rosuvastatin was the most effective statin on the reduction of epileptiform activity, which was associated with improved BBB permeability, increased expression of eNOS and decreased expressions of pro-apoptotic p53, Bax and caspase-3. Our observation also revealed that the anti-epileptic effect of rosuvastatin was dependent on the increased expression level of eNOS. The robust anti-epileptic effect encourages proof-of-concept studies with

  20. Clinical utility of rosuvastatin and other statins for cardiovascular risk reduction among the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydney B Long

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sydney B Long, Michael J Blaha, Roger S Blumenthal, Erin D MichosJohns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Age is one of the strongest predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Treatment with statins can significantly reduce CVD events and mortality in both primary and secondary prevention. Yet despite the high CVD risk among the elderly, there is underutilization of statins in this population (ie, the treatment-risk paradox. Few studies have investigated the use of statins in the elderly, particularly for primary prevention and, as a result, guidelines for treating the elderly are limited. This is likely due to: uncertainties of risk assessment in older individuals where the predictive value of individual risk factors is decreased; the need to balance the benefits of primary prevention with the risks of polypharmacy, health care costs, and adverse medication effects in a population with decreased life expectancy; the complexity of treating patients with many other comorbidities; and increasingly difficult social and economic concerns. As life expectancy increases and the total elderly population grows, these issues become increasingly important. JUPITER (Justification for the Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin is the largest primary prevention statin trial to date and enrolled a substantial number of elderly adults. Among the 5695 JUPITER participants ≥70 years of age, the absolute CVD risk reduction associated with rosuvastatin was actually greater than for younger participants. The implications of this JUPITER subanalysis and the broader role of statins among older adults is the subject of this review.Keywords: JUPITER, rosuvastatin, elderly, risk

  1. Formulation Optimization of Rosuvastatin Calcium-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles by 32 Full-Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruti A. Dhoranwala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed at developing Rosuvastatin Calcium loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs. The SLNs were prepared using high pressure homogenization technique. Glyceryl monostearate (GMS and Poloxamer 188 were employed as lipid carrier and surfactant respectively. A two factor, three level (32 full factorial design was applied to study the effect of independent variables i.e. amount of GMS (X1 and amount of Poloxamer 188 (X2 on dependent variables i.e. Particle size (Y1 and % entrapment efficiency (Y2. Particles size, % entrapment efficiency (%EE, zeta potential, drug content, in vitro drug release and particles morphology were evaluated for SLNs. Contour plots and response surface plots showed visual representation of relationship between the experimental responses (dependent variables and the set of input (independent variables. The adequacy of the regression model was verified by a check point analysis. The optimized batch (B10 contained 2.2 gm of GMS and 1% of Poloxamer 188. Batch B 10 exhibited mean particle size of 529.6 nm ± 6.36 nm; polydispersity index (PDI of 0.306 ± 0.042; zeta potential of -31.88 mV ± (-2.50 mV and %EE of 48.90% ± 1.72%. The drug release experiments exhibited an initial rapid release followed by sustained release extended upto 36 h. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC studies showed that there was no chemical interaction between drug (Rosuvastatin Calcium and lipid (GMS whereas scanning electron microscopy (SEM studies indicated that Rosuvastatin Calcium loaded SLNs are spherical, discrete and homogenous. Accelerated stability studies showed that there was no significant change occurring in the responses after storage for a total period of 3 months.

  2. [Rosuvastatin in prevention of cardiac complications following surgical treatment of patients with vascular pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovskiĭ, A V; Kuntsevich, G I; Zotikov, A E; Goloviuk, A L; Burtseva, E A; Ivanov, L O; Suntsov, D S

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the findings of studying the use of rosuvastatin in patients after endured reconstructive operations on the brachiocephalic arteries and aortofemoral segment in order to prevent cardiac atherothrombotic complications. A total of thirty patients were given "Crestors" at a daily dose of 10 mg for two weeks prior to surgery and for two weeks postoperatively and were found to have a significant decrease in the average levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins, which was accompanied and followed by certain improvement in the functional state of the vascular wall, with no cardiac complications being observed in either case.

  3. Rosuvastatin enhances the therapeutic efficacy of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for myocardial infarction via PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Li, Shuang; Cui, Mingliang; Gao, Xue; Sun, Dongdong; Qin, Xing; Narsinh, Kazim; Li, Chunhong; Jia, Hongbing; Li, Congye; Han, Yaling; Wang, Haichang; Cao, Feng

    2013-03-01

    The poor viability of transplanted stem cells hampers their therapeutic efficacy for treatment of myocardial infarction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether rosuvastatin improved survival of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) after transplantation into infarcted hearts. AD-MSCs isolated from Tg(Fluc-egfp) mice which constitutively express both firefly luciferase (Fluc) and enhanced green fluorescent protein were transplanted into infarcted hearts with or without rosuvastatin administration. Longitudinal in vivo bioluminescence imaging and histological staining revealed that rosuvastatin enhanced the survival of engrafted AD-MSCs. Furthermore, combined therapy of AD-MSC and rosuvastatin reduced fibrosis, decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and preserved heart function. AD-MSCs were then subjected to hypoxia and serum deprivation injury in vitro to mimic the ischemic environment. Rosuvastatin (10(-6) mmol/L) enhanced the viability and paracrine effect of AD-MSCs, and decreased their apoptotic rate. Western blotting revealed that rosuvastatin supplementation increased Akt and ERK phosphorylation, which resulted in FoxO3a phosphorylation and nuclear export. In addition, rosuvastatin administration decreased the pro-apoptotic proteins Bim and Bax, and increased the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Bcl-2. Furthermore, these effects were abolished by PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. This study demonstrates that rosuvastatin may improve the survival of engrafted AD-MSCs at least in part through the PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Combination therapy with rosuvastatin and AD-MSCs has a synergetic effect on improving myocardial function after infarction.

  4. Multinational Design Evaluation Program; Programme multinational d'evaluation des conceptions (MDEP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holahan, G. [Bureau des Nouveaux Reacteurs, Commission deRegulation Nucleaire Americaine, Comite de Direction Technique du Programme MDEP (United States); Williams, S. [Bureau des Nouveaux Reacteurs, NRC, Autorite de Surete Americaine (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) is one of the most ambitious initiatives taken at multinational level to develop approaches to combine resources and knowledge of the national regulatory authorities who will be undertaking the regulatory review of new reactor power plant designs. Launched on the basis of the existing cooperation between United States (Nuclear Regulatory Commission - NRC) and France (Nuclear Safety Authority - ASN), this initiative, to date, brings together Canada, China, Finland, France, Japan, Russia, South Africa, South Korea, the United Kingdom and the United States. Under MDEP, nuclear regulators are aiming to enhance safety worldwide through increased co-operation. The enhanced co-operation among regulators will improve the efficiency and the effectiveness of the design review process, aiming at increased convergence of regulatory practices. (authors)

  5. International and Cultural Implications on Internationalization Analysis of Multinational Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Vargas-Hernández

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aims to analyze some of the institutional and cultural implications on internationalization analysis of multinational firms. The analysis begins questioning what the main institutional and cultural variables are considered in the involvement of internationalization of multinational firms. To answer this question, a literature review types approach in areas like internationalization of multinational firms based on institutional and cultural frameworks is followed. Secondly, these institutional and cultural variables are analyzed to integrate findings. Finally, the paper argues the need to design a better institutional and cultural balance among the development of a glocal-regional transformation, convergence and governance.

  6. Drug-drug interactions between rosuvastatin and oral antidiabetic drugs occurring at the level of oatp1b1s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg, E. van de; Greupink, R.; Schreurs, M.; Nooijen, I.H.G.; Verhoeck, K.C.M.; Hanemaaijer, R.; Ripken, D.; Monshouwer, M.; Vlaming, M.L.H.; DeGroot, J.; Verwei, M.; Russel, F.G.M.; Huisman, M.T.; Wortelboer, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) is an important hepatic uptake transporter, of which the polymorphic variant OATP1B1*15 (Asn130Asp and Val174Ala) has been associated with decreased transport activity. Rosuvastatin is an OATP1B1 substrate and often concomitantly prescribed with o

  7. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF HPTLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ROSUVASTATIN CALCIUM AND ASPIRIN IN CAPSULE DOSAGE FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi H. Tank et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper described validated high performance thin layer liquid chromatographic (HPTLC method for estimation of Rosuvastatin Calcium (ROSU and Aspirin (ASP in capsule dosage form. The method involved separation of components by TLC on a precoated silica gel 60 F254 using a mixture of n-Hexane: Acetone: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid (6:3:1:0.2 v/v as a mobile phase. Detection of spots was carried out at 240 nm for Rosuvastatin Calcium and Aspirin both. The mean retardation factor for Rosuvastatin Calcium and Aspirin were found to be 0.31±0.02 and 0.60±0.02, respectively. The linear regression data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r2 value 0.995 and 0.995 in the concentration range of 500-1000 ng/spot and 3750-7500 ng/spot for Rosuvastatin calcium and Aspirin, respectively. The developed method was validated as per ICH Guidelines.

  8. Rosuvastatin lowers coenzyme Q10 levels, but not mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthesis, in children with familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Avis; I.P. Hargreaves; J.P.N. Ruiter; J.M. Land; R.J. Wanders; F.A. Wijburg

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether statin therapy affects coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) status in children with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Samples were obtained at baseline (treatment naïve) and after dose titration with rosuvastatin, aiming for a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of 110 mg

  9. Short-term effect of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor rosuvastatin on erythrocyte nitric oxide synthase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ludolph

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Barbara Ludolph1, Wilhelm Bloch2, Malte Kelm1, Rainer Schulz3, Petra Kleinbongard11Department of Medicine, Medical Clinic I, University Hospital RTWH Aachen, Germany; 2Department of Molecular and Cellular Sport Medicine, Sport University Cologne, Germany; 3Institute of Pathophysiology, Medical School, University of Essen, GermanyAbstract: Prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (or statins, beyond their lipid-lowering properties, have been demonstrated including activation of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS. Beside endothelial cells, red blood cells (RBCs possess NOS and produce nitric oxide (NO, which contributes to RBC deformability. The present study tested the capacity of statins to activate NOS in RBCs and subsequently to modulate RBC deformability in vitro. Blood samples of healthy young volunteers were incubated with or without rosuvastatin. Afterwards RBC-NOS activity and RBC deformability were determined. Rosuvastatin incubation significantly increased NOS phosphorylation, NOS dependent NO-formation, and RBC deformability. The NOS inhibitor NG- monomethyl-L-arginine reversed the stimulatory effect of rosuvastatin on RBC-NOS activity. This NO dependent effect of rosuvastatin might have an important influence on microcirculation and may offer new perspectives for the therapeutic use of statins.Keywords: red blood cell, nitric oxide synthase, red blood cell deformability, statin

  10. International Transfer Pricing in Multinational Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner; Cools, Martine; Rohde, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Current curricula in management accounting stress the role of transfer pricing as a tool for measuring the performance of responsibility centers and their managers. Recently, however, multinational enterprises (MNEs) have felt increasing pressure to comply with transfer pricing tax regulation....... As a result, tax risk management considerations play a key role in the transfer pricing decisions of MNEs today. This case seeks to provide you with examples of the core principles of international transfer pricing, as well as to allow you to discuss international transfer pricing in the context...... of responsibility accounting. Specifically, the case study is a fictional MNE, allowing you to apply the OECD Guidelines in practice to cross-border transfers within an MNE, and to discuss the implications of tax-based transfer pricing for responsibility accounting. As a basis for working on the case study...

  11. Multinational Corporation and International Strategic Alliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆兮

    2015-01-01

    The world is now deeply into the second great wave of globalization, in which product, capital, and markets are becoming more and more integrated across countries. Multinational corporations are gaining their rapid growth around the globe and playing a significant role in the world economy. Meanwhile, the accelerated rate of globalization has also imposed pressures on MNCs, left them desperately seeking overseas alliances in order to remain competitive. International strategic alliances, which bring together large and commonly competitive firms for specific purposes, have gradual y shown its importance in the world market. And the form of international joint venture is now widely adopted. Then after the formation of alliances, selecting the right partner, formulating right strategies, establishing harmonious and effective partnership are generally the key to success.

  12. Peruvian multinational companies: a conceptual exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Malca Guaylupo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years (2002-2007, Peruvian exportation have had an excellent performance, not only the deficit of the commercial balance has been reverted, but also the positive balance has been growing in a sustainable way. Nevertheless, not the only the exporting enterprises have grown, but also the Peruvian multinational enterprises have. The MNE differ from the exporting enterprises not only in working at destination, but designing and managing different strategies related on the foreign direct investment (FDI and counting on the other attributes that allows it to compete directly with the local enterprises. The object from present article is to relate the FDI theory and the MNE with the Peruvian MNE, to explore on a theoretical basis the acting of Peruvian MNE and see in what extend are met the available theoretical previsions on this theme.

  13. Human Resource Outsourcing: Lesson from Multinational Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasliza Abdul Halim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the consequence of the organization internalization on the practice of human resource (HR outsourcing among manufacturing organizations. The assumption is that HR outsourcing is perceived as an innovative practice and that multinational enterprise (MNEs will employ this practice more than local organizations. The data was gathered from survey questionnaires of 232 manufacturing organizations. Of the sample, 113 organizations engaged with HR outsourcing, and 71 are MNEs that partially outsource their HR functions. The findings reveal that HR outsourcing among MNEs is used to a greater extent than local organizations. A significant difference is found in the extent of outsourcing payroll, benefits, training and recruitment between MNEs and in local organizations.

  14. Employment Practices of Multinational Companies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Minbaeva, Dana

    Globaliseringen er en udfordring for såvel ledere som ansatte i multinationale selskaber. En analyse af ledere og medarbejderes relationer er afgørende for at forstå ledelse, forretningsforhold og arbejdsmarkedsrelationer i Danmark. Tilstedeværelsen af multinationale selskaber (Multinational...... Companies - MNC'er) har stor betydning for den danske økonomi. En betydelig - og stadig stigende - andel af den danske arbejdsstyrke er beskæftiget i multinationale selskaber. De personalepolitikker, som disse selskaber implementerer, får derfor stadig større betydning for danske lønmodtagere - og for det...... danske arbejdsmarked - fordi personalepolitikker i de ofte store selskaber indirekte kan påvirke samarbejds- og forhandlingskulturen. Rapporten tager afsæt i en survey-undersøgelse af multinationale selskabers personalepolitikker - såvel danskejede selskaber med udenlandske datterselskaber som...

  15. Identifying motivational factors within a multinational company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bradutanu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify the main motivational factors within a multinational company. The first objective is to identify work functions, formulated on Abraham Maslow’s pyramid, following the identification of the key characteristics that motivate an employee at the work place and last, but not least, the type of motivation that employees focus, intrinsic or extrinsic. The research method targeted a questionnaire based survey, including various company employees and an interview with the manager. The results confirmed that in Romania, employees put great emphasis on extrinsic motivation, a certain income and job security being primary. These results have implications for managers that in order to effectively motivate staff, first, must know their needs and expectations. To identify the main needs and motivational factors we had as a starting point Maslow's pyramid.

  16. Corporate Social Responsibility of Multinational Oil Corporations to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corporate Social Responsibility of Multinational Oil Corporations to Host ... adopting partnership strategies as a means of contributing to community development, ... community development partnership (CDPs) initiatives' undertaken by Exxon ...

  17. Multinational enterprises and climate change: exploring institutional failures and embeddedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkse, J.; Kolk, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how climate change affects multinational enterprises (MNEs), focusing on the challenges they face in overcoming liabilities and filling institutional voids related to the issue. Climate change is characterized by institutional failures, because there is neither an enforceable

  18. [Multi-national clinical trial in circulatory disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kihito

    2009-02-01

    As Japan becomes more integrated into the global market, pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) in Japan faces considerable challenges. While global simultaneous development including Asian countries has become a common strategy for multi-national pharmaceutical companies, Japan has been frequently set aside because of its provincial regulatory and clinical trial infrastructure. Meanwhile, many improvement programs in pharmaceutical area have been initiated in Japan. With this increased scrutiny, significant improvements in regulatory process, clinical trial costs, and site performance are anticipated over the next few years. RENAAL is the first multi-national clinical trial involving Japanese patients diabetic nephropathy associated with type II diabetes mellitus. In this article, issues which have been observed in the process of conducting multi-national clinical trial were discussed based on the experience with RENAAL. It is hoped that, as we gain more experiences in multi-national clinical trials, solutions for these issues are found in near future.

  19. Multinational surveys for monitoring eHealth policy implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilstad, Heidi; Faxvaag, Arild; Hyppönen, Hannele;

    2014-01-01

    Development of multinational variables for monitoring eHealth policy implementations is a complex task and requires multidisciplinary, knowledgebased international collaboration. Experts in an interdisciplinary workshop identified useful data and pitfalls for comparative variable development...

  20. Business Communication Consulting and Research in Multinational Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Herbert W.

    1978-01-01

    Describes three issues involved in communication research and consulting for multinational companies, particularly those in Germany: qualifications for doing international consulting and research, problems of American scholar-researchers in those firms, and suggestions for dealing with those issues. (JMF)

  1. FIRMS’ TRANSNATIONALIZATION. EVOLUTION OF MULTINATIONAL GROUPS OPERATING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen NISTOR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available International business development is a complex phenomenon, characterized by a particularly dynamic due both to external and internal factors of the company and the need to foreshadow future directions in the development of the economic, social, political framework. Taking into consideration the ways that a company can expand, this article aims to analyse the evolution of multinational corporations operating in Romania in 2007-2012. Using data provided by The National Institute of Statistics (NIS, we focus on the multinationals groups that entered Romanian market in the period mentioned above. In this regard, we compared the multinational groups with the national ones, identifying the concentration of foreign capital by country. The results show that although has been recorded a significant variation of multinational groups in Romania, especially during the financial crisis period, the companies from Deutschland occupy first place by number of employees.

  2. Multinational subsidiary knowledge protection - Do mandates and clusters matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Shehu, Edlira; de Faria, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    International knowledge spillovers, especially through multinational companies (MNCs), have recently been a major topic of academic and management debate. However, most studies treat MNC subsidiaries as relatively passive actors. We challenge this assumption by investigating the drivers of knowledge

  3. CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavian Clipa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available When the multinational firms employ human resources from different countries they have to submit to the restrictions concerning cultural differences. The paper is an attempt to show how the human resource management administrates these cultural differences.

  4. Multinational Subsidiary Knowledge Protection - Do Mandates and Clusters Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Shehu, Edlira; de Faria, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    International knowledge spillovers, especially through multinational companies (MNCs), have recently been a major topic of academic and management debate. However, most studies treat MNC subsidiaries as relatively passive actors. We challenge this assumption by investigating the drivers...

  5. Multinational subsidiary knowledge protection - Do mandates and clusters matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Shehu, Edlira; de Faria, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    International knowledge spillovers, especially through multinational companies (MNCs), have recently been a major topic of academic and management debate. However, most studies treat MNC subsidiaries as relatively passive actors. We challenge this assumption by investigating the drivers of knowledge

  6. Burnout syndrome among multinational nurses working in Saudi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to assess the prevalence of BS among a multinational nursing workforce in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: .... All the variables were tested and the means compared ... believe that BS has a complex of symptoms of primarily exhaustion ...

  7. Strategies of Domestic and Multinational Firms in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talpová Žáková Sylva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The strategic behavior of companies in the globalizing and changing markets may be characterized by the extent to which a company’s strategy is adapted to its environment. The goal of this paper is to compare the strategies used by multinational and domestic companies in the Czech Republic in reacting to the environment and to ascertain which of the strategies is the most advantageous. Consequently, this study provides essential information for strategic decisions for both domestic and multinational companies.

  8. International expansion of Chinese multinationals: the new challenge of globalization

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, a new generation of Chinese multinationals has set out to conquer global markets, featuring major international acquisitions that were unthinkable until very recently. This work seeks to analyze the nature of this emerging phenomenon, illustrating the reasons behind the international expansion of Chinese multinationals, the factors that facilitate and hinder this process, the entry modes that they use and the strategic implications for Western companies of their sudde...

  9. Peculiarities of multinational corporations as agents of economic global security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Albescu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article emphasizes debates of topical interests in the contemporary economic domain, taking into account that multinational corporations have been described both in the academic literature and in the practices of international business as vectors of economic security and factors of developing global economy. The main objective of this paper is the review of the economic and social implications of the multinational corporations in the local and global markets in which they operate, in the context of economic globalization.

  10. Multinationals, minority ownership and tax-efficient financing structures

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Dirk; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a theory model that simultaneously accounts for the financing decisions and ownership structure in affiliates of multinational firms. We find that affiliates of multinationals have higher internal and overall debt ratios and lower rental rates of physical capital than comparable domestic firms. We also show that affiliates with minority owners have less debt than wholly owned affiliates and a less tax-efficient financing structure. The latter is due to an externality where...

  11. The Link between Multinational Companies and Intellectual Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Panczel Zoltan Tibor

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays it seems to be widely accepted that a multinational company has many different environmental, economic or social impacts on a territory. Moreover, every region has the right to aim to achieve sustainable development. For those reasons, this work proposes a tool based on the territory’s intangible assets. This tool allows the management of the sustainable development of a region where a multinational company has located, paying special attention to the way that this type of company ca...

  12. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS The Global Development of Nestle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婵娟

    2006-01-01

    Several hundreds year ago, Nestle was just a small domestic corporation in Switzerland, but now it has developed into a really famous multinational corporation. It sells its brands and products all over the world, and built up its own infrastructures in many countries. And now it is taking a global perspective of its entire operation. I would like to use the secondary data to improve that Nestle is a really successful multinational corporation.

  13. Moving to Greener Pastures? Multinationals and the Pollution Haven Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Are multinationals flocking to pollution havens in developing countries? Using data from four developing countries (Cote d'Ivoire, Mexico, Morocco, and Venezuela), the authors examine the pattern of foreign investment. They find almost no evidence that foreign investors are concentrated in dirty sectors. They also examine the behavior of multinationals doing business in these four countries, testing whether there is any tendency for foreign firms to pollute more or less than their host countr...

  14. Anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of rosuvastatin by regulation of oxidative stress in a dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Kak; Cho, Jae Hee; Kim, Eui Joo; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Park, Dong Kyun; Kwon, Kwang An; Chung, Jun-Won; Kim, Kyoung Oh; Kim, Yoon Jae

    2017-07-07

    To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of rosuvastatin by regulation of oxidative stress in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model. An acute colitis mouse model was induced by oral administration of 5% DSS in the drinking water for 7 d. In the treated group, rosuvastatin (0.3 mg/kg per day) was administered orally before and after DSS administration for 21 d. On day 21, mice were sacrificed and the colons were removed for macroscopic examination, histology, and Western blot analysis. In the in vitro study, IEC-6 cells were stimulated with 50 ng/mL tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and then treated with or without rosuvastatin (2 μmol/L). The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory mediators, and apoptotic markers were measured. In DSS-induced colitis mice, rosuvastatin treatment significantly reduced the disease activity index and histological damage score compared to untreated mice (P analysis revealed that rosuvastatin treatment reduced the DSS-induced increase of serum IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-17, and G-CSF levels. The increased levels of cleaved caspase-3, caspase-7, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in the DSS group were attenuated by rosuvastatin treatment. In vitro, rosuvastatin significantly reduced the production of ROS, inflammatory mediators and apoptotic markers in TNF-α-treated IEC-6 cells (P < 0.05). Rosuvastatin had the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in DSS-induced colitis model. Therefore, it might be a candidate anti-inflammatory drug in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

  15. THE EXPANSION OF THE TRANSNATIONAL AND MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Bogdan Zamfir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of transnationalisation and multinationalisation evokes just the differences between the two types of corporations. It can be said that a transnational company is above geographical boundaries, wich from the perspective of revolutionary technological communications and transport have been dimmed, but above the borders represented by language, culture, mentalities and technology. The transnational company operates spot transactions because it is listed on the various first rank Stock Exchanges and the financial, technical, image and brand results recorded by this, are public information that it is measuring the success or unsucces of the transnationalisations phenomenon. By comparison, the multinational company is listed either at stock exchanges of secondary importance, or it is a group or family bussines which has the active abroad. At the same time the multinational corporations effectively produce without to generate significant resources for the development of it's own research activities, so, having failed to impose an uniform structure and culture regardless of the assets location. Another significant difference is at the financing access. The transnational company is standing in attention of the rating firms having a low-risk investment that it allows to access the financing at low cost. In most cases, multinational society has limited financial funding in the country of origin, sometimes exclusive relying on the raised funds of the branches which it controls.

  16. 瑞舒伐他汀与吡格列酮对糖尿病大鼠早期动脉粥样硬化影响%THE EFFECTS OF ROSUVASTATIN AND PIOGLITAZONE ON DIABETIC RATS WITH EARLY ATHEROSCLEROSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晓楠; 陈秀花; 李姗; 郭淑丽; 陈作元

    2012-01-01

    ) agonist Pioglitazone on diabetic rats with early atherosclerosis and explore its mechanism of action. Methods Fifty male Wistar rats were evenly randomized to five group as follows: normal control group C NO , full diet, citrate buffer and normal saline were given. A model of diabetic rat with atherosclerosis (AS) was created by high-sugar and high-fat diet. Four weeks after the creation of models, the following managements were done; in model group, intraper-itoneal injection of streptozotocin 50 mg/kg and normal saline carried out to serve as control; in Rosuvastatin group, streptozoto-cin 50 mg/kg, was intraperitoneally injected and Rosuvastatin, 5 mg/(kg · d) mtragastrically; in Pioglitazone group;streptozotocin 50 mg/kg iniraperitoneal injection and Pioglitazone, 5 mg/(kg · d), intragastricallyt in Rosuvastatin combined Pioglitazone group (R&P), streptozotocin 50 mg/kg mtraperitoneal injection and intragastric medication of Pioglitazone and Rosuvastatin, 5 mg/(kg " d) . respectively. After 16 weeks, TCi TG" LDL-C, BG and PGl were measured. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the expressions of MMP-9 and PPARy receptors. Results The levels of TC, TG, LDL-C and BG in Rosuvastatin group, Pioglitazone group and Ro-P group were markedly higher than that of NC (F=66. 89-273. 24;q=3. 93-46. 60;P<0. 05), but lower than that of model group (q=5. 72 - 26. 02,P<0. 05), the differences of the levels of LDL-C between R&P group and Rosuvastatin group as well as Pioglitazone group were significant ((/=3. 93 - 29. 85,P<0. 05). The positive MMP-9 and PPAγ expressions and infiltration of mononuclear cells in Rosuvastatin group, Pioglitazone group and R&P group were markedly higher than that of NC(F=29. 39-593. 33;q = 5. 03-59. 62;P<0. 05), but lower than that of DM model group (q~Z. 14 - 54. 89tP<0. 05), A comparison of MMP-9, PPARy and infiltration of mononuclear cells between R&P group and Rosuvastatin group , and between R&P and Pioglitazone groups showed the differences

  17. Foreign investment multinational companies and economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Đorđe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no universal answer on the question whether foreign investments stimulate economic development. The positive effect of foreign direct investments will follow when the investments is carried out under normal conditions of competition. That means, above all, low barriers for foreign trade and the low level of restrictions for foreign owned companies. In such circumstances, multinational corporations can assist the economies of penetration to make its businesses more efficient. Foreign investors bring with them brand new types of economic activities and in that way shifting the limits of business opportunities in the countries of penetration. But if the investments are implemented in markets protected with protectionist barriers of various kinds, then they could have negative effects. The negative effects are in particularly reflected in the inefficient use of domestic resources. Foreign investments depend on the macro and micro institutional reforms, low inflation, real exchange rate, and reasonably efficient legal system that protects the property rights and encourages savings and investment. The low level of corruption, together with the foregoing conditions is a prerequisite for the creation of a stimulating environment for foreign investments.

  18. Rosuvastatin, Sildenafil and Their Combination in Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasińska-Stroschein Magdalena

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in the pleiotropic effects of statins and their potential role in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Previous experimental findings indicate that a combination of lipophilic statins with phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, sildenafil, can offer preventive effects on rat monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. The present study is aimed to assess whether therapeutic regimen provides any benefits. Seven days after pulmonary hypertension induction, hydrophilic rosuvastatin and sildenafil were given for 14 days to male Wistar outbred rats. Right ventricular pressure, right ventricle mass and three biomarkers were evaluated after 21 days: brain natriuretic peptide, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and vascular endothelial growth factor. The present study demonstrates that administration of hydrophilic statin with sildenafil results in reduction of pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricular pressure. The results of biochemical measurements may suggest that statins play a positive role in right ventricle function or the process of angiogenesis in pulmonary hypertension development.

  19. Rosuvastatin Reduced Blood Clot Risk%罗苏伐他汀可减少血栓形成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴河水; 洪班信

    2009-01-01

    A large trial of the cholesterol lowering drug rosuvastatin showed that giving1 it to healthy adults reduced their risk of blood clots (venous thromboembolism) by 43 per cent. This was the result of a subgroup analysis in the JUPITER trial2, and was published online on 28 March in The Lancet and presented at the American College of Cardiology's 58th Annual Scientific Sessions.

  20. Danish recommendations on treatment of ankylosing spondylitis and spondyloarthritis based on multinational project initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Madsen, Ole Rintek; Erlendsson, J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The multinational initiative "3e Initiative in Rheumatology - Multi-national Recommendations for the Management of Ankylosing Spondylitis 2006-7" served the primary purpose of providing specific recommendations for the management of ankylosing spondylitis and spondyloarthritis...

  1. Responsible tax as corporate social responsibility: the case of multinational enterprises and effective tax in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, A.; Kolk, A.

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence often suggests that multinational enterprises (MNEs) operating in developing countries "exploit their multinationality" to avoid paying taxes to host governments. This article explores the concept of "responsible tax" as a corporate social responsibility (CSR) issue for MNEs, base

  2. Danish recommendations on treatment of ankylosing spondylitis and spondyloarthritis based on multinational project initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Madsen, Ole Rintek; Erlendsson, J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The multinational initiative "3e Initiative in Rheumatology - Multi-national Recommendations for the Management of Ankylosing Spondylitis 2006-7" served the primary purpose of providing specific recommendations for the management of ankylosing spondylitis and spondyloarthritis...

  3. Enzyme replacement therapy for mucopolysaccharidosis VI: a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational study of recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase (recombinant human arylsulfatase B or rhASB) and follow-on, open-label extension study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmatz, Paul; Giugliani, Roberto; Schwartz, Ida; Guffon, Nathalie; Teles, Elisa Leão; Miranda, M Clara Sá; Wraith, J Edmond; Beck, Michael; Arash, Laila; Scarpa, Maurizio; Yu, Zi-Fan; Wittes, Janet; Berger, Kenneth I; Newman, Mary S; Lowe, Ann M; Kakkis, Emil; Swiedler, Stuart J

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this Phase 3 study was to confirm the efficacy and safety of recombinant human arylsulfatase B (rhASB) treatment of mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI; Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome), a rare, fatal lysosomal storage disease with no effective treatment. Thirty-nine patients with MPS VI were evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, multinational study for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy variable was the distance walked in a 12-minute walk test (12MWT), whereas the secondary efficacy variables were the number of stairs climbed in a 3-minute stair climb (3MSC) and the level of urinary glycosaminoglycan (GAG) excretion. All patients received drug in an open-label extension period for an additional 24 weeks. After 24 weeks, patients receiving rhASB walked on average 92 meters (m) more in the 12MWT (p=.025) and 5.7 stairs per minute more 3MSC (p=.053) than patients receiving placebo. Continued improvement was observed during the extension study. Urinary GAG declined by -227+/-18 microg/mg more with rhASB than placebo (p<.001). Infusions were generally safe and well tolerated. Patients exposed to drug experienced positive clinical benefit despite the presence of antibody to the protein. rhASB significantly improves endurance, reduces GAG, and has an acceptable safety profile.

  4. The JUPITER and AURORA clinical trials for rosuvastatin in special primary prevention populations: perspectives, outcomes, and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Narla

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Venkata Narla, Michael J Blaha, Roger S Blumenthal, Erin D MichosThe Ciccarone Preventive Cardiology Center, Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Statins have emerged at the forefront of preventive cardiology and have significantly reduced cardiovascular events and mortality. Nonetheless, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in the United States and in other developed countries, as well as the etiology of significant morbidity and health-care expenditure. In an attempt to reduce potentially missed opportunities for instituting preventive therapy, the JUPITER study (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin and the AURORA study (A Study to Evaluate the Use of Rosuvastatin in Subjects on Regular Hemodialysis: An Assessment of Survival and Cardiovascular Events examined the effect of statins in two specific patient populations who currently do not meet the guidelines for statin treatment, but nonetheless, are at high cardiovascular risk. This review outlines the JUPITER and AURORA trials, interprets the data and significance of the results, analyses the drawbacks and impact of both trials and delineates the potential for further clinical trials.Keywords: JUPITER, AURORA, rosuvastatin, cardiovascular disease

  5. Effect of rosuvastatin on obesity-induced cardiac oxidative stress in Wistar rats--a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Javed A; Bhandari, Uma; Pillai, K K; Haque, S E

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity has been rising alarmingly and it has now become a global concern causing an enormous economic burden on the health care system. Obesity is generally linked to complications in lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg, po) on obesity-induced oxidative stress in high fat-fed Wistar rats. Oral administration of rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg) for 21 days along with high fat diet brought about significant elevation in serum high density lipoprotein and cardiac antioxidant enzymes levels (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase-, glutathione reductase- and glutathione-S-transferase) while decreasing in serum lactate dehydrogenase, apolipoprotein-B, lipids (triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and atherogenic index) and cardiac thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels. The results were comparable with orlistat, a standard antiobesity drug. These preliminary results for the first time demonstrate that administration of rosuvastatin can be beneficial for the suppression of obesity-induced oxidative stress and dyslipidemia in high fat-fed Wistar rats.

  6. Micellar electrokinetic chromatographic determination of rosuvastatin in rabbit plasma and evaluation of its pharmacokinetics and interaction with niacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kommos, Michael E; Mohamed, Niveen A; Ali, Hassan R H; Abdel Hakiem, Ahmed F

    2014-12-01

    A specific, accurate, precise and reproducible micellar electrokinetic chromatographic method was developed for in vitro and in vivo estimation of rosuvastatin, a synthetic and potent HMG-CoA inhibitor, in rabbit plasma. Further, its pharmacokinetics in the presence of niacin, which could be co-administered for monitoring of severe hypercholestremia, was investigated. The assay procedures involved simple liquid-liquid extraction of rosuvastatin and internal standard, atorvastatin, from a small plasma volume directly into acetonitrile. The organic layer was separated and evaporated under a gentle stream of nitrogen. The residue was reconstituted in the mobile phase and injected electrokinetically into electropherosis system. The background electrolyte consisted of borate buffer (25.0 mm, pH 9.5), 10.0% organic modifier (5.0% methanol + 5.0% acetonitrile) and 25.0 mm sodium dodecyl sulfate at 20.0 kV applied voltage and 215.0 nm detection wavelength for the effective separation of rosuvastatin, niacin and atorvastatin.

  7. [Effect of therapy with rosuvastatin on lipid spectrum, factors of inflammation and endothelial function in patients with ischemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergienko, I V; Samoĭlenko, E Iu; Masenko, V P; Ezhov, M V; Sumarokov, A B; Tkachev, G A; Pogorelova, O A; Balakhonova, T V; Naumov, V G

    2006-01-01

    Rosuvastatin (10 mg) was given for 3 months to 30 men (mean age 57+/-9 years) with total cholesterol (CH) above 5.2 mmol/l. Questioning, physical examination, registration of ECG, measurement of levels of total, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) CH, and triglycerides (TG), assessment of endothelium-dependent brachial artery dilation were carried out at baseline and in 3 months. It was noted that 3 months therapy with rosuvastatin exerted positive effect on blood lipid spectrum: lowering of concentration of total CH (-31%, baseline 6.52+/-0.92, after therapy 4.47+/-0.96 mmol/l, ptherapy 1.67+/-0.71 mmol/l, ptherapy 2.40+/-0.90 mmol/l, ptherapy 1.22+/-0.34 mmol/l, p=0.08). Target LDL CH level (therapy mean flow dependent dilation was 6.1+/-1.64%, after therapy -- 10.4+/-5.0% (p<0.05). Treatment of men with ischemic heart disease with rosuvastatin (10 mg for 3 months) led to achievement of target values of LDLCH in 77% of them, to significant lowering of concentrations of CRP and interleukin 6, and to improvement of endothelial function.

  8. Effect of rosuvastatin on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in patients with metabolic syndrome and hypercholesterolaemia: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargiotis, Konstantinos; Katsiki, Niki; Athyros, Vasilios G; Giouleme, Olga; Patsiaoura, Kalliopi; Katsiki, Evangelia; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Karagiannis, Asterios

    2014-05-01

    There is no widely accepted treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or its advanced form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We administered rosuvastatin (10 mg/day) for 1 year in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), NASH on liver biopsy and dyslipidaemia (but without diabetes or arterial hypertension). Patients also received lifestyle advice. We report preliminary results for 6 patients. The second biopsy (at the end of the study) showed complete resolution of NASH in 5 patients, while the 6(th), which had no improvement, developed arterial hypertension and substantial rise in triglyceride levels during the study. We suspect alcohol abuse despite advice to abstain. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities were reduced by 76 and 61%, respectively (p < 0.001 for both), during treatment, while γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) showed smaller non significant reductions. Fasting plasma glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were significantly reduced (p<0.05). Lipid values were totally normalised and liver ultrasonography showed a complete resolution of NASH in 5 patients. Body mass index and waist circumference remained unchanged during the study. Thus, changes in liver pathology and function should be attributed to treatment with rosuvastatin. A substantial limitation of the study is the small number of patients. These preliminary findings suggest that rosuvastatin could ameliorate NASH within a year of treatment in MetS patients with dyslipidaemia.

  9. Generation of polyclonal antibody with high avidity to rosuvastatin and its use in development of highly sensitive ELISA for determination of rosuvastatin in plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Malaq Hamoud A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, a polyclonal antibody with high avidity and specificity to the potent hypocholesterolaemic agent rosuvastatin (ROS has been prepared and used in the development of highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for determination of ROS in plasma. ROS was coupled to keyhole limpt hemocyanin (KLH and bovine serum albumin (BSA using carbodiimide reagent. ROS-KLH conjugate was used for immunization of female 8-weeks old New Zealand white rabbits. The immune response of the rabbits was monitored by direct ELISA using ROS-BSA immobilized onto microwell plates as a solid phase. The rabbit that showed the highest antibody titer and avidity to ROS was scarified and its sera were collected. The IgG fraction was isolated and purified by avidity chromatography on protein A column. The purified antibody showed high avidity to ROS; IC50 = 0.4 ng/ml. The specificity of the antibody for ROS was evaluated by indirect ELISA using various competitors from the ROS-structural analogues and the therapeutic agents used with ROS in a combination therapy. The proposed ELISA involved a competitive binding reaction between ROS, in plasma sample, and the immobilized ROS-BSA for the binding sites on a limited amount of the anti-ROS antibody. The bound anti-ROS antibody was quantified with horseradish peroxidase-labeled second anti-rabbit IgG antibody (HRP-IgG and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB as a substrate for the peroxidase enzyme. The concentration of ROS in the sample was quantified by its ability to inhibit the binding of the anti-ROS antibody to the immobilized ROS-BSA and subsequently the color intensity in the assay wells. The assay enabled the determination of ROS in plasma at concentrations as low as 40 pg/ml.

  10. Leadership styles of nurse managers in a multinational environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Wafika A

    2009-01-01

    This is a descriptive study conducted at a multinational working environment, where 1500 nurses representing 52 nationalities are employed. The study aimed at exploring the predominant leadership style of nurse managers through self-evaluation and staff nurses' evaluation and the impact of working in a multinational environment on their intention to stay or quit. The value lies in its focus on leadership styles in an environment where national diversity among managers, staff, and patients is very challenging. The study included 31 nurse managers and 118 staff nurses using Bass and Avolio's (1995) Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. The results showed that nurse managers and staff nurses reported transformational leadership as predominant with significant difference in favor of nurse managers. Participants' nationality and intention to stay or quit affected their perception of transformational leadership as a predominant style. The implications highlight the need for senior nursing management to set effective retention strategies for transformational nurse managers who work at multinational environments.

  11. Nationality Divides and Shared Leadership in Multinational Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paunova, Minna

    2015-01-01

    nationality-based characteristics of members may divide teams and affect leadership. We argue that the national belonging of members may result in both identity subgroups and status ranks. However, the configurational properties of identity subgroups and status ranks will have distinct effects on team......How shared leadership is enacted in teams that are nationally diverse is currently under- researched, despite the increasing presence of multinational teams in the workplace. To better understand the phenomenon of shared leadership in multinational team contexts, we propose two ways in which...... dynamics, shared leadership within the team, and team performance. We conduct two empirical studies, and find that the number and balance of identity subgroups have important implications for multinational team functioning, in line with social identity approaches. Interestingly, the number and balance...

  12. Orchestration of Globally Distributed Knowledge for Innovation in Multinational Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadirad, Solmaz; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2017-01-01

    Conducting a multiple-case study in five companies from Danish industry, this paper explores how multinational companies orchestrate knowledge from their globally distributed subsidiaries for innovation. Comparisons of knowledge orchestration within headquarter and subsidiaries for improvement...... and innovation show that a combination of the dynamic use of inter-firm objects and a well-established knowledge orchestration process underlies knowledge orchestration for innovation in multinational companies, as it advances headquarters’ abilities to effectively acquire, evaluate, disseminate, and utilize...... globally distributed knowledge. This study contributes to the understanding of knowledge orchestration between headquarter and distributed subsidiaries in multinational companies and how it is related to innovation. Specifically, this paper has important implications regarding the use of inter-firm objects...

  13. Ready or Not ... Here They Come: Are the Combatant Commanders Ready for Multinational Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Merrifield, David. “NATO and Multinational Logistics,” 2001 19 Pina , Juan A. “HELBA.” Multinational Integrated Logistic Unit, SFOR Informer Online, 1...proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=3&did> [14 May 2004]. Pina , Juan A. “HELBA.” Multinational Integrated Logistic Unit, SFOR Informer Online, 1 March 2001

  14. Foreign acquisitions, domestic multinationals, and R&D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger; Karpaty, Patrik

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the causal effect of foreign acquisition on R&D intensity in targeted domestic firms. We are able to distinguish domestic multinationals and non-multinationals, which allows us to investigate the fear that the change in ownership of domestic to foreign...... endogeneity of the acquisition dummy.  Overall, our results give no support to the fears that foreign acquisition of domestic firms lead to a brain drain of R&D activity in Swedish MNEs. Rather, this paper finds robust evidence that foreign acquisitions lead to increasing R&D intensity in acquired domestic...

  15. Foreign acquisitions, domestic multinationals, and R&D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger; Karpaty, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the causal effect of foreign acquisition on R&D intensity in targeted domestic firms. We are able to distinguish domestic multinationals and non-multinationals, which allows us to investigate the fear that the change in ownership of domestic to foreign...... to the fears that foreign acquisition of domestic firms lead to a relocation of R&D activity in Swedish MNEs. Rather, this paper finds robust evidence that foreign acquisitions lead to increasing R&D intensity in acquired domestic MNEs and non-MNEs....

  16. Chinese multinationals: how do institutional factors affect their location patterns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Quer Ramón

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of various host country institutional factors on the location patterns of 29 large Chinese multinationals. From a sample of 127 outward foreign direct investment (FDI decisions made in 52 countries, our findings suggest that a greater difficulty in doing business and a high political risk in the host country do not discourage Chinese multinationals. However, the presence of overseas Chinese in the host country, a larger absolute host market size and a higher volume of Chinese exports to that country affect positively.

  17. Multinational Enterprises and Social Capital as Location Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kurt; Svendsen, Gunnar L.H.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    It is generally assumed that multinational enterprises (MNEs) are more volatile than local firms. From the viewpoint of host countries, the volatility of MNE subsidiaries is often seen as a problem. Therefore it becomes relevant to look for ways to reduce the volatility of multinational activity...... across borders. We review the literature and identify a gap regarding social capital as a potential instrument for reducing the level of volatility. An existing stock of social capital may be advantageous not only to the host country but also to the MNE in the sense that optimal in-company resource...

  18. Pharmacokinetic interaction between rosuvastatin and olmesartan: a randomized, open-label, 3-period, multiple-dose crossover study in healthy Korean male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hyerang; Son, Hankil; Lee, Donghwan; Chang, HeeChul; Yun, Chohee; Park, Kyungsoo

    2014-08-01

    Rosuvastatin has been widely used in combination with olmesartan for the treatment of dyslipidemia accompanied by hypertension. With no information currently available on the interaction between the 2 drugs, a pharmacokinetic study was conducted to investigate the influence of rosuvastatin on olmesartan and vice versa when the 2 drugs were coadministered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of coadministration of the rosuvastatin 20-mg tablet and the olmesartan 40-mg tablet and the associated drug-drug interaction in healthy Korean male volunteers. This was a randomized, open-label, 3-period, multiple-dose crossover study. Eligible subjects were aged 20 to 50 years and within 20% of their ideal body weight. After being randomly assigned to 6 groups of equal number, subjects received each of the following 3 formulations once a day for 7 consecutive days with an 8-day washout period between the formulations: rosuvastatin 20-mg tablet, olmesartan 40-mg tablet, and coadministration of the rosuvastatin 20-mg tablet and the olmesartan 40-mg tablet. Blood samples were collected up to 72 hours after dosing, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for rosuvastatin, its active metabolite (N-desmethyl rosuvastatin), and olmesartan. Adverse events were evaluated based on subject interviews and physical examinations. Among the 36 enrolled subjects, 34 completed the study (mean [range] age, 28.6 [23-49] y; mean [range] weight, 66.4 [52.2-78.7] kg). The 90% CIs of the geometric mean ratios for the primary pharmacokinetic parameters for the coadministration of the 2 drugs to the mono-administration of each drug were 85.14% to 96.08% for AUCτ and 81.41% to 97.48% for Css,max for rosuvastatin, and 77.55% to 89.48% for AUCτ and 75.62% to 90.12% for Css,max for N-desmethyl rosuvastatin; those values were 95.61% to 102.57% for AUCτ and 91.73% to 102.98% for Css,max for olmesartan. Dizziness was the most frequently noted adverse drug

  19. Rosuvastatin as a potential preventive drug for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokohama, Keisuke; Fukunishi, Shinya; Ii, Masaaki; Nakamura, Ken; Ohama, Hideko; Tsuchimoto, Yusuke; Asai, Akira; Tsuda, Yasuhiro; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2016-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents approximately 85% of all primary liver cancer cases. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the risk factors for HCC. NAFLD occurs in patients with components of metabolic syndrome, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Therefore, hyperlipidemia also represents a patient population at risk for HCC that can readily be identified. Rosuvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, has exhibited a more potent affinity for the active site of HMG-CoA reductase than other statins. In addition, the hepatic uptake of rosuvastatin in rats has been found to be more selective and efficient than that with other drugs. Furthermore, the cytoprotective effects of rosuvastatin against ischemic injury have been clearly reported. Thus, in this study, we aimed to determine the role of rosuvastatin as a preventive drug in HCC associated with NAFLD. STAM mice, which developed HCC from NAFLD by being fed a high-fat diet (HFD), were divided into a group in which a HFD was given to the mice for 15 weeks (n=8) and another in which a HFD supplemented with 0.00125% rosuvastatin was given to the mice for 15 weeks (n=8). Rosuvastatin inhibited the development of hepatic tumors in the mice with NAFLD induced by a specific diet both macroscopically and histologically. Rosuvastatin significantly decreased the expression levels of pro-inflammatry cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. Tumor aggressiveness is mediated by angiogenic factors. Therefore, we examined the hepatic mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). The hepatic expression of these factors significantly decreased in the rousvastin-fed mice. Our results thus suggest rosuvastatin that prevents carcinogenesis

  20. SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ROSUVASTATIN CALCIUM AND CLOPIDOGREL BISULPHATE FROM BULK AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS USING A VALIDATED REVERSE PHASE HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avani Sheth

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, accurate, precise and economical reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method is developed for simultaneous separation and quantification of two cardiovascular drugs, viz., Rosuvastatin Calcium and Clopidogrel Bisulphate. The separation of both the drugs was achieved on Novapak C18 column (100 x 3.9 mm, 4 µm column using a mobile phase of Sodium Perchlorate buffer solution (at pH 2.5: Acetonitrile (65:35 v/v. The flow rate was 1 ml/min and detection was done at 242 nm. The retention time for Rosuvastatin Calcium was 4.4 min and Clopidogrel Bisulphate was 7.6 min. Rosuvastatin Calcium and Clopidogrel Bisulphate showed a linear response in the concentration range of 10-60 µg/ml and 18.75 - 112.5 µg/ml respectively. The correlation co-efficients for Rosuvastatin Calcium and Clopidogrel Bisulphate were 0.9999 and 0.9999 respectively. The percentage recoveries obtained for Rosuvastatin Calcium and Clopidogrel Bisulphate ranges from 99.1% to 100.5% and 99.1% to 99.6% respectively. The results of analysis have been validated as per ICH guidelines. Validation results indicated that method shows satisfactory linearity, accuracy, precision and ruggedness. The extremely low flow rate, simple mobile phase composition makes this method cost effective, rapid, non-tedious and can also be successfully employed for simultaneous estimation of both drugs in commercial products.

  1. Add-on-Statin Extended Release Nicotinic Acid/Laropiprant but Not the Switch to High-Dose Rosuvastatin Lowers Blood Pressure: An Open-Label Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastazia Kei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nicotinic acid (NA and statins have been associated with reductions in blood pressure (BP. Patients and Methods. We recruited 68 normotensive and hypertensive dyslipidemic patients who were treated with a conventional statin dose and had not achieved lipid targets. Patients were randomized to switch to high-dose rosuvastatin (40 mg/day or to add-on current statin treatment with extended release (ER NA/laropiprant (1000/20 mg/day for the first 4 weeks followed by 2000/40 mg/day for the next 8 weeks for 3 months. Results. Switching to rosuvastatin 40 mg/day was not associated with significant BP alterations. In contrast, the addition of ER-NA/laropiprant to current statin treatment resulted in a 7% reduction of systolic BP (from 134±12 to 125±10 mmHg, <.001 versus baseline and =.01 versus rosuvastatin group and a 5% reduction of diastolic BP (from 81±9 to 77±6 mmHg, =.009 versus baseline and =.01 versus rosuvastatin group. These reductions were significant only in the subgroup of hypertensives and were independent of the hypolipidemic effects of ER-NA/laropiprant. Conclusions. Contrary to the switch to high-dose rosuvastatin, the addition of ER-NA/laropiprant to statin treatment was associated with significant reductions in both systolic and diastolic BP.

  2. Effects of rosuvastatin on serum lipids and arteriosclerosis in dyslipidemic patients with cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Ichiro; Horiuchi, Yohsuke; Hayashi, Takeshi; Sehara, Yoshihide; Kato, Yuji; Ohe, Yasuko; Fukuoka, Takuya; Maruyama, Hajime; Sano, Hiroyasu; Nagamine, Yuito; Tanahashi, Norio

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the effect of rosuvastatin, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, on serum lipids and arteriosclerosis in dyslipidemic patients with cerebral infarction. The subjects were 24 patients with noncardiogenic cerebral infarction complicated by dyslipidemia (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] ≥ 140 mg/dL). Serum lipids and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured at the start of the study and at 3 and 12 months after the initiation of oral rosuvastatin (5 mg/day). Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), intima-media thickness (IMT), and plaque score (PS) were also determined at the start of the study and at 12 months. Of the 24 patients admitted, 17 were eligible for statistical analysis. Total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) (mean [standard deviation {SD}], mg/dL) were significantly decreased at 3 months (TC, 149.4 [20.4]; LDL-C, 78.7 [18.6]; non-HDL-C, 94.6 [21.7]) and at 12 months (TC, 154.9 [27.2]; LDL-C, 82.5 [23.3]; non-HDL-C, 100.2 [28.8]) compared with the baseline data (TC, 232.8 [29.7]; LDL-C, 162.2 [21.2]; non-HDL-C, 183.0 [27.7]). The serum hs-CRP level (mean [SD], ng/mL) was 1053.1 [818.8] at baseline, 575.2 [481.8] at 3 months, and 488.1 [357.7] at 12 months. The decrease in this parameter at 12 months was statistically significant. There was a decrease, although not statistically significant, in CAVI (mean [SD]) at 12 months (right [Rt.] 8.7 [.9]; left [Lt.] 8.6 [1.0]), compared with baseline (Rt. 9.1 [1.1]; Lt. 9.0 [1.1]). The max-IMT (mean [SD], mm) was (Rt. 2.11 [.97]; Lt. 2.01 [.75]) at baseline and (Rt. 2.18 [.82]; Lt. 2.06 [.79]) at 12 months of study treatment. The PS (mean [SD], mm) was 8.93 [4.33] at baseline and 9.61 [4.79] at 12 months; neither parameter showed a significant change. Rosuvastatin at 5 mg/day significantly reduced serum levels of TC, LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and hs-CRP in dyslipidemic patients with cerebral infarction. No

  3. Winds of change: corporate strategy, climate change and oil multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Levy, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Behind pessimistic expectations regarding the future of an international climate treaty, substantial changes can be observed in company positions. Multinationals in the oil and car industries are increasingly moving toward support for the Kyoto Protocol, and take measures to address climate change.

  4. COMPETITIVE STRATEGY OF A FOREIGN MULTINATIONAL IN BRAZILIAN POULTRY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Barros de Azevedo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the question of the strategies involved in the import process of cages for laying hens, directed at the multinational enterprise distribution center. Identifies the reasons why a multinational company invests in Brazil, specifically in the city of Araraquara, São Paulo, where it is implementing a distribution center (DC. Developing the study of the strategies involved in the process, according to the main issue of the work, it took place through the exploratory analysis of the current logistics process of the Company, identifying the strategies adopted and the advantages of the new process. In order to achieve the objectives, the study is based on the theoretical study of Porter's five competitive forces, SWOT analysis, generic strategies adopted to achieve return on investment and, based on issues such as import , logistics, warehousing and distribution center. The survey shows that deployment of the DC, the strategy involves the insertion in the national market, specifically in São Paulo that is the biggest market of laying hens in the country to gain competitive advantage, and the multinational also adopts the strategy generic differentiation, with regard to technology and product quality. Despite the high costs of construction and maintenance of the DC, they represent a barrier to market entry, have no financial risk for the multinational enterprise, since this deployment will also increase the demand for the product, allowing the return on invested capital.

  5. Multinationals, CSR and partnerships in Central African conflict countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Lenfant, F.

    2013-01-01

    Attention has increased for the potential role of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in helping address conflict issues and/or furthering peace and reconciliation as part of their corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies. However, while existing literature emphasises the importance for MNEs to

  6. The Transmission of Real Estate Shocks Through Multinational Banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertay, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This paper investigates the credit supply of banks in response to domestic and foreign real estate price changes. Using a large international dataset of multinational banks, we find evidence of a significant transmission of domestic real estate shocks into lending abroad. A 1% decrease in

  7. Corporate governance and international location decisions of multinational enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, L.; Scholtens, B.; Sterken, E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses international location decisions of corporations based on corporate governance considerations. Using firm level data on 540 Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) with 44,149 subsidiaries in 188 countries, we test whether firms with relatively good governance standards are more often l

  8. Ownership Concentration and CSR Policy of European Multinational Enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, Lammertjan; Scholtens, Bert

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how ownership concentration in European multinational firms is associated with these firms' corporate social responsibility (CSR). We employ factor analysis on responsibility data from EIRiS and use a regression analysis. Using firm-level data for almost 700 European firms, w

  9. Multinationals, CSR and partnerships in Central African conflict countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Lenfant, F.

    2013-01-01

    Attention has increased for the potential role of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in helping address conflict issues and/or furthering peace and reconciliation as part of their corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies. However, while existing literature emphasises the importance for MNEs to c

  10. Knowledge Sharing in an American Multinational Company Based in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Chen Wai; Sandhu, Manjit S.; Jain, Kamal Kishore

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the views of executives working in an American based multinational company (MNC) about knowledge sharing, barriers to knowledge sharing, and strategies to promote knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach: This study was carried out in phases. In the first phase, a topology of organizational mechanisms for…

  11. Multinationals, CSR and Partnerships in Central African Conflict Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kolk (Ans); F. Lenfant (François)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAttention has increased for the potential role of Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) in helping address conflict issues and/or furthering peace and reconciliation as part of their corporate social responsibility policies. However, while existing literature emphasises the importance for

  12. Competitive Advantage and the Existence of the Multinational Corporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a counterpoint to Hashai and Buckley's article ‘Is competitive advantage a necessary condition for the emergence of the multinational enterprise?’ We agree with their conclusion that it is, in fact, not a necessary condition, but argue that the theoretical reasons behind thi...

  13. A license to mine? : Community organizing against multinational corporations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Krämer (Romy)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWhat does it mean when a corporation claims to have a ‘license to operate’ in a local community? How does a member of an indigenous tribe make it to London to protest against a multinational mining company? How do managers perceive and speak about protest against their company and how do

  14. Working Across Borders: Multinational Enterprises and the Internationalization of Employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van den Berghe (Douglas)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractMultinational enterprises (MNEs) are often held responsible for the ‘relocation of production’ and ‘exporting jobs’ to, often low-wage, countries at the expense of domestic jobs. Additionally, host country governments – in particular in developing countries - often perceive international

  15. Leadership and diversity effectiveness in a large multinational organisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brassey-Schouten, J.

    2011-01-01

    Effectiviteit van leiderschap en diversiteit krijgen veel aandacht binnen de multinationals van vandaag. De belangrijkste reden is een groeiend geloof en vertrouwen dat leiders en diversiteit een verschil kunnen maken voor de prestatie van een organisatie. In dit onderzoek zijn deze onderwerpen

  16. Multinational banks and credit growth in transition economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, Ralph Theodoor Anna de

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines the impact of multinational banks (MNBs) on the financial development of European transition countries. On the basis of our results, we conclude that the gradual deepening of the banking systems in Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltic countries (CEB) has enabled firms to ge

  17. Thin Capitalization Rules and Multinational Firm Capital Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blouin, J.; Huizinga, H.P.; Laeven, L.; Nicodeme, G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of thin capitalization rules that limit the tax deductibility of interest on the capital structure of the foreign affiliates of US multinationals. We construct a new data set on thin capitalization rules in 54 countries for the period 1982-2004. Using confide

  18. The Transmission of Real Estate Shocks Through Multinational Banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertay, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This paper investigates the credit supply of banks in response to domestic and foreign real estate price changes. Using a large international dataset of multinational banks, we find evidence of a significant transmission of domestic real estate shocks into lending abroad. A 1% decrease in

  19. Corporate governance and international location decisions of multinational enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, L.; Scholtens, B.; Sterken, E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses international location decisions of corporations based on corporate governance considerations. Using firm level data on 540 Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) with 44,149 subsidiaries in 188 countries, we test whether firms with relatively good governance standards are more often l

  20. Organizational Values and Knowledge Sharing in Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailova, Snejina; Minbaeva, Dana

    2012-01-01

    While the existing knowledge sharing literature, in general, emphasizes the link between organizational culture and knowledge sharing, it remains rather ambiguous about how certain components of the former may shape the latter. This issue is especially relevant to multinational corporations (MNCs...

  1. Knowledge Transfer and Accommodation Effects in Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Foss, Nicolai J.; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Foreign subsidiaries in multinational corporations (MNCs) possess knowledge that has different sources (e.g., the firm itself or various sources in the environment). How such sources influence knowledge transfer is not well understood. Drawing on the "accommodation effect" from cognitive psychology...

  2. Business & IT Alignment in a Multinational Company; Issues and approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs. A.J.G. Silvius

    This chapter explores the theory and practice of Business & IT Alignment in multinational companies. In the first part of the chapter an overview of the theory is presented. In this part the familiar frameworks for Business & IT Alignment are put in perspective in an ‘Alignment development model’.

  3. Pre-Interaction Management in Multinational Companies in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekvapil, Jiri; Sherman, Tamah

    2009-01-01

    This article is devoted to the linguistic, communicative and sociocultural situation in branches of multinational companies located in the Czech Republic and Hungary. There are typically several languages used in these branches. In addition to the local languages, there are the languages of the parent companies--most commonly English or German,…

  4. Intellectual Property Strategies of Multinational Companies Patenting in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfram, Pierre; Schuster, Gerd; Brem, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    systems in those countries are mostly not able to effectively protect intellectual property rights of multinational companies. Still, we observe the phenomenon of a strongly increasing rate of technology patenting in countries with weak appropriability regimes. This article studies patenting strategy...... clustering reveals the existence of five patent strategy archetypes of companies patenting in economies with weak appropriability regimes....

  5. Donor Infectious Disease Testing Multinational assessment of blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Donor Infectious Disease Testing Multinational assessment of blood-borne virus testing and transfusion safety on the African continent... ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... for poor quality, to define a consensus strategy based on appropriate assays; and

  6. Foreign ownership, sales to multinationals, and firm efficiency: The Case of Brazil, Morocco, Pakistan, South Africa, and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Kinda, Tidiane

    2009-01-01

    Using a one-step stochastic frontier model for five developing countries (Brazil, Morocco, Pakistan, South Africa, and Vietnam), we show that foreign firms benefit from a better investment climate, which significantly explains why they are more efficient than local firms. Unlike former studies, this paper uses the share of each firm’s sales to multinationals located in the country to assess the importance of vertical spillovers, and it controls for the direct impact of the investment climate ...

  7. Multinational study in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes: association of age, ketoacidosis, HLA status, and autoantibodies on residual beta-cell function and glycemic control 12 months after diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Henrik B; Swift, Peter G F; Holl, Reinhard W;

    2010-01-01

    To identify predictors of residual beta-cell function and glycemic control during the first 12 months after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D).......To identify predictors of residual beta-cell function and glycemic control during the first 12 months after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D)....

  8. A randomized trial of rosuvastatin in the prevention of venous thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glynn, Robert J; Danielson, Eleanor; Fonseca, Francisco A H;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Controversy persists regarding the extent of shared pathways between arterial and venous thrombosis and whether treatments of known efficacy for one disease process have consistent benefits for the other. Observational studies have yielded variable estimates of the effect of statin......-reactive protein levels of 2.0 mg per liter or higher to receive rosuvastatin, 20 mg per day, or placebo. We followed participants for the first occurrence of pulmonary embolism or deep-vein thrombosis and performed analyses of the data on an intention-to-treat basis. RESULTS: During a median follow-up period of 1.......12 in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.41 to 1.45; P=0.42), whereas the rates of deep-vein thrombosis only were 0.09 and 0.20, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.79; P=0.004). Consistent effects were observed in all the subgroups examined. No significant differences were seen...

  9. Pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin/olmesartan fixed-dose combination: a single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study in healthy Korean subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hankil; Roh, Hyerang; Lee, Donghwan; Chang, Heechul; Kim, Junku; Yun, Chohee; Park, Kyungsoo

    2013-07-01

    Rosuvastatin, a lipid-lowering agent, has been widely used with olmesartan, a long-acting angiotensin II receptor blocker, indicated for the treatment of dyslipidemia accompanied by hypertension. A fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet of these 2 drugs was recently developed to enhance the dosing convenience and to increase patient compliance while yielding pharmacokinetic profiles comparable to coadministration of each drug as individual tablets. The goal of present study was to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of single-dose administration of an FDC tablet containing rosuvastatin/olmesartan 20/40 mg (test formulation) with coadministration of a rosuvastatin 20-mg tablet and a olmesartan 40-mg tablet (reference formulation) in healthy Korean male volunteers, for the purpose of determining bioequivalence. This single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study enrolled subjects aged 20 to 50 years and within 20% of ideal body weight. Each subject received a single dose of the test and reference formulations orally in a fasted state, with a 7-day washout period between the administrations. Blood samples were collected up to 72 hours after dosing, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for rosuvastatin, its active metabolite (N-desmethyl rosuvastatin), and olmesartan. Bioequivalence was concluded if the 90% CIs of the geometric mean ratios for the primary pharmacokinetic parameters were within the predetermined range of 80% to 125%. Adverse events (AEs) were evaluated based on subject interviews and physical examinations. Among the 58 enrolled subjects, 54 completed the study. The 90% CIs of the geometric mean ratios of the primary pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: rosuvastatin: AUC(last), 85.60% to 97.40% and C(max), 83.16% to 98.21%; N-desmethyl rosuvastatin: AUC(last), 82.08% to 93.45% and C(max), 79.23% to 93.41%; and olmesartan: AUC(last), 97.69% to 105.69% and C(max), 100.35% to 109.42%. The most frequently noted AE was headache

  10. Effect of intensive lipid-lowering treatment compared to moderate lipid-lowering treatment with rosuvastatin on endothelial function in high risk patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egede, Rasmus; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Hansen, Henrik Steen

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The healthy endothelium plays a key roll in vascular regulation. This function can be examined non-invasively by use of B-mode ultrasound on the brachial artery. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of low-dose and high-dose lipid-lowering treatment with rosuvastatin...... on the endothelial function evaluated with endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). METHODS: 87 Statin-naive patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were randomized to 5mg or 40mg rosuvastatin. The FMD was assessed at baseline, 6months and after 12...

  11. Pharmacokinetics of a telmisartan/rosuvastatin fixed-dose combination: a single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study in healthy Korean subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Dong Woo; Son, Mijeong; Kim, Yukyung; Son, Hankil; Jang, Seong Bok; Seo, Jeong Min; Nam, Su Youn; Park, Kyungsoo

    2015-10-01

    As hypertension and dyslipidemia are frequent comorbidities, antihypertensive drugs and lipid-lowering agents are often prescribed together for their treatment. Telmisartan and rosuvastatin are widely used together to treat hypertension and dyslipidemia. A combination formulation of these two drugs would improve patient compliance due to ease of dosing. The purpose of this study was to assess bioequivalence of single-dose administration of a newly-developed fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet containing telmisartan/rosuvastatin 80/20 mg (test treatment) and coadministration of a telmisartan 80-mg tablet and a rosuvastatin 20-mg tablet (reference treatment) in healthy Korean male volunteers. This was a single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study enrolling healthy males aged 20 - 50 years with BMI between 18.5 and 25 kg/m2. Each subject received a single dose of the reference and test treatments with a 14-day washout period. Blood sampling was performed at prespecified intervals for up to 72 hours after dosing. Primary pharmacokinetic parameters were Cmax, AUClast, and AUC0-∞ of telmisartan, rosuvastatin, and N-desmethyl rosuvastatin. Bioequivalence was assessed by determining whether the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean ratios (test treatment/reference treatment) of these parameters were within the standard range of 80% to 125%. Adverse events were monitored via regular interviews with the subjects and by physical examinations. 60 subjects were enrolled and 55 completed the study. The 90% CIs of the geometric mean ratios of Cmax, AUClast, and AUC00-∞ were 0.9262-1.1498, 0.9294-1.0313, and 0.9312-1.0320 for telmisartan, 0.9041-1.0428, 0.9262-1.0085, and 0.9307-1.0094 for rosuvastatin, and 0.8718-1.0022, 0.8901-0.9904, and 0.8872-0.9767 for N-desmethyl rosuvastatin, respectively. There was no statistical difference in the incidence of adverse events (AEs) (all of which were mild or moderate) between the reference and test

  12. Muscular fixing of the H.M.D.P. {sup 99m}Tc induced by a statin, rosuvastatin or crestor: clinical case; Fixation musculaire du HMDP Tc99m induite par une statine, la rosuvastatine ou Crestor: cas clinique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourahla, K.; Hassler, S.; Schneegans, O.; Gyen, L.N. [CLCC Paul-Strauss, Service de medecine nucleaire, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2010-07-01

    Myositis induced by statins in treatment for hypercholesterolemia is a special clinical entity that may be encountered during an exploration by bone scintigraphy. We present the case of a muscle fixing observed in bone scan in a patient treated with rosuvastatin (Crestor). Muscular extra bone fixing of hydroxy-methane diphosphonate (H.M.D.P.) {sup 99m}T in patients referred for staging of prostate carcinoma, patients sometimes also treated for high cholesterol may be iatrogenic due to taking statins. A simple history may then allow its identification, although it remains asymptomatic. (N.C.)

  13. Why did high-dose rosuvastatin not improve cardiac remodeling in chronic heart failure? Mechanistic insights from the UNIVERSE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Emma; Windebank, Emma; Skiba, Marina; Reid, Christopher; Schneider, Hans; Rosenfeldt, Franklin; Tonkin, Andrew; Krum, Henry

    2011-02-03

    Statins are often prescribed for prevention of atherosclerotic outcomes in patients who have chronic heart failure (CHF), if this has an ischaemic etiology. These agents may also possess additional properties, independent of effects on blood lipid levels, which may have an effect on cardiac remodeling. However, beneficial effects were not observed in the recent UNIVERSE trial. We prospectively planned a sub-study of UNIVERSE to explore relevant mechanistic effects of rosuvastatin, including effects on collagen turnover and plasma coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) levels. Additionally, CoQ levels in CHF patients receiving chronic statin therapy were measured. CoQ levels were significantly reduced after 26 weeks of rosuvastatin statin therapy (n = 32), compared to placebo (n = 37) in CHF patients in UNIVERSE trial. Patients with CHF (n = 56) matched for age, gender and severity of disease who had been taking statins for 12 months or longer had CoQ levels of 847 ± 344 nmol/L, significantly lower than 1065.4 ± 394 nmol/L in UNIVERSE patients at baseline (p = 0.0001). Serum types I and III N-terminal procollagen peptide (PINP and PIIINP), measures of collagen turnover which can contribute to cardiac fibrosis were significantly increased in the rosuvastatin group compared to baseline in UNIVERSE patients (PINP: p = 0.03, PIIINP: p = 0.001). In conclusion putative beneficial effects of statin therapy on cardiac remodeling in UNIVERSE may have been negated by increases in collagen turnover markers as well as a reduction in plasma CoQ levels in these patients with CHF. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Multinational study in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes: Association of age, ketoacidosis, HLA status, and autoantibodies on residual beta-cell function and glycemic control 12 months after diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen, H. B.; Swift, P G; Holl, R. W.; Hougaard, P; Hansen, L; Bjoerndalen, H.; de Beaufort, Carine; Knip, M

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors of residual beta-cell function and glycemic control during the first 12 months after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D).Subjects and Methods: Clinical information and blood samples were collected from 275 children. HbA1c, antibodies, HLA typing and mixed meal-stimulated C-peptide levels 1, 6, and 12 months after diagnosis were analyzed centrally.Results: Mean age at diagnosis was 9.1 yr. DKA with standard bicarbonate

  15. Efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination therapy with olmesartan medoxomil and rosuvastatin in Korean patients with mild to moderate hypertension and dyslipidemia: an 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, factorial-design study (OLSTA-D RCT: OLmesartan rosuvaSTAtin from Daewoong).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Sun; Shin, Joon-Han; Hong, Taek-Jong; Seo, Hong-Seog; Shim, Wan-Joo; Baek, Sang-Hong; Jeong, Jin-Ok; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kang, Woong-Chol; Kim, Young-Hak; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Hyon, Min-Su; Choi, Dong-Hoon; Nam, Chang-Wook; Park, Tae-Ho; Lee, Sang-Chol; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The pill burden of patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia can result in poor medication compliance. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination (FDC) therapy with olmesartan medoxomil (40 mg) and rosuvastatin (20 mg) in Korean patients with mild to moderate hypertension and dyslipidemia. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, factorial-design study included patients aged ≥20 years with mild to moderate essential hypertension and dyslipidemia. Patients were randomly assigned to receive FDC therapy (40 mg olmesartan medoxomil, 20 mg rosuvastatin), 40 mg olmesartan medoxomil, 20 mg rosuvastatin, or a placebo. The percentage change from baseline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was compared between FDC therapy and olmesartan medoxomil, and the change from baseline in diastolic blood pressure was compared between FDC therapy and rosuvastatin 8 weeks after treatment. A total of 162 patients were included. The least square mean percentage change (standard error) from baseline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels 8 weeks after treatment was significantly greater in the FDC than in the olmesartan medoxomil group (-52.3% [2.8%] vs -0.6% [3.5%], Polmesartan medoxomil and rosuvastatin is an effective, safe treatment for patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia. This combination may improve medication compliance in patients with a large pill burden.

  16. The effect observation of rosuvastatin and simvastatin on elderly patients with lower limb arteriosclerosis disease%瑞舒伐他汀与辛伐他汀抗老年人下肢动脉硬化疾病效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe The effect of rosuvastatin and simvastatin on elderly patients with lower limb arteriosclerosis disease.Methods:65 cases of elderly patients with lower extremity arterial disease were divided into two groups.The experimental group selected rosuvastatin treatment,and the control group selected simvastatin treatment.Results:After treatment,the experimental group of TC,TG,HDL-C,LDL-C,hs-CRP were significant improved;after treatment,the lower extremity arterial intima-media thickness,arterial stenosis,plaque,hardening strength ratings are[1(1,1)],and the differences were statistically significant with the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Rosuvastatin and simvastatin play a role in the treatment of elderly patients with lower limb arteriosclerosis disease,but rosuvastatin effect is ideal.Its lipid levels and endometrial thickness,arterial stenosis,plaque,hardening intensity scores improve significantly.%目的:观察瑞舒伐他汀与辛伐他汀治疗老年人下肢动脉硬化疾病的临床效果。方法:收治老年人下肢动脉硬化疾病患者65例,分两组,试验组选择瑞舒伐他汀治疗,对照组选择辛伐他汀治疗。结果:试验组治疗后 TC、TG、HDL-C、LDL-C、hs-CRP均出现明显的改善趋势,其治疗后下肢动脉内膜厚度、动脉狭窄、斑块、硬化强度评分均为[1(1,1)],与对照组治疗后比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:瑞舒伐他汀与辛伐他汀在老年人下肢动脉硬化疾病治疗中均能发挥一定的作用,但瑞舒伐他汀效果较为理想,其血脂水平与下肢动脉内膜厚度、动脉狭窄、斑块、硬化强度评分改善明显。

  17. Reducing Proliferation Rick Through Multinational Fuel Cycle Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanda Rynes

    2010-11-01

    With the prospect of rapid expansion of the nuclear energy industry and the ongoing concern over weapons proliferation, there is a growing need for a viable alternative to traditional nation-based fuel production facilities. While some in the international community remain apprehensive, the advantages of multinational fuel cycle facilities are becoming increasingly apparent, with states on both sides of the supply chain able to garner the security and financial benefits of such facilities. Proliferation risk is minimized by eliminating the need of states to establish indigenous fuel production capabilities and the concept's structure provides an additional internationally monitored barrier against the misuse or diversion of nuclear materials. This article gives a brief description of the arguments for and against the implementation of a complete multinational fuel cycle.

  18. Value-Chain Networks and Entrepreneurial Output in Multinational Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitratos, Pavlos; Andersson, Ulf; Liouka, Ioanna

    2011-01-01

    and non value-chain networks; because they may provide the subsidiary knowledge with market opportunities that it lacks and that the other types of networks cannot effectively provide. However, value-chain networks have a negative effect on entrepreneurial output of a subsidiary operating...... in an environment of high uncertainty; because they can constrain the exploration and creation of new knowledge that cannot be provided by any of the networks. Contrary to our expectations, the combined effect of value-chain and non-value chain networks has a negative influence on entrepreneurial output; and...... on their entrepreneurial output. Entrepreneurial output can generate superior performance and positive externalities to the subsidiary. Based on a large-scale study of 268 multinational subsidiaries in the UK, we find that value-chain networks have a higher positive impact than multinational corporation (MNC) networks...

  19. A Critical Review of Theoretical Perspectives on Emerging Economy Multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuksel Ayden

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a critical review of the mainstream (i.e. internationalization process model and eclectic paradigm and emergent perspectives (i.e. springboard perspective and linkage, leverage, and learning model on internationalization process of emerging economy multinational enterprises (EE MNEs. It discusses the theoretical knowledge on multinational enterprise (MNE behavior by providing the contributions of each perspective to the literature, their explanations about EE MNEs' international expansion, as well as the extensions, modifications, and criticism made on them. The comparative discussion of the extant literature demonstrates that each theoretical perspective explains a particular trajectory of MNE internationalization; therefore, an integration of the current perspectives on MNE internationalization is needed.

  20. Multinational repositories: Ethical, legal and political/public aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutellier, C. [ARiUS - Association for Regional and International Underground Storage, Tafernstrasse 11, CH-5405 Baden, Dattwil (Switzerland)]. E-mail: Christine.Boutellier@arius-world.org; McCombie, C. [ARiUS - Association for Regional and International Underground Storage, Tafernstrasse 11, CH-5405 Baden, Dattwil (Switzerland)]. E-mail: Charles.McCombie@arius-world.org; Mele, I. [ARAO - Agency for Radwaste Management, Parmova 53, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: irena.mele@gov.si

    2006-07-01

    Concepts for shared multinational repositories face a great challenge in achieving acceptance, despite the fact that they promise advantages in safety, security, environmental protection and costs. When considering advantages of shared multinational repositories, it is instructive to examine which are the ethical, legal and political issues that mostly affect the feasibility of implementing such facilities. This paper addresses the key questions from two opposite sides. The early part takes a 'top-down' view, looking at the international debate on ethical issues, summarising a wide range of national political attitudes and identifying relevant international legislation and treaties. The latter looks 'bottom-up' at the problem, by discussing the situation of a small country, Slovenia. Slovenia has limited financial resources for implementing disposal - but it has a firm commitment to fulfilling its responsibilities for safely managing all Radioactive Wastes (RAW) arising in the country. Strategies considered to do so are laid out in this paper. (author)

  1. Multinational Enterprises and Social Capital as Location Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kurt; Svendsen, Gunnar L.H.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    It is generally assumed that multinational enterprises (MNEs) are more volatile than local firms. From the viewpoint of host countries, the volatility of MNE subsidiaries is often seen as a problem. Therefore it becomes relevant to look for ways to reduce the volatility of multinational activity...... across borders. We review the literature and identify a gap regarding social capital as a potential instrument for reducing the level of volatility. An existing stock of social capital may be advantageous not only to the host country but also to the MNE in the sense that optimal in-company resource...... allocation and profits could be improved even further. Thus, the dominating theory of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment), the eclectic paradigm as developed by John Dunning, offers a relevant opportunity to fill a gap in the literature and include social capital in FDI decisions as a new location factor....

  2. From Beijing to Bentonville: Do Multinational Retailers Link Markets?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Each of the world's largest retailers---Walmart, Carrefour, Tesco, and Metro---entered China after 1995. Their subsequent expansion in China may have influenced Chinese exports through two channels. First, they may have enhanced bilateral exports between the retailers' Chinese operations and destination countries also served by stores in the retailers' networks. Second, Chinese city-level exports to all destinations may have grown if multinational retailer presence enhanced the general export...

  3. Analytical Concept: Development of a Multinational Information Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-31

    home of refugees because the UNHCR already has a resourced programme in place. THEME: "Acceptance of the Coalition" (Understanding of Coalition aims...gender or sex of a person. Page 61 of 106 UNCLASSIFIED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE – Development of a Multinational Information Strategy – MNIOE Analytical...constructive dialogue between all sides. − We are encouraging the local communities to accept refugees /IDPs on a temporary basis. We will support

  4. Russia's emerging multinational companies amidst the global economic crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Filippov, S.

    2011-01-01

    Internationalisation of Russian companies has become a distinctive phenomenon and has drawn attention of scholars, practitioners and policy-makers alike. Newly emerged Russian companies have extended their presence from the nearest former Soviet republics to the advanced markets of Western Europe and Northern America. As most companies in the world, in 2008-2010, Russian multinationals faced the global economic meltdown. Despite the broad interest in this topic, its scholarly examination rema...

  5. GLOBALIZATION AND POVERTY: HEAVY COST OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    ILHAN, Süleyman

    2012-01-01

    Along with globalization, despite the growing wealth, poverty too is deepening throughout the world. Poverty is an ever-increasing important problem not only for underdeveloped countries, but also for developed countries. Global liberal system, through the multi-national companies in both inter-countries, as well as within countries leads to an in-depth polarity between rich and poor within countries. Neo-liberalism`s expansion of the zone of influence, and also social policy restrictions of ...

  6. Level of Harmonization and ERP Architecture in Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Fatemeh; Møller, Charles

    2013-01-01

    multinational corporations. The ERP distribution decision in MNCs has been mainly associated with the corporate strategy and governance structure. As global ERP deployment benefits mainly come from business consolidation, and as there are significant costs and risks associated with centralized ERP...... to be more directly affected by the factors prohibiting further divergence, namely the corporate business process governance structure and the degree of similarity of its business models....

  7. The Mission Partner Environment: Challenges To Multinational Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Colonel Sims participated in operational missions to Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Japan , South Korea, and other locations within...Mission Network (AMN) makes the case for the using common operational priorities ("mission threads") as the basis for network security architecture ...with an architecture customized for specific multinational operations or requirements. In this approach, a coalition lead nation (typically the U.S

  8. Drivers of the international expansion of emerging-market multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Boșcor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is to analyze the drivers of the international expansion of emerging market multinationals and the strategies applied by these companies in other emerging and developed markets. The paper applies a conceptual approach combined with analyses of statistics and secondary material and presents the company and the country specific advantages. The proposals for the Romanian companies and institutions are based on the comparison between the drivers of expansion in the BRIC countries.

  9. Key Success Factors of Innovation in Multinational Agrifood Prospector Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Batterink, M.H.; Omta, S.W.F. (Onno)

    2007-01-01

    The Wageningen Innovation Assessment Tool (WIAT) assesses a company’s drivers and barriers to innovation and benchmarks the critical success and failure factors of its innovation projects with data of agrifood prospector companies around the world. The present paper discusses its application in 12 multinational agrifood prospector companies in the Netherlands and France. It is concluded that WIAT by uncovering the tacit knowledge of the innovation project team creates opportunities for subs...

  10. Validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of rosuvastatin in plasma at picogram level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Ibrahim A; Al-Obaid, Abdul-Rahman M; Al-Malaq, Hamoud A

    2013-05-01

    In this study, a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed and validated for the determination of rosuvastatin (ROS) in plasma samples at picogram level. The assay employed a polyclonal antibody that specifically recognizes ROS with high affinity, and ROS conjugate of bovine serum albumin (ROS-BSA) immobilized onto microplate wells as a solid phase. The assay involved a competitive binding reaction between ROS, in plasma sample, and the immobilized ROS-BSA for the binding sites on a limited amount of the anti-ROS antibody. The bound anti-ROS antibody was quantified with horseradish peroxidase-labelled second anti-rabbit IgG antibody (HRP-IgG) and 3,3`,5,5`-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as a substrate for the peroxidase enzyme. The concentration of ROS in the sample was quantified by its ability to inhibit the binding of the anti-ROS antibody to the immobilized ROS-BSA and subsequently the colour intensity in the assay wells. The assay limit of detection was 25 pg ml(-1) and the effective working range at relative standard deviations (RSD) of ≤ 5% was 40-2000 pg ml(-1). Analytical recovery of ROS from spiked plasma was 96.2 - 104.8 ± 2.12 - 5.42%. The precision of the assay was satisfactory; RSD was 2.47 - 4.46 and 3.24 - 5.27% for the intra- and inter-assay precision, respectively. The analytical procedure is convenient, and one can analyze ~ 200 samples per working day, facilitating the processing of large-number batch of samples. The proposed ELISA has a great value in routine analysis of ROS for its pharmacokinetic studies.

  11. Multinational study in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes: association of age, ketoacidosis, HLA status, and autoantibodies on residual beta-cell function and glycemic control 12 months after diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, H.B.; Swift, P.G.F.; Holl, R.W.;

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors of residual beta-cell function and glycemic control during the first 12 months after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Subjects and Methods: Clinical information and blood samples were collected from 275 children. HbA1c, antibodies, HLA typing and mixed meal......-stimulated C-peptide levels 1, 6, and 12 months after diagnosis were analyzed centrally. Results: Mean age at diagnosis was 9.1 yr. DKA with standard bicarbonate 1 (p = 0.004) and 12 months (p = 0.0003) after diagnosis. At 12...... months, the decline in stimulated C-peptide levels compared with the levels at 1 month was 69% in the youngest age group and 50% in patients 10 yr and above (p 12 months was predicted by younger age (p

  12. Protocol for German trial of Acyclovir and corticosteroids in Herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis (GACHE: a multicenter, multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled German, Austrian and Dutch trial [ISRCTN45122933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schielke Eva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment of Herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis (HSVE remains a major unsolved problem in Neurology. Current gold standard for therapy is acyclovir, a drug that inhibits viral replication. Despite antiviral treatment, mortality remains up to 15%, less than 20% of patients are able to go back to work, and the majority of patients suffer from severe disability. This is a discouraging, unsatisfactory situation for treating physicians, the disabled patients and their families, and constitutes an enormous burden to the public health services. The information obtained from experimental animal research and from recent retrospective clinical observations, indicates that a substantial benefit in outcome can be expected in patients with HSVE who are treated with adjuvant dexamethasone. But currently there is no available evidence to support the routine use of adjuvant corticosteroid treatment in HSVE. A randomized multicenter trial is the only useful instrument to address this question. Design GACHE is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group clinical trial of treatment with acyclovir and adjuvant dexamethasone, as compared with acyclovir and placebo in adults with HSVE. The statistical design will be that of a 3-stage-group sequential trial with potential sample size adaptation in the last stage. Conclusion 372 patients with proven HSVE (positive HSV-DNA-PCR, aged 18 up to 85 years; with focal neurological signs no longer than 5 days prior to admission, and who give informed consent will be recruited from Departments of Neurology of academic medical centers in Germany, Austria and The Netherlands. Sample size will potentially be extended after the second interim analysis up to a maximum of 450 patients. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN45122933

  13. THE AMAZING UNIVERSE OF RUSSIAN MULTINATIONALS: NEW INSIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODRUŢA DURA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, large multinational companies originating from Russia have shown outstanding performances alongside their road from regional dominance to global leaders. Taking stock of recent approaches in the literature and statistical data released by well-known international organizations, our papers aims to provide some new insights from the amazing universe of Russian multinationals, following the 2008-2009 global economic crisis. The list of the largest multinationals from Russia shows that corporations from oil & gas and metallurgical sector are prevailing, as a consequence of the resource – based character of the Russian economy. Although Russian giants represents a quite heterogeneous class of companies, they do share several common features such as their propel mechanism of expansion on the global business stage (leveraged by the resource-based nature of their home economy, their tendency to invest in the neighboring countries (like Commonwealth of Independent States or East European countries, their modes of entry (through brownfield projects etc.

  14. Conducting a multicentre and multinational qualitative study on patient transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Julie K; Barach, Paul; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra

    2012-12-01

    A multicentre, multinational research study requires careful planning and coordination to accomplish the aims of the study and to ensure systematic and rigorous examination of all project methods and data collected. The aim of this paper is to describe the approach we used during the HANDOVER Project to develop a multicentre, multinational research project for studying transitions of patient care while creating a community of practice for the researchers. We highlight the process used to assure the quality of a multicentre qualitative study and to create a codebook for data analysis as examples of attending to the community of practice while conducting rigorous qualitative research. Essential elements for the success of this multinational, multilanguage research project included recruiting a strong research team, explicit planning for decision-making processes to be used throughout the project, acknowledging the differences among the study settings and planning the protocols to capitalise upon those differences. Although not commonly discussed in reports of large research projects, there is an underlying, concurrent stream of activities to develop a cohesive team that trusts and respects one another's skills and that engage independent researchers in a group process that contributes to achieving study goals. We discuss other lessons learned and offer recommendations for other teams planning multicentre research.

  15. Multinationality and Firm Performance: The Moderating Role of R&D and Marketing Capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Masaaki Kotabe; Srini S. Srinivasan; Aulakh,Preet S.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers in international business have long been interested in understanding the relationship between the multinationality of a firm and its market performance. This article contributes to this research stream by incorporating firm heterogeneity in examining the multinationality-performance relationship. The findings, based on a time series cross-sectional analysis of firms from 12 different industries over a seven-year period, indicate that the impact of multinationality on both financia...

  16. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions of the selective androgen receptor modulator GTx-024(Enobosarm) with itraconazole, rifampin, probenecid, celecoxib and rosuvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coss, Christopher C; Jones, Amanda; Dalton, James T

    2016-08-01

    GTx-024 (also known as enobosarm) is a first in class selective androgen receptor modulator being developed for diverse indications in oncology. Preclinical studies of GTx-024 supported the evaluation of several potential drug-drug interactions in a clinical setting. A series of open-label Phase I GTx-024 drug-drug interaction studies were designed to interrogate potential interactions with CYP3A4 inhibitor (itraconazole), a CYP3A4 inducer (rifampin), a pan-UGT inhibitor (probenecid), a CYP2C9 substrate (celecoxib) and a BCRP substrate (rosuvastatin). The plasma pharmacokinetics of GTx-024, its major metabolite (GTx-024 glucuronide), and each substrate were characterized in detail. Itraconazole administration had no effect on GTx-024 pharmacokinetics. Likewise, GTx-024 administration did not significantly change the pharmacokinetics of celecoxib or rosuvastatin. Rifampin administration had the largest impact on GTx-024 pharmacokinetics of any co-administered agent and reduced the maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) by 23 % and the area under the curve (AUC∞) by 43 %. Probenecid had a complex interaction with GTx-024 whereby both GTx-024 plasma levels and GTx-024 glucuronide plasma levels (AUC∞) were increased by co-administration of the UGT inhibitor (50 and 112 %, respectively). Overall, GTx-024 was well tolerated and poses very little risk of generating clinically relevant drug-drug interactions.

  17. Retracted: Physiologically based pharmacokinetic predictions of intestinal BCRP-mediated effect of telmisartan on the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Soo Hyeon; Park, Wan-Su; Han, Seunghoon; Park, Gab-Jin; Lee, Jongtae; Hong, Taegon; Jeon, Sangil; Yim, Dong-Seok

    2017-07-01

    'Physiologically based pharmacokinetic predictions of intestinal BCRP-mediated effect of telmisartan on the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin in humans' by Soo Hyeon Bae, Wan-Su Park, Seunghoon Han, Gab-jin Park, Jongtae Lee, Taegon Hong, Sangil Jeon and Dong-Seok Yim The above article, published online on 06 February 2017 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, K. Sandy Pang, and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The authors retracted the paper due to errors associated with use of log D vs. log P of telmisartan as inputs of the PBPK model. The authors concluded that there are too many changes in the article to be resolved by an Erratum, and had requested a retraction. Reference Bae, S. H., Park, W.-S., Han, S., Park, G., Lee, J., Hong, T., Jeon, S., and Yim, D.-S. (2016) Physiologically based pharmacokinetic predictions of intestinal BCRP-mediated effect of telmisartan on the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin in humans. Biopharm. Drug Dispos., doi: 10.1002/bdd.2060. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Pharmacokinetic interaction between rosuvastatin and telmisartan in healthy Korean male volunteers: a randomized, open-label, two-period, crossover, multiple-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mijeong; Kim, Yukyung; Lee, Donghwan; Roh, Hyerang; Son, Hankil; Guk, Jinju; Jang, Seong Bok; Nam, Su Youn; Park, Kyungsoo

    2014-08-01

    Rosuvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, and telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, are commonly prescribed in combination for the treatment of dyslipidemia accompanied by hypertension. However, the nature of the pharmacokinetic interaction between the 2 drugs is not clearly understood. The goal of the present study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction between rosuvastatin and telmisartan in a healthy Korean population. This was a randomized, 2-part, open-label, 2-period, crossover, multiple-dose study, with each part composed of different subjects between the ages of 20 and 55 years. In part 1, each subject received rosuvastatin 20 mg with and without telmisartan 80 mg once daily for 6 consecutive days. In part 2, each subject received telmisartan 80 mg with and without rosuvastatin 20 mg once daily for 6 consecutive days. In both parts, there was a 16-day washout period between mono- and coadministration. Blood samples were collected up to 72 hours after the last dose. Adverse events (AEs) were evaluated through interviews and physical examinations. In part 1, the 90% CIs of the geometric mean ratios for the primary pharmacokinetic parameters for coadministration of the 2 drugs to monoadministration of each drug were 1.0736-1.2932 for AUCτ and 1.7442-2.3229 for Cmax,ss for rosuvastatin and 0.9942-1.1594 for AUCτ and 1.3593-1.7169 for Cmax,ss for N-desmethyl rosuvastatin, whereas in part 2, the CIs were 1.0834-1.2672 for AUCτ and 1.1534-1.5803 for Cmax,ss for telmisartan. The most frequently noted AE was cough in part 1, which occurred in 2 subjects receiving the combination therapy, and oropharyngeal pain in part 2, which occurred in 3 subjects receiving the combination therapy. All reported AEs were mild or moderate, and there was no significant difference in incidence between the treatments. These findings demonstrated that rosuvastatin and telmisartan mutually affected each other

  19. 瑞舒伐他汀对急性脑梗死患者的治疗机制%Rosuvastatin treatment of patients with acute cerebral infarction mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈湘; 王晶

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨瑞舒伐他汀对急性脑梗死患者的治疗效果及作用机制。方法选择北京航天总医院2011年3月至2012年12月收治的110例急性脑梗死患者,随机分为观察组和对照组各55例。对照组患者给予常规治疗,主要包括保护脑细胞、控制血糖和血压、抗血小板聚集等;观察组患者在对照组的基础上给予瑞舒伐他汀治疗。连续治疗12周为1个疗程。记录比较两组患者治疗前、后血脂、血清超敏C-反应蛋白(hs-CRP)水平变化,并对患者进行神经功能缺损程度评分,评价疗效。结果治疗后对照组患者血脂水平无明显改变,观察组患者血脂水平明显下降,与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),两组hs-CRP均有下降,观察组患者hs-CRP水平低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),两组患者神经功能缺损评分均有下降,观察组低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),观察组总有效率高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论采用瑞舒伐他汀治疗急性脑梗死患者疗效值得肯定,这可能与其能够降低患者血脂和抗炎性反应治疗机制有关。%Objective To investigate the rosuvastatin in patients with acute cerebral infarction treatment effect and its mechanism .Methods Beijing aerospace general hospital 2011 March to December 2012 treated 110 patients with acute cerebral infarction were randomly divided into observation group and control group 55 cases .The control group were treated with conventional therapy ,including protecting brain cells ,control blood sugar and blood pres-sure ,platelet aggregation ;The observation control group patients on the basis of given rosuvastatin treatment .Con-tinuous treatment for 12 weeks as a course of treatment .Recorded before and after treatment were compared lipid ,se-rum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP ) levels ,and patients

  20. The Impact of Multinational Business Diversification on the Financial Sustainability of Construction Firms in Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Sanghyo; Ahn, Yonghan; Shin, Sungwoo

    2016-01-01

      This study investigated empirically whether multinational business diversification by Korean construction firms contributes to their financial sustainability using the vector error correction model...

  1. Influence of rosuvastatin in left ventricular remodeling and cardiac function after myocardial infarction in rabbits%瑞舒伐他汀对老年兔心肌梗死左室重构和心功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丹丹; 李加平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe and study correlation influence of rosuvastatin in left ventricular remodeling and cardiac function after myocardial infarction in rabbits. Methods Olderly male New Zealand white rabbits were random divided into control group, myocardial infarction group and rosuvastatin group. Myocardial infarction combination rosuvastatin group were established the left anterior descending coronary artery ligation after infarction model, infarction after the establishment of the model to red easy cutting statin calcium from the gastrointestinal tract infusion 4 weeks group for Rosuvastatin group. Before and after molding respectively, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVDD), left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVDS), left ventricular short axis shorten rate (LVFS) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were measured, postoperation muscle cell scar index and muscle cell apoptosis index (AI) was measured. Results The scores and sham operation group comparison, after the success of the infarction myocardial infarction group and red easy cutting statin group of LVFS, LVEF was decreased, but in a way LVDD, LVDS significantly increased (P <0. 01); In myocardial infarction manufacturing model after the success of 14 and 28 d red easy cutting statin group LVDS below myocardial infarction group (P<0. 05 and 0. 01), however LVFS and LVEF were significantly higher than that of myocardial infarction group (P<0. 01) ; In the infarction model after the establishment of the 28 d Rosuvastatin group myocardial scarring index less than myocardial infarction group (P<0. 05); sham operation group AI significantly lower than easy cutting statin group and myocardial infarction group (P<0. 01), but the myocardial infarction group is obviously higher than that of the red easy cutting statin group (P<0. 05). Conclusion Rosuvastatin for elderly rabbit after myocardial infarction myocardial remodeling and cardiac function in a benign influence, its

  2. Pharmacokinetic interactions between glimepiride and rosuvastatin in healthy Korean subjects: does the SLCO1B1 or CYP2C9 genetic polymorphism affect these drug interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choon Ok; Oh, Eun Sil; Kim, Hohyun; Park, Min Soo

    2017-01-01

    To improve cardiovascular outcomes, dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes needs to be treated. Thus, these patients are likely to take glimepiride and rosuvastatin concomitantly. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions between these two drugs in healthy males and to explore the effect of SLCO1B1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms on their interactions in two randomized, open-label crossover studies. Glimepiride was studied in part 1 and rosuvastatin in part 2. Twenty-four participants were randomly assigned to each part. All subjects (n=24) completed part 1, and 22 subjects completed part 2. A total of 38 subjects among the participants of the PK interaction studies were enrolled in the genotype study to analyze their SLCO1B1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms retrospectively (n=22 in part 1, n=16 in part 2). Comparison of the PK and safety of each drug alone with those of the drugs in combination showed that both glimepiride and rosuvastatin did not interact with each other and had tolerable safety profiles in all subjects. However, with regard to glimepiride PK, the SLCO1B1 521TC group had a significantly higher maximum plasma concentration (Cmax,ss) and area under the plasma concentration–time curve during the dose interval at steady state (AUCτ,ss) for glimepiride in combination with rosuvastatin than those for glimepiride alone. However, other significant effects of the SLCO1B1 or CYP2C9 polymorphism on the interaction between the two drugs were not observed. In conclusion, there were no significant PK interactions between the two drugs; however, the exposure to glimepiride could be affected by rosuvastatin in the presence of the SLCO1B1 polymorphism. PMID:28260863

  3. Solitary Inhibition of the Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Efflux Transporter Results in a Clinically Significant Drug-Drug Interaction with Rosuvastatin by Causing up to a 2-Fold Increase in Statin Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsby, Robert; Martin, Paul; Surry, Dominic; Sharma, Pradeep; Fenner, Katherine

    2016-03-01

    The intestinal efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) restricts the absorption of rosuvastatin. Of the transporters important to rosuvastatin disposition, fostamatinib inhibited BCRP (IC50 = 50 nM) and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1; IC50 > 10 μM), but not organic anion transporter 3, in vitro, predicting a drug-drug interaction (DDI) in vivo through inhibition of BCRP only. Consequently, a clinical interaction study between fostamatinib and rosuvastatin was performed (and reported elsewhere). This confirmed the critical role BCRP plays in statin absorption, as inhibition by fostamatinib resulted in a significant 1.96-fold and 1.88-fold increase in rosuvastatin area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and Cmax, respectively. An in vitro BCRP inhibition assay, using polarized Caco-2 cells and rosuvastatin as probe substrate, was subsequently validated with literature inhibitors and used to determine BCRP inhibitory potencies (IC50) of the perpetrator drugs eltrombopag, darunavir, lopinavir, clopidogrel, ezetimibe, fenofibrate, and fluconazole. OATP1B1 inhibition was also determined using human embryonic kidney 293-OATP1B1 cells versus estradiol 17β-glucuronide. Calculated parameters of maximum enterocyte concentration [Igut max], maximum unbound hepatic inlet concentration, transporter fraction excreted value, and determined IC50 value were incorporated into mechanistic static equations to compute theoretical increases in rosuvastatin AUC due to inhibition of BCRP and/or OATP1B1. Calculated theoretical increases in exposure correctly predicted the clinically observed changes in rosuvastatin exposure and suggested intestinal BCRP inhibition (not OATP1B1) to be the mechanism underlying the DDIs with these drugs. In conclusion, solitary inhibition of the intestinal BCRP transporter can result in clinically significant DDIs with rosuvastatin, causing up to a maximum 2-fold increase in exposure, which may warrant

  4. Chemometric technique for the optimization of chromatographic system: Simultaneous HPLC determination of Rosuvastatin, Telmisartan, Ezetimibe and Atorvastatin used in combined cardiovascular therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sree Janardhanan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Developed and optimized a validated isocratic reverse phase HPLC separation of Rosuvastatin, Telmisartan, Ezetimibe and Atorvastatin in pharmaceutical preparation using response surface methodology. The separation was carried out by using phenomenex C18 column (15 cm × 4.6 mm id, 5 μm particle size and UV detection at 239 nm. The ranges of the independent variables used for the optimization were MeCN: 33–38%, buffer conc.: 10–20 mM and flow rate: 1–2 ml/min. The influence of these independent variables on the output responses: capacity factor of the first peak (k1, resolutions of the 2nd and 3rd peak (Rs2,3, and capacity factor of the fifth peak (k5 were evaluated. Using this strategy, a mathematical model was defined and a response surface was derived for the separation. The three responses were simultaneously optimized by using Derringer's desirability functions. Optimum conditions chosen for the assay were MeCN, MeOH, 20 mM K2HPO4 (pH 3.0 ± 0.2 solution (34.27:20:45.73 v/v/v and flow rate 2 ml/min. Total chromatographic analysis time per sample was approximately 10 min. The optimized assay condition was validated as per the ICH guidelines and applied for the quantitative analysis of Rosavel EZ, Avas-EZ and Lipisar 20 tablet. The developed method was simple, accurate and precise. Hence, it can be employed for the routine analysis in quality control laboratories.

  5. The Effects of Organization Design on Media Richness in Multinational Enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, J. Michael; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines effects of two organizational design parameters, divisionalization and centralization, on the media richness choices of Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of multinational enterprises in obtaining information from foreign subsidiaries on strategic issues. Samples 86 US multinationals; finds formal divisional structure affects CEOs' use of…

  6. Coordinated vs. liberal market HRM: the impact of institutionalisation on multinational firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farndale, E.; Brewster, C.; Poutsma, F.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of institutionalized contexts on the HRM activities of multinational firms has become a focus of increasing attention in recent literature. However, theories of how different types of business systems or market economies may influence HRM, and the impact of context on multinational corpor

  7. The curse of the haven : the impact of multinational enterprise on environmental regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, L.; Scholtens, B.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the behavior of multinational enterprises in the context of resource rich and poor countries and regarding high and low income countries. We depart from the pollution haven hypothesis and the resource curse. The pollution haven hypothesis states that multinational enterprises move their d

  8. High Level Overview Document for the MNE 5 Multinational Interagency Strategic Planning (MNISP) Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-12

    The Multinational Interagency Strategic Planning (MNISP) focus area sought to provide a solution to the difficulties of multinational interagency...guidance. The proposed process is described in a document called the Strategic Planning Guide (SPG), which was written for the use of civil and military

  9. Evaluating the Investment Benefit of Multinational Enterprises' International Projects Based on Risk Adjustment: Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the international risks faced by multinational enterprises to understand their impact on the evaluation of investment projects. Moreover, it establishes a 'three-dimensional' theoretical framework of risk identification to analyse the composition of international risk indicators of multinational enterprises based on the theory…

  10. Coordinated vs. liberal market HRM: the impact of institutionalization on multinational firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farndale, E.; Brewster, C.; Poutsma, F.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of institutionalized contexts on the HRM activities of multinational firms has become a focus of increasing attention in recent literature. However, theories of how different types of business systems or market economies may influence HRM, and the impact of context on multinational corpor

  11. Testing the Link Between Multinationality and the Return on Foreign Assets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. Yip (George); A. Kudina; A.M. Rugman (Alan)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractA large and robust emperical literature demonstrates that there is a strong relationship between the performance of a multinational enterprise (MNE) and its degree of multinationality. We develop a new metric to capture the return on foreign assets (ROFA), which we use as an alternative

  12. The Role of Vocational Education and Training in Attracting Foreign Investment from Multinational Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    Multinational corporations are significant in the global economy, and increasingly important to national economies. Based on a literature review and 12 case studies of multinational corporations operating in Australia, the study finds the quality of the domestic VET-skilled workforce is ranked equal third in importance, out of fifteen factors,…

  13. Evaluating the Investment Benefit of Multinational Enterprises' International Projects Based on Risk Adjustment: Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the international risks faced by multinational enterprises to understand their impact on the evaluation of investment projects. Moreover, it establishes a 'three-dimensional' theoretical framework of risk identification to analyse the composition of international risk indicators of multinational enterprises based on the theory…

  14. Are less developed countries more exposed to multinational tax avoidance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels; Tørsløv, Thomas Rasmusen; Wier, Ludvig

    We use a global dataset with information on 210,000 corporations in 102 countries to investigate whether cross-border profit shifting by multinational firms is more prevalent in less developed countries. We propose a novel technique to study aggressive profit shifting and improve the credibility...... of existing techniques. Our results consistently show that the sensitivity of reported profits to profit-shifting incentives is negatively related to the level of economic and institutional development. This may explain why many developing countries opt for low corporate tax rates in spite of urgent revenue...

  15. Multinational Exploration of Acquired R&D Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of 54 Danish multinational corporations that haveacquired activities abroad. The role of the acquired R&D units was the focus of the survey,particularly with respect to the schism between basic and applied R&D, and the schismbetween autonomous and network...... a combination of basic andnetwork-oriented R&D activities when focusing on capability development.Keywords: Acquisition; Research and Development (R&D), Basic R&D, Applied R&D,Autonomy, Network, Capabilities....

  16. Multinational Oil Giants Expand Business Rapidly in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The multinational oil giants started to implement the globalization strategy on the basis of their advantages in resources, capital, technology and management from the middle of the 1990s after a large-scale structural adjustment. They have seen a rapid business development in China in the past decade and involved extensively in the country's oil and gas exploration and development,LPG and LNG business, pipeline, petrochemicals, oil refining, distribution of oil products, electric power and new energy, posing a severe challenge to the Chinese domestic enterprises.

  17. MULTINATIONALITY -PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP: A REVIEW AND RESEARCH AGENDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Satsumi López-Morales,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is make a review of the literature of the empirical studies about the multinationality-performance relationship. The surveys developed during the period 2003- 2014 were reviewed. The results identified some gaps and future research agenda to be addressed such as: use of moderator and mediator variables in the multinationalityperformance relationship, the use of non-financial/accounting indicators as indicators of performance, carry our comparative surveys between countries and regions and the inclusion of internationalization motivation.

  18. Centralized vs. De-centralized Multinationals and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines how country tax differences affect a multinational enterprise's choice to centralize or de-centralize its decision structure. Within a simple model that emphasizes the multiple conflicting roles of transfer prices in MNEs - here, as a strategic pre-commitment device and a tax...... manipulation instrument -, we show that (de-)centralized decisions are more profitable when tax differentials are (small) large.Keywords: Centralized vs. de-centralized decisions, taxes, MNEs.JEL-Classification: H25, F23, L23....

  19. The Contribution of Local Environments to Competence Creation in Multinational Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ulf; Dellestrand, Henrik; Pedersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the competence development of subsidiaries in multinational enterprises. We analyze how local subsidiary environments affect the development of technological and business competencies among other units in the multinational enterprise. We test our predictions using data from 2...... to the development of the competencies of other units in the multinational enterprise. The role of the multinational enterprise is characterized as integrative, as it may bridge local competencies and environments that are conducive to competence creation, and as it facilitates the use of resources residing locally...... throughout the organization. Thus, we contribute to an enhanced understanding of location as a determinant of the creation of units of competence and centers of excellence within multinational enterprises. In other words, we demonstrate that country-specific advantages are beneficial for competence creation...

  20. Pharmacokinetic interactions between glimepiride and rosuvastatin in healthy Korean subjects: does the SLCO1B1 or CYP2C9 genetic polymorphism affect these drug interactions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim CO

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Choon Ok Kim,1 Eun Sil Oh,2 Hohyun Kim,3 Min Soo Park1,4 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Medicine and Regulatory Sciences, College of Medicine and Pharmacy, Yonsei University, Incheon, 3Korea Medicine Research Institute, Inc., Seongnam, 4Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea Abstract: To improve cardiovascular outcomes, dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes needs to be treated. Thus, these patients are likely to take glimepiride and rosuvastatin concomitantly. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetic (PK interactions between these two drugs in healthy males and to explore the effect of SLCO1B1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms on their interactions in two randomized, open-label crossover studies. Glimepiride was studied in part 1 and rosuvastatin in part 2. Twenty-four participants were randomly assigned to each part. All subjects (n=24 completed part 1, and 22 subjects completed part 2. A total of 38 subjects among the participants of the PK interaction studies were enrolled in the genotype study to analyze their SLCO1B1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms retrospectively (n=22 in part 1, n=16 in part 2. Comparison of the PK and safety of each drug alone with those of the drugs in combination showed that both glimepiride and rosuvastatin did not interact with each other and had tolerable safety profiles in all subjects. However, with regard to glimepiride PK, the SLCO1B1 521TC group had a significantly higher maximum plasma concentration (Cmax,ss and area under the plasma concentration–time curve during the dose interval at steady state (AUCt,ss for glimepiride in combination with rosuvastatin than those for glimepiride alone. However, other significant effects of the SLCO1B1 or CYP2C9 polymorphism on the interaction between the two drugs were not observed. In conclusion, there were no significant PK

  1. The Synthesis of Rosuvastatin Side Chain%瑞舒伐他汀侧链的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔叶青

    2014-01-01

    以3-叔丁基二甲硅氧基戊二酸酐和(S)2-羟基-2苯基乙酸苄酯为原料,经过缩合、还原、酯交换、酯化和酯交换制得瑞舒伐他汀侧链(3R)叔丁基二甲硅氧基-6-二甲氧基磷酰基-5-氧代己酸叔丁酯。%Rosuvastatin side chains-(3R) t-butyldimethylsilyloxy-6-dimethoxy-naphthalene acyl-5-ox-o-hexanoic acid tert-butyl ester was synthesized through condensation, reduction, transesterification, esterifi-cation and transesterification using 3-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy glutaric anhydride and (S) 2-hydroxy-2-phenyl-acetic acid benzyl ester as raw materials.

  2. Variability of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol response with different doses of atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin: results from VOYAGER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Björn W; Wiklund, Olov; Palmer, Michael K; Nicholls, Stephen J; Lundman, Pia; Barter, Philip J

    2016-10-01

    Patient response to statin treatment is individual and varied. As a consequence, when using a specific-dose approach, as recommended in the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline, there will be a range of reductions in the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The aim of this study was to use individual patient data from the VOYAGER meta-analysis to determine the extent of the variability in LDL-C reduction in response to treatment across the recommended doses of different statins. The percentage change from baseline in LDL-C was calculated using individual subject data collected from 32 258 patients treated with atorvastatin 10-80 mg, rosuvastatin 5-40 mg, or simvastatin 10-80 mg. The percentage change in LDL-C for each patient was then used to generate waterfall plots that demonstrated the extent of the variability in response to treatment at all doses of the three statins. The standard deviation of LDL-C reduction for all statins and doses ranged from 12.8 to 17.9%. The percentage of patients experiencing a suboptimal response (<30% reduction in LDL-C) ranged from 5.3 to 53.3%. These results indicate that there is considerable individual variation in the LDL-C reduction at all doses of simvastatin, atorvastatin, and rosuvastatin. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. 瑞舒伐他汀治疗冠心病高脂血症120例临床观察%Analysis of curative effect of coronary heart disease patients with rosuvastatin and atorvastatin therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温建伟

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察冠心病患者应用瑞舒伐他汀与阿托伐他汀的治疗效果。方法:选取冠心病患者240例,将其分为实验组和对照组各120例。实验组患者口服瑞舒伐他汀片;对照组患者口服阿托伐他汀片。治疗前后测量患者的血清总胆固醇(Total cholesterol, TC)、甘油三酯(Triglyceride ,TG)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(Low density lipoprotein cholesterol,LDL -C)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(High den-sity lipoprotein cholesterol,HDL -C)等血脂指标的水平,记录在治疗期间不良事件以及肝肾功能情况。结果:实验组和对照组患者在治疗后体内 TG、TC、LDL -C、HDL -C 等指标优于治疗前,实验组患者的 TG、TC、LDL -C、HDL -C 等血脂水平均优于对照组。实验组的总有效率94.2%,显著高于对照组的70.8%(P <0.05)。结论:两种药物都能有效地改善冠心病患者的血脂水平,降低血脂 TG、TC、LDL-C 水平,有利于动脉粥样硬化的延迟或逆转,但瑞舒伐他汀的临床效果更佳。%Objective To study the efficacy of coronary heart disease patients with rosuvastatin and atorvastatin therapy.Methods Select 240 cases of coronary heart disease patients,and they were divided into experimental group and control group.The experimen-tal group in patients with coronary heart disease use rosuvastatin and the control group use simvastatin.Measurement of serum total cho-lesterol in vivo respectively before and after treatment Total cholesterol (TC),three glycerol (TG)phthalate,low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL -C),high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL -C)and blood lipid levels,and record adverse events during treat-ment,liver and kidney function.Results Two groups of patients after treatment,the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC),after three glycerol phthalate (TG),low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL -C)and other indicators were lower than

  4. A conceptual framework for verifying the multinational Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apt, K.E.

    1990-08-01

    The United States has for several years sought an effective, global ban on the production, possession, and use of chemical weapons (CW). In 1984, then-Vice President Bush submitted to the ongoing Conference on Disarmament in Geneva a draft comprehensive Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC); since then, he has supported the multinational process for CWC implementation. Given the high visibility of a CW treaty, policy makers face some major questions. Is such a treaty more valuable to national security than a chemical deterrent capability How useful will the treaty be if key nations or geographical regions are not covered How useful will the treaty be if key nations or geographical regions are not covered What constitutes an effective CWC verification regime, and can the objectives of this regime be achieved How would signatories respond to noncompliance by other signatories The answers to such questions will be important in determining the level of support, both nationally and internationally, for the multinational CWC. In addressing the issue of effective verification, it is important to consider how the CWC objectives devolve into general requirements for the verification regime. Translating these requirements into specific monitoring and inspection activities helps in understanding the extent and limitations of effective CWC verification. 4 refs.

  5. Japanese Global Companies: The Shift from Multinationals to Multiculturals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Kameda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a new paradigm of culture and society within the context of global management, introducing the concept of a “multi-cultural company” instead of a “multinational company.” Globalization and multi-polarization of consumer markets are expanding in the world. The well-documented cases of both the BRICS and MINTS+V countries illustrate this new and borderless trend. Two further examples beyond these two point to a future trend. First, the Islamic market is expanding with a little over two billion people, its consumers backed up by the Islamic financial system. The second example comes with the ever-increasing populations and the expanding BOP (Base of Pyramid markets worth US $5 trillion dollars in Asia and Africa, with about 4 billion people whose annual income is less than US $3000 dollars per capita. The core of global management strategy is to think and plan how to cope with the development of multi-polarized global economic environments. In order to identify such target markets, multinational enterprises have to realize that these regions are overlapped by multiple cultures, religions, and societies. It is hardly possible now to map world markets based on the simple notion of national borders. A “multi-polarized society” signifies a chaotic state in which different cultures and societies exist both within and across national borders.

  6. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING ACTIVITIES OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES IN CONDITIONS OF INSTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Lyasnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the conceptual basis for the formation of international marketing, the characteristic of the main exit strategies on the world market, revealed features of international marketing that national companies are obliged to take into account the examples of international marketing strategies of international companies such as Apple, Google, Nike, the Russian company Natura Siberica.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the international marketing activities of multinational companies and the development of proposals for improving this process.Methodology. To complete this article, no such analysis methods were used as comparative and Economics and Statistics.Conclusions / relevance. The results are of practical value, they can be used in a lecture course teachers of educational institutions in the preparation of managers, as well as direct marketing specialists. In the study, the author was able to draw a number of conclusions that facilitate the development of the set of eff ective combinations, each of which represents a unique scenario of territorial expansion. Promising further expansion of the practice of implementation of marketing approaches in the organization of the entities of multinational companies, in Vol. H. The use of new technologies.

  7. Effects of Rosuvastatin Calcium on insulin resistance of the flying personnel with metabolic syndrome%瑞舒伐他汀钙对飞行人员代谢综合征患者胰岛素抵抗的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷会利; 刘红巾

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of Rosuvastatin Calcium on insulin resistance (IR) in the flying personnel with metabolic syndrome (MS).Methods Sixty-five cases of flying personnel with metabolic syndrome were assigned to group A (32 cases) and group B (33 cases) according to double blind and control method.Group A was administered with Rosuvastatin Calcium (10 mg/d) while group B was ingested by placebo (10 mg/d) with dinner.Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and drug adverse reactions of 2 groups were observed and compared before and 4 weeks after the treatment.Results There was no significant difference in the level of HOMA-IR,fasting insulin (FINS) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) between group A and group B before treatment (P>0.05).After 4-week treatment,HOMA-IR,FINS and FBG of group A was significantly lower than that of group B (t=2.895-3.231,P<0.01).But there was no significant difference in body mass index (BMI) (P> 0.05).There was significant difference of HOMA-IR,FBG in each group after treatment (t=4.228-8.846,P<0.05) and no significant difference in BMI (P>0.05).FINS and FBG were positively correlated with HOMA IR (r=0.436-0.982,P<0.05),but BMI had no correlation with HOMA-IR (P>0.05).Flying personnel of group A and group B were well tolerated to the treatments of Rosuvastatin Calcium.Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase,creatinine and creatine kinase had no significant difference by the treatment (P>0.05).Conclusions Rosuvastatin Calcium could improve IR in the flying personnel with MS.It is suggested that healthy lifestyle should be build and Rosuvastatin Calcium would be taken for the flying personnel with MS to effectively improve their IR if necessary.%目的 探讨瑞舒伐他汀钙对飞行人员代谢综合征(metabolic syndrome,MS)患者胰岛素抵抗(insulin resistance,IR)的影响. 方法 飞行人员代谢综合征患者65例,按照双盲和对照的方法分为A组(32例)、B组(33

  8. Use of rosuvastatin to treat protease inhibitor-associated hypercholesterolaemia in a HIV-infected patient at high risk of cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Calza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rosuvastatin represents one of the latest inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase introduced in clinical practice for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia. In comparative trials, across dose ranges this statin reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol significantly more than atorvastatin, simvastatin, and pravastatin, and triglycerides significantly more than simvastatin and pravastatin. In healthy subjects with normal LDL cholesterol and elevated C-reactive protein, rosuvastatin treatment produced a significant decrease in the incidence of cardiovascular events.Its chemical and pharmacokinetic properties suggest a very limited penetration in extrahepatic tissues with a lower risk of muscle toxicity and metabolically mediated drug-drug interactions, suggesting a low risk of pharmacokinetic interactions with antiretroviral drugs in patients with HIV infection. We describe a case of protease inhibitor-associated hypercholesterolaemia in a male HIV-infected patient with high cardiovascular risk. Treatment with rosuvastatin leaded to a significant reduction in total and LDL cholesterol levels, with a good tolerability profile after 15 months of follow-up.

  9. Multinational outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis infection during an international youth ice hockey competition in Riga, Latvia, preliminary report, March and April 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesola, A K; Parn, T; Huusko, S; Perevosčikovs, J; Ollgren, J; Salmenlinna, S; Lienemann, T; Gossner, C; Danielsson, N; Rimhanen-Finne, R

    2015-05-21

    A multinational outbreak of salmonellosis linked to the Riga Cup 2015 junior ice-hockey competition was detected by the Finnish health authorities in mid-April and immediately notified at the European Union level. This prompted an international outbreak investigation supported by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. As of 8 May 2015, seven countries have reported 214 confirmed and suspected cases, among which 122 from Finland. The search for the source of the outbreak is ongoing.

  10. An Exploratory Investigation of Locally Constituted Challenges to Communication Management in Multinational Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Jonassson, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    It has been argued that multinational teams create a number of competitive advantages when used strategically. However, multinational teams are not always successful, and a number of studies indicate that communication between team members may be the main obstacle. The purpose of this article...... is to investigate communication problems in organizations consisting of multinational teams. It is argued that researchers should not only look for differences in national culture when analyzing barriers to the communication flow. Challenges to communication may also develop in the locally constituted...

  11. An Exploratory Investigation of Locally Constituted Challenges to Communication Management in Multinational Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Jonassson, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    is to investigate communication problems in organizations consisting of multinational teams. It is argued that researchers should not only look for differences in national culture when analyzing barriers to the communication flow. Challenges to communication may also develop in the locally constituted......It has been argued that multinational teams create a number of competitive advantages when used strategically. However, multinational teams are not always successful, and a number of studies indicate that communication between team members may be the main obstacle. The purpose of this article...

  12. Organizational culture and human resources management in multinational companies under the conditions of intercultural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetráková Milota

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the opinion and experiences of professionals on specifics of human resources management and organizational culture forming in multinational companies. The theoretical knowledge is in confrontation with the results of sociological questioning in the form of structured interviews with managers of multinational companies branches in Slovakia. The starting point of the research was hypothesis about respecting national culture specifics in culture of multinational company culture. We can proof this hypothesis by research; the majority of companies apply transnational and polycentric approach to create local branch culture.

  13. Level of Harmonization and ERP Architecture in Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Fatemeh; Møller, Charles

    2013-01-01

    multinational corporations. The ERP distribution decision in MNCs has been mainly associated with the corporate strategy and governance structure. As global ERP deployment benefits mainly come from business consolidation, and as there are significant costs and risks associated with centralized ERP......While one-site, one-instance implementation was the common practice during the infancy of ERP systems, the growing business trend towards globalization and the advancement of ERP and telecommunication technology have increased the popularity of centralized single-instance ERP systems among...... implementations, this paper investigates the influence of level of harmonization in the choice of ERP architecture in MNCs. Though the findings indicate a negative relation between the level of harmonization and a centralized ERP systems’ effectiveness, the study identifies the choice of ERP architecture...

  14. Multinational Channel Strategy and Customer Value in an Emerging Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick O. Aila, Hazel Mumbo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of multinational channel strategy on customer value by assessing customer demand side issues. It assess the relationship between order cycle time, stock availability and sales to describe the impact of distribution strategy on customer value. The study was carried in locations comprised of Equator Bottlers Limited franchise territory within five districts in Western Kenya. A cross-section survey using a structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was prepared for analysis by editing, coding, categorizing and analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Majority of distributors were found to be located within the major urban areas of Kisumu and Kericho as a result of proximity to the plant and high rates of consumption. In order to increase the value offered to customers, there is need to reduce order cycle times to the bare minimum of one day for stock replenishment.

  15. Multinationals, Cross-border Acquisitions and Wage Dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heyman, Fredrik; Sjöholm, Fredrik; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of cross-border acquisitions on intra-firm wage dispersion using a detailed Swedish linked employer-employee data set including data on all firms and about 50% of the Swedish labour force with information on job-tasks and education. Foreign acquisitions of domestic multinati......We examine the impact of cross-border acquisitions on intra-firm wage dispersion using a detailed Swedish linked employer-employee data set including data on all firms and about 50% of the Swedish labour force with information on job-tasks and education. Foreign acquisitions of domestic...... multinationals and local firms increase wage dispersion but so do also other types of cross-border acquisitions. Hence, it is the acquisition itself rather than foreign ownership that increases wage dispersion. The positive wage effect is concentrated to CEOs and other managers, whereas other groups are either...

  16. Antecedents of work engagement in a multinational oil company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL Olivier

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the antecedents of work engagement. Stratified random samples (N=171 were taken of employees in a multinational oil company. The Work Engagement Scale and the Work Experiences Scale were administered. The results confirmed that psychological meaningfulness and psychological availability were significant predictors of work engagement. Psychological meaningfulness displayed the strongest positive relationship with engagement. The relationship of co-worker relations and work role fit with work engagement was mediated by the psychological condition of meaningfulness. Cognitive, emotional and physical resources had the strongest effect on psychological availability. Co-worker relations and co-worker norms predicted psychological safety. The relationship between resources and work engagement was mediated by the psychological condition of availability.

  17. Coordinating medical civil military operations in Multinational Division-North.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrski, John A; Rainey, McKinley; Roach, Shane; Stevens, Mark; Hernandez, Gloria; Vargo, Ruth

    2010-11-01

    Medical civil military operations (MCMO) are part of military civil capacity-building efforts within the full spectrum of military operations, from war to military operations other than war. In 2008-2009 during Operation Iraqi Freedom, the Division Surgeon's Section (DSS) of the 25th Infantry Division (25ID) and Multinational Division-North developed an innovative MCMO program in northern Iraq. The program centered on understanding and mapping key relationships, empowering brigade-level programs, and leveraging technology to identify and share best practices. The DSS mapped the critical relationships within and between the three entities affecting MCMO: the government of Iraq (GOI), Department of State (DOS), and the Department of Defense (DOD). A division MCMO working group was then created along with processes to facilitate MCMO project execution and program management. The structure and organization of the 25ID MCMO program lend themselves to other operational environments requiring synchronization of medical capacity-building efforts.

  18. Vertical spillovers from multinational enterprises: Does technological gap matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pittiglio Rosanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI from Multinational enterprises (MNEs can augment the productivity of domestic firms insofar as knowledge “spills over” from foreign investors to local producers. The capacity of local companies to exploit knowledge from MNEs can be affected by the technology gap between foreign and local enterprises at both horizontal (in the same industry and vertical (in different industries level. Whereas most of the empirical literature has focused exclusively on the analysis of horizontal and backward spillovers (i.e. between MNEs and local suppliers, the present paper also examines the relationship between FDI-related spillovers and technological gap in the Italian manufacturing sector at forward level (i.e. between MNEs and local buyers. Results suggest that at both intra-industry and forward level, the technological gap is of considerable importance for the spillover effect, particularly in the case of low-medium gap.

  19. ANALYSIS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS ENGAGED BY JAPANESE MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODRUŢA DURA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the most visible feature of globalization was the new trend of the capital flow which moves from the stage of nternalization to the stage of transnationalization. The decisive factor that led to this development was the trans-nationalization of production/ distribution networks by multinational companies (MNCs. MNCs, which are also frequently referred to as transnational corporations (TNCs, are conglomerate organizations which carry out multiple and diverse economic activities and they consists of a parent company and a large number of subsidiaries operating in various countries of the world. Japan has been worthy of note on the international business scene not only by the high competitiveness of its companies on the global markets, but especially through the transnationalization of the activities of these enterprises, a process which has resulted in the implementation, via Foreign Direct Investments (FDI of Japanese production units abroad, with significant positive impact both on the global economy and on the domestic economy. A great number of empirical studies since the mid-1990s, using firm-level data, have shown that multinational companies (MNCs dominate today the Japanese business environment. The paper puts together the findings of some interesting working papers published by Japanese researchers in recent years, trying to provide a scientific answer to the following question: “In what way do FDI undertaken by MNCs influence the level of performances achieved by Japanese companies at home?” The conclusion is that FDI and the activity carried out by Japanese MNCs abroad have indubitable positive effects on both countries and firms involved - such as raises in production, employment and productivity at firms’ level or increases in competition intensity among firms, improvements in real wage and welfare at macroeconomic level.

  20. Impact of Rosuvastatin Treatment on HDL-Induced PKC-βII and eNOS Phosphorylation in Endothelial Cells and Its Relation to Flow-Mediated Dilatation in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephraim B. Winzer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endothelial function is impaired in chronic heart failure (CHF. Statins upregulate endothelial NO synthase (eNOS and improve endothelial function. Recent studies demonstrated that HDL stimulates NO production due to eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177, dephosphorylation at Thr495, and diminished phosphorylation of PKC-βII at Ser660. The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of rosuvastatin on HDL mediated eNOS and PKC-βII phosphorylation and its relation to endothelial function. Methods. 18 CHF patients were randomized to 12 weeks of rosuvastatin or placebo. At baseline, 12 weeks, and 4 weeks after treatment cessation we determined lipid levels and isolated HDL. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC were incubated with isolated HDL and phosphorylation of eNOS and PKC-βII was evaluated. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD was measured at the radial artery. Results. Rosuvastatin improved FMD significantly. This effect was blunted after treatment cessation. LDL plasma levels were reduced after rosuvastatin treatment whereas drug withdrawal resulted in significant increase. HDL levels remained unaffected. Incubation of HAEC with HDL had no impact on phosphorylation of eNOS or PKC-βII. Conclusion. HDL mediated eNOS and PKC-βII phosphorylation levels in endothelial cells do not change with rosuvastatin in CHF patients and do not mediate the marked improvement in endothelial function.

  1. Role of the multinational corporations in Nigeria's development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okonkwo, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    A dominant characteristic of the decades immediately following World War II is the evolution of the multinational corporation. This evolution necessitated a change in the perspective of the international companies. The survival of the multinational corporations depended on its world profit perspective. Initially, the European countries provided the American multinational with world trade avenues while the European multinationals established subsidiaries in Africa. Recently, both the American and the European subsidiares have become interested in Nigeria because of its prospect as a potential market in Africa. The major objective of the research is to inquire about executive judgements and decision criteria for marketing mix considerations and decisions. Also because of the uniqueness of Nigeria from the Western World in terms of its socio-cultural, legal, economic and political environments,executive decision criteria in the area of manufacturing was also investigated.

  2. Productivity Effects of United States Multinational Enterprises : The Roles of Market Orientation and Regional Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Roger; Wei, Yingqi

    2010-01-01

    Smeets R. and Wei Y. Productivity effects of United States multinational enterprises: the roles of market orientation and regional integration, Regional Studies. This paper considers the role of market orientation and regional integration in foreign direct investment (FDI) productivity effects.

  3. Knowledge protection strategies of multinational firms-A cross-country comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Faria, Pedro; Sofka, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    International knowledge spillovers, especially through multinational companies (MNCs), have recently been a major topic of discussion among academics and practitioners. Most research in this field focuses on knowledge sharing activities of MNC subsidiaries. Relatively little is known about their cap

  4. Applying Influence Diagrams to Support Collective C2 in Multinational Civil-Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    raised in the multinational CIMIC concepts, doctrine and lessons summarised in Appendices A to C are: • A coherent operational approach. A key...several members of the multinational force (such as intelligence gathering by talking with locals) but others may be conducted by one of the coalition...are summarised in the paper  UK  US  Canada  Netherlands Australian Army 2009, Adaptive Campaigning 09: Army’s Future Land Operating Concept

  5. On the growth of foreign affiliates: multinational plant networks, joint ventures, and flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Belderbos, Rene; Zou, J.

    2007-01-01

    We take a flexibility perspective to analyse employment growth in a large sample of Japanese manufacturing affiliates in nine Asian countries during the years leading up to and into the Asian financial crisis (1995–1999). We find that joint ventures are less flexible than wholly owned affiliates in responding to changing environmental conditions in the focal country, and underperform in high-growth environments. Multinational enterprises (MNEs) use the flexibility created by their multination...

  6. Environmental Issues along Supply Chains of Multinational Organizations: The case of "The Coca-Cola Company"

    OpenAIRE

    Guttensohn, Andreas Josef

    2010-01-01

    I am looking at how CSR is embedded into organizations and governance processes, particularly in the multinational supply chain context. I previously did some work on Coca-Cola’s commitment to sustainable development and its commitment to achieve water neutrality. In my management project I would like to draw upon my original findings and extend them in 2 ways: Transference of issues across different national business systems in a multinational organization Analyze Coca-Cola...

  7. Transforming for Multinational Operations: A Study of the National Army of Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision...Riedel, RTO-TR-HFM-120, Multinational Military Operations and Intercultural Factors, November 2008, https://www.cso.nato.int/pubs/rdp.asp?RDP=RTO-TR...L. Riedel. RTO-TR-HFM-120, Multinational Military Operations and Intercultural Factors, November 2008. https://www.cso.nato.int/pubs/rdp.asp?RDP=RTO

  8. Rosuvastatin for Primary Prevention in Older Persons With Elevated C-Reactive Protein and Low to Average Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels: Exploratory Analysis of a Randomized Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glynn, R.J.; Koenig, W.; Nordestgaard, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Randomized data on statins for primary prevention in older persons are limited, and the relative hazard of cardiovascular disease associated with an elevated cholesterol level weakens with advancing age. Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin in persons 70 years......: The 32% of trial participants 70 years or older accrued 49% (n = 194) of the 393 confirmed primary end points. The rates of the primary end point in this age group were 1.22 and 1.99 per 100 person-years of follow-up in the rosuvastatin and placebo groups, respectively ( hazard ratio, 0.61 [95% CI, 0...... greater in older persons. The relative rate of any serious adverse event among older persons in the rosuvastatin versus placebo group was 1.05 ( CI, 0.93 to 1.17). Limitation: Effect estimates from this exploratory analysis with age cut-point chosen after trial completion should be viewed in the context...

  9. Development Mode Transformation of Multinational Petroleum Companies and Its Enlightenment%跨国石油公司发展模式转型及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗佐县

    2016-01-01

    通过分析五大跨国石油公司的经营数据发现,石油公司在低油价下油气产量保持稳定,但投资回报率下降,利润增长点转移。总结了跨国石油公司应对业绩下滑的主要举措,主要有控制投资总量,加大科技研发力度,重视资产优化组合以及强化风险管理等。并根据跨国石油公司对未来国际油价走势的不乐观预期,以及油价低位运行期间公司应对措施的特点,归纳出跨国石油公司在油价波动下的转型模式形成及其对国内石油公司改革发展的启示。%Based on the analysis of operating data for five major multinational petroleum companies, the article discovers that, under low oil price, petroleum companies' oil and gas production remains stable, but ROI reduces and profit growth point transfers. The article concludes main measures for multinational petroleum companies to cope with performance decline, mainly including controlling total investment, enlarging the strength of R&D, attaching great importance to portfolio and strengthening risk management. Based on a dim anticipation of future international oil price made by multinational petroleum companies, as well as the characteristics of countermeasures taken by the companies during oil price running in low position, it also induces transformational mode formation for multinational petroleum companies under oil price fluctuation as well as its enlightenment to reform and development of domestic petroleum companies.

  10. Combination treatment of rosuvastatin or atorvastatin, with regular exercise improves arterial wall stiffness in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke Toyama

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Statin- and exercise-therapy are both clinically beneficial by preventing cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. However, there is no information on the vascular effects of the combination of statins and exercise on arterial wall stiffness in CAD patients. METHODS: The present study is a sub-analysis of PRESET study that determined the effects of 20-week treatment with statins (rosuvastatin, n=14, atorvastatin, n=14 combined with regular exercise on arterial wall stiffness assessed by measurement of brachial and ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV in CAD patients. RESULTS: The combination of statins and regular exercise significantly improved exercise capacity, lipid profile, including low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, baPWV (baseline: 1747 ± 355, at 20 weeks of treatment: 1627 ± 271 cm/s, p=0.008, and basophil count (baseline: 42 ± 32, 20 weeks: 26 ± 15 cells/µL, p=0.007, but had no effect on blood pressure (baseline: 125 ± 22, 20 weeks: 121 ± 16 mmHg. Changes in baPWV correlated significantly with changes in basophil count (r=0.488, p=0.008, but not with age, lipids profile, exercise capacity, or hs-CRP. CONCLUSION: In CAD patients, the combination treatment with statins and exercise resulted in significant amelioration of arterial wall stiffness, at least in part, through reduction of circulating basophils.

  11. Analysis of the Impact of Rosuvastatin on Bacterial Mevalonate Production Using a UPLC-Mass Spectrometry Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, J A; Kinsella, M; Hill, C; Joyce, S A; Gahan, C G M

    2016-07-01

    Statins are widely prescribed cholesterol-lowering medications and act through inhibition of the human enzyme 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-R) which produces mevalonate (MVAL), a key substrate for cholesterol biosynthesis. Some important microbial species also express an isoform of HMG-R; however, the nature of the interaction between statins and bacteria is currently unclear and studies would benefit from protocols to quantify MVAL in complex microbial environments. The objective of this study was to develop a protocol for the analytical quantification of MVAL in bacterial systems and to utilise this approach to analyse the effects of Rosuvastatin (RSV) on bacterial MVAL formation. To determine the effective concentration range of RSV, we examined the dose-dependent inhibition of growth in the HMG-R(+) bacterial pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium at various concentrations of pure RSV. Growth inhibition generally correlated with a reduction in bacterial MVAL levels, particularly in culture supernatants at high RSV concentrations, as determined using our ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry protocol. This work therefore outlines a refined protocol for the analysis of MVAL in microbial cultures and provides evidence for statin-mediated inhibition of bacterial HMG-R. Furthermore, we show that MVAL is readily transported and secreted from bacterial cells into the growth media.

  12. 瑞舒伐他汀联合依折麦布治疗冠心病伴早期糖尿病肾病疗效观察%Therapeutic effects of rosuvastatin combined with ezetimibe on coronary heart disease complicated by early diabetic nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海燕; 杨圣俊; 王志爽; 徐素芝; 赵勇军; 李军伟; 张玉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effects of rosuvastatin combined with ezetimibe on coronary heart disease complicated by early diabetic nephropathy in order to look for more effective therapy to prevent the pathogenesis of acute cardiovascular events and end-stage nephropathy. Methods Eighty patients with stable angina pectoris complicated by early diabetic nephropathy diagnosed in Hebei Province Geriatric Hospital from July 2013 to January 2014 were enrolled in the study,including 42 male patients and 38 female patients,whose age was over 60 years and whose blood sugar was controlled effectively,without blood relationship each other. There patients were randomly divided into observation group and control group,with 40 patients in each group. On the basis of routine therapy,the patients in control group were treated by rosuvastatin 10mg/ d,however,the patients in observation group,on the basis of routine therapy,were treated by rosuvastatin 10mg/ d +ezetimibe 10mg/ d. Results After 12-week treatment,the levels of LDL in observation group were significantly decreased,as compared with those in control group( P 0. 05). Conclusion In the treatment of coronary heart disease complicated by early diabetic nephropathy,the combined application of rosuvastatin with ezetimibe can significantly reduce the frequency and duration of angina pectoris attacks,and can promote the improvement of myocardial ischemia,at the same time,can decrease microalbuminuria and reduce more effectively the levels of LDL and TC,without increasing the incidence of adverse events,with better safety.%目的:本研究通过瑞舒伐他汀联合依折麦布治疗冠心病伴早期糖尿病肾病,以寻找冠心病伴早期糖尿病肾病更好的治疗方法,预防急性心血管事件及终末期肾病的发生。方法选择2013年7月至2014年1月河北省老年病医院明确诊断为血糖控制良好的稳定型心绞痛合并早期糖尿病肾病患者80例。男42例,女38

  13. 瑞舒伐他汀联合尼麦角林对颈动脉狭窄后认知障碍的治疗效果%Clinical effect of rosuvastatin combined with nicergoline in the treatment of cognitive impairment after carotid stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马立华

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨瑞舒伐他汀联合尼麦角林在治疗颈动脉狭窄后认知障碍的临床效果.方法:选取颈动脉狭窄后认知障碍患者108例,按数字表法分为观察组55例和对照组53例.对照组仅予尼麦角林,观察组予瑞舒伐他汀联合尼麦角林,应用简易智能状态检查表(MMSE)和日常生活活动能力量表(ADL)评价2组患者的认知和活动能力,比较2种治疗方法的临床疗效.结果:2组患者治疗前MMSE和ADL评分差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);2组患者治疗后MMSE和ADL评分均较治疗前明显改善(P0. 05),the MMSE and ADL scores in two groups were significantly improved(P<0. 01) and the increasing degree of the MMSE and ADL scores in observation group were significantly higher than those in control group after treatment(P<0. 01). The clinical total effective rate in observation group(96. 36%) was significantly better than that in control group(79. 25%)(P<0. 01). Conclusions:The treatment of cognitive impairment after carotid stenosis with rosuvastatin combined with nicergoline can effectively improve the cognitive function and activities of daily living. The treatment effects of rosuvastatin combined with nicergoline is significantly better than that of nicergoline, which is worthy of application in clinical.

  14. Primary prevention of coronary heart disease: integration of new data, evolving views, revised goals, and role of rosuvastatin in management. A comprehensive survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kones R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Richard KonesThe Cardiometabolic Research Institute, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: A recent explosion in the amount of cardiovascular risk and incipient, undetected subclinical cardiovascular pathology has swept across the globe. Nearly 70% of adult Americans are overweight or obese; the prevalence of visceral obesity stands at 53% and continues to rise. At any one time, 55% of the population is on a weight-loss diet, and almost all fail. Fewer than 15% of adults or children exercise sufficiently, and over 60% engage in no vigorous activity. Among adults, 11%–13% have diabetes, 34% have hypertension, 36% have prehypertension, 36% have prediabetes, 12% have both prediabetes and prehypertension, and 15% of the population with either diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidemia are undiagnosed. About one-third of the adult population, and 80% of the obese, have fatty livers. With 34% of children overweight or obese, prevalence having doubled in just a few years, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and fatty livers in children are at their highest levels ever. Half of adults have at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Not even 1% of the population attains ideal cardiovascular health. Despite falling coronary death rates for decades, coronary heart disease (CHD death rates in US women 35 to 54 years of age may now be increasing because of the obesity epidemic. Up to 65% of patients do not have their conventional risk biomarkers under control. Only 30% of high risk patients with CHD achieve aggressive low density lipoprotein (LDL targets. Of those patients with multiple risk factors, fewer than 10% have all of them adequately controlled. Even when patients are titrated to evidence-based targets, about 70% of cardiac events remain unaddressed. Undertreatment is also common. About two-thirds of high risk primary care patients are not taking needed medications for dyslipidemia. Poor patient adherence, typically below 50%, adds further difficulty

  15. A REVIEW OF COLLABORATIVE INNOVATION PERFORMANCE WITHIN MULTINATIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan SERGHIE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many organizations make collaborative learning with other entities an integral part of their business. But leaders must measure the performance of innovation. Declaring a collaborative and innovative perspective in the mission and vision of a company is not sufficient. It is necessary to measure the process and results to justify investments in research and development and ensure continuity of the company's success. Over the years, researchers proposed various models for measuring the performance of collaborative innovation within companies. The purpose of this article is to review the existing literature on collaborative innovation network in order to identify the main approach used for measuring its performance. As many studies show, notable results were obtained in the case of multinational corporations (MNCs. MNCs are seen as the main vehicle for innovation. They are the first who developed international network of collaborative innovation based on research and development expenses. As a result, we first focus on the motives for which MNCs are considered the main developers of these networks. Furthermore we discuss the existing literature for measuring performance of collaborative innovation networks and, at last, we develop a model for evaluating collaborative innovation performance based on previous research.

  16. Multiculturalism and Multi-nation Federalism. New challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Kymlicka

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Thank you for the kind introduction and for the very clear summary of the arguments of Multicultural Citizenship. So I thought I’d just mention a couple of the ideas that I’ve been working with more recently. The first concerns this. There are two main types of groups that I’ve been thinking of - immigrant groups and national minorities. What kinds of rights are appropriate for these two different types of groups. I discuss this in the book. I’ve been thinking a little bit just about trying to be more precise about the types of institutions and policies that are appropriate for these two kinds of groups and I’ve changed the terminology a bit. I would now talk about these in terms of immigrant multiculturalism for immigrant groups and multi-nation federalism for national minorities. So let me just say that I hope it’s not dramatically different from what’s in the book but let me just clarify what I mean by those terms, because I will use them.

  17. TOWARDS A GERMAN LANGUAGE FRAMEWORK FOR MALAYSIABASED MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES (MNCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Waltraud Brigitte Mayr

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The aim of this study is to introduce an approach to managing business communication based on the German language needs of employees in multinational companies in Malaysia and the expectations of employers in the teaching of German in their companies. As additional variables, training for sustainable development (ESD and for maximizing the mutual understanding in personal interactions is included. Design / methodology / approach – This paper is reflecting on the spectrum of ideas about the teaching of German in German companies in Malaysia that was obtained through the author’s earlier target situation analysis in MNCs in Malaysia. In addition to a variety of methods that is incorporated to engage students in the learning process, a ‘meaning negotiation’ approach is applied in order to deal with the intercultural communication practices. Results - The paper outlines a set of topics and strategies that can assist employees in intercultural interaction contexts in a German Malaysia-based company. It draws them together into a conceptual framework of required skills in a German beginner class. Originality / Benefits - This study contributes to the current issues concerning the German mediation requirements in the management field.

  18. Management Strategies in Multinational PricewaterhouseCoopers Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norina Popovici

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and analyzes the key strategies that underpin multinational firms acting in this global environment. The paper underlines the importance of strategy, in the current economic context, for a complex company such as PriceWaterhouse Coopers. After a laborious documentation, theoretical and practical, the paper presents the main strategic options which ensure the business development in the context of globalization. Due to complexity of work carried out by PricewaterhouseCoopers, due to a developed organizational structure and the large number of employees , the need for the strategy is " vital " for achieve the desired performance . In the past 10 years, PriceWaterhouse Coopers turned its global work on expanding the network size and diversity of services offered. Challenges and opportunities of today require a new strategic vision. Therefore, PriceWaterhouse Coopers calls for integrating the concept of sustainability as a management philosophy. In this context, which shapes the economy based on knowledge, management is a science which, through instruments such as corporate social responsibility, coaching procces, attracting talents, can help businesses to develop, diversify or to survive. The research of this company that led to the application of these tools work in Romanian companies, depending on the particular circumstances.

  19. American Multinational Media and the Expansion of American Mass Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茜

    2011-01-01

    With the development of globalization and gradual intensification of mutual dependence of the world,"hard power" which indudes economic and military strength is no longer the primary consideration for many countries.They tend to pay more attention to the attractiveness of their "soft power",which includes values,life style,ideology and so forth.Just as Joseph S.Ny,the famous professor of Harvard who puts forward the concept of soft power,says,"only by widespread communication and diffusion can a country reinforces its soft power".This is mass media's function.Since the 1990s,tens of thousands cultural products brought in from America are exported to foreign countries,including popular music,films,TV programs,magazines,books and so forth.By making advantage of its monopoly position in media circle,the United States pursues cultural hegemonism and expands its popttlar culture all over the world.This thesis takes a general view of the great advantages of America multi-national media groups and how they push forward the American popular culture all over the world.

  20. A REVIEW OF COLLABORATIVE INNOVATION PERFORMANCE WITHIN MULTINATIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan SERGHIE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many organizations make collaborative learning with other entities an integral part of their business. But leaders must measure the performance of innovation. Declaring a collaborative and innovative perspective in the mission and vision of a company is not sufficient. It is necessary to measure the process and results to justify investments in research and development and ensure continuity of the company's success. Over the years, researchers proposed various models for measuring the performance of collaborative innovation within companies. The purpose of this article is to review the existing literature on collaborative innovation network in order to identify the main approach used for measuring its performance. As many studies show, notable results were obtained in the case of multinational corporations (MNCs. MNCs are seen as the main vehicle for innovation. They are the first who developed international network of collaborative innovation based on research and development expenses. As a result, we first focus on the motives for which MNCs are considered the main developers of these networks. Furthermore we discuss the existing literature for measuring performance of collaborative innovation networks and, at last, we develop a model for evaluating collaborative innovation performance based on previous research.

  1. Stimulating Sustainability in Multinational Companies: the Significance of Regional Headquarters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas G. M. NACHBAGAUER

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, regional headquarters have gained practical importance and theoretical attention. Traditionally considered a mere transmission facility to manage complex organisations, advanced approaches, however, locate regional headquarters in a field of tension between hierarchical integration and strategic independence. Given the growing concern for global responsibility, stimulating sustainability also and particularly addresses regional headquarters. This conceptual article combines the call for sustainability with the upcoming importance of regional headquarters: which contributions can the regional headquarters of a multinational company deliver to stimulate the development of sustainable corporate strategy and operations? The main topics are the effects different versions of embedding regional headquarters into the corporate context have on opportunities to implement sustainability policies: Are there different chances for successful implementation depending on the strategic setup of the company? Does the distribution of competences matter? Which types of interaction between headquarters and branch are suitable to introduce sustainability sustainably? Is the mix of national contexts of headquarters and branch of importance? First results show that depending on the companywide strategy, and especially on the structure and distribution of competences, regional headquarters can play a significant role as trigger of sustainability. The literature favours strong involvement and large autonomy of both branches as well as regional headquarters for the development and management of sustainability. The parts of the company involved in a critical environment often are the starting point of sustainability policies.

  2. Effect of high-dose rosuvastatin loading before percutaneous coronary intervention in Chinese patients with acute coronary syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qiang; Guo, Wenqin; Dai, Weiran; Li, Hongqing; Yang, Huafeng; Li, Lang

    2017-01-01

    Background Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is an important disease threatening human life and health. Many studies have shown that the loading dose of atorvastatin can significantly improve the prognosis of patients with ACS, and reduce the mortality. However, this conclusion is not consistent. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effect of high-dose rosuvastatin loading before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in Chinese patients with ACS using a meta-analysis based on a systematic review of published articles. Methods We systematically reviewed published studies, evaluating the effect of high-dose rosuvastatin loading before percutaneous coronary intervention in Chinese patients with ACS. The retrieval time is limited from inception to 2 November 2016, and the retrieved databases included PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI, the VIP database and the Wang Fang database. Two researchers independently assessed the quality of the included studies and then extracted the data. Stata 11.0 was used for data analysis. Results In total, 11 articles, which included 802 patients, were included in our meta-analysis. Among these patients, 398 patients were in the high-dose group (20 mg/day) and 404 patients were in the conventional dose group (10 mg/day). Meta-analysis results showed that compared with the conventional dose group: 1) The loading dose of rosuvastatin can significantly reduce the hs-CRP level after PCI, including at 24 hours (SMD = -0.65, 95%CI -0.84 ~ -0.47, P = 0.000), 48 hours (SMD = -0.40, 95%CI -0.68 ~ -0.11, P = 0.006), and four weeks (SMD = -1.64, 95%CI -2.01 ~ -1.26, P = 0.000). 2) The loading dose of rosuvastatin can significantly reduce the levels of LDL-C and cTnT, including the level of LDL-C at 30 d after PCI (SMD = -0.89, 95%CI -1.10 ~ -0.69, P = 0.000), and the level of cTnT at 24 h after PCI (SMD = -1.93, 95%CI -2.28 ~ -1.59, P = 0.000), and increase the level of HDL-C at 48 h after PCI (SMD = 0.61, 95%CI 0.34 ~ 0.88, P

  3. Switching from atorvastatin to rosuvastatin lowers small, dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Japanese hypercholesterolemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Yukihiro; Toyama, Hitomi; Kanehara, Hideo; Hisada, Azusa; Okafuji, Kazuhiro; Toya, Daisyu; Tanaka, Nobuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    This open-label, randomized, parallel-group comparative study compared the efficacy of rosuvastatin (5mg/day) and atorvastatin (10mg/day) for reduction of small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sd LDL-C) levels in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with T2DM and hypercholesterolemia with detectable sd LDL-C after receiving 10mg/day atorvastatin for ≥ 24 weeks were randomly assigned to receive rosuvastatin (5mg/day; switched treatment) or atorvastatin (10mg/day; continued treatment) for 12 weeks. The primary endpoints were changes in sd LDL-C levels and sd LDL-C/total LDL-C ratio evaluated using the LipoPhor AS(®) system. There were no significant percent changes from baseline for LDL-C levels between the switched (n=55) and the continued treatment group (n=56). However, the former group exhibited a statistically significant reduction from baseline of sd LDL-C levels, sd LDL-C/total LDL-C ratio compared with the latter group (-3.8 mg/dL vs. -1.4 mg/dL, p=0.014; -2.3% vs. -0.6%, p=0.004, respectively). Multiple regression analysis among all subjects revealed that independent factors contributing to the reduction in sd LDL-C levels were a change in LDL-C (p=0.003) and triglyceride (TG) levels (p=0.006), treatment group (the switched group=1, the continued group=0; standard coefficient=-1.2, p=0.034) and baseline glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (p=0.045), respectively. Switching from 10mg atorvastatin to 5mg rosuvastatin may be a useful therapeutic option to reduce sd LDL-C levels in Japanese hypercholesterolemic patients with T2DM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Extractive Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Rosuvastatin Calcium in Pure Form and in Pharmaceutical Formulations by Using Safranin O and Methylene blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marothu Vamsi Krishna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple extractive Spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of rosuvastatin calcium (RST in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. These methods are based on the formation of ion association complexes of the RST with basic dyes safranin O (Method A and methylene blue (Method B in basic buffer of pH 9.8 followed by their extraction in chloroform. The absorbance of the chloroform layer for each method was measured at its appropriate λmax against the reagent blank. These methods have been statistically evaluated and are found to be precise and accurate.

  5. Extractive Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Rosuvastatin Calcium in Pure Form and in Pharmaceutical Formulations by Using Safranin O and Methylene blue

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Two simple extractive Spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of rosuvastatin calcium (RST) in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. These methods are based on the formation of ion association complexes of the RST with basic dyes safranin O (Method A) and methylene blue (Method B) in basic buffer of pH 9.8 followed by their extraction in chloroform. The absorbance of the chloroform layer for each method was measured at its appropriate λmax against the reagent b...

  6. Lean Manufacturing Implementation for Multinational Companies with Production Subsidiary in Brazil: Development of A Roadmap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Goehnera,

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign multinational companies with a production subsidiary in Brazil are in general recognized as high-level productive companies; however, their productivity potential is mostly not fully achieved. Lean Manufacturing (LM has been proved as a valuable aid to achieve competitiveness in the long run. Regarding the rising importance of successfully implementing LM at multinationals in Brazil and an apparent lack of discussion regarding LM in Brazil this paper aims to propose a comprehensive implementation roadmap, which enables a multinational on a basis of a systematic approach, to achieve an advanced sustainable LM system in a practical manner. The insights of literature and case studies are combined to develop the roadmap. The roadmap was developed so that both companies, those, which have not started yet their journey towards LM, as well as those that have taken already the first steps can use the roadmap. However, the roadmap was built on a broad empirical basis. It should be noticed that it is impossible to consider all factors influencing the LMI at multinationals operating in Brazil in a real world setting. As a result, the roadmap should not be regarded as a ready implementation plan, which has to be strictly followed. Instead, it should be seen as a guideline, which helps a multinational to develop its own, detailed and fitted plan for successfully implementing LM and establishing a learning organization.

  7. Domestic Multinationals and Foreign-Owned Firms in Italy: Evidence from Quantile Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasseni, Mara

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance differences across and within foreign-owned firms and domestic multinationals in Italy. Used for the empirical analysis are non-parametric tests based on the concept of first order stochastic dominance and quantile regression technique. The firm-level analysis distinguishes between foreign-owned firms of different nationalities and domestic MNEs according to the location of their FDI, and it focuses not only on productivity but also on differences in average wages, capital intensity, and financial and non-financial indicators, namely ROS, ROI and debt leverage. Overall, the results provide evidence of remarkable heterogeneity across and within multinationals. In particular, it seems not possible to identify a clear foreign advantage at least in terms of productivity, because foreign-owned firms do not outperform domestic multinationals. Interesting results are obtained when focusing on ROS and ROI, where the profitability gaps change as one moves from the bottom to the top of the conditional distribution. Domestic multinationals investing only in developed countries present higher ROS and ROI compared with the subgroups of foreign-owned firms, but only at the lower quantiles, while at the upper quantiles the advantage seems to favour foreign firms. Finally, in regard to domestic multinationals, there is strong evidence that those active only in less developed countries persistently exhibit the worst performances

  8. The Influence of Multinationality on Determinants of Change in Debt Level: Empirical Evidence from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A. Utama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate whether: (1 the change in debt level is affected by agency problems, the probability of bankruptcy, firm size, and profitability; (2 the change in debt level is affected by multinationality (i.e., multinational corporations (MNCs or domestic corporations (DCs and whether multinationality affects the relationship of agency problems, probability of bankruptcy, size, and profitability to the change in debt level. This study finds that in general, the change in debt level is negatively affected by the probability of bankruptcy and size. Furthermore, the changes in debt level for Indonesian MNCs are negatively affected by the probability of bankruptcy, firm size, and profitability. The negative effects of size and profitability on the change in debt level support the view of the Pecking Order Theory. However, for domestic companies, none of the determinants has a significant effect on the change in debt level. We also find that: (1 only size has a negative influence on the change in debt level when we include all interactive terms in the model; (2 if we include one interactive variable at a time, the probability of bankruptcy, firm size, and profitability have negative influences on the change in debt level; in addition, a positive impact of agency problems on the change in debt level is more pronounced for MNCs compared to DCs. Overall, we conclude that multinationality affects the relationship between agency problems and the change in debt level. Keywords: capital structure; Indonesia leverage; multinational corporations

  9. A Multinational perspective to managing end-of-life electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, M.

    2007-07-01

    This thesis focuses on how multinational electronics manufacturers manage used products in the EU, USA, Japan and China. Managing used or end-of-life products has interesting environmental and commercial implications. Recovering end-of-life products can reduce the environmental effects of disposal, raw material extraction, transport, and production. Whereas the commercial effects include image benefits and savings on raw material costs. Manufacturer involvement in end-of-life management is especially topical in the electronics industry, which is the focus of this thesis. Electronics products, such as TVs and computers, have been targeted with extended producer responsibility (EPR) legislation in different countries across the world. EPR is an environmental policy approach that forces manufacturers to take physical and/or financial responsibility for end-of-life products. The main objective of this dissertation was to increase understanding of how multinational manufacturers manage end-of-life products in the EU, in the USA, and in China and Japan, and the regional and company-specific factors explain their levels of involvement. This study consisted of an inductive 16-case multiple case study. The products and companies included in the study were as follows: Refrigerators (Bosch und Siemens Hausgeraete, Electrolux, Whirlpool); TVs (Samsung, Philips, Hitachi); PCs (Hewlett Packard, NEC, Fujitsu Limited and Fujitsu-Siemens Computers and an anonymous company, Alpha Computers); Mobile phones (Nokia, Motorola, Samsung); Telecommunication network equipment (Nokia, Motorola, Huawei). A manufacturer's level of involvement in end-of-life management can be characterized in terms of the level of organizational capabilities. These capabilities range from none to running a treatment facility and recovering value from own branded products. Levels in between can be characterized by outsourcing end-of-life management to industry-wide schemes, managing contracts for treating

  10. Efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination therapy with olmesartan medoxomil and rosuvastatin in Korean patients with mild to moderate hypertension and dyslipidemia: an 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, factorial-design study (OLSTA-D RCT: OLmesartan rosuvaSTAtin from Daewoong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park JS

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jin-Sun Park,1,* Joon-Han Shin,1,* Taek-Jong Hong,2 Hong-Seog Seo,3 Wan-Joo Shim,4 Sang-Hong Baek,5 Jin-Ok Jeong,6 Youngkeun Ahn,7 Woong-Chol Kang,8 Young-Hak Kim,9 Sang-Hyun Kim,10 Min-Su Hyon,11 Dong-Hoon Choi,12 Chang-Wook Nam,13 Tae-Ho Park,14 Sang-Chol Lee,15 Hyo-Soo Kim16 1Department of Cardiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, 2Division of Cardiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, 3Division of Cardiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, 4Division of Cardiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, 5Cardiovascular Division, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, Seoul, 6Division of Cardiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon, 7Division of Cardiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju, 8Division of Cardiology, Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon, 9Division of Cardiology, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, 10Division of Cardiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, 11Division of Cardiology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, 12Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University Severance Hospital, Seoul, 13Department of Internal Medicine, Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu, 14Division of Cardiology, Dong-A University Hospital, Busan, 15Cardiovascular Imaging Center, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 16Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The pill burden of patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia can result in poor medication compliance. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination (FDC therapy with olmesartan medoxomil (40 mg and rosuvastatin (20 mg in Korean patients with mild to moderate hypertension and dyslipidemia. This multicenter, randomized, double

  11. Quantifying the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a case-control study of mobile phone use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Richardson, Lesley; Armstrong, Bruce K

    2009-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a multinational case-control study of mobile phone use and brain tumor.......To quantitatively assess the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a multinational case-control study of mobile phone use and brain tumor....

  12. Rosuvastatin for Primary Prevention in Older Persons With Elevated C-Reactive Protein and Low to Average Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels: Exploratory Analysis of a Randomized Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glynn, R.J.; Koenig, W.; Nordestgaard, B.G.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Randomized data on statins for primary prevention in older persons are limited, and the relative hazard of cardiovascular disease associated with an elevated cholesterol level weakens with advancing age. Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin in persons 70 years ...

  13. 跨国经营人力资源配置策略选择的影响因素研究%Factors Affecting the Selection of Managerial Models in Human Resources Allocation in Multinational Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗舒哲

    2012-01-01

    针对全球化背景下跨国经营企业人员配置选择时受到的内外部影响因素,进行剖析。梳理了在内部动因和外部环境的双重影响下,跨国经营企业在人员母国化、本土化和全球化配置策略之间进行选择所面临的理念、文化、法律、成本、沟通和控制等方面的利弊。跨国经营企业在综合权衡内外部条件后,应依据其竞争优势选取有利的人力资源配置模式,而这一配置模式会随着跨国经营企业发展进程、跨国经营能力的提升而发展变化。%This paper analyzes the internal and external factors that influence the selection of strategies in allocating human resources in multinational companies.Many multinational companies are confronting difficulties in making decisions on how to allocate human resources.In terms of conceptions,cultures,legal systems,costs,communications,controls,etc.,this paper summarizes the pros and cons in selecting different managerial models between expatriation,localization and globalization.After integrating the internal and external factors,and considering their competitive advantages in multinational operations,many companies will choose favorable allocation models.However,such allocation models will have to be adjusted as multinational companies expand and their multinational operations improve.

  14. Clinical features and viral serologies in children with multiple sclerosis: a multinational observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Brenda; Krupp, Lauren; Kennedy, Julia; Tellier, Raymond; Tenembaum, Silvia; Ness, Jayne; Belman, Anita; Boiko, Alexei; Bykova, Olga; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Mah, Jean K; Stoian, Cristina; Kremenchutzky, Marcelo; Bardini, Maria Rita; Ruggieri, Martino; Rensel, Mary; Hahn, Jin; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Yeh, E Ann; Farrell, Kevin; Freedman, Mark; Iivanainen, Matti; Sevon, Meri; Bhan, Virender; Dilenge, Marie-Emmanuelle; Stephens, Derek; Bar-Or, Amit

    2007-09-01

    The full spectrum of clinical manifestations and outcome, and the potential importance of regional or demographic features or viral triggers in paediatric multiple sclerosis (MS), has yet to be fully characterised. Our aim was to determine some of these characteristics in children with MS. 137 children with MS and 96 control participants matched by age and geographical region were recruited in a multinational study. They underwent structured clinical-demographic interviews, review of academic performance, physical examination, disability assessment (MS patients only), and standardised assays for IgG antibodies directed against Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19, varicella zoster virus, and herpes simplex virus. MS was relapsing-remitting at diagnosis in 136 (99%) children. The first MS attack resembled acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in 22 (16%) of the children, most under 10 years old (mean age 7.4 [SD 4.2] years). Children with ADEM-like presentations were significantly younger than were children with polyfocal (11.2 [4.5] years; por=4.0) developed within 5 years in 15 (13%) of the 120 children for whom EDSS score was available. 23 (17%) had impaired academic performance, which was associated with increasing disease duration (p=0.02). Over 108 (86%) of the children with MS, irrespective of geographical residence, were seropositive for remote EBV infection, compared with only 61 (64%) of matched controls (p=0.025, adjusted for multiple comparisons). Children with MS did not differ from controls in seroprevalence of the other childhood viruses studied, nor with respect to month of birth, sibling number, sibling rank, or exposure to young siblings. Paediatric MS is a relapsing-remitting disease, with presenting features that vary by age at onset. MS in children might be associated with exposure to EBV, suggesting a possible role for EBV in MS pathobiology.

  15. Identification of transformation products of rosuvastatin in water during ZnO photocatalytic degradation through the use of associated LC-QTOF-MS to computational chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalin, Jéferson; Sirtori, Carla; Jank, Louíse; Lima, Martha F S; Livotto, Paolo R; Machado, Tiele C; Lansarin, Marla A; Pizzolato, Tânia M

    2015-12-15

    Rosuvastatin (RST), a synthetic statin, is a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, with a number of pleiotropic properties, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation and cardiac remodelling attenuation. According to IMS Health, rosuvastatin was the third best-selling drug in the United States in 2012. RST was recently found in European effluent samples at a detection frequency of 36%. In this study, we evaluate the identification process of major transformation products (TPs) of RST generated during the heterogeneous photocatalysis process with ZnO. The degradation of the parent molecule and the identification of the main TPs were studied in demineralised water. The TPs were monitored and identified by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS/MS). Ten TPs were tentatively identified and some of them originated from the hydroxylation suffered by the aromatic ring during the initial stages of the process. Structural elucidation of some of the most abundant or persistent TPs was evaluated by computational analysis, which demonstrated that this approach can be used as a tool to help the elucidation of structures of unknown molecules. The analysis of the parameters obtained from ab initio calculations for different isomers showed the most stable structures and, consequently, the most likely to be found.

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Rosuvastatin Versus Atorvastatin%瑞舒伐他汀与阿托伐他汀疗效性及安全性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢聪(综述); 陈航(审校)

    2014-01-01

    阿托伐他汀是目前临床上应用最为广泛的他汀类降脂药,其疗效稳定,临床证据充分。瑞舒伐他汀是目前证实降脂效果最强的他汀类药物,但其安全性一直是心血管医师所关心的问题,现就瑞舒伐他汀与阿托伐他汀之间的疗效性和安全性比较做一综述。%Globaly, atorvastatin is the most commonly used statin .It is known to have reliable results , and has sufficient clinical evi-dence to support its use.Yet, rosuvastatin is the most effective statin for lowering LDL cholesterol levels .However, the safety of rosuvastatin is being questioned by cardiologists .This review will focus on the efficacy and safety of these two statins .

  17. Strategies for competitiveness and sustainability: adaptation of a Brazilian subsidiary of a Swedish multinational corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rita; Wennersten, Ronald; Oliva, Eduardo B L; Leal Filho, Walter

    2009-09-01

    The competitiveness, in terms of macro and micro levels of an enterprise, is often dictated by its capacity to innovate, ability to respond to the needs of the market, and resilience to challenges from competition. This paper reviews the literature on the adaptation of research and development (R&D) units in subsidiaries of multinational corporations. It focuses mainly on the impact of the technological dynamic on sustainability performance of the Brazilian subsidiary of the Swedish multinational Ericsson. Through a conceptual framework, it explores information and communication technologies (ICT) towards a transversal and comprehensive vision of levels of innovation and sustainability.

  18. A Cost-based Explanation of Gradual, Regional Internationalization of Multinationals on Social Networking Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogrebnyakov, Nicolai

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines firm internationalization on social networking sites (SNS). It systematically examines costs faced by an internationalizing firm and how firms react to these costs according to “distance-dependent” (gradual and regional) and “distance-invariant” (born-global) explanations...... of internationalization. Data on 5827 country pages of 240 multinational firms on Facebook, the most popular SNS today, is used. Creating a foreign country-specific Facebook page is considered the SNS equivalent of opening a physical subsidiary in that country. The data show that multinationals exhibit...

  19. Toward a Phase-Model of Global Knowledge Management Systems in Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard; Michailova, Snejina

    2004-01-01

    -outperform competition and becomeleaders of the e-conomy'. Using examples from a number of large multinational companies thispaper proposes a phase model for the development of a global Knowledge Management Systemwith attention to pertinent policy and management issues in each stage.Keywords: Knowledge management system...... Management System. Although many companies have ManagementInformation Systems in place, this is only the first step in a knowledge-based company. Companiesthat understand and actively manage the process of designing, developing and advancing effectiveKMS' are likely to, in the words of Heinrich v. Pierer, `e......, phase-model, multinational corporation, managementactions...

  20. A MULTINATIONAL COMPANY PROBLEM: INFILTRATING INTO THE CLUSTERS TO GAIN COMPETITIVE EDGE IN THE TRADITIONAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat KOC

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with one of the main challenges of the Multinational Companies which they face in the traditional and thus in local markets. Multinational Companies aims to gain competitive advantage through differentiation in terms of their globalization strategy. However, in the local markets where the organic relationship of firms are more designed in local habits, and markets react with stable consumer behaviors, it gets harder to enter into market and drive a competitive edge. This paper aims to understand the reasons of this challenge, the analysis of resistance of traditional markets, successful sample breaking into local market and the strategy around it.

  1. Advancing Understanding on Industrial Relations in Multinational Companies: Key Research Challenges and the INTREPID Contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnigle, Patrick; Valeria, Pulignano; Edwards, Tony

    2015-01-01

    companies using INTREPID (Investigation of Transnationals’ Employment Practices: an International Database) data. Finally, the paper identifies some of the main industrial relations issues that remain to be addressed, in effect charting a form of research agenda for future work using the INTREPID data......This paper has three principal aims. It firstly provides some theoretical background on the key current research issues and challenges in regard to industrial relations in multinational companies. It then presents a concise review of scholarship to date on industrial relations in multinational...

  2. COMPARISON OF SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF ROSUVASTATIN (10 MG AND ATORVASTATIN (20 MG IN CASES OF DYSLIPIDAEMIA OVER SIX WEEKS OF TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To Compare the Safety and Efficacy of Rosuvastatin (10 Mg and Atorvastatin (20 Mg in Cases of Dyslipidaemia Over Six Weeks of Treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS Inclusion Criteria: Both male and female (Excluding Pregnancy above 18 years of age with hypercholesterolaemia, having LDL-C concentration of >159 and, 259 mg/dL and triglyceride concentration of <400 mg/dL, who had failed to have achieved LDL-C goals laid down by the NECP ATP-III guidelines after therapeutic lifestyle change (TLC: HDL-C level: <40 mg/dL for men and, <50 mg/dL for women. 60 cases of dyslipidaemia were selected and 30 were treated with rosuvastatin 10 mg (Study group ‘A’ and 30 of them were treated with atorvastatin 20 mg (study group ‘B’. Exclusion Criteria 1. Use of lipid lowering agents within the past 6 months. 2. Any history of known familial hypercholesterolaemia. 3. Any history of serious or hypersensitivity reactions to other statins. 4. Uncontrolled hypothyroidism; uncontrolled hypertension. 5. Acute liver diseases or hepatic dysfunction. After estimation of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL- cholesterol and LDL-c in a basal state, 30 patients were put on rosuvastatin 10 mg and 30 patients were put on atorvastatin 20 mg daily after night meals. After taking drugs, lipid fractions were re-estimated at the end of 4 weeks and 6 weeks. Clinical examination and questions about occurrence of side effects were carried out at interval of 2 weeks. Present study was conducted in the Department of Medicine and Pathology, of Katihar Medical College, Katihar, B. N. Mandal University, Madhepura; Bihar. Approval of the Institutional Ethical Committee was taken. Study conducted by “Keith C et al (2006” showed 37.1±1.3%, improvement in patients treated with RSV (10 and 38.5±1%, with (ATV 20, (ARIES TRIAL, “Cheng J. W. et al (2004” found 43% improvement in levels of LDL-C, with RSV (10 and “Herregod et al (2008” found that RSV (10

  3. 稳心颗粒联合瑞舒伐他汀治疗不稳定型心绞痛的疗效观察%Clinical observation of Wenxin Granule combined with rosuvastatin in treatment of unstable angina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    库德热提·艾比布拉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of Wenxin Granule combined with rosuvastatin in treatment of unstable angina. Methods Patients (280 cases) with unstable angina in Chest Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region from January 2012 to February 2014 were randomly divided into control and treatment groups, and each group had 140 cases. The patients in the control group were po administered with Rosuvastatin Calcium Tablets on the basis of conventional treatment, 10 mg/time, once daily. The patients in the treatment group were po administered with Wenxin Granule on the basis of the control group, 9 g/time, three times daily. Two groups were treated for 24 weeks. After treatment, the efficacy was evaluated, and the changes of blood rheology indexes such as red blood cells deposited, whole blood viscosity, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP) in two groups were compared. At the same time, unstable angina frequency and duration in the two groups were compared. Results After treatment, the efficacies in the control and treatment groups were 82.14% and 92.86%, respectively, and there was difference between two groups (P < 0.05). After treatment, red blood cells deposited, whole blood viscosity, fibrinogen, and CRP in two groups were significantly reduced, and the difference was statistically significant in the same group (P<0.05). And these indicators in treatment group improved better than those in the control group, with significant differences between two groups (P<0.05). Unstable angina frequency and duration in two groups were significantly lower, and the difference was statistically significant in the same group (P < 0.05). And these indicators in treatment group improved better than those in the control group, with significant differences between two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Wenxin Granule combined with rosuvastatin has good clinical efficacy in treatment of unstable angina, and can significantly reduce blood rheology indexes, also can

  4. CHD 合并高脂血症患者应用瑞舒伐他汀治疗的疗效分析%Therapeutic effects of rosuvastatin on coronary heart disease complicated by hyperlipidemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程艳春

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical efficacy of rosuvastatin in patients with coronary heart disease ( CHD) complicated by hyperlipidemia .Methods Two hundred patients with CHD complicated by hyperlipidemia who were treated in our hospital from June 2012 to June 2014 were randomly divided into trial group and control group ,with 100 patients in each group.The patients in control group were treated by Xuezhikang , however, the patients in trial group were treated by rosuvastatin .After 8-week treatment , the levels of total cholesterol ( TC) , low density lipoprotein cholesterol ( LDL-C) , high density lipoprotein ( HDL ) , highsensitivity C reactive protein ( hs-CRP ) , interleukin-6 ( IL-6 ) , nitric oxide ( NO ) , endothelin-1 (ET-1) and haemorheology indexes including high shear whole blood viscosity , plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, platelet aggregation rate were detected and compared between two groups .Results After treatment the levels of TG , TC, and LDL-C in trial group were significantly lower than those in control group ( P <0.05).The levels of hs-CRP, IL-6, ET-1 in trial group were significantly lower than those in control group , however , the levels of NO were significantly higher than those in control group ( P <0.05).The high shear whole blood viscosity ,plasma viscosity,fibrinogen and platelet aggregation rate in trial group were significantly lower than those in control group ( P <0.05).Conclusion As compared with Xuezhikang , rosuvastatin can effectively reduce the levels of blood lipids and inflammatory factors and can improve blood viscosity and endothelial function of patients with CHD complicated by hyperlipidemia .%目的:研究冠心病(coronary heart disease,CHD)合并高脂血症患者采用瑞舒伐他汀治疗的临床疗效。方法选取CHD合并高脂血症患者共200例,随机分为试验组和对照组,每组100例。对照组予以血脂康治疗,试验组予以瑞舒伐他汀治疗。对比2组患者治疗8周后血

  5. Do ‘New’ Multinationals Behave Differently from ‘Old’ Multinationals? --- An Examination of Internationalization of Sinopec Group and Royal Dutch Shell

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Jiamin

    2011-01-01

    Internationalization of firms has become a prominent phenomenon following the ever deepening process of economic globalization. The emergence of new multinational enterprises (MNEs) in particular has significantly reshaped the international business landscape and thus has attracted increasing attention of scholars, practitioners and policy makers. Employing a theoretical framework that integrates resource-based view, institutional-based view, and industry-based view, this dissertation aims to...

  6. Combined Effects of Rosuvastatin and Exercise on Gene Expression of Key Molecules Involved in Cholesterol Metabolism in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilienne Tudor Ngo Sock

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three weeks of rosuvastatin (Ros treatment alone and in combination with voluntary training (Tr on expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism (LDLR, PCSK9, LRP-1, SREBP-2, IDOL, ACAT-2 and HMGCR in the liver of eight week-old ovariectomized (Ovx rats. Sprague Dawley rats were Ovx or sham-operated (Sham and kept sedentary for 8 weeks under a standard diet. Thereafter, rats were transferred for three weeks in running wheel cages for Tr or kept sedentary (Sed with or without Ros treatment (5mg/kg/day. Six groups were formed: Sham-Sed treated with saline (Sal or Ros (Sham-Sed-Sal; Sham-Sed-Ros, Ovx-Sed treated with Sal or Ros (Ovx-Sed-Sal; Ovx-Sed-Ros, Ovx trained treated with Sal or Ros (Ovx-Tr-Sal; Ovx-Tr-Ros. Ovx-Sed-Sal rats depicted higher (P < 0.05 body weight, plasma total cholesterol (TC and LDL-C, and liver TC content compared to Sham-Sed-Sal rats. In contrast, mRNA levels of liver PCSK9, LDLR, LRP-1 as well as plasma PCSK9 concentrations and protein levels of LRP-1 were reduced (P < 0.01 in Ovx-Sed-Sal compared to Sham-Sed-Sal rats. However, protein levels of LDLR increased (P < 0.05 in Ovx-Sed-Sal compared to Sham-Sed-Sal rats. Treatment of Ovx rats with Ros increased (P < 0.05 mRNA and protein levels of LRP-1 and PCSK9 but not mRNA levels of LDLR, while its protein abundance was reduced at the level of Sham rats. As a result, plasma LDL-C was not reduced. Exercise alone did not affect the expression of any of these markers in Ovx rats. Overall, Ros treatment corrected Ovx-induced decrease in gene expression of markers of cholesterol metabolism in liver of Ovx rats, but without reducing plasma LDL-C concentrations. Increased plasma PCSK9 levels could be responsible for the reduction of liver LDLR protein abundance and the absence of reduction of plasma LDL-C after Ros treatment.

  7. Standard requirements for GCP-compliant data management in multinational clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohmann, Christian; Kuchinke, Wolfgang; Canham, Steve

    2011-01-01

    ). Unfortunately, no specific, practical and open standard for both GCP-compliant data management and the underlying IT-infrastructure is available to improve the situation. For that reason the "Working Group on Data Centres" of the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) has developed...... a standard specifying the requirements for high quality GCP-compliant data management in multinational clinical trials....

  8. Multinationals' accountability on sustainability: the evolution of third-party assurance of sustainability reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Perego; A. Kolk

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore how multinational corporations (MNCs) adopt assurance practices to develop and sustain organizational accountability for sustainability. Using a panel of Fortune Global 250 firms over a period of 10 years, we document the diffusion patterns of third-party assurance of sust

  9. Convergence and Divergence of HRM Practices in Multinational and Domestic Firms. A Longitudinal European Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poutsma, F.; Ligthart, P.E.M.; Farndale, E.; Brewster, C.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between institutionalized contexts and HRM activities of multinational firms has become a focus of increasing attention in recent literature. However, theories of how different types of business systems or market economies may influence HRM, and the impact of context on multinationa

  10. Child labor and multinational conduct : a comparison of international business and stakeholder codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; van Tulder, R.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing attention to the issue of child labor has been reflected in codes of conduct that emerged in the past decade in particular. This paper examines the way in which multinationals, business associations, governmental and non-governmental organizations deal with child labor in their codes. Wit

  11. An Assessment of E-Training Effectiveness in Multinational Companies in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramayah, Thurasamy; Ahmad, Noor Hazlina; Hong, Tan Say

    2012-01-01

    E-training has developed into a revolutionary way of learning in Malaysian organizations due to rapid growth in information technology infrastructure. The present study endeavors to determine the critical factors that influence e-training effectiveness in multinational companies (MNCs) in Malaysia. By integrating Technology Acceptance Model (TAM),…

  12. Human Resource Development Practices, Managers and Multinational Enterprises in Australia: Thinking Globally, Acting Locally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablok, Gitika; Stanton, Pauline; Bartram, Timothy; Burgess, John; Boyle, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the HRD practices of multinational enterprises (MNEs) operating in Australia to understand the value that MNEs place on investment in their human capital, particularly managerial talent. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing on a representative sample of 211 MNEs operating in Australia, this paper…

  13. Child labor and multinational conduct : a comparison of international business and stakeholder codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; van Tulder, R.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing attention to the issue of child labor has been reflected in codes of conduct that emerged in the past decade in particular. This paper examines the way in which multinationals, business associations, governmental and non-governmental organizations deal with child labor in their codes.

  14. The location strategies of multinationals from emerging countries in the EU regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crescenzi, R.; Pietrobelli, C.; Rabellotti, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to the current debate in both Economic Geography and International Business on the nature and strategies of Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) from emerging countries (EMNEs). The paper fills a very relevant gap in the existing literature by shedding new light on the location

  15. The Role of Culture on Knowledge Transfer: The Case of the Multinational Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Leyland M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to look at the issue of culture's role in knowledge transfer within multinational corporations (MNCs). Studies of MNCs have hinted at the importance of culture to the performance of subsidiaries. Using Hofstede's cultural dimensions of power distance, individualism/collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, and…

  16. Bankruptcy by catastrophes for major multi-nationals: stock exchange sensitivity for three catastrophes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gulijk, C.; Ale, B.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of major catastrophes have on stock exchange values for the major multi-nationals. The paper demonstrates that the Sharpe analysis is more sensitive in identifying effects than just following the daily stock values for assessing market response. It was found that m

  17. A critical perspective on the measurement of performance in the empirical multinationality and performance literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Nicole Franziska; Schmidt, Robert; Ladwig, Tina J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes to the core research in international business (IB), namely the relation between multinationality and performance, and is concerned with the quality of past empirical research designs. On the basis of 49 studies, we critically evaluate the match between performance measures...

  18. Labour standards application among multinational and domestic firms in Ghana’s manufacturing sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziedzom-Akorsu Angela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an empirical analysis of the labour standards application patterns and influences among multinational and domestic firms in Ghana. Discourses on labour standards application have continued to attract much interest in recent years. This is because globalization, in tandem with multinational corporations, has made the application of labour standards more challenging and ever more relevant. Yet competing viewpoints raised among social scientists on the subject are inconclusive and still on-going. While some are of the view that multinational companies (MNCs maintain higher labour standards than the domestic firms of their host countries, others concede that their standards are lower due to their exploitative tendencies. By means of a survey of 248 multinational and domestic firms in the manufacturing sector of Ghana, this paper concludes that there are a number of contingent factors that determine labour standards application, and so it is misleading to put all firms together and make blanket statements as to whether or not one group maintains higher labour standards than the other.

  19. Employee Participation in Multinational Corporations: Corporate Governance and the Role of Works Councils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Marcus

    What is the role of Dutch (central) works councils in light of the corporate governance regime applicable to multinational corporations (MNCs) in the Netherlands? And how are rules regarding the involvement of Dutch works councils in MNCs on corporate governance aspects applied in practice? This

  20. Evaluating Organizational Change at a Multinational Transportation Corporation: Method and Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhotnik, Maria S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this perspective on practice is to share my experience conducting an organizational change evaluation using qualitative methodology at a multinational transportation company Global Logistics. I provide a detailed description of the three phase approach to data analysis and my reflections on the process.

  1. Responsible tax as Corporate Social Responsibility : The case of multinational enterprises and effective tax in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Alan; Kolk, Ans

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence often suggests that multinational enterprises (MNEs) operating in developing countries “exploit their multinationality” to avoid paying taxes to host governments. This article explores the concept of “responsible tax” as a corporate social responsibility (CSR) issue for MNEs, base

  2. Revelation of Multinational Acquisition Theory for Chinese Oil Companies' Overseas Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces multinational acquisition theory and explains its importance in the context of Chinese petroleum industry and overseas acquisition activities of three major oil companies, CNPC, SINOPEC and CNOOC.Strategic options for their overseas investment are recommended and further assessed in terms of geopolitics.

  3. Multinational enterprises, foreign direct investment and trade in China : A cointegration and Granger-causality approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Jianhong; Jacobs, Jan; Witteloostuijn, Arjen van

    2004-01-01

    Multinational enterprises (MNEs) play a dominant role in the international business (IB) literature. Traditionally, by far the majority of IB studies deal with issues at the micro level of the individual MNE, or at the meso level of a sample of individual MNEs. This paper focuses on a macro-level is

  4. Co-agglomeration of knowledge-intensive business services and multinational enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, W.; van Oort, Frank; Koster, H.

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that the relationship between knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) and multinational enterprises (MNEs) within the regional economy is advantageous for urban and regional dynamics. It is likely that KIBS aim to locate proximate to (internationally operating) MNEs because o

  5. The impact of corporate and national cultures on decentralization in multinational corporations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, C.; van Triest, S.

    2009-01-01

    We develop and test a model of multinational corporation (MNC) decentralization in which the allocation of decision rights to subsidiaries is explained by aspects of both internal corporate culture as well as external national cultures. We extend the literature on MNC decentralization by testing the

  6. Multinational enterprises, foreign direct investment and trade in China : A cointegration and Granger-causality approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Jianhong; Jacobs, Jan; Witteloostuijn, Arjen van

    2004-01-01

    Multinational enterprises (MNEs) play a dominant role in the international business (IB) literature. Traditionally, by far the majority of IB studies deal with issues at the micro level of the individual MNE, or at the meso level of a sample of individual MNEs. This paper focuses on a macro-level is

  7. Multinational Corporations and British Labour: A Review of Attitudes and Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennard, John

    Multinational corporations operating in Great Britain, specifically American industry, are arousing fears on the part of British labor, which can be grouped into these categories: (1) a threat to the job security of union members, (2) a change in the balance of power at the collective bargaining table in favor of the employers, (3) a clash of…

  8. The Implementation of ERP in Multinational Companies%跨国公司的ERP实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈宁; 张列平

    2001-01-01

    With a brief introduction to the theory of ERP and its support tothe business process of multinational companies, the ERP project of Shanghai General Motors Corporation Ltd., a joint-venture of General Motors Co., is used as an example to find the characteristics of ERP implementation in multinational companies, which are adaptable to the advantages of ERP and related strategies of multinational companies, and a summary of the principles and methods, which multinational companies can use in their implementation of ERP system in China, is given.%在简要介绍ERP原理和ERP系统对跨国公司运作的支持的基础上,结合美国通用汽车公司在中国的合资子公司——上海通用汽车有限公司ERP项目的实例,分析了ERP实施中与跨国公司本身所具备的各种优势及其战略意图相适应的特点,并归纳了跨国公司在中国实施ERP系统的思路和方法。

  9. Multinationals and global climate change: issues for the automotive and oil industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Levy, D.L.; Lundan, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter analyzes the strategic responses by US and European multinational enterprises (MNEs) in the oil and automobile industries to the global climate change issue. We examine and attempt to explain the differences across regions, across industries, and the changes over time. Traditional

  10. Global Standardization or National Differentiation of HRM Practices in Multinational Companies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Tony; Sanchez-Mangas, Rocio; Jalette, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on a dataset constructed from a parallel series of nationally representative surveys of multinational companies (MNCs), we compare the performance management (PM) practices of MNCs in the UK, Ireland, Canada, Spain, Denmark and Norway. In each country we analyze data relating to MNCs from...

  11. Measuring the Value of Succession Planning and Management: A Qualitative Study of Multinational Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeonsoo

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a model for planning and operating an effective succession planning and management (SP&M) program and measuring its value. The nature of the research is exploratory, following a qualitative approach using in-depth interviews. Representatives of multinational companies interviewed for this study revealed that succession…

  12. Critical Success Factors: How One Multinational Company Develops Global E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Edward Pavel

    2011-01-01

    This research study examined how a multinational company determined what the critical success factors (CSFs) were for developing global e-learning. The study analyzed how these CSFs were grouped together to make their management more efficient. There were 21 participants in the study who were key stakeholders from the United States, Europe, Latin…

  13. Developing Managerial Talent: Exploring the Link between Management Talent and Perceived Performance in Multinational Corporations (MNCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Maura

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the association between talent management (TM) and perceived subsidiary performance. Focus is given to the development of one key talent group--line managers--in subsidiaries of multinational corporations (MNCs). Specifically, the paper examines: whether there is a positive relationship between Management Development (MD) and…

  14. Productivity Effects of United States Multinational Enterprises : The Roles of Market Orientation and Regional Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Roger; Wei, Yingqi

    2010-01-01

    Smeets R. and Wei Y. Productivity effects of United States multinational enterprises: the roles of market orientation and regional integration, Regional Studies. This paper considers the role of market orientation and regional integration in foreign direct investment (FDI) productivity effects. Usin

  15. Using English as the Common Corporate Language in a German Multinational

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Jonathan S.; Wallace, James

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine a German multinational that uses English as the common corporate language (CCL) for internal communications with its international subsidiaries/agencies. It examines use of English within the workplace, and problems/opportunities it presents to those who use it. Design/methodology: The questionnaire was piloted…

  16. Global Talent Management in Multinational Corporations and the Role of Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruel, Huub; Bondarouk, Tanya; Dresselhaus, Lena; Olivas-Lujan, M.R.; Bondarouk, T.V.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose — Current global business challenges and circumstances are responsible for the need for global talent management (GTM) within multinational corporations (MNCs). Social media and networks are becoming key channels for global communication and collaboration. For GTM in MNCs, an effective usage

  17. Productivity Effects of United States Multinational Enterprises : The Roles of Market Orientation and Regional Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Roger; Wei, Yingqi

    2010-01-01

    Smeets R. and Wei Y. Productivity effects of United States multinational enterprises: the roles of market orientation and regional integration, Regional Studies. This paper considers the role of market orientation and regional integration in foreign direct investment (FDI) productivity effects. Usin

  18. Resource allocations, knowledge network characteristics and entrepreneurial orientation of multinational corporations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Williams; S.H. Lee

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses entrepreneurial orientation (EO) in multinational corporations (MNCs) and develops a new typology of MNC EO based on combining R&D and asset growth investment intensities as orthogonal resource allocations. A cluster analysis of US MNCs on these two dimensions reveals three types

  19. Using Internet Resources in Teaching Financial Reporting and Analysis of Multinational Enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agami, Abdel M.

    2003-01-01

    Provides some sources of corporate financial information on the Internet and illustrates how to use these resources in teaching international business and, more specifically, financial reporting and analysis of multinational enterprises. Points out some of the advantages and limitations of these resources. (EV)

  20. Multinational enterprises, foreign direct investment and trade in China : A cointegration and Granger-causality approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Jianhong; Jacobs, Jan; Witteloostuijn, Arjen van

    2004-01-01

    Multinational enterprises (MNEs) play a dominant role in the international business (IB) literature. Traditionally, by far the majority of IB studies deal with issues at the micro level of the individual MNE, or at the meso level of a sample of individual MNEs. This paper focuses on a macro-level

  1. Location Choices of Chinese Multinationals in Europe : The Role of Overseas Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Karreman (Bas); M.J. Burger (Martijn); F.G. van Oort (Frank)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractOverseas Chinese communities are an important determinant in the location choice of greenfield investments made by mainland Chinese multinational enterprises across European regions. Conceptually embedded in a relational approach, this effect is shown through an empirical analysis of an

  2. The impact of corporate and national cultures on decentralization in multinational corporations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Williams; S. van Triest

    2009-01-01

    We develop and test a model of multinational corporation (MNC) decentralization in which the allocation of decision rights to subsidiaries is explained by aspects of both internal corporate culture as well as external national cultures. We extend the literature on MNC decentralization by testing the

  3. The impact of institutional hazards on foreign multinational activity : A contingency perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, Arjen H. L.; Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd

    2010-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that institutional hazards in the form of formal governance deficiencies and informal cultural distance are both negatively related to the amount of foreign multinational activity in countries. We argue that the strength of these negative relationships varies systematically

  4. Multinational corporations and emissions trading. Strategic responses to new institutional constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkse, J.M.; Kolk, A.

    2007-01-01

    Although the Kyoto Protocol intended to implement emissions trading globally, this has so far been impossible. As a result, particularly Multinational Corporations (MNCs) currently face a wide variety of emissions trading schemes that differ in scope and enforcement, thus creating divergent levels

  5. Multinationals' accountability on sustainability: the evolution of third-party assurance of sustainability reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perego, P.; Kolk, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore how multinational corporations (MNCs) adopt assurance practices to develop and sustain organizational accountability for sustainability. Using a panel of Fortune Global 250 firms over a period of 10 years, we document the diffusion patterns of third-party assurance of sust

  6. Multinational banks and the global financial crisis : Weathering the perfect storm?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, R.; van Lelyveld, I.

    2014-01-01

    We use data on the 48 largest multinational banking groups to compare the lending of their 199 foreign subsidiaries during the Great Recession with lending by a benchmark of 202 domestic banks. Contrary to earlier and more contained crises, parent banks were not a significant source of strength to t

  7. Money or Ethics : Multinational corporations and religious organisations operating in an era of corporate responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.C. van Cranenburgh (Katinka)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIt is a general assumption that Religious Organisations (ROs) are driven by religious beliefs and values, whilst multinational corporations (MNCs) are considered to be concerned about their profits, their share price and their reputation. When ROs invest in capital markets, they part

  8. Evaluating Organizational Change at a Multinational Transportation Corporation: Method and Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhotnik, Maria S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this perspective on practice is to share my experience conducting an organizational change evaluation using qualitative methodology at a multinational transportation company Global Logistics. I provide a detailed description of the three phase approach to data analysis and my reflections on the process.

  9. Multinationals' accountability on sustainability: the evolution of third-party assurance of sustainability reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perego, P.; Kolk, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore how multinational corporations (MNCs) adopt assurance practices to develop and sustain organizational accountability for sustainability. Using a panel of Fortune Global 250 firms over a period of 10 years, we document the diffusion patterns of third-party assurance of

  10. Psychopharmacological prescriptions for people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD): a multinational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsia, Y.; Wong, A.Y.; Murphy, D.G.; Simonoff, E.; Buitelaar, J.; Wong, I.C.

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: Previous studies on psychotropic drugs prescribing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were from the USA or the UK. However, these studies may not be generalizable to other countries. There is a need to understand the extent of psychopharmacological prescribing for ASD treatment at a multin

  11. Child labor and multinational conduct : a comparison of international business and stakeholder codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; van Tulder, R.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing attention to the issue of child labor has been reflected in codes of conduct that emerged in the past decade in particular. This paper examines the way in which multinationals, business associations, governmental and non-governmental organizations deal with child labor in their codes. Wit

  12. Understanding Agency Problems in Headquarters-Subsidiary Relationships in Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostova, Tatiana; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Hoenen, Anne Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an agency model for headquarters-subsidiary relationships in multinational organizations with headquarters as the principal and the subsidiary as the agent. As a departure from classical agency theory, our model is developed for the unit level of analysis and considers two roo...

  13. The environmental, social and ethical aspects of multinational corporations exploiting oil resources in Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newcombe, A.; Evangelio, A.; Revilla, P.

    2013-01-01

    Extraction of oil promises economic growth in many developing countries but almost inevitably brings environmental and social degradation with it. In this paper we explore the environmental, social and ethical aspects of multinational companies' (MNCs) oil exploration and production in Ecuador an...

  14. Alliance Concentration in Multinational Companies : Examining Alliance Portfolios, Firm Structure, and Firm Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Brenda; Faems, Dries; Noseleit, Florian

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the distribution of alliances across firms’ internal structure. Focusing on multinational companies, we examine the impact of alliance portfolio concentration – i.e. the extent to which alliances are concentrated within a limited number of geographic units – on focal firms’

  15. Global Standardization or National Differentiation of HRM Practices in Multinational Companies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Tony; Sanchez-Mangas, Rocio; Jalette, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on a dataset constructed from a parallel series of nationally representative surveys of multinational companies (MNCs), we compare the performance management (PM) practices of MNCs in the UK, Ireland, Canada, Spain, Denmark and Norway. In each country we analyze data relating to MNCs from...

  16. An Assessment of E-Training Effectiveness in Multinational Companies in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramayah, Thurasamy; Ahmad, Noor Hazlina; Hong, Tan Say

    2012-01-01

    E-training has developed into a revolutionary way of learning in Malaysian organizations due to rapid growth in information technology infrastructure. The present study endeavors to determine the critical factors that influence e-training effectiveness in multinational companies (MNCs) in Malaysia. By integrating Technology Acceptance Model (TAM),…

  17. Measuring the Value of Succession Planning and Management: A Qualitative Study of Multinational Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeonsoo

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a model for planning and operating an effective succession planning and management (SP&M) program and measuring its value. The nature of the research is exploratory, following a qualitative approach using in-depth interviews. Representatives of multinational companies interviewed for this study revealed that succession…

  18. Multinational Companies’ (MNC’s) Implementation of Sustainable Supply Chain Management in Chinese Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chaojun; Lehmann, Martin

    This paper studies what factors may facilitate or hinder the implementation of Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) in multinational companies’ (MNC’s) Chinese subsidiaries by focusing on two factors, (i) the Chinese subsidiaries’ absorptive capacity , and (ii) institutional factors. A case...

  19. THE MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND THE LOW-COST MARKETS OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaconu Laura

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to be considered a low-cost market, the cost advantage of one or more factors of production offered by a state – generally, a developing one – must be exploited by the multinational firms. Therefore, we may speak about these markets only after 19

  20. A perspective on multinational enterprises and climate change: Learning from "an inconvenient truth"?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores whether and how an important environmental issue such as climate change can not only give multinational enterprises the opportunity to develop "green" firm-specific advantages (FSAs), but also help reconfigure key FSAs that are viewed as the main sources of firms' profitability,

  1. Taxation of Multinational Enterprises in a Global Market: Moving to Corporate Tax 2.0?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. de Wilde (Maarten)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHow countries tax the profits of multinational enterprises has become hopelessly outdated. The recent OECD/G20 Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Project has left the existing international corporate taxation framework essentially intact. Perhaps it is time to consider a truly fundamental

  2. At the Center of the Middle Kingdom:Multinationals Move Inland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Central China, initially overlooked by many foreign investors as being too far from the ports in Tianjin, Shanghai and Shenzhen,is emerging as an essential destination for multinationals in China.While still lagging significantly be-hind the coast, the six central provinces of Anhui, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi

  3. Number needed to treat with rosuvastatin to prevent first cardiovascular events and death among men and women with low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein: justification for the use of statins in prevention: an intervention trial evaluating rosuvastatin (JUPITER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridker, Paul M; MacFadyen, Jean G; Fonseca, Francisco A H; Genest, Jacques; Gotto, Antonio M; Kastelein, John J P; Koenig, Wolfgang; Libby, Peter; Lorenzatti, Alberto J; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Shepherd, James; Willerson, James T; Glynn, Robert J

    2009-11-01

    As recently demonstrated, random allocation to rosuvastatin results in large relative risk reductions for first cardiovascular events among apparently healthy men and women with low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but elevated levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. However, whether the absolute risk reduction among such individuals justifies wide application of statin therapy in primary prevention is a controversial issue with broad policy and public health implications. Absolute risk reductions and consequent number needed to treat (NNT) values were calculated across a range of end points, timeframes, and subgroups using data from Justification for the Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER), a randomized evaluation of rosuvastatin 20 mg versus placebo conducted among 17 802 apparently healthy men and women with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or=2 mg/L. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to address the potential impact that alternative statin regimens might have on a similar primary prevention population. For the end point of myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization, or death, the 5-year NNT within JUPITER was 20 (95% CI, 14 to 34). All subgroups had 5-year NNT values for this end point below 50; as examples, 5-year NNT values were 17 for men and 31 for women, 21 for whites and 19 for nonwhites, 18 for those with body mass index 300). Absolute risk reductions and consequent NNT values associated with statin therapy among those with elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are comparable if not superior to published NNT values for several widely accepted interventions for primary cardiovascular prevention, including the use of statin therapy among those with overt hyperlipidemia. clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier NCT00239681.

  4. How to handle multidisciplinary, multi-national and multi-sectoral projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Anja; Wallmann, Klaus; Visbeck, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Collaborative research projects funded by the European Commission are by nature multi-national. Often they bring together different scientific communities as the questions raised in EU project calls can typically only be addressed through the convergence of these previously separated disciplines in one research consortium. Some work programmes even necessitate to team up as different disciplines as natural sciences, social science, legal science and economic science. Examples for such multi- national, -disciplinary and - sectoral projects are the EU projects ECO2 (FP7, concluded) and AtlantOS (H2020). Project managers of such projects need to develop skills beyond the common technical and management skills namely go into the domain of partners and stakeholders psychology and be able to maintain different perspectives on communication and interaction needs regarding cultural-, discipline- and sectoral background. Accordingly, the project manager has besides his technical role as manager at least three further roles: that of a communicator, that of a mediator and that of a person convincing partners of the necessary and selling the project products to the stakeholders. As the typical project manager has not too much power and authority by his position he has to use the power of smart communication and persuasion to overcome potential dissension between disciplines, national reservation or potential conflicts regarding different sectoral views. Accordingly, the project manager of such a complex project would try to arrange the ideal working environment by considering cultural feel, the cooperation of disciplines, information and the control of resources. The way he develops such ideal working environment is by reflection of past, present and future experiences/needs.

  5. Challenges and opportunities of multi-disciplinary, multi-national and multi-sectoral projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Anja; Hamann, Kristin

    2017-04-01

    Collaborative research projects e.g. funded or supported by the European Commission are by nature multi-national. Often EU calls bring together different scientific communities to jointly tackle challenges that can only be addressed through the convergence of previously separated disciplines in one research consortium. Some work programmes even necessitate to team up as different disciplines as natural sciences, social science, legal science and economic science. Examples for such multi- national, -disciplinary and - sectoral projects are the EU projects ECO2 (FP7, concluded), AtlantOS (H2020) and MiningImpact (JPI Oceans). Project managers of such projects need to develop skills beyond the common technical and management skills namely go into the domain of partners and stakeholders psychology and be able to maintain different perspectives on communication and interaction needs regarding cultural-, discipline- and sectoral background. Accordingly, the project manager has besides his or her technical role as manager at least three further roles: that of a communicator, that of a mediator and that of a person convincing partners of the necessary and selling the project products to the stakeholders. As the typical project manager has not too much power and authority by his or her position he or she has to use the power of smart communication and persuasion to overcome potential dissension between disciplines, national reservation or potential conflicts regarding different sectoral views. Accordingly, the project manager of such complex projects would try to arrange the ideal working environment by considering cultural feel, the cooperation of disciplines, information and the control of resources. The way he or she develops such ideal working environment is by reflection of past, present and future experiences/needs.

  6. Male circumcision and prevalence of genital human papillomavirus infection in men: a multinational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albero Ginesa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulated evidence from epidemiological studies and more recently from randomized controlled trials suggests that male circumcision (MC may substantially protect against genital HPV infection in men. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between MC and genital HPV infection in men in a large multinational study. Methods A total of 4072 healthy men ages 18–70 years were enrolled in a study conducted in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Enrollment samples combining exfoliated cells from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum were analyzed for the presence and genotyping of HPV DNA by PCR and linear array methods. Prevalence ratios (PR were used to estimate associations between MC and HPV detection adjusting for potential confounders. Results MC was not associated with overall prevalence of any HPV, oncogenic HPV types or unclassified HPV types. However, MC was negatively associated with non-oncogenic HPV infections (PR 0.85, 95% confident interval: 0.76-0.95, in particular for HPV types 11, 40, 61, 71, and 81. HPV 16, 51, 62, and 84 were the most frequently identified genotypes regardless of MC status. Conclusions This study shows no overall association between MC and genital HPV infections in men, except for certain non-oncogenic HPV types for which a weak association was found. However, the lack of association with MC might be due to the lack of anatomic site specific HPV data, for example the glans penis, the area expected to be most likely protected by MC.

  7. Sustained Improvement of Arterial Stiffness and Blood Pressure after Long-Term Rosuvastatin Treatment in Patients with Inflammatory Joint Diseases: Results from the RORA-AS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik Ikdahl

    Full Text Available Patients with inflammatory joint diseases (IJD have a high prevalence of hypertension and increased arterial stiffness. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of long-term rosuvastatin treatment on arterial stiffness, measured by augmentation index (AIx and aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV, and blood pressure (BP in IJD patients with established atherosclerosis.Eighty-nine statin naïve IJD patients with carotid atherosclerotic plaque(s (rheumatoid arthritis n = 55, ankylosing spondylitis n = 23, psoriatic arthritis n = 11 received rosuvastatin for 18 months to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal ≤1.8 mmol/L. Change in AIx (ΔAIx, aPWV (ΔaPWV, systolic BP (ΔsBP and diastolic BP (ΔdBP from baseline to study end was assessed by paired samples t-tests. Linear regression was applied to evaluate associations between cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, rheumatic disease specific variables and medication, and ΔAIx, ΔaPWV, ΔsBP and ΔdBP.AIx, aPWV, sBP and dBP were significantly reduced from baseline to study end. The mean (95%CI changes were: ΔAIx: -0.34 (-0.03, -0.65% (p = 0.03, ΔaPWV: -1.69 (-0.21, -3.17m/s2 (p = 0.03, ΔsBP: -5.27 (-1.61, -8.93mmHg (p = 0.004 and ΔdBP -2.93 (-0.86, -5.00mmHg (p = 0.01. In linear regression models, ∆aPWV was significantly correlated with ΔsBP and ΔdBP (for all: p<0.001.There is an unmet need of studies evaluating CVD prevention in IJD patients. We have shown for the first time that long-term intensive lipid lowering with rosuvastatin improved arterial stiffness and induced a clinically significant BP reduction in patients with IJD. These improvements were linearly correlated and may represent novel insight into the pleiotropic effects by statins.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01389388.

  8. TRIO-012: a multicenter, multinational, randomized, double-blind phase III study of IMC-1121B plus docetaxel versus placebo plus docetaxel in previously untreated patients with HER2-negative, unresectable, locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, John; Gelmon, Karen; Martin, Miguel; McCarthy, Nicole; Pinter, Tamas; Rupin, Mathieu; Youssoufian, Hagop

    2009-11-01

    In this multinational, placebo-controlled, randomized phase III trial, Translational Research In Oncology (TRIO) will define the efficacy and safety of adding a novel antiangiogenic agent, IMC-1121B (ramucirumab), to standard first-line docetaxel chemotherapy for women with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer. We will evaluate whether the addition of IMC-1121B prolongs progression-free survival and whether its use improves overall survival. Accrual is under way.

  9. Corporate Control in Global Agrifood System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnikov Aleksandr Borisovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current state of global agrifood system is characterized by the increase in large enterprises concentration at each of food chain stages. One of the key factors providing the corporate control of multinational corporation is represented by the achievement of vertical and horizontal integration at each step of production, processing and sale of agrifood production. At this, the vertical and horizontal corporate integration is considered as the factor providing development and stability of control over the multinational corporations in agrifood sector. The classification of primary activities of agroindustrial multinational corporations including the leading multinational corporations is presented. The food chain of the largest multinational corporations is analysed on the basis of the following criteria – gene material, seeds, chemical fertilizers, trade and processing of raw agricultural material, processing industry, supermarkets. The analysis of consequences of agrocorporations concentration is also carried out on the example of seed farming branch and retail trade enterprises. The authors give recommendations on the adaptation to the consequences of multinational corporations expansion. Within these corporations it is necessary for the governments of host countries to improve the state legislation in the field of effective regulation of oligopolistic bodies; to make corporations responsible for any violations of the labor legislation; to provide conditions for competition at the food market and to control the merges and absorptions at the different stages of food chain.

  10. Increasing Absorptive Capacity to Improve Internal and External Knowledge Transfer in Multinational Companies: A Multiple Case Study Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla-Gergely RÁCZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how the absorptive capacity could be increased to improve internal and external knowledge transfer in subsidiaries of multinational companies. We look at the way in which the literature on absorptive capacity has evolved, and how it links the internal and external knowledge transfer. Based on 3 case studies conducted at Romanian subsidiaries of multinational companies, we find some patterns, which could explain how the successful knowledge flows should be managed within the multinational company and outside of it, in the supply chain network.

  11. Achieving lipid goals with rosuvastatin compared with simvastatin in high risk patients in real clinical practice: a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center study: the DISCOVERY-Beta study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toivo Laks

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Toivo Laks1, Ester Keba2, Mariann Leiner3, Eero Merilind4, Mall Petersen5, Sirje Reinmets6, Sille Väli7, Terje Sööt8, Karin Otter81Clinic of Internal Medicine, North-Estonia Regional Hospital, Tallinn, Estonia; 2Clinic of Internal Medicine, Viljandi County Hospital, Viljandi, Estonia; 3Mustamäe Family Doctors Centre, Tallinn, Estonia; 4Nõmme Family Doctors Centre, Tallinn, Estonia; 5Saku Health Centre, Saku, Estonia; 6Kristiine Family Doctors, Tallinn, Estonia; 7Family Doctor Sille Väli, Kuressaare, Estonia; 8AstraZeneca, Tallinn, EstoniaAbstract: The aim of this multi-center, open-label, randomized, parallel-group trial was to compare the efficacy of rosuvastatin with that of simvastatin in achieving the 1998 European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS lipid treatment goals. 504 patients (≥18 years with primary hypercholesterolemia and a 10-year cardiovascular (CV risk >20% or history of coronary heart disease (CHD or other established atherosclerotic disease were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive rosuvastatin 10 mg or simvastatin 20 mg once daily for 12 weeks. A significantly higher proportion of patients achieved 1998 EAS low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C goal after 12 weeks of treatment with rosuvastatin 10 mg compared to simvastatin 20 mg (64 vs 51.5%, p < 0.01. Similarly, significantly more patients achieved the 1998 EAS total cholesterol (TC goal and the 2003 EAS LDL-C and TC goals (p < 0.001 with rosuvastatin 10 mg compared with simvastatin 20 mg. The incidence of adverse events and the proportion of patients who discontinued study treatment were similar between treatment groups. In conclusion, in the DISCOVERY-Beta Study in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia greater proportion of patients in the rosuvastatin 10 mg group achieved the EAS LDL-C treatment goal compared with the simvastatin 20 mg group. Drug tolerability was similar across both treatment groups.Keywords: hypercholesterolemia, low-density lipoprotein

  12. 阿托伐他汀与瑞舒伐他汀治疗冠心病合并慢性肾脏疾病3期的效果比较%Effect comparison of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin in the treatment of coronary heart disease combining with third-stage chronic renal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭本超

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin in the treatment of coronary heart disease combining with third-stage chronic renal disease. Methods 100 patients with coronary heart disease combining with third-stage chronic renal disease admitted into our hospital From January 2009 to January 2012 were selected and randomly divided into experimental group and control group,50 cases in each group.In experimental group,atorvastatin was applied, while in control group,rosuvastatin was used.The therapeutic difference after 3 years treatment was observed at premises of ensuring blood lipid control reaching the standard as well as blood pressure and blood glucose provided with stan-dard second-level prevention drug for coronary heart disease. Results The decrease rate of creatinine clearance rate in the experimental group was 22%,which was lower than 54%of control group (P0.05),and no sudden death case oc-curred in two groups. Conclusion Compared with rosuvastatin, the renal damage by atorvastatin is slighter,which is the better choice in the treatment of coronary heart disease combining with third-stage chronic renal disease.%目的:比较阿托伐他汀与瑞舒伐他汀治疗冠心病合并慢性肾脏疾病3期的效果。方法选择2009年1月~2012年1月本院收治的100例冠心病合并慢性肾脏疾病3期患者,将其随机分为实验组和对照组,每组50例。实验组应用阿托伐他汀治疗,对照组应用瑞舒伐他汀治疗,保证两组患者血脂控制均达标,同时均给予规范冠心病Ⅱ级预防用药,保证血压、血糖等危险因素控制达标,观察两组患者治疗3年后的差异。结果实验组的肌酐清除率下降率为22%,低于对照组的54%(P0.05),且均未发生猝死。结论与瑞舒伐他汀比较,阿托伐他汀对肾损害更小,是治疗冠心病合并慢性肾脏疾病3期更好的选择。

  13. Analytical Study for the Charge-Transfer Complexes of Rosuvastatin Calcium with π-Acceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourah Z. Alzoman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to investigate the charge-transfer (CT reaction of ROS-Ca, as a n-electron donor with various p-acceptors: tetracyanoethylene, p-chloranilic acid, 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone, 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-1,4-benzoquinone, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone, 7,7,8,8-tetracyano-quinodimethane, and 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone. Different colored CT complexes were obtained. The reaction mechanism and site of interaction were determined by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometric techniques and computational molecular modeling. The formation of the colored complexes was utilized in the development of simple, rapid and accurate spectrophotometric methods for the determination of ROS-Ca. Under the optimum reaction conditions, linear relationships with good correlation coefficients (0.9984–0.9995 were found between the absorbances and the concentrations of ROS-Ca in the range of 2–200 mg mL−1. The limits of detection ranged from 0.41 to 12.24 mg mL−1. No interference could be observed from the additives commonly present in the tablets or from the drugs that are co-formulated with ROS-Ca in its combined formulations. The methods were successfully applied to the analysis of tablets with good accuracy and precision; the recovery percentages ranged from 99.54–100.46 ± 1.58–1.82%. The results were compared favorably with the reported method. The proposed methods are practical and valuable for routine application in quality control laboratories for determination of ROS-Ca in its bulk form and tablets.

  14. THE EFFECT OF ISLAMIC WORK ETHICS ON THE PERFORMANCE RESULT OF MUSLIM EMPLOYEES OF MARKETING SECTOR IN THE MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Hadisi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of Islam on efficiency of Muslim employees in multinational companies. The findings of the studies conducted to date examining the potential and actual impact of Islam in multinational setting indicates that although it seems that religion has no significant effect on multinational companies, but its internal effects such as internal and interpersonal conflicts with the type of activity of companies may be intensified. Moreover, these effects would be different based on the department of individual employees. For example, when the religious orientations of Muslims increase, their activities, according to the type of the product or service provided, in marketing sector of multinational companies may be affected. As the products and services offered would have more moral dimensions and marketing activities would be based on general moral rules, not a particular religion, we may achieve more effective results and personal and interpersonal conflicts can be reduced.

  15. Assessing Chinese Employee Job Preferences and Employee Retention Strategies: The Case of a Strategic Alliance of Foreign Multinational in China

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xu

    2008-01-01

    According to the popularity of "job hoping" in current Chinese labour market, it is essential for multinationals, particularly for multinational strategic alliances (MSAs), to be aware of their employees' job preferences in order to design effective retention strategies. This study discloses many differences and similarities in job preferences between Chinese overseas graduates and domestic graduates. Foreign educated graduates were more interested in job-related factors, such as "advancement...

  16. 血管内超声评价国产瑞舒伐他汀对冠状动脉轻中度狭窄病变的影响%Effects of domestic rosuvastatin on coronary plaque in patients with mild-to-moderate coronary artery stenosis as evaluated by virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海波; 赵晓燕; 赵荫涛; 张金盈; 李凌

    2012-01-01

    目的 应用虚拟组织学-血管内超声(VH-IVUS)评价国产瑞舒伐他汀对急性冠脉综合征患者冠状动脉轻中度狭窄病变斑块进展及成分的影响.方法 选择经冠状动脉造影(CAG)和VHIVUS检查无需介入治疗的冠脉轻中度狭窄病变患者83例,分为试验组42例和对照组41例,试验组给予国产瑞舒伐他汀(瑞旨10 mg,每晚1次),对照组给予进口瑞舒伐他汀(可定10 mg,每晚1次),治疗6个月后复查血脂、CAG及VH-IVUS,比较两组间血脂变化、定量冠脉造影分析靶病变处直径狭窄(DS)变化,VH-IVUS分析靶病变处斑块负荷、最小管腔面积(MLA)和斑块成分变化.结果 瑞舒伐他汀干预6个月后,VH-IVUS分析显示,两组患者斑块坏死核心比例比治疗前明显减少(试验组:14.8%±7.0%比22.6%±7.5%,P<0.05,对照组:14.9%±7.1%比23.1% ±7.7%,P<0.05)、纤维组织比例明显增加(试验组:51.5%±9.9%比44.5%±9.7%,P< 0.05,对照组:51.4%±10.1%比44.3%±9.8%,P<0.05),两组患者血脂水平明显改善(P<0.05),而DS、斑块负荷、MLA、纤维脂质组织比例、钙化组织比例无明显变化(P>0.05).结论 国产瑞舒伐他汀治疗冠脉轻中度狭窄病变可稳定斑块,并延缓斑块进一步发展.%Objective To evaluate the effects of domestic rosuvastatin tablets on coronary plaque in the patients with mild-to-moderate coronary artery stenosis through virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS).Methods Eighty-three patients with mild-to-moderate coronary artery stenosis of acute coronary syndrome( ACS)were enrolled and randomized into test group (domestic rosuvastatin,10 mg/day,n =42) or control group ( CRESTOR,10 mg/day,n =41 ).The serum lipid levels,diameter stenosis (DS)on quantitative coronary angiography (QCA),MLA (minimal lumen area),plaque burden and component of target lesion on VH-IVUS were evaluated at baseline and at 6-month follow-up.Results After 6 months,the levels of

  17. 瑞舒伐他汀对急性脑梗死患者血浆血管性假血友病因子和血栓调节蛋白水平的影响%Influence of rosuvastatin on von wilebrand factor and plasma thrombomodulin (TM) levels of acute cerebral infarction patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 王海英; 甘慧玲; 罗利飞; 林莉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the effect of rosuvastatin on von wilebrand factor and plasma thrombomodu-lin ( TM) levels of acute cerebral infarction patients. Methods 76 cases of acute cerebral infarction patients from June 2012 to May 2013 in our hospital were divided into observation group and control group. The patients of the two groups were given basic treatment like intracranial pressure control,blood pressure and blood sugar maintenance,anti-platelet aggregation,brain cells nutrition etc. The patients of the observation group were given 100 mg rosuvastatin tablets per time,once daily for 2 weeks at the same time. The changes of vWF and TM levels in plasma of patients of the two groups were compared before and after medical treatment,and the curative effect and security were carried on as well. Results After 2 weeks′ medical treatment,the vWF and TM level of the two groups declined obviously than before treatment(P0. 05). Conclusion Rosuvastatin has reliable curative effect on acute cerebral infarction with high security,whose mechanism of action is to reduce vWF and TM level in plasma,protect and improve the vascular endothelial function.%目的:探讨瑞舒伐他汀对急性脑梗死患者血浆血管性假血友病因子( vWF)和血栓调节蛋白( TM)水平的影响。方法选择2012年6月至2013年5月我院收治的急性脑梗死患者76例,随机分为观察组和对照组,每组38例。两组患者均予以控制颅内压、维持血压、血糖、抗血小板聚集和营养脑细胞等治疗。观察组在此基础上加用瑞舒伐他汀片10 mg/次,1次/d,连用2周。观察两组患者治疗前后血浆vWF、TM水平变化,并观察临床疗效及安全性。结果治疗2周后,两组患者血浆vWF和TM水平较治疗前明显降低( P0.05)。结论瑞舒伐他汀治疗急性脑梗死临床疗效确切,安全性较好,其作用机制与其降低血浆vWF和TM水平,从而保护及改善患者的血管内皮功能密切相关。

  18. The Multinational Corporations - A comparative statistical approach in Romania and Serbia -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe SĂVOIU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The originality of this paper consists in a comparative approach to the typologies of the financial facilities meant to attract multinational corporations, either in a country that is a member of the European Union, such as Romania, or in a non-member country, like today’s Serbia. The authors have focused on the idea the multinational corporations are a major factor of developmentfor Eastern European countries, in general. Finally, the social corporative responsibility has been useful to the communities in these countries, but still remains a theoretical idea. The financial facilities and opportunities provided by the small economies are not yet compensated through a social equivalent, either inside, or outside the European Union area, for most of the host countriesand economies placed in Eastern Europe.The authors have focused on two characteristic corporationsAutomobile Dacia from Romania and Zastava Automobile, from Serbia.

  19. An exploration into the home field, global advantage and liability of unfamiliarness hypotheses in multinational banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzlan Sufian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to expand the efficiency paradigm of the eclectic theory in multinational banking within the context of a developing country banking sector. We employ the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA method to examine the efficiency of multinational banks operating in the Malaysian banking sector from 1995 to 2007. We then employ the panel regression analysis to examine the impact of origins on bank efficiency. We find foreign banks from North America to be the most efficient banking group, providing support to the ‘limited form’ of the global advantage hypothesis. On the other hand, we do not find evidence on both the liability of unfamiliarness and home field advantage hypotheses.

  20. The Role of Home Country Political Resources for Brazilian Multinational Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Regina Vieira Bazuchi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the interactions between home country governments and Developing Country Multinational Companies (DMNCs. Drawing on evidence from the Brazilian political environment and Brazilian multinationals we investigate the mechanisms governments use to influence the internationalization process of domestic companies and firms’ political strategic responses to shape the political institutional environment in which they operate. We argue that foreign direct investment (FDI outflows from developing economies need to be explored given specific country level contextual factors, such as high levels of government involvement. Our main findings support this idea and indicate that home country governments use a series of formal and informal mechanisms in order to drive the international expansion of DMNCs in both the entry and consolidation phases. Moreover, DMNCs political behavior in the home country political environment accounts for an important part of their strategy to develop political resources and obtain above average returns from governmental benefits.

  1. THE EFFECT OF MULTINATIONAL UNDERWRITING FIRMS ON INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL DISCLOCURE IN INDONESIAN IPO PROSPECTUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezie L. Warganegara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of multinational underwriters on intellectual capitaldisclosure in Indonesian IPO prospectuses. Intellectual capital disclosure practices were driven by the adviceof underwriters. Multinational underwriters had a greater capacity to produce more relevant information so itreduced the information gap for IPO market participants. The information included IC disclosure practices inIPO prospectuses. This study found that the nationality of underwriting firms positively affected the extent ofintellectual capital disclosure in Indonesian IPO prospectuses. Exposure to IPOs in other countries and theability to combine dispersed knowledge across their international branches seemed to have a positive effect onmulti-national underwriting firms in as much as it led to a higher standard of disclosure of intellectual capitalthan that of local underwriting firms.

  2. RUSSIAN MULTINATIONALS IN ROMANIA AND THEIR IMPACT UPON THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODRUŢA DURA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our paper provides an insight into the universe of Russian multinationals and their influence upon the Romanian economy. Even if statistical data on foreign direct investment stock by country of origin do not prove the existence of Russian capital in Romania, it is a fact that the high values of foreign direct investment stock from the Netherlands, Austria, Germany or Switzerland are largely due to the investment projects undertaken in Romania by Russian multinationals. Despite the lack of relevant statistical data, we can say that the impact of Russian MNC’s on the Romanian economy is huge. Among positive influences we can mention: global employment opportunities for highly qualified workforce in the region; the transfer of advanced technologies to Romanian enterprises and the local markets; the awareness of business partners and public opinion on social responsibility; the insert of higher performance standards, competitiveness and managerial ethics.

  3. The multinational drug companies in Zaire: their adverse effect on cost and availability of essential drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucksberg, H; Singer, J

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of the types and costs of drugs imported by seven multinational pharmaceutical companies in Zaire, an underdeveloped country in Africa, reveals that three-fourths of the drugs consisted of expensive and nonessential items. The prices of essential drugs (24 percent of their total imports) were much higher than those of available generic sources (average difference of 300 percent). The importation of nonessential drugs and high prices paid for essential drugs exacerbate the scarcity of needed items because of Zaire's limited supply of hard currency. In addition, two drug firms imported and promoted the sale of aminopyrone-dipyrone analgesic-antipyretics, drugs now rarely used in Western industrialized countries because of potentially fatal complications. Thus, in Zaire, the multinational pharmaceutical industry has an adverse effect on the availability and cost of drugs, as well as on the pattern of drug usage.

  4. Bayer HealthCare Delivers a Dose of Reality for Cloud Payoff Mantras in Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Till J.; Benlian, Alexander; Piper, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Cloud services provide high cost advantages” is one of several often-quoted assertions (called mantras in this article) about payoffs from cloud computing. These mantras, however, have their origins in the experiences of small and mid-size companies, but, as the case of Bayer HealthCare’s cloud-b......-based CRM rollout program shows, may not always be true for large multinational companies. To ensure payoffs from the cloud, multinationals must adopt strategies for coping with the inhibitors identified in this article.......Cloud services provide high cost advantages” is one of several often-quoted assertions (called mantras in this article) about payoffs from cloud computing. These mantras, however, have their origins in the experiences of small and mid-size companies, but, as the case of Bayer HealthCare’s cloud...

  5. Foreign exchange risk management in multinationals : an empirical investigation on China, Japan and US

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lei; Ma, Niannian

    2007-01-01

    Companies especially multinational companies are now exposed to risks caused by unexpected movements in exchange rate. The management of foreign exchange risk has become essential for the survival of companies in today’s volatile financial markets. This paper reviews the traditional types of exchange rate risk faced by firms, namely translation, transaction and operating risk, presents measurement and management method for foreign exchange exposure and objectives of foreign exchange managemen...

  6. Arctic Collaborative Environment: A New Multi-National Partnership for Arctic Science and Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laymon, Charles A,; Kress, Martin P.; McCracken, Jeff E.; Spehn, Stephen L.; Tanner, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic Collaborative Environment (ACE) project is a new international partnership for information sharing to meet the challenges of addressing Arctic. The goal of ACE is to create an open source, web-based, multi-national monitoring, analysis, and visualization decision-support system for Arctic environmental assessment, management, and sustainability. This paper will describe the concept, system architecture, and data products that are being developed and disseminated among partners and independent users through remote access.

  7. Human resource management practices in the multinational company: A test of system, societal, and dominance effects

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Paul K.; Sánchez-Mangas, Rocío; Tregaskis, Olga; Lévesque, Christian; McDonnell, Anthony; Quintanilla, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Does the use of HRM practices by multinational companies (MNCs) reflect their national origins or are practices similar regardless of context? To the extent that practices are similar, is there any evidence of global best standards? The authors use the system, societal, and dominance framework to address these questions through analysis of 1,100 MNC subsidiaries in Canada, Ireland, Spain, and the United Kingdom. They argue that this framework offers a richer account than alternatives such as ...

  8. Corporate social responsibility in global health: an exploratory study of multinational pharmaceutical firms

    OpenAIRE

    Droppert, Hayley; Bennett, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Background As pharmaceutical firms experience increasing civil society pressure to act responsibly in a changing globalized world, many are expanding and/or reforming their corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies. We sought to understand how multinational pharmaceutical companies currently engage in CSR activities in the developing world aimed at global health impact, their motivations for doing so and how their CSR strategies are evolving. Methods We conducted a small-scale, explora...

  9. Coordination, Employment Flexibility, and Industrial Relations in Western European Multinationals: Evidence from Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Kahancová, M.; van der Meer, M.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the significant investment of multinational companies (MNCs) in Central and Eastern Europe, we have limited information about the diffusion of employment practices in this region. This paper aims to fill this gap by conceptualizing and exploring coordination, employment flexibility and industrial relations in a Polish factory of a Western European industrial company. We argue that the MNCs’ corporate intention to utilize local conditions and an underdeveloped international coordinatio...

  10. National and Organizational Culture, Performance Evaluation and Trust: Evidence from Multinational Company Subsidiary in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Unggul Purwohedi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of national and organizational culture on the relationship between accounting and trust in a subsidiary of a Western Multi-National Company (MNC) in Indonesia. This study use a qualitative field study of one French MNC subsidiary and interview four expatriate directors, nine Indonesian managers and 10 Indonesian employees. Key themes were identified with the assistance of NVivo software. In this study, accounting, through formal performance e...

  11. Green human resource management: a comparative qualitative case study of a United States multinational corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Haddock-Millar, Julie; Sanyal, Chandana; Muller-Camen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which a multinational company approaches green human resource management (HRM) in its British, German and Swedish subsidiaries. The authors analyse the similarities and differences in Green HRM approaches in these three European subsidiaries of a US restaurant chain. This enables the comparison of Green HRM practices and behaviours, and considers the factors that influence the subsidiaries in this particular domain. Therefore, this research addresses the curr...

  12. FOCUS THE CONSUMER MARKET A dream or reality for multinational companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAELO'NEILL

    2004-01-01

    As the Chinese economy maintains its near double digit growth, opportunities for foreign investors continue to emerge. But away from the staggering statistics, how realistic is the China dream for multinational companies (MNCs)? The messages are mixed. On the one hand are those who continue to hail the Chinese consumer revolution, pointing to market size as reason enough for entering the fray. O'n the other

  13. Effects of a Partnership Between Social Enterprises and Multinational Corporations -Social Mission and Legitimacy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Summary Social enterprises around the world cooperate with corporations across industries and the private sector is interested in this type of relationship. We live in a globalized world where corporations work across borders, grow bigger and at times outperform nation-states in economic and social power. This type of corporation is called a multinational corporation (MNC) and have increasingly taken political and social responsibilities working together with NGO´s, nonprofits and social ...

  14. Multinational Corporations vs. Domestic Corporations: International Environmental Factors and Determinants of Capital Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Kwang Chul Lee; Chuck C Y Kwok

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines whether or not U.S.-based multinational corporations (MNCs) have different capital structures than U.S. domestic corporations (DCs) and if so, what causes the differences. In explaining the difference between the capital structures of MNCs and DCs, previous studies tended to directly discuss the relationships between international environmental factors (e.g., political risk, foreign exchange risk) and the capital structure. A framework of analysis is proposed in this paper...

  15. Multinationality and Corporate Ethics: Codes of Conduct in the Sporting Goods Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rob van Tulder; Ans Kolk

    2001-01-01

    The international operations of firms have substantial impact on the formulation and implementation of business ethical principles such as codes of conduct. The international sporting goods industry has been a pioneer in setting up codes and thus provides much relevant experience. Different sourcing strategies, degrees of multinationality and national backgrounds affect the contents of codes. Moreover, international (non-governmental) organizations prove equally effective in triggering sophis...

  16. Human resource management in domestic vs. multinational enterprises: an investigation in the country of Brunei

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Abdul Fattaah

    2012-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Very little past work has focused on the comparative analysis of human resource management (HRM) practices between domestic (DEs) and multinational enterprises (MNEs). The majority of the work in this area has instead concentrated on comparing the HRM practices employed by the subsidiaries of MNEs, and has mostly been conducted in the context of developed countries. This research studies t...

  17. Relationship between Individual Cultural Values and Knowledge Sharing in Selected Multinational Companies in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Manjit Singh Sandhu; Poon Wai Ching

    2014-01-01

    Managing knowledge in different locations around the globe has become a great concern for multinational corporations (MNCs) due to differences in individual cultural values. Such cultural differences inhibit the sharing of knowledge among employees. Ironically, the impact of individual cultural values on knowledge sharing has received limited attention in the international business literature. This research is an attempt to close this gap by examining the relationship between cultural values ...

  18. Multinational Corporations, Transfer Prices, and Taxes: Evidence from the U.S. Petroleum Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Thomas Bernard; Robert Weiner

    1989-01-01

    Economic research on transfer-pricing behavior by multinational corporadons has emphasized theoretical modeling and institutional description. This paper presents the fiit systematic empirical analysis of transfer prices, using data from the petroleum industry. On the basis of oil imported into the United States over the period 1973 - 1984, we test two propositions: i) Are prices set by integrated companies for their internal transfers different from those prevailing in arm 's-length (i.e., i...

  19. Exit strategies of Pharmaceutical multinational companies from Portugal and the successful implementation of new Portuguese companies

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Catarina Quelhas dos Santos da Costa

    2014-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics In 2001 and 2004, two multinational companies (MNC) of the pharmaceutical industry, respectively Bayer and Janssen, left its manufacture operations in Portugal. From its exit, other two Portuguese small and medium enterprises (SME) were born: Bluepharma and Lusomedicamenta. These companies have been highly successful due to the representativ...

  20. Foreign establishment mode: determinants in the case of Indian multinational Tata Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rienda García

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the factors influencing the choice between different FDI modes: acquisitions or greenfield investments. From a sample of 117 outward foreign direct investment (FDI decisions made by the Indian multinational Tata in 43 countries, our findings show that industry technological intensity, host country risk, host market attractiveness, previous international experience and the volume of exports from India to the host country, are determining factors of this choice.